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Sample records for acid utilization final

  1. Acid rain & electric utilities II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  2. Full-scale utility FGD (flue gas desulfurization) system adipic acid demonstration program. Volume 1. Process results. Final report Jun 80-Nov 82

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O.W. Jr; Colley, J.D.; Glover, R.L.; Owen, M.L.

    1983-06-01

    The report culminates a series of projects sponsored by the EPA, investigating the use of adipic acid as an additive to enhance SO/sub 2/ removal in aqueous flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, using limestone reagent. A 9-month program at the 194-MW Southwest Power Plant (SWPP) of City Utilities, Springfield, MO, demonstrated the effectiveness of adipic acid and dibasic acids (the latter, by-products of the production of adipic acid). The program examined the effect of adipic acid addition on a limestone FGD system under natural and forced-oxidation modes of operation.

  3. Full-scale utility FGD (flue gas desulfurization) system adipic acid demonstration program. Volume 2. Continuous emissions monitoring results. Final report Jun 80-Nov 82

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O.W. Jr.; Colley, J.D.; Glover, R.L.; Owen, M.L.

    1983-06-01

    The report culminates a series of projects sponsored by the EPA, investigating the use of adipic acid as an additive to enhance SO/sub 2/ removal in aqueous flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, using limestone reagent. A 9-month program at the 194-MW Southwest Power Plant (SWPP) of City Utilities, Springfield, MO, demonstrated the effectiveness of adipic acid and dibasic acids (the latter, by-products of the production of adipic acid). The program examined the effect of adipic acid addition on a limestone FGD system under natural and forced-oxidation modes of operation.

  4. Lactic Acid Utilization by the Cutaneous Micrococcaceae

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rodney F.

    1971-01-01

    Human cutaneous staphylococci and micrococci utilized lactic acid as an energy source on a minimal medium. Propionic acid was not utilized, but l(+)-lactic acid and pyruvic acid could replace ld-lactic acid as a substrate. Selected strains of cocci were inhibited more by the l(+) and d(−) forms of lactic acid than the balanced ld form, particularly at pH 5.6. With proper dilution of substrate, lactic acid was utilized by selected strains in the presence of 10 μg of oleic and palmitic acids per ml. Images PMID:4930285

  5. Detection and Assessment Using Positron Emission Tomography of Genetically Determined Defects in Myocardial Fatty Acid Utilization. Final report, 8/1/93-6/30/97

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Steven R.

    2000-04-09

    An approach using positron emission tomography (PET) was developed, validated and used to measure myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with inherited forms of heart failure. Abnormalities were correlated with the severity of the clinical illness. The approach developed was also shown to identify abnormalities in myocardial fatty acid metabolism in some patients with acquired forms of heart failure. The PET technique thus permits identification of abnormal fatty acid metabolism and provides an approach to evaluate the efficacy of interventional strategies.

  6. Sustained utility implementation of photovoltaics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, D.E.

    1998-05-01

    SMUD is a leader in utility grid-connected applications of PVs with the world`s largest distributed PV power system. SMUD is continuing its ambitious sustained, orderly development (SOD) commercialization effort of the grid-connected, utility PV market. This program is aimed at developing the experience needed to successfully integrate PV as distributed generation into the utility system, develop market and long-term business strategies and to stimulate the collaborative processes needed to accelerate the cost-reductions necessary for PV to be cost-competitive in these applications by about the year 2002. This report documents the progress made in the 1994/1995 SMUD PV Program under this contract and the PV projects partially supported by this contract. This contract has been considered a Pre-cursor to the TEAM-UP program implemented the following year.

  7. Utilization of low grade coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.E.

    1981-12-01

    Purpose was to construct and use a pilot furnace that could utilize low-grade coal (steam coal and coal fines) in place of oil or natural gas. This pilot furnace was tested on a 66-inch Raymond H.S. Roller Mill at the No. 1 plant of the James River Limestone Co. Results indicate that the commercial use is feasible; drying costs average $0.36 per ton with coal vs $0.80 per ton on annual basis when oil fired. Results are applicable to limestone manufacturers producing dry pulverized products. (DLC)

  8. Synthetic fuel utilization. Final report. Task 330

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of large coal resources in this country provided the spur for consideration of liquids derived from hydrogenation of coal in the search for alternate liquid fuels to replace petroleum. Previous developments particularly in German industry beginning in 1910 and reaching a capacity of approximately four million tons of products a year by 1944 and more recently a series of plants in South Africa have shown the practicability of coal liquefaction. A few more advanced processes have been developed variously to bench, pilot or commercial scale from among the thirty or more which were subject to study. Limitation in the amount of hydrogen used in these for reasons of economy and processing facility results in products containing major amounts of aromatics as well as significant portions of the sulfur and nitrogen of the coal feed. Combustion of the largely aromatic liquids can present problems in commercial burners designed for petroleum fuels, and combustion staging used to reduce NO/sub x/ emissions with the latter may encounter difficulties from sooting in the coal-derived fuels, which occurs readily with aromatics. This report presents a review of such problems in utilization of synthetic fuels from coal, emphasizing basic engineering and scientific studies which have been made. A research program involving a number of universities, industrial laboratories, and non-profit research institutions was carried out under the direction of the Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This program is also reviewed. The major subjects covered are those of liquefaction product composition and properties, fuel spray and droplet processes, synfuel pyrolysis, combustion mechanics, soot formation, and pollutant emission. Recommendations concerning needs for investigation are made from an evaluation of the current status of the field and the results obtained in the program. 15 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  9. Coal pyrolysis for utility use: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKinsey, R.; Luebke, C.P.; Thelen, H.J.; ya Nsakala, N.; Riegel, H.

    1987-07-01

    EPRI undertook an extensive research effort to evaluate the viability of coal pyrolysis products for utility use. The objectives of the studies were to evaluate the combustion and storage characteristics of pyrolysis char and to evaluate the upgrading potential of pyrolysis liquid products (tar). To achieve these objectives, it was necessary to produce sufficient quantities of the char and tar in a process unit large enough to produce commercially representative products. For both technical and availability reasons, EPRI selected the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (L-R) process for the production run (under subcontract to Bechtel Group, Inc. RP2505-2). Several contractors were to do the liquid upgrading. Two contractors were selected to use alternative processes for upgrading the L-R heavy tar: Lummus-Crest, Inc. (RP2505-5), using its LC-fining technology, and Veba Oel (RP2505-6), using its Combi-Cracking process. (The Combi-Cracking process also simultaneously hydrotreats the coal-tar-derived distillates.) Universal Oil Products, Inc. (UOP) was selected to hydrotreat the light and middle oils from the L-R process (RP2505-7), as well as the distillable material produced by Lummus. Unfortunately, none of these contractors received the anticipated products. The light oil was in the form of a light oil-water emulsion and the middle oil had been blended with the solids-laden heavy oil during L-R operation. Combustion Engineering, Inc. carried out a two-phase program to evaluate the combustion characteristics of pyrolysis char (RP2505-4).

  10. 2-Ethylhexanoic Acid; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), requiring manufacturers and processors of 2-ethylhexanoic acid (EHA, CAS No. 149-57-5) to conduct testing.

  11. Acid rain information book. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of widespread acid rain demand that the phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Review of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty and summarizes current and projected research. The report is organized by a logical progression from sources of pollutants affecting acid rain formation to the atmospheric transport and transformation of those pollutants and finally to the deposition of acid rain, the effects of that deposition, and possible mitigative measures and regulatory options. This information is followed by a discussion of uncertainties in the understanding of the acid rain phenomenon and a description of current and proposed research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  12. Utility communications architecture. Volume 6, Final report---Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Integrating communications helps utilities realize the full potential of communications facilities for providing diversified new business opportunities, increasing operational efficiency, improving productivity, and enhance customer service. This volume, the last of six volumes, summarizes results from EPRI`s Utility Communications Architecture (UCA) project, reproducing representative sections of each volume. The UCA Specification Version 1.0 focuses on specific communications requirements of the electric utility industry. The first phase of the project identified information requirements within an electric utility. Two host utilities, Houston Lighting & Power Company and Pacific Gas & Electric Company, participated in the project, providing an industry perspective. Teams of industry experts in each of six defined utility functional areas reviewed host utility communications requirements and broadened these to reflect an industrywide perspective. Subsequent UCA phases assessed communications standards in light utility requirements and selected standards for inclusion in the specification. Many of the deliverables were examined during a UCA workshop in June 1990. Vendors and system integrators then reviewed a draft of the UCA specification. Finally, overall project findings were presented to utilities and vendors. This report is written for the utility executive, telecommunications manager, or functional manager who would like a synopsis of EPRI`s UCA project and is not sure about which volumes would be most helpful. This summary reference enables users to determine which of the detailed UCA reports would be most useful for their particular needs.

  13. Acid rain and electric utilities 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This proceedings contains more than 100 technical presentations dealing with a variety of topics concerning the Title IV acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Some of the major topics addressed include: emerging environmental issues impacting electric utilities (proposed revisions to the ozone and particulate matter NAAQS), acid rain program overview, continuous emissions monitoring rule revisions, global climate change and CO{sub 2}, emissions data management, Clean Air Power Initiative and regional issues, compliance/designated representative, flow monitoring, emissions control technology, allowance and trading, emission reductions, NO{sub x} control issues, hazardous air pollutants, and CEMS advances.

  14. Gas dilution system results and application to acid rain utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley-Souders, K.; Geib, R.; Dunn, C.

    1997-12-31

    In 1997, the United States EPA will remove restrictions preventing acid rain utilities from using gas dilution systems for calibration or linearity studies for continuous emissions monitoring, Test Method 205 in 40CFR51 requires that a gas dilution system must produce calibration gases whose measured values are within {+-}2% of predicted values. This paper presents the evaluation of the Environics/CalMat 2020 Dilution System for use in calibration studies. Internal studies show that concentrations generated by this unit are within {+-}0.5% of predicted values. Studies are being conducted by several acid rain utilities to evaluate the Environics/CalMat system using single minor component calibration standards. In addition, an internally generated study is being performed to demonstrate the system`s accuracy using a multi-component gas mixture. Data from these tests will be presented in the final version of the paper.

  15. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additives and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to an incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. The combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience are reported. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. Additives used in these trials included 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products. These formulations were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. The findings are organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  16. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additivies and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to our incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. This report describes the combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products, were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. This report is organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  17. Structure of the electric utility industry, 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, P.S.

    1980-04-01

    A vector of normalized inputs to a hypothetical 1990 electric-utility industry is created. Inputs and outputs from the industry are all considered as homogeneous components of Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) economic sectors at approximately the 2-digit (83-sector) level of aggregation. While the sector definitions are BEA-compatible, the vector is created at a 90-sector level of detail for use within the Energy Research Group (ERG) energy input-output model. The vector is listed as ERGELIN. The normalized vector of depreciation capital inputs is stored as ELINDEP. The sum of the two is the final depreciation-corrected vector of 1990 electric-utility industry inputs and is stored as EGELIND. All vectors have units Btu/Btue (1st five sectors) and $1967 per million Btue.

  18. Utilities availability report for seven candidate salt sites: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SC) conducted a study of availability and accessibility of electric power and natural gas supplies for each of the seven candidate sites in salt for a nuclear waste repository. The objective of this study is to indicate the existing or potential availability of adequate electric power and natural gas supplies, together with representative routing of reasonable access corridors for utility lines, for the candidate sites at Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi, Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, Swisher and Deaf Smith Counties in Texas, and Davis and Lavender Canyons in Utah. The report describes the major characteristics of each supply and the representative routes by which each supply could be connected to the assumed respective repository site. Included are a brief narrative, maps showing representative utilities access routes, and a summary tabulation of relevant data. The supply routes used in this study are not necessarily the recommended, preferred, or selected routes. No decision affecting the final location of the preferred route has been made, therefore the routes used in this study are not to be construed as an implied decision. The routes and supply sources used in this study are for comparative purposes only, as no final selections will be made prior to site characterization.

  19. Utilization of citric acid in wood bonding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citric acid (CA) is a weak organic acid. It exists most notably in citrus fruits so that it is named likewise. As a commodity chemical, CA is produced on a large scale by fermentation. In this chapter, we first briefly review the applied research and methods for commercial production of CA. Then we ...

  20. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  1. Least-cost utility planning consumer participation manual. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.; Wellinghoff, J.; Goldberg, F.

    1989-12-31

    This manual is designed to provide guidance to state consumer advocates and other state consumer groups interested in either initiating and/or participating in an Least-Cost Utility Planning (LCUP) process in their state. Least cost utility planning examined primarily as a regulatory framework to be implemented by an appropriate state authority -- usually the public utility commission -- for the benefit of the state`s citizens and electric utility customers. LCUP is also a planning process to be used by investor owned and public utilities to select, support and justify future expenditures in resource additions. This manual is designed as a ``How-To`` manual for implementing and participating in a statewide LCUP process. Its goal is to guide the reader through the LCUP maze so that meaningful, forward-looking, and cost minimizing electric utility planning can be initiated and sustained in your state.

  2. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2016-11-01

    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid (Tca) (Final ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. The draft Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroacetic acid.

  4. Utilization of renewables for lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Venus, Joachim

    2006-12-01

    Originally, lactic acid was produced from pure substrates like glucose. Increasingly, however, agricultural feedstocks such as grains and green biomass are also being used as raw materials for the biotechnological production of lactic acid. A high-productivity lactic acid bacterium strain was selected, process parameters were optimized for the batch fermentation on a laboratory scale, and its performance at cultivation on a barley hydrolysate medium together with different supplements was examined. The present results for the cultivation of the Lactobacillus paracasei on complex nutrient broth are in the same range as those for another strain of the same species with pure glucose, de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS) minerals, peptone and yeast extract. Under these conditions, this strain was able to accumulate more than 100 g lactate/L in the MRS medium. Medium optimization experiments showed that the main part of the nitrogen-containing nutrients in the medium (peptone, yeast extract) can be replaced by protein extracts from green biomass (lucerne green juice). The green juice after pressing fresh biomass contains a series of nitrogen-containing compounds and inorganic salts, which are essential for cell growth. Thus, on laboratory scale, we have demonstrated that it is possible to substitute synthetic nutrients by renewable resources like cereals and green biomass without any loss of productivity. This high biomass concentration together with the number of living cells could increase the productivity to higher levels compared to the well-adapted synthetic nutrients of MRS.

  5. Utilization of coal-associated minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    Under contract number DE-AS21-77ET10533 with the US-DOE several methods of utilizing coal associated by-products were examined for potential commercial use. Such use could transform a costly waste disposal situation into new materials for further use and could provide incentive for the adoption of new coal utilization processes. Several utilization processes appear to have merit and are recommended for further study. Each process is discussed separately in the text of this report. Common coal cleaning processes were also examined to determine the effect of such processes on the composition of by-products. Data obtained in this portion of the research effort are reported in the Appendix. Information of this type is required before utilization processes can be considered. A knowledge of the mineral composition of these materials is also required before even simple disposal methods can be considered.

  6. Ten utilities receive acid rain bonus allowances from EPA

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently awarded 1,349 acid rain bonus allowances to ten utilities for energy efficiency and renewable energy measures. An allowance licensesthee emission of one ton of sulfur dioxide. A limited number of allowances are allocated to utilities to ensure that emissions will be cut to less than 9 million tons per year.

  7. Siting guidelines for utility application of wind turbines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-oriented guidelines are described for identifying viable sites for wind turbines. Topics and procedures are also discussed that are important in carrying out a wind turbine siting program. These topics include: a description of the Department of Energy wind resource atlases; procedures for predicting wind turbine performance at potential sites; methods for analyzing wind turbine economics; procedures for estimating installation and maintenance costs; methods for anlayzing the distribution of wind resources over an area; and instrumentation for documenting wind behavior at potential sites. The procedure described is applicable to small and large utilities. Although the procedure was developed as a site-selection tool, it can also be used by a utility who wishes to estimate the potential for wind turbine penetration into its future generation mix.

  8. Characterization and utilization of natural gas in Alaska: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1989-03-01

    The natural gas in the Alaskan arctic represents a truly significant resource; a resource which should be exploited in the most appropriate manner. Currently, the proven reserves of natural gas in Alaska are estimated to be 19.7% (36.7 TSCF) of the total US reserves (186.7 TSCF). In addition, the undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources of Alaska are about 89 TSCF compared to 610 TSCF in the lower 48 states. Furthermore, the Alaskan unconventional gas resources are more than 500 TCF. The purpose is to review the potential of natural gas resources in Alaska and to address various important issues related to utilization of natural gas. This report provides a brief summary of various gas fields and their geologic settings. The different options for utilization of natural gas to lower 48 states via gas pipeline, conversion to liquefied natural gas and transport, conversion to fuel grade methanol and/or gasoline, natural gas for enhanced oil recovery, gas based petrochemical complex, gas utilization in the form of utilities are critically reviewed with respect to merits and demerits addressing engineering, economic, environmental, supply/demand, market and political aspects. 22 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. A knowledge based model of electric utility operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-11

    This report consists of an appendix to provide a documentation and help capability for an analyst using the developed expert system of electric utility operations running in CLIPS. This capability is provided through a separate package running under the WINDOWS Operating System and keyed to provide displays of text, graphics and mixed text and graphics that explain and elaborate on the specific decisions being made within the knowledge based expert system.

  10. Effect of sorbent attrition on utilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Li, G.

    1993-09-30

    The overall objective for 1992-1993 was to investigate ways of using chemical attrition to improve dolomitic sorbent utilization for duct injection processes. It is known that one of the primary mechanisms for poor sorbent utilization lies in the fact that the products of SO{sub 2}-sorbent reactions have such large molar volumes that they plug the pores necessary for SO{sub 2} to diffuse into the particle interior. Any method that may cause the fracture of used sorbent particles will thus expose fresh un-reacted surface of sorbent and result in available sorbent recovery. There are several mechanisms that may cause the breakage of particles. External mechanical stress may be exerted on a particle and cause particle fracture when it exceeds the cohesive forces to prevent the breakage. Heat and pressure can also induce particle fracture. In addition, chemical reaction is also a very important factor in leading to particle fracture. Among many sorbents currently used in desulfurization processes, dolomitic lime may be a good candidate for use in medium temperature duct injection. Dolomites are characterized by a large portion of magnesium (instead of high calcium) in the crystal structure of common limestones. Because of the special composition of dolomitic lime and its reactions with flue gas constituents under medium temperature duct injection conditions, a unique structure is formed for spent dolomitic particles that provides for the potential of recovering available sorbent just by hydration-induced particle fracture. By re-injecting the recovered sorbent, it is expected that a high sorbent utilization can be obtained.

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid (Tca) (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid (Tca) (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  13. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  14. Utilization of waste tires in asphaltic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amirkhanian, S.N.; Burati, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    The research project was divided into two sections: laboratory phase and field phase. In the laboratory phase the use of crumb rubber utilizing the `wet` method was investigated. A total of 360 laboratory-prepared Marshall specimens were made and tested. The materials used to prepare the specimens were typical of those used for Type 1A Surve mixtures used by SC DOT. The experimental design consisted of using three aggregate sources, three antistrip additives, and four rubber percentages (i.e., 0%, 12%, 15%, and 18% by weight of asphalt cement). The indirect tensile strengths, tensile strength ratio, visual strip rating, percent air voids, and bulk specific gravities were determined and statistically analyzed. The results indicated that, in general, as the rubber percentage increased, the strength decreased. However, the specimens containing antistrip additives had a higher increase in strength compared to that of the virgin materials. In addition, the optimum asphalt content generally increased as the rubber percentage increased.

  15. Acid rain and electric utilities: Permits, allowances, monitoring and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Dayal, P.

    1995-12-31

    This conference was held January 23--25, 1995 in Tempe, Arizona. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the environmental effects electric utilities have in relation to air pollution and acid rain. Attention is focused on many of the permitting and monitoring issues facing the electric utilities industry. Sulfur dioxide allowances, Title IV and Title V issues, Acid Rain Program implementation and Continuing Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) are some of the relevant topics covered in this proceedings. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  16. Assessment and Determination of Basic Competencies Necessary for Utility Operators Utilizing Ground Water Supplies. Part 1. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Wisconsin Vocational-Technical Inst., Fennimore.

    The document is a final report of a study of the basic competencies required by water utility operators using a ground water source, conducted at Southwest Wisconsin Vocational-Technical Institute from July to August 1974. The overall purpose of the project is to develop a competency-based curriculum model for statewide use in municipal…

  17. Fact Sheet: Final Rule on Coal Combustion Residuals Generated by Electric Utilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet describes the final rule signed on December 19, 2014 establishing a comprehensive set of requirements for the disposal of coal combustion residuals generated by electric utilities in landfills and surface impoundments.

  18. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and Developmen...

  19. The utility`s role in the future of PC services and the NII. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The paper is a report by C3 Communications (formerly CSW Communications) summarizing the experience and lessons learned during an 18 month Department of Energy Grant to evaluate how electric utilities can further the growth of the NII by developing a hybrid Internet-energy management service. In addition, the project was also expanded to include evaluation of residential gateway issues, in particular the energy management aspects of this developing area. The report is broken up into three sections, the first section focuses on the issues surrounding the start-up of a traditional ISP and provides a road map for utilities interested in this area. The second section provides an overview of the Internet energy management projects which were undertaken and the key lessons learned from each. Lastly, the third section outlines the gateway progress made during the grant and provides some of the recommendations which the work produced.

  20. 77 FR 75978 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... imported as part of a wind turbine (i.e., accompanying nacelles and/or rotor blades). Scope Comments In... International Trade Administration Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China: Final... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of utility scale wind towers (wind towers...

  1. Utilization of fats and fatty acids by turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Atteh, J O

    1995-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with young, Large White male turkey poults maintained in either floor pens or metabolism cages. In Experiment 1, poults were fed isoenergetic diets containing either no supplemental fat, or 5% of either tallow, corn oil, soybean oil, animal-vegetable blend fat, or canola oil. Poults generally ate less of the fat-supplemented diets and showed improved feed utilization, although weight gain was little affected. There was improved fat retention when vegetable oils were used (P < .01) and this was reflected in a slight improvement in diet energy level (P > .05). Poults fed tallow or animal-vegetable blend fat also excreted most fat. Diet had no effect (P > .05) on apparent retention of calcium or phosphorus, although retention of magnesium was less with more saturated fats. In Experiment 2, poults were fed diets containing palmitic acid, oleic acid, or a 50:50 (wt/wt) mixture of these fatty acids. There was a reduction (P < .05) in apparent retention of nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, and fat for poults fed palmitic acid, oleic acid, or the mixture. Mixing palmitic acid with oleic acid corrected some of these problems. However, reduced mineral retention was not reflected in any change in levels of bone ash, calcium, or phosphorus. Feeding palmitic acid did result in the most dramatic reduction of bone magnesium content (P < .05). It is concluded that turkey poults, like chicks, are less able to digest saturated fatty acids, and that such undigested fats can lead to reduced retention of some minerals through increased soap formation. However, there is no direct evidence that such soap formation causes a major change in bone calcium or phosphorus content or in gross bone development or poult well-being.

  2. Retention and utilization of amino acids in piglets fed ad libitum or restrictively diets supplemented with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Walz, O P; Pallauf, J

    1997-01-01

    In a metabolic trial 4 groups of 8 piglets of 5 kg weight each were kept individually for 45 days (final weight 23 kg) and fed a practical diet. At the beginning of the experiment the body amino acid contents of an additional group of 8 piglets were determined by carcass analysis, and at the end of the experiment the body amino acid contents of the 4 test group piglets (A = control fed ad libitum, B and C = supplement of 1.5% fumaric acid fed ad libitum or restrictively, D = supplement of 1.5% citric acid fed ad libitum) were also analysed. The amino acid retention during the experimental period was determined by difference. The supplements of fumaric or citric acid did not influence the amount of the amino acid retention. The quotient of amino acid retention to amino acid consumed or the "productive amino acid value" was calculated and the maintenance requirements of essential amino acids for piglets were used to estimate the productive amino acid value for both retention and maintenance. The mean amino acid retention amounted to about 56 g/d, i.e. 3.49 g/kg W0.75.d of essential amino acids. The essential amino acid requirements for maintenance was 2.0 g, i.e. 0.29 g/kg W0.75.d, showing a variation of 4% (Leu) to 20% (Met+Cys) when related to the amount of the corresponding amino acid retention. With regard to the amino acid pattern for retention of the nutritionally most important amino acids, the following ratios were found: Lys, 100 (6.27 g/16 g N): Met+Cys, 48 (3.03 g): Thr, 56 (3.49 g): Trp, 13 (0.80 g). The productive amino acid values ranged from 40% (Trp), 55% (Thr), 66% (Met) to 80% (Lys). Under the conditions investigated, neither the supplements of organic acids nor the feed restriction influenced the amino acid utilization.

  3. Novel technology for sewage sludge utilization: preparation of amino acids chelated trace elements (AACTE) fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangsheng; Kong, Sifang; Li, Yaqiong; Zeng, Hui

    2009-11-15

    This study developed a novel technology for sewage sludge utilization. The bacteria proteins in the sewage sludge were extracted to produce the amino acid chelated trace elements (AACTE) fertilizer by virtue of several chemical processes. Firstly, the sewage sludge was hydrolyzed under hot hydrochloric acid solution to obtain protein solution. The effects of hydrolysis temperature, reaction time and pH on the extraction ratio of protein from the sewage sludge were investigated. Secondly, the protein solution was further hydrolyzed into amino acids under hot acid condition. The effects of the HCl dosage, hydrolysis temperature and reaction time on the yields of amino acids were investigated in detail. Thirdly, the raw amino acids solution was purified by activated carbon decolorization and glacial acetic acid dissolution. Finally, the purified amino acids were used to produce the AACTE fertilizer by chelating with trace elements. Results showed that, under optimum hydrolysis conditions, 78.5% of protein was extracted from the sewage sludge and the amino acids yield was 10-13 g per 100g of dry sludge. The AACTE fertilizer produced was in accordance with China Standard for Amino Acids Foliar Fertilizer. This novel technology is more environmentally friendly compared with the conventional sludge treatments.

  4. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  5. Radioiron utilization and gossypol acetic acid in male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tone, J.N.; Jensen, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The 24-h incorporation of VZFe into circulating red blood cells, bone marrow, urine, liver, spleen, and skeletal muscle was measured in splenectomized and sham-splenectomized rats which had received a daily, oral dose of gossypol acetic acid (20 mg GAA/kg body wt) for 91 days. A significant decrease in total body weight gain was observed in all GAA treated animals. Splenectomized rats dosed with GAA exhibited a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and erythrocyte count. A significant increase in VZFe incorporation by red blood cells and a decrease in hepatic incorporation of VZFe indicate a preferential utilization of iron in erythropoiesis among GAA treated animals.

  6. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  7. Toward a Reconceptualization of Knowledge Utilization in Education. Volume 4. Research Memoranda. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Lee; And Others

    The remaining volumes of the final report (4-8) all contain research memoranda written in the form of essays by research staff and theorists with expertise. The essays deal with operational strategies and philosophical and theoretical considerations of the dissemination and utilization of knowledge. Volume four includes six research memoranda.…

  8. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  9. Copper utilization in humans as affected by amino acid supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Chuang, J.H.; Fox, H.M. )

    1989-02-09

    Earlier work suggests that absorption of copper as well as several other mineral nutrients may be promoted, inhibited or unaffected by the formation of mineral-amino acid complexes. The objective of the current project was to determine effects of low level supplements of selected amino acids on copper utilization. In a series of studies, healthy, human adult subjected received a basal diet with or without test supplements in separate 14-day periods which were arranged according to a randomized, cross-over design. Test amino acids and amounts given per subject per day were as follows; L-arginine, 1.2 g; L-lysine, 1.0 g; L-cystine, 1.0 g and L-methionine, 1.0 g. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools. Fasting blood samples were drawn. Food, urine, feces and blood were analyzed for copper contents using a carbon rod attachment on a Varian atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fecal copper losses were unaffected by used of lysine, tryptophan and methionine supplements but were reduced with use of the arginine and cystine supplements. Urine losses of copper were reduced with used of the lysine and tryptophan supplements, were increased with the methionine and cystine supplements and were unaffected when the arginine supplements were employed. Blood serum copper levels were not significantly affected by use of these supplement although some trends were noted.

  10. The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M.

    1991-06-17

    This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan`s regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

  11. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Johnson, Sean R.; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Browse, John

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of unusual fatty acids through β-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [14C]acetate and [3H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [14C]acetate and [14C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid. PMID:24398521

  12. Phytic acid and phytase: implications for protein utilization by poultry.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Acamovic, T; Bedford, M R

    2006-05-01

    The effect of the ingestion of myo-inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and phytase (EC 3.1.3.26) on the digestibility of casein was investigated using growing broiler chickens. A total of 64 female Ross broilers were used in a precision feeding study. One group of 8 birds was fed a solution of glucose to estimate endogenous losses. Seven groups, each of 8 birds, were fed either casein, casein + 1,000 units of phytase activity (FTU), casein + 2,000 FTU, casein + 0.5 g of IP6, casein + 0.5 g of IP6 + 1,000 FTU, casein + 1 g of IP6, or casein + 1 g of IP6 + 1,000 FTU. The excretion of DM, amino acids, nitrogen, minerals, and phytate-phosphorus was determined over a 48-h period and nutrient digestibility coefficients were calculated. Casein was found to be highly digestible, with true coefficients of DM, N, and amino acid digestibility of between 0.85 and 1.0. However, the ingestion of IP6 reduced (P < 0.05) the digestibility coefficients of amino acids, N, and DM of casein compared with birds fed casein alone. Supplementation of the mixture of casein and IP6 with phytase improved (P < 0.05) the digestibility coefficients of amino acids compared with birds fed on casein and IP6 with no supplemental phytase. The excretion of endogenous minerals was increased (P < 0.05) by the ingestion of IP6 and reduced (P < 0.05) by the supplementation of IP6 with phytase. In the absence of exogenous phytase, the recovery of phytate-P in excreta was approximately 80%. However, the recovery of phytate-P was significantly reduced by the addition of exogenous phytase to the IP6/casein mixture. It can be concluded that the ingestion of IP6 reduces the digestibility coefficients of amino acids and the metabolizability of nitrogen of casein. This is likely to be mediated partially through increased endogenous losses. However, the addition of phytase can partially ameliorate the detrimental effects of IP6 on protein utilization.

  13. Mitigation of acid deposition: Liming of surface waters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoshesky, J.; Price, R.; DeMuro, J.

    1989-05-01

    In recent years acid deposition has become a serious concern internationally. Scientific literature has documented the acidification of numerous lakes and streams in North America and Scandinavia resulting in the depletion or total loss of fisheries and other aquatic biota. Liming represents the only common corrective practice aimed specifically at remediating an affected acid receptor. This report reviews a range of liming technologies and liming materials, as well as the effect of surface-water liming on water quality and aquatic biota. As background to the liming discussion, the hydrologic cycle and the factors that make surface waters sensitive to acid deposition are also discussed. Finally, a brief review of some of the liming projects that have been conducted, or are currently in operation is presented, giving special emphasis to mitigation efforts in Maryland. Liming has been effectively used to counteract surface-water acidification in parts of Scandinavia, Canada, and the U.S. To date, liming has generally been shown to improve physical and chemical conditions and enhance the biological recovery of aquatic ecosystems affected by acidification.

  14. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  15. Management support services to the Office of Utility Technologies. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-16

    The Office of Utility Technologies works cooperatively with industry and the utility sector to realize the market potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Under this contract, BNF has provided management support services for OUT R&D activities for the following Program offices: (1) Office of Energy Management; (2) Office of Solar Energy Conversion; (3) Office of Renewable Energy Conversion; and (4) Deputy Assistant Secretary. During the period between 4/17/91 and 9/17/93, BNF furnished the necessary personnel, equipment, materials, facilities and travel required to provide management support services for each of the above Program Offices. From 9/18/93 to 12/17/93, BNF has been involved in closeout activities, including final product deliverables. Research efforts that have been supported in these Program Offices are: (1) for Energy Management -- Advanced Utility Concepts Division; Utility Systems Division; Integrated Planning; (2) for Solar Energy Conversion -- Photovoltaics Division; Solar Thermal and Biomass Power Division; (3) for Renewable Energy Conversion -- Geothermal Division; Wind, Hydroelectric and Ocean Systems Division; (4) for the Deputy Assistant Secretary -- support as required by the Supporting Staff. This final report contains summaries of the work accomplished for each of the Program Offices listed above.

  16. Role of acid rain in atmospheric deposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winchester, J.W.

    1990-12-31

    A study was conducted to assess the potential importance of atmospheric nitrate deposition for a north Florida estuary. A comparison, based on statistical analysis of fluxes of ten dissolved constituents of rain water and river water, has been carried out for the watershed of the Apalachicola River, utilizing weekly rain water chemical data from the National Acid Deposition Program (NADP) for five sites within the watershed area, monitored from 1978-84 until late 1989, and less frequent river water chemical data from the U.S. Geological Survey for one site at Chattahoochee, Florida, monitored from 1965 until late 1989. Similar statistical analysis was performed on monitoring data for the Sopchoppy and Ochlockonee Rivers of north Florida. Atmospheric deposition to the watershed appears to be sufficient to account for essentially all the dissolved nitrate and ammonium and total organic nitrogen flow in the three rivers. However, after deposition most of the nitrate may be transformed to other chemical forms during the flow of the rivers toward their estuaries. In an additional statistical analysis of rain water monitoring data from the eight state southeastern USA region, it was found that both meteorological conditions and transport from pollution sources appear to control deposition fluxes of nitrate and sulfate acid air pollutants.

  17. Nine-amino-acid transactivation domain: establishment and prediction utilities.

    PubMed

    Piskacek, Simona; Gregor, Martin; Nemethova, Maria; Grabner, Martin; Kovarik, Pavel; Piskacek, Martin

    2007-06-01

    Here we describe the establishment and prediction utilities for a novel nine-amino-acid transactivation domain, 9aa TAD, that is common to the transactivation domains of a large number of yeast and animal transcription factors. We show that the 9aa TAD motif is required for the function of the transactivation domain of Gal4 and the related transcription factors Oaf1 and Pip2. The 9aa TAD possesses an autonomous transactivation activity in yeast and mammalian cells. Using sequence alignment and experimental data we derived a pattern that can be used for 9aa TAD prediction. The pattern allows the identification of 9aa TAD in other Gal4 family members or unrelated yeast, animal, and viral transcription factors. Thus, the 9aa TAD represents the smallest known denominator for a broad range of transcription factors. The wide occurrence of the 9aa TAD suggests that this domain mediates conserved interactions with general transcriptional cofactors. A computational search for the 9aa TAD is available online from National EMBnet-Node Austria at http://www.at.embnet.org/toolbox/9aatad/.

  18. 77 FR 37653 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... International Trade Administration Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of... utility scale wind towers (wind towers) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with the final..., 2012, unless postponed. \\1\\ See Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China...

  19. Adipic acid increases plasma lysine but does not improve the efficiency of lysine utilization in swine.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, T A; van Heugten, E; Trottier, N L

    2001-09-01

    Adipic acid, upon catabolism, results in intermediates that bear a structural similarity to lysine degradation products. The objectives of this research were to determine whether adipic acid affects lysine concentrations in plasma and to evaluate whether adipic acid improves the efficiency of lysine utilization in pigs. In Exp. 1, nursery pigs (n = 14) were fed (for a period of 7 d) either a standard nursery diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid to assess effects on plasma amino acid concentrations (plasma collected on d 7). In Exp. 2, nursery pigs (n = 56) were fed (for a period of 15 d) either a control diet or the same diet but deficient in either lysine, threonine, or tryptophan with or without supplemental adipic acid to assess the effects of adipic acid on the efficiency of amino acid utilization. The results from Exp. 1 showed that adipic acid increased plasma lysine (by 18%) but not alpha-amino adipic acid, an intermediate in lysine degradation. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adipic acid did not increase the efficiency of utilization of lysine, threonine, or tryptophan. The lack of effects on alpha-amino adipic acid in Exp. 1 and the lack of a positive effect on the efficiency of utilization of lysine, threonine, and tryptophan suggest that adipic acid does not inhibit the mitochondrial uptake of lysine and(or) its degradation in the mitochondrion. It is concluded that feeding adipic acid increases plasma lysine but does not improve the efficiency of lysine utilization.

  20. Acid rain compliance and coordination of state and federal utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nordhaus, R.R.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new stature. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for review of acid rain compliance strategies if least-cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on rate payers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and spells out possible approaches that utility regulators may take in dealing with it. Topics covered include the following: the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments; acid rain (SO2); acid rain (NOx); costs of compliance; implications for utility regulation - federal and state utility regulatory framework; potential jurisdictional conflicts under existing state/federal utility regulatory scheme - single utility, holding companies, power pools; Utility regulatory issues under the 1990 amendments - planning conflicts, operational conflicts; methods for dealing with potential jurisdictional conflicts; coordination mechanisms - informal consultation, rulemaking,coordination of adjudicatory proceedings, FERC rate filings.

  1. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y. L.; Dick, W. A.; Stehouwer, R. C.; Bigham, J. M.

    1998-06-30

    combination effect was partially due to the positive interaction of CaS03 with CaC03 and fly ash on inhibition of acid leaching. In Chapter 3, CaS03-containing FGD was found to inhibit acid leaching from both fresh and aged coal refuse in large scale columns under simulated field conditions. During 39 weeks of leaching, the reduction of leachate acidity and Fe concentration and the increase ofleachate pH were significant (p <0.05) for the 22% FGD treatment with a linear response to increasing FGD rates (0%, 5.5%, 11%, and 22%). I conclude that CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD have the ability to inhibit acid production in coal refuse and the inhibitory effect shown in this experiment is likely to occur under field conditions. Thus, the research results present a potential new method for mitigation of acid production in coal refuse and another beneficial utilization of FGD by-products.

  2. Separation of certain carboxylic acids utilizing cation exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Sopher, David W.

    1984-01-01

    A method of substantially separating monofunctional lower carboxylic acids from a liquid mixture containing the acids wherein the pH of the mixture is adjusted to a value in the range of from about 1 to about 5 to form protonated acids. The mixture is heated to an elevated temperature not greater than about 100.degree. C. and brought in contact with one side of a perfluorinated cation exchange membrane having sulfonate or carboxylate groups or mixtures thereof with the mixture containing the protonated acids. A pressure gradient can be established across the membrane with the mixture being under higher pressure, so that protonated monofunctional lower carboxylic acids pass through the membrane at a substantially faster rate than the remainder of the mixture thereby substantially separating the acids from the mixture.

  3. Separation of certain carboxylic acids utilizing cation exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Sopher, D.W.

    1983-05-09

    A method of substantially separating monofunctional lower carboxylic acids from a liquid mixture containing the acids wherein the pH of the mixture is adjusted to a value in the range of from about 1 to about 5 to form protonated acids. The mixture is heated to an elevated temperature not greater than about 100/sup 0/C and brought in contact with one side of a perfluorinated cation exchange membrane having sulfonate or carboxylate groups or mixtures thereof with the mixture containing the protonated acids. A pressure gradient can be established across the membrane with the mixture being under higher pressure, so that protonated monofunctional lower carboxylic acids pass through the membrane at a substantially faster rate than the remainder of the mixture thereby substantially separating the acids from the mixture.

  4. 77 FR 24461 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and... citric acid and certain citrate salts from Canada. See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada...

  5. Metagenomic analysis of the rhizosphere soil microbiome with respect to phytic acid utilization.

    PubMed

    Unno, Yusuke; Shinano, Takuro

    2013-01-01

    While phytic acid is a major form of organic phosphate in many soils, plant utilization of phytic acid is normally limited; however, culture trials of Lotus japonicus using experimental field soil that had been managed without phosphate fertilizer for over 90 years showed significant usage of phytic acid applied to soil for growth and flowering and differences in the degree of growth, even in the same culture pot. To understand the key metabolic processes involved in soil phytic acid utilization, we analyzed rhizosphere soil microbial communities using molecular ecological approaches. Although molecular fingerprint analysis revealed changes in the rhizosphere soil microbial communities from bulk soil microbial community, no clear relationship between the microbiome composition and flowering status that might be related to phytic acid utilization of L. japonicus could be determined. However, metagenomic analysis revealed changes in the relative abundance of the classes Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria, Chlorobi, Dehalococcoidetes and Methanobacteria, which include strains that potentially promote plant growth and phytic acid utilization, and some gene clusters relating to phytic acid utilization, such as alkaline phosphatase and citrate synthase, with the phytic acid utilization status of the plant. This study highlights phylogenetic and metabolic features of the microbial community of the L. japonicus rhizosphere and provides a basic understanding of how rhizosphere microbial communities affect the phytic acid status in soil.

  6. 77 FR 50715 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing... from China and Vietnam of utility scale wind towers, provided for in subheading 7308.20.00 of the... of Commerce has defined the subject merchandise as certain wind towers, whether or not tapered, and...

  7. Significant utilization of dietary arachidonic acid is for brain adrenic acid in baboon neonates.

    PubMed

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Lawrence, Peter; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Boehm, G; Nathanielsz, P W; Brenna, J T

    2002-05-01

    Dietary arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) utilization in-vivo for carbon recycling into de-novo lipogenesis and conversion to n-6 long chain polyunsaturates was investigated in baboon neonates using [U-(13)C]20:4n-6. Neonates consuming a formula typical of human milk received a single oral dose of [(13)C]arachidonic acid in sn-2 position of either triglyceride or phosphatidylcholine at 18-19 days of postnatal life. Neonate brain, retina, liver, and plasma were obtained 10 days later (28-29 days of life). Low isotopic enrichment (0.27-1.0%Total label) was detected in dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6) in all tissues, but label incorporation into saturates or monounsaturates was not detected. In neonate brain and retina, 16% and 11% of total label was recovered in 22:4n-6, respectively. The relative contribution of dietary fatty acids to postnatal brain 22:4n-6 accretion can be estimated for dietary 20:4n-6 and preformed 22:4n-6 as 17% and 8%, respectively, corresponding to efficiencies of 0.48% and 0.54% of dietary levels, respectively. These results demonstrate in term baboon neonates that in vivo 1) 20:4n-6 was retroconverted to 20:3n-6, 2) 20:4n-6 did not contribute significantly to de novo lipogenesis of saturates and monounsaturates, and 3) the preformed 20:4n-6 contribution to brain 22:4n-6 accumulation was quantitatively a significant metabolic fate for dietary 20:4n-6.

  8. 78 FR 11150 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ...Based on affirmative final determinations by the Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') and the International Trade Commission (``ITC''), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on utility scale wind towers (``wind towers'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). In addition, the Department is amending its final determination to correct certain ministerial errors.

  9. Comparative Genomics of Regulation of Fatty Acid and Branched-chain Amino Acid Utilization in Proteobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Arkin, Adam Paul; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Alm, Eric

    2008-10-31

    Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e. isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FA) as sole carbon and energy sources convering ILV into acetyl-CoA, propanoyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcriptional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The metabolic regulons were characterized based on the identification and comparison of candidate transcription factor binding sites in groups of phylogenetically related genomes. The reconstructed ILV/FA regulatory network demonstrates considerable variability and involves six transcriptional factors from the MerR, TetR and GntR families binding to eleven distinct DNA motifs. The ILV degradation genes in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria are mainly regulated by anovel regulator from the MerR family (e.g., LiuR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (40 species), in addition, the TetR-type regulator LiuQ was identified in some beta-proteobacteria (8 species). Besides the core set of ILV utilization genes, the LiuR regulon in some lineages is expanded to include genes from other metabolic pathways, such as the glyoxylate shunt and glutamate synthase in the Shewanella species. The FA degradation genes are controlled by four regulators including FadR in gamma-proteobacteria (34 species), PsrA in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (45 species), FadP in beta-proteobacteria (14 species), and LiuR orthologs in alpha-proteobacteria (22 species). The remarkable variability of the regulatory systems associated with the FA degradation pathway is discussed from the functional and evolutionary points of view.

  10. Comparative genomics of regulation of fatty acid and branched-chain amino acid utilization in proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kazakov, Alexey E; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Alm, Eric; Arkin, Adam Paul; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e., isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FAs) as sole carbon and energy sources converting ILV into acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), propanoyl-CoA, and propionyl-CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcriptional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The metabolic regulons were characterized based on the identification and comparison of candidate transcription factor binding sites in groups of phylogenetically related genomes. The reconstructed ILV/FA regulatory network demonstrates considerable variability and involves six transcriptional factors from the MerR, TetR, and GntR families binding to 11 distinct DNA motifs. The ILV degradation genes in gamma- and betaproteobacteria are regulated mainly by a novel regulator from the MerR family (e.g., LiuR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (40 species); in addition, the TetR-type regulator LiuQ was identified in some betaproteobacteria (eight species). Besides the core set of ILV utilization genes, the LiuR regulon in some lineages is expanded to include genes from other metabolic pathways, such as the glyoxylate shunt and glutamate synthase in Shewanella species. The FA degradation genes are controlled by four regulators including FadR in gammaproteobacteria (34 species), PsrA in gamma- and betaproteobacteria (45 species), FadP in betaproteobacteria (14 species), and LiuR orthologs in alphaproteobacteria (22 species). The remarkable variability of the regulatory systems associated with the FA degradation pathway is discussed from functional and evolutionary points of view.

  11. Ash utilization for elimination of acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Petzrick, P.

    1997-09-01

    Maryland is surrounded by states whose coal production exceeds its own, namely West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Because of the State`s relatively limited coal production, the distribution of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) funds mandated by law leaves the State at a disadvantage. In order to support maryland`s overall ash utilization program, the State solicits assistance from electric utilities and any other parties who may benefit from the development of a cost-effective technology to seal abandoned underground mines with CCB-based grouts, replacing the conventional use of more costly Portland cement for such applications. The development of these mine sealing techniques can be used to abate Maryland`s AMD discharges, because sealing prevents the exposure of sulfur-bearing minerals in coal seams to oxygen and water, which causes AMD. Ultimately, it is for this reason that Maryland`s overall ash utilization program was developed: to coordinate and encourage the large-scale utilization of CCBs to eliminate AMD in Maryland waters.

  12. Acid mine drainage and subsidence: effects of increased coal utilization.

    PubMed

    Hill, R D; Bates, E R

    1979-12-01

    The increases above 1975 levels for acid mine drainage and subsidence for the years 1985 and 2000 based on projections of current mining trends and the National Energy Plan are presented. No increases are projected for acid mine drainage from surface mines or waste since enforcement under present laws should control this problem. The increase in acid mine drainage from underground mines is projected to be 16 percent by 1985 and 10 percent by 2000. The smaller increase in 2000 over 1985 reflects the impact of the PL 95-87 abandoned mine program. Mine subsidence is projected to increase by 34 and 115 percent respectively for 1985 and 2000. This estimate assumes that subsidence will parallel the rate of underground coal production and that no new subsidence control measures are adopted to mitigate subsidence occurrence.

  13. Acid mine drainage and subsidence: effects of increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R D; Bates, E R

    1979-01-01

    The increases above 1975 levels for acid mine drainage and subsidence for the years 1985 and 2000 based on projections of current mining trends and the National Energy Plan are presented. No increases are projected for acid mine drainage from surface mines or waste since enforcement under present laws should control this problem. The increase in acid mine drainage from underground mines is projected to be 16 percent by 1985 and 10 percent by 2000. The smaller increase in 2000 over 1985 reflects the impact of the PL 95-87 abandoned mine program. Mine subsidence is projected to increase by 34 and 115 percent respectively for 1985 and 2000. This estimate assumes that subsidence will parallel the rate of underground coal production and that no new subsidence control measures are adopted to mitigate subsidence occurrence. PMID:540617

  14. Utilization of milk fatty acids by the suckling Iberian piglets.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, M A; Haro, A; Lara, L; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2016-11-01

    A total of 16 pure-bred Iberian (IB) sows, all of them suckling six piglets, were used, eight of them in each of the two consecutive trials (1 and 2). Daily milk yield and composition were determined weekly over a 34-day lactation period. Within each litter, one piglet at birth and four piglets on day 35 of life were slaughtered. Milk intake per piglet tended to be greater in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P=0.066), but piglets grew at 168±3.3 g/day, irrespective of the trial. In the IB sow milk, the linoleic (LA) : linolenic (LNA) acid ratio averaged 14.6 and 15.2 in trial 1 and trial 2, respectively. A fivefold increase in piglet body fat content was observed over lactation (P<0.001). Most of this fat (81.4%) was present in the carcass. After 34 days of lactation, whole-body relative content of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids were very close to those in the milk consumed, suggesting direct deposition. Daily deposition of LA derivatives and of LNA and its derivatives was found to be extremely low (<0.02 g, on average). Moreover, some of the arachidonic acid (ARA) in tissues of the IB piglet at birth disappeared throughout the lactating period. An overall fractional deposition for total fatty acids (FA) was 0.409. Fractional oxidation (disappearance) rates were 0.939 and 0.926 for n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The overall rate of disappearance for the major non-essential FA (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids), estimated as 1-the overall fractional deposition rate, was 0.546. It is concluded that the high degree of FA unsaturation, high oxidation rate of LA and LNA, and poor synthesis of ARA from LA and of docosahexaenoic acid from LNA found in the suckling piglet might increase the energy cost of whole-body fat accretion, a contributor to the observed low efficiency of use of milk energy for growth.

  15. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from Canada.\\1\\ The review... period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012. \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate...

  16. 77 FR 15357 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Final Results of..., 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India. The review covers one manufacturer/exporter of the subject...-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India (76 FR 78237). We invited parties to comment on the preliminary...

  17. 76 FR 7532 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India: Final Results of..., 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India. The review covers one manufacturer/exporter of the subject...-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India (75 FR 73042). We invited parties to comment on the preliminary...

  18. 78 FR 40099 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Final Results of... of the antidumping duty order on 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) from India.\\1\\ The...-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

  19. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... preliminary results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from Canada. The review covers one manufacturer/exporter of the...

  20. Effects of acid fog and ozone on conifers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Olszyk, D.M.; Takemoto, B.K.; McCool, P.M.; Musselman, R.C.

    1989-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of acidic fog (pH 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0) on the physiological, biochemical, and growth responses of two coniferous tree species (Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor), and determined if exposure to acidic fog predisposed the tree seedlings to the phytotoxic effects of ozone (O{sub 3}). Results provide evidence that the growth and metabolic responses of two coniferous tree species could be altered by multiple applications of acidic fog, and by exposure to ambient O{sub 3}. In general, the alterations were slight to modest, which may be attributed to the low degree of stress severity, and the slow rate of tree growth. The findings indicate that exposure to acidic fog followed by O{sub 3} does not cause detectable changes in conifer seedling growth within a single-growing season. Nevertheless, it is clear that acidic fog and O{sub 3} cause temporal alterations in seedling physiology and biochemistry.

  1. Effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Cole, D.W.

    1985-04-01

    In five forest sites (three in eastern Tennessee and two in western Washington) the effect of natural carbonic acid production on soil leaching was equaled or exceeded by that of atmospheric acid inputs. In a nitrogen-fixing red alder site in Washington, however, internal leaching by nitrification and nitric acid formation far exceeded atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs at any site. All other sites retained NO/sub 3//sup -/, and soil SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ adsorption reduced the effectiveness of atmospheric H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ inputs on soil leaching in two of the Tennessee sites and in the Washington red alder site. Atmospheric sulfur inputs exceeded the forest sulfur requirement in all five sites. Decomposer invertebrates appeared to be affected negatively by unrealistically large applications of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, either as KHSO/sub 4/ or K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Forest floor buffering prevented large changes in pH with acid SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ treatments. Results indicate that effects of acid deposition on decomposer invertebrates are unlikely except at input levels much higher than ambient.

  2. Fatty acid utilization in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Reibel, D.K.; O'Rourke, B.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously shown that the levels of total tissue coenzyme A and carnitine are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. It was therefore of interest to determine if these changes were associated with alterations in fatty acid oxidation by the hypertrophied myocardium. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats and perfused at 10 cm H/sub 2/O left atrial filling pressure with a ventricular afterload of 80 cm of H/sub 2/O with buffer containing 1.2 mM /sup 14/C-linoleate. Heart rate and peak systolic pressure were not different in control and hypertrophied hearts. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production was linear in both groups of hearts between 10 and 30 minutes of perfusion. The rate of fatty acid oxidation determined by /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production during this time was 0.728 +/- 0.06 ..mu..moles/min/g dry in control hearts and 0.710 +/- 0.02 ..mu..moles/min/g dry in hypertrophied hearts. Comparable rates of fatty acid oxidation were associated with comparable rates of O/sub 2/ consumption in the two groups of hearts (39.06 +/- 3.50 and 36.78 +/- 2.39 ..mu..moles/g dry/min for control and hypertrophied hearts, respectively). The data indicate that the ability of the hypertrophied heart to oxidize fatty acids under these perfusion conditions is not impaired in spite of significant reductions in tissue levels of coenzyme A and carnitine.

  3. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.M.; Hartman, R.M.; Kort, D.; Rapues, N.

    1994-09-01

    This ash study investigates several aspects of Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) ash utilization to develop an alternative to the present disposal practice of landfilling in a lined monofill. Ash was investigated as a daily or final cover for municipal waste in the landfill to prevent erosion and as a road construction aggregate. Samples of eight mixtures of ash and other materials, and one sample of soil were analyzed for chemical constituents. Biological tests on these mixters were conducted, along with erosion tests and sieve analyses. A chemical analysis of each sieve size was conducted. Geotechnical properties of the most promising materials were made. Findings to this point include: all ash samples take have passed the EPA TCLP testing; chemical analysis of bottom and combined ash samples indicate less than expected variability; selected ash mixtures exhibited very low coefficients of hydraulic conductivity; all but one of the ash mixtures exhibited greater erosion resistance than the currently used landfill cover material; MWC combined analysis indicates this is a viable alternative for landfill cover; MWC ash size reactions and chemical analysis show bottom and combined ash to be a viable alternative for road construction.

  4. Family housing utility metering program annual report. Phase II. Data analysis. Final report for FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, A.F.

    1980-03-01

    The Family Housing Utility Metering Program was a quad-service DoD Program directed by Congress to determine the actual energy consumption in approximately 10,000 family housing units in military installations. The pilot program extended over a period of about 18 months in FY 78-80 with a final report submitted to Congress on 1 March 1980. The following report covers the data processing portion of the program and includes the Family Housing Survey on the three Army posts, namely, Yuma PG, AZ, Fort Gordon, GA, and Fort Eustis, VA, together with a brief description of the method used to calculate energy consumption norms, the computer output of energy consumptions and the conclusions derived from the program that were reported to Congress by the DoD. At the conclusion of the test activity, no further plans were in effect to continue the Family Housing Metering Program and, for this reason, the Program officially terminated on 1 March 1980.

  5. Emerging technologies for the management and utilization of landfill gas. Final report, August 1994-August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, S.; Reisman, J.; Strait, R.; Doorn, M.

    1998-02-01

    The report gives information on emerging technologies that are considered to be commercially available (Tier 1), currently undergoing research and development (Tier 2), or considered as potentially applicable (Tier 3), for the management of landfill gas (LFG) emissions or for the utilization of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from LFG. The emerging technologies that are considered to be Tier 1 are: (1) phosphoric acid fuel cells, (2) processes for converting CH4 from LFG to compressed LFG for vehicle fuel or other fuel uses, and (3) use of LFG as a fuel source for leachate evaporation systems. The Tier 2 technologies covered in the report are: (1) operation of landfills as anaerobic bioreactors, (2) operation of landfills are aerobic bioreactors, (3) production of ethanol from LFG, (4) production of commercial CO2 from LFG, and (5) use of LFG to provide fuel for heat and CO2 enhancement in greenhouses. Tier 3 technologies, considered as potentially applicable for LFG. include Stirling and Organic Rankine Cycle engines.

  6. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.`` The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  7. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae Can Utilize Multiple Sources of Hyaluronic Acid for Growth

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Carolyn; Stewart, Jason M.; Tazi, Mia F.; Burnaugh, Amanda M.; Linke, Caroline M.; Woodiga, Shireen A.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae obtains carbohydrates for growth during airway colonization remain to be elucidated. The low concentration of free carbohydrates in the normal human airway suggests that pneumococci must utilize complex glycan structures for growth. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid is present on the apical surface of airway epithelial cells. As pneumococci express a hyaluronate lyase (Hyl) that cleaves hyaluronic acid into disaccharides, we hypothesized that during colonization pneumococci utilize the released carbohydrates for growth. Hyaluronic acid supported significant pneumococcal growth in an hyl-dependent manner. A phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) and an unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase (Ugl) encoded downstream of hyl are also essential for growth on hyaluronic acid. This genomic arrangement is present in several other organisms, suggesting conservation of the utilization mechanism between species. In vivo experiments support the hypothesis that S. pneumoniae utilizes hyaluronic acid as a carbon source during colonization. We also demonstrate that pneumococci can utilize the hyaluronic acid capsule of other bacterial species for growth, suggesting an alternative carbohydrate source for pneumococcal growth. Together, these data support a novel function for pneumococcal degradation of hyaluronic acid in vivo and provide mechanistic details of growth on this glycosaminoglycan. PMID:22311922

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae can utilize multiple sources of hyaluronic acid for growth.

    PubMed

    Marion, Carolyn; Stewart, Jason M; Tazi, Mia F; Burnaugh, Amanda M; Linke, Caroline M; Woodiga, Shireen A; King, Samantha J

    2012-04-01

    The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae obtains carbohydrates for growth during airway colonization remain to be elucidated. The low concentration of free carbohydrates in the normal human airway suggests that pneumococci must utilize complex glycan structures for growth. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid is present on the apical surface of airway epithelial cells. As pneumococci express a hyaluronate lyase (Hyl) that cleaves hyaluronic acid into disaccharides, we hypothesized that during colonization pneumococci utilize the released carbohydrates for growth. Hyaluronic acid supported significant pneumococcal growth in an hyl-dependent manner. A phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) and an unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase (Ugl) encoded downstream of hyl are also essential for growth on hyaluronic acid. This genomic arrangement is present in several other organisms, suggesting conservation of the utilization mechanism between species. In vivo experiments support the hypothesis that S. pneumoniae utilizes hyaluronic acid as a carbon source during colonization. We also demonstrate that pneumococci can utilize the hyaluronic acid capsule of other bacterial species for growth, suggesting an alternative carbohydrate source for pneumococcal growth. Together, these data support a novel function for pneumococcal degradation of hyaluronic acid in vivo and provide mechanistic details of growth on this glycosaminoglycan.

  10. Environmental performance measurement: A framework for the utility industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Utilities use environmental performance measurement (EPM) for internal management, external communication, and benchmarking. This report presents a framework to assist utilities in developing EPM processes consistent with their environmental and business goals.

  11. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Theresa; Höfer, Julia; Gnaiger, Erich; Aufinger, Astrid; Kenner, Lukas; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26285134

  12. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Schöpf, Bernd; Eder, Theresa; Höfer, Julia; Gnaiger, Erich; Aufinger, Astrid; Kenner, Lukas; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  13. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET FINAL REPORT FOR DOWNSELECTION DECISION

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

    2011-03-10

    Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic-formic acid flowsheet (referred to as the glycolic-formic flowsheet throughout the rest of the report) as an alternative to the nitric/formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be removed in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) with minimal hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Forty-six runs were performed in total, including the baseline run and the melter feed preparation runs. Significant results are summarized. The baseline nitric/formic flowsheet run, using the SB6 simulant produced by Harrell was extremely difficult to process successfully under existing DWPF acceptance criteria with this simulant at the HM levels of noble metals. While nitrite was destroyed and mercury was removed to near the DWPF limit, the rheology of the SRAT and SME products were well above design basis and hydrogen generation far exceeded the DWPF SRAT limit. In addition, mixing during the SME cycle was very poor. In this sense, the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet represents a significant upgrade over the current flowsheet. Mercury was successfully removed with almost no hydrogen generation and the SRAT and SME products yield stresses were within process limits or previously processed ranges. The glycolic-formic flowsheet has a very wide processing window. Testing was completed from 100% to 200% of acid stoichiometry and using a glycolic-formic mixture from 40% to 100% glycolic acid. The testing met all processing requirements throughout these processing windows. This should allow processing at an acid stoichiometry of 100% and a glycolic-formic mixture of 80% glycolic acid with minimal hydrogen generation. It should also allow processing endpoints in the SRAT and SME at significantly higher

  14. Effects of acid fog and dew on materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfeld, F.; Henry, R.; Vijayakumar, R.

    1989-10-01

    Field exposure tests have been carried out in order to separate the effects of acidic fog on materials damage from those caused by rain, dew and natural weathering. The test sites were McKittrick and Visalia in the Central Valley and West Casitas Pass in Ventura County. The field tests have been supported by laboratory tests in which materials damage has been determined during exposure to carefully controlled fog water chemistry. Analysis of the field exposure results for galvanized steel and the paint samples shows that the corrosivity of the atmosphere at the three test sites have been very low. The result is confirmed by the ACRM data which show very low corrosion activity. Since corrosion rates were so low approaching those for natural weathering, it was not possible to determine the effects of acidic fog. Based on the aerometric data and the observed corrosion behavior, it is doubtful that acidic fog conditions prevailed for significant times during the exposure period of 1/87 - 3/88 at Visalia and McKittrick. The results of the laboratory tests show that exposure to HNO3 at low pH and to high pollutant concentration increased the corrosion rate of galvanized steel to over 10 micro m/year. Exposure to HNO3 caused serious corrosion damage to anodized aluminum and the paint.

  15. Electric utility acid fuel cell stack technology advancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, J. V.; Goller, G. J.; Greising, G. J.; Obrien, J. J.; Randall, S. A.; Sandelli, G. J.; Breault, R. D.; Austin, G. W.; Bopse, S.; Coykendall, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal effort under this program was directed at the fuel cell stack technology required to accomplish the initial feasibility demonstrations of increased cell stack operating pressures and temperatures, increased cell active area, incorporation of the ribbed substrate cell configuration at the bove conditions, and the introduction of higher performance electrocatalysts. The program results were successful with the primary accomplishments being: (1) fabrication of 10 sq ft ribbed substrate, cell components including higher performing electrocatalysts; (2) assembly of a 10 sq ft, 30-cell short stack; and (3) initial test of this stack at 120 psia and 405 F. These accomplishments demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and handling large area cells using materials and processes that are oriented to low cost manufacture. An additional accomplishment under the program was the testing of two 3.7 sq ft short stacks at 12 psia/405 F to 5400 and 4500 hours respectively. These tests demonstrate the durability of the components and the cell stack configuration to a nominal 5000 hours at the higher pressure and temperature condition planned for the next electric utility power plant.

  16. Regional estimates of acid deposition fluxes in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, C.L.; Michaels, H.

    1994-03-01

    Acidic deposition occurs via precipitation, fog, cloud water, and dry deposition. Each of these processes is potentially important in California. The specific objectives of this project were to (1) evaluate the quality of the available deposition data; (2) compute estimates of the deposition of each species of interest, by mode of deposition, at each monitoring location in California having sufficient data available; (3) generalize the estimated deposition amounts to larger regions of interest, to the extent possible; (4) compare wet with dry deposition; and (5) identify measurement and methodological requirements for improving the results.

  17. Fatty acid ecology of plankton communities: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, H.P.

    1987-04-01

    To determine the health of marine communities as they rise and fall in relation to natural change and man's activities, an approach has been developed based upon gradients of biochemical change in the zooplankton of shelf and estuarine waters. Across three transects on megalopolis (Massachusetts Bay-Boston Harbor, Rhode Island Sound-Narragansett Bay and the New York Bight-Hudson River), fatty acid pattern revealed the following correlates to ecological structure of the whole: productive species associations were also biochemically stable; seasonal succession of species groups occurred in a biochemically defined phase space that showed seasonal limits of dynamic stability useful for predictive purposes; species diversity was inversely related to biochemical diversity; structure at the biochemical level was linked to function at the ecosystem level. Further, European and North American zooplankton differed in relation to nutritional sources, European zooplankton relying more on detrital materials. Because fatty acids are ubiquitous monomers that assume special importance in energetic functioning of plankton, multivariate analysis of biochemical pattern in time and space affords controlled comparison of influences impinging on the health and well being of its assemblages. A world-wide scheme based upon these objectives and readily determined correlates to ecological structure is thereby practical for classifying plankton and monitoring its ever-changing nature.

  18. Amino acid utilization by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: specific study of histidine.

    PubMed

    Hellio, Claire; Veron, Benoit; Le Gal, Yves

    2004-03-01

    Phytoplankton live in fluctuating environments where many factors such as grazing pressure, sinking, light availability, nutrient uptake and turnover influence the distribution of phytoplankton in time and space. The purpose of this study was to investigate if under conditions of depletion of inorganic nitrogen, as recorded in summer in naturals waters, phytoplanktonic species have the capability of using organic nitrogen sources, including free or combined amino acids, in addition to inorganic nitrogen. The study has focussed on histidine, the degradation of which yielding potentially three nitrogen atoms for each molecule of histidine. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CCAP 11/32A) was cultivated axenically with two different sources of nitrogen (histidine and/or ammonium). In the presence of histidine as sole source of nitrogen, cell growth was comparable to that observed with the same concentration of nitrogen in ammonium form. In the presence of both histidine and ammonium, histidine degradation was observed only when the concentration of ammonium was depleted. Under these conditions, the first two enzymes of histidine degradation pathway, histidase (EC 4.3.1.3) and urocanase (EC 4.2.1.49) were produced and were co-ordinately regulated. Histidase activity was also controlled by succinate and glutamate as carbon sources. Histidase was purified 1018-fold and partially characterized. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to 152.4 kDa corresponding to four subunits of 38.1 kDa. The enzyme did not exhibit classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics but showed a relationship between the rate of catalysis (V) and the concentration of substrate (S), characteristic of negative allosteric behavior. A Hill coefficient of 4 was measured for histidine concentrations higher than 20.5 mM.

  19. The Sound-to-Speech Translations Utilizing Graphics Mediation Interface for Students with Severe Handicaps. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carrie; And Others

    This final report describes activities and outcomes of a research project on a sound-to-speech translation system utilizing a graphic mediation interface for students with severe disabilities. The STS/Graphics system is a voice recognition, computer-based system designed to allow individuals with mental retardation and/or severe physical…

  20. School Utilization Study: Availability, Use, and Support of Instructional Media. 1982-83 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccobono, John A.

    This summary of the 1982-83 School Utilization Study updates and extends the results of a 1976-77 study of school utilization of instructional television and examines changes in instructional television availability and use patterns between 1977 and 1983. The study reported surveyed 619 school superintendents, 1,350 principals, and 2,700 teachers…

  1. Utilization of amino acids and dipeptides by Lactobacillus plantarum from orange in nutritionally stressed conditions.

    PubMed

    Saguir, F M; Loto Campos, I E; Manca de Nadra, M C

    2008-06-01

    To investigate amino acid and dipeptide utilization by Lactobacillus plantarum N4 isolated from orange peel, in a nutritionally depleted medium based on MRS (Mann, Rogosa, Sharpe). In MRS with 0.1 g l(-1) of meat extract and without peptone and yeast extract, growth increased when essential and stimulatory amino acids and nonessential amino acid were added to the medium. Replacement of the essential amino acid, leucine, and the nonessential amino acid, glycine, by leucyl-leucine (Leu-Leu) and/or glycyl-glycine (Gly-Gly) significantly enhanced growth. Essential amino acids were mainly consumed and the dipeptides were almost completely used at the end of growth. Leucine and glycine accumulated internally from the peptides were higher than from the free amino acids. Glucose utilization increased in the media containing dipeptides compared with the medium containing free amino acids. In a N-depleted medium, Leu-Leu and/or Gly-Gly were more effective than the respective amino acids in supporting growth of the micro-organism. The more efficient internal accumulation of glycine and especially leucine from dipeptides confirmed the ability of the strain to assimilate mainly complex nitrogen molecules rather than simple ones. The ability of Lact. plantarum N4 to efficiently use dipeptides could contribute to spoilage development in the natural medium of the organism, orange juice.

  2. Final Report Report: Smart Grid Ready PV Inverters with Utility Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, Brian; Huque, Aminul; Rogers, Lindsey; Key, Tom; Riley, Cameron; Li, Huijuan; York, Ben; Purcell, Chris; Pacific, Oliver; Ropp, Michael; Tran, Teresa; Asgeirsson, Hawk; Woodard, Justin; Steffel, Steve

    2016-03-30

    In 2011, EPRI began a four-year effort under the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) to demonstrate smart grid ready inverters with utility communication. The objective of the project was to successfully implement and demonstrate effective utilization of inverters with grid support functionality to capture the full value of distributed photovoltaic (PV). The project leveraged ongoing investments and expanded PV inverter capabilities, to enable grid operators to better utilize these grid assets. Developing and implementing key elements of PV inverter grid support capabilities will increase the distribution system’s capacity for higher penetration levels of PV, while reducing the cost. The project team included EPRI, Yaskawa-Solectria Solar, Spirae, BPL Global, DTE Energy, National Grid, Pepco, EDD, NPPT and NREL. The project was divided into three phases: development, deployment, and demonstration. Within each phase, the key areas included: head-end communications for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) at the utility operations center; methods for coordinating DER with existing distribution equipment; back-end PV plant master controller; and inverters with smart-grid functionality. Four demonstration sites were chosen in three regions of the United States with different types of utility operating systems and implementations of utility-scale PV inverters. This report summarizes the project and findings from field demonstration at three utility sites.

  3. Early utility experience with wind power generation. Volume 1. Summary report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, T.; Henry, G.; Tennis, M.; Goldenblatt, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report is one of three presenting the results of EPRI Research Project 1590-1, Evaluation of Electric Utility Experience with Wind Power Generation. The objective of this project was to develop an improved understanding of wind power generation, in particular the process a utility must undergo to initiate and carry out a wind turbine project. The primary tasks of RP1590-1 were to document and evaluate the experience of two utilities with megawatt-scale wind turbine installations from project inception to the first rotation of the wind turbine. This summary report presents in brief form the experiences of two utilities, the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the Bonneville Power Administration, with wind turbine projects at Solano County, California and Goodnoe Hills, Washington, respectively. All documents and reports pertaining to the experiences with the wind turbine projects were reviewed and excerpts made of the highlights. Gaps in the documentation were filled by talking with appropriate people. Site visits were conducted to monitor current activity. The information obtained was evaluated for its generic relevance and benefit to other utilities. Condensed descriptions of the projects, a comparison of the projects, and highlights of the utilities' experiences are presented. Some of the insights which might benefit other utility wind programs are identified.

  4. Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    The Acid Rain Program is divided into two time periods; Phase I, from 1995 through 1999, and Phase II, starting in 2000. Phase I mostly affects power plants that are the largest sources of SO2 and NOx . Phase II affects virtually all electric power producers, including utilities and nonutilities. This report is a study of the effects of compliance with Phase I regulations on the costs and operations of electric utilities, but does not address any Phase II impacts.

  5. Mathematical model of a utility firm. Final technical report, Part IIA

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-21

    This volume is part of a project aimed at developing an understanding of the dynamical processes that evolve within an electric utility firm, and without it. The volume covers organizational dynamics and many-person symmetric games. (DLC)

  6. Environmental performance measurement: Design, implementation, and review guidance for the utility industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, J.; McDaniel, J.; Parker, B.

    1998-08-01

    Many utilities formally track their environmental performance and report it to internal decision-makers and external stakeholders. Their environmental performance measurement (EPM) process captures both the environmental impacts and benefits attributable to their company, and the financial costs and benefits of their environmental management efforts. This report presents a framework intended to assist utilities in creating and implementing EPM processes that support both their business and environmental objectives. The three-phase framework--Plan, Implement, Review--describes the development, use and improvement of the EPM process. Specific guidance is provided for each step in the process so that readers can begin immediately developing or improving their process for measuring and reporting environmental information. The EPM framework builds on a variety of company experiences in the electric utility and other industries, previous research supported by EPRI on environmental performance measurement, and a series of benchmarking interviews with several major electric utility companies.

  7. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. |

    1998-04-01

    This report presents the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to accomplish two objectives: supply pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supply distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking energy and capacity to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs. The systems studied include a refueling station (including such components as an electrolyzer, storage, hydrogen dispensers, and compressors) plus on-site hydrogen fueled electricity generation units (e.g., fuel cells or combustion engines). The operational strategy is to use off-peak electricity in the electrolyzer to fill hydrogen storage, and to dispatch the electricity generation about one hour per day to meet the utility`s local and system peaks. The utility was assumed to be willing to pay for such service up to its avoided generation, fuel, transmission and distribution costs.

  8. Utility communications architecture. Volume 4, UCA Specification Version 1.0: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Integrating communications helps utilities realize the full potential of communications facilities for providing deversified new business opportunities, increasing operational efficiency, improving productivity, and enhancing customer service. This volume, the forth of six volumes, serves as the standard reference for the development and acquisition of communications systems and services that are intended to be compliant with EPRI`s Utility Communications Architecture (UCA). The project team identified electric utility information requirements and conducted a series of interviews with 14 diverse US utilities. The work was reviewed and modified based on an EPRI workshop. Two host utilities, Houston Lighting & Power Company and Pacific Gas & Electric Company, confirmed information requirements and provided associated communications requirements. Teams of industry experts in each of six defined utility functional areas reviewed the communications requirements and broadened them to reflect an industrywide perspective. In subsequent project phases, the team assessed open communication standards in light of the communications requirements and selected standards for inclusion in this specification. They also incorporated feedback from briefings and several workshops. This specification provides a standard reference for the development and acquisition of UCA-compliant communication systems, equipment, and services. It specifies international communications standards that meet the industry`s communications requirements. It assumes a high degree of familiarity with standards documentation.

  9. The effects of various organic acids on phytate phosphorus utilization in chicks.

    PubMed

    Rafacz-Livingston, K A; Parsons, C M; Jungk, R A

    2005-09-01

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown that citric acid improves phytate P utilization in chicks fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal diet. The current study was conducted to determine if other organic acids also are effective, with an emphasis on gluconic acid. Four experiments were conducted in which 4 replicate groups of 5 crossbred chicks (New Hampshire x Columbian) were fed a P-deficient diet (0.16% nonphyate P) from 8 to 22 d of age. In Experiment 1, chick weight gain and tibia ash were significantly increased (P < 0.05) by 1.5 and 3% sodium gluconate (NaGlu), 1.5% calcium gluconate (CaGlu), 1.5 and 3% glucono-delta-lactone, and 1% 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (Alimet). In experiment 2, tibia ash was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by 2% NaGlu, CaGlu, and citric acid in chicks fed the P-deficient diet but not in chicks fed a 0.45% nonphytate P diet, indicating that the organic acid responses were due to increased P utilization. In experiments 3 and 4, tibia ash was significantly increased by 3% NaGlu and 3% citric acid, but not by 3% fumaric acid or 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1% EDTA. The results of this study showed that NaGlu, CaGlu, glucono-delta-lactone, Alimet, and citric acid, but not fumaric acid or EDTA, improved phytate P utilization in chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet.

  10. The utilization of oil palm fronds in producing oxalic acid through oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulina, Seri; Rahmadi, Ihwan

    2017-08-01

    As one of the solid waste generated by palm oil plantations, Oil Palm Fronds have the potential to be further processed into useful products since the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Hence, the objective of this study was to utilize oil palm fronds in producing oxalic acid through oxidation process using. To achieve the objective, this study assessed conversion of cellulose, yield and quality of oxalic acid produced. Two stages are carried out, namely oxidation and crystallization. Assays on raw materials revealed the cellulose content of 29.2 percent. The largest yield of oxalic acid was 43.31 percent, the highest conversion of cellulose was 58.86 percent. FTIR and melting point analysis were employed in this study. These analyses indicated that the functional groups have reached the standard of oxalic acid with a melting point of 102.1 °C, which showed that the oxalic acid obtained was oxalic acid dehydrate.

  11. Lead/acid batteries in utility energy storage and power control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, William C.

    Several types of benefits can be obtained with installations of lead/acid batteries at strategic locations in service areas of electric power utility companies, and also at large customer sites. Examples will be given of representative projects in different countries, some operational, and some to be built. Increasing use of lead/acid battery energy and power storage systems could be favored by improving the performance characteristics of sealed, recombination designs.

  12. Beneficial Effect of Acetic Acid on the Xylose Utilization and Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

    2014-09-01

    In this work, acetic acid was found as one promising substrate to improve xylose utilization by Gluconacetobacter xylinus CH001. Also, with the help of adding acetic acid into medium, the bacterial cellulose (BC) production by G. xylinus was increased significantly. In the medium containing 3 g l(-1) acetic acid, the optimal xylose concentration for BC production was 20 g l(-1). In the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose, the xylose utilization and BC production by G. xylinus were stimulated by acetic acid within certain concentration. The highest BC yield (1.35 ± 0.06 g l(-1)) was obtained in the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose and 3 g l(-1) acetic acid after 14 days. This value was 6.17-fold higher than the yield (0.21 ± 0.01 g l(-1)) in the medium only containing 20 g l(-1) xylose. The results analyzed by FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that acetic acid affected little on the microscopic morphology and physicochemical characteristics of BC. Base on the phenomenon observed, lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates (xylose and acetic acid are main carbon sources present in it) could be considered as one potential substrate for BC production.

  13. Market potential of electrolytic hydrogen production in three northeastern utilities' service territories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, E.; Edwards, K.

    1984-05-01

    The study develops a method for exploring the market potential for electrolytic hydrogen. The service areas of three northeastern utilities - Public Service Electric and Gas, Niagara Mohawk, and Northeast Utilities - are examined, and results reported on the effort to locate specialty hydrogen users, determine patterns of hydrogen utilization, and assess the possibility of satisfying this hydrogen demand by electrolytic hydrogen from advanced electrolyzers. Hydrogen users were sought in six major product categories: chemicals, pharmaceuticals, oils, metals, electronics and float glass. Identification of users through appropriate standard industrial classification codes served as a basis for locating possible users in each of the service areas. Mailed questionnaires sought information on hydrogen demand, characteristics of hydrogen use, present hydrogen supply costs, and factors that would influence the purchase of an electrolyzer. In the three utility service areas examined, electrolytic hydrogen can be expected to have limited success competing with merchant hydrogen. Specific hydrogen users may be found whose location with respect to the source of merchant hydrogen may put electrolytic hydrogen at an economic advantage. Reduction in electrolyzer plant costs may be necessary to expand the possibilities for electrolysis. Annual power requirements for current potential demand for electrolytic hydrogen in three utilities was estimated at 140 x 10/sup 6/ kWh, which could expand to 240 x 10/sup 6/ kWh in ten years.

  14. National Utility Financial Statement model (NUFS). Volume I of III: Model overview and description. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-29

    The National Utility Financial Statement (NUFS) model which takes the output for the electric utility sector from the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS) model and forecasts electric utility financial statements is described. NUFS forecasts separately for public and investor owned utilities, the following tables for each region on an annual basis: income statement; balance sheet; sources and uses of funds; development of revenue requirement on an annual basis; reconciliation of tax expenses, current taxes and income taxes at a 46% statutory rate; interest coverage; external financing as a percent of total uses of funds; AFUDC as a percentage of total uses of funds; book value and market to book rate; dividends per share; and actual return on equity. In addition, NUFS has been designed to supply inputs to the MEFS iterative solution process. The first such input is the fixed charge rates for each plant type. This quantity is used to form the objective function for the MEFS electric utility model. The second set of inputs are for the existing MEFS electricity price forecasting module. These inputs are referred to as pricing coefficients and old money revenue requirements.

  15. Utility theoretic approach to estimating the demand for and benefits from recreational fishing: the impact of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Adirondack State Park has been hit especially hard by acid precipitation. Acid precipitation impacts particular species of fish at various high altitudes sites in the park. The author estimates consumer surplus measures for changes in a variable to proxy the stock size of these species at specific sites. To do this he first estimates the individual's demand for a recreation site as a function of site prices and the site's characteristics. The demand function for the individual is derived from a utility function. A travel cost approach is used to estimate an individual's share of total fishing time spent at a five fishing site. The shares are estimated by maximum likelihood and the results indicate that price and the three characteristics do explain the allocation of the individual's time spent at the various sites selected for the analysis. Finally, consumer surplus measures for a reduction in the catch rates of the species most likely to be affected by Acid Precipitation are calculated. The meaning of these measures in the context of a model that assumes weak separability is examined. These reductions in catch rates can be linked to changes in the level of Acid Precipitation in the Park, and this provides us with a method for quantifying the impact of acid precipitation on recreation fishing.

  16. Regional source-receptor relationships for atmospheric acidity and acid deposition in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karamchandani, P.; Pilinis, C.; Shah, J.

    1993-12-01

    The report describes the results of a database management and semi-empirical modeling study that was performed to evaluate regional soure-receptor relationships (SRRs) for atmospheric acidity and acidic deposition in California. The objectives of the study were to quantify the contributions of the various source regions in California to acidic deposition at selected receptors in the state and to estimate the uncertainties in the derived values.

  17. A novel prodrug of salicylic acid, salicylic acid-glutamic acid conjugate utilizing hydrolysis in rabbit intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Asai, K; Nishida, K; Sasaki, H

    1992-08-01

    The fate of salicylic acid-glutamic acid conjugate (salicyl-glutamic acid) following oral, intravenous, intracecal and rectal administration (60, 10, 5 and 5 mg/kg, respectively: salicylic acid equivalent) was examined in rabbits. Salicylic acid was detected in the blood 2 h after oral administration of salicyl-glutamic acid and it reached the maximum level (69.4 micrograms/ml) at 18 h after the dose. A high blood concentration of salicylic acid (24.8 micrograms/ml) was observed up to 36 h. But only a small amount of salicyl-glutamic acid was detected in the blood (less than 2.5 micrograms/ml, as salicylic acid). In contrast, unchanged salicyl-glutamic acid was found mainly in the blood following intravenous administration of salicyl-glutamic acid, suggesting that presystemic de-conjugation of salicyl-glutamic acid predominantly occurred. The intestinal mucosal de-conjugation of salicyl-glutamic acid was negligible in the in situ intestinal sac preparation with complete mesenteric venous blood collection. Immediate and very extensive salicylic acid formation in the cecum was found following intracecal administration of salicyl-glutamic acid. After oral pretreatment of rabbits with kanamycin sulfate (6 x 400 mg), a significant inhibition of salicylic acid formation following intracecal administration of salicyl-glutamic acid was observed, indicating that the intestinal microorganisms were responsible for the biotransformation of salicyl-glutamic acid. Also, in vitro incubation of salicyl-glutamic acid with gut contents showed that the primary location of hydrolysis was the hind gut.

  18. A novel sialic acid utilization and uptake system in the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sumita; Douglas, C W Ian; Stafford, Graham P

    2010-05-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a key contributor to periodontitis, but little is known of its virulence mechanisms. In this study we have investigated the role of sialic acid in biofilm growth of this periodontal pathogen. Our data show that biofilm growth of T. forsythia is stimulated by sialic acid, glycolyl sialic acid, and sialyllactose, all three of which are common sugar moieties on a range of important host glycoproteins. We have also established that growth on sialyllactose is dependent on the sialidase of T. forsythia since the sialidase inhibitor oseltamivir suppresses growth on sialyllactose. The genome of T. forsythia contains a sialic acid utilization locus, which also encodes a putative inner membrane sialic acid permease (NanT), and we have shown this is functional when it is expressed in Escherichia coli. This genomic locus also contains a putatively novel TonB-dependent outer membrane sialic acid transport system (TF0033-TF0034). In complementation studies using an Escherichia coli strain devoid of its outer membrane sialic acid transporters, the cloning and expression of the TF0033-TF0034 genes enabled an E. coli nanR nanC ompR strain to utilize sialic acid as the sole carbon and energy source. We have thus identified a novel sialic acid uptake system that couples an inner membrane permease with a TonB-dependent outer membrane transporter, and we propose to rename these novel sialic acid uptake genes nanO and nanU, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that sialic acid is a key growth factor for this little-characterized oral pathogen and may be key to its physiology in vivo.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Utility of Valproic Acid Administered via Continuous Infusion.

    PubMed

    Cook, Aaron M; Zafar, Muhammad S; Mathias, Sally; Stewart, Alejandra M; Albuja, Ana C; Bensalem-Owen, Meriem; Kapoor, Siddharth; Baumann, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid is a versatile antiepileptic drug that is often used in the acute care setting. Intravenous valproic acid lends itself well to a continuous infusion as it exhibits a relatively short half-life. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of continuous infusion valproic acid in hospitalized patients with migraine and seizures. A retrospective cohort study was performed utilizing information from the medical records of patients receiving an intravenous continuous infusion of valproic acid. Patients were included if they were aged 1 month to 85 years and they received a continuous infusion of valproic acid. Therapeutic response, common adverse effects, and the pharmacokinetic profile of valproic acid were evaluated. Continuous infusion valproic acid led to a concentration within the desired range (50-100 μg/ml) in 83.4% of patients, a rate that was higher in pediatric patients. The clinical response rate was also higher in pediatric patients with seizures or migraines and appeared to be better when the concentration was >75 μg/ml. Analysis of safety parameters suggests similar safety considerations to valproic acid when administered via intermittent infusion. Continuous infusion valproic acid appears to be a safe, effective, and predictable manner by which to administer valproic acid to pediatric and adult patients admitted to the hospital.

  20. Acid deposition and air quality related values in north central Colorado wilderness areas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hidy, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem response to atmospheric acid, sulfur, and nitrate deposition has been studied only in a very limited way in Colorado wilderness areas. However, the observed deposition rates in north central Colorado remain low relative to affected areas in the eastern United States and well within a range where no adverse ecological effects are expected. This report presents a survey of scientific information describing acid deposition and air quality related values, which may have implications for utility plant operations.

  1. Mathematical model of a utility firm. Final technical report, Part III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-21

    This project is aimed at understanding the economic and behavioral processes that take place within a utility firm, and without it. This volume covers dynamics of economic systems (Phase II of the project): economic equilibrium theory, discrete economics, exchange economics, production economics, approach to equilibrium.

  2. National Utility Financial Statement model (NUFS). Volume III of III: software description. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-29

    This volume contains a description of the software comprising the National Utility Financial Statement Model (NUFS). This is the third of three volumes describing NUFS provided by ICF Incorporated under contract DEAC-01-79EI-10579. The three volumes are entitled: model overview and description, user's guide, and software guide.

  3. Speech recognition and synthesis for electric utility dispatch control centers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Edman, T.R.; Penner, R.R.; Metz, S.V.

    1986-03-01

    Voice devices now on the market could boost efficiency and reduce error and fatigue in busy utility dispatch control centers. The potential for the fast-developing voice technologies is greatest in such complex centers, where work loads are heavy and responses must often be immediate.

  4. Evaluation Technical Assistance for the Research and Development Utilization Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Laird; And Others

    This report describes the technical assistance rendered to the NIE-sponsored R&D Utilization Program (R&DU) by the contractor working with the NIE staff, the Center for the Study of Evaluation, and the seven R&DU projects, to develop cross-project instrumentation, develop mutually acceptable plans for data collection and analysis, and…

  5. A Research Utilization Laboratory in a Comprehensive Rehabilitation Center. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinault, Isabel P.; Weisinger, Marvin

    The ICD Research Utilization Laboratory (ICD-RUL) at the Comprehensive Rehabilitation Center at Catholic University in Washington, D.C. acted as a facilitator for improving management practices of supervisors of vocationally impaired populations. Over a 10-year span, ICD-RUL developed two National Information Centers for disabled public assistance…

  6. Workshop on Utilization and Training of Auxiliary Personnel in Home Economics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Doris E.

    The 197 participants, representing all areas of home economics, attended a 3-day national workshop on the training and utilization of auxiliary workers within the field of home economics. Workshop activities included a symposium of auxiliary personnel employed as aides in home economics-related occupations and group discussions which followed…

  7. Improved treating processes and materials for new utility poles: Volume 1, Overview: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, A.F.; McKaig, P.A.; Walcheski, P.J.; Williams, A.D.

    1987-03-01

    This study was initiated by the Electric Power Research Institute to develop new, environmentally acceptable wood preservatives for use by the utility industry. The research program ranged from fundamental studies in wood biodeterioration processes, through empirical screening of commercially available biocides, to the full-scale treatment of poles and crossarms.

  8. An Evaluation of the Utility and Cost of Computerized Library Catalogs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolby, J.L.; And Others

    This study analyzes the basic cost factors in the automation of library catalogs, with a separate examination of the influence of typography on the cost of printed catalogs and the use of efficient automatic error detection procedures in processing bibliographic records. The utility of automated catalogs is also studied, based on data from a…

  9. Toward a Reconceptualization of Knowledge Utilization in Education. Volume 8. Research Memoranda. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Lee; And Others

    Memoranda 17 through 21 are included in Volume 8. (The general nature of the memorandum and related documents are described in SO 005 892). Daniel E. Costello offers a selective review of the literature relating to educational decision processes. Tom Deats provides an essay on reflections and comparisons of knowledge utilization in education…

  10. Hawaii Utility Integration Initiatives to Enable Wind (Wind HUI) Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dora Nakafuji; Lisa Dangelmaier; Chris Reynolds

    2012-07-15

    To advance the state and nation toward clean energy, Hawaii is pursuing an aggressive Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), 40% renewable generation and 30% energy efficiency and transportation initiatives by 2030. Additionally, with support from federal, state and industry leadership, the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) is focused on reducing Hawaii's carbon footprint and global warming impacts. To keep pace with the policy momentum and changing industry technologies, the Hawaiian Electric Companies are proactively pursuing a number of potential system upgrade initiatives to better manage variable resources like wind, solar and demand-side and distributed generation alternatives (i.e. DSM, DG). As variable technologies will continue to play a significant role in powering the future grid, practical strategies for utility integration are needed. Hawaiian utilities are already contending with some of the highest penetrations of renewables in the nation in both large-scale and distributed technologies. With island grids supporting a diverse renewable generation portfolio at penetration levels surpassing 40%, the Hawaiian utilities experiences can offer unique perspective on practical integration strategies. Efforts pursued in this industry and federal collaborative project tackled challenging issues facing the electric power industry around the world. Based on interactions with a number of western utilities and building on decades of national and international renewable integration experiences, three priority initiatives were targeted by Hawaiian utilities to accelerate integration and management of variable renewables for the islands. The three initiatives included: Initiative 1: Enabling reliable, real-time wind forecasting for operations by improving short-term wind forecasting and ramp event modeling capabilities with local site, field monitoring; Initiative 2: Improving operators situational awareness to variable resources via real-time grid condition

  11. A Novel Treatment for Acid Mine Drainage Utilizing Reclaimed Limestone Residual

    SciTech Connect

    Horace K. Moo-Young; Charles E. Ochola

    2004-08-31

    The viability of utilizing Reclaimed Limestone Residual (RLR) to remediate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) was investigated. Physical and chemical characterization of RLR showed that it is composed of various minerals that contain significant quantities of limestone or calcium bearing compounds that can be exploited for acid neutralization. Acid Neutralization Potential (ANP) test results showed that RLR has a neutralization potential of approximately 83% as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). Neutralization tests with most of the heavy metals associated with AMD showed removal efficiencies of over 99%. An unexpected benefit of utilizing RLR was the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) from the aqueous phase. Due to an elevation in pH by RLR most AMD heavy metals are removed from solution by precipitation as their metal hydroxides. Cr (VI) however is not removed by pH elevation and therefore subsequent ongoing tests to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reaction were conducted.

  12. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  13. Utilization of low-quality natural gas: A current assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Acheson, W.P.; Hackworth, J.H.; Kasper, S.; McIlvried, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the low quality natural gas (LQNG) resource base, current utilization of LQNG, and environmental issues relative to its use, to review processes for upgrading LQNG to pipeline quality, and to make recommendations of research needs to improve the potential for LQNG utilization. LQNG is gas from any reservoir which contains amounts of nonhydrocarbon gases sufficient to lower the heating value or other properties of the gas below commercial, pipeline standards. For the purposes of this study, LQNG is defined as natural gas that contains more than 2% carbon dioxide, more than 4% nitrogen, or more than 4% combined CO{sub 2} plus N{sub 2}. The other contaminant of concern is hydrogen sulfide. A minor contaminant in some natural gases is helium, but this inert gas usually presents no problems.

  14. National Utility Financial Statement model (NUFS). Volume II of III: user's guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-29

    This volume is a User's Guide for the National Utility Financial Statement Model (NUFS). This is the second of three volumes describing NUFS provided by ICF Incorporated under contract DEAC01-79EI10579. The three volumes are entitled: Model Overview and Description; User's Guide; and Software Description. This volume describes each necessary input file, discusses user options, and describes the job stream necessary to run the model.

  15. Sacramento Municipal Utility District Geothermal Power Plant, SMUDGEO No. 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The proposed construction of 72-MW geothermal power plant is discussed. The following aspects are covered: the project as proposed by the utility; the environmental setting; the adverse consequences of the project, any significant environmental effects which cannot be avoided, and any mitigation measures to minimize significant effects; the potential feasible alternatives to the proposed project; the significant unavoidable, irreversible, and long-term environmental impacts; and the Growth Inducing Impacts. (MHR)

  16. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. |

    1997-05-01

    In this project, the authors show the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This technical analysis provides estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies have been matched to their most viable (high quality and quantity) regional resources (e.g., examining wind electricity production in high wind resource areas only). The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which is instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity is used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for use later in the day, week or year. The hydrogen production from renewables and hydrogen storage use are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 20% of electric load). Renewable production/utility load/hydrogen storage coupling models have been developed for wind, photovoltaics, and solar thermal. Hydro power (which normally has its own inherent storage capability) has been analyzed separately.

  17. C-Myc induced compensated cardiac hypertrophy increases free fatty acid utilization for the citric acid cycle.

    PubMed

    Olson, Aaron K; Ledee, Dolena; Iwamoto, Kate; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A

    2013-02-01

    The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc induced shifts in substrate utilization signal and promote compensated hypertrophy. We used cardiac specific Myc-inducible C57/BL6 male mice between 4-6 months old that develop hypertrophy with tamoxifen (tam) injections. Isolated working hearts and (13)Carbon ((13)C)-NMR were used to measure function and fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate containing (13)C-labeled free fatty acids, acetoacetate, lactate, unlabeled glucose and insulin. Studies were performed at pre-hypertrophy (3-days tam, 3dMyc), established hypertrophy (7-days tam, 7dMyc) or vehicle control (Cont). Non-transgenic siblings (NTG) received 7-days tam or vehicle to assess drug effect. Hypertrophy was assessed by echocardiograms and heart weights. Western blots were performed on key metabolic enzymes. Hypertrophy occurred in 7dMyc only. Cardiac function did not differ between groups. Tam alone did not affect substrate contributions in NTG. Substrate utilization was not significantly altered in 3dMyc versus Cont. The free fatty acid FC was significantly greater in 7dMyc versus Cont with decreased unlabeled Fc, which is predominately exogenous glucose. Free fatty acid flux to the citric acid cycle increased while lactate flux was diminished in 7dMyc compared to Cont. Total protein levels of a panel of key metabolic enzymes were unchanged; however total protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in 7dMyc. Substrate utilization changes for the citric acid cycle did not precede hypertrophy; therefore they are not the primary signal for cardiac growth in this model. Free fatty acid utilization and oxidation increase at established hypertrophy. Understanding the

  18. C-Myc Induced Compensated Cardiac Hypertrophy Increases Free Fatty Acid Utilization for the Citric Acid Cycle

    PubMed Central

    OLSON, AARON K.; LEDEE, DOLENA; IWAMOTO, KATE; KAJIMOTO, MASAKI; PRIDDY, COLLEEN O’KELLY; ISERN, NANCY; PORTMAN, MICHAEL A.

    2012-01-01

    The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc-induced shifts in substrate utilization signal and promote compensated hypertrophy. We used cardiac specific Myc-inducible C57/BL6 male mice between 4–6 months old that develop hypertrophy with tamoxifen (tam) injections. Isolated working hearts and 13Carbon (13C)-NMR were used to measure function and fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids, acetoacetate, lactate, unlabeled glucose and insulin. Studies were performed at pre-hypertrophy (3-days tam, 3dMyc), established hypertrophy (7-days tam, 7dMyc) or vehicle control (Cont). Non-transgenic siblings (NTG) received 7-days tam or vehicle to assess drug effect. Hypertrophy was assessed by echocardiograms and heart weights. Western blots were performed on key metabolic enzymes. Hypertrophy occurred in 7dMyc only. Cardiac function did not differ between groups. Tam alone did not affect substrate contributions in NTG. Substrate utilization was not significantly altered in 3dMyc versus Cont. The free fatty acid FC was significantly greater in 7dMyc versus Cont with decreased unlabeled Fc, which is predominately exogenous glucose. Free fatty acid flux to the citric acid cycle increased while lactate flux was diminished in 7dMyc compared to Cont. Total protein levels of a panel of key metabolic enzymes were unchanged; however total protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in 7dMyc. Substrate utilization changes for the citric acid cycle did not precede hypertrophy; therefore they are not the primary signal for cardiac growth in this model. Free fatty acid utilization and oxidation increase at established hypertrophy. Understanding the

  19. CO 2 and CO utilization: radiation-induced carboxylation of aqueous chloroacetic acid to malonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getoff, Nikola

    2003-07-01

    CO 2 and CO in addition to HCOOH/HCOO - can be used to produce the carboxylating radical rad COOH/ rad COO - under the influence of ionizing radiation. The carboxylation of ClCH 2COOH/ClCH 2COO - to malonic acid/malonate was studied at the pH range 2-7. A maximum yield G(malonic acid)=85 at pH=3 was observed by using 5×10 -2 mol dm -3 ClCH 2COOH, 1×10 -2 mol dm -3 HCOOH and 1×10 -3 mol dm -3 CO at a dose of 4.8 kGy. Oxalic and succinic acids were found as byproducts. The yield of the formed Cl - ions passes two maxima, at pH=3 ( G=7.5) and 7 ( G=15). Reaction mechanisms for the carboxylation process are presented.

  20. A metabolic-based approach to improve xylose utilization for fumaric acid production from acid pretreated wheat bran by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanyi; Huang, Di; Li, Yong; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, wheat bran (WB) was utilized as feedstock to synthesize fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae. Firstly, the pretreatment process of WB by dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis undertaken at 100°C for 30min offered the best performance for fumaric acid production. Subsequently, through optimizing the seed culture medium, a suitable morphology (0.55mm pellets diameter) of R. oryzae was obtained. Furthermore, a metabolic-based approach was developed to profile the differences of intracellular metabolites concentration of R. oryzae between xylose (the abundant sugar in wheat bran hydrolysate (WBH)) and glucose metabolism. The xylitol, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, ribulose 5-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, proline and serine were responsible for fumaric acid biosynthesis limitation in xylose fermentation. Consequently, regulation strategies were proposed, leading to a 149% increase in titer (up to 15.4g/L). Finally, by combinatorial regulation strategies the highest production was 20.2g/L from WBH, 477% higher than that of initial medium.

  1. Diel production and microheterotrophic utilization of dissolved free amino acids in waters off southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Carlucci, A.F.; Craven, D.B.; Henrichs, S.M.

    1984-07-01

    Diel patterns of dissolved free amino acid (DFAA) concentration and microheterotrophic utilization were examined in the spring and fall of 1981 in euphotic waters from the base of the mixed layer off the southern California coast. The average depths of the isotherms sampled were 19.2 m for spring and 9.0 for fall. Total DFAA levels were generally higher in the spring than in the fall, 18 to 66 nM and 14 to 20 nM, respectively. Two daily concentration maxima and minima were observed for total DFAAs as well as for most individual DFAAs. Maxima were usually measured in the mid-dark period and in the early afternoon; minima were typically observed in early morning and late afternoon. Bacterial cell numbers reached maximal values near midnight in both seasons. The increases coincided with one of the total DFAA maxima. The second total DFAA maximum occurred in early to midafternoon, during the time of maximum photosynthetic carbon production and rapid dissolved amino acid utilization. Microbial metabolism (incorporation plus respiration) of selected /sup 3/H-amino acids was 2.7 to 4.1 times greater during the daylight hours. DFAA turnover times, based on these metabolic measurements, ranged between 11 and 36 h for the amino acids tested, and rates were 1.7 to 3.7 times faster in the daylight hours than at night. DFAA distributions were related to primary production and chlorophyll a concentrations. Amino acids were estimated to represent 9 to 45% of the total phytoplankton exudate. Microheterotrophic utilization or production of total protein amino acids was estimated as 3.6 ..mu..g of C liter/sup -1/ day/sup -1/ in spring and 1.9 ..mu..g of C liter/sup -1/ day/sup -1/ in the fall. Assimilation efficiency for dissolved amino acids averaged 65% for marine microheterotrophs.

  2. Utilizing acid pretreatment and electrospinning to improve biocompatibility of poly(glycolic acid) for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Boland, Eugene D; Telemeco, Todd A; Simpson, David G; Wnek, Gary E; Bowlin, Gary L

    2004-10-15

    Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) has a long history as a bioresorbable polymer. Its biocompatibility is widely accepted, yet PGA is often rejected as a soft-tissue scaffold because of fibrous encapsulation. The goal of this study was to improve the soft-tissue biocompatibility of PGA by producing scaffolds composed of small-diameter fibers through electrospinning and subjecting these scaffolds to a concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCL) pretreatment. The theory is that small-diameter fibers will elicit a reduced immune response and HCl treatment will improve cellular interactions. Scaffolds were characterized in terms of fiber diameter and pore area via image-analysis software. Biocompatibility was assessed through a WST-1 cell-proliferation assay (in vitro) with the use of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat intramuscular implantations (in vivo). Fibers produced ranged in diameter from 0.22 to 0.88 microm with pore areas from 1.84 to 13.22 microm(2). The untreated scaffold composed of 0.88-microm fibers was encapsulated in vivo and supported the lowest rates of cell proliferation. On the contrary, the acid pretreated scaffold with 0.22-microm fibers was incorporated into the surrounding tissue and exhibited proliferation rates that exceeded the control populations on tissue-culture plastic. In conclusion, this study has shown the ability to improve the biocompatibility of PGA through acid pretreatment of scaffolds comprised of submicron fiber diameters.

  3. RDI's Wisdom Way Solar Village Final Report: Includes Utility Bill Analysis of Occupied Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Robb Aldrich, Steven Winter Associates

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of ten duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA. RDI was committed to very low energy use from the beginning of the design process throughout construction. Key features include: 1. Careful site plan so that all homes have solar access (for active and passive); 2. Cellulose insulation providing R-40 walls, R-50 ceiling, and R-40 floors; 3. Triple-pane windows; 4. Airtight construction (~0.1 CFM50/ft2 enclosure area); 5. Solar water heating systems with tankless, gas, auxiliary heaters; 6. PV systems (2.8 or 3.4kWSTC); 7. 2-4 bedrooms, 1,100-1,700 ft2. The design heating loads in the homes were so small that each home is heated with a single, sealed-combustion, natural gas room heater. The cost savings from the simple HVAC systems made possible the tremendous investments in the homes' envelopes. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010. In the Spring of 2011, CARB obtained utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes. Most homes, in fact, had a net credit from the electric utility over the course of a year. On the natural gas side, total gas costs averaged $377 per year (for heating, water heating, cooking, and clothes drying). Total energy costs were even less - $337 per year, including all utility fees. The highest annual energy bill for any home evaluated was $458; the lowest was $171.

  4. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelrigg, Jr, George A.

    1981-01-01

    An electric energy distribution/utilization system cost analysis model is presented for exploring cost tradeoffs (capital innvestment, operation and maintenance and cost of losses) and optimizing system configuration. The model focuses on the treatment of residential and light commercial service areas with time-varying load characteristics, including customer load profile changes, per customer load growth and service area population growth. Applications of the model are discussed. These include providing insight on: the selection of primary and secondary voltages; conductor sizing; distribution transformer sizing, change out policies and copper-to-core-loss ratio; and limits on allowable voltage variation at the service entrance. Examples are provided to illustrate model capabilities.

  5. Final Technical Report Laramie County Community College: Utility-Scale Wind Energy Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas P. Cook

    2012-05-22

    The Utility-Scale Wind Energy Technology U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant EE0000538, provided a way ahead for Laramie County Community College (LCCC) to increase educational and training opportunities for students seeking an Associate of Applied Science (AAS) or Associate of Science (AS) degree in Wind Energy Technology. The DOE grant enabled LCCC to program, schedule, and successfully operate multiple wind energy technology cohorts of up to 20-14 students per cohort simultaneously. As of this report, LCCC currently runs four cohorts. In addition, the DOE grant allowed LCCC to procure specialized LABVOLT electronic equipment that directly supports is wind energy technology curriculum.

  6. Experimental Rankine cycle engine designed for utilization of low temperature, low pressure heat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cipolla, G.; Margary, R.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a Rankine cycle engine using Freon 11 as working fluid, for the utilization of low temperature heat sources is described together with the results obtained. The experimental investigations showed that the engine performance is in good agreement with the calculated values; that the mechanical behavior of some components is not yet satisfactory; and that the working fluid (Freon 11) is not completely reliable in the higher temperatures range. An extension of the feasibility study dealing mainly with engine behavior and fluid suitability is envisaged, using either Freon 113 or a fluorine compound of the composition CmF(2m+2).

  7. Coal slurry tanker movements of western coal to east coast utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rieber, M.

    1983-02-01

    From four western coal areas, coal slurry pipelines of 10 MMTY and 25 MMTY are designed and costed (1982 basis) for coal delivery to three ports. Supertankers are routed around South America, Panamax through the Panama Canal. Tanker characteristics are specified statistically and costs determined. A tidewater utility alternative is investigated. Based on western coal prices, adjusted for quality differentials, plus transport costs, delivered coal costs are compared to current east coast delivered steam coal prices. The proposed system is not economically feasible at current prices but may become commercial as steam coal demand increases and eastern coal prices rise.

  8. C-Myc Induced Compensated Cardiac Hypertrophy Increases Free Fatty Acid Utilization for the Citric Acid Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Aaron; Ledee, Dolena; Iwamoto, Kate; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc-induced shifts in substrate utilization signal and promote compensated hypertrophy. We used cardiac specific Myc-inducible C57/BL6 male mice between 4-6 months old that develop hypertrophy with tamoxifen (tam). Isolated working hearts and 13Carbon (13C )-NMR were used to measure function and fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids, acetoacetate, lactate, unlabeled glucose and insulin. Studies were performed at pre-hypertrophy (3-days tam, 3dMyc), established hypertrophy (7-days tam, 7dMyc) or vehicle control (cont). Non-transgenic siblings (NTG) received 7-days tam or vehicle to assess drug effect. Hypertrophy was confirmed by echocardiograms and heart weights. Western blots were performed on key metabolic enzymes. Hypertrophy occurred in 7dMyc only. Cardiac function did not differ between groups. Tam alone did not affect substrate contribution in NTG. Substrate utilization was not significantly altered in 3dMyc versus cont. The free fatty acid FC was significantly greater in 7dMyc vs cont with decreased unlabeled Fc, which is predominately exogenous glucose. Free fatty acid flux to the citric acid cycle increased while lactate flux was diminished in 7dMyc compared to cont. Total protein levels of a panel of key metabolic enzymes were unchanged; however total protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in 7dMyc. Substrate utilization changes did not precede hypertrophy; therefore they are not the primary signal for cardiac growth in this model. Free fatty acid utilization and oxidation increase at established hypertrophy. Understanding the mechanisms whereby this change maintained

  9. Environmental effects of supplemental wood preservative treatments of electric utility poles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, M.E.

    1995-12-01

    A field study and associated risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the potential ecological and human health impacts related to the standard application of five supplemental wood preservatives to 20 electric utility transmission poles. Post-application monitoring for chemical residuals and microbiological effects was conducted over a 17 month post-application period (June 6, 1990--November 7, 1991). The utility wood poles in the study were located in wetland sites of the New York State Adirondack Park. All poles were western red cedar and all had been treated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) prior to installation. At the time supplemental preservatives were applied, the poles had been in service for approximately 40 years. Groundwater, surface water, and soil around each treated pole were monitored for release of active ingredients, organic carriers and subsequent degradation products of the commercial wood preservatives. The analytes were as follows: chlorpyrifos, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, creosote, 2,4-dinitrophenol, fluoride, chromium, arsenic, copper, naphthenate, sodium methyl dithiocarbamate and methyl isothiocyanate. Ecological response to chemical exposure was estimated by means of measuring soil gases (carbon dioxide and methane), soil macroinvertebrate populations and soil microbial biomass. Results from near-pole post-treatment sampling were compared to pre-treatment samples and reference plots used to establish preapplication biological conditions and background levels of wood preservative constituents.

  10. The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

  11. FINAL TOPICAL REPORT FOR NOVEL SYSTEMS SEQUESTERING AND UTILIZATION OF CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson

    1999-04-30

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are increasing by about 0.5% each year, and there is serious concern that this will cause adverse climate change via the ''greenhouse effect.'' The principal sources of the increase are the utilization of fossil fuels and the deforestation of land. The capture of CO{sub 2} from flue gas or process streams has been demonstrated using chemical absorption with an ethanolamine solvent. However, the cost of releasing the CO{sub 2} by thermal stripping and recovering the solvent is very high, resulting in an energy penalty of 27% to 37 %, depending on the type of power plant (1). Alternatives that would result in energy penalties of 15% have been investigated. Sequestering schemes for CO{sub 2} produced from fossil fuels conversion to energy in utility plants could instead yield useful polymer products. Relatively concentrated CO{sub 2} by-product streams from fermentation of cellulose to fuel ethanol will also be available for conversion to useful polymers. As shown in Figure 1, this project offers two opportunities for mitigating the emission of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, depending on the source configuration and economic feasibility of the proposed processes: CO{sub 2} in a conventional utility-produced flue gas could be sequestered to form a reactive monomer using an amine (such as ethanolamine) that reacts with an aldehyde to form an amine intermediate, which subsequently copolymerizes with the CO{sub 2} to give a copolyurethane. Using a tertiary amine to trap the CO{sub 2} is also proposed. In this case the tertiary ammonium carbonate is reacted with the aldehyde to form the copolycarbonate, regenerating the tertiary amine. In an alternate scheme, a concentrated CO{sub 2} stream from an advanced energy system could be directly polymerized with aldehyde and catalyst to Polymer 2. Sources of concentrated CO{sub 2} include the water-gas shift reaction in an IGCC (integrated gasification combined-cycle) device, fermentation, a

  12. [Advances in studies of absorption and utilization of amino acids by plants: A review].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-chuang; Wu, Liang-huan; Ma, Qing-xu; Jin, Qian-yu

    2015-03-01

    Plant can directly take up the intact amino acids, thus bypass the microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen. As an excellent carbon and nitrogen source, there exists competition for amino acid absorption between plant roots.and soil microorganisms. And the total flux of amino acids in soil may be enormous due to the extensive sources and short half-life. Studies on amino acid nitrogen nutritional contribution for plant by the technique of nitrogen isotopic tracer, has become a research topic in recent years ,which will help us better understand the principle of soil fertility. This paper summarized the recent researches on amino acid morphological characteristics in soil and its metabolic mechanism and nitrogen nutritional contribution for plant in different ecosystems, and discussed the present status and development trend of the amino acid circulation mechanism in the plant-soil-microorganism ecosystem and its bioavailability for plant. Finally, the topics of environmental regulating mechanism of amino acid bioavailability, amino acid carbon-nitrogen metabolism, and how to improve the field organic nitrogen management were all the core issues to be resolved.

  13. Utilization of surface mine ponds in East Tennessee by breeding amphibians. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.J.; Fowler, D.K.

    1981-06-01

    Breeding amphibians were found in 21 of 24 ponds examined on the Ollis Creek Surface Mine in Campbell County, Tennessee. Twelve species of amphibians were identified in ponds that range from 4.0 to 8.0 in pH. Although ponds with low pH values were used by breeding amphibians, significantly more amphibian species were found in ponds with higher pH values. Findings indicated high biological productivity in the surface mine ponds examined. Aquatic vegetation was present in 20 of the 24 ponds. Aquatic insects and a diverse wildlife fauna utilized the study ponds. Surface mine ponds were found to supply an important habitat component for a variety of wildlife species.

  14. Mathematical model of a utility firm. Final technical report, Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-21

    Utility companies are in the predicament of having to make forecasts, and draw up plans for the future, in an increasingly fluid and volatile socio-economic environment. The project being reported is to contribute to an understanding of the economic and behavioral processes that take place within a firm, and without it. Three main topics are treated. One is the representation of the characteristics of the members of an organization, to the extent to which characteristics seem pertinent to the processes of interest. The second is the appropriate management of the processes of change by an organization. The third deals with the competitive striving towards an economic equilibrium among the members of a society in the large, on the theory that this process might be modeled in a way which is similar to the one for the intra-organizational ones. This volume covers mainly the first topic.

  15. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-10

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  16. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wacaster, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-09-01

    The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.

  18. Sex Differences in Long Chain Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Burnett, David A.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.

    1979-01-01

    Female sex and estrogen administration are associated with increased hepatic production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; the basis for this has not been fully elucidated. Inasmuch as hepatic lipoprotein production is also influenced by FFA availability and triglyceride biosynthesis, we investigated sex differences in FFA utilization in rat hepatocyte suspensions and in the components of the triglyceride biosynthetic pathway. Isolated adult rat hepatocyte suspensions were incubated with albumin-bound [14C]oleate for up to 15 min. At physiological and low oleate concentrations, cells from females incorporated significantly more 14C into glycerolipids, especially triglycerides, and into oxidation products than did male cells, per milligram cell protein. At 0.44 mM oleate, incorporation into triglycerides in female cells was approximately twice that in male cells. Comparable sex differences were observed in cells from fasted animals and when [14C]-glycerol incorporation was measured. At higher oleate concentrations, i.e., fatty acid:albumin mole ratios in excess of 2:1, these sex differences were no longer demonstrable, suggesting that maximal rates of fatty acid esterification and oxidation were similar in female and male cells. In female and male hepatic microsomes, specific activities of long chain acyl coenzyme A synthetase, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and diglyceride acyltransferase were similar, but glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity was slightly greater in females at certain substrate concentrations. Microsomal incorporation of [14C]oleate into total glycerolipids was not significantly greater in females. In further contrast to intact cells, microsomal incorporation of [14C]oleate into triglycerides, although significantly greater in female microsomes, accounted for only a small fraction of the fatty acid esterified. The binding affinity and stoichiometry of partially purified female hepatic fatty acid binding protein (FABP) were similar to

  19. Testing and evaluation of an alcohol production facility utilizing potatoes as a feedstock. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuby, W.; Nackord, S.; Wyss, W.

    1984-05-01

    This study presents the sampling and analysis results for the characterization of liquid effluents and solid residuals from a culled potato feedstock process for the production of ethanol for use as fuel. The facility tested produces approximately 1 million gallons per year of ethanol and is located in eastern Idaho. Liquid and solid samples were taken throughout the process from the following locations: sluice/flume water, chopper product, makeup water, cooker product, fermenter product, beer tank, stillage, interim and final product, washwater, fuel oil, bath and 'Sparkle' bath. Analytical results for the ethanol plant effluents include: ethanol and sugar content, conventional parameters, metals, cyanide, phenols, nutrients, oil and grease, priority pollutant organics, and selected pesticides. The most significant characteristics of concern were the BOD and COD levels.

  20. Pathways of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Utilization: Implications for Brain Function in Neuropsychiatric Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joanne J.; Green, Pnina; Mann, J. John; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have profound effects on brain development and function. Abnormalities of PUFA status have been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pathophysiologic mechanisms could involve not only suboptimal PUFA intake, but also metabolic and genetic abnormalities, defective hepatic metabolism, and problems with diffusion and transport. This article provides an overview of physiologic factors regulating PUFA utilization, highlighting their relevance to neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:25498862

  1. Financial constraints in capacity planning: a national utility regulatory model (NUREG). Volume I of III: methodology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-29

    This report develops and demonstrates the methodology for the National Utility Regulatory (NUREG) Model developed under contract number DEAC-01-79EI-10579. It is accompanied by two supporting volumes. Volume II is a user's guide for operation of the NUREG software. This includes description of the flow of software and data, as well as the formats of all user data files. Finally, Volume III is a software description guide. It briefly describes, and gives a listing of, each program used in NUREG.

  2. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  3. Low-maintenance, valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries in utility applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, G. M.; Spindler, W. C.

    Electric power utility companies have various needs for lead/acid batteries, and also are beginning to promote customer-side-of-the meter applications for mutual benefits. Increasing use of lead/acid batteries in the future will depend heavily on improving performance and reliability of sealed, recombination designs, and on their versatility for many applications. Classifying various utility uses could be by cycling requirements, depth-of-discharge, power or energy (ratio of watts to hours), or by site (utility or customer). Deep-cycling examples are energy storage, peak-shaving and electric vehicles. Shallow-cycling examples are frequency regulation and reactive power control. Infrequent discharge examples are stationary service and spinning reserve. (Float service for telecommunications and uninterruptible power sources (UPS) applications are not addressed.) Some present and planned installations of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries are surveyed. Performance characteristics will be discussed, including recent results of testing both gel and absorptive glass mat (AGM) types of deep-cycling batteries. Recommendations for future research and development of valve-regulated cell technology are outlined, based on a recent conference organized by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  4. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for Pagosa Springs, Colorado. Final report, June 1979-June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.

    1984-08-01

    The Pagosa Springs Geothermal District Heating System was conceptualized, designed, and constructed between 1979 to 1984 under the US Department of Energy Program Opportunity Notice (PON) program to demonstrate the feasibility for utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources for direct-use applications. The Pagosa Springs system successfully provides space heating to public buildings, school facilities, residences, and commercial establishments at costs significantly lower than costs of available conventional fuels. The Pagosa Springs project encompassed a full range of technical, institutional, and economic activities. Geothermal reservoir evaluations and testing were performed, and two productive approx.140/sup 0/F geothermal supply wells were successfully drilled and completed. Transmission and distribution system design, construction, startup, and operation were achieved with minimum difficulty. The geothermal system operation during the first two heating seasons has been fully reliable and well respected in the community. The project has proven that low to moderate-temperature waters can effectively meet required heating loads, even for harsh winter-mountain environments. The principal difficulty encountered has been institutional in nature and centers on the obtaining of the geothermal production well permits and the adjudicated water rights necessary to supply the geothermal hot water fluids for the full operating life of the system. 28 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodin, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate terrestrial species have been selected. Selection criteria include: total biomass potential, genetic constraints, establishment and cultivation requirements, regions of suitability, secondary credits, and a number of other factors. Based on these selection criteria, for the arid western states with high levels of salinity in water and/or soils, there is little potential for energy feedstocks derived from grasses and herbaceous forbs. Likewise, coastal marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps, although excellent biomass producers, are too limited by region and have too many ecological and environmental problems for consideration. The deep-rooted, perennial woody shrubs indigenous to many saline regions of the west provide the best potential. The number of species in this group is limited, and Atriplex canescens, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus are the three species with the greatest biological potential. These shrubs would receive minimal energy inputs in cultivation, would not compete with agricultural land, and would restore productivity to severely disturbed sites. One might logically expect to achieve biomass feedstock yields of three to five tons/acre/yr on a long-term sustainable basis. The possibility also exists that exotic species might be introduced. 67 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  6. Hot dry rock geothermal energy for U.S. electric utilities. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    In order to bring an electric utility component into the study of hot dry rock geothermal energy called for in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), EPRI organized a one-day conference in Philadelphia on January 14,1993. The conference was planned as the first day of a two-day sequence, by coordinating with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These two federal agencies were charged under EPAct with the development of a report on the potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy production in the US, especially the eastern US. The USGS was given lead responsibility for a report to be done in association with DOE. The EPRI conference emphasized first the status of technology development and testing in the U.S. and abroad, i.e., in western Europe, Russia and Japan. The conference went on to address the extent of knowledge regarding the resource base in the US, especially in the eastern half of the country, and then to address some practical business aspects of organizing projects or industries that could bring these resources into use, either for thermal applications or for electric power generation.

  7. Soft rot decay capabilities and interactions of fungi and bacteria from fumigated utility poles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.K.; Worrall, J.J.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives were to (1) identify microfungi and bacterial associates isolated from fumigated southern pine poles from EPRI project RP 1471-72, (2) study the soft-rot capabilities of predominant fungi, and (3) study interactions among microorganisms in relation to wood decay. Methods for identification followed standard techniques using morphological and physiological criteria. Soft-rot by microfungi alone and with bacteria was determined as weight loss and anatomical examination of wood blocks using light microscopy and limited electron microscopy. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was the predominant bacterium. Twenty-one species of microfungi were identified including four new species. A book entitled IDENTIFICATION MANUAL FOR FUNGI FROM UTILITY POLES IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES was published. An improved soft-rot test was devised. Fifty-one of 84 species (60%) of microfungi from poles tested were soft-rot positive; that is much greater than previously reported. Three types of anatomical damage of wood of pine or birch caused by soft-rot fungi were described. Interaction tests showed that, in some cases, there was a strong synergism between bacteria and fungi in causing weight loss, but results were inconsistent. Although soft rot is often most apparent under conditions of very high moisture, intermediate moisture levels appear to be optimal, as with basidiomycete decayers.

  8. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  9. High-volume fly ash utilization projects in the United States and Canada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patelunas, G.M.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to document existing high-volume applications of fly ash. Examples of high-volume projects are: backfills, embankments, fills, landfill cover, pavement base course, soil amendment, subgrade stabilization, grouts and hydraulic fills. Information was solicited from electric utilities, state highway agencies, ash marketers, engineering firms and other organizations in the United States and Canada. Over 270 separate projects that used fly ash in high-volume applications were identified. Class F fly ash was used in 172 projects, and Class C fly ash was used in 108 projects. The most frequent high-volume use of Class F fly ash was for fills, embankments and pavement base courses. These projects are primarily located in the north central and mid-Atlantic states. The most frequent use of Class C fly ash was for subgrade stabilization. Most of these projects are located in the midwestern and southwestern United States. The existence of many different applications of fly ash documented during this project demonstrates that fly ash is a practical high-volume construction material.

  10. Final review of analog field campaigns for In Situ Resource Utilization technology and capability maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of enabling an affordable and sustainable program of human exploration beyond low Earth orbit is the ability to locate, extract, and harness the resources found in space to reduce what needs to be launched from Earth's deep gravity well and to minimize the risk of dependence on Earth for survival. Known as In Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, the ability to convert space resources into useful and mission critical products has been shown in numerous studies to be mission and architecture enhancing or enabling. However at the time of the release of the US Vision for Space Exploration in 2004, only concept feasibility hardware for ISRU technologies and capabilities had been built and tested in the laboratory; no ISRU hardware had ever flown in a mission to the Moon or Mars. As a result, an ISRU development project was established with phased development of multiple generations of hardware and systems. To bridge the gap between past ISRU feasibility hardware and future hardware needed for space missions, and to increase confidence in mission and architecture planners that ISRU capabilities would meet exploration needs, the ISRU development project incorporated extensive ground and analog site testing to mature hardware, operations, and interconnectivity with other exploration systems linked to ISRU products. This report documents the series of analog test activities performed from 2008 to 2012, the stepwise progress achieved, and the end-to-end system and mission demonstrations accomplished in this test program.

  11. Racing Radiators Utilizing ORNL’s Graphite Foam. CRADA Final Report, ORNL-98-0551

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, James

    1998-10-10

    The recent development of light-weight foams has led to novel light-weight, high strength carbon based materials and structures. These materials exhibit very high specific strengths and low thermal conductivities. Likewise, the novel development of very high thermal conductivity graphite foam will lead to novel ''out-of-the-box'' solutions for thermal management problems. With a thermal conductivity equivalent to aluminum 6061 and 1/5th the weight, this material is an enabling technology for thermal management problems ranging from heat sinks to radiators and satellite panels to aircraft heat exchangers. In addition, the open porosity will lead to novel designs that ncorporate porous media heat exchangers and phase change materials. For example, by utilizing the foam as a heat exchanger, heat transfer coefficients over two orders of magnitude greater than current metallic designs have been measured. To further demonstrate this phenomenon, a heat exchanger (radiator) for a passenger automobile has been developed that is significantly smaller in size, and testing has demonstrated feasibility to improve the automobiles aerodynamic efficiency and reduce weight.

  12. Direct utilization of geothermal energy in western South Dakota agribusiness. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    This project involved the direct utilization of geothermal energy for (1) space heating of farm and ranch buildings, (2) drying grain, and (3) providing warm stock water during the winter. The site for this demonstration project was the Diamond Ring Ranch north of Midland, South Dakota. Geothermal water flowing from an existing well into the Madison Aquifer was used to heat four homes, a shop, a hospital barn for cattle, and air for a barn and grain dryer. This site is centrally located in the western region of South Dakota where geothermal water is available from the Madison Aquifer. The first year of the project involved the design of the heating systems and its construction while the following years were for operation, testing, demonstrating, and monitoring the system. Required modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating experience showed that such application of geothermal resources is feasible and can result in substantial fuel savings. Economic analyses under a variety of assumptions generally gave payback periods of less than ten years. Numerous technical recommendations are made. The most significant being the necessity of passive protection from freezing of remote geothermal systems subject to winter shut downs caused by power or equipment failure. The primary institutional recommendation is to incorporate a use for the geothermal water such as irrigation or stock watering into agribusiness-related geothermal development.

  13. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  14. Statewide plan for utilization of scrap tires in Kansas. Final report, September 1993-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.G.; Hossain, M.

    1995-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the current and future supply of scrap tire rubber and the feasibility of using scrap tires in Kansas for various purposes. The goal was to determine if a sufficient quantity of recycled rubber existed and what the cost would be to meet the ISTEA (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act) requirements for 1995 and thereafter. The four tasks included in the study were: surveying scrap tire utilization plans in other states; inventory scrap tires in Kansas; estimating scrap tire generation in the future; and determiming cost effectiveness of various uses of scrap tires. Currently there are 4.5 to 5.5 million scrap tires in Kansas and the annual generation of scrap tires is estimated to be 2 to 3 million. The ISTEA mandate would require an estimated 367,000 scrap tires be recycled annually. KDOT has used more rubber in 1993 and 1994 than will be required by 1997 when the 20% required by ISTEA is in effect.

  15. Technical and economic feasibility of a Thermal Gradient Utilization Cycle (TGUC) power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Raiji, A.M.; Renfroe, D.A.; Lalk, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of a Thermal Gradient Utilization Cycle (TGUC), a new concept in power generation, was investigated. Power is generated by exploiting the natural atmosheric temperature gradient. A low grade energy source is used to vaporize a fluid which rises in a pipe to a higher elevation where it is condensed. The cycle is completed by passing the condensed liquid through a turbine as it returns to the lower elevation. A digital computer model was developed and used to simulate the operation of the cycle and to conduct a parameteric study. Life cycle cost analysis and energy analyses were conducted for the specific case of a TGUC using the ambient air at the lower elevation as an energy source. Although the cycle has a low thermal efficiency and is site specific, it is technically feasible. Variations in mass flow rate of the working fluid and elevation were found to affect the cycle power output to a large extent. The investment cost of a hypothetical 10 megawatt TGUC power plant was determined to be $3,080 per kilowatt, with life cycle busbar costs of electricity ranging from 47 to 55 Mills per kilowatt-hour depending on the method of financing. Results of the energy analyses showed that a TGUC system would have a positive net energy and a second law efficiency of 23% for the case of a TGUC system using the atmosphere as an energy source.

  16. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    PubMed

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  17. Utilization of fuel cells to beneficially use coal mine methane. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.T.; O`Brien, D.G.; Miller, A.R.; Atkins, R.; Sanders, M.

    1996-03-01

    DOE has been given the responsibility to encourage industry to recover and use methane that is currently being released to the atmosphere. At this time the only method being employed at the Left Fork Mine to remove methane is the mine ventilation system. The methane content was measured at one one-hundredth of a percent. To prevent this methane from being vented to the atmosphere, degasification wells are proposed. To use the coal mine methane, it is proposed to use phosphoric-acid fuel cells to convert methane to electric power. These fuel cells contain (1) a steam reformer to convert the methane to hydrogen (and carbon dioxide), (2) the fuel cell stack, and (3) a power conditioner that provides 200 kW of 60 Hz alternating current output. The environmental impacts and benefits of using this technology ware summarized in the report. The study indicates the methane emission reduction that could be achieved on a national and Global level. The important point being that this technology is economically viable as is demonstrated in the report.

  18. Effect of hyperinsulinemia on amino acid utilization in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Thureen, P J; Scheer, B; Anderson, S M; Tooze, J A; Young, D A; Hay, W W

    2000-12-01

    We studied the effect of an acute 4-h period of hyperinsulinemia (H) on net utilization rates (AAUR(net)) of 21 amino acids (AA) in 17 studies performed in 13 late-gestation fetal sheep by use of a novel fetal hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamp. During H [84 +/- 12 (SE) microU/ml H, 15 +/- 2 microU/ml control (C), P < 0. 00001], euglycemia was maintained by glucose clamp (19 +/- 0.05 micromol/ml H, 1.19 +/- 0.04 micromol/ml C), and euaminoacidemia (mean 4.1 +/- 3.3% increase for all amino acid concentrations [AA], nonsignificantly different from zero) was maintained with a mixed amino acid solution adjusted to keep lysine concentration constant and other [AA] near C values. H produced a 63.7% increase in AAUR(net) (3.29 +/- 0.66 micromol. min(-1). kg(-1) H, 2.01 +/- 0.55 micromol. min(-1). kg(-1) C, P < 0.001), accounting for a 60.1% increase in fetal nitrogen uptake rate (2,064 +/- 108 mg. day(-1). kg(-1) H, 1,289 +/- 73 mg. day(-1). kg(-1) C, P < 0.001). Mean AA clearance rate (AAUR(net)/[AA]) increased by 64.5 +/- 18.9% (P < 0. 001). Thus acute physiological H increases net amino acid and nitrogen utilization rates in the ovine fetus independent of plasma glucose and [AA].

  19. Evaluation of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal-derived liquid as utility diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heater, W.R.; Froh, T.W.; Ariga, S.; Baker, Q.A.; Piispanen, W.; Webb, P.; Trayser, D.; Keane, W.J.

    1983-10-01

    The program consisted of three phases: (I) characterization of the physical and chemical properties of EDS, (II) evaluation of EDS in a laboratory medium-speed diesel engine, and (III) evaluation of EDS in a low-speed diesel engine operating at a utility. The characteristics of high aromatic content and low cetane number that were found during Phase I made it unlikely that EDS could be used as a direct substitute for diesel fuel without engine modification to provide ignition assistance. Phase II was conducted on a 12-cylinder General Electric Company 7FDL diesel engine. Blends of up to 30% EDS and 70% 0.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing engine fuel oil system and injecting DF-2 through an auxiliary nozzle as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 5 to 10% pilot oil heat input. Phase III was conducted on a 16-cylinder Cooper-Bessemer LSV-16-GDT diesel engine at an EUC plant in Easton, Maryland. Blends of up to 66.7% EDS and 33.3% DF-2 were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing fuel oil system and using a natural-gas-fueled precombustion chamber as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 3 to 6% pilot gas heat input. The program confirmed that it is feasible to consume significant proportions of EDS in a diesel engine, but more development is needed before EDS can be considered a viable alternative liquid fuel for diesel engines, and an industrial hygiene program is needed to assure safe handling of the fuel.

  20. Expanding geothermal resource utilization through directed research, education, and public outreach: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Wendy

    2016-03-18

    The University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) conducts research and outreach activities that will lead to increased utilization of geothermal resources in the western US. The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy (GBCGE) is working in partnership with US industry to establish geothermal energy as a sustainable, environmentally sound, economically competitive contributor to energy supply in the western US. Task 1 involves conducting geoscience and engineering research and developing technology to improve the assessment, exploration, and stimulation of geothermal resources. Subtask projects were selected based on peer review of proposals submitted to the GBCGE from Nevada System of High Education (NSHE) institutions for short project development and seed awards intended to develop background and establish viability of approaches for future activities. Task 2 includes project management and organization of workshops periodically requested by DOE and others to satisfy other mission goals of the GBCGE and the DOE geothermal program. GBCGE supports interaction with national and international geothermal organizations, with brochures, presentations, and materials describing GBCGE accomplishments and current research. We continue to maintain and develop an internet-based information system that makes geothermal data and information available to industry, government, and academic stakeholders for exploration and development of geothermal resources. This award also partially supported post-doctoral scholar Drew Siler and research scientist Betsy Littlefield Pace whose effort is included under developing future research projects. Task 2 also focuses on education and outreach through a competitive graduate fellowship program. The budget is for two-year stipends for three graduate students to work collaboratively with GBCGE faculty on Master’s or PhD degrees in geoscience and engineering fields. This grant supported three MS students in full for two years toward the degree and

  1. Enhanced amino acid utilization sustains growth of cells lacking Snf1/AMPK.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Raffaele; Tripodi, Farida; Guzzi, Cinzia; Reghellin, Veronica; Khoomrung, Sakda; Capusoni, Claudia; Compagno, Concetta; Airoldi, Cristina; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Coccetti, Paola

    2015-07-01

    The metabolism of proliferating cells shows common features even in evolutionary distant organisms such as mammals and yeasts, for example the requirement for anabolic processes under tight control of signaling pathways. Analysis of the rewiring of metabolism, which occurs following the dysregulation of signaling pathways, provides new knowledge about the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation. The key energy regulator in yeast Snf1 and its mammalian ortholog AMPK have earlier been shown to have similar functions at glucose limited conditions and here we show that they also have analogies when grown with glucose excess. We show that loss of Snf1 in cells growing in 2% glucose induces an extensive transcriptional reprogramming, enhances glycolytic activity, fatty acid accumulation and reliance on amino acid utilization for growth. Strikingly, we demonstrate that Snf1/AMPK-deficient cells remodel their metabolism fueling mitochondria and show glucose and amino acids addiction, a typical hallmark of cancer cells.

  2. Phosphonoacetic acid utilization by fungal isolates: occurrence and properties of a phosphonoacetate hydrolase in some penicillia.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Jaworski, Jakub; Lejczak, Barbara; Picco, Anna M

    2006-12-01

    Among a collection of 18 fungal strains representing eight genera, only two strains (Penicillium oxalicum and P. minioluteum) were capable of growth on phosphonoacetic acid as sole phosphorous source. Enrichment liquid cultures in minimal medium with the compound as the only P-source selected four isolates, that were also identified as Penicillium spp. Phosphonoacetate metabolism did not lead to extracellular release of inorganic phosphate. In all cases phosphonoacetate hydrolase activity was detected in partially purified extracts, and a protein of the expected molecular mass reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against the enzyme from P. oxalicum. There was no relation between phosphonoacetate hydrolase specific activity and growth rate or yield. Phosphonoacetic acid was the inducer of the hydrolase, independently of the concurrent availability of inorganic phosphate. Notwithstanding this, the utilization of the phosphonate was significantly inhibited in the presence of phosphate, suggesting an interference of the latter with phosphonoacetic acid uptake.

  3. Biochemical and physiological bases for utilization of dietary amino acids by young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Protein is quantitatively the most expensive nutrient in swine diets. Hence it is imperative to understand the physiological roles played by amino acids in growth, development, lactation, reproduction, and health of pigs to improve their protein nutrition and reduce the costs of pork production. Due to incomplete knowledge of amino acid biochemistry and nutrition, it was traditionally assumed that neonatal, post-weaning, growing-finishing, and gestating pigs could synthesize sufficient amounts of all "nutritionally nonessential amino acids" (NEAA) to support maximum production performance. Therefore, over the past 50 years, much emphasis has been placed on dietary requirements of nutritionally essential amino acids as building blocks for tissue proteins. However, a large body of literature shows that NEAA, particularly glutamine, glutamate, arginine and proline regulate physiological functions via cell signaling pathways, such as mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, Jun kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NEAA-derived gaseous molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide). Available evidence shows that under current feeding programs, only 70% and 55% of dietary amino acids are deposited as tissue proteins in 14-day-old sow-reared piglets and in 30-day-old pigs weaned at 21 days of age, respectively. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the roles and dietary requirements of NEAA in swine nutrition. This review highlights the basic biochemistry and physiology of absorption and utilization of amino acids in young pigs to enhance the efficacy of utilization of dietary protein and to minimize excretion of nitrogenous wastes from the body. PMID:23445937

  4. Biochemical and physiological bases for utilization of dietary amino acids by young Pigs.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Wang, Weiwei; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-02-27

    Protein is quantitatively the most expensive nutrient in swine diets. Hence it is imperative to understand the physiological roles played by amino acids in growth, development, lactation, reproduction, and health of pigs to improve their protein nutrition and reduce the costs of pork production. Due to incomplete knowledge of amino acid biochemistry and nutrition, it was traditionally assumed that neonatal, post-weaning, growing-finishing, and gestating pigs could synthesize sufficient amounts of all "nutritionally nonessential amino acids" (NEAA) to support maximum production performance. Therefore, over the past 50 years, much emphasis has been placed on dietary requirements of nutritionally essential amino acids as building blocks for tissue proteins. However, a large body of literature shows that NEAA, particularly glutamine, glutamate, arginine and proline regulate physiological functions via cell signaling pathways, such as mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, Jun kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NEAA-derived gaseous molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide). Available evidence shows that under current feeding programs, only 70% and 55% of dietary amino acids are deposited as tissue proteins in 14-day-old sow-reared piglets and in 30-day-old pigs weaned at 21 days of age, respectively. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the roles and dietary requirements of NEAA in swine nutrition. This review highlights the basic biochemistry and physiology of absorption and utilization of amino acids in young pigs to enhance the efficacy of utilization of dietary protein and to minimize excretion of nitrogenous wastes from the body.

  5. Characterization of dicarboxylic naphthenic acid fraction compounds utilizing amide derivatization: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Kovalchik, Kevin A; MacLennan, Matthew S; Peru, Kerry M; Ajaero, Chukwuemeka; McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V; Chen, David D Y

    2017-09-25

    The characterization of naphthenic acid fraction compounds (NAFCs) in oil sands process affected water (OSPW) is of interest for both toxicology studies and regulatory reasons. Previous studies utilizing authentic standards have identified dicarboxylic naphthenic acids using two-dimensional gas chromatography hyphenated to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). The selective derivatization of hydroxyl groups has also recently aided in the characterization of oxy-NAFCs, and indirectly the characterization of dicarboxylic NAFCs. However, there has been no previous report of derivatization being used to directly aid in the standard-free characterization of NAFCs with multiple carboxylic acid functional groups. Herein we present proof-of-concept for the characterization of dicarboxylic NAFCs utilizing amide derivatization. Carboxylic acid groups in OSPW extract and in a dicarboxylic acid standard were derivatized to amides using a previously described method. The derivatized extract and derivatized standard were analyzed by direct-injection positive-mode electrospray ionization ((+)ESI) high resolution mass spectrometry (MS), and the underivatized extract was analyzed by (-)ESI MS. Tandem-MS was carried out on selected ions of the derivatized standard and derivatized OSPW. Data analysis was carried out using the Python programming language. The distribution of monocarboxylic NAFCs observed in the amide-derivatized OSPW sample by (+)ESI-MS was generally similar to that seen in underivatized OSPW by (-)ESI-MS. The dicarboxylic acid standard shows evidence of being doubly-derivatized, although the second derivatization appears to be inefficient. Furthermore, a spectrum of potential diacid NAFCs is presented, identified by both charge state and derivatization mass. Interference due to the presence of multiple derivatization products is noted, but can be eliminated using on-line separation or an isotopically labelled derivatization reagent. Proof of concept for the

  6. Users and utilization patterns of over-the-counter acid inhibitors and antacids in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Van Vliet, Evelyn P M; Kuipers, Ernst J; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Siersema, Peter D

    2008-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are the first-line physicians who are consulted for upper digestive symptoms. Persons with symptoms may, however, prefer to buy acid inhibitors or antacids in drugstores or pharmacies and bypass a GP. The aim of this work was to study users, reasons for use, and utilization patterns of over-the-counter (OTC) acid inhibitors and antacids in The Netherlands. We also studied factors that were associated with the substitution of OTC acid inhibitors or antacid use for consultation with a GP. From July 2005 to January 2006, persons buying OTC acid inhibitors or antacids in 12 pharmacies and 4 drugstores were asked to complete a questionnaire. A total of 82/160 (51%) questionnaires were returned. Heartburn was the main symptom for buying an acid inhibitor or antacid. Seventy-one (87%) participants substituted OTC drug use for a GP consultation. The most commonly reported reason was the belief that symptoms were not serious enough to seek medical care. Exploratory analyses showed that substitution was less common in participants with comorbidity, a history of upper gastrointestinal disorder, use of an acid inhibitor or antacid previously prescribed by a physician, alarm symptoms (such as pain and nausea), and with being symptomatic for >4 days/week. Although the reasons for substitution of OTC acid inhibitor or antacid use for a GP consultation in The Netherlands do not suggest an a priori increased risk of an underlying serious disorder, it may be advisable for staff in drugstores and pharmacies to provide users with information on appropriate use and when to consult a GP.

  7. Engineering Escherichia coli for Biodiesel Production Utilizing a Bacterial Fatty Acid Methyltransferase▿†

    PubMed Central

    Nawabi, Parwez; Bauer, Stefan; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lykidis, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    The production of low-cost biofuels in engineered microorganisms is of great interest due to the continual increase in the world's energy demands. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can potentially be produced in microbes cost-effectively. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are a common component of biodiesel and can be synthesized from either triacylglycerol or free fatty acids (FFAs). Here we report the identification of a novel bacterial fatty acid methyltransferase (FAMT) that catalyzes the formation of FAMEs and 3-hydroxyl fatty acid methyl esters (3-OH-FAMEs) from the respective free acids and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). FAMT exhibits a higher specificity toward 3-hydroxy free fatty acids (3-OH-FFAs) than FFAs, synthesizing 3-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters (3-OH-FAMEs) in vivo. We have also identified bacterial members of the fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (FAT) enzyme family with distinct acyl chain specificities. These bacterial FATs exhibit increased specificity toward 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP, generating 3-OH-FFAs, which can subsequently be utilized by FAMTs to produce 3-OH-FAMEs. PhaG (3-hydroxyacyl ACP:coenzyme A [CoA] transacylase) constitutes an alternative route to 3-OH-FFA synthesis; the coexpression of PhaG with FAMT led to the highest level of accumulation of 3-OH-FAMEs and FAMEs. The availability of AdoMet, the second substrate for FAMT, is an important factor regulating the amount of methyl esters produced by bacterial cells. Our results indicate that the deletion of the global methionine regulator metJ and the overexpression of methionine adenosyltransferase result in increased methyl ester synthesis. PMID:21926202

  8. Engineering Escherichia coli for biodiesel production utilizing a bacterial fatty acid methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Nawabi, Parwez; Bauer, Stefan; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lykidis, Athanasios

    2011-11-01

    The production of low-cost biofuels in engineered microorganisms is of great interest due to the continual increase in the world's energy demands. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can potentially be produced in microbes cost-effectively. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are a common component of biodiesel and can be synthesized from either triacylglycerol or free fatty acids (FFAs). Here we report the identification of a novel bacterial fatty acid methyltransferase (FAMT) that catalyzes the formation of FAMEs and 3-hydroxyl fatty acid methyl esters (3-OH-FAMEs) from the respective free acids and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). FAMT exhibits a higher specificity toward 3-hydroxy free fatty acids (3-OH-FFAs) than FFAs, synthesizing 3-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters (3-OH-FAMEs) in vivo. We have also identified bacterial members of the fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (FAT) enzyme family with distinct acyl chain specificities. These bacterial FATs exhibit increased specificity toward 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP, generating 3-OH-FFAs, which can subsequently be utilized by FAMTs to produce 3-OH-FAMEs. PhaG (3-hydroxyacyl ACP:coenzyme A [CoA] transacylase) constitutes an alternative route to 3-OH-FFA synthesis; the coexpression of PhaG with FAMT led to the highest level of accumulation of 3-OH-FAMEs and FAMEs. The availability of AdoMet, the second substrate for FAMT, is an important factor regulating the amount of methyl esters produced by bacterial cells. Our results indicate that the deletion of the global methionine regulator metJ and the overexpression of methionine adenosyltransferase result in increased methyl ester synthesis.

  9. Analysis of utility acid rain compliance plans: A discussion of issues and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brick, S.

    1993-07-01

    Utility acid rain compliance plans have begun to roll into public utility commissions around the eastern half of the country. These plans typically represent the combined effort of utility staff and consultants, and have evolved since early drafts of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) began to circulate, several years back. The filings themselves often consist of many volumes of technical analysis, supporting documentation, and accompanying testimony. Hundreds of computer simulations are often presented and these, in turn, are underlain by hundreds of assumptions covering a staggering range of variables. Commissions usually have little time and few external resources with which to review and in some cases, preapprove proposed utility actions. There may be a tendency among commissions to forego a comprehensive review, approve utility plans as filed, and hope for the best. There are at least three important reasons, however, why this should not occur: (1) The magnitude of planned CAAA expenditures is large. (2) Preapproval, either formal or de facto, is becoming increasingly common. Although the approval of specific actions is certainly one outcome of the preapproval process, it should not be the sole or even principal outcome. The main focus of preapproval should involve defining an economic and institutional framework for how utilities, with input from regulators and the public, can best meet future customer needs. Done correctly, the preapproval process provides a meaningful, preexisting context which can be used to analyze outcomes. (3) Without adequate review market opportunities may be ignored and compliance costs increased unnecessarily. This article discusses the following topics in detail: CAAA Compliance Plan Review framework; Emission Reduction Alternatives: How Much is Enough?; Assumptions, Analytical Methods, and Evaluation Criteria of compliance plans; CAAA compliance costs and IRP. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Engineering of a Glycerol Utilization Pathway for Amino Acid Production by Corynebacterium glutamicum▿

    PubMed Central

    Rittmann, Doris; Lindner, Steffen N.; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2008-01-01

    The amino acid-producing organism Corynebacterium glutamicum cannot utilize glycerol, a stoichiometric by-product of biodiesel production. By heterologous expression of Escherichia coli glycerol utilization genes, C. glutamicum was engineered to grow on glycerol. While expression of the E. coli genes for glycerol kinase (glpK) and glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpD) was sufficient for growth on glycerol as the sole carbon and energy source, additional expression of the aquaglyceroporin gene glpF from E. coli increased growth rate and biomass formation. Glutamate production from glycerol was enabled by plasmid-borne expression of E. coli glpF, glpK, and glpD in C. glutamicum wild type. In addition, a lysine-producing C. glutamicum strain expressing E. coli glpF, glpK, and glpD was able to produce lysine from glycerol as the sole carbon substrate as well as from glycerol-glucose mixtures. PMID:18757581

  11. Engineering of a glycerol utilization pathway for amino acid production by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Rittmann, Doris; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2008-10-01

    The amino acid-producing organism Corynebacterium glutamicum cannot utilize glycerol, a stoichiometric by-product of biodiesel production. By heterologous expression of Escherichia coli glycerol utilization genes, C. glutamicum was engineered to grow on glycerol. While expression of the E. coli genes for glycerol kinase (glpK) and glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpD) was sufficient for growth on glycerol as the sole carbon and energy source, additional expression of the aquaglyceroporin gene glpF from E. coli increased growth rate and biomass formation. Glutamate production from glycerol was enabled by plasmid-borne expression of E. coli glpF, glpK, and glpD in C. glutamicum wild type. In addition, a lysine-producing C. glutamicum strain expressing E. coli glpF, glpK, and glpD was able to produce lysine from glycerol as the sole carbon substrate as well as from glycerol-glucose mixtures.

  12. Characterization of purple acid phosphatases involved in extracellular dNTP utilization in Stylosanthes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pan-Dao; Xue, Ying-Bin; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Guo-Dao; Tian, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Stylo (Stylosanthes spp.) is a pasture legume predominant in tropical and subtropical areas, where low phosphorus (P) availability is a major constraint for plant growth. Therefore, stylo might exhibit superior utilization of the P pool on acid soils, particularly organic P. However, little is known about mechanisms of inorganic phosphate (Pi) acquisition employed by stylo. In this study, the utilization of extracellular deoxy-ribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) and the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms were examined for two stylo genotypes with contrasting P efficiency. Results showed that the P-efficient genotype, TPRC2001-1, was superior to the P-inefficient genotype, Fine-stem, when using dNTP as the sole P source. This was reflected by a higher dry weight and total P content for TPRC2001-1 than for Fine-stem, which was correlated with higher root-associated acid phosphatase (APase) activities in TPRC2001-1 under low P conditions. Subsequently, three PAP members were cloned from TPRC2001-1: SgPAP7, SgPAP10, and SgPAP26 Expression levels of these three SgPAPs were up-regulated by Pi starvation in stylo roots. Furthermore, there was a higher abundance of transcripts of SgPAP7 and SgPAP10 in TPRC2001-1 than in Fine-stem. Subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that these three SgPAPs were localized on the plasma membrane. Overexpression of these three SgPAPs could result in significantly increased root-associated APase activities, and thus extracellular dNTP utilization in bean hairy roots. Taken together, the results herein suggest that SgPAP7, SgPAP10, and SgPAP26 may differentially contribute to root-associated APase activities, and thus control extracellular dNTP utilization in stylo. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Characterization of purple acid phosphatases involved in extracellular dNTP utilization in Stylosanthes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pan-Dao; Xue, Ying-Bin; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Guo-Dao; Tian, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Stylo (Stylosanthes spp.) is a pasture legume predominant in tropical and subtropical areas, where low phosphorus (P) availability is a major constraint for plant growth. Therefore, stylo might exhibit superior utilization of the P pool on acid soils, particularly organic P. However, little is known about mechanisms of inorganic phosphate (Pi) acquisition employed by stylo. In this study, the utilization of extracellular deoxy-ribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) and the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms were examined for two stylo genotypes with contrasting P efficiency. Results showed that the P-efficient genotype, TPRC2001-1, was superior to the P-inefficient genotype, Fine-stem, when using dNTP as the sole P source. This was reflected by a higher dry weight and total P content for TPRC2001-1 than for Fine-stem, which was correlated with higher root-associated acid phosphatase (APase) activities in TPRC2001-1 under low P conditions. Subsequently, three PAP members were cloned from TPRC2001-1: SgPAP7, SgPAP10, and SgPAP26. Expression levels of these three SgPAPs were up-regulated by Pi starvation in stylo roots. Furthermore, there was a higher abundance of transcripts of SgPAP7 and SgPAP10 in TPRC2001-1 than in Fine-stem. Subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that these three SgPAPs were localized on the plasma membrane. Overexpression of these three SgPAPs could result in significantly increased root-associated APase activities, and thus extracellular dNTP utilization in bean hairy roots. Taken together, the results herein suggest that SgPAP7, SgPAP10, and SgPAP26 may differentially contribute to root-associated APase activities, and thus control extracellular dNTP utilization in stylo. PMID:27194738

  14. Functional Significance May Underlie the Taxonomic Utility of Single Amino Acid Substitutions in Conserved Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Gerd K.; Wu, Qiong; Huber, Katharina T.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that some amino acid substitutions in conserved proteins that are strongly fixed by critical functional roles would show lineage-specific distributions. As an example of an archetypal conserved eukaryotic protein we considered the active site of β-tubulin. Our analysis identified one amino acid substitution—β-tubulin F224—which was highly lineage specific. Investigation of β-tubulin for other phylogenetically restricted amino acids identified several with apparent specificity for well-defined phylogenetic groups. Intriguingly, none showed specificity for “supergroups” other than the unikonts. To understand why, we analysed the β-tubulin Neighbor-Net and demonstrated a fundamental division between core β-tubulins (plant-like) and divergent β-tubulins (animal and fungal). F224 was almost completely restricted to the core β-tubulins, while divergent β-tubulins possessed Y224. Thus, our specific example offers insight into the restrictions associated with the co-evolution of β-tubulin during the radiation of eukaryotes, underlining a fundamental dichotomy between F-type, core β-tubulins and Y-type, divergent β-tubulins. More broadly our study provides proof of principle for the taxonomic utility of critical amino acids in the active sites of conserved proteins. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9338-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20386893

  15. Nanoscopic imaging of chromatin topology utilizing intrinsic fluorescence from unmodified nucleic acids (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay Matthew; Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Urban, Ben E.; Chandler, John E.; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.; Backman, Vadim

    2017-02-01

    Imaging the nanoscale intracellular structures formed by nucleic acids, such as chromatin, in non-perturbed, structurally and dynamically complex cellular systems, will help improve our understanding of biological processes and open the next frontier for biological discovery. Current optical super-resolution fluorescence techniques require exogenous labels that may disrupt cell function and alter the subdiffractional macromolecular structures they are used to visualize. As a means for label-free optical super-resolution imaging, we examined the discovery of stochastic fluorescence switching of unmodified nucleic acids under visible light illumination. Utilizing this phenomenon and a single-molecule photon localization approach we generated subdiffraction-resolution images down to 20nm using intrinsic fluorescence from nucleic acids. Specifically, the nanoscale organization of interphase nuclei and mitotic chromosomes were imaged. Using such a method for visualization, we performed a quantitative analysis of the DNA occupancy level and a subdiffractional analysis of the chromosomal organization. These experiments demonstrate a new method for visualizing the nanoscopic features of macromolecular structures composed of nucleic acids without the need for exogenous labels.

  16. 76 FR 33243 - Sulfanilic Acid From India; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Sulfanilic Acid From India; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of... sunset review of the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on sulfanilic acid from India pursuant to... Department initiated the third sunset review of the CVD order on sulfanilic acid from India pursuant to...

  17. 76 FR 45510 - Sulfanilic Acid From India and the People's Republic of China; Final Results of Third Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... International Trade Administration Sulfanilic Acid From India and the People's Republic of China; Final Results... sulfanilic acid from India and the People's Republic of China (``the PRC''), pursuant to section 751(c) of... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from India and the PRC.\\1\\ On April 7, 2011, the...

  18. Effect of Warm-Up on Plasma Free Fatty Acid Response and Substrate Utilization During Submaximal Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study examined the effect of preliminary walking on free fatty acid responses and substrate utilization during a 40-minute treadmill run by experienced male distance runners. Conclusions are presented. (Author/MT)

  19. Effect of Warm-Up on Plasma Free Fatty Acid Response and Substrate Utilization During Submaximal Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study examined the effect of preliminary walking on free fatty acid responses and substrate utilization during a 40-minute treadmill run by experienced male distance runners. Conclusions are presented. (Author/MT)

  20. Comparative Genomics of Regulation of Fatty Acid and Branched-Chain Amino Acid Utilization in Proteobacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Alm, Eric; Arkin, Adam Paul; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e., isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FAs) as sole carbon and energy sources converting ILV into acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), propanoyl-CoA, and propionyl-CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcriptional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The metabolic regulons were characterized based on the identification and comparison of candidate transcription factor binding sites in groups of phylogenetically related genomes. The reconstructed ILV/FA regulatory network demonstrates considerable variability and involves six transcriptional factors from the MerR, TetR, and GntR families binding to 11 distinct DNA motifs. The ILV degradation genes in gamma- and betaproteobacteria are regulated mainly by a novel regulator from the MerR family (e.g., LiuR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (40 species); in addition, the TetR-type regulator LiuQ was identified in some betaproteobacteria (eight species). Besides the core set of ILV utilization genes, the LiuR regulon in some lineages is expanded to include genes from other metabolic pathways, such as the glyoxylate shunt and glutamate synthase in Shewanella species. The FA degradation genes are controlled by four regulators including FadR in gammaproteobacteria (34 species), PsrA in gamma- and betaproteobacteria (45 species), FadP in betaproteobacteria (14 species), and LiuR orthologs in alphaproteobacteria (22 species). The remarkable variability of the regulatory systems associated with the FA degradation pathway is discussed from functional and evolutionary points of view. PMID:18820024

  1. The effect of DL-2-bromopalmitate on the utilization of palmitic acid by rat granular pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, H O; Pietra, G G; Wagner, M; Minda, M

    1979-02-06

    The effect of DL-2-bromopalmitate (BrPA), an analogue of palmitic acid (PA), on the utilization of this fatty acid by rat lungs was investigated by a combination of anatomic and biochemical methods. The experiments were performed in vitro on two types of preparations, isolated perfused lungs and lung slices. In the isolated lung preparation the substrate reached the lung via the capillaries, in lung slices via the alveolar epithelium. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that BrPA depressed uptake of PA by granular pneumocytes. Radioactivity recovered by tissue analysis and capture of CO2 established that PA oxidation and incorporation into phospholipids and triglycerides was depressed by BrPA. A close correlation was found between the reduction in radioactivity in phospholipids and the grain density over lamellar bodies. The study shows that BrPA reversibly interferes with the uptake and utilization of long chain fatty by granular pneumocytes. BrPA appears as a useful tool to study palmitate metabolism and surfactant production by the lung.

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid improves glucose utilization in the soleus muscle of rats fed linoleic acid-enriched and linoleic acid-deprived diets.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Ana C; Hirabara, Sandro; Sain, Juliana; Latorre, María E; González, Marcela; Curi, Rui; Bernal, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    The effect that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has on glucose metabolism in experimental animals depends on nutritional conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that CLA improves glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in rats fed different levels of dietary linoleic acid (LA). We investigated the effect of CLA on the uptake, incorporation, and oxidation of glucose and glycogen synthesis in the soleus muscle of rats who were fed either LA-enriched (+LA) or LA-deprived (-LA) diets, under basal conditions and in the absence or presence of insulin and/or palmitate. For 60 days, male Wistar rats were fed 1 of 4 diets consisting of +LA, -LA, or +LA and -LA supplemented with CLA. Nutritional parameters and soleus glucose metabolism were evaluated. Under basal conditions, CLA enhanced soleus glucose oxidation, whereas increased glucose uptake and incorporation were observed in the -LA + CLA group. Conjugated linoleic acid-supplemented rats presented a lower response to insulin on glucose metabolism compared with non-CLA-supplemented rats. Palmitate partially inhibited the effect of insulin on the uptake and incorporation of glucose in the +LA and -LA groups but not in the +LA + CLA or -LA + CLA groups. Dietary CLA increased glucose utilization under basal conditions and prevented the palmitate-induced inhibition of glucose uptake and incorporation that is stimulated by insulin. The beneficial effects of CLA were better in LA-deprived rats. Conjugated linoleic acid may also have negative effects, such as lowering the insulin response capacity. These results demonstrate the complexities of the interactions between CLA, palmitate, and/or insulin to differentially modify muscle glucose utilization and show that the magnitude of the response is related to the dietary LA levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. IDH1 deficiency attenuates gluconeogenesis in mouse liver by impairing amino acid utilization

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jing; Gu, Yu; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Yuanlin; Yuan, Yuan; Hao, Zhenyue; Sheng, Yi; Li, Wanda Y.; Wakeham, Andrew; Cairns, Rob A.; Mak, Tak W.

    2017-01-01

    Although the enzymatic activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) was defined decades ago, its functions in vivo are not yet fully understood. Cytosolic IDH1 converts isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), a key metabolite regulating nitrogen homeostasis in catabolic pathways. It was thought that IDH1 might enhance lipid biosynthesis in liver or adipose tissue by generating NADPH, but we show here that lipid contents are relatively unchanged in both IDH1-null mouse liver and IDH1-deficient HepG2 cells generated using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Instead, we found that IDH1 is critical for liver amino acid (AA) utilization. Body weights of IDH1-null mice fed a high-protein diet (HPD) were abnormally low. After prolonged fasting, IDH1-null mice exhibited decreased blood glucose but elevated blood alanine and glycine compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Similarly, in IDH1-deficient HepG2 cells, glucose consumption was increased, but alanine utilization and levels of intracellular α-KG and glutamate were reduced. In IDH1-deficient primary hepatocytes, gluconeogenesis as well as production of ammonia and urea were decreased. In IDH1-deficient whole livers, expression levels of genes involved in AA metabolism were reduced, whereas those involved in gluconeogenesis were up-regulated. Thus, IDH1 is critical for AA utilization in vivo and its deficiency attenuates gluconeogenesis primarily by impairing α-KG–dependent transamination of glucogenic AAs such as alanine. PMID:28011762

  4. Engineering the Xylan Utilization System in Bacillus subtilis for Production of Acidic Xylooligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Mun Su; Wei, Lusha; Sawhney, Neha; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.; Hurlbert, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Xylans are the predominant polysaccharides in hemicelluloses and an important potential source of biofuels and chemicals. The ability of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain 168 to utilize xylans has been ascribed to secreted glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11) and GH30 endoxylanases, encoded by the xynA and xynC genes, respectively. Both of these enzymes have been defined with respect to structure and function. In this study, the effects of deletion of the xynA and xynC genes, individually and in combination, were evaluated for xylan utilization and formation of acidic xylooligosaccharides. Parent strain 168 depolymerizes methylglucuronoxylans (MeGXn), releasing the xylobiose and xylotriose utilized for growth and accumulating the aldouronate methylglucuronoxylotriose (MeGX3) with some methylglucuronoxylotetraose (MeGX4). The combined GH11 and GH30 activities process the products generated by their respective actions on MeGXn to release a maximal amount of neutral xylooligosaccharides for assimilation and growth, at the same time forming MeGX3 in which the internal xylose is substituted with methylglucuronate (MeG). Deletion of xynA results in the accumulation of β-1,4-xylooligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization ranging from 4 to 18 and an average degree of substitution of 1 in 7.2, each with a single MeG linked α-1,2 to the xylose penultimate to the xylose at the reducing terminus. Deletion of the xynC gene results in the accumulation of aldouronates comprised of 4 or more xylose residues in which the MeG may be linked α-1,2 to the xylose penultimate to the nonreducing xylose. These B. subtilis lines may be used for the production of acidic xylooligosaccharides with applications in human and veterinary medicine. PMID:24271172

  5. Time-Resolved Nucleic Acid Hybridization Beacons Utilizing Unimolecular and Toehold-Mediated Strand Displacement Designs.

    PubMed

    Massey, Melissa; Ancona, Mario G; Medintz, Igor L; Algar, W Russ

    2015-12-01

    Nucleic acid hybridization probes are sought after for numerous assay and imaging applications. These probes are often limited by the properties of fluorescent dyes, prompting the development of new probes where dyes are paired with novel or nontraditional luminescent materials. Luminescent terbium complexes are an example of such a material, and these complexes offer several unique spectroscopic advantages. Here, we demonstrate two nonstem-loop designs for light-up nucleic acid hybridization beacons that utilize time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) between a luminescent Lumi4-Tb cryptate (Tb) donor and a fluorescent reporter dye, where time-resolved emission from the dye provides an analytical signal. Both designs are based on probe oligonucleotides that are labeled at their opposite termini with Tb and a fluorescent reporter dye. In one design, a probe is partially blocked with a quencher dye-labeled oligonucleotide, and target hybridization is signaled through toehold-mediated strand displacement and loss of a competitive FRET pathway. In the other design, the intrinsic folding properties of an unblocked probe are utilized in combination with a temporal mechanism for signaling target hybridization. This temporal mechanism is based on a recently elucidated "sweet spot" for TR-FRET measurements and exploits distance control over FRET efficiencies to shift the Tb lifetime within or outside the time-gated detection window for measurements. Both the blocked and unblocked beacons offer nanomolar (femtomole) detection limits, response times on the order of minutes, multiplexing through the use of different reporter dyes, and detection in complex matrices such as serum and blood. The blocked beacons offer better mismatch selectivity, whereas the unblocked beacons are simpler in design. The temporal mechanism of signaling utilized with the unblocked beacons also plays a significant role with the blocked beacons and represents a new and effective

  6. Utilization of biologically generated acid for drilling fluid damage removal and uniform acid placement across long formation intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S.W.; Harris, R.E.; Penny, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    A method of drilling damage removal is presented which uses biologically generated acid (BGA) as the stimulation fluid. The BGA solution is not reactive during the actual pumping stage which allows its displacement into the reservoir to be controlled by the relatively low permeability of the near wellbore damage. Catalytic generation of acid occurs at a controlled rate once the BGA has been injected into the formation and results in uniform damage removal around the near wellbore region. The ability of BGA to be generated under a variety of temperature and pressure conditions and the compatibility evaluation of BGA with a variety of commonly used oil and water based drilling muds is first presented to establish some of the operational guidelines for BGA use. Drilling damage removal studies utilizing the modified API linear conductivity flow cell and carbonate material with BGA is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this stimulation fluid. Dual core flow test data is then presented which shows BGA`s ability and HCL`s inability to remove drilling damage over long horizontal intervals in carbonate formations.

  7. Influence of age, dietary cholic acid, and calcium levels on performance, utilization of free fatty acids, and bone mineralization in broilers.

    PubMed

    Atteh, J O; Leeson, S

    1985-10-01

    The effects of age on the utilization of dietary palmitic or a 50/50 mixture of palmitic and oleic acid at the 8% inclusion level in the absence or presence of .2% cholic acid and also in the presence of low (.8%) or high (1.2%) calcium were investigated using broiler chicks from 1 to 56 days of age. Significant interactions (P less than .01) were observed between the type of fatty acid supplemented and the presence or absence of cholic acid on weight gain and feed efficiency. Supplementing diets with a mixture of equal weights of palmitic and oleic acid, reduced feed intake relative to control diets and diets supplemented with palmitic acid alone. There was an interaction between the age of the bird and the type of fatty acid supplemented on fat retention and metabolizable energy (ME) of diets (P less than .01). There was also a significant interaction between the type of fatty acid supplemented and the addition of cholic acid on fat retention and ME of diets. While cholic acid reduced soap formation during the process of digestion (P less than .05), increasing dietary calcium level increased the proportion of the digesta fat that was present as soap (P less than .01). The proportion of digesta and excreta fat, present as soap, depended on the type of fatty acid supplemented. The addition of free fatty acids to broiler diets resulted in a decrease in bone ash and bone calcium content relative to those birds fed the control diet. It is concluded that the ability of broilers to utilize dietary free fatty acids depends on the age at which they are fed, although in all cases supplemental cholic acid enhances fatty acid utilization.

  8. Dietary indispensable amino acids profile affects protein utilization and growth of Senegalese sole larvae.

    PubMed

    Canada, Paula; Engrola, Sofia; Richard, Nadège; Lopes, Ana Filipa; Pinto, Wilson; Valente, Luísa M P; Conceição, Luís E C

    2016-12-01

    In diet formulation for fish, it is critical to assure that all the indispensable amino acids (IAA) are available in the right quantities and ratios. This will allow minimizing dietary AA imbalances that will result in unavoidable AA losses for energy dissipation rather than for protein synthesis and growth. The supplementation with crystalline amino acids (CAA) is a possible solution to correct the dietary amino acid (AA) profile that has shown positive results for larvae of some fish species. This study tested the effect of supplementing a practical microdiet with encapsulated CAA as to balance the dietary IAA profile and to improve the capacity of Senegalese sole larvae to utilize AA and maximize growth potential. Larvae were reared at 19 °C under a co-feeding regime from mouth opening. Two microdiets were formulated and processed as to have as much as possible the same ingredients and proximate composition. The control diet (CTRL) formulation was based on commonly used protein sources. A balanced diet (BAL) was formulated as to meet the ideal IAA profile defined for Senegalese sole: the dietary AA profile was corrected by replacing 4 % of encapsulated protein hydrolysate by CAA. The in vivo method of controlled tube-feeding was used to assess the effect on the larvae capacity to utilize protein, during key developmental stages. Growth was monitored until 51 DAH. The supplementation of microdiets with CAA in order to balance the dietary AA had a positive short-term effect on the Senegalese sole larvae capacity to retain protein. However, that did not translate into increased growth. On the contrary, larvae fed a more imbalanced (CTRL group) diet attained a better performance. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether this was due to an effect on the voluntary feed intake as a compensatory response to the dietary IAA imbalance in the CTRL diet or due to the higher content of tryptophan in the BAL diet.

  9. Effects of nitrocompounds on uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nitrocompounds on the growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure. There were three treatments: control, 100 mM nitropropanol (NPL), and 100 mM nitropropionic acid (NPC). The mixed la...

  10. Peroxisomal localisation of the final steps of the mevalonic acid pathway in planta.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Andrew J; Guirimand, Grégory; Papon, Nicolas; Courdavault, Vincent; Thabet, Insaf; Ginis, Olivia; Bouzid, Sadok; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Clastre, Marc

    2011-11-01

    In plants, the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway provides precursors for the formation of triterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phytosterols and primary metabolites important for cell integrity. Here, we have cloned the cDNA encoding enzymes catalysing the final three steps of the MVA pathway from Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), mevalonate kinase (MVK), 5-phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK) and mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase (MVD). These cDNA were shown to functionally complement MVA pathway deletion mutants in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transient transformations of C. roseus cells with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-fused constructs reveal that PMK and MVD are localised to the peroxisomes, while MVK was cytosolic. These compartmentalisation results were confirmed using the Arabidopsis thaliana MVK, PMK and MVD sequences fused to YFP. Based on these observations and the arguments raised here we conclude that the final steps of the plant MVA pathway are localised to the peroxisome.

  11. Evaluation of phytic acid utilization by S. cerevisiae strains used in fermentation processes and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, Dawid; Kłosowski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-studied yeast species used mainly in fermentation processes, bakery, and for SCP (Single Cell Protein) acquisition. The aim of the study was to analyze the possibility of phytic acid utilization as one of the hydrolysis processes carried out by yeast. The analysis of 30 yeast strains used in fermentation and for biomass production, that were grown in media containing phytic acid, revealed a high variability in the biomass production rate and the capability to hydrolyze phytates. No correlation between a high biomass concentration and a high level of phytate hydrolysis was found. Only four analyzed strains (Bayanus IOC Efficience, Sano, PINK EXCEL, FINAROME) were able to reduce the phytic acid concentration by more than 33.5%, from the initial concentration 103.0 ± 2.1 μg/ml to the level below 70 μg/ml. The presented results suggest that the selected wine and fodder yeast can be used as in situ source of phosphohydrolases in fermentation processes, and especially in the production of fodder proteins. However, further studies aimed at the optimization of growing parameters, such as the maximization of phytase secretion, and a comprehensive analysis of the catalytic activity of the isolated phosphohydrolases, are necessary.

  12. PPARgamma agonist induced cardiac enlargement is associated with reduced fatty acid and increased glucose utilization in myocardium of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Edgley, Amanda J; Thalén, Pia G; Dahllöf, Björn; Lanne, Boel; Ljung, Bengt; Oakes, Nicholas D

    2006-05-24

    In toxicological studies, high doses of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonists cause cardiac enlargement. To investigate whether this could be explained by a large shift from free fatty acid to glucose utilization by the heart, Wistar rats were treated for 2-3 weeks with a potent, selective PPARgamma agonist (X334, 3 micromol/kg/d), or vehicle. X334 treatment increased body-weight gain and ventricular mass. Treatment lowered plasma triglycerides by 61%, free fatty acid levels by 72%, insulin levels by 45%, and reduced total plasma protein concentration by 7% (indicating plasma volume expansion) compared to vehicle animals. Fasting plasma glucose levels were unaltered. To assess cardiac free fatty acid and glucose utilization in vivo we used simultaneous infusions of non-beta-oxidizable free fatty acid analogue, [9,10-(3)H](R)-2-bromopalmitate and [U-(14)C]2-deoxy-d-glucose tracers, which yield indices of local free fatty acid and glucose utilization. In anesthetized, 7 h fasted animals, left ventricular glucose utilization was increased to 182% while free fatty acid utilization was reduced by 28% (P<0.05) compared to vehicle. In separate studies we attempted to prevent the X334-induced hypolipidemia. Various dietary fat supplements were unsuccessful. By contrast, restricting the time during which the treated animals had access to food (promoting endogenous lipolysis), restored plasma free fatty acid from 27% to 72% of vehicle control levels and prevented the cardiac enlargement. Body-weight gain in these treated-food restricted rats was not different from vehicle controls. In conclusion, the cardiac enlargement caused by intense PPARgamma activation in normal animals is associated with marked changes in free fatty acid/glucose utilization and the enlargement can be prevented by restoring free fatty acid availability.

  13. Substrate Interaction in Intravenous Feeding. Comparative Effects of Carbohydrate and Fat on Amino Acid Utilization in Fasting Man

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Bruce M.; Culebras, J. M.; Sim, A. J. W.; Ball, M. R.; Moore, F. D.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented on the metabolic and endocrine effects of intravenous infusions in normal fasting man observed under highly controlled conditions over a period of six to eight days duration. There are comparative data on a variety of intravenous feeding programs. The data on total starvation are based on studies from the literature, some of which were carried out in this laboratory. The data on low dose glucose, high dose glucose, glycerol, fat emulsion, and amino acids, each given separately, demonstrate changes seen with simple infusion of a single substrate in fasting. These data are now compared with the utilization of amino acid infusions when accompanied by low dose glucose, high dose glucose, glycerol, and fat emulsion. In all, nine experimental intravenous feeding programs are presented, based on data from 35 subjects observed over a total of 370 subject-days. The findings show a strong interaction between glucose or lipid and protein metabolism. In fasting, glucose had protein sparing effect, most evident when given at high dose. Glycerol, in an amount equal to that contained in 2000 ml of ten per cent fat emulsion, had a mild protein sparing effect. Fat emulsion was no more effective. When amino acids were given alone, normal fasting human subjects were always in negative nitrogen balance with the daily nitrogen loss half that seen in starvation alone. Although amino acids given alone have a protein sparing effect, this is accomplished only at the expense of a high nitrogen excretion including an amount equivalent to the entire infusion plus an additional loss from the body's native proteins. The provision of energy yielding non-protein substrates with the amino acids markedly improved nitrogen economy in the following order: glycerol, low dose glucose, fat emulsion and high dose glucose. When caloric provision with glucose approached the isocaloric level for normal diet, the utilization of amino acids was maximized. When given with amino acids, fat

  14. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, 1 September 1992--31 August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.; Sanders, J.F.

    1993-09-30

    The main body of the report consists of four parts: 1. additives to change process chemistry for SO{sub 2} absorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry; 2. recycle tests and hydration of fly ash with Ca(OH){sub 2} to increase reactivity; 3. limestone as an alternative sorbent and additive effects; 4. physical and chemical model developments for some of the additive effects and spray dryer mathematical model application. As the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the flue gases increases, the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency will go down. Additives such as delinquent salts (NaOH, NaCl, and NaHCO{sub 3}) have been shown to improve SO{sub 2} uptake, and these additive tests have indicated that SO{sub 2} uptake may be increased by as much as 60% over baseline conditions. Other additives such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, sugar, and some organic acids which can change the chemical reaction processes are suggested and tested, and some promising results have been obtained. Recycle has been shown to increase sorbent utilization by allowing partially reacted sorbent to react further with the SO{sub 2} in the flue gases. Two types of Ohio coal fly ashes have been extensively studied, and improvement of utilization in spray dryer flue gas desulfurization has been demonstrated. Limestone represents an area where significant cost savings can be realized. The spray dryer tests were designed to provide some results for understanding the magnitude of the limestone performance in the spray dryer system and the additive effects. The additive effects on increasing SO{sub 2} absorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry were investigated, and the chemical and physical properties of these tested additives were studied. Some models have been formed to explain the additive phenomena.

  15. [Comparison of the diagnostic utility from visual inspection with acetic acid and cervical cytology].

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Hernández, Nadia; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Lares-Bayona, Edgar Felipe; Cisneros-Pérez, Vicente; Milla-Villeda, Reinaldo Humberto; Arreola-Herrera, Francisco de Asís; Navarrete-Flores, José Antonio; Aguilar-Durán, Maricela; Núñez-Márquez, Teresita; Rueda-Cisneros, Dora Alicia

    2010-05-01

    In Mexico, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death in women after breast cancer. The human papillomavirus is associated with intraepithelial lesions, detected up to 99.7% of cervical carcinomas. Despite being easy to detect is a condition that many women suffer. To determine the diagnostic utility of the visual inspection with acetic acid of the uterine cervix compared with the cervical cytology. Study of diagnostic tests. The study was realized in the Centro de Atención Materno Infantil y Planificación Familiar of the Instituto de Investigación Científica, Durango, Mexico, research of the Juárez University of the State of Durango, from August 23, 2005 to November 13, 2006. 1,521 participants were examined who went consecutively to opportune detection of cervical cancer. One doctor practiced the test of acetic acid and cervical cytology to them, and one digital photograph, which was evaluated by three inter-observers triple blind. Those that was positive to anyone of these tests, were remitted to colposcopy and/or biopsy; also to 10% of selected negative population randomly was realized this procedure. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and exactitude were determined. For the agreement inter-observer index of Kappa was used. Sensitivity, specificity, values predictive positive, negative and exactitude for the visual inspection with acetic acid were 20, 97, 5 and 99%, respectively. For the cervical cytology were of 80, 99, 57 and 99%, respectively. The force of agreement between the interobservant was poor. In this study cervical cytology was more useful than visual inspection with acetic acid to detect dysplasias or cervical cancer opportunely, due to detect all the positive true cases confirmed by biopsy.

  16. Uptake and/or utilization of two simple phenolic acids by Cucumis sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Shann, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of ferulic acid (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) from solutions (0.1 to 1.00 mM, pH 4.0 to 7.0), was determined for intact and excised roots of Cucumis sativus. Uptake methods based on high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acid depletion from solution were compared to those radioisotopic methods employing (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA or p-HBA. Although radiotracer methods more accurately reflected actual uptake of the compounds by cucumber seedlings, HPLC solution depletion methods may be useful in the elucidation of trends over very limited periods of time. The uptake of FA was unaffected by the presence of p-HBA. The uptake of p-HBA was reduced by 30% in the presence of FA when compared to the uptake from solutions containing p-HBA alone. Ferulic acid acts both as an allelopathic agent and precursor in the endogenous process of lignification. To evaluate the involvement of exogenous FA in lignin biosynthesis, roots of hydroponically grown cucumber seedlings were exposed to concentrations of FA labeled with (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA. Radiotracer was distributed throughout the seedling. A quantitative change in lignification occurred in treated seedlings. In roots and stems, the level of lignin increased with the number of exposures and as the concentrations of exogenous FA increased. Radiotracer was found in the residues of lignin isolated from seedling tissue treated with (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA. This suggested the utilization of the exogenously applied FA in the endogenous process of lignification.

  17. Sulfuric-acid-regeneration waste-disposal technology. Final report, June 1985-November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Balasco, A.A.; Johnson, D.E.; Stahr, J.J.; Stevens, J.I.; Fields, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    All U.S. Army Ammunition Plants (AAPs) having sulfuric acid regeneration (SAR) facilities use lime precipitation as the principal means of acid-wastewater neutralization. This is as an advanced system as is used in industrial practice. However, lime precipitation could not meet zero discharge of pollutants should these be promulgated for the sulfuric-acid industry. In fact it discharges a water high in soluble sulfates. Further, based on the only current experience at Radford AAP, this process is plagued with: excessive scaling, poor pH and turbididty control, and excessive maintenance and downtime. One probable cause of these difficulties is excessive water loads from the SAR plants resulting in inadequate residence time for crystal formation and settling, coupled with the inherent slowness of this chemical reaction. However, it should be pointed out there is an almost total lack of operating data on the adequacy or inadequacy of these lime-precipitation systems to meet even today's standards. Presumably because of concern at one time for soluble sulfate, two AAPs have secondary treatment: 1) ion exchange to remove the soluble calcium (Ca) and sulfate (SO/sub 4/) ions (Volunteer AAP); and 2) barium (Ba) precipitation to remove the soluble SO/sub 4/, followed by ion exchange (Joliet AAP). Secondary treatment would permit total recycle of the process water, thus achieving zero discharge; however, we question the utility of both of these systems in achieving any improvement in the total environment of the watersheds of the plants in question.

  18. C- and N-catabolic utilization of tricarboxylic acid cycle-related amino acids by Scheffersomyces stipitis and other yeasts.

    PubMed

    Freese, Stefan; Vogts, Tanja; Speer, Falk; Schäfer, Bernd; Passoth, Volkmar; Klinner, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    Scheffersomyces stipitis and the closely related yeast Candida shehatae assimilated the L-amino acids glutamate, aspartate and proline as both carbon and nitrogen sole sources. We also found this rarely investigated ability in ascomycetous species such as Candida glabrata, C. reukaufii, C. utilis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis, K. marxianus, Candida albicans, L. elongisporus, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, C. maltosa, Pichia capsulata and Yarrowia lipolytica and in basidiomycetous species such as Rhodotorula rubra and Trichosporon beigelii. Glutamate was a very efficient carbon source for Sc. stipitis, which enabled a high biomass yield/mole, although the growth rate was lower when compared to growth on glucose medium. The cells secreted waste ammonium during growth on glutamate alone. In Sc. stipitis cultures grown in glucose medium containing glutamate as the nitrogen source the biomass yield was maximal, and ethanol concentration and specific ethanol formation rate were significantly higher than in glucose medium containing ammonium as the nitrogen source. Mainly C-assimilation of glutamate but also N-assimilation in glucose-containing medium correlated with enhanced activity of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase 2 (GDH2). A Δgdh2 disruptant was unable to utilize glutamate as either a carbon or a nitrogen source; moreover, this disruptant was also unable to utilize aspartate as a carbon source. The mutation was complemented by retransformation of the GDH2 ORF into the Δgdh2 strain. The results show that Gdh2p plays a dual role in Sc. stipitis as both C- and N-catabolic enzyme, which indicates its role as an interface between the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of this yeast.

  19. Enantioselective Utilization of D-Amino Acids by Deep-Sea Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Tohru; Nunoura, Takuro; Maruyama, Fumito; Deguchi, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms that utilize various D-amino acids (DAAs) were successfully isolated from deep-sea sediments. The isolates were phylogenetically assigned to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammmaproteobacteria, and Bacilli. Some of the isolates exhibited high enantioselective degradation activities to various DAAs. In particular, the Alphaproteobacteria Nautella sp. strain A04V exhibited robust growth in minimal medium supplemented with D-Val as a sole carbon and nitrogen source, whereas its growth was poor on minimal medium supplemented with L-Val instead of D-Val. Its growth was facilitated most when racemic mixtures of valine were used. In contrast, the Nautella strains isolated from shallow-sea grew only with L-Val. No significant differences were found among the strains in the genome sequences including genes possibly related to DAA metabolisms. PMID:27148200

  20. Copper catalysis for enhancement of cobalt leaching and acid utilization efficiency in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaxuan; Shen, Jingya; Huang, Liping; Wu, Dan

    2013-11-15

    Enhancement of both cobalt leaching from LiCoO2 and acid utilization efficiency (AUE) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was successfully achieved by the addition of Cu(II). A dosage of 10mg/L Cu(II) improved both cobalt leaching up to 308% and AUE of 171% compared to the controls with no presence of Cu(II). The apparent activation energy of cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs was only 11.8 kJ/mol. These results demonstrate cobalt leaching in MFCs using Cu(II) as a catalyst may be an effective strategy for cobalt recovery and recycle of spent Li-ion batteries, and the evidence of influence factors including solid/liquid ratio, temperature, and pH and solution conductivity can contribute to improving understanding of and optimizing cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs.

  1. Clinical utility of 5-aminolevulinic acid HCl to better visualize and more completely remove gliomas.

    PubMed

    Halani, Sameer H; Adamson, D Cory

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is typically the first line of treatment for gliomas. However, the neurosurgeon faces a major challenge in achieving maximal resection in high-grade gliomas as these infiltrative tumors make it difficult to discern tumor margins from normal brain with conventional white-light microscopy alone. To aid in resection of these infiltrative tumors, fluorescence-guided surgery has gained much popularity in intraoperative visualization of malignant gliomas, with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) leading the way. First introduced in an article in Neurosurgery, 5-ALA has since become a safe, effective, and inexpensive method to visualize and improve resection of gliomas. This has undoubtedly led to improvements in the clinical course of patients as demonstrated by the increased overall and progression-free survival in patients with such devastating disease. This literature review aims to discuss the major studies and trials demonstrating the clinical utility of 5-ALA and its ability to aid in complete resection of malignant gliomas.

  2. Microencapsulation of Ascorbic Acid for Cosmetic by Utilizing Self-assembly of Phase Separated Polymer.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Shiro; Nakai, Akito; Michida, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Micrometer-sized polymer particles encapsulated ascorbic acid (vitamin C; VC) were successfully prepared by the three types of the self-assembling method, those are, phase separation and self-assembly of added polymer at the oil-water interface in emulsion, microsuspension polymerization utilizing the self-assembling of phase separated polymer (SaPSeP) method, and their hybrid method. In the stability study at 50°C for 2 months, the three kinds of capsule particles exhibited effective protection of VC from the interaction with other components in cosmetic consisting of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. The encapsulated VC was easily released from the capsule particles by an excess of water. These encapsulation methods will be useful for the stabilization of water-soluble substances in cosmetic consisting of W/O emulsion.

  3. 1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

  4. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  5. Leishmania donovani Utilize Sialic Acids for Binding and Phagocytosis in the Macrophages through Selective Utilization of Siglecs and Impair the Innate Immune Arm

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Saptarshi; Mandal, Chitra

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmania donovani, belonging to a unicellular protozoan parasite, display the differential level of linkage-specific sialic acids on their surface. Sialic acids binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (siglecs) are a class of membrane-bound receptors present in the haematopoetic cell lineages interact with the linkage-specific sialic acids. Here we aimed to explore the utilization of sialic acids by Leishmania donovani for siglec-mediated binding, phagocytosis, modulation of innate immune response and signaling pathways for establishment of successful infection in the host. Methodology/Principle Findings We have found enhanced binding of high sialic acids containing virulent strains (AG83+Sias) with siglec-1 and siglec-5 present on macrophages compared to sialidase treated AG83+Sias (AG83-Sias) and low sialic acids-containing avirulent strain (UR6) by flow cytometry. This specific receptor-ligand interaction between sialic acids and siglecs were further confirmed by confocal microscopy. Sialic acids-siglec-1-mediated interaction of AG83+Sias with macrophages induced enhanced phagocytosis. Additionally, sialic acids-siglec-5 interaction demonstrated reduced ROS, NO generation and Th2 dominant cytokine response upon infection with AG83+Sias in contrast to AG83-Sias and UR6. Sialic acids-siglecs binding also facilitated multiplication of intracellular amastigotes. Moreover, AG83+Sias induced sialic acids-siglec-5-mediated upregulation of host phosphatase SHP-1. Such sialic acids-siglec interaction was responsible for further downregulation of MAPKs (p38, ERK and JNK) and PI3K/Akt pathways followed by the reduced translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κβ to the nucleus from cytosol in the downstream signaling pathways. This sequence of events was reversed in AG83-Sias and UR6-infected macrophages. Besides, siglec-knockdown macrophages also showed the reversal of AG83+Sias infection-induced effector functions and downstream signaling events. Conclusions

  6. Leishmania donovani Utilize Sialic Acids for Binding and Phagocytosis in the Macrophages through Selective Utilization of Siglecs and Impair the Innate Immune Arm.

    PubMed

    Roy, Saptarshi; Mandal, Chitra

    2016-08-01

    Leishmania donovani, belonging to a unicellular protozoan parasite, display the differential level of linkage-specific sialic acids on their surface. Sialic acids binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (siglecs) are a class of membrane-bound receptors present in the haematopoetic cell lineages interact with the linkage-specific sialic acids. Here we aimed to explore the utilization of sialic acids by Leishmania donovani for siglec-mediated binding, phagocytosis, modulation of innate immune response and signaling pathways for establishment of successful infection in the host. We have found enhanced binding of high sialic acids containing virulent strains (AG83+Sias) with siglec-1 and siglec-5 present on macrophages compared to sialidase treated AG83+Sias (AG83-Sias) and low sialic acids-containing avirulent strain (UR6) by flow cytometry. This specific receptor-ligand interaction between sialic acids and siglecs were further confirmed by confocal microscopy. Sialic acids-siglec-1-mediated interaction of AG83+Sias with macrophages induced enhanced phagocytosis. Additionally, sialic acids-siglec-5 interaction demonstrated reduced ROS, NO generation and Th2 dominant cytokine response upon infection with AG83+Sias in contrast to AG83-Sias and UR6. Sialic acids-siglecs binding also facilitated multiplication of intracellular amastigotes. Moreover, AG83+Sias induced sialic acids-siglec-5-mediated upregulation of host phosphatase SHP-1. Such sialic acids-siglec interaction was responsible for further downregulation of MAPKs (p38, ERK and JNK) and PI3K/Akt pathways followed by the reduced translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κβ to the nucleus from cytosol in the downstream signaling pathways. This sequence of events was reversed in AG83-Sias and UR6-infected macrophages. Besides, siglec-knockdown macrophages also showed the reversal of AG83+Sias infection-induced effector functions and downstream signaling events. Taken together, this study demonstrated that virulent parasite

  7. Study on the spectrophotometric detection of free fatty acids in palm oil utilizing enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Azeman, Nur Hidayah; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yunus, Robiah; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Hajian, Reza

    2015-07-07

    In this paper, a comprehensive study has been made on the detection of free fatty acids (FFAs) in palm oil via an optical technique based on enzymatic aminolysis reactions. FFAs in crude palm oil (CPO) were converted into fatty hydroxamic acids (FHAs) in a biphasic lipid/aqueous medium in the presence of immobilized lipase. The colored compound formed after complexation between FHA and vanadium (V) ion solution was proportional to the FFA content in the CPO samples and was analyzed using a spectrophotometric method. In order to develop a rapid detection system, the parameters involved in the aminolysis process were studied. The utilization of immobilized lipase as catalyst during the aminolysis process offers simplicity in the product isolation and the possibility of conducting the process under extreme reaction conditions. A good agreement was found between the developed method using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginose lipase as catalyst for the aminolysis process and the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) standard titration method (R2 = 0.9453).

  8. A Single-Amino-Acid Polymorphism in Chikungunya Virus E2 Glycoprotein Influences Glycosaminoglycan Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Laurie A.; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Weller, Romy; Heise, Mark T.; Morrison, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus responsible for outbreaks of infection throughout Asia and Africa, causing an acute illness characterized by fever, rash, and polyarthralgia. Although CHIKV infects a broad range of host cells, little is known about how CHIKV binds and gains access to the target cell interior. In this study, we tested whether glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding is required for efficient CHIKV replication using CHIKV vaccine strain 181/25 and clinical isolate SL15649. Preincubation of strain 181/25, but not SL15649, with soluble GAGs resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of infection. While parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are permissive for both strains, neither strain efficiently bound to or infected mutant CHO cells devoid of GAG expression. Although GAGs appear to be required for efficient binding of both strains, they exhibit differential requirements for GAGs, as SL15649 readily infected cells that express excess chondroitin sulfate but that are devoid of heparan sulfate, whereas 181/25 did not. We generated a panel of 181/25 and SL15649 variants containing reciprocal amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 318 in the E2 glycoprotein. Reciprocal exchange at residue 82 resulted in a phenotype switch; Gly82 results in efficient infection of mutant CHO cells but a decrease in heparin binding, whereas Arg82 results in reduced infectivity of mutant cells and an increase in heparin binding. These results suggest that E2 residue 82 is a primary determinant of GAG utilization, which likely mediates attenuation of vaccine strain 181/25. IMPORTANCE Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes a debilitating rheumatic disease that can persist for months to years, and yet there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies. Like other alphaviruses, CHIKV displays broad tissue tropism, which is thought to be influenced by virus-receptor interactions. In this study, we determined that cell-surface glycosaminoglycans are

  9. The influence of ferrous sulfate utilization on the sugar yields from dilute-acid pretreatment of softwood for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Monavari, Sanam; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2011-01-01

    By employing metal salts in dilute-acid pretreatment the severity can be reduced due to reduced activation energy. This study reports on a dilute-acid steam pretreatment of spruce chips by addition of a small amount of ferrous sulfate to the acid catalyst, i.e., either SO2, H2SO3 or H2SO4. The utilization of ferrous sulfate resulted in a slightly increased overall glucose yield (from 74% to 78% of the theoretical value) in pretreatment with SO2 and H2SO3. Impregnation with ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid did not give any improvement compared with pretreatment based solely on H2SO4.

  10. Remedial action at the Acid/Pueblo Canyon site, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1984-10-01

    The Acid/Pueblo Canyon site (TA-45) was designated in 1976 for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). During the period 1943 to 1964 untreated and treated liquid wastes generated by nuclear weapons research activities at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) were discharged into the two canyons. A survey of the site conducted by LASL in 1976 to 1977 identified two areas where radiological contamination exceeded criteria levels. The selected remedial action was based on extensive radiological characterization and comprehensive engineering assessments and comprised the excavation and disposal of 390 yd/sup 3/ of contaminated soil and rock. This document describes the background to the remedial action, the parties involved in administering and executing it, the chronology of the work, verification of the adequacy of the remedial action, and the cost incurred. 14 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Low-phytic acid barley improves calcium and phosphorus utilization and growth performance in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Veum, T L; Ledoux, D R; Bollinger, D W; Raboy, V; Cook, A

    2002-10-01

    Thirty-five crossbred barrows averaging 13.5 kg starting BW were used in a 35-d experiment to compare the availability of P and the nutritional value of two near-isogenic progeny of the barley cultivar 'Harrington'. Low-phytic acid barley (LPB, 0.35% total P, 0.14% phytic acid P) was homozygous for the low-phytic acid 1-1 allele, and the normal barley (NB, 0.35% total P, 0.24% phytic acid P) was homozygous for the normal allele of that gene. Pigs were fed individually twice daily in metabolism pens. Barley was the only source of phytate in semipurified diets, 1 to 3. Diet 1 contained 75% NB, 0.14% estimated available P (aP), and 0.50% Ca. Diet 2 contained 75% LPB, 0.22% aP, and 0.50% Ca. No inorganic P (iP) was added to Diets 1 and 2 in order to measure the animal response to the different concentrations of aP in these cultivars. Diet 3 was NB Diet 1 supplemented with iP to equal the concentration of aP in LPB Diet 2. Practical barley-soybean meal (SBM)-type diets, NB Diet 4 and LPB Diet 5, were formulated to meet all minimum nutrient requirements, and contained 0.30% aP and 0.65% Ca. For the semipurified diets, pigs fed LPB Diet 2 had higher (P < or = 0.05) bone ash weight, bone breaking strength, P absorption and retention, and Ca absorption and retention compared with pigs fed NB Diet 1, with a trend (P = 0.10) for pigs fed LPB Diet 2 to have a higher ADG and gain:feed ratio than pigs fed NB Diet 1. However, pigs fed LPB Diet 2 or NB Diet 3 were not different (P > or = 0.3) in growth performance, fresh bone weight, fat-free dry bone weight, bone ash, bone breaking strength, or N utilization. This indicates that LPB and NB were equal in nutritional value after supplementation of NB with iP to equal the estimated aP in LPB. For the practical barley-SBM diets, there were no differences (P > or = 0.4) between pigs fed NB Diet 4 or LPB Diet 5 for growth performance, fresh bone weight, bone breaking strength, the percentages of P and Ca utilization, or N, DE, and ME

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar L2 Can Utilize Exogenous Lipoic Acid through the Action of the Lipoic Acid Ligase LplA1▿

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Aishwarya V.; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2010-01-01

    Lipoic acid is an essential protein bound cofactor that is vital for the functioning of several important enzymes involved in central metabolism. Genomes of all sequenced chlamydiae show the presence of two genes encoding lipoic acid ligases and one gene encoding a lipoate synthase. However, the roles of these proteins in lipoic acid utilization or biosynthesis have not yet been characterized. The two distinct lipoic acid ligases in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2, LplA1Ct and LplA2Ct (encoded by the open reading frames ctl0537 and ctl0761) display moderate identity with Escherichia coli LplA (30 and 27%, respectively) but possess amino acid sequence motifs that are well conserved among all lipoyl protein ligases. The putative lipoic acid synthase LipACt, encoded by ctl0815, is ca. 43% identical to the E. coli LipA homolog. We demonstrate here the presence of lipoylated proteins in C. trachomatis serovar L2 and show that the lipoic acid ligase LplA1Ct is capable of utilizing exogenous lipoic acid for the lipoylation Therefore, host-derived lipoic acid may be important for intracellular growth and development. Based on genetic complementation in a surrogate host, our study also suggests that the C. trachomatis serovar L2 LipA homolog may not be functional in vivo. PMID:20870766

  13. Carbohydrate and Amino Acid Metabolism in the Ectomycorrhizal Ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea during Glucose Utilization 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Canet, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to study the metabolism of [1-13C]glucose in mycelia of the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea. The main purpose was to assess the biochemical pathways for the assimilation of glucose and to identify the compounds accumulated during glucose assimilation. The majority of the 13C label was incorporated into mannitol, while glycogen, trehalose and free amino acids were labeled to a much lesser extent. The high enrichment of the C1/C6 position of mannitol indicated that the polyol was formed via a direct route from absorbed glucose. Randomization of the 13C label was observed to occur in glucose and trehalose leading to the accumulation of [1,6-13C]trehalose and [1,6-13C]glucose. This suggests that the majority of the glucose carbon used to form trehalose was cycled through the metabolically active mannitol pool. The proportion of label entering the free amino acids represented 38% of the soluble 13C after 6 hours of continuous glucose labeling. Therefore, amino acid biosynthesis is an important sink of assimilated carbon. Carbon-13 was incorporated into [3-13C]alanine and [2-13C]-, [3-13C]-, and [4-13C]glutamate and glutamine. From the analysis of the intramolecular 13C enrichment of these amino acids, it is concluded that [3-13C]pyruvate, arising from [1-13C]glucose catabolism, was used by alanine aminotransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate carboxylase (or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). Intramolecular 13C labeling patterns of glutamate and glutamine were similar and are consistent with the operation of the Krebs cycle. There is strong evidence for (a) randomization of the label on C2 and C3 positions of oxaloacetate via malate dehydrogenase and fumarase, and (b) the dual biosynthetic and respiratory role of the citrate synthase, aconitase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase reactions. The high flux of carbon through the carboxylation (presumably pyruvate carboxylase) step indicates that CO

  14. Brain uptake and utilization of fatty acids, lipids & lipoproteins: recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Katz, Robert; Hamilton, James A; Pownall, Henry J; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Hillard, Cecilia J; Leboeuf, Renee C; Watkins, Paul A

    2007-09-01

    A major goal of the second International Workshop on "Brain Uptake and Utilization of Fatty Acids, Lipids and Lipoproteins: Application to Neurological Disorders" was the identification of important future research areas that would lead to accelerated and systematic progress in the field. Major themes identified for future research include the following: (1) Rigorous research protocols for fatty acid (FA) studies should be established to overcome errors introduced by small differences in chain length and degree of unsaturation. (2) Using cellular integration models consisting of endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons, investigation of functional lipidomics, cell-specific signaling by lipids, and nutritional considerations should be undertaken. (3) Educational programs should be undertaken for women of childbearing age on the health benefits of omega3 long chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish consumption vs risks of mercury in fish. (4) Studies of the "flip-flop" model of passive diffusion should be extended to include other quantitative measures, such as the sizes of different fatty acid pools. (5) Investigations to establish physiologic roles and concentrations of omega3 LC-PUFA in various compartments of the brain should be undertaken. (6) Further studies should be carried out to illuminate the role and behavior of tight junctions in the microvascular endothelium of the blood-brain barrier and astrocytes, with emphasis on developing new LC-PUFA and lipid-based carriers of biomolecules across this barrier. (7) Roles and localization of very low density lipoproteins, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and the LDL receptor in the brain and their interactions with omega3 LC-PUFA, cholesterol, apolipoprotein E1-4, and their derivatives in Alzheimer's disease (AD) should be assessed. (8) Investigation of intraneuronal synthesis of DHA and its effects on signal transduction, apoptosis, and neurite growth stimulation should be undertaken. (9) Nutrition

  15. Effect of processing methods on the calcium, phosphorus, and phytic acid contents and nutritive utilization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Nestares, T; Barrionuevo, M; Urbano, G; López-Frías, M

    1999-07-01

    The effect of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) processing methods on the nutritive utilization of calcium and phosphorus and on phytic acid, a seed component that affects mineral utilization, was studied. Chemical and biological methods were used for nutritional determinations in growing rats. The digestive utilization of calcium from raw chickpea was adequate for growing rats; however, processing resulted in a slight decrease. The metabolic utilization of chickpea calcium was low because of the low rates of net absorption. This was reflected in the decreased calcium levels in longissimus dorsi muscle in the absence of mobilization of calcium from the femur. Soaking in acid solution followed by cooking decreased phytic acid content, suggesting that processing made part of the phytic acid phosphorus available. The absorbed phosphorus was greater than the nonphytic phosphorus supplied by the diet. The digestive utilization of phosphorus was similar in processed and raw chickpeas, despite the loss of soluble anion as a result of processing. These results may indicate the contribution of phosphorus in the form of inositol hexaphosphate-phosphorus.

  16. Toward a Reconceptualization of Knowledge Utilization in Education. Volume 2. Special Investigation 1. Knowledge Utilization in a Democratic Society: Education Through Commercial Television. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Hanno; Trapp, Mary

    Supporting general recommendations of the main body of the study contained in SO 005 889, this report suggests ways of approaching a reconceptualization of knowledge utilization in education at the policy making level. Since education is viewed as a life long process, there is need to establish and maintain a mass media system (especially…

  17. Enterobacter sp. LU1 as a novel succinic acid producer - co-utilization of glycerol and lactose.

    PubMed

    Podleśny, Marcin; Jarocki, Piotr; Wyrostek, Jakub; Czernecki, Tomasz; Kucharska, Jagoda; Nowak, Anna; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2017-03-01

    Succinic acid is an important C4-building chemical platform for many applications. A novel succinic acid-producing bacterial strain was isolated from goat rumen. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Enterobacter. This is the first report of a wild bacterial strain from the genus Enterobacter that is capable of efficient succinic acid production. Co-fermentation of glycerol and lactose significantly improved glycerol utilization under anaerobic conditions, debottlenecking the utilization pathway of this valuable biodiesel waste product. Succinic acid production reached 35 g l(-1) when Enterobacter sp. LU1 was cultured in medium containing 50 g l(-1) of glycerol and 25 g l(-1) of lactose as carbon sources.

  18. Citric acid improves phytate phosphorus utilization in crossbred and commercial broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Rafacz-Livingston, K A; Martinez-Amezcua, C; Parsons, C M; Baker, D H; Snow, J

    2005-09-01

    Previous research in our laboratory has shown that citric acid (CA) improves phytate P utilization in New Hampshire x Columbian (NHC) crossbred chicks fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal diet. The current study was conducted to determine if CA is also effective in commercial broiler chicks (Ross x Ross). In 3 experiments, 4 replicate groups of 5 male NHC chicks and male commercial chicks were fed corn-soybean meal diets varying in CA and nonphytate P (NPP) from 8 to 22 d of age. In experiment 1, a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement was used to evaluate the effect of 2 levels of CA (0 and 3%) and NPP (0.13 and 0.28%) in NHC chicks and commercial chicks. The commercial chicks, but not the NHC chicks, fed the 0.13% NPP diet had to be removed from the experiment after 3 to 5 d due to very poor growth and severe leg problems. Chick weight gain and tibia ash were significantly increased (P < 0.05) by CA in both types of chicks. In experiment 2, the same 2 x 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement was again used except that the NPP levels were 0.18 and 0.28%. Tibia ash was increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the addition of CA in both breeds of chicks; response was greater at 0.18% NPP than at 0.28% NPP. In experiment 3, graded levels of CA (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%) were evaluated in commercial chicks fed diets containing 0.18% NPP. Tibia ash increased linearly (P < 0.05) as CA increased from 0 to 4%. The average increase in bone ash resulting from 3% CA supplementation in experiments 2 and 3 was 41%. These results indicate that CA markedly improved phytate P utilization in NHC and Ross x Ross commercial broiler chicks.

  19. Microbial amino acid synthesis and utilization in rats: the role of coprophagy.

    PubMed

    Torrallardona, D; Harris, C I; Fuller, M F

    1996-11-01

    Four rats were housed in cages with mesh floors; another four rats were housed in tubular anticoprophagy cages, in which they could not turn round to reach their own faeces. Both groups were fed for 6 d on a low-protein diet containing fermentable carbohydrates and 15NH4Cl. At the end of the experiment the rats were killed and their carcasses were homogenized, lysine was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography and its 15N enrichment measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The 15N enrichment in the lysine of the microbial fraction of faeces and the total amount of lysine in the body were also determined in order to estimate the amount of microbial lysine absorbed. The 15N enrichment in body lysine of non-coprophagic rats was not different from that previously measured in rats given unlabelled NH4Cl, but in coprophagic rats it was significantly higher. The daily absorption of microbial lysine by the coprophagic rats accounted for 20.7 (SE 2.55) mg/kg body weight0-75, but was only 0.5 (SE 1.04) mg/kg body weight0-75 for the non-coprophagic rats. This value was not significantly different from zero. The utilization of microbial amino acids via coprophagy resulted in a higher weight gain (adjusted for intake) in the coprophagic group (15.5 g/6 d) than in the non-coprophagic rats (3.1 g/6 d). It was concluded that, in rats, the utilization of microbial lysine occurred exclusively via coprophagy.

  20. Ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intake variations: effects on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium utilization by human adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Brennan, M.A.; Parks, S.K.; Stauffer, D.J.; Wang, H.Y.; Young, S.F.; Fox, H.M.

    1986-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding two levels of ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and ascorbic acid on the apparent utilization of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by healthy, human adult subjects. During 4 randomly-arranged experimental periods of 7 days each, a laboratory-controlled diet alone or with supplements of ascorbic acid, dicalcium phosphate or magnesium oxide was fed to the 18 subjects. Results indicated that ascorbic acid supplementation tended to reduce urinary phosphorus loss and to slightly increase fecal phosphorus loss so that overall phosphorus balances became more positive. Conversely, under these conditions, urinary calcium losses were little affected but fecal calcium losses were increased resulting in an overall decrease in calcium balance with ascorbic acid supplementation. Ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in decreased urine and fecal losses of magnesium and more positive magnesium balances. Magnesium supplementation resulted in more positive calcium and phosphorus balances as did calcium phosphate supplementation on magnesium balance.

  1. The Glucuronic Acid Utilization Gene Cluster from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6

    PubMed Central

    Shulami, Smadar; Gat, Orit; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Shoham, Yuval

    1999-01-01

    A λ-EMBL3 genomic library of Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 was screened for hemicellulolytic activities, and five independent clones exhibiting β-xylosidase activity were isolated. The clones overlap each other and together represent a 23.5-kb chromosomal segment. The segment contains a cluster of xylan utilization genes, which are organized in at least three transcriptional units. These include the gene for the extracellular xylanase, xylanase T-6; part of an operon coding for an intracellular xylanase and a β-xylosidase; and a putative 15.5-kb-long transcriptional unit, consisting of 12 genes involved in the utilization of α-d-glucuronic acid (GlcUA). The first four genes in the potential GlcUA operon (orf1, -2, -3, and -4) code for a putative sugar transport system with characteristic components of the binding-protein-dependent transport systems. The most likely natural substrate for this transport system is aldotetraouronic acid [2-O-α-(4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronosyl)-xylotriose] (MeGlcUAXyl3). The following two genes code for an intracellular α-glucuronidase (aguA) and a β-xylosidase (xynB). Five more genes (kdgK, kdgA, uxaC, uxuA, and uxuB) encode proteins that are homologous to enzymes involved in galacturonate and glucuronate catabolism. The gene cluster also includes a potential regulatory gene, uxuR, the product of which resembles repressors of the GntR family. The apparent transcriptional start point of the cluster was determined by primer extension analysis and is located 349 bp from the initial ATG codon. The potential operator site is a perfect 12-bp inverted repeat located downstream from the promoter between nucleotides +170 and +181. Gel retardation assays indicated that UxuR binds specifically to this sequence and that this binding is efficiently prevented in vitro by MeGlcUAXyl3, the most likely molecular inducer. PMID:10368143

  2. Utilization of date stones for production of activated carbon using phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Haimour, N.M. . E-mail: nomanhaimour@hotmail.com; Emeish, S. . E-mail: s_emiesh@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    Date stone wastes have been utilized for production of activated carbon by chemical activation with phosphoric acid using a fluidized-bed reactor. The effects of the activation time, activation temperature, impregnation ratio, and particle size on the yield and the adsorptive capacity towards iodine were studied. The yield and the quality of the activated carbon prepared by using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were compared with that prepared from date stones using the same equipment, and under similar conditions by using ZnCl{sub 2} as an oxidizing agent. The maximum value of the iodine number of the activated carbon produced using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in this work was about 495 under the following conditions: impregnation ratio 0.4, activation time 60 min, activation temperature 800 deg. C, particle size 0.60 mm. The iodine number for the produced activated carbon was higher when phosphoric acid was used, compared to that when zinc chloride was used as impregnation reagent; however, the yield obtained when H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was used was lower than the yield when ZnCl{sub 2} was used. The iodine number increases significantly with increasing the activation temperature. By increasing the impregnation ratio at the same temperature, the iodine number decreased sharply and an oscillation is noticed for all the cases but it was clearer at 800 deg. C. The average variation of the iodine number for the whole range of particle size used in this work is {+-}10%.

  3. Evaluation of intergranular attack on Alloy 600: Volume 2, Effectiveness of boric acid: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hermer, R.E.; Wolfe, C.R.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of boric acid applied on-line and via crevice flushing was evaluated in this program as a remedial action for intergranular attack on mill annealed Alloy 600 steam generator tubing in tubesheet and support plate crevices. Single tube model boilers were used to simulate the full length of a steam generator tubesheet crevice and the support plate crevices at hot leg conditions. The tubesheet crevices had preloaded inventories of 10% sodium hydroxide/2.5% sodium sulfate solution. All of the crevices were exposed to on-line additions of 0.1 ppM hydroxide and 0.04 ppM sulfate as the sodium salts. These baseline conditions caused pre-existing IGA beneath eccentrically mounted support plates to increase in depth at a rate of 2.40 ..mu..m/day. In the tubesheet crevices the pre-existing IGA increased in depth at a rate of 1.6 ..mu..m/day. The virgin mill annealed tubing in the tubesheet crevice developed IGA at a rate of 0.73 ..mu..m/day during the final 60 days of the 90 day test. The first 30 days were an incubation period during which no IGA occurred. The results of this work suggest that boric acid can inhibit IGA on unattacked tubing when applied continuously at the field specifiation of 5 to 10 ppM in the blowdown. It can also slow down propagation of pre-existing IGA if present in the proper ratio (which requires adequate treatment levels) and if it can access the corrosion sites. Corrosion may progress in areas where boric acid is not able to penetrate in sufficient excess to the corrodent present. 10 refs., 85 figs., 39 tabs.

  4. The Impact of Head Start on Children, Families and Communities. Final Report of the Head Start Evaluation, Synthesis and Utilization Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKey, Ruth Hubbell; And Others

    Including all Head Start research (both published and unpublished) and using, when possible, the statistical technique of meta-analysis, this final report of the Head Start Evaluation, Synthesis, and Utilization Project presents findings on the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive and socioemotional development, on child health and health…

  5. PROTEIN NUCLEIC ACID INTERACTIONS GRANT # DE-FG02-96ER62166 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Helen M.; Thornton, Janet

    2005-02-17

    The overall goal of this collaborative project is to develop methods for analyzing protein-nucleic acid interactions. Nucleic acid-binding proteins have a central role in all aspects of genetic activity within an organism, such as transcription, replication, and repair. Thus, it is extremely important to examine the nature of complexes that are formed between proteins and nucleic acids, as they form the basis of our understanding of how these processes take place. Over the past decade, the world has witnessed a great expansion in the determination of high-quality structures of nucleic acid-binding proteins. As a result, the number of such structures has seen a constant increase in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) (1) and the Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) (2). These structures, especially those of proteins in complex with DNA, have provided valuable insight into the stereochemical principles of binding, including how particular base sequences are recognized and how the nucleic acid structure is quite often modified on binding. In this project, we designed several approaches to characterize and classify the properties of both protein-DNA and protein-RNA complexes. In work done in the previous grant period, we developed methods to use experimental data to evaluate nucleic acid crystal structures in order to ensure that the structures utilized in future studies would be of high quality. The methodology was collated in the standalone software package SFCHECK (3) [A], and an applied survey of structures in the NDB produced very positive results. With this quality control mechanism in place, we then analyzed DNA-binding sites on proteins by studying the distortions observed in DNA structures bound to protein. From our observations, we found that DNA-binding proteins present a very different binding surface to those that bind other proteins and defined three modes of protein binding [B]. Following this survey, we classified DNA-binding proteins into eight different structural

  6. Resource conservation and utilization in animal waste management. Volume III. Utilization of animal manures as feedstocks for energy production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.H. Jr; Loehr, R.C.

    1983-03-01

    This study critically examined the feasibility of using thermochemical processes such as combustion, pyrolysis, and partial oxidation and anaerobic digestion as methods for utilizing livestock and poultry manures as renewable sources of energy. Technical, economic, and environmental quality aspects were considered. Results of this study indicate that livestock and poultry manures can, at best, supply only a small fraction of U.S. energy requirements and cannot significantly reduce the dependence of U.S. agriculture on petroleum fuels. It also was found that the technical feasibility of manurial biogas production has been adequately demonstrated and a rational basis for system design and operation has been established. Although manurial biogas production is technically feasible, economic feasibility was found to be site specific depending on available biogas utilization options.

  7. Regulatory role for L-arginine in the utilization of amino acids by pig small-intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhao-Lai; Li, Xi-Long; Xi, Peng-Bin; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Guoyao; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2012-07-01

    We recently reported that bacteria from the pig small intestine rapidly utilize and metabolize amino acids (AA). This study investigated the effect of L-arginine on the utilization of AA by pure bacterial strains (Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp.) and mixed bacterial cultures derived from the pig small intestine. Bacteria were incubated at 37°C for 3 h in anaerobic AA media containing 0-5 mmol/L of arginine to determine the effect of arginine on the bacterial utilization of AA. Amino acids in the medium plus cell extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results indicated concentration-dependent increases in the bacterial utilization of arginine and altered fluxes of arginine into ornithine and citrulline in the bacteria. Net glutamine utilization increased in pure bacterial strains with increased concentrations of arginine. With the addition of arginine, net utilization of threonine, glycine, phenylalanine and branched-chain AA increased (P<0.05) in Streptococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp., but decreased in E. coli. Net utilization of lysine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, glycine and alanine by jejunal or ileal mixed bacteria decreased (P<0.05) with the addition of arginine. Complete utilization of asparagine, aspartate and serine were observed in pig small-intestinal bacteria after 3 h of incubation. Overall, the addition of arginine affected the metabolism of the arginine-family of AA and the serine- and aspartate-family of AA in small-intestinal bacteria and reduced the utilization of most AA in ileal mixed bacteria. These novel findings indicate that arginine exerts its beneficial effects on swine nutrition partially by regulating AA utilization and metabolism in the small-intestinal microbiota.

  8. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist and antagonist drugs on local cerebral glucose utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.M.; Kuhar, M.J.; Rapoport, S.I.; London, E.D.

    1982-07-01

    The (/sup 14/C)2-deoxy-D-glucose method of Sokoloff et al. was used to study local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) in rats treated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist (muscimol and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-C)pyridin-3-ol, THIP) and antagonist (bicuculline) drugs. It was of interest to determine if the pattern of LCGU responses to GABA agonists and antagonists administered systemically in vivo would reflect the known distributions of markers for central GABAergic synapses. The patterns of LCGU responses to muscimol and THIP generally were similar. Most brain regions showed dose-dependent decreases in LCGU; others showed no effects; but the red nucleus showed an increase. The GABA antagonist bicuculline produced convulsions and variable LCGU responses, depending on the time of administration. Bicuculline also partially antagonized the depressant effects of muscimol of LCGU. The magnitudes and distribution of in vivo cerebral metabolic responses to specific GABA agonists were not correlated simply with markers for GABAergic synapses. This lack of correlation indicates that additional factors, such as neural circuitry, regulate the LCGU responses to GABAergic drugs.

  10. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid ingestion increases fat utilization during exercise in untrained women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kiwon; Ryu, Sungpil; Nho, Ho-Sung; Choi, Sung-Keun; Kwon, Taedong; Suh, Heajung; So, Jaemoo; Tomita, Kyoko; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Shigematsu, Norihiro

    2003-06-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATPcitrate-lyase, which inhibits lipogenesis in the body. Moreover, HCA increases endurance exercise performance in trained mice and athletes. However, had not been investigated in untrained animals and humans. Therefore, we investigated the effects of short-term HCA ingestion on endurance exercise performance and fat metabolism in untrained women. In two experiments designed as a double-blind crossover test, six subjects ingested 250 mg of HCA or placebo (same amount of dextrin) via capsule for 5 d and then participated in cycle ergometer exercise. They cycled at 40% VO2max for 1 h and then the exercise intensity was increased to 60% VO2max until exhaustion on day 5 of each experiment. HCA tended to decrease the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbohydrate oxidation during 1 h of exercise. In addition, exercise time to exhaustion was significantly enhanced (p<0.05). These results suggest that HCA increases fat metabolism, which may be associated with a decrease in glycogen utilization during the same intensity exercise and enhanced exercise performance.

  11. Clinical utility of 5-aminolevulinic acid HCl to better visualize and more completely remove gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Halani, Sameer H; Adamson, D Cory

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is typically the first line of treatment for gliomas. However, the neurosurgeon faces a major challenge in achieving maximal resection in high-grade gliomas as these infiltrative tumors make it difficult to discern tumor margins from normal brain with conventional white-light microscopy alone. To aid in resection of these infiltrative tumors, fluorescence-guided surgery has gained much popularity in intraoperative visualization of malignant gliomas, with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) leading the way. First introduced in an article in Neurosurgery, 5-ALA has since become a safe, effective, and inexpensive method to visualize and improve resection of gliomas. This has undoubtedly led to improvements in the clinical course of patients as demonstrated by the increased overall and progression-free survival in patients with such devastating disease. This literature review aims to discuss the major studies and trials demonstrating the clinical utility of 5-ALA and its ability to aid in complete resection of malignant gliomas. PMID:27672334

  12. Utility response to Phase I and Phase II acid rain legislation - an economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keeth, R.J.; Ireland, P.A.; Radliffe, P.

    1995-06-01

    Electric utility companies in the U.S. have already implemented their plans for compliance with the Phase I Acid Rain legislation contained in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Out of the 261 units located at 110 power plants affected by Phase I legislation (all located in the midwest and east), FGD systems were installed on only 13,500 MW of capacity, a total of only 14 plants on 25 units. This paper will summarize the total installed capital cost experience for these facilities, which included a variety of FGD processes, vendors, designs and performance requirements. Costs for other recent FGD installations will also be presented. In addition, potential compliance plan options for Phase II legislation requirements will be discussed, providing a description of the decision making process and the plant characteristics that would lead to installation of SO{sub 2} control technology. The paper finishes with an update on the results of the latest FGD economic evaluations that have been completed recently. Brief process descriptions are followed by the operating and capital cost estimate comparisons with commercial technology.

  13. Lots of data, how do we use it? Strengths and inaccuracies of utility acid rain electronic data reports

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.

    1996-12-31

    Entergy Corporation is a Phase II utility with a fossil generation base composed primarily natural gas and low sulfur coal. This paper presents an analysis of a large Phase II utility`s continuous emissions monitoring data reported to EPA under Title IV Acid Rain. Electric utilities currently report hourly emissions of NOx, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, fuel use, and generation through electronic data reports to EPA. This paper describes strengths and weaknesses of the data reported to EPA as determined through an analysis of 1995 data. Emissions reported by this company tinder acid rain for SO{sub 2} and NOx are very different from emissions reported to state agencies for annual emission inventory purposes in past years and will represent a significant break with historic trends. A comparison of emissions has been made of 1995 emissions reported under Electronic Data Reports to the emissions that would have been reported using emission factors and fuel data in past years. In addition, the paper examines the impacts of 40 CFR Part 75 Acid Rain requirements such as missing data substitution and monitor bias adjustments. Measurement system errors including stack flow measurement and false NOx Lb/MMBtu readings at very low loads are discussed. This paper describes the implications for public policy, compliance, emissions inventories, and business decisions of Part 75 acid rain monitoring and reporting requirements.

  14. Highly chemoselective and versatile method for direct conversion of carboxylic acids to ketones utilizing zinc ate complexes.

    PubMed

    Murata, Ryo; Hirano, Keiichi; Uchiyama, Masanobu

    2015-06-01

    Various carboxylic acids were directly transformed into the corresponding ketones by utilizing organozinc ate complexes, which provide high chemoselectivity without any overreaction to the undesired tertiary carbinol, owing to formation of a stable tetrahedral zincioketal intermediate. This method offers good overall atom/step/pot economy and operational simplicity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Influence of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pankaj; Tiwari, S. P.; Sahu, Tarini; Naik, Surendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm) and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%). Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180), were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05) interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05) increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05) increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05) interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05) however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration and

  16. Financial constraints in capacity planning: a national utility regulatory model (NUREG). Volume II of III: user's guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-29

    This volume is a User's Guide to the National Utility Regulatory Model (NUREG) and its implementation of the National Coal Model. This is the second of three volumes provided by ICF under contract number DEAC-01-79EI-10579. These three volumes are: a manual describing the NUREG methodology; a users guide; and a description of the software. This manual provides a brief introduction to the National Utility Regulation Model, describes the various programs that comprise the National Utility Regulatory Model, gives sample input files, and provides information needed to run the model.

  17. Synthesis and utilization of chitin humic acid hybrid as sorbent for Cr(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosa, Sri Juari; Siswanta, Dwi; Sudiono, Sri; Sehol, Muhamad

    2007-11-01

    New types of hybrid material have been synthesized by using four different methods of immobilization of humic acid (HA) on chitin. The most stable hybrid material toward the change of medium acidity was then utilized as sorbent for Cr(III). The HA was extracted from peat soil of Gambut District, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, using the recommended procedure of International Humic Substances Society (IHSS), while the chitin was isolated from crab shell waste through deproteination using 3.5% (w/v) NaOH and followed by removal of inorganic impurities using 1 M HCl. The four methods of immobilization of HA on chitin were (i) Method A: chitin powder (4 g) was gently poured into the stirred solution of 0.4 g HA in 40 mL of 0.01 M NaOH. After overnight stirring, the solid was separated, washed with water, and dried in oven at 70 °C. (ii) Method B: gelatinous chitin (40 g) in 250 mL of 0.5 M HCl was reacted with HA (4 g) in 500 mL of 0.5 M NaOH and aged for 24 h. The product was washed with water and dried. (iii) Method C: HA powder (0.5 g) was mixed with the stirred gel of chitin (2.5 g) in 60 mL of CaCl 2 saturated methanol and the mixture was then washed with the mixed solution of 25 mL of 2 M sodium citrate and ethylene glycol 1:1. The solid was separated, washed with water, and dried. (iv) Method D: the solution of HA (0.056 g) in 10 mL of 0.01 M NaOH was reacted with the gel of chitin (0.2 g) in 10 mL of CaCl 2 saturated methanol. After 24 h stirring, the solid was separated from the reaction medium, washed with the mixed solution of 2 M sodium citrate and ethylene glycol 1:1, and followed by washing with water and drying. Parameters investigated in this study consisted of the stability test of the immobilized HA, as well as the rate constant ( k1), capacity ( b), and energy ( E) of sorption as well as the rate constant of desorption ( k-1). The k1 and k-1 were determined according to a kinetic model of first order sorption reaching equilibrium, while the b and E

  18. Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort; J. Argueta; M. Wehrey; D. Karner; L. Tyree

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.

  19. Final technical report: Commercialization of the Biofine technology for levulinic acid production from paper sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, Stephen W.

    2002-04-23

    This project involved a three-year program managed by BioMetics, Inc. (Waltham, MA) to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of Biofine thermochemical process technology for conversion of cellulose-containing wastes or renewable materials into levulinic acid, a versatile platform chemical. The program, commencing in October 1995, involved the design, procurement, construction and operation of a plant utilizing the Biofine process to convert 1 dry ton per day of paper sludge waste. The plant was successfully designed, constructed, and commissioned in 1997. It was operated for a period of one year on paper sludge from a variety of source paper mills to collect data to verify the design for a commercial scale plant. Operational results were obtained for four different feedstock varieties. Stable, continuous operation was achieved for two of the feedstocks. Continuous operation of the plant at demonstration scale provided the opportunity for process optimization, development of operational protocols, operator training and identification of suitable materials of construction for scale up to commercial operation . Separated fiber from municipal waster was also successfully processed. The project team consisted of BioMetics Inc., Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (West Lafayette, IN), and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Albany, NY).

  20. Sustained utility implementation of photovoltaics. TEAM-UP pre-cursor project, 1994-1995, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, D.E.; Collier, D.; Miller, K.; Jonas, T.; Gerlach, P.

    1998-05-01

    Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) is a leader in utility grid-connected applications of PVs with the world`s largest distributed PV power system. SMUD is continuing its ambitious sustained, orderly development (SOD) commercialization effort of the grid-connected, utility PV market. This program us aimed at developing the experience needed to successfully integrate PV as distributed generation into the utility system, develop market and long-term business strategies and to stimulate the collaborative processes needed to accelerate the cost-reductions necessary for PV to be cost-competitive in these applications by about the year 2002. This report documents the progress made in the 1994/1995 SMUD PV Program under this contract and the PV projects partially supported by this contract.

  1. Early utility experience with wind power generation. Volume 3: Bonneville Power Administration Goodnoe Hills Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, T.; Henry, G.; Tennis, M.; Goldenblatt, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report is one of three presenting the results of EPRI Research Project 1590-1, Evaluation of Electric Utility Experience with Wind Power Generation. The objective of this project was to develop an improved understanding of wind power generation, in particular the process a utility must undergo to initiate and carry out a wind turbine project. The primary tasks of RP1590-1 were to document and evaluate the experience of two utilities with megawatt-scale wind turbine installations from project inception to the wind turbine's first rotation. This technical report presents the experiences of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as the participating utility in the MOD-2 cluster field test program. Under this program the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as management agent for the US Department of Energy, has installed three MOD-2 wind turbines at Bonneville's Goodnoe Hills site. All documents and reports pertaining to BPA's experience with wind energy at Goodnoe Hills were reviewed and excerpts made of the highlights. Gaps in the documentation were filled by talking with the appropriate people. Site visits were conducted to monitor current activity. The information obtained was evaluated for its generic relevance and benefit to other utilities. The chronology of the steps taken in implementing the wind turbine project and some of the lessons learned are included in the report. In each section, important activities, critical assumptions, and interesting insights which might benefit other utility wind programs are identified.

  2. Identification, definition and evaluation of potential impacts facing the US electric utility industry over the next decade. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grainger, J.J.; Lee, S.S.H.

    1993-11-26

    There are numerous conditions of the generation system that may ultimately develop into system states affecting system reliability and security. Such generation system conditions should also be considered when evaluating the potential impacts on system operations. The following five issues have been identified to impact system reliability and security to the greatest extent: transmission access/retail wheeling; non-utility generators and independent power producers; integration of dispersed storage and generation into utility distribution systems; EMF and right-of-way limitations; Clean Air Act Amendments. Strictly speaking, some issues are interrelated and one issue cannot be completely dissociated from the others. However, this report addresses individual issues separately in order to determine all major aspects of bulk power system operations affected by each issue. The impacts of the five issues on power system reliability and security are summarized. This report examines the five critical issues that the US electric utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility system reliability and security is limited to the system operation viewpoint. Those five issues will undoubtedly influence various planning aspects of the bulk transmission system. However, those subjects are beyond the scope of this report. While the issues will also influence the restructure and business of the utility industry politically, sociologically, environmentally, and economically, all discussion included in the report are focused only on technical ramifications.

  3. Dietary fish oil replacement by linseed oil: Effect on growth, nutrient utilization, tissue fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Madhusmita; Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Samanta, Mrinal; Giri, Shiba Shankar

    2017-03-01

    Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33.3%, 50%, 66.7% and 100% LO. Final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, SGR decreased linearly (p<0.001) with increasing LO levels in the diets. Dietary LO substitution levels did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and whole body proximate composition. Furthermore, enhanced level of LO increased α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and decreased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) in muscle and liver. To understand the molecular mechanism of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized the fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase (Δ6 fad) cDNA and investigated its expression in various organs/tissues following replacement of FO with LO in the diet. The full-length Δ6 fad cDNA was 2056bp encoding 444 amino acids and was widely expressed in various organs/tissues. Replacement of FO with LO increased the expression of Δ6 fad mRNA in liver, muscle and intestine but no significant difference was found in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Final Summary Report: Em-Powering Coastal States and Utilities through Model Offshore Wind Legislation and Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Firestone; Dawn Kurtz Crompton

    2011-11-30

    The final summary report summarizes the most significant findings from three project reports detailing: feed-in tariffs, model request for proposals for new generation, and model state offshore wind power legislation.

  5. Effect of Peracetic Acid as A Final Rinse on Push Out Bond Strength of Root Canal Sealers to Root Dentin.

    PubMed

    Gaddala, Naresh; Veeramachineni, Chandrasekhar; Tummala, Muralidhar

    2015-05-01

    Smear layer which was formed during the instrumentation of root canals hinders the penetration of root canal sealers to root dentin and affect the bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Final irrigant such as demineralizing agents are used to remove the inorganic portion of the smear layer. In the present study, peracetic acid used as a final rinse, to effect the bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of peracetic acid as a final irrigant on bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Sixty six freshly extracted human single rooted mandibular premolars were used for this study. After decoronation the samples were instrumented with Protaper upto F3 and irrigated with 5.25% NaOcl. The teeth were then divided into three groups based on final irrigant used: Group-1(control group) Canals were irrigated with distilled water. Group-2: Canals were irrigated with peracetic acid. Group-3: Canals were irrigated with smear clear. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (n=30) based on the sealer used to obturate the canals. Subgroup-1: kerr, Subgroup-2: Apexit plus, Subgroup-3: AH PLUS. Each sealer was mixed and coated to master cone and placed in the canal. The bonding between sealer and dentin surface was evaluated using push out bond strength by universal testing machine. The mean bond strength values of each group were statistically evaluated using Two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Significant difference was found among the bond strength of the sealers. But, there is no statistically significant difference between the groups irrigated with peracetic acid and smear clear compared to control group. AH Plus showed highest bond strength irrespective of the final irrigant used. Peracetic acid when employed as final irrigant improved the bond strength of root canal sealers compared to control group but not statistically significant than smear clear.

  6. Evaluation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc.`s competitive bidding program for demand-side resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.S.; Stucky, L.; Seratt, P.; Darden-Butler, D.

    1993-02-01

    The process evaluation reports on the implementation of Orange and Rockland Utilities demand-side bidding program in New York State during 1991 and 1992. The program is implemented by two energy service companies in Orange and rockland`s New York State service territory. The process evaluation methodology included interviews with utility staff (3), energy service company staff (2), and participating (6) and nonparticipating (7) utility customers. The two energy service companies had enrolled 14 customers in the program by summer 1992. One company had achieved 90% of their 2.75 MW bid and the other had achieved less than 90% of their 6.9 MW bid. Critical factors in success were determination of a reasonable bid amount for the market and marketing to the appropriate customers. Customers most interested in the program included those with limited access to capital and medium-sized firms with poor cash flows, particularly schools and hospitals. The findings also show that due to the incentive structure and associated need for substantial customer contributions, lighting measures dominate all installations. Customers, however, were interested in the potential savings and six of the nonparticipants chose to either install measures on their own or enroll in the utility`s rebate program.

  7. Early utility experience with wind power generation. Volume 2. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Solano County project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, T.; Henry, G.; Tennis, M.; Goldenblatt, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report is one of three presenting the results of EPRI Research Project 1590-1, Evaluation of Electric Utility Experience with Wind Power Generation. The objective of this project was to develop an improved understanding of wind power generation, in particular the process a utility must undergo to initiate and carry out a wind turbine project. The primary tasks of RP1590-1 were to document and evaluate the experience of two utilities with megawatt-scale wind turbine installations from project inception to the wind turbine's first rotation. This technical report presents the experiences of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) with its wind turbine installation at Solano County, California. All documents and reports pertaining to PG and E's experience with wind energy at Solano County were reviewed and excerpts made of the highlights. Gaps in the documentation were filled by talking with appropriate people. Site visits were conducted to monitor current activity. The information obtained was evaluated for its generic relevance and benefit to other utilities. The chronology of steps taken by PG and E in implementing the Solano wind turbine experience and some of the lessons learned are included in the report. In each section, important activities, critical assumptions, and interesting insights which might benefit other utility wind programs are identified.

  8. Technical procedures for utilities and solid waste: Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The evaluation of environmental issues and concerns and the addressing of statutory requirements are fundamental parts in the characterization of the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Utilities and Solid Waste considerations. This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Utilities and Solid Waste Site Study Plan. The purpose and scope of the Utilities and Solid Waste Technical Procedure is to develop and implement a data collection procedure to fulfill the data base needs of the Utilities and Solid Waste SSP. The procedure describes a method of obtaining, assessing and verifying the capabilities of the regional service utilities and disposal contractors. This data base can be used to identify a preferred service source for the engineering contractor. The technical procedure was produced under the guidelines established in Technical Administrative Procedure No. 1.0, Preparation, Review and Approval of Technical Procedures.

  9. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, F.A.; Seib, P.A.

    1991-12-31

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  10. Production, optimization and characterization of lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 from utilizing agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abhinay Kumar; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt; Jha, Alok; Poonia, Amrita; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-06-01

    In the present work Lactobacillus delbrueckii was used to utilize agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses) for lactic acid production under submerged fermentation process. Screening of LAB was done by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). Effect of different amino acids (DL-Phenylalanine, L-Lysine and DL-Aspartic acid) on the fermentation process was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize the levels of three parameters viz. tween 80, amino acid and cane molasses concentration during fermentative production of lactic acid. Under optimum condition lactic acid production was enhanced from 55.89 g/L to 84.50 g/L. Further, validation showed 81.50 g/L lactic acid production. Scale up was done on 7.5 L fermentor. Productivity was found to be 3.40 g/L/h which was higher than previous studies with reduced fermentation time from 24 h to 12 h. Further characterization of lactic acid was done by FTIR.

  11. Development of a prodrug of salicylic acid, salicylic acid-L-alanine conjugate, utilizing hydrolysis by rabbit intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Tagami, C; Nishida, K; Sasaki, H

    1992-04-01

    The hydrolysis of salicylic acid-L-alanine conjugate (salicyl-L-alanine) following oral, intravenous, intracaecal and rectal administration (60, 10, 5 and 5 mg kg-1, respectively: salicylic acid equivalent) was examined in rabbits. Salicylic acid was detected in the blood 2 h after oral administration of salicyl-L-alanine and reached a maximum concentration at 10 h, whereas salicyl-L-alanine was rapidly eliminated. In contrast, unchanged salicyl-L-alanine only was found following intravenous administration of salicyl-L-alanine, suggesting that presystemic de-conjugation of salicyl-L-alanine was involved. The intestinal mucosal de-conjugation of salicyl-L-alanine was not recognized in the in-situ intestinal sac preparation with complete mesenteric venous blood collection. Immediate and very extensive salicylic acid formation in the caecum was found following intracaecal administration of salicyl-L-alanine. After oral pretreatment of rabbits with kanamycin sulphate, a significant inhibition of salicylic acid formation following intracaecal administration of salicyl-L-alanine was observed, indicating that the intestinal microorganisms were responsible for the biotransformation of salicyl-L-alanine. In-vitro incubation of salicyl-L-alanine with gut contents showed that the major source of its hydrolysis was the hind gut. Consequently, the blood concentration of salicylic acid was prolonged extensively following rectal administration of salicyl-L-alanine, suggesting the usefulness of salicyl-L-alanine as a prodrug of salicylic acid.

  12. A novel prodrug of salicylic acid, salicylic acid-glycylglycine conjugate, utilizing the hydrolysis in rabbit intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Asai, K; Nishida, K; Sasaki, H

    1992-09-01

    The hydrolysis of salicylic acid-glycylglycine conjugate (salicyl-glycylglycine) following oral, intravenous, intracaecal and rectal administration (434, 72, 36 and 36 mumol kg-1, respectively: equivalent to salicylic acid) was examined in rabbits to develop a novel prodrug of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid was detected in the blood 2 h after oral administration of salicyl-glycylglycine and it reached a maximum level (55.6 micrograms mL-1) at 15 h, whereas a small amount of salicyl-glycylglycine was found in the blood. In contrast, unchanged salicyl-glycylglycine was found mainly in the blood following its intravenous administration, suggesting the involvement of presystemic deconjugation in the hydrolysis of salicyl-glycylglycine. Immediate and very extensive salicyclic acid formation in the caecum was observed following intracaecal administration of salicyl-glycylglycine, suggesting that the intestinal microorganisms were responsible for the biotransformation of this compound. In-vitro incubation of salicyl-glycylglycine with caecal content showed that salicyl-glycylglycine was hydrolysed efficiently in the caecum. Consequently, the blood concentration of salicylic acid was prolonged extensively following rectal administration of salicyl-glycylglycine, indicating the usefulness of salicyl-glycylglycine as a prodrug of salicylic acid.

  13. Effects of nitrocompounds on uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Weeks, L J; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J; Dunkley, K; Ricke, S C

    2009-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of nitrocompounds on growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure. There were three treatments: control, 100 mM nitropropanol (NPL), and 100 mM nitropropionic acid (NPC). The mixed laying hen manure was divided into 3 groups and incubated at 23 degrees C for 7 days. On Days 0, 3, and 7, samples were collected to measure the quantity of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, total nitrogen retention, and microbial community changes. Both nitrocompounds significantly reduced growth of the uric acid-utilizing microorganisms on Day 3 (P < 0.05). Inhibitory effects of both nitrocompounds remained until Day 7 when the experiment was terminated. NPL treatment retained significantly more manure nitrogen compared to the control on both Days 3 and 7. Manure nitrogen levels of NPC treatment were also significantly higher than the control on Day 7. We further investigated the effects of NPL and NPC on microbial community changes during a 7-day incubation. NPC treatment and control on Day 7 exhibited 94% community similarity. NPC on Day 3 and NPL on Day 7 also showed high community similarity (approximately 94%). Control on Day 0 and Day 7 yielded less than 80% community similarity. Control and NPL treatment groups on Day 3 gave the lowest community similarity (approximately 64%) compared to the other groups. This result indicated that incubation time and treatment moderately influenced microbial community changes. In summary, these results indicate that both nitrocompounds increased manure nitrogen retention by inhibiting the growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, and that NPL and NPC could be used as manure treatments in order to reduce ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention in poultry manure. Moreover, nitrocompounds may have potential as feed additives to reduce ammonia volatilization.

  14. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  15. 76 FR 772 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Amended Antidumping Duty Order... International Trade Not in Harmony AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department...

  16. Utilization of acidic α-amino acids as acyl donors: an effective stereo-controllable synthesis of aryl-keto α-amino acids and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Tachrim, Zetryana Puteri; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2014-05-16

    Aryl-keto-containing α-amino acids are of great importance in organic chemistry and biochemistry. They are valuable intermediates for the construction of hydroxyl α-amino acids, nonproteinogenic α-amino acids, as well as other biofunctional components. Friedel-Crafts acylation is an effective method to prepare aryl-keto derivatives. In this review, we summarize the preparation of aryl-keto containing α-amino acids by Friedel-Crafts acylation using acidic α-amino acids as acyl-donors and Lewis acids or Brönsted acids as catalysts.

  17. Aromatic amino acids are utilized and protein synthesis is stimulated during amino acid infusion in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Liechty, E A; Boyle, D W; Moorehead, H; Auble, L; Denne, S C

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ovine fetus is capable of increased disposal of an amino acid load; if so, would it respond by increased protein synthesis, amino acid catabolism or both? A further purpose of the study was to determine whether the pathways of aromatic amino acid catabolism are functional in the fetus. Late gestation ovine fetuses of well-nourished ewes received an infusion of Aminosyn PF alone (APF), and Aminosyn PF + glycyl-L-tyrosine (APF+GT) at rates estimated to double the intake of these amino acids. The initial study, using APF, was performed at 126 +/- 1.4 d; the APF+GT study was performed at 132 +/- 1.7 d (term = 150 d). Phenylalanine and tyrosine kinetics were determined using both stable and radioactive isotopes. Plasma concentrations of most amino acids, but not tyrosine, increased during both studies; tyrosine concentration increased only during the APF+GT study. Phenylalanine rate of appearance and phenylalanine hydroxylation increased during both studies. Tyrosine rate of appearance increased only during the APF+GT study; tyrosine oxidation did not increase during either study. Fetal protein synthesis increased significantly during both studies, producing a significant increase in fetal protein accretion. Fetal proteolysis was unchanged in response to either amino acid infusion. These results indicate that the fetus responds to an acute increase in amino acid supply primarily by increasing protein synthesis and accretion, with a smaller but significant increase in amino acid catabolism also. Both phenylalanine hydroxylation and tyrosine oxidation are active in the fetus, and the fetus is able to increase phenylalanine hydroxylation rapidly in response to increased supply.

  18. Evaluation of Mobile Office Education Unit Utilization with Migrant Workers in Box Elder School District. Final Report, March 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Contracted by the U.S. Office of Education, this program utilized a mobile office-education unit designed to provide office education to migrant workers in Brigham City, Utah, to thus expand their vocational opportunities. Stated objectives were that each student would (1) demonstrate "touch" knowledge of the typing keyboard and skills necessary…

  19. Six Years of Rehabilitation Research: Studies of Personnel in Health Related Professions, Client Motivation and Research Utilization. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthard, John E., Ed.; Dumas, Neil S., Ed.

    This report reviews the accomplishments, nature, score, and intended impact of the Regional Rehabilitation Research Institute at the University of Florida (UF-RRRI). The Institute's current projects and activities in manpower and research utilization are reviewed as well as investigations conducted by previous staff members in the areas of client…

  20. Utilization of geothermal energy for methane production for J. A. Albertson Land and Cattle Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    The feasibility of an integrated system to utilize a geothermal resource for a bioconversion plant. This integrated facility would use the manure from approximately 30,000 head of feedlot cattle as a feedstock for an anaerobic digestion plant. The findings on engineering design, geological assessment, environmental, economic, and institutional requirements of the proposed project are summarized. (MHR)

  1. Genomic features of Lactococcus lactis IO-1, a lactic acid bacterium that utilizes xylose and produces high levels of L-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Shimizu-Kadota, Mariko; Kato, Hiroaki; Shiwa, Yuh; Oshima, Kenshiro; Machii, Miki; Araya-Kojima, Tomoko; Zendo, Takeshi; Hattori, Masahira; Sonomoto, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis IO-1 (JCM7638) produces L-lactic acid predominantly when grown at high xylose concentrations, and its utilization is highly desired in the green plastics industry. Therefore it is worthwhile studying its genomic traits. In this study, we focused on (i) genes of possible horizontal transfer derivation (prophages, the nisin-sucrose transposon, and several restriction-modification systems), and (ii) genes for the synthetic pathways of amino acids and vitamins in the IO-1 genome. In view of the results of this analysis, we consider their meanings in strain IO-1.

  2. Phosphate-independent utilization of phosphonoacetic acid as sole phosphorus source by a psychrophilic strain of Geomyces pannorum P15.

    PubMed

    Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    A psychrophilic fungal strain of Geomyces pannorum P15 was screened for its ability to utilize a range of synthetic and natural organophosphonate compounds as the sole source of phosphorus, nitrogen, or carbon. Only phosphonoacetic acid served as a phosphorus source for microbial growth in phosphate-independent manner. Substrate metabolism did not lead to extracellular release of inorganic phosphate. No phosphonate metabolizing enzyme activity was detectable in cell-free extracts prepared from Geomyces biomass pregrown on 2 mmol/L phosphonoacetic acid.

  3. Evaluation of amino Acid and energy utilization in feedstuff for Swine and poultry diets.

    PubMed

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2014-07-01

    An accurate feed formulation is essential for optimizing feed efficiency and minimizing feed cost for swine and poultry production. Because energy and amino acid (AA) account for the major cost of swine and poultry diets, a precise determination of the availability of energy and AA in feedstuffs is essential for accurate diet formulations. Therefore, the methodology for determining the availability of energy and AA should be carefully selected. The total collection and index methods are 2 major procedures for estimating the availability of energy and AA in feedstuffs for swine and poultry diets. The total collection method is based on the laborious production of quantitative records of feed intake and output, whereas the index method can avoid the laborious work, but greatly relies on accurate chemical analysis of index compound. The direct method, in which the test feedstuff in a diet is the sole source of the component of interest, is widely used to determine the digestibility of nutritional components in feedstuffs. In some cases, however, it may be necessary to formulate a basal diet and a test diet in which a portion of the basal diet is replaced by the feed ingredient to be tested because of poor palatability and low level of the interested component in the test ingredients. For the digestibility of AA, due to the confounding effect on AA composition of protein in feces by microorganisms in the hind gut, ileal digestibility rather than fecal digestibility has been preferred as the reliable method for estimating AA digestibility. Depending on the contribution of ileal endogenous AA losses in the ileal digestibility calculation, ileal digestibility estimates can be expressed as apparent, standardized, and true ileal digestibility, and are usually determined using the ileal cannulation method for pigs and the slaughter method for poultry. Among these digestibility estimates, the standardized ileal AA digestibility that corrects apparent ileal digestibility for

  4. Utilization of oriented crystal growth for screening of aromatic carboxylic acids cocrystallization with urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Mirosław; Mroczyńska, Karina; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of molecular complex formation in the solid state of urea with benzoic acid analogues was measured directly on the crystallite films deposited on the glass surface using powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). Obtained solid mixtures were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simple droplet evaporation method was found to be efficient, robust, fast and cost-preserving approach for first stage cocrystal screening. Additionally, the application of orientation effect to cocrystal screening simplifies the analysis due to damping of majority of diffraction signals coming from coformers. During validation phase the proposed approach successfully reproduced both positive cases of cocrystallization (urea:salicylic acid and urea:4-hydroxy benzoic acid) as well as pairs of co-formers immiscible in the solid state (urea:benzoic acid and urea:acetylsalicylic acids). Based on validated approach new cocrystals of urea were identified in complexes with 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. In all cases formation of multicomponent crystal phase was confirmed by the appearance of new reflexes on the diffraction patterns and FTIR absorption band shifts of O-H and N-H groups.

  5. Acid deposition in Maryland: Summary of results through 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuro, J.; Bowman, M.; Maxwell, C.; Asante-Duah, D.; Meyers, S.

    1990-06-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Research and Monitoring Program coordinates Maryland's acid deposition research and reports research results annually. The report evaluates several major topic areas including transport and chemistry of acid deposition, its potential impacts on the State's streams and fish, possible impacts on terrestrial resources such as crops and forests and on materials, the ability of energy conservation programs to reduce emissions of acid-forming pollutants, and mitigation techniques for neutralizing acid waters.

  6. Remedial methods for intergranular attack of alloy 600 tubing. Volume 3. Boric acid and acetic acid remedial methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubright, M.M.

    1986-06-01

    An important cause of recent tube degradation in recirculating pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators with open tube/tubesheet crevices is intergranular attack (IGA) of alloy 600 tubing in the crevice region. The attack appears to occur on the hot leg tubing because of high concentrations of caustic species formed from remnants of past phosphate water treatment, combined with materials from inleakage from freshwater-cooled condensers. The concept of using neutralizers to modify the aggressiveness of the crevice environment was examined. It appears that this can be accomplished by neutralizing the caustic species with an acid. Two ways to apply the acid are by off-line flushing during plant shutdown and by on-line treatment during operation. The substance that appears to be most suitable for off-line flushing is acetic acid, with boric acid as a second choice. Concentrations should be in the range of from 1000 to 5000 ppM. The addition of 1000 to 5000 ppM of a non-ionic detergent in the flush solution should improve penetration of the crevice. Use of preflush lancing to remove sludge on the tubesheet will also help by reducing acid consumption. The requirements for materials to be used in on-line treatment are more stringent because of possible interaction with other components in the secondry system. Boric acid is the only substance that has operational experience. A series of tests are proposed to investigate the behavior of acetic acid and boric acid on tubesheet sludge, on tubesheet/support plate material, and on alloy 600/tubesheet couples. Similarly, areas of uncertainty of on-line treatment with boric acid are its effect on tubesheet/support plate materials and on the rest of the secondary system. 23 refs.

  7. Nitrogen in dietary glutamate is utilized exclusively for the synthesis of amino acids in the rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hidehiro; Kawamata, Yasuko; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Torii, Kunio; Sakai, Ryosei

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that virtually the entire carbon skeleton of dietary glutamate (glutamate-C) is metabolized in the gut for energy production and amino acid synthesis, little is known regarding the fate of dietary glutamate nitrogen (glutamate-N). In this study, we hypothesized that dietary glutamate-N is an effective nitrogen source for amino acid synthesis and investigated the fate of dietary glutamate-N using [(15)N]glutamate. Fischer male rats were given hourly meals containing [U-(13)C]- or [(15)N]glutamate. The concentration and isotopic enrichment of several amino acids were measured after 0-9 h of feeding, and the net release of each amino acid into the portal vein was calculated. Most of the dietary glutamate-C was metabolized into CO(2), lactate, or alanine (56, 13, and 12% of the dietary input, respectively) in the portal drained viscera (PDV). Most of the glutamate-N was utilized for the synthesis of other amino acids such as alanine and citrulline (75 and 3% of dietary input, respectively) in the PDV, and only minor amounts were released into the portal vein in the form of ammonia and glutamate (2 and 3% of the dietary input, respectively). Substantial incorporation of (15)N into systemic amino acids such as alanine, glutamine, and proline, amino acids of the urea cycle, and branched-chain amino acids was also evident. These results provide quantitative evidence that dietary glutamate-N distributes extensively to amino acids synthesized in the PDV and, consequently, to circulating amino acids.

  8. A Study and Demonstration of the Training and Utilization of Psychological Assistants in Different Clinical Settings. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaulley, Mary H.

    The training program described in this final report is one of a number of attempts to solve the manpower shortage in psychology. The task proposes to demonstrate that the presence of psychological assistants, in this case seven female college graduates, increases the effectiveness and productivity of the clinical psychologists to whom they are…

  9. The Utilization of IWRP (IPE) Goals Other Than Competitive Employment for American Indians with Disabilities: A Preliminary Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacht, Robert M.

    This final report presents conclusions of a study of culturally appropriate employment goals in individual written rehabilitation plans (IWRPs) for American Indians with disabilities. It focuses on goals other than competitive employment and reviews national statistics on work status at closure from all state agencies and 18 tribal VR (vocational…

  10. Utilization of lactic acid bacterial genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in the production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Ancy; Aikawa, Shimpei; Sasaki, Kengo; Tsuge, Yota; Matsuda, Fumio; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic pathway engineering of cyanobacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals from atmospheric CO2 has generated interest recently. Here, we engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to produce lactic acid using a lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene from various lactic acid-producing bacteria, Lactococcus lactis (ldhB and ldhX), Lactobacillus plantarum (ldhL and ldh), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ldhL). The lactic acid was secreted outside the cell using a transporter (lldp) gene from L. plantarum. Expression of each ldh in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 was ascertained by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Five transformants led to the production of L-lactic acid. Co-expression of lldp with ldhB from L. plantarum or ldhL from L. rhamnosus led to the secretion of lactic acid into the medium at concentration of 0.17 ± 0.02 or 0.14 ± 0.02 mM after 18 d of cultivation.

  11. High efficient treatment of citric acid effluent by Chlorella vulgaris and potential biomass utilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Li, Yuji; Chen, Luping; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of treating citric acid effluent by green algae Chlorella was investigated. With the highest growth rate, Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN2010 that could efficiently remove nutrients in the citric acid effluent was selected for scale-up batch experiments under the optimal conditions, where its maximum biomass was 1.04 g l(-1) and removal efficiencies of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) were above 90.0%. Algal lipid and protein contents were around 340.0 and 500.0 mg · g(-1) of the harvested biomass, respectively. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lipids and eight kinds of essential amino acids in algal protein were 74.0% and 40.0%, respectively. Three major fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosadienoic acid. This specific effluent treatment process could be proposed as a dual-beneficial approach, which converts nutrients in the high strength citric acid effluent into profitable byproducts and reduces the contaminations. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Provision of utility support services to the US Department of Energy San Francisco Operations Office. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The main purpose of this project was to provide to DOE/SAN continuing, follow-up support to realize savings from a number of alternate supply arrangements that had already been and/or were expected to be identified under the original project. This expected continuation of these efforts is demonstrated by certain of the tasks that are spelled out in the Statement of Work. For example: Evaluate and propose alternative options and methods for improving efficiency, reducing cost, and making effective use of the energy supplies and facilities under various conditions of use; Provide engineering and economic analysis and recommendations for utility-related facilities and service issues, such as high voltage discounts, ownership of facilities, etc.; Assist in developing strategy and documentation in support of negotiating utility contracts and modifications thereto. In addition, the follow-on contract provided for monitoring and intervening in rate cases that had particular relevance to the DOE/SAN laboratories.

  13. Financial constraints in capacity planning: a national utility regulatory model (NUREG). Volume III of III: software description. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-29

    This volume is the software description for the National Utility Regulatory Model (NUREG). This is the third of three volumes provided by ICF under contract number DEAC-01-79EI-10579. These three volumes are: a manual describing the NUREG methodology; a users guide; and a description of the software. This manual describes the software which has been developed for NUREG. This includes a listing of the source modules. All computer code has been written in FORTRAN.

  14. A detailed mechanistic investigation into the reaction of 3-methylpentanoic acid with Meldrum's acid utilizing online NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Anna L; Codina, Anna; Foley, David A; Marquez, Brian L; Zell, Mark T

    2016-06-01

    A thorough investigation into the mechanism of the reaction of 3-methylpentanoic acid and Meldrum's acid using online NMR spectroscopy is reported. This study is an expansion of a previous analysis of this chemical transformation in the synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient imagabalin. The 3-methylpentanoic acid analogue reveals similar behavior under the reaction conditions. Online NMR spectroscopy and offline characterization experiments reveal new information about the mechanism, providing conclusive spectroscopic evidence for the previously hypothesized dimer anhydride intermediate species 3-methylpentanoic anhydride as a productive intermediate. The presence of an acyl chloride intermediate species, 3-methylpentanoyl chloride, is also revealed for the first time in this synthesis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of scrubbing operating conditions on adipic acid degradation. Final report February-August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.

    1981-02-01

    The report gives results of adipic acid degradation tests at EPA's IERL-RTP limestone SO2 scrubber, to investigate the effects of operating variables on unaccountable adipic acid loss. It was found that: (1) adipic acid degradation could not be totally quenched by only lowering the pH below 5.0; (2) pH change did significantly affect unaccountable adipic acid loss (other factors may increase the adipic acid degradation rate at both high and low pH); (3) an appreciable amount of adipic acid loss was caused by coprecipitation with calcium sulfite; and (4) forced oxidation could aggravate the adipic acid degradation loss even at pH below 5.0. Adipic acid loss could be reduced: at high sulfite concentrations (the adipic acid degradation rate could be decreased by lowering the destructive free radical concentrations by high total sulfite); in the presence of manganous ion at low pH (the metal ion might act as an inhibitor to the oxidative degradation reaction at low pH); and with high natural oxidation (the adipic acid coprecipitation loss might be reduced with the high natural oxidation). Adipic acid degradation (loss) data were compared from four different test facilities. Most of the data also support these conclusions.

  16. Changes in citric acid cycle flux and anaplerosis antedate the functional decline in isolated rat hearts utilizing acetoacetate.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R R; Taegtmeyer, H

    1991-01-01

    To determine the temporal relationship between changes in contractile performance and flux through the citric acid cycle in hearts oxidizing acetoacetate, we perfused isolated working rat hearts with either glucose or acetoacetate (both 5 mM) and freeze-clamped the tissue at defined times. After 60 min of perfusion, hearts utilizing acetoacetate exhibited lower systolic and diastolic pressures and lower cardiac outputs. The oxidation of acetoacetate increased the tissue content of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate and decreased the content of succinyl-CoA suggesting inhibition of citric acid cycle flux through 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. Whereas hearts perfused with either acetoacetate or glucose were similar with respect to their function for the first 20 min, changes in tissue metabolites were already observed within 5 min of perfusion at near-physiological workloads. The addition of lactate or propionate, but not acetate, to hearts oxidizing acetoacetate improved contractile performance, although inhibition of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase was probably not diminished. If lactate or propionate were added, malate and citrate accumulated indicating utilization of anaplerotic pathways for the citric acid cycle. We conclude that a decreased rate of flux through 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in hearts oxidizing acetoacetate precedes, and may be responsible for, contractile failure and is not the result of decreased cardiac work. Further, anaplerosis play an important role in the maintenance of contractile function in hearts utilizing acetoacetate. Images PMID:1671390

  17. The utilization of leftover as acid catalyst to catalyse the transesterification and esterification reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. K.; Yau, Y. H.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, FAME) is a green and renewable energy. It is carbon neutral and produces less air pollutants in combustion. In my project, the selected feedstock of biodiesel production is grease trap oil (GTO). It is extracted from restaurants, and needs pre-treatment. The triglycerides and free fatty acid (FFA) are the main components of GTO. Both triglycerides and free fatty acid can be converted to biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) by transesterification and esterification, through reaction with alcohol (methanol) and catalyst. In the processes, acidic catalyst is chosen to speed up the reactions. The catalyst used In the study, a heterogeneous solid acid is applied. It is waste cooked rice (WCR) collected from leftover. The WCR powder is pyrolysed in 400°C furnace 15 hours and blown with nitrogen gas (incomplete carbonization). The WCR black powder is then mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid and heat in 160°C furnace 15 hours and continuous blown with nitrogen gas (sulphonation). This heterogeneous solid acid is used in the both transesterification and esterification to produce FAME. Moreover, in the optimal reaction conditions, this catalyst offers a stable catalytic effect. After 20 times usage in optimal reaction condition, the catalytic activity remains unchanged.

  18. Utilization of a bipolar lead acid battery for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, William O.; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Eckles, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The development of a battery comprised of bipolar lead acid modules is discussed. The battery is designed to satisfy the requirements of the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The battery will have the following design features: (1) conventional lead acid chemistry; (2) thin electrode/active materials; (3) a thin separator; (4) sealed construction (gas recombinant); and (5) welded plastic frames for the external seal.

  19. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  20. State acid rain research and screening system, version 1. 0. user's manual. Final report, December 1991-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, C.A.; Epstein, S.J.; Piper, K.S.; Taylor, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis and risk management techniques. STARRSS was developed to identify compliance strategies that deserve further, more detailed analysis. The system offers users three capabilities: the ability to research or verify the costs and operating impacts for compliance options at affected generating units; the ability to evaluate and compare the costs and risks associated with specific compliance strategies; and the ability to develop, evaluate, and compare suggested compliance strategies that are generated by an optimization process.

  1. Control of amphibious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea) by utilizing it for the extraction of volatile fatty acids as energy precursors

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq Kumar, M.; Tauseef, S.M.; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs), comprising mainly of acetic acid and lesser quantities of propionic and butyric acids, are generated when zoomass or phytomass is acted upon by acidogenic and acetogenic microorganisms. VFAs can be utilized by methanogens under anaerobic conditions to generate flammable methane–carbon dioxide mixtures known as ‘biogas’. Acting on the premise that this manner of VFA utilization for generating relatively clean energy can be easily accomplished in a controlled fashion in conventional biogas plants as well as higher-rate anaerobic digesters, we have carried out studies aimed to generate VFAs from the pernicious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea). The VFA extraction was accomplished by a simple yet effective technology, appropriate for use even by laypersons. For this acid-phase reactors were set, to which measured quantities of ipomoea leaves were charged along with water inoculated with cow dung. The reactors were stirred intermittently. It was found that VFA production started within hours of the mixing of the reactants and peaked by the 10th or 11th day in all the reactors, effecting a conversion of over 10% of the biomass into VFAs. The reactor performance had good reproducibility and the process appeared easily controllable, frugal and robust. PMID:25685545

  2. Light truck capabilities, utility requirements and uses: Implications for fuel economy. Final report, March 1995-March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Church, R.; Jain, K.; Little, C.; Moavenzadeh, J.; O`Donnell, J.

    1996-04-01

    In April 1994, NHTSA issued an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rule Making (ANPRM) requesting information regarding light truck fuel economy capabilities for model years 1998 through 2006. Subsequently, in the Department of Transportation Appropriations Act for FY 1995, Congress requested that NHTSA perform a study addressing two key questions: (1) What are the unique capabilities, utility requirements, and uses of light trucks, (2) Do these consumer requirements and other regulatory requirements constrain the ability to improve light truck fuel economy. The principal findings of the study conducted for NHTSA by the Volpe Transportation Systems Center are contained in the report.

  3. Economic and technical feasibility of utilizing fish waste as organic nutrients for farm/horticultural use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gargasz, R.E.; Pye, E.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the technical and economic viability of utilizing fish wastes and other organic residues as organic peat nutrients for agriculture/horticulture applications are presented. The project tasks included: (1) Reputable analysis of the waste products to determine the primary plant nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash as well as trace elements; (2) Technical feasibility of reducing these organic wastes into nutrients, valuable and assimilable by agricultural or horticultural crops or as a high protein animal feed; and (3) The economic viability of commercializing, manufacturing, and marketing these waste products as a specialty plant growth substance/high protein feed supplement.

  4. Implementation of boric acid in the field - Indian Point Unit 3 plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jusino, B.J.

    1983-05-01

    A corrosion phenomenon termed denting has occurred in some operating PWR nuclear steam generators. A steam-generator boric-acid-conditioning program was implemented at Indian Point Unit 3 to demonstrate the effectiveness of boric acid in reducing or stopping the progression of denting. The program included a four-day low-power, boric-acid soak of the steam generators followed by continuous addition of boric acid at high-power operation. An on-line hydrogen-monitoring technique and steam-generator inspection technique were used to determine the baseline condition of the steam generators and to provide an indication of the rate of denting progression after the addition of boric acid to the steam generators. The results from these tests indicated that, although denting had continued, it had progressed at a slower rate than the immediate period before the boric-acid treatment.

  5. Evaluation of field applications of boric acid in PWR steam generators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, W.L.; Sawochka, S.G.; Choi, S.S.

    1984-03-01

    Secondary system chemistry and steam generator denting progression data for seven pressurized water reactors were reviewed in an attempt to evaluate the effects of boric acid addition on denting. Although laboratory data were conclusive relative to the beneficial effect of boric acid, data from KoRi 1, Indian Point 2, and Indian Point 3, where boric acid was employed for extensive periods, did not allow a similar conclusion to be developed for operating plants.

  6. Assessment of mitochondrial function in vivo with a breath test utilizing alpha-ketoisocaproic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Michaletz, P.A.; Cap, L.; Alpert, E.; Lauterburg, B.H. )

    1989-11-01

    A breath test to assess hepatic mitochondrial function in vivo was evaluated in rats. Following the i.p. administration of (1-{sup 14}C)-alpha-ketoisocaproic acid, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} exhalation reached a peak within 10 to 20 min and then declined exponentially, with a half-life of 14.3 min. Control animals exhaled 38.6% of the administered radioactivity within 1 hr. In functionally anhepatic animals, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in breath amounted to 23% of that in control animals, indicating that alpha-ketoisocaproic acid decarboxylation reflects mainly hepatic mitochondrial function in vivo. Ethanol (3 gm per kg) significantly decreased alpha-ketoisocaproic acid decarboxylation (21.8% of the dose appearing in breath in 1 hr), probably due to the ethanol-induced shift in the NAD+:NADH ratio. In contrast, an uncoupler of mitochondrial respiration, sodium salicylate (375 mg per kg), increased the decarboxylation of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (56.3% of the dose recovered as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in 1 hr). Mitochondrial damage induced by 4-pentenoic acid decreased the decarboxylation of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid but did not affect the microsomal metabolism of antipyrine. The present data indicate that the alpha-ketoisocaproic acid breath test provides a noninvasive estimate of hepatic mitochondrial function in vivo which, when applied to man, might yield clinically useful information.

  7. Utilization of Lactic Acid by Fusarium oxysporum var. lini: Regulation of Transport and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ieso M.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.

    1994-01-01

    Lactic acid was transported in Fusarium oxysporum var. lini ATCC 10960 by a saturable transport system that had a half-saturation constant of 56.6 ± 7.5 μM and a maximum velocity of 0.61 ± 0.10 mmol h-1 g-1 (dry weight) at 26°C and pH 5.0. This transport system was inducible and was not expressed in the presence of a repressing substrate. Evidence is presented that the anionic form lactate- was taken up by the cells. Propionic, acetic, pyruvic, and bromoacetic acids but not succinic acid competitively inhibited the transport of lactic acid. Bromoacetic acid, which was not metabolized, was taken up to a steady-state level when intracellular and extracellular concentrations were identical, indicating that the transport system was not accumulative. The enzymatic activity that was physiologically more relevant in the metabolism of lactic acid was lactate: ferricytochrome c oxidase. This enzyme did not exhibit stereospecifity and was induced by lactic acid. PMID:16349143

  8. Effects of acidic mixtures on pulmonary macrophage functions: A pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phalen, R.F.; Kikkawa, Y.; Nadziejko, C.; Kleinman, M.T.

    1992-02-01

    Fischer 344 rats were examined for effects of inhaled nitric acid and ozone on macrophage cell function, to evaluate new endpoints for future acid inhalation studies. Pulmonary macrophage respiratory burst activity, production of arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4) by macrophages, and lavage fluid elastase inhibitory capacity were found to be affected by in vivo exposure to nitric acid vapor, alone or in combination with ozone. These results have implications with respect to the development of lung infections, asthma, and emphysema.

  9. Measurements of organic acids in the South Coast Air Basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Williams, E.; Van Neste, A.

    1988-09-01

    Ambient levels of formic acid (up to 13 ppb) and acetic acid (up to 16 ppb) were measured at a Southern California smog-receptor site. The results are discussed with respect to emission sources, in-situ formation in the atmosphere, and removal processes for organic acids in urban atmospheres. Mobile sources contribute an estimated 20,000 kg per day of organic acids in the Los Angeles area. In-situ formation by ozone-hydrocarbon reactions contributes another 20,000 kg per day. Removal involves mostly dry deposition, with estimated deposition fluxes of 70 nmol/sq m/year for formic acid and acetic acid. Ambient levels of organic acids were higher than those of inorganic acids (nitric acid, HCl) and exceeded those of ozone 50% of the time, i.e., for 12 hours at night. Sampling and analytical methods, gas-aerosol phase partition, diurnal variations and relationships with other air-quality parameters and earlier literature data are examined in detail.

  10. Direct utilization of geothermal energy resources in food processing. Final report, May 17, 1978-May 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    In early 1978 financial assistance was granted for a project to utilize geothermal energy at Ore-Ida Foods, Inc.'s food processing plant in Ontario, Oregon. Specifically, the project included exploring, testing, and developing the potential geothermal resource; retrofitting the existing gas/oil-fired steam system; utilizing the geothermal resource for food processing, space heating, and hot potable water; and injecting the spent geothermal water back into a disposal well. Based on preliminary investigations which indicated the presence of a local geothermal resource, drilling began in August 1979. Although the anticipated resource temperature of 380/sup 0/F was reached at total well depth (10,054 feet), adequate flow to meet processing requirements could not be obtained. Subsequent well testing and stimulation techniques also failed to produce the necessary flow, and the project was eventually abandoned. However, throughout the duration of the project, all activities were carefully monitored and recorded to ensure the program's value for future evaluation. This report presents a culmination of data collected during the Ore-Ida project.

  11. Direct utilization of geothermal resources field experiments at Monroe, Utah. Final report, July 14, 1978-July 13, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, C.K.; Owen, L.B.

    1982-12-01

    The City of Monroe, Utah undertook a project to demonstrate the economic and technical viability of utilizing a low temperature geothermal resource to provide space and hot water heating to commercial, municipal, and domestic users within the community. During the course of the project, resource development and assessment, including drilling of a production well, was successfully completed. Upon completion of the field development and assessment phase of the program and of a preliminary design of the district heating system, it was determined that the project as proposed was not economically viable. This was due to: (1) a significant increase in estimated capital equipment costs resulting from the general inflation in construction costs, the large area/low population density in Monroe, and a more remote fluid disposal well site than planned, could not balance increased construction costs, (2) a lower temperature resource than predicted, and (3) due to predicted higher pumping and operating costs. After a thorough investigation of alternatives for utilizing the resource, further project activities were cancelled because the project was no longer economical and an alternative application for the resource could not be found within the constraints of the project. The City of Monroe, Utah is still seeking a beneficial use for the 600 gpm, 164/sup 0/F geothermal well. A summary of project activities included.

  12. Construction of energy-conserving sucrose utilization pathways for improving poly-γ-glutamic acid production in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Gu, Yanyan; Quan, Yufen; Gao, Weixia; Dang, Yulei; Cao, Mingfeng; Lu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yi; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2017-06-06

    Sucrose is an naturally abundant and easily fermentable feedstock for various biochemical production processes. By now, several sucrose utilization pathways have been identified and characterized. Among them, the pathway consists of sucrose permease and sucrose phosphorylase is an energy-conserving sucrose utilization pathway because it consumes less ATP when comparing to other known pathways. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NK-1 strain can use sucrose as the feedstock to produce poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), a highly valuable biopolymer. The native sucrose utilization pathway in NK-1 strain consists of phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and sucrose-6-P hydrolase and consumes more ATP than the energy-conserving sucrose utilization pathway. In this study, the native sucrose utilization pathway in NK-1 was firstly deleted and generated the B. amyloliquefaciens 3Δ strain. Then four combination of heterologous energy-conserving sucrose utilization pathways were constructed and introduced into the 3Δ strain. Results demonstrated that the combination of cscB (encodes sucrose permease) from Escherichia coli and sucP (encodes sucrose phosphorylase) from Bifidobacterium adolescentis showed the highest sucrose metabolic efficiency. The corresponding mutant consumed 49.4% more sucrose and produced 38.5% more γ-PGA than the NK-1 strain under the same fermentation conditions. To our best knowledge, this is the first report concerning the enhancement of the target product production by introducing the heterologous energy-conserving sucrose utilization pathways. Such a strategy can be easily extended to other microorganism hosts for reinforced biochemical production using sucrose as substrate.

  13. Individual and structural environmental influences on utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation among pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Tinago, Chiwoneso B; Annang Ingram, Lucy; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A

    2017-07-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent among Zimbabweans with serious health and social implications. Due to a lack of a national micronutrient food fortification policy, the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care established a policy for the prevention of maternal micronutrient deficiencies, which centres on pregnant women receiving daily iron and folic acid (IFA) at their first antenatal care visit and throughout pregnancy. Despite these efforts, utilization of IFA supplementation in pregnancy in Zimbabwe is low. This study aimed to understand the experiences and knowledge of IFA supplementation among pregnant women and healthcare workers in Harare, Zimbabwe, and the influence of health-service and social environments on utilization. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted in Shona and English, with pregnant women (n = 24) and healthcare workers (n = 14) providing direct antenatal care services to pregnant women in two high-density community clinics. Data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10. Influences on utilization were at the individual and structural environmental levels. Reasons for low utilization of IFA supplementation included forgetting to take IFA, side effects, misconceptions about IFA, limited access to nutrition information, delayed entry or non-uptake of antenatal care and social norms of pregnant women for IFA supplementation. Utilization was enhanced by knowledge of risks and benefits of supplementation, fear of negative health complications with non-utilization, family support and healthcare worker recommendation for supplementation. Study findings can inform approaches to strengthen micronutrient supplementation utilization to improve the micronutrient status of pregnant women to decrease maternal mortality and improve overall maternal and child health in Zimbabwe. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hot topic: a unified approach to utilize phenotypic, full pedigree, and genomic information for genetic evaluation of Holstein final score.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, I; Misztal, I; Johnson, D L; Legarra, A; Tsuruta, S; Lawlor, T J

    2010-02-01

    The first national single-step, full-information (phenotype, pedigree, and marker genotype) genetic evaluation was developed for final score of US Holsteins. Data included final scores recorded from 1955 to 2009 for 6,232,548 Holsteins cows. BovineSNP50 (Illumina, San Diego, CA) genotypes from the Cooperative Dairy DNA Repository (Beltsville, MD) were available for 6,508 bulls. Three analyses used a repeatability animal model as currently used for the national US evaluation. The first 2 analyses used final scores recorded up to 2004. The first analysis used only a pedigree-based relationship matrix. The second analysis used a relationship matrix based on both pedigree and genomic information (single-step approach). The third analysis used the complete data set and only the pedigree-based relationship matrix. The fourth analysis used predictions from the first analysis (final scores up to 2004 and only a pedigree-based relationship matrix) and prediction using a genomic based matrix to obtain genetic evaluation (multiple-step approach). Different allele frequencies were tested in construction of the genomic relationship matrix. Coefficients of determination between predictions of young bulls from parent average, single-step, and multiple-step approaches and their 2009 daughter deviations were 0.24, 0.37 to 0.41, and 0.40, respectively. The highest coefficient of determination for a single-step approach was observed when using a genomic relationship matrix with assumed allele frequencies of 0.5. Coefficients for regression of 2009 daughter deviations on parent-average, single-step, and multiple-step predictions were 0.76, 0.68 to 0.79, and 0.86, respectively, which indicated some inflation of predictions. The single-step regression coefficient could be increased up to 0.92 by scaling differences between the genomic and pedigree-based relationship matrices with little loss in accuracy of prediction. One complete evaluation took about 2h of computing time and 2

  15. The effect of substrate utilization, manipulated by nicotinic acid, on excess postexercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Trost, S; Wilcox, A; Gillis, D

    1997-02-01

    Increased fat oxidation during the recovery period from exercise is thought to be a contributing factor for excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). In an attempt to study the effect of serum free fatty acid (FFA) availability during exercise and recovery on the EPOC, nicotinic acid, a potent inhibitor of FFA mobilization from adipose tissue, was administered to five trained male cyclists prior to, during, and after a bout of cycling at 65% VO2max. In the nicotinic acid trial, a 500 mg dose of nicotinic acid was ingested prior to exercise, and 100 mg doses were ingested at 15, 30, and 45 min exercise, and 30 min recovery. The cyclists also completed a trial under control conditions. Serum FFA, serum glycerol, RER and VO2 were monitored during rest, exercise, and recovery, each of which was 1-h in duration. Nicotinic acid ingestion prevented the increase in serum FFA that occurred during exercise in the control trial. FFA levels during the nicotinic acid trial were significantly lower than control values during both exercise and recovery. Serum glycerol levels were also significantly lower during exercise in the nicotinic acid trial, indicative of a reduction in lipolysis. RER was not significantly different at rest or during exercise; however, RER values were significantly lower during recovery in the control trial, indicative of greater fat oxidation. For both treatments, postexercise VO2 remained elevated above resting levels at the completion of the 1-h recovery period. However, the magnitude of EPOC was significantly reduced after FFA blockade with nicotinic acid (3.4 +/- 0.61 vs 5.5 +/- 0.71). These results support the hypothesis that increased FFA metabolism during exercise and recovery is an important contributing factor to the magnitude of EPOC.

  16. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    About 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable. This Executive Summary describes efforts to dewater the magnesium hydroxide and gypsum slurries and then process the solids into a more user friendly and higher value form. To eliminate the cost of solids disposal in its first generation Thiosorbic® system, the Dravo Lime Company developed the ThioClear® process that utilizes a magnesium based absorber liquor to remove S02 with minimal suspended solids. Magnesium enhanced lime is added to an oxidized bleed stream of thickener overflow (TOF) to produce magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and gypsum (CaS04 • 2H20), as by-products. This process was demonstrated at the 3 to 5 MW closed loop FGD system pilot plant at the Miami Fort Station of Cinergy, near Cincinnati, Ohio with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-91-6. A similar process strictly for'recovery and reuse of Mg(OH)2 began operation at the Zimmer Station of Cinergy in late 1994 that can produce 900 pounds of Mg(OH)2 per hour and 2,600 pounds of gypsum per hour. This by-product plant, called the Zimmer Slipstream Magnesium Hydroxide Recovery Project Demonstration, was conducted with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-921-004. Full scale ThioClear® plants began operating in 1997 at the 130 MW Applied Energy Services plant, in Monaca, PA, and in year 2000 at the 1,330 MW Allegheny Energy Pleasants Station at St. Marys, WV.

  17. Determination of acidic gas and particle concentrations in open-top field chambers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bytnerowicz, A.

    1993-06-01

    The report describes determinations of concentrations of gaseous and particulate air pollutants in open-top field chambers used for exposing of tree seedlings to acidic rain and ozone. During the study, air pollution concentrations were measured in the following types of chambers: charcoal-filtered (control); ambient air with ambient ozone concentrations; ambient air with double ambient ozone concentrations. Concentrations of gaseous nitric acid, gaseous nitrous acid, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in fine and coarse particulate fractions were determined. Increased concentrations of nitric acid were detected in chambers due to the generation of ozone, however, these concentrations were lower than the ambient concentrations measured in outside plots. Elevated concentrations of nitrous acid were detected in the charcoal-filtered chambers.

  18. Effects of acid fog on airway function in people with asthma. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, D.; Balmes, J.R.; Christian, D.

    1988-11-30

    The study was built on earlier work examining the effects of acidic fog on human subjects with asthma. Mouthpiece exposure studies on asthmatic subjects showed that both nitric and sulfuric acids potentiate the bronchoconstrictor effects of fog water, and that these acids appear to be similar in this respect. The work resulted in the exposure chamber at the University of California, San Francisco being extensively modified, based on improvements recommended in an earlier investigation, thus allowing human subjects to be exposed to rigorously controlled and monitored test fogs. The study used the chamber to first examine the effects of fog without acid, and then the effects of fog with acid, on exercising subjects with asthma.

  19. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  20. Effect of coal quality on maintenance costs at utility plants. Final report. [Effect of ash and sulfur content of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.C. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    In an attempt to determine if correlation exists between coal quality, as measured by its ash and sulfur contents, and the maintenance cost at utility plants, an examination was made of the actual maintenance cost experience of selected portions of five TVA coal-fired power plants as a function of the fuel quality consumed during an extended period of time. The results indicate that, according to our decision rules developed in compliance with accepted statistical practices, correlation does exist in many portions of the coal-fired plants for which sufficient maintenance cost records were available. The degree of correlation varies significantly among the individual portions of a particular plant as well as among the various plants. However, the indicators are sufficient to confirm that a change (within the design constraints of the unit) in the ash and/or sulfur content of the coal being consumed by a utility boiler will have a proportionate effect on the maintenance cost at the plant. In the cases examined, each percent variation in ash content could have a monetary effect of from $0.05 to $0.10 per ton of coal consumed. Similarly, each percent variation in sulfur content could influence maintenance costs from $0.30 to $0.50 per ton of coal. Since these values are based on preliminary analysis of limited data, they must be approached with caution and not removed from the context in which they are presented. However, if borne out by further study, the potential magnitude of such savings may be sufficient to justify the acquisition of superior coal supplies, either by changing the source and/or using preparation to obtain a lower ash and sulfur fuel.

  1. Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on strategies electric utilities are using to comply with Phase I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and estimates of the costs of selected utilities for compliance. Compliance strategies are discussed including technological considerations and costs for the six main strategies: (1) fuel switching and/or blending; (2) obtaining additional allowances; (3) installing flue gas desulfurization equipment (scrubbers); (4) using previously implemented controls; (5) retiring facilities; and (6) boiler repowering. Impacts on coal demand and supply are also examined.

  2. [Profiles of the utilization of 20 amino acids as the only source of nitrogen and carbon in bacteria of the genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Escherichia].

    PubMed

    Sivolodskiĭ, E P

    2005-01-01

    The profiles of the utilization of 20 protein amino acids in 118 Klebsiella pneumoniae sub- sp. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. planticola, K. mobilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marscescens, S. liquefaciens, Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical material were studied. The utilization of amino acids was determined on minimal saline agar containing amino acid as the only source of nitrogen and carbon; the results were evaluated after 72-hour incubation at 37 degrees C. 17 profiles of amino-acid utilization were thus determined, most of them genus-specific in enterobacteria: Klebsiella (profiles No. 1--6, 9, 10), Enterobacter (No. 11--13), Serratia (No. 14--16), Escherichia (No. 17). The full coincidence of amino-acid utilization profiles in bacteria of K. mobilis (No. 1, 6) and K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae with out of such profiles in bacteria of the genera Enterobacter, Serratia, Escherichia was established, which confirmed that K. mobilis (formerly Enterobacter aerogenes) belonged to the genus Klebsiella.

  3. Final report on the safety assessment of Malic Acid and Sodium Malate.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Z

    2001-01-01

    Malic Acid functions in cosmetic formulations as a pH adjuster, and Sodium Malate functions as a skin conditioning agent-humectant. Malic Acid is reportedly used in almost 50 cosmetic formulations across a range of product types at low concentrations, whereas Sodium Malate is used in only one. As a pH adjuster, Malic Acid is used at low concentrations. One commercial method of preparing Malic Acid is hydration of fumaric acid or maleic acid, and then purified to limit the amount of the starting material present. Because Malic Acid is a component of the Kreb's cycle, another method is fermentation. Malic Acid was relatively nontoxic in acute toxicity studies using animals. In a chronic oral study, feeding Malic Acid to rats resulted only in weight gain changes and changes in feed consumption. Malic Acid did not cause reproductive toxicity in mice, rats, or rabbits. Malic Acid was a moderate to strong skin irritatant in animal tests, and was a strong ocular irritant. Malic Acid was not mutagenic across a range of genotoxicity tests. Malic Acid was irritating in clinical tests, with less irritation seen as pH of the applied material increased. Patients patch tested with Malic Acid, placed on a diet that avoided foods containing Malic or citric acid, and then challenged with a diet high in Malic and citric acid had both immediate urticarial and delayed contact dermatitis reactions. These data were considered sufficient to determine that Malic Acid and Sodium Malate would be safe at the low concentrations at which these ingredients would be used to adjust pH (even though Sodium Malate is not currently used for that purpose). The data, however, were insufficient to determine the safety of these ingredients when used in cosmetics as other than pH adjusters and specifically, the data are insufficient to determine the safety of Sodium Malate when used as a skin conditioning agent-humectant. The types of data required for the Expert Panel to determine the safety of Sodium

  4. Effect of Peracetic Acid as A Final Rinse on Push Out Bond Strength of Root Canal Sealers to Root Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Gaddala, Naresh; Veeramachineni, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Background Smear layer which was formed during the instrumentation of root canals hinders the penetration of root canal sealers to root dentin and affect the bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Final irrigant such as demineralizing agents are used to remove the inorganic portion of the smear layer. In the present study, peracetic acid used as a final rinse, to effect the bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Aim The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of peracetic acid as a final irrigant on bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Materials and Methods Sixty six freshly extracted human single rooted mandibular premolars were used for this study. After decoronation the samples were instrumented with Protaper upto F3 and irrigated with 5.25% NaOcl. The teeth were then divided into three groups based on final irrigant used: Group-1(control group) Canals were irrigated with distilled water. Group-2: Canals were irrigated with peracetic acid. Group-3: Canals were irrigated with smear clear. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (n=30) based on the sealer used to obturate the canals. Subgroup-1: kerr, Subgroup-2: Apexit plus, Subgroup-3: AH PLUS. Each sealer was mixed and coated to master cone and placed in the canal. The bonding between sealer and dentin surface was evaluated using push out bond strength by universal testing machine. The mean bond strength values of each group were statistically evaluated using Two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Results Significant difference was found among the bond strength of the sealers. But, there is no statistically significant difference between the groups irrigated with peracetic acid and smear clear compared to control group. AH Plus showed highest bond strength irrespective of the final irrigant used. Conclusion Peracetic acid when employed as final irrigant improved the bond strength of root canal sealers compared to control group but

  5. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4

  6. Effect of acid and alkali treatment of soybean meal on nitrogen utilization by ruminants.

    PubMed

    Waltz, D M; Loerch, S C

    1986-09-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) was treated with acid or alkali to determine effects on N solubility, in vitro NH3-N accumulation, in situ N degradability, and N digestion and retention in growing lambs. The following SBM treatments resulted in decreased (P less than .05) N solubility and in vitro NH3-N accumulation compared with control SBM: spraying with 2.5 or 5% acetic or propionic acid, soaking in .5 N HCl, .5 N NaOH or .5 N propionic acid followed by air drying, and soaking in H2O, .5 N HCl or .5 N propionic acid followed by drying at 100 C. In situ residual N was determined for SBM subjected to the above treatments. Soybean meal sprayed with 2.5 or 5% acetic or propionic acid had greater (P less than .05) in situ residual N after 4, 8 and 12 h of incubation than control SBM. Soybean meal soaked in .5 N HCl or .5 N NaOH and air-dried, and soaked in H2O, .5 N propionic acid or .5 N HCl and dried at 100 C had greater (P less than .05) in situ residual N after 4, 8, 12 and 24 h of incubation than control SBM. In a lamb N balance trial, SBM treated by spraying with 5% acetic or propionic acid or by soaking in .5 N NaOH did not result in reduced N digestion compared to control SBM. Feeding SBM soaked in .5 N NaOH resulted in a 39% increase (P less than .05) in N retention compared with control SBM (5.21 vs 3.74 g/d, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Engineering the Xylan Utilization System in Bacillus subtilis for Production of Acidic Xylooligosaccharides

    Treesearch

    Mun Su Rhee; Lusha Wei; Neha Sawhney; John D. Rice; Franz J. St. John; Jason C. Hurlbert; James F. Preston

    2014-01-01

    Xylans are the predominant polysaccharides in hemicelluloses and an important potential source of biofuels and chemicals. The ability of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain 168 to utilize xylans has been ascribed to secreted glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11) and GH30 endoxylanases, encoded by the xynA and...

  8. Heterogeneous freezing of single sulfuric acid solution droplets: laboratory experiments utilizing an acoustic levitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettner, M.; Mitra, S. K.; Borrmann, S.

    2004-09-01

    The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of single binary sulfuric acid solution droplets were measured in dependency of acid concentration down to temperatures as low as -50°C. In order to avoid influence of supporting substrates on the freezing characteristics, a new technique has been developed to suspend the droplet by means of an acoustic levitator. The droplets contained immersed particles of graphite, kaolin or montmorillonite in order to study the influence of the presence of such contamination on the freezing temperature. The radii of the suspended droplets spanned the range between 0.4 and 1.1mm and the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution varied between 5 and 14 weight percent. The presence of the particles in the solution raises the freezing temperature with respect to homogeneous freezing of these solution droplets. The pure solution droplets can be supercooled up to 40 degrees below the ice-acid solution thermodynamic equilibrium curve. Depending on the concentration of sulfuric acid and the nature of the impurity the polluted droplets froze between -11°C and -35°C. The new experimental set-up, combining a deep freezer with a movable ultrasonic levitator and suitable optics, proved to be a useful approach for such investigations on individual droplets.

  9. Brain uptake and utilization of fatty acids: applications to peroxisomal biogenesis diseases.

    PubMed

    Watkins, P A; Hamilton, J A; Leaf, A; Spector, A A; Moore, S A; Anderson, R E; Moser, H W; Noetzel, M J; Katz, R

    2001-01-01

    The brain is rich in diverse fatty acids saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids with chain lengths ranging from less than 16 to more than 24 carbons that make up the complex lipids present in this organ. While some fatty acids are derived from endogenous synthesis, others must come from exogenous sources. The mechanism(s) by which fatty acids enter cells has been the subject of much debate. While some investigators argue for a protein-mediated process, others suggest that simple diffusion is sufficient. In the brain, uptake is further complicated by the presence of the blood-brain barrier. Brain fatty acid homeostasis is disturbed in many human disorders, as typified by the peroxisomal biogenesis diseases. A workshop designed to bring together researchers from varied backgrounds to discuss these issues in an open forum was held in March, 2000. In addition to assessing the current state of knowledge, areas requiring additional investigation were identified and recommendations for future research were made. A brief overview of the invited talks is presented here.

  10. Final Step of Phosphatidic Acid Synthesis in Pea Chloroplasts Occurs in the Inner Envelope Membrane 1

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jaen; Ohlrogge, John B.; Keegstra, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    The second enzyme of phosphatidic acid synthesis from glycerol-3-phosphate, 1-acylglycerophospate acyltransferase, was localized to the inner envelope membrane of pea chloroplasts. The activity of this enzyme was measured by both a coupled enzyme assay and a direct enzyme assay. Using the coupled enzyme assay, phosphatidic acid phosphatase was also localized to the inner envelope membrane, although this enzyme has very low activity in pea chloroplasts. The addition of UDP-galactose to unfractionated pea chloroplast envelope preparations did not result in significant conversion of newly synthesized diacylglycerol to monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, the envelope synthesized phosphatidic acid may not be involved in galactolipid synthesis in pea chloroplasts. PMID:16664266

  11. Review of nitric acid measurements by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, E.C.; Blanchard, C.L.; Hering, S.V.; Lucas, D.; Mackay, G.I.

    1995-12-01

    The nitric acid data obtained by tunable laser diode spectroscopy (TDLAS) in October 1993 in Azua, CA were reviewed to evaluate their accuracy and hence suitability as a reference standard for the measurements made by CADMP, SCAQS-type, and two week denuder samplers. The TDLAS HNO3 time profiles, when examined with those of the concurrent O3 and PAN profiles, showed no evidence of a nitric acid adsorption/desorption process occurring along the sampling train nor evidence of nitric acid vaporization from particles on the Teflon front-filter. No errors in the overall TDLAS calibration was found.

  12. Laboratory study of acid stimulation of drilling-mud-damaged geothermal-reservoir materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Presented here are the results of laboratory testing performed to provide site specific information in support of geothermal reservoir acidizing programs. The testing program included laboratory tests performed to determine the effectiveness of acid treatments in restoring permeability of geologic materials infiltrated with hydrothermally altered sepiolite drilling mud. Additionally, autoclave tests were performed to determine the degree of hydrothermal alteration and effects of acid digestion on drilling muds and drill cuttings from two KGRA's. Four laboratory scale permeability/acidizing tests were conducted on specimens prepared from drill cuttings taken from two geothermal formations. Two tests were performed on material from the East Mesa KGRA Well No. 78-30, from a depth of approximately 5500 feet, and two tests were performed on material from the Roosevelt KGRA Well No. 52-21, from depths of approximately 7000 to 7500 feet. Tests were performed at simulated in situ geothermal conditions of temperature and pressure.

  13. Recovery and utilization of gypsum and limestone from scrubber sludge. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1993-12-31

    Wet flue-gas desulfurization units in coal-fired power plants produce a large amount of sludge which must be disposed of, and which is currently landfilled in most cases. Increasing landfill costs are gradually forcing utilities to find other alternatives. In principle, this sludge can be used to make gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) for products such as plaster-of-Paris and wallboard, but only if impurities such as unreacted limestone and soluble salts are removed, and the calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}) is oxidized to calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). This project investigated methods for removing the impurities from the sludge so that high-quality, salable gypsum products can be made. Two processes were studied, both separately and in combination: Water-only cycloning, and froth flotation. A large fraction (30--40%) of the impurities in the sludge are contained in the coarser, higher-density particles, which are readily removed using a water-only cyclone. Much of the remaining impurities are hydrophobic, and can be removed by froth flotation. A combined cyclone/froth flotation process has been found to be suitable for producing a high-purity product from scrubber sludge at low cost.

  14. Low NO{sub x} turbine power generation utilizing low Btu GOB gas. Final report, June--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.; Gabrielson, J.; Glickert, R.

    1995-08-01

    Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is second only to carbon dioxide as a contributor to potential global warming. Methane liberated by coal mines represents one of the most promising under exploited areas for profitably reducing these methane emissions. Furthermore, there is a need for apparatus and processes that reduce the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from gas turbines in power generation. Consequently, this project aims to demonstrate a technology which utilizes low grade fuel (CMM) in a combustion air stream to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in the operation of a gas turbine. This technology is superior to other existing technologies because it can directly use the varying methane content gases from various streams of the mining operation. The simplicity of the process makes it useful for both new gas turbines and retrofitting existing gas turbines. This report evaluates the feasibility of using gob gas from the 11,000 acre abandoned Gateway Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania as a fuel source for power generation applying low NO{sub x} gas turbine technology at a site which is currently capable of producing low grade GOB gas ({approx_equal} 600 BTU) from abandoned GOB areas.

  15. Evaluation and utilization of Illinois FBC residues for construction materials. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafoori, N.; Sami, S.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this program is to investigate the extent to which fluidized bed combustion (FBC) by-products can be properly utilized as viable construction materials. This investigation focuses primarily on the properties of residues derived from fluidized combustion burning of Illinois high-sulfur coal. The research plan calls for evaluation of physics-chemical and engineering characteristics of the FBC-based cement and non-cement mixes. The results of this study will be used to compare the physical and mechanical properties of the FBC-based mixtures with those of conventional mixes. The suitability of using FBC residues as filler or binder aggregates for Portland cement-based mixtures and non-Portland cement mixes in the form of conventional and roller compacted materials will be evaluated. During this reporting period, fabrication of the laboratory specimens used for evaluation of the sulfate durability of FBC cement-based mixtures (task I) were completed. Work on engineering characteristics of roller compacted non-cement FBC mixes (task II), is on-going.

  16. City of El Centro geothermal energy utility core field experiment. Final report, February 16, 1979-November 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Province, S.G.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1984-11-01

    The City of El Centro was awarded a contract in late 1978 to cost share the development of a low to moderate temperature geothermal resource in the City. The resource would be utilized to heat, cool and provide hot water to the nearby Community Center. In December 1981, Thermal 1 (injector) was drilled to 3970 feet. In January 1982, Thermal 2 (producer) was drilled to 8510 feet. Before testing began, fill migrated into both wells. Both wells were cleaned out. A pump was installed in the producer, but migration of fill again into the injector precluded injection of produced fluid. A short term production test was undertaken and results analyzed. Based upon the analysis, DOE decided that the well was not useful for commercial production due to a low flow rate, the potential problems of continued sanding and gasing, and the requirement to lower the pump setting depth and the associated costs of pumping. There was no commercial user found to take over the wells. Therefore, the wells were plugged and abandoned. The site was restored to its original condition.

  17. Waste fuel utilization in existing boilers on US naval bases. Final report for period ending Sep 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hollander, H.I.; Broderick, J.E.; Klett, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act encourages the recovery of material and energy from waste to the maximum extent practicable at federal facilities while complying with state and local requirements. The Navy's solid waste research project is designed to identify and develop cost effective alternatives for meeting RCRA requirements. Additionally to reduce Navy dependence on dwindlying supplies of natural gas and fuel oil, the Navy has issued guidelines concering the construction of intermediate and larger boiler plants requiring the capability to burn solid forms of fuel including waste derived fuels as well as coal. This report provides perspective on the ramifications of firing solid forms of waste derived fuel, separately or in combination with conventional fossil fuels for existing or new installations. The report is divided into two parts, the first part presents a general discussion of typical characteristics of proposed waste fuels and the potential of utilizing these fuels in existing Navy boilers. The second part is a case study addressing a typical installation and assesses the changes, capital costs and potential problem areas that may be encountered in accommodating waste fuel firing.

  18. Cyanuric Acid-Based Organocatalyst for Utilization of Carbon Dioxide at Atmospheric Pressure.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Kim, Daeun; Kim, Seoksun; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2017-03-22

    A organocatalytic system based on economical and readily available cyanuric acid has been developed for the synthesis of 2-oxazolidinones and quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones from propargylamines and 2-aminobenzonitriles under atmospheric pressure carbon dioxide. Notably, a low concentration of carbon dioxide in air was directly converted into 2-oxazolidinone in excellent yields without an external base. Through mechanistic investigation by in situ FTIR spectroscopy, cyanuric acid was demonstrated to be an efficient catalyst for carbon dioxide fixation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Integrated assessment of acid deposition impacts using reduced-form modeling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, R.; Small, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    Emissions of sulfates and other acidic pollutants from anthropogenic sources result in the deposition of these acidic pollutants on the earth`s surface, downwind of the source. These pollutants reach surface waters, including streams and lakes, and acidify them, resulting in a change in the chemical composition of the surface water. Sometimes the water chemistry is sufficiently altered so that the lake can no longer support aquatic life. This document traces the efforts by many researchers to understand and quantify the effect of acid deposition on the water chemistry of populations of lakes, in particular the improvements to the MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) modeling effort, and describes its reduced-form representation in a decision and uncertainty analysis tool. Previous reduced-form approximations to the MAGIC model are discussed in detail, and their drawbacks are highlighted. An improved reduced-form model for acid neutralizing capacity is presented, which incorporates long-term depletion of the watershed acid neutralization fraction. In addition, improved fish biota models are incorporated in the integrated assessment model, which includes reduced-form models for other physical and chemical processes of acid deposition, as well as the resulting socio-economic and health related effects. The new reduced-form lake chemistry and fish biota models are applied to the Adirondacks region of New York.

  20. Report of the Acid Rain Peer Review Panel. Final report, July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The panel was chartered to perform three tasks: (1) a peer review of the scientific basis relating to acid deposition in Eastern North America performed by three US-Canadian work groups; (2) provide further research and monitoring recommendations to reduce uncertainties in the scientific and technical knowledge regarding acid deposition; and (3) assess uncertainties in scientific and technical information on which the work groups recommendations were based. The panel views the acid rain problem as follows. Acid deposition belongs to a socially very important class of problems that only appear to be precisely soluble by a straightforward sum of existing technological and legislative fixes. This is deceptive. Rather, this class of problems is not permanently solved in a closed fashion, but must be treated progressively. As knowledge steadily increases, actions are taken which appear most effective and economical in the light of increasing understanding. There exist large uncertainties in every aspect of acid deposition - emission, transport, transformation, and eventual deposition, interaction with the biosphere, and economic consequences. Nevertheless, when all the converging partial indicators are considered, it becomes clear that acid deposition is a problem for which solutions should be sought now, and further remedial steps taken.

  1. Utilizing NIR to Predict Total Oil, Sugars, Fatty Acids and Tocopherols in Whole Peanut Seeds.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improving nutritional composition of peanut is a goal of many peanut breeding programs. Among the factors under consideration are total oil, fatty acids, antioxidants, and sugars. Because breeding programs develop and evaluate thousands of segregating progeny each year, they require rapid, inexpen...

  2. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Mashego, M; Zvimba, J N

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess the technical feasibility of calcium carbonate recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effects of key process parameters, such as the amount of acid (HCl/calcium molar ratio), the pH and the CO(2) flow rate were considered. It was observed that calcium extraction from steelmaking slag significantly increased with an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid. The CO(2) flow rate also had a positive effect on the carbonation reaction rate but did not affect the morphology of the calcium carbonate produced for values less than 2 L/min. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with the commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3).

  3. Utility of Eucalyptus tereticornis (Smith) bark and Desulfotomaculum nigrificans for the remediation of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Evvie; Subramanian, S

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of the bark of Eucalyptus tereticornis (Smith) as an adsorbent for the removal of metal ions and sulphate from acid mine water was assessed. About 96% of Fe, 75% of Zn, 92% of Cu and 41% of sulphate removal was achieved from the acid mine water of pH 2.3 with a concomitant increase in pH value by about two units after interaction with the tree bark, under appropriate conditions. The adsorption isotherms adhered to Freundlich and Langmuir relationships and were exothermic in nature. The free energy of the adsorption process was found to be negative attesting to the feasibility of the reaction. The adsorption kinetics followed the first-order Lagergren rate equation. The filtrate obtained after treatment with E. tereticornis (Sm) bark was found to contain essential elements like potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium and phosphate apart from carbon which served as a successful growth medium for the sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) namely Desulfotomaculum nigrificans. Bacterial growth studies showed that about 57% and 72% of sulphate reduction could be achieved at initial pH values of 4.1 and 5.5 respectively of the acid mine water. Pretreatment of the acid mine water with tree bark followed by bioremoval using Dsm. nigrificans resulted in about 75% and 84% respectively of sulphate reduction at pH 4.1 and 5.5, cumulatively by biosorption and bioreduction. The mechanisms of metal ion removal using tree bark and sulphate reduction using Dsm. nigrificans are discussed.

  4. Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes dauer pheromone biosynthesis to dispose of toxic peroxisomal fatty acids for cellular homoeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caenorhabditis elegans secretes a dauer pheromone or daumone composed of ascarylose and a fatty acid side chain, perception of which enables worms to gauge depletion of food or a high worm population density. As a result, worms enter the dauer state, a specific developmental stage capable of surviv...

  5. Effects of atmospheric variability on energy utilization and conservation. Final report, 1 January 1979-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.; Burns, C.C.; Cochrane, H.; Johnson, G.R.; Leong, H.; McKean, J.; Sheaffer, J.D.; Starr, A.M.; Webber, J.

    1980-04-01

    An interdisciplinary approach towards a detailed assessment of energy consumption in urban space-heating and cooling is presented in terms of measurement and modeling results. Modeling efforts concentrated on the city of Minneapolis, MN, using data from the winter seasons 1977/78 and 1978/79. Further developments of a reference model also fall back on data from Cheyenne, WY, and Greeley, CO. Mean absolute daily errors of gas consumption estimated by the physical model applied to Minneapolis are 6.26% when compared to actual energy usage for the period 12/1/77 to 2/28/78. The mean daily absolute errors for the statistical reference model for the same time period were 5.54%. Modeling of the energy consumption required detailed input of meteorological parameters from a special network of stations. As a spin-off an assessment was obtained of the effects of anthropogenic heat on urban heat-island generation under various synoptic conditions. A detailed building census, comprised of 105.722 heated structures, was obtained. A field survey in Greeley indicated that investment returns from insulating houses might not be as high as hoped for; possibly a considerable amount of insulating material is applied wastefully. Misinformation seems to be the primary cause of misguided energy conservation. Progress in conservation could be achieved if utility costs were considered in mortgage-loan applications, together with principal, interests, taxes, and insurance. Detailed energy-consumption modeling would be a premise for such fiscal-management approaches. Another extensive field survey yielded data for a local input-output model applied to the city of Greeley. Economic multipliers for dollars of output, space heating, energy use, and employment were developed and used for growth projections to the year 2003 under varying scenarios.

  6. Effects of root-zone acidity on utilization of nitrate and ammonium in tobacco plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. 'Coker 319') plants were grown for 28 days in flowing nutrient culture containing either 1.0 mM NO3- or 1.0 mM NH4+ as the nitrogen source in a complete nutrient solution. Acidities of the solutions were controlled at pH 6.0 or 4.0 for each nitrogen source. Plants were sampled at intervals of 6 to 8 days for determination of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation. Specific rates of NO3- or NH4+ uptake (rate of uptake per unit root mass) were calculated from these data. Net photosynthetic rates per unit leaf area were measured on attached leaves by infrared gas analysis. When NO3- [correction of NO-] was the sole nitrogen source, root growth and nitrogen uptake rate were unaffected by pH of the solution, and photosynthetic activity of leaves and accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the whole plant were similar. When NH4+ was the nitrogen source, photosynthetic rate of leaves and accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the whole plant were not statistically different from NO3(-) -fed plants when acidity of the solution was controlled at pH 6.0. When acidity for NH4(+) -fed plants was increased to pH 4.0, however, specific rate of NH4+ uptake decreased by about 50% within the first 6 days of treatment. The effect of acidity on root function was associated with a decreased rate of accumulation of nitrogen in shoots that was accompanied by a rapid cessation of leaf development between days 6 and 13. The decline in leaf growth rate of NH4(+) -fed plants at pH 4.0 was followed by reductions in photosynthetic rate per unit leaf area. These responses of NH4(+) -fed plants to increased root-zone acidity are characteristic of the sequence of responses that occur during onset of nitrogen stress.

  7. Effects of root-zone acidity on utilization of nitrate and ammonium in tobacco plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. 'Coker 319') plants were grown for 28 days in flowing nutrient culture containing either 1.0 mM NO3- or 1.0 mM NH4+ as the nitrogen source in a complete nutrient solution. Acidities of the solutions were controlled at pH 6.0 or 4.0 for each nitrogen source. Plants were sampled at intervals of 6 to 8 days for determination of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation. Specific rates of NO3- or NH4+ uptake (rate of uptake per unit root mass) were calculated from these data. Net photosynthetic rates per unit leaf area were measured on attached leaves by infrared gas analysis. When NO3- [correction of NO-] was the sole nitrogen source, root growth and nitrogen uptake rate were unaffected by pH of the solution, and photosynthetic activity of leaves and accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the whole plant were similar. When NH4+ was the nitrogen source, photosynthetic rate of leaves and accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the whole plant were not statistically different from NO3(-) -fed plants when acidity of the solution was controlled at pH 6.0. When acidity for NH4(+) -fed plants was increased to pH 4.0, however, specific rate of NH4+ uptake decreased by about 50% within the first 6 days of treatment. The effect of acidity on root function was associated with a decreased rate of accumulation of nitrogen in shoots that was accompanied by a rapid cessation of leaf development between days 6 and 13. The decline in leaf growth rate of NH4(+) -fed plants at pH 4.0 was followed by reductions in photosynthetic rate per unit leaf area. These responses of NH4(+) -fed plants to increased root-zone acidity are characteristic of the sequence of responses that occur during onset of nitrogen stress.

  8. Controlling fine particulate and acid mist emissions from a residual oil fired utility boiler with an EDV{trademark} system

    SciTech Connect

    Olen, K.R.; Vincent, H.B.; Jones, G.

    1995-06-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Belco Technologies Corporation, evaluated the performance of an EDV system to remove fine particulate and acid mist from untreated flue gas from a residual oil-fired utility boiler. The cosponsored project was carried out using a full-scale EDV module in a slip stream from one of the 400 MW wall-fired boilers at FPL`s Sanford Plant. Particulate, acid gas and chemical analytical data are presented, and used to illustrate the effects of operating variables on EDV performance. EDV system efficiencies of 90% were achieved, which resulted in controlled particulate and SO{sub 3} emissions of less than 10 mg/Nm{sup 3} (0.0065 lbs/10{sup 6}Btu) and 1 ppmv, respectively.

  9. Calculation of 29Si NMR shifts of silicate complexes with carbohydrates, amino acids, and muhicarboxylic acids: potential role in biological silica utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Nita

    2004-01-01

    The existence of ether or ester-like complexes of silicate with organic compounds has long been debated in the literature on biological utilization of silicon. Comparison of theoretically calculated 29Si NMR chemical shifts for such complexes with experimentally measured values in biological systems could provide a diagnostic tool for identifying which, if any of these molecules exist under physiological conditions. Results are presented here for ab initio molecular orbital calculations of 29Si NMR shifts and formation energies of silicate complexes with polyalcohols, sugar-acids, pyranose sugars, amino acids and multicarboxylic acids. The effects of functional group and molecular structure including ligand size, denticity, ring size, silicon polymerization and coordination number on calculated 29Si shifts were considered. The potential role of such compounds in biological silica utilization pathways is discussed. 29Si NMR shifts and energies were calculated at the HF/6-311+G(2d,p)//HF/6-31G* level. The main result is that only five-membered rings containing penta- and hexa-coordinated Si can explain experimentally observed resonances at ˜ -101 and -141 ppm. Further, the heptet observed in 1H- 29Si coupled spectra can only be explained by structures where Si bonds to oxygens atoms in H-C-O-Si linkages with six symmetrically equivalent H atoms. While compounds containing quadra-coordinated silicon may exist in intracellular silicon storage pools within diatoms, calculated reaction energies suggest that the organism has no thermodynamic advantage in taking up extracellular organ-silicate compounds, instead of silicic acid, from the ambient aqueous environment. Hyper-coordinated complexes are deemed unlikely for transport and storage, though they may exist as transient reactive intermediates or activated complexes during enzymatically- catalyzed silica polymerization, as known previously from sol-gel silica synthesis studies.

  10. Distribution of aquatic animals relative to naturally acidic waters in the Sierra Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, D.F.; Cooper, S.D.; Brown, A.D.; Mahood, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lakes in the Bench Lake/Mount Pinchot area of Kings Canyon National Park were surveyed in summer 1992 and found to range in pH from 5.0 to 9.3. Ten lakes were acidic (pH < 6.0). Thirty three lakes were chosen for detailed analyses of their chemical and biological characteristics, including eight acidic lakes. Unlike typical Ca-Na-HCO3-dominated Sierra lakes, SO4 concentrations are high enough to classify 19 of these lakes with SO4 as the dominant anion. The source of acidity and SO4 is sulfuric acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite found in metamorphic and granitic rocks in the area. Faunal surveys revealed that yellow-legged frog tadpoles (Rana muscosa), limnephilid caddis larvae (Hesperophylax), and large microcrustaceans (Daphnia, Diaptomus) were rare or absent in acidic lakes and common in lakes with a pH > 6.0. Four species of trout were collected, and their presence appeared to be related to historical stocking patterns. Trout appeared to have large effects on the distributions and abundances of larval amphibians and large, mobile invertebrate taxa that were rare or absent in trout lakes, but common in lakes lacking trout.

  11. Improved acid electrolytes for fuel cells. Final report, July 1985-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Shreeve, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A large number of new acids and their precursors were synthesized and characterized, including four monophosphonics ((CF3)2CFP(O)(OH)2, H(CF2)2O(CF2)2P(O)(OH)2, H(CF2)4O(CF2)2P(OH)2, and (HO)2P(O)(CF2)4O(CF2)2H); two monosulfonics (CF3CF2O(CF2)2SO2OH:H2O and CF3(CF2)3O(CF2)2SO2OH:H2O); one disulfonic, HOSO2CF2CF2OCF2SO2OH; and three mixed phosphonic/sulfonics ((HO)2P(O)CF2SO2OH, (HO)2P(O)CFHSO2OH, and (HO)2P(O)(CF2)4O(CF2)2SO2OH). Two perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, the disulfonic acid and (HO)2P(O)CF2SO3H were synthesized in larger quantities for further testing as electrolytes or additives in fuel cells. The acids with ether linkages appear to exhibit good water solubility and superior activity for oxygen reduction compared to phosphoric acid when used as additives.

  12. Effect of boric acid treatment on the secondary cycle at ANO-2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Siegwarth, D.P.; McNea, D.A.; Sawochka, S.G.

    1985-11-01

    Because of the rapid progression of denting at the steam generator upper support plates at Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 2 (ANO-2), Arkansas Power and Light (AP and L) implemented boric acid treatment during the third fuel cycle. Minimal effects of boric acid on secondary cycle ionic transport were observed; however, indications of accelerated corrosion of copper alloys in portions of the cycle were noted. Since the primary-to-secondary hydrogen diffusion rate data did not conform to the relation expected based on laboratory studies with Alloy 600, hydrogen transport data could not be employed to conclusively demonstrate the effect of boric acid on steam generator corrosion. Assuming that the basic form of the diffusion relation remained the same during operation with and without boric acid, a net increase in corrosion-generated hydrogen transport appeared to result from the adoption of boric acid treatment. This increase may be attributable to an increase in secondary cycle copper alloy corrosion rates, although additional measurements would be required to confirm this hypothesis.

  13. Improvement in phosphate acquisition and utilization by a secretory purple acid phosphatase (OsPAP21b) in rice.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Poonam; Pandey, Bipin Kumar; Giri, Jitender

    2017-08-01

    Phosphate (Pi) deficiency in soil system is a limiting factor for rice growth and yield. Majority of the soil phosphorus (P) is organic in nature, not readily available for root uptake. Low Pi-inducible purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are hypothesized to enhance the availability of Pi in soil and cellular system. However, information on molecular and physiological roles of rice PAPs is very limited. Here, we demonstrate the role of a novel rice PAP, OsPAP21b in improving plant utilization of organic-P. OsPAP21b was found to be under the transcriptional control of OsPHR2 and strictly regulated by plant Pi status at both transcript and protein levels. Biochemically, OsPAP21b showed hydrolysis of several organophosphates at acidic pH and possessed sufficient thermostability befitting for high-temperature rice ecosystems with acidic soils. Interestingly, OsPAP21b was revealed to be a secretory PAP and encodes a distinguishable major APase (acid phosphatase) isoform under low Pi in roots. Further, OsPAP21b-overexpressing transgenics showed increased biomass, APase activity and P content in both hydroponics supplemented with organic-P sources and soil containing organic manure as sole P source. Additionally, overexpression lines depicted increased root length, biomass and lateral roots under low Pi while RNAi lines showed reduced root length and biomass as compared to WT. In the light of these evidences, present study strongly proposes OsPAP21b as a useful candidate for improving Pi acquisition and utilization in rice. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Bacterial Utilization of L-sugars and D-amino Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena; Hoover, Richard B.; Klyce, Brig; Davies, Paul C. W.; Davies, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    The fact that organotrophic organisms on Earth use L-amino acids and D-sugars as an energy source is recognized as one of the universal features of life. The chirality of organic molecules with asymmetric location of group- radicals was described a relatively long time ago. In 1848, Louis Pasteur discovered chiral molecules when he investigated the way that crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate rotated the plane of polarization of light. He found that the crystal structures represented the underlying asymmetry of molecules that existed in either lea-handed or right-handed forms (enantiomers). Pasteur observed that abiotic (chemical) processes produced mixtures with equal numbers (racemic) of the two forms but that living organisms possessed a molecular asymmetry that included only one of the enantiomers (homochirality). He speculated that the origin of the asymmetry of chiral biomolecules might hold the key to the nature of life. All of the amino acids in proteins (except for Glycine which is symmetrical) exhibit the same absolute steric configuration as L-glyceraldehyde. D-amino acids are never found in proteins, although they do exist in nature and are often found in polypeptide antibiotics. Constitutional sugars of cells, opposite to the amino acids, are the D-enantiomers, and the appearance of L-sugars in Nature is extremely rare. Notwithstanding this fact, the metabolism of some bacteria does have capability to use amino acids and sugars with alternative chirality. This property may be caused by the function of specific enzymes belonging to the class of isomerases (racemases, epimerases, isomerases, tautomerases). In our laboratory, we have investigated several anaerobic bacterial strains, and have found that some of these bacteria are capable of using D-amino acids and L-sugars. Strain BK1 is capable of growth on D-arginine, but its growth characteristics on L-arginine are approximately twice higher. Another alkaliphilic strain SCAT(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-1084

  15. Bacterial utilization of L-sugars and D-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Klyce, Brig; Davies, Paul C. W.; Davies, Pauline

    2006-08-01

    The fact that organotrophic organisms on Earth use L-amino acids and D-sugars as an energy source is recognized as one of the universal features of life. The chirality of organic molecules with asymmetric location of group-radicals was described a relatively long time ago. Louis Pasteur observed that abiotic (chemical) processes produced mixtures with equal numbers (racemic) of the two forms but that living organisms possessed a molecular asymmetry that included only one of the enantiomers (homochirality). He speculated that the origin of the asymmetry of chiral biomolecules might hold the key to the nature of life. All of the amino acids in proteins (except for Glycine which is symmetrical) exhibit the same absolute steric configuration as L-glyceraldehyde. D-amino acids are never found in proteins, although they do exist in nature and are often found in polypeptide antibiotics. Constitutional sugars of cells, opposite to the amino acids, are the D-enantiomers, and the appearance of L-sugars in Nature is extremely rare. Notwithstanding this fact, the metabolism of some bacteria does have the capability to use amino acids and sugars with alternative chirality. This property may be caused by the function of specific enzymes belonging to the class of isomerases (racemases, epimerases, isomerases, tautomerases). In our laboratory, we have investigated several anaerobic bacterial strains, and have found that some of these bacteria are capable of using D-amino acids and L-sugars. Strain BK1 is capable of growth on D-arginine, but its growth characteristics on L-arginine are approximately twice as high. Another alkaliphilic strain SCA T (= ATCC BAA-1084 T = JCM 12857 T = DSM 17722 T = CIP 107910 T) was found to be capable of growth on L-ribose and L-arabinose. It is interesting that this strain was incapable of growth on D-arabinose, which suggests the involvement of some alternative mechanism of enzyme activity. In this paper, we describe the preliminary results of

  16. Bacterial Utilization of L-sugars and D-amino Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena; Hoover, Richard B.; Klyce, Brig; Davies, Paul C. W.; Davies, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    The fact that organotrophic organisms on Earth use L-amino acids and D-sugars as an energy source is recognized as one of the universal features of life. The chirality of organic molecules with asymmetric location of group- radicals was described a relatively long time ago. In 1848, Louis Pasteur discovered chiral molecules when he investigated the way that crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate rotated the plane of polarization of light. He found that the crystal structures represented the underlying asymmetry of molecules that existed in either lea-handed or right-handed forms (enantiomers). Pasteur observed that abiotic (chemical) processes produced mixtures with equal numbers (racemic) of the two forms but that living organisms possessed a molecular asymmetry that included only one of the enantiomers (homochirality). He speculated that the origin of the asymmetry of chiral biomolecules might hold the key to the nature of life. All of the amino acids in proteins (except for Glycine which is symmetrical) exhibit the same absolute steric configuration as L-glyceraldehyde. D-amino acids are never found in proteins, although they do exist in nature and are often found in polypeptide antibiotics. Constitutional sugars of cells, opposite to the amino acids, are the D-enantiomers, and the appearance of L-sugars in Nature is extremely rare. Notwithstanding this fact, the metabolism of some bacteria does have capability to use amino acids and sugars with alternative chirality. This property may be caused by the function of specific enzymes belonging to the class of isomerases (racemases, epimerases, isomerases, tautomerases). In our laboratory, we have investigated several anaerobic bacterial strains, and have found that some of these bacteria are capable of using D-amino acids and L-sugars. Strain BK1 is capable of growth on D-arginine, but its growth characteristics on L-arginine are approximately twice higher. Another alkaliphilic strain SCAT(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-1084

  17. Amino Acid Utilization in Seeds of Loblolly Pine during Germination and Early Seedling Growth (I. Arginine and Arginase Activity).

    PubMed Central

    King, J. E.; Gifford, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    The mobilization and utilization of the major storage proteins in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds following imbibition were investigated. Most of the seed protein reserves were contained within the megagametophyte. Breakdown of these proteins occurred primarily following radicle emergence and correlated with a substantial increase in the free amino acid pool in the seedling; the majority of this increase appeared to be the result of export from the megagametophyte. The megagametophyte was able to break down storage proteins and export free amino acids in the absence of the seedling. Arginine (Arg) was the most abundant amino acid among the principal storage proteins of the megagametophyte and was a major component of the free amino acid pools in both the seedling and the megagametophyte. The increase in free Arg coincided with a marked increase in arginase activity, mainly localized within the cotyledons and epicotyl of the seedling. Arginase activity was negligible in isolated seedlings. Experiments with phenylphosphorodiamidate, a urease inhibitor, supported the hypothesis that arginase participates in Arg metabolism in the seedling. The results of this study indicate that Arg could play an important role in the nutrition of loblolly pine during early seedling growth. PMID:12223664

  18. A large genomic island allows Neisseria meningitidis to utilize propionic acid, with implications for colonization of the human nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Catenazzi, Maria Chiara E; Jones, Helen; Wallace, Iain; Clifton, Jacqueline; Chong, James P J; Jackson, Matthew A; Macdonald, Sandy; Edwards, James; Moir, James W B

    2014-07-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important human pathogen that is capable of killing within hours of infection. Its normal habitat is the nasopharynx of adult humans. Here we identify a genomic island (the prp gene cluster) in N. meningitidis that enables this species to utilize propionic acid as a supplementary carbon source during growth, particularly under nutrient poor growth conditions. The prp gene cluster encodes enzymes for a methylcitrate cycle. Novel aspects of the methylcitrate cycle in N. meningitidis include a propionate kinase which was purified and characterized, and a putative propionate transporter. This genomic island is absent from the close relative of N. meningitidis, the commensal Neisseria lactamica, which chiefly colonizes infants not adults. We reason that the possession of the prp genes provides a metabolic advantage to N. meningitidis in the adult oral cavity, which is rich in propionic acid-generating bacteria. Data from classical microbiological and sequence-based microbiome studies provide several lines of supporting evidence that N. meningitidis colonization is correlated with propionic acid generating bacteria, with a strong correlation between prp-containing Neisseria and propionic acid generating bacteria from the genus Porphyromonas, and that this may explain adolescent/adult colonization by N. meningitidis.

  19. Effects of acidity on tree Pollen germination and tube growth. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ryn, D.M.; Jacobson, J.S.

    1984-08-01

    Most of the northeastern hardwood forests in North America are exposed repeatedly to acidic rainfall at pH values below 5.0. Pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization, important parts of the reproductive process, are sensitive to changes in their chemical environment. Accordingly, the authors investigated the effects of acidity on pollen germination and tube elongation of four northeastern tree species: flowering dogwood, black birch, yellow birch, and sugar maple. Pollen was collected and germinated in a growth medium acidified to pH values ranging from 5.0 to 2.6. Pollen was found to be sensitive to acidification of the germination medium to below pH 4.2. These results suggest that acidic rain that now occurs in eastern North America may influence reproductive processes that are necessary for seed set and regeneration in northern hardwood forests.

  20. Acid precipitation effects on algal productivity and biomass in Adirondack Lakes. Final completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1982-12-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton communities and lake acidity in three Adirondack Mountain Lakes were studied at Woods Lake, Sagamore Lake (pH ca. 5.5), and Panther Lake (pH ca. 7.0). Numbers of phytoplankton species observed were Woods 45, Sagamore 55, and Panther 85, conforming to observations at many other sites that species numbers decrease with increasing acidity. The smaller plankton are relatively more important in the more acid lakes, Woods > Sagamore > Panther. This pattern could be determined by nutrient availability (lake acidification is suspected of leading to decreased availability of phosphorus). The amount of 14C-labelled dissolved photosynthate (14C-DOM), as a percent of total productivity, is ordered Woods > Sagamore > Panther.

  1. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Organo-Lewis acids of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2001-01-01

    The organo-Lewis acids are novel triarylboranes which are highly fluorinated. Triarylboranes of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These organoboranes have a Lewis acid strength essentially equal to or greater than that of the corresponding organoborane in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine, or have greater solubility in organic solvents. Another type of new organoboranes have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these triorganoboranes, because of their ligand abstracting properties, produce corresponding anions which are capable of only weakly, if at all, coordinating to the metal center, and thus do not interfere in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  3. Organo-Lewis acids of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2002-01-01

    The organo-Lewis acids are novel triarylboranes which are are highly fluorinated. Triarylboranes of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These organoboranes have a Lewis acid strength essentially equal to or greater than that of the corresponding organoborane in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine, or have greater solubility in organic solvents. Another type of new organoboranes have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these triorganoboranes, because of their ligand abstracting properties, produce corresponding anions which are capable of only weakly, if at all, coordinating to the metal center, and thus do not interfere in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  4. Research, development and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-08-01

    An advanced lead acid storage battery was developed to the preprototype cell and module design stage. Each module is equipped with a low cost tray, automatic watering system, and air-lift pumps for increased acid circulation in each cell. With the qualified alloy catastrophic positive grid corrosion will not limit cell cycle life. An accelerated shallow cycle regime at room ambient tested 60 cell designs for the active material shedding failure mode. It is found that an antishedding active material additive reduces positive active material shedding significantly and extend the cycle life of both the positive and the negative plate. Equations relating cell design to deep cycle life are developed from the factorial tests on the 60 cells.

  5. Utilization of fluorogenic assay for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in acidic fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Pao, Steven; Davis, Craig L; Friedrich, Loretta M; Parish, Mickey E

    2002-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate interference by acids commonly found in fruit juice in Escherichia coli assays involving the use of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) as a fluorogenic substrate for enzyme reaction. Fluorescence intensity was negatively correlated (P < 0.001) with the volume of fresh citrus juice tested by the lauryl tryptose broth (LST)-MUG assay, and the permissible sample sizes were limited to 0.3 and 0.5 ml for fresh citrus juices with pHs of 3.3 and 3.9, respectively. In addition, false-negative results were visually observed under UV light when the E*Colite assay was used to test large volumes (5 to 10 ml per test) of fresh citrus juice or when the test broth used for the LST-MUG assay was supplemented with citric, malic, or tartaric acid at 2 to 4 g/liter. These results suggest that the size and pH of acidic samples should be controlled in MUG-based fluorogenic assays. The inhibitory effect on fluorescence was due to high acidity, which reduces fluorescence from 4-methylumbelliferone. Buffering improved the assays. When sodium bicarbonate was incorporated in the enrichment broth at 10 g/liter, the permissible sample sizes for fresh grapefruit juice (pH 3.1) increased from 0.3 to 1 ml for the LST-MUG (with 9.9 ml of broth) assay and from 3 to 10 ml for the E*Colite (with 99 ml of broth) assay.

  6. Deacetylation of sialic acid by esterases potentiates pneumococcal neuraminidase activity for mucin utilization, colonization and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Kahya, Hasan F.; Andrew, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Pneumococcal neuraminidase is a key enzyme for sequential deglycosylation of host glycans, and plays an important role in host survival, colonization, and pathogenesis of infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. One of the factors that can affect the activity of neuraminidase is the amount and position of acetylation present in its substrate sialic acid. We hypothesised that pneumococcal esterases potentiate neuraminidase activity by removing acetylation from sialic acid, and that will have a major effect on pneumococcal survival on mucin, colonization, and virulence. These hypotheses were tested using isogenic mutants and recombinant esterases in microbiological, biochemical and in vivo assays. We found that pneumococcal esterase activity is encoded by at least four genes, SPD_0534 (EstA) was found to be responsible for the main esterase activity, and the pneumococcal esterases are specific for short acyl chains. Assay of esterase activity by using natural substrates showed that both the Axe and EstA esterases could use acetylated xylan and Bovine Sub-maxillary Mucin (BSM), a highly acetylated substrate, but only EstA was active against tributyrin (triglyceride). Incubation of BSM with either Axe or EstA led to the acetate release in a time and concentration dependent manner, and pre-treatment of BSM with either enzyme increased sialic acid release on subsequent exposure to neuraminidase A. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression level of estA and axe increased when exposed to BSM and in respiratory tissues. Mutation of estA alone or in combination with nanA (codes for neuraminidase A), or the replacement of its putative serine active site to alanine, reduced the pneumococcal ability to utilise BSM as a sole carbon source, sialic acid release, colonization, and virulence in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia. PMID:28257499

  7. The absence of protein--sparing effects utilizing crystalline amino acids in stressed patients.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, N; Mills, C J; Grossi, C; Angers, J W; Jham, G; Zurawinsky, H; Nealon, T F

    1979-01-01

    The protein-sparing effects of the peripheral infusion of crystalline amino acids (PAA) was studied metabolically in selected surgical patients subjected to various degrees of stress. Twenty-one patients (sixteen cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, three with major abdominal traumatic injuries and four with paralytic ileus) were infused with 2 1/24 hours of a solution of 4.2% Travasol amino acids with only 5% glucose as a source of nonprotein calories. One-half of the cancer patients were also allowed ad libitum oral intake of a regular hospital diet or Vivonex-HN. The nutritional status was evaluated by measuring changes in body weight, serum albumin levels and nitrogen balance. Body weight decreased in only the trauma patients. When these solutions were the sole source of nutrients all patients were in negative nitrogen balance and had significant decreases in their serum albumin levels. Serum albumin levels were preserved only when extra sources of calories were provided. The infusion of the crystalline amino acids without adequate levels of nonprotein energy did not conserve protein in these stressed patients. PMID:116604

  8. Zoledronic acid: clinical utility and patient considerations in osteoporosis and low bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy, Ronald C

    2010-01-01

    The availability of a once-a-year zoledronic acid infusion heralds a new era in the management of osteoporosis. It virtually eliminates the problem of poor compliance with orally administered bisphosphonates and, because it bypasses the gastrointestinal tract, it is not associated with gastrointestinal side effects. Zoledronic acid is effective for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, and for the treatment of osteoporosis in men, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. When administered within three months of a hip fracture, it reduces mortality and the risk of subsequent fractures. It is remarkably free of serious adverse effects. After administration of the intravenous infusion, about 18% of bisphosphonate-naïve patients experience an acute-phase reaction, including low-grade temperature, aches, and pains. This is reduced to about 9% in those who have been treated with oral bisphosphonates, and is further reduced by the concomitant and subsequent administration of acetaminophen. The likelihood and magnitude of the acute-phase reaction is less after the second infusion. Other adverse effects are similar to those encountered with other bisphosphonates. Because it is mostly excreted by the kidneys, zoledronic acid should not be administered to patients with a creatinine clearance less than 35 mL/min. It should not be administered to patients with hypocalcemia. PMID:21151620

  9. Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes dauer pheromone biosynthesis to dispose of toxic peroxisomal fatty acids for cellular homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Jeong, Pan-Young; Jin, You-Xun; Lee, Jeong-Eui; Kim, Heekyeong; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Chitwood, David J; Paik, Young-Ki

    2009-07-29

    Caenorhabditis elegans excretes a dauer pheromone or daumone composed of ascarylose and a fatty acid side chain, the perception of which enables worms to enter the dauer state for long-term survival in an adverse environment. During the course of elucidation of the daumone biosynthetic pathway in which DHS-28 and DAF-22 are involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of VLCFAs (very long-chain fatty acids), we sought to investigate the physiological consequences of a deficiency in daumone biosynthesis in C. elegans. Our results revealed that two mutants, dhs-28(tm2581) and daf-22(ok693), lacked daumones and thus were dauer defective; this coincided with massive accumulation of fatty acyl-CoAs (up to 100-fold) inside worm bodies compared with levels in wild-type N2 worms. Furthermore, the deficiency in daumone biosynthesis and the massive accumulation of fatty acids and their acyl-CoAs caused severe developmental defects with reduced life spans (up to 30%), suggesting that daumone biosynthesis is be an essential part of C. elegans homoeostasis, affecting survival and maintenance of optimal physiological conditions by metabolizing some of the toxic non-permissible peroxisomal VLCFAs from the worm body in the form of readily excretable daumones.

  10. Effects of organic acids on growth and phosphorus utilization in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. .

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhed; Satoh, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of phosphorus and various organic acids supplementation on growth, nutrient retention and loading in rainbow trout fed on low fishmeal based diets. Five experimental diets were formulated, Diet D1 (0.5P) was positive control with 0.5% inorganic phosphorus addition and D2 (0P, negative control) without addition of inorganic phosphorus. D3, D4 and D5 were supplemented with 1% fumaric (FuA), formic (FoA) and acetic (AA) acids, respectively. All the diets were fed until satiation to duplicate groups of 25 fish for 12 weeks. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded best with FoA diet and absorption of phosphorus was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in all the diets supplemented with organic acids and was similar to positive control. The phosphorus and nitrogen retention with FoA diet was significantly high (P < 0.05) as compared to 0P diet, in turn reducing their excretion. Hence, the present study demonstrated that, without additional phosphorus in the low fish meal-based diets, FoA supplement improved growth performance, absorption and retention of phosphorus and nitrogen and reducing excretion; thus it can be better incorporated to develop environment-friendly feed for rainbow trout.

  11. Utilization of rice bran as nutrient source for fermentative lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Tian; Kaneko, Mio; Hirata, Makoto; Toorisaka, Eiichi; Hano, Tadashi

    2008-06-01

    To reduce nutrient cost for lactic acid production, rice bran, one of agricultural wastes, was chosen as a nutrient source in this study. Although rice bran is rich in protein and vitamins, the use of rice bran without any treatment was inefficient in lactic acid production. Rice bran was treated by acid-hydrolysis before it was put in experiment, when it was hydrolyzed at initial pH 1, 30 g/L rice bran could provide a productivity to that degree of about 8 g/L YE, showing such a desirable result that the use of rice bran as nutrient source would be a solution for reducing nutrient cost. However, the addition of hydrolyzed rice bran prolonged lag phase of fermentation, especially, in the fermentation with rice bran hydrolyzed at initial pH 0.5, a prolonged lag phase of about 40 h was observed. According to the quantitative determination of thiamine, pyridoxine, organic nitrogen and carbon, the prolongation of lag phase might be the result from the destruction of B vitamins and excessive hydrolysis of protein. To shorten the lag phase, combining hydrolyzed rice bran with yeast extract (YE) of small amount was considered to be a solution. When 3g/L YE was combined with 30 g/L rice bran hydrolyzed at initial pH 1, obtained was a productivity 1.6 times higher than that of the control fermentation with 15 g/L YE.

  12. Sample pretreatment and nucleic acid-based detection for fast diagnosis utilizing microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jung-Hao; Wang, Chih-Hung; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2012-06-01

    Recently, micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technology and micromachining techniques have enabled miniaturization of biomedical devices and systems. Not only do these techniques facilitate the development of miniaturized instrumentation for biomedical analysis, but they also open a new era for integration of microdevices for performing accurate and sensitive diagnostic assays. A so-called "micro-total-analysis-system", which integrates sample pretreatment, transport, reaction, and detection on a small chip in an automatic format, can be realized by combining functional microfluidic components manufactured by specific MEMS technologies. Among the promising applications using microfluidic technologies, nucleic acid-based detection has shown considerable potential recently. For instance, micro-polymerase chain reaction chips for rapid DNA amplification have attracted considerable interest. In addition, microfluidic devices for rapid sample pretreatment prior to nucleic acid-based detection have also achieved significant progress in the recent years. In this review paper, microfluidic systems for sample preparation, nucleic acid amplification and detection for fast diagnosis will be reviewed. These microfluidic devices and systems have several advantages over their large-scale counterparts, including lower sample/reagent consumption, lower power consumption, compact size, faster analysis, and lower per unit cost. The development of these microfluidic devices and systems may provide a revolutionary platform technology for fast sample pretreatment and accurate, sensitive diagnosis.

  13. Rapid amplification/detection of nucleic acid targets utilizing a HDA/thin film biosensor.

    PubMed

    Jenison, Robert; Jaeckel, Heidi; Klonoski, Joshua; Latorra, David; Wiens, Jacinta

    2014-08-07

    Thin film biosensors exploit a flat, optically coated silicon-based surface whereupon formation of nucleic acid hybrids are enzymatically transduced in a molecular thin film that can be detected by the unaided human eye under white light. While the limit of sensitivity for detection of nucleic acid targets is at sub-attomole levels (60 000 copies) many clinical specimens containing bacterial pathogens have much lower levels of analyte present. Herein, we describe a platform, termed HDA/thin film biosensor, which performs helicase-dependant nucleic acid amplification on a thin film biosensor surface to improve the limit of sensitivity to 10 copies of the mecA gene present in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus. As double-stranded DNA is unwound by helicase it was either bound by solution-phase DNA primers to be copied by DNA polymerase or hybridized to surface immobilized probe on the thin film biosensor surface to be detected. Herein, we show that amplification reactions on the thin film biosensor are equivalent to in standard thin wall tubes, with detection at the limit of sensitivity of the assay occurring after 30 minutes of incubation time. Further we validate the approach by detecting the presence of the mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from positive blood culture aliquots with high specificity (signal/noise ratio of 105).

  14. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 links glucose utilization to fatty acid oxidation in the brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Zehra; Dimitri, Federica; Christian, Mark; Zammit, Victor A

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue uptake of glucose and fatty acids is very high during nonshivering thermogenesis. Adrenergic stimulation markedly increases glucose uptake, de novo lipogenesis, and FA oxidation simultaneously. The mechanism that enables this concerted response has hitherto been unknown. Here, we find that in primary brown adipocytes and brown adipocyte-derived cell line (IMBAT-1), acute inhibition and longer-term knockdown of DGAT2 links the increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids from glucose to a pool of TAG that is simultaneously hydrolyzed, providing FA for mitochondrial oxidation. DGAT1 does not contribute to this pathway, but uses exogenous FA and glycerol to synthesize a functionally distinct pool of TAG to which DGAT2 also contributes. The DGAT2-dependent channelling of (14)C from glucose into TAG and CO2 was reproduced in β3-agonist-stimulated primary brown adipocytes. Knockdown of DGAT2 in IMBAT-1 affected the mRNA levels of UCP1 and genes important in FA activation and esterification. Therefore, in β3-agonist activated brown adipocytes, DGAT2 specifically enables channelling of de novo synthesized FA into a rapidly mobilized pool of TAG, which is simultaneously hydrolyzed to provide substrates for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Influence of wine-like conditions on arginine utilization by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Araque, Isabel; Reguant, Cristina; Rozès, Nicolas; Bordons, Albert

    2011-12-01

    Wine can contain trace amounts of ethyl carbamate (EC), a carcinogen formed when ethanol reacts with carbamyl compounds such as citrulline. EC is produced from arginine by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), e.g., Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. Although the amounts of EC in wine are usually negligible, over the last few years there has been a slight but steady increase, as climate change has increased temperatures and alcohol levels have become proportionately higher, both of which favor EC formation. In this study, resting cells of LAB were used to evaluate the effects of ethanol, glucose, malic acid, and low pH on the ability of non-oenococcal strains of these bacteria to degrade arginine and excrete citrulline. Malic acid was found to clearly inhibit arginine consumption in all strains. The relation between citrulline produced and arginine consumed was clearly higher in the presence of ethanol (10-12%) and at low pH (3.0), which is consistent with both the decreased amount of ornithine produced from arginine and the reduction in arginine degradation. In L. brevis and L. buchneri strains isolated from wine and beer, respectively, the synthesis of citrulline from arginine was highest.

  16. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part I: Pebble Bed Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    significant failure is to be expected for the reference fuel particle during normal operation. It was found, however, that the sensitivity of the coating stress to the CO production in the kernel was large. The CO production is expected to be higher in DB fuel than in UO2 fuel, but its exact level has a high uncertainty. Furthermore, in the fuel performance analysis transient conditions were not yet taken into account. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high transuranic [TRU] content and high burn-up). Accomplishments of this work include: •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Uranium. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Modified Open Cycle Components. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Americium targets.

  17. Commercialization strategy for lead/acid batteries in utility load leveling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    The plan is in part, based on an assessment of market demand made by MITRE/METREK. The specific financial requirements of both the battery manufacturers and the electric utilities were analyzed and accounted for when developing the approach. Since the success of the programs and the costs depend critically on how the prices of different fuels change with time, and these prices could be affected by political decisions, it is left to the judgement of the officials responsible for program priorities to decide whether the benefits that would result from this plan warrant the likely risks or costs to the government.

  18. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  19. Contribution of Fermentation Yeast to Final Amino Acid Profile in DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One major factor affecting DDGS quality and market values is amino acid (AA) composition. DDGS proteins come from corn and yeast. Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS protein quantity and quality (AA profile) has not been well documented. Based on literature review, there are at least 4 met...

  20. Case Studies in Systems Chemistry. Final Report. [Includes Complete Case Study, Carboxylic Acid Equilibria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, George

    This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry. The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC computer systems, and with a programmable electronic calculator, in a variety of educational settings. The text attempts to present computer…

  1. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Trichomonas Vaginalis Nucleic Acid Assay. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-08-04

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying a Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid assay into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  2. Stability of antimicrobial activity of peracetic acid solutions used in the final disinfection process.

    PubMed

    Costa, Solange Alves da Silva; Paula, Olívia Ferreira Pereira de; Silva, Célia Regina Gonçalves E; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos

    2015-01-01

    The instruments and materials used in health establishments are frequently exposed to microorganism contamination, and chemical products are used before sterilization to reduce occupational infection. We evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness, physical stability, and corrosiveness of two commercial formulations of peracetic acid on experimentally contaminated specimens. Stainless steel specimens were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, blood, and saliva and then immersed in a ready peracetic acid solution: 2% Sekusept Aktiv (SA) or 0.25% Proxitane Alpha (PA), for different times. Then, washes of these instruments were plated in culture medium and colony-forming units counted. This procedure was repeated six times per day over 24 non-consecutive days. The corrosion capacity was assessed with the mass loss test, and the concentration of peracetic acid and pH of the solutions were measured with indicator tapes. Both SA and PA significantly eliminated microorganisms; however, the SA solution was stable for only 4 days, whereas PA remained stable throughout the experiment. The concentration of peracetic acid in the SA solutions decreased over time until the chemical was undetectable, although the pH remained at 5. The PA solution had a concentration of 500-400 mg/L and a pH of 2-3. Neither formulation induced corrosion and both reduced the number of microorganisms (p = 0.0001). However, the differences observed in the performance of each product highlight the necessity of establishing a protocol for optimizing the use of each one.

  3. Differences between Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in the Molecular Mechanisms Governing Utilization of D-Amino Acids as the Sole Nitrogen Source.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun C; Khanal Lamichhane, Ami; Bradley, James; Rodgers, Laura; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

    2015-01-01

    The ability to grow on media containing certain D-amino acids as a sole nitrogen source is widely utilized to differentiate Cryptococcus gattii from C. neoformans. We used the C. neoformans H99 and C. gattii R265 strains to dissect the mechanisms of D-amino acids utilization. We identified three putative D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) genes in both strains and showed that each DAO gene plays different roles in D-amino acid utilization in each strain. Deletion of DAO2 retarded growth of R265 on eleven D-amino acids suggesting its prominent role on D-amino acid assimilation in R265. All three R265 DAO genes contributed to growth on D-Asn and D-Asp. DAO3 was required for growth and detoxification of D-Glu by both R265 and H99. Although growth of H99 on most D-amino acids was poor, deletion of DAO1 or DAO3 further exacerbated it on four D-amino acids. Overexpression of DAO2 or DAO3 enabled H99 to grow robustly on several D-amino acids suggesting that expression levels of the native DAO genes in H99 were insufficient for growth on D-amino acids. Replacing the H99 DAO2 gene with a single copy of the R265 DAO2 gene also enabled its utilization of several D-amino acids. Results of gene and promoter swaps of the DAO2 genes suggested that enzymatic activity of Dao2 in H99 might be lower compared to the R265 strain. A reduction in virulence was only observed when all DAO genes were deleted in R265 but not in H99 indicating a pathobiologically exclusive role of the DAO genes in R265. These results suggest that C. neoformans and C. gattii divergently evolved in D-amino acid utilization influenced by their major ecological niches.

  4. Differences between Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in the Molecular Mechanisms Governing Utilization of D-Amino Acids as the Sole Nitrogen Source

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun C.; Khanal Lamichhane, Ami; Bradley, James; Rodgers, Laura; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to grow on media containing certain D-amino acids as a sole nitrogen source is widely utilized to differentiate Cryptococcus gattii from C. neoformans. We used the C. neoformans H99 and C. gattii R265 strains to dissect the mechanisms of D-amino acids utilization. We identified three putative D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) genes in both strains and showed that each DAO gene plays different roles in D-amino acid utilization in each strain. Deletion of DAO2 retarded growth of R265 on eleven D-amino acids suggesting its prominent role on D-amino acid assimilation in R265. All three R265 DAO genes contributed to growth on D-Asn and D-Asp. DAO3 was required for growth and detoxification of D-Glu by both R265 and H99. Although growth of H99 on most D-amino acids was poor, deletion of DAO1 or DAO3 further exacerbated it on four D-amino acids. Overexpression of DAO2 or DAO3 enabled H99 to grow robustly on several D-amino acids suggesting that expression levels of the native DAO genes in H99 were insufficient for growth on D-amino acids. Replacing the H99 DAO2 gene with a single copy of the R265 DAO2 gene also enabled its utilization of several D-amino acids. Results of gene and promoter swaps of the DAO2 genes suggested that enzymatic activity of Dao2 in H99 might be lower compared to the R265 strain. A reduction in virulence was only observed when all DAO genes were deleted in R265 but not in H99 indicating a pathobiologically exclusive role of the DAO genes in R265. These results suggest that C. neoformans and C. gattii divergently evolved in D-amino acid utilization influenced by their major ecological niches. PMID:26132227

  5. Boric acid corrosion of carbon and low-alloy steel pressure-boundary components in PWRs: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, A.S.; Hall, J.F.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents the results of a literature survey of the effects of borated water leakage on carbon and low-alloy steel components (other than fasteners) in PWR applications. Boric acid corrosion field experience and laboratory test results are addressed. The report reviews and summarizes corrosion events that have occurred in PWRs and provides, for each event, plant identification, year of occurrence, component or part affected, materials, leak rates (where available), extent of corrosion and repair procedures. Laboratory test data are also discussed, including some recent unpublished data. The report recommends corrective actions that the utilities should take to prevent boric acid corrosion of pressure boundary components. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Characterization of lactose utilization and β-galactosidase in Lactobacillus brevis KB290, the hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Yajima, Nobuhiro; Saito, Tadao

    2012-12-01

    Unlike dairy lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus brevis cannot ferment milk. We characterized the lactose utilization by L. brevis KB290. In a carbohydrate fermentation assay using API 50 CHL, we showed during 7 days L. brevis did not ferment lactose. L. brevis grew to the stationary phase in 2 weeks in MRS broth containing lactose as the carbon source. L. brevis slowly consumed the lactose in the medium. L. brevis hydrolyzed lactose and a lactose analog, o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPGal). This β-galactosidase activity for ONPGal was not repressed by glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose, or maltose showing the microorganism may not have carbon catabolite repression. We purified the L. brevis β-galactosidase using ammonium sulfate precipitation and several chromatographies. The enzyme's molecular weight is estimated at 72 and 37 kDa using SDS-PAGE analysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the larger protein was 90 % similar to the sequence of the putative β-galactosidase (YP_796339) and the smaller protein was identical to the sequence of the putative β-galactosidase (YP_796338) in L. brevis ATCC367. This suggests the enzyme is a heterodimeric β-galactosidase. The specific activity of the purified enzyme for lactose is 55 U/mg. We speculate inhibition of lactose transport delays the lactose utilization in L. brevis KB290.

  7. Final report on the safety assessment of pentasodium pentetate and pentetic acid as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Benes, Dina M; Burnett, Christina L

    2008-01-01

    Pentasodium Pentetate and Pentetic Acid function as chelating agents in cosmetics. Pentasodium Pentetate is readily soluble in water, but the corresponding free acid is not. Pentasodium Pentetate is used in almost 400 cosmetic products over a wide range of product categories, although it is mostly used in hair dyes and colors at use concentrations of 0.1% to 1.0%. Pentetic Acid is used in 150 cosmetic products, mostly in hair dyes and colors. Chelating agents are used in cosmetics to remove calcium and magnesium cations, which impede foaming and cleansing performance and which can cause a haze in clear liquids. The acute oral LD(50) of Pentasodium Pentetate in rats was > 5 g/kg. The acute dermal LD(50) of Pentapotassium Pentetate using rats was reported to be > 2 g/kg. The intraperitonal LD(50) of Pentetic Acid was reported to be 585 mg/kg. Short-term studies of the calcium and sodium salts of Pentetic Acid in male mice demonstrated no dose-related toxicity over the dose range of 10, 100, and 250 mg/kg. In a 4-week dermal toxicity study, daily topical application of 0.05% Pentasodium Pentetate to shaved and abraded rabbit skin produced moderate erythema after the first week and throughout the study, but no systemic toxicity. Pentasodium Pentetate or Pentapotassium Pentetate applied to intact albino rabbit skin were not irritating. A 40% solution of Pentapotassium Pentetate was not sensitizing in a guinea pig maximization test. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for rats given 40% Pentapotassium Pentetate by oral gavage was reported to be 83 mg/kg day(-1). Subchronic inhalation evaluation of a bath freshener containing 0.05% or 0.09% Pentasodium Pentetate using albino rats determined that there was no cumulative systemic toxicity attributable to the ingredient at either concentration. The no observed effect level (NOEL) for maternal toxicity in pregnant rats was 400 mg/kg body weight and for fetal toxicity was 100 mg/kg body weight. Another reproductive

  8. Modeling the impact of paste additives and pellet geometry on paste utilization within lead acid batteries during low rate discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargonen, Muhammed M.

    2015-01-01

    When designing a lead acid battery, there are many factors to consider in order to obtain the best compromise of cost, performance, and ease of manufacturability. We use a modeling approach to study some of the key factors which affect the amount of active material which can be utilized during a low rate discharge. We investigate the effects of pellet size, pellet geometry, disconnected grid mesh borders, and inert paste additives. Furthermore, we look at how the internal path length resistance within a pellet is dependent on those features. Our findings correlate well with earlier works, and help to explain some of the previously observed phenomenon. It is observed that utilization is indeed affected by pellet size, but small grid mesh sizes on the order of ∼4 mm edge lengths are necessary in order to realize a significant benefit. Utilization is presented as a function of pellet size, aspect ratio of the pellets, and the loading level of the inert additives in the pellets up to ten percent by volume.

  9. Utilization of sialic acid as a coreceptor is required for reovirus-induced biliary disease

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Erik S.; Youree, Bryan E.; Ebert, Daniel H.; Forrest, J. Craig; Connolly, Jodi L.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Washington, Kay; Wetzel, J. Denise; Dermody, Terence S.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of neonatal mice with some reovirus strains produces a disease similar to infantile biliary atresia, but previous attempts to correlate reovirus infection with this disease have yielded conflicting results. We used isogenic reovirus strains T3SA– and T3SA+, which differ solely in the capacity to bind sialic acid as a coreceptor, to define the role of sialic acid in reovirus encephalitis and biliary tract infection in mice. Growth in the intestine was equivalent for both strains following peroral inoculation. However, T3SA+ spread more rapidly from the intestine to distant sites and replicated to higher titers in spleen, liver, and brain. Strikingly, mice infected with T3SA+ but not T3SA– developed steatorrhea and bilirubinemia. Liver tissue from mice infected with T3SA+ demonstrated intense inflammation focused at intrahepatic bile ducts, pathology analogous to that found in biliary atresia in humans, and high levels of T3SA+ antigen in bile duct epithelial cells. T3SA+ bound 100-fold more efficiently than T3SA– to human cholangiocarcinoma cells. These observations suggest that the carbohydrate-binding specificity of a virus can dramatically alter disease in the host and highlight the need for epidemiologic studies focusing on infection by sialic acid–binding reovirus strains as a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of neonatal biliary atresia. PMID:12813018

  10. [Utilizing fly ash to prepare polysilicon acid and compounded PFS and the study of its properties].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Li; Wang, Dian-Yu; Zhou, Ji-Ti; Deng, Qing-Wen

    2009-07-15

    Fly ash which is a kind of solid waste of power station in Dalian was prepared as polysilicon acid, and compound polymerized ferric sulphate and its properties was studied. Fly ash was dipped in NaOH solution. The effects of temperature, concentration of NaOH solution and reactive time were examined respectively on the conversion efficiencies of silicon. Then the solution which was rich in silicon was used to compound polymerized ferric sulfate (PFS) and got compounded polymerized ferric sulphate (F-PFS), and evaluated the effects of slaking time and Fe3+/Si molar ratio on conversion efficiencies of silicon. Then used Na2SiO3 to prepare polysilicon acid compounded polymerized ferric sulphate (N-PFS) with the same silicon concentration at the best condition. The best ratio of dissolved silicon 0.207 9 g x g(-1) was attained at the condition of 4 mol x L(-1) NaOH solution, 120 degrees C for 4 h. The coagulant was attained at the condition of Fe3+/Si molar ratio of 1:0.2 and slaking time of 2 h. The reducing turbidity by F-PFS is the same as N-PFS, but F-PFS is better than N-PFS and PFS is in the stabilization, sedimentation,and the property of treating with urban sewage.

  11. Glutamate Utilization Couples Oxidative Stress Defense and the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Francisella Phagosomal Escape

    PubMed Central

    Ramond, Elodie; Gesbert, Gael; Rigard, Mélanie; Dairou, Julien; Dupuis, Marion; Dubail, Iharilalao; Meibom, Karin; Henry, Thomas; Barel, Monique; Charbit, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens have developed a variety of strategies to avoid degradation by the host innate immune defense mechanisms triggered upon phagocytocis. Upon infection of mammalian host cells, the intracellular pathogen Francisella replicates exclusively in the cytosolic compartment. Hence, its ability to escape rapidly from the phagosomal compartment is critical for its pathogenicity. Here, we show for the first time that a glutamate transporter of Francisella (here designated GadC) is critical for oxidative stress defense in the phagosome, thus impairing intra-macrophage multiplication and virulence in the mouse model. The gadC mutant failed to efficiently neutralize the production of reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, virulence of the gadC mutant was partially restored in mice defective in NADPH oxidase activity. The data presented highlight links between glutamate uptake, oxidative stress defense, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and phagosomal escape. This is the first report establishing the role of an amino acid transporter in the early stage of the Francisella intracellular lifecycle. PMID:24453979

  12. Superresolution intrinsic fluorescence imaging of chromatin utilizing native, unmodified nucleic acids for contrast

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay M.; Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Urban, Ben E.; Chandler, John E.; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing the nanoscale intracellular structures formed by nucleic acids, such as chromatin, in nonperturbed, structurally and dynamically complex cellular systems, will help expand our understanding of biological processes and open the next frontier for biological discovery. Traditional superresolution techniques to visualize subdiffractional macromolecular structures formed by nucleic acids require exogenous labels that may perturb cell function and change the very molecular processes they intend to study, especially at the extremely high label densities required for superresolution. However, despite tremendous interest and demonstrated need, label-free optical superresolution imaging of nucleotide topology under native nonperturbing conditions has never been possible. Here we investigate a photoswitching process of native nucleotides and present the demonstration of subdiffraction-resolution imaging of cellular structures using intrinsic contrast from unmodified DNA based on the principle of single-molecule photon localization microscopy (PLM). Using DNA-PLM, we achieved nanoscopic imaging of interphase nuclei and mitotic chromosomes, allowing a quantitative analysis of the DNA occupancy level and a subdiffractional analysis of the chromosomal organization. This study may pave a new way for label-free superresolution nanoscopic imaging of macromolecular structures with nucleotide topologies and could contribute to the development of new DNA-based contrast agents for superresolution imaging. PMID:27535934

  13. Acid-rain publications by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979-1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Villella, R.F.

    1989-08-01

    This report is an annotated bibliography of acid-rain and related air-quality publications authored or co-authored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service employees or that have been supported by Service funding. The bibliography covers 10 years of research from 1979 to 1989. Research projects have covered the effects of acidity on water chemistry, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, fish, and waterfowl. Specific projects have addressed important fish species such as rainbow trout, brook trout, Atlantic salmon, and striped bass. In addition to lake and stream studies, wetland and some terrestrial habitat work has also been conducted. Also included in the report is research on the ecological effects of liming surface waters and surrounding watersheds.

  14. Final Report Nucleic Acid System - PCR, Multiplex Assays and Sample Preparation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R.P.; Langlois, R.G.; Nasarabadi, S.; Benett, W.J.; Richards, J.B.; Hadley, D.R.; Miles, R.R.; Brown, S.B.; Stratton, P.L.; Milanovich, F.P.

    2001-04-20

    The objective of this project was to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction). This entailed not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This project had two principal deliverables: (1) design, construct, test and deliver a 24 chamber, multiplex capable suitcase sized PCR instrument, and (2) develop and reduce to practice a multiplex assay for the detection of PCR product by flow cytometry. In addition, significant resources were allocated to test and evaluation of the Hand-held Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA). This project helps provide the signature and intelligence gathering community the ability to perform, on-site or remote, rapid analysis of environmental or like samples for the presence of a suite of biological warfare pathogens.

  15. Acid-Base Behavior in Hydrothermal Processing of Wastes - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, K.; Rossky, P.

    2000-12-01

    A major obstacle to development of hydrothermal oxidation technology has been a lack of scientific knowledge of chemistry in hydrothermal solution above 350 C, particularly acid-base behavior, and transport phenomena, which is needed to understand corrosion, metal-ion complexation, and salt precipitation and recovery. Our objective has been to provide this knowledge with in situ UV-visible spectroscopic measurements and fully molecular computer simulation. Our recent development of relatively stable organic UV-visible pH indicators for supercritical water oxidation offers the opportunity to characterize buffers and to monitor acid-base titrations. These results have important implications for understanding reaction pathways and yields for decomposition of wastes in supercritical water.

  16. Day-night changes of energy-rich compounds in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species utilizing hexose and starch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Song; Nose, Akihiro

    2004-09-01

    Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be divided into two groups according to the major carbohydrates used for malic acid synthesis, either polysaccharide (starch) or monosaccharide (hexose). This is related to the mechanism and affects energy metabolism in the two groups. In Kalanchoë pinnata and K. daigremontiana, which utilize starch, ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast inorganic pyrophosphatase) activity is greater than inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast adenosine triphosphatase) activity, but the reverse is the case in pineapple (Ananas comosus) utilizing hexose. To test the hypothesis that the energy metabolism of the two groups differs, day-night changes in the contents of ATP, ADP, AMP, inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in K. pinnata and K. daigremontiana leaves and in pineapple chlorenchyma were analysed. The contents of energy-rich compounds were measured spectrophotometrically in extracts of tissue sampled in the light and dark, using potted plants, kept for 15 d before the experiments in a growth chamber. In the three species, ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) increased in the dark and decreased in the light, in contrast to ADP and AMP. Changes in ATP and AEC were greater in Kalanchoë leaves than in pineapple chlorenchyma. PPi content in the three species increased in the dark, but on illumination it decreased rapidly and substantially, remaining little changed through the rest of the light period. Pi content of Kalanchoë leaves did not change between dark and light, whereas Pi in pineapple chlorenchyma increased in the dark and decreased in the light, and the changes were far greater than in Kalanchoë leaves. Light-dark changes in PEP content in the three species were similar. These results corroborate our hypothesis that day-night changes in the contents of energy-rich compounds differ between CAM species and are related to the

  17. Day–Night Changes of Energy-rich Compounds in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) Species Utilizing Hexose and Starch

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, LI-SONG; NOSE, AKIHIRO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be divided into two groups according to the major carbohydrates used for malic acid synthesis, either polysaccharide (starch) or monosaccharide (hexose). This is related to the mechanism and affects energy metabolism in the two groups. In Kalanchoë pinnata and K. daigremontiana, which utilize starch, ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast inorganic pyrophosphatase) activity is greater than inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast adenosine triphosphatase) activity, but the reverse is the case in pineapple (Ananas comosus) utilizing hexose. To test the hypothesis that the energy metabolism of the two groups differs, day-night changes in the contents of ATP, ADP, AMP, inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in K. pinnata and K. daigremontiana leaves and in pineapple chlorenchyma were analysed. • Methods The contents of energy-rich compounds were measured spectrophotometrically in extracts of tissue sampled in the light and dark, using potted plants, kept for 15 d before the experiments in a growth chamber. • Key Results In the three species, ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) increased in the dark and decreased in the light, in contrast to ADP and AMP. Changes in ATP and AEC were greater in Kalanchoë leaves than in pineapple chlorenchyma. PPi content in the three species increased in the dark, but on illumination it decreased rapidly and substantially, remaining little changed through the rest of the light period. Pi content of Kalanchoë leaves did not change between dark and light, whereas Pi in pineapple chlorenchyma increased in the dark and decreased in the light, and the changes were far greater than in Kalanchoë leaves. Light-dark changes in PEP content in the three species were similar. • Conclusions These results corroborate our hypothesis that day–night changes in the contents of energy

  18. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  19. Recordkeeping and reporting requirements for drug products containing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). Final rule.

    PubMed

    2005-01-04

    DEA is amending its regulations to require additional recordkeeping and reporting requirements for drug products containing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) for which an application has been approved under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. DEA makes these changes under section 4 of the "Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000." These additional requirements are necessary to protect against the diversion of GHB for illicit purposes.

  20. Regional estimates of acid deposition fluxes in California for 1985-1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, C.L.; Michaels, H.; Tanenbaum, S.

    1996-04-01

    Acid deposition occurs via precipitation, fog, cloud water and dry deposition. The specific objectives of this project were to (1) evaluate the quality of the available deposition data; (2) compute estimates of the deposition of each species of interest, by mode of deposition, at each monitoring location in California; (3) generalize the estimated deposition amounts to larger regions of interest; (4) compare the magnitudes of wet and dry deposition; and (5) identify measurement and methodological requirements for improving the results.

  1. Effect of boric acid on intergranular corrosion in tube support plate crevices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brunet, J.P.; Campan, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Intergranular attack on steam generator tubing is one important phenomenon involved in availability of Pressurized Water Reactors. Boric acid appears to be a possible candidate for inhibiting the corrosion process. The program performed in Cadarache was supposed to give statistical informations on the boric acid effect. It was based on a large number of samples initially attacked during a program performed by BABCOCK & WILCOX. These samples were sleeved onto Alloy 690 tubes, in order to prevent premature cracking. Unfortunately it was not possible to find chemical conditions able to produce significant additional corrosion; we postulated mainly due to a drastic reduction of the thermal flux resulting from the increase of the tube wall thickness under the tube support plates (TSP). The tests demonstrate that such sleeve could be a possible remedy of the corrosion when introduced under the TSP. The tests show indications of a possible beneficial effect of the boric acid, a large variability of the heats sensitivity to the IGA and a predominant effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on IGA production.

  2. Microbial utilization of the industrial wastewater pollutants 2-ethylhexylthioglycolic acid and iso-octylthioglycolic acid by aerobic gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Toups, Mario; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Industrial wastewater from the production of sulfur containing esters and the resulting products of this synthesis, 2-ethylhexylthioglycolic acid (EHTG) and iso-octylthioglycolic acid (IOTG), were deployed in this study to enrich novel bacterial strains, since no wastewater and EHTG or IOTG degrading microorganisms were hitherto described or available. In addition, nothing is known about the biodegradation of these thiochemicals. The effect of this specific wastewater on the growth behaviour of microorganisms was investigated using three well-known Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Ralstonia eutropha). Concentrations of 5% (v/v) wastewater in complex media completely inhibited growth of these three bacterial strains. Six bacterial strains were successfully isolated, characterized and identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. Two isolates referred to as Achromobacter sp. strain MT-E3 and Pseudomonas sp. strain MT-I1 used EHTG or IOTG, respectively, as well as the wastewater as sole source of carbon and energy for weak growth. More notably, both isolates removed these sulfur containing esters in remarkable amounts from the cultures supernatant. One further isolate was referred to as Klebsiella sp. strain 58 and exhibited an unusual high tolerance against the wastewater's toxicity without utilizing the contaminative compounds. If cultivated with gluconic acid as additional carbon source, the strain grew even in presence of more than 40% (v/v) wastewater. Three other isolates belonging to the genera Bordetella and Pseudomonas tolerated these organic sulfur compounds but showed no degradation abilities.

  3. Soybean milk residue ensiled with peanut hulls: fermentation acids, cell wall composition, and silage utilization by mixed ruminal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, C-M J

    2005-08-01

    Preservation of soybean milk residue (SMR) by ensiling with peanut hulls (PEH) and subsequent utilization of silage by mixed ruminal microorganisms were investigated. Treatments were combinations of SMR with PEH at the following ratios: 100:0, 78:22, 71:29, and 60:40 (fresh weight basis). After eight weeks of ensiling, silage lactic acid, crude protein, ether extract, and non-fiber carbohydrates were highest when SMR was ensiled alone and reduced as amounts of SMR decreased. Similar trends were observed for silage in vitro dry matter digestibility, and gas and volatile fatty acid production by ruminal microorganisms. Conversely, silage pH, dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, and lignin increased accordingly. The ensiling treatment appeared to alter silage cell wall composition. In particular, silage treated with PEH at the low level (78:22) resulted in reduced fiber contents and lignification. The silage (SMR:PEH=78:22) had enhanced efficiency of both silage fermentation and in vitro ruminal fermentation pattern.

  4. The influence of alternative pathways of respiration that utilize branched-chain amino acids following water shortage in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Marcel V; Pereira Júnior, Adilson A; Medeiros, David B; Daloso, Danilo M; Pham, Phuong Anh; Barros, Kallyne A; Engqvist, Martin K M; Florian, Alexandra; Krahnert, Ina; Maurino, Veronica G; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-06-01

    During dark-induced senescence isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) act as alternate electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via the electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) pathway. However, the role of this pathway in response to other stresses still remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that this alternative pathway is associated with tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis. In comparison with wild type (WT) and lines overexpressing D-2GHDH, loss-of-function etfqo-1, d2hgdh-2 and ivdh-1 mutants displayed compromised respiration rates and were more sensitive to drought. Our results demonstrated that an operational ETF/ETFQO pathway is associated with plants' ability to withstand drought and to recover growth once water becomes replete. Drought-induced metabolic reprogramming resulted in an increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and total amino acid levels, as well as decreases in protein, starch and nitrate contents. The enhanced levels of the branched-chain amino acids in loss-of-function mutants appear to be related to their increased utilization as substrates for the TCA cycle under water stress. Our results thus show that mitochondrial metabolism is highly active during drought stress responses and provide support for a role of alternative respiratory pathways within this response. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Utilization of 5-aminolevulinic acid in the photodynamic therapy of tumors: biochemical and photobiological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, Roy H.; Kennedy, James C.

    1994-03-01

    Inherent in both plants and animals is the natural porphyrin, Protoporphyrin IX (Pp). Although Pp does not appear to have any intrinsic biological activity, it is a potent natural photosensitizer. When activated with ultraviolet or visible light, this photosensitizer can induce significant photodynamic effects on tissues, cells, subcellular elements, and macromolecules via the production of singlet oxygen. The biosynthesis of endogenous Pp is under strict enzymatic control. It is possible to bypass a rate controlling step and induce large, transient concentrations of Pp by the addition of exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALA may be administered systemically or topically. Much larger amounts of Pp are produced in certain types of tumor tissue than in adjacent normal tissue. Topically applied ALA can be used to treat a variety of skin lesions, including actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinomas and psoriasis.

  6. Utilization of zeolites synthesized from coal fly ash for the purification of acid mine waters.

    PubMed

    Moreno, N; Querol, X; Ayora, C; Pereira, C F; Janssen-Jurkovicová, M

    2001-09-01

    Two pilot plant products containing 65 and 45% NaP1 zeolite were obtained from two Spanish coal fly ashes (Narcea and Teruel Power Station, respectively). The zeolitic product obtained showed a cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 2.7 and 2.0 mequiv/g, respectively. Decontamination tests of three acid mine waters from southwestern Spain were carried out using the zeolite derived from fly ash and commercial synthetic zeolite. The results demonstrate that the zeolitic material could be employed for heavy metal uptake in the water purification process. Doses of 5-30 g of zeolite/L have been applied according on the zeolite species and the heavy metal levels. Moreover, the application of zeolites increases the pH. This causes metal-bearing solid phases to precipitate and enhances the efficiency of the decontamination process.

  7. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2010-06-17

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263+-0.02 g cellulose L{sup -1} for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  8. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2010-06-01

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  9. A Highly Potent and Selective Caspase 1 Inhibitor that Utilizes a Key 3-Cyanopropanoic Acid Moiety

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Matthew B.; Quinn, Amy M.; Shen, Min; Jadhav, Ajit; Leister, William; Simeonov, Anton; Auld, Douglas S.; Thomas, Craig J.

    2011-01-01

    Herein we examine the potential of a nitrile-containing proprionic acid moiety as an electrophile for covalent attack by the active site cysteine residue of caspase 1. The syntheses of several cyanopropanate containing small molecules based upon the optimized peptidic scaffold of the prodrug VX-765 were accomplished and found to be potent inhibitors of caspase 1 (IC50s ≤ 1 nM). Examination of these novel small molecules versus a caspase panel demonstrated an impressive degree of selectivity for caspase 1 inhibition. Assessment of hydrolytic stability and selected ADME properties highlighted these agents as potentially useful tools for studying caspase 1 down-regulation in various settings including in vivo analyses. PMID:20229566

  10. Evaluation of Gas-Cooled Pressurized Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells for Electric Utility Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faroque, M.

    1983-01-01

    Gas cooling is a more reliable, less expensive and a more simple alternative to conventional liquid cooling for heat removal from the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). The feasibility of gas-cooling was already demonstrated in atmospheric pressure stacks. Theoretical and experimental investigations of gas-cooling for pressurized PAFC are presented. Two approaches to gas cooling, Distributed Gas-Cooling (DIGAS) and Separated Gas-Cooling (SGC) were considered, and a theoretical comparison on the basis of cell performance indicated SGC to be superior to DIGAS. The feasibility of SGC was experimentally demonstrated by operating a 45-cell stack for 700 hours at pressure, and determining thermal response and the effect of other related parameters.

  11. Final Project Report for project titled "Fluoroalkylphosphonic-acid-based proton conductors"

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Creager

    2011-12-08

    The overall objective of this research was to create new proton-conducting polymer electrolytes for use in energy conversion devices including hydrogen fuel cells that could operate at high temperatures (95-130 C) and under low relative humidity (< 50% RH) conditions. The new polymers were based on the fluoroalkylphosphonic and phosphinic acid (FPA) groups (see illustration below) which offer prospects for rapid proton transport by a proton-hopping mechanism similar to that which operates in phosphoric acid, a well-known proton-transporting electrolyte that is used in a class of hydrogen fuel cells that work well under the conditions noted above and are already commercially successful. The two specific project objectives were as follows: (1) synthesize and characterize new proton-conducting electrolytes based on the fluoroalkylphosphonic and phosphinic acid (FPA) functional groups; and (2) create and apply new computer models to study protonic conduction in FPA-based electrolytes. The project was successful in creating the desired polymer electrolytes and also a series of molecular model compounds which were used to study proton transport in FPA electrolytes in general. Computer models were created to study both structure and proton-transport dynamics in the electrolytes, particularly the molecular model compounds. Rapid proton transport by a hopping mechanism was found in many of the model compounds and correlations with transport rates with molecular structure were identified. Several polymeric analogs of FPA model compounds were prepared and studied, however FPA-based polymeric materials having very high protonic conductivities under either wet or dry conditions were not obtained. Several possible reasons for the failure of polymeric materials to exhibit the expected high protonic conductivities were identified, including a failure of the polymers to adopt the phase-separated secondary structure/morphology necessary for high proton conductivity, and an

  12. Advanced Utility Simulation Model: multi-period multi-state module design documentation (Version 1. 0). Final report, October 1982-November 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Edahl, R.; Tyle, N.; Talukdar, S.N.; Pachavis, N.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report is one of 11 in a series describing the initial development of the Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM) by the Universities Research Group on Energy (URGE) and its continued development by the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) research team. The AUSM is one of four stationary-source emission and control cost-forecasting models developed by EPA for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The AUSM projects air pollution emissions (SO/sub 2/ and NOx), generating technology types and costs of operation, and combinations of fuels and emission-control technologies to simultaneously meet electric demand and emission constraints on a least-cost basis for each year through 2010. Thirteen electric-demand regions are simulated, and output is provided for each of the 48 states.

  13. Microbially safe utilization of non-inactivated oats (Avena sativa L.) for production of conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Vahvaselkä, Marjatta; Lehtinen, Pekka; Laakso, Simo

    2006-02-08

    A microbially safe process for the enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in oats was developed. The process consists of hydrolysis of oat lipids by non-inactivated oat flour, followed by propionibacterium-catalyzed isomerization of the resulting free linoleic acid to CLA. The first stage was performed at water activity (a(w)) 0.7, where hydrolysis of triacylglycerols progressed efficiently without growth of the indigenous microflora of flour. Thereafter, the flour was incubated as a 5% (w/v) aqueous, sterilized slurry with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. The amount of CLA produced in 20 h was 11.5 mg/g dry matter corresponding to 116 mg/g lipids or 0.57 mg/mL slurry. The oat flour had also the capability to hydrolyze exogenous oils at a(w) 0.7. Sunflower oil, added to increase linoleic acid content in triacylglycerols 2.7-fold, was hydrolyzed rapidly. Isomerization of this oil-supplemented flour as a 5% slurry gave final CLA content of 22.3 mg/g dry matter after 50 h of fermentation, corresponding to 118 mg/g lipids or 1.14 mg/mL slurry. Storage stability of CLA in fermented oat slurries at 4 degrees C was good.

  14. Low-phytic acid corn improves nutrient utilization for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Veum, T L; Ledoux, D R; Raboy, V; Ertl, D S

    2001-11-01

    Thirty-five crossbred barrows averaging 14.5 kg initial BW were used in a 5-wk experiment to compare the P availability and nutritional value of a low-phytate hybrid corn (LPC, 0.26% total P, 0.08% phytic acid P) homozygous for the lpa 1-1 allele with a nearly isogenic normal hybrid corn (NC, 0.25% total P, 0.20% phytic acid P). The pigs were fed individually twice daily in metabolism pens. Three semipurified diets were created in which corn was the only source of phytate. Diet 1 contained 72% NC, 0.15% estimated available P (aP) and 0.55% Ca. Diet 2 contained 72% LPC, 0.24% aP, and 0.55% Ca. The only differences between Diets 1 and 2 were the source of corn and the levels of aP. No inorganic P (iP) was added to these diets in order to measure the animal response to the different levels of aP in the corn hybrids. Diet 3 was NC Diet 1 supplemented with iP to equal the level of aP in LPC Diet 2. Diets 4 and 5 were practical corn-soybean meal diets formulated with each corn to meet all minimum nutrient requirements and contained 0.30% aP and 0.65% Ca. For the semipurified diets, pigs fed LPC Diet 2 had higher (P < 0.01) growth performance, bone breaking strength, P absorption and retention, Ca absorption and retention, and N retention than pigs fed NC Diet 1. However, when the NC diet was supplemented with iP to equal the aP in the LPC diet, most criteria were similar (P > or = 0.2), indicating an equal nutritional value for both corn hybrids after adjusting for phytate level. The only treatment difference, other than P excretion, between the practical corn diets supplemented with soybean meal was a higher (P < 0.05) bone breaking strength for pigs fed LPC Diet 5 compared with NC Diet 4. The use of LPC in pig diets reduced P excretion in swine waste by 50 and 18.4% in the semipurified and practical diets, respectively, compared with NC. Using our in vitro procedure designed to simulate the digestive system of the pig, the availability of P for pigs was estimated at 56

  15. Overexpression of OsPAP10a, a root-associated acid phosphatase, increased extracellular organic phosphorus utilization in rice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jingluan; Wang, Chuang; Zhang, Qian; He, Xiaowei; Whelan, James; Shou, Huixia

    2012-09-01

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency is a major limitation for plant growth and development. Among the wide set of responses to cope with low soil P, plants increase their level of intracellular and secreted acid phosphatases (APases), which helps to catalyze inorganic phosphate (Pi) hydrolysis from organo-phosphates. In this study we characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) purple acid phosphatase 10a (OsPAP10a). OsPAP10a belongs to group Ia of purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), and clusters with the principal secreted PAPs in a variety of plant species including Arabidopsis. The transcript abundance of OsPAP10a is specifically induced by Pi deficiency and is controlled by OsPHR2, the central transcription factor controlling Pi homeostasis. In gel activity assays of root and shoot protein extracts, it was revealed that OsPAP10a is a major acid phosphatase isoform induced by Pi starvation. Constitutive overexpression of OsPAP10a results in a significant increase of phosphatase activity in both shoot and root protein extracts. In vivo root 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate (BCIP) assays and activity measurements on external media showed that OsPAP10a is a root-associated APase. Furthermore, overexpression of OsPAP10a significantly improved ATP hydrolysis and utilization compared with wild type plants. These results indicate that OsPAP10a can potentially be used for crop breeding to improve the efficiency of P use. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ringelberg, D.B.; White, D.C.

    1996-09-01

    In support of the Yucca Mountain subsurface microbial characterization project phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses for viable microbial biomass, community composition and nutritional status were performed. Results showed a positive correlation between a decrease in viable biomass and increase in depth with the lowest biomass values being obtained from the Topopah Spring geologic horizon. A plot of the ratio of non-viable (diglyceride fatty acids) to viable (PLFA) cells also showed the lowest values to derive from the Topopah Spring horizon. Estimations of microbial community composition, made from the patterns of PLFA recovered from the sediment samples, revealed similarities between samples collected within the same geologic horizons: Tiva Canyon, Pre-Pah Canyon and Topopah Spring. Results indicated the presence of mixed communities composed of gram positive, gram negative, actinomycete and obligate anaerobic bacteria. Culturable organisms, recovered from similar sediments, were representative of the same bacterial classifications although gram positive bacterial isolates typically outnumbered gram negative isolates. Within the gram negative bacterial community, corroborative indicators of physiological stress were apparent in the Topopah Spring horizon.

  17. Secondary economic impact of acid deposition control legislation in six coal producing states: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Guthrie, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    Among the difficult policy questions on the US environmental agenda is what to do about emissions to the earth's atmosphere of pollutants that may result in ''acid rain''. The Congress has considered several pieces of legislation spelling out potential approaches to the problem and setting goals for emission reduction, mostly emphasizing the control of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Significant policy concern is the dollar costs to the nation's economy of achieving the intended effects of the legislation and the potential impacts on economic activity---in particular, losses of both coal mining and secondary service sector employment in states and regions dependent on the mining of high sulfur coal. There are several direct economic effects of regulations such as the acid rain control legislation. One of the more obvious effects was the switching from high sulfur coal to low sulfur coal. This would result in increases in employment and coal business procurements in low sulfur coal mining regions, but also would result in lower employment and lower coal business procurements in high sulfur coal mining areas. The potential negative effects are the immediate policy concern and are the focus of this report. 15 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  18. Measurements of dry-deposition parameters for the California acid-deposition monitoring program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C.; Egami, R.T.; Bowen, J.L.; Frazier, C.A.

    1991-06-01

    The State of California monitors the concentrations of acidic gases and particles at 10 sites throughout the state. Seven sites represent urban areas (South Coast Air Basin - three sites, San Francisco Bay Area, Bakersfield, Santa Barbara, and Sacramento) and three represent forested areas (Sequoia National Park, Yosemite National Park, and Gasquet). Several sites are collocated with monitoring instruments for other air quality and forest response networks. Continuous monitors for the dry deposition network collect hourly average values for ozone, wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability, temperature, dew point, time of wetness, and solar radiation. A newly-designed gas/particle sampler collects daytime (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) and nighttime (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.) samples every sixth day for sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid. Particles are collected on the same day/night schedule in PM(10) and PM(2.5) size ranges, and are analyzed for mass, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium ions. The sampling schedule follows the regulatory schedule adopted by the EPA and ARB for suspended particulate matter. Wet deposition data are collected at or nearby the dry deposition stations. The first year of the monitoring program included installation of the network, training of technicians, acquisition and validation of data, and transfer of the sampling and analysis technology to Air Resources Board operating divisions. Data have been validated and stored for the period May, 1988 through September, 1989.

  19. Enzymatic synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters by utilizing camellia oil soapstocks and diethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Cao, Xuejun

    2011-11-01

    This study was reported on a novel process for fatty acid ethyl esters preparation by transesterification and esterification from renewable low-cost feedstock camellia oil soapstocks and friendly acyl acceptor diethyl carbonate. The main components of product were 83.9% ethyl oleate, 8.9% ethyl palmitate, 4.7% ethyl linoleate and 2.1% ethyl stearate, which could be used as eco-friendly renewable resources or additives of industrial solvent and fossil fuel. The effects of molar ratio of diethyl carbonate to soapstocks oil, lipases, organic solvent, reaction temperature and time were investigated, and process conditions were optimized. The yield was up to 98.4% in solvent-free system with molar ratio of diethyl carbonate to soapstocks oil 3:1 and 5% Novozym 435 (based on the weight of soapstocks oil) at 50 °C and 180 rpm for 24 h. Moreover, there was no obvious loss in the yield after lipases were reused for 10 batches without treatment under optimized conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated inulin and utility for cellular uptake of liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Essien, H.; Lai, J.Y.; Hwang, K.J.

    1988-05-01

    The synthesis, binding of radioactive cations, liposomal encapsulation, and biodistribution of the oxidized-inulin reaction product with ethylenediamine and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4) are described. The four-step synthesis of the inulin derivative proceeded in a good overall yield of 72%. The complex of the inulin derivative with either /sup 67/Ga3+ or /sup 111/In3+ was stable in vivo and did not readily distribute into tissues, being excreted primarily in urine after intravenous administration to mice. The liposome-entrapped inulin derivative can be loaded with radioactive heavy metal cations by mobile ionophores in high radiochemical yields of 80-91%. Following the intravenous administration of the liposomal encapsulation of the indium-111-labeled inulin derivative, the entrapped compound had a biodistribution characteristic of liposomes and allowed an estimation of the extent of the intracellular uptake of liposomes. The ability of the inulin derivative to chelate many different types of metals will allow the use of this probe for studying subtle differences in tissue distribution resulting from different drug targeting or delivery protocols in the same animal by multiple labeling techniques. Moreover, the chelate-conjugated inulin permits studies of the applications of drug delivery systems in primates or human subjects by noninvasive techniques such as gamma-scintigraphic or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging methods.

  1. Influence of the dairy environment on gene expression and substrate utilization in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Klaenhammer, Todd R; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Altermann, Eric; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2007-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the industrial production of fermented dairy products and form a group of related low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria. The major species used in dairy manufacturing are Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, and Leuconostoc. Traditionally most are applied as starter cultures for dairy fermentations or used as probiotic cultures, delivered in dairy vehicles. The appearance of the genomes of Lactococcus lactis, Bidifobacterium longum, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, 2 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, and pending completion of many draft genomic sequences, is now promoting in-depth investigation into the comparative genetic content of LAB. Moreover, whole-genome transcriptional arrays are quickly revealing critical genes/operons that are coordinately expressed and the impact of environmental factors on expression of multiple gene sets. Comparative genomics between multiple genomes is providing insights into genes that are important in metabolic, physiological, and functional roles for different LAB in the environments they inhabit, ranging from the gastrointestinal tract to milk and acidified dairy products.

  2. Utility of intraoperative fluorescent diagnosis of residual hemangioblastoma using 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Utsuki, Satoshi; Oka, Hidehiro; Kijima, Chihiro; Miyajima, Yoshiteru; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Kiyotaka

    2011-01-01

    Hemangioblastoma is a benign tumor of the cerebellum, and treatment involves surgical excision, both as the initial treatment and also in case of recurrence. Recurrence of hemangioblastoma can be local due to incomplete resection or can be distant and separate from the tumor resection region. Local recurrence can largely be avoided by verifying for any residual tumor intraoperatively before closure. In this study, we used intraoperative fluorescent diagnosis using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) to verify the presence of a residual tumor during surgical resection. Nine patients with hemangioblastoma were given 1 g of 5-ALA orally before surgery, and a laser beam of 405 nm was focused on the tumor during resective surgery. Fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) was observed in the core of tumor in all the cases. Fluorescence of PPIX was observed in the peritumoral cyst wall in two patients after tumor resection, and in both of them fluorescent parts of PPIX were resected and histological examination showed tumor cells. Usually, there are no tumor cells in the peritumoral cyst of a hemangioblastoma, yet hemangioblastomas may sometimes recur from an unresected cyst wall. It is thus necessary to excise an infiltrating cyst of tumor cells to prevent recurrence. Intraoperative fluorescent diagnosis using 5-ALA is a useful method to discern whether tumor cells are present in the peritumoral cyst wall of a hemangioblastoma.

  3. Electrical conductivity measurements of aqueous boric acid at 25--350{degree}C at saturation vapor pressure. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, P.C.; Palmer, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    Electrical conductance measurements of aqueous boric acid solutions (15-110 g/kg-H{sub 2}O {equivalent_to} 0.251--1.815 mol/kg-H{sub 2}O) were measured over the temperature range 25 to 75 C at saturation vapor pressures in glass cells with parallel platinum electrodes. Sixteen series of measurements were made involving three samples of boric acid from different sources. Conductance measurements were also made at 15.5 and 30.5 g/kg-H{sub 2}O over the temperature range 100 to 350 C at 50 C intervals with a metallic cell fitted with concentric platinum electrodes. The specific conductances of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} (aq)were calculated after correction for the conductance of the solvent (water) and are tabulated in this report. At the specific conditions requested in the project description, namely a concentration of 110 g/kg-H{sub 2}O and 65 C, the specific conductance of boric acid is 293.2 {+-} 1.8 microSiemens/cm based on duplicate measurements of four independent solutions. The results from these tests will be utilized by the Tokamak Physics Experimental Project (TPX).

  4. Receptor modeling of transport of acidic air pollutants and oxidants to forested regions in the Sierra Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gertler, A.W.; Harrington, R.F.; Tanner, R.L.; Chow, J.C.; Lu, Z.

    1993-08-01

    The major source area of acidic species and their precursors which has the potential for impact in the Sierra Nevada is the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). During the summer of 1990, the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study (SJVAQS) and Atmospheric Utility Signatures, Predictions and Experiments (AUSPEX) studies, two major, integrated field studies, were performed. These studies provided a basis for extending the knowledge of air pollution effects to regions outside the study area which are affected by emissions from that region. There were two main facets to the study. The first involved field measurements that are required as input for the receptor modeling task. The second involved the application of receptor models to apportion sources of atmospheric acidity. Sites included SJVAQS/AUSPEX sites at Sequoia and Yosemite, a site in the vicinity of Tehachapi, and a site on the western slope of the northern Sierra Nevada near Lake Tahoe (Blodgett Experimental Forest). Measurements of gaseous and fine particulate inorganic and organic acidic species were made on 14 days corresponding to the SJVAQS/AUSPEX intensive measurement days.

  5. Hepatic role in the storage and utilization of fish oil fatty acids in humans: studies on liver surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Sekine, K

    1995-03-01

    Fish oil fatty acids (FOFA) were analyzed in fresh liver tissue and in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue obtained from 5 patients who underwent partial hepatectomy. FOFA were also determined in plasma from 5 patients and in 10 healthy subjects. There was a high content of FOFA in the liver phospholipid (PL) fraction (twice that in our previous autopsy study) suggesting that these surgery patients had a hepatic FOFA content of at least 25g. In plasma, FOFA was predominantly found in the PL of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and partly in the PL of other lipoproteins. Since these lipoproteins are produced by the liver, the present findings indicate the role of the liver not only in storage but also in the utilization of FOFA to form the biologically important surface PL component of circulating lipoproteins.

  6. Novel solid state proton-conductors based on polymeric non-oxy acids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, A.J.; Srinivasan, S.; Parthasarathy, A.; Gonzalez, E.R.; DesMarteau, D.; Gillette, M.S.; Ghosh, J.K.; Jalan, V.; Desai, M.

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of this project were to prepare and characterize novel solid state proton-conductors and to evaluate these compounds as fuel cell electrolytes. The thrust was on the synthesis of new proton-conducting ``model`` and ``polymeric`` compounds, based on acid functions of the type (R{sub f}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}NH and (R{sub f}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 2} in appropriate fluorinated carbon structures, their physics-chemical characterization (Infra-red, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and X-ray Diffraction), and is pro. evaluation as candidate fuel cell electrolytes for use at elevated temperatures. This project consisted of four tasks (i) Synthesis of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; (ii) Physical and Chemical Characterization of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; (iii) Electrochemical Characterization of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; and (iv) Evaluation of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Fuel Cells.

  7. Impact of changing acidity on the trophic dynamics of pine barrens plankton communities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.D.

    1983-09-01

    The physical, chemical, and biological limnology of Oswego Lake (an undisturbed New Jersey Pine Barrens pond), and Nescochague Lake (a pond disturbed by extensive agricultural and residential development) was investigated from June 1981 - May 1983. The impact of disturbance was most evident in pH and nutrients. On all occasions, the pH of Nescochague Lake (mean, based on H(+) concentration = 5.3, range 4.5-7.8) exceeded the pH of Oswego Lake (mean - 4.2, range 3.9-4.6). Concentrations of NO/sup 3/-N and total P were about 50 times greater in Nescochague Lake than in Oswego Lake. The biological response to these differences was most evident among the phytoplankton, which exhibited both greater biomass and productivity. These periodic reductions in pH apparently restricted the zooplankton to a primarily acid tolerant assemblage, thus, explaining the overall similarity between the communities in Oswego and Nescochague Lakes.

  8. Economic assessment of acid deposition and ozone damage on the San Joaquin Valley agriculture. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howitt, R.

    1993-02-01

    The California Agricultural Resources Model (CARM) was used to estimate the economic impact of acidic deposition and ozone on crops in the San Joaquin Valley. Data on ozone exposure-crop response and agricultural markets are used in the CARM to estimate the potential economic benefits of an improvement in air quality. The study focused on the economic impact of two ozone reduction scenarios in agricultural regions of California. The CARM projected that if growing season concentrations of ozone were reduced to 0.04 ppm, annual benefits to consumers (higher availability and lower prices) and producers (higher production and lower production costs) would be approximately $489 million. In comparison, the benefit projected if statewide levels of ozone were uniformly reduced to 0.025 ppm was approximately $1.5 billion. Although the 0.025 ppm scenario is unlikely, the economic benefits were estimated to be correspondingly large.

  9. Anti-reflection coatings applied by acid-leaching process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pastirik, E.

    1980-09-01

    The Magicote C process developed by S.M. Thompsen was evaluated for use in applying an antireflective coating to the cover plates of solar cell panels. The process uses a fluosilicic acid solution supersaturated with silica at elevated temperature to selectively attack the surface of soda-lime glass cover plates and alter the physical and chemical composition of a thin layer of glass. The altered glass layer constitutes an antireflective coating. The process produces coatings of excellent optical quality which possess outstanding resistance to soiling and staining. The coatings produced are not resistant to mechanical abrasion and are attacked to some extent by glass cleansers. Control of the filming process was found to be difficult.

  10. Final safety assessment of thiodipropionic acid and its dialkyl esters as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Diamante, Catherine; Fiume, Monice Zondlo; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-07-01

    Dilauryl thiodipropionate (DLTDP), dicetyl thiodipropionate, dimyristyl thiodipropionate, distearyl thiodipropionate, and ditridecyl thiodipropionate are dialkyl esters of their respective alcohols and thiodipropionic acid (TDPA) used in cosmetics. Ingested DLTDP was excreted in the urine as TDPA. Single-dose acute oral and parenteral studies and subchronic and chronic repeated dose oral studies did not suggest significant toxicity. Neither DLTDP nor TDPA was irritating to animal skin or eyes and they were not sensitizers. TDPA was neither a teratogen nor a reproductive toxicant. Genotoxicity studies were negative for TDPA and DLTDP. Clinical testing demonstrated some evidence of irritation but no sensitization or photosensitization. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel considered that the data from DLTDP reasonably may be extrapolated to the other dialkyl esters and concluded that these ingredients were safe for use in cosmetic products that are formulated to be nonirritating.

  11. Utility of sedation for young children undergoing dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scans.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Keren, Ron; Ivanova, Anastasia; Ziessman, Harvey A; Cui, Gang; Mattoo, Tej K; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Nadkarni, Milan D; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Primack, William A

    2016-10-01

    No studies have examined whether use of sedation during a Tc-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan reduces patient discomfort. To compare discomfort level during a DMSA scan to the discomfort level during other frequently performed uroradiologic tests, and to determine whether use of sedation during a DMSA scan modifies the level of discomfort. We examined the discomfort level in 798 children enrolled in the Randomized Intervention for children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) and Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation (CUTIE) studies by asking parents to rate their child's discomfort level with each procedure on a scale from 0 to 10. We compared discomfort during the DMSA scan and the DMSA image quality between centers in which sedation was used >90% of the time (sedation centers), centers in which sedation was used <10% of the time (non-sedation centers), and centers in which sedation was used on a case-by-case basis (selective centers). Mean discomfort level was highest for voiding cystourethrogram (6.4), followed by DMSA (4.0), followed by ultrasound (2.4; P<0.0001). Mean discomfort level during the DMSA scan was significantly higher at non-sedation centers than at selective centers (P<0.001). No difference was apparent in discomfort level during the DMSA scan between sedation centers and selective centers (P=0.12), or between the sedation centers and non-sedation centers (P=0.80). There were no differences in the proportion with uninterpretable DMSA scans according to sedation use. Selective use of sedation in children 12-36 months of age can reduce the discomfort level experienced during a DMSA scan.

  12. Utilizing acid mine drainage sludge and coal fly ash for phosphate removal from dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a new and sustainable approach for the reuse of industrial by-products from wastewater treatment. The dairy industry produces huge volumes of wastewater, characterized by high levels of phosphate that can result in eutrophication and degradation of aquatic ecosystems. This study evaluated the application of acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, coal fly ash, and lignite as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from dairy wastewater. Material characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis revealed significant amounts of crystalline/amorphous Fe/Al/Si/Ca-based minerals and large surface areas of AMD sludge and fly ash. Batch adsorption isotherms were best described using the Freundlich model. The Freundlich distribution coefficients were 13.7 mg(0.577) L(0.423) g(-1) and 16.9 mg(0.478) L(0.522) g(-1) for AMD sludge and fly ash, respectively, and the nonlinearity constants suggested favourable adsorption for column applications. The breakthrough curves of fixed-bed columns, containing greater than 10 wt% of the waste materials (individual or composite blends) mixed with sand, indicated that phosphate breakthrough did not occur within 100 pore volumes while the cumulative removal was 522 and 490 mg kg(-1) at 10 wt% AMD sludge and 10 wt% fly ash, respectively. By contrast, lignite exhibited negligible phosphate adsorption, possibly due to small amounts of inorganic minerals suitable for phosphate complexation and limited surface area. The results suggest that both AMD sludge and fly ash were potentially effective adsorbents if employed individually at a ratio of 10 wt% or above for column application.

  13. Final Report Nucleic Acid System - Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay Project Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R P; Langlois, R G; Nasarabadi, S; Benett, W J; Colston, B W; Johnson, D C; Brown, S B; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-04-17

    This report covers phase 2 (year 2) of the Nucleic Acid System--Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay project. The objective of the project is to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in a multiplex mode using flow cytometry. The Hybrid instrument consists of a flow-through PCR module capable of handling a multiplexed PCR assay, a hybridizing module capable of hybridizing multiplexed PCR amplicons and beads, and a flow cytometer module for bead-based identification, all controlled by a single computer. Multiplex immunoassay using bead-based Luminex flow cytometry is available, allowing rapid screening for many agents. PCR is highly specific and complements and verifies immunoassay. It can also be multiplexed and detection provided using the bead-based Luminex flow cytometer. This approach allows full access to the speed and 100-fold multiplex capability of flow cytometry for rapid screening as well as the accuracy and specificity of PCR. This project has two principal activities: (1) Design, build and test a prototype hybrid PCR/flow cytometer with the basic capabilities for rapid, broad spectrum detection and identification, and (2) Develop and evaluate multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products. This project requires not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This involves development and evaluation of multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products.

  14. Evaluation of simulated acid precipitation effects on forest microcosms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.M.; Strickland, R.C.; Weatherford, F.P.; Noggle, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    Microcosms were treated for a 30-month period with simulated precipitation acidified to four pH levels (5.7, 4.5, 4.0, and 3.5) to evaluate the impact of acid precipitation on foliar leaching, plant nutrient content, soil leaching, soil nutrient content, and litter decomposition. Direct effects of acid precipitation on diameter growth, bud break, leaf senescence, chlorophyll content, stomatal size, stomatal density, photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and cuticle erosion were evaluated on tulip poplar, white oak, and Virginia pine seedlings growing as mixed stands in the microcosms. None of the plant physiological or morphological parameters evaluated responded in a statistically significant manner as a result of treatment. A significant treatment canopy interaction was observed in the form of a 60 percent increase in calcium input in throughfall in response to the pH 3.5 treatment. Foliar nutrient content did not change in response to treatment nor did field measurements of decomposer activity. Soil analysis indicated a significantly lower concentration of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in the top 3.5 cm of the mineral soil in association with the pH 3.5 treatment. Soil leachate concentrations exhibited significant increases at both the 25 and 50 cm depths. However, at the 100 cm depth no significant response in concentration or elemental loss from the system was observed. Laboratory respiration measurements indicated a small, but statistically significant reduction in decomposer activity in the lower litter (02) horizon. This reduction was masked in the field measurements of decomposer activity due to the relatively small contribution of the 02 to total soil respiration. 38 references, 12 figures, 18 tables.

  15. Assessment of acid production by various human oral micro-organisms when palatinose or leucrose is utilized.

    PubMed

    Peltroche-Llacsahuanga, H; Hauk, C J; Kock, R; Lampert, F; Lütticken, R; Haase, G

    2001-01-01

    One promising way of reducing caries is by using sucrose substitutes in food, e.g., palatinose or leucrose. Previous experiments addressing cariogenic potential of sucrose substitutes have focused mainly on Streptococcus mutans. However, given the many other micro-organisms in the oral cavity, this study compared the acid production of 100 bacterial strains representing 44 different species, by batch fermentation in a test tube containing, as a sole carbohydrate source, glucose, sucrose, palatinose, or leucrose. Selected strains were further analyzed in a fermenter. Additionally, 30 yeast strains were tested by an auxanographic sugar assimilation test. Only Lactobacillus spp., Stomatococcus mucilaginosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Weissella paramesenteroides, and some of the yeasts studied-i.e., Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-utilized leucrose and/or palatinose well. Strikingly, Stomatococcus mucilaginosus produced water-insoluble polysaccharides by fermentation of leucrose and palatinose. In the fermenter, the respective sucrose substitutes were not only cleaved but also utilized. Thus, extracellular cleavage by autochthonous micro-organisms may produce cariogenic cleavage products (glucose, fructose) that can be used by other well-characterized cariogenic bacteria found in the oral flora. Therefore, the anticariogenic potential of sucrose substitutes in food might be limited.

  16. Growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 on LB medium: monitoring utilization of sugars, alcohols, and organic acids with transcriptional microarrays.

    PubMed

    Baev, Mark V; Baev, Dmitry; Radek, Agnes Jancso; Campbell, John W

    2006-07-01

    Microorganisms respond to environmental changes by reprogramming their metabolism primarily through altered patterns of gene expression. DNA microarrays provide a tool for exploiting microorganisms as living sensors of their environment. The potential of DNA microarrays to reflect availability of nutrient components during fermentations on complex media was examined by monitoring global gene expression throughout batch cultivation of Escherichia coli MG1655 on Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Gene expression profiles group into pathways that clearly demonstrate the metabolic changes occurring in the course of fermentation. Functional analysis of the gene expression related to metabolism of sugars, alcohols, and organic acids revealed that E. coli growing on LB medium switches from a sequential mode of substrate utilization to the simultaneous one in the course of the growth. Maltose and maltodextrins are the first of these substrates to support growth. Utilization of these nutrients associated with the highest growth rate of the culture was followed by simultaneous induction of enzymes involved in assimilation of a large group of other carbon sources including D-mannose, melibiose, D-galactose, L-fucose, L-rhamnose, D-mannitol, amino sugars, trehalose, L-arabinose, glycerol, and lactate. Availability of these nutrients to the cells was monitored by induction of corresponding transport and/or catabolic systems specific for each of the compounds.

  17. Involvement of acyl-CoA synthetase genes in n-alkane assimilation and fatty acid utilization in yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Tenagy; Park, Jun Seok; Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi

    2015-06-01

    Here, we investigated the roles of YAL1 (FAA1) and FAT1 encoding acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) and three additional orthologs of ACS genes FAT2-FAT4 of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in the assimilation or utilization of n-alkanes and fatty acids. ACS deletion mutants were generated to characterize their function. The FAT1 deletion mutant exhibited decreased growth on n-alkanes of 10-18 carbons, whereas the FAA1 mutant showed growth reduction on n-alkane of 16 carbons. However, FAT2-FAT4 deletion mutants did not show any growth defects, suggesting that FAT1 and FAA1 are involved in the activation of fatty acids produced during the metabolism of n-alkanes. In contrast, deletions of FAA1 and FAT1-FAT4 conferred no defect in growth on fatty acids. The wild-type strain grew in the presence of cerulenin, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis, by utilizing exogenously added fatty acid or fatty acid derived from n-alkane when oleic acid or n-alkane of 18 carbons was supplemented. However, the FAA1 deletion mutant did not grow, indicating a critical role for FAA1 in the utilization of fatty acids. Fluorescent microscopic observation and biochemical analyses suggested that Fat1p is present in the peroxisome and Faa1p is localized in the cytosol and to membranes.

  18. D-Lactic acid production by Sporolactobacillus inulinus YBS1-5 with simultaneous utilization of cottonseed meal and corncob residue.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhongzhong; Gao, Zhen; Sun, Junfei; Wu, Bin; He, Bingfang

    2016-05-01

    d-Lactic acid, is an important organic acid produced from agro-industrial wastes by Sporolactobacillus inulinus YBS1-5 was investigated to reduce the raw material cost of fermentation. The YBS1-5 strain could produce d-lactic acid by using cottonseed meal as the sole nitrogen source. For efficient utilization, the cottonseed meal was enzymatically hydrolyzed and simultaneously utilized during d-lactic acid fermentation. Corncob residues are rich in cellulose and can be enzymatically hydrolyzed without pretreatment. The hydrolysate of this lignocellulosic waste could be utilized by strain YBS1-5 as a carbon source for d-lactic acid production. Under optimal conditions, a high d-lactic acid concentration (107.2g/L) was obtained in 7-L fed-batch fermenter, with an average productivity of 1.19g/L/h and a yield of 0.85g/g glucose. The optical purity of d-lactic acid in the broth was 99.2%. This study presented a new approach for low-cost production of d-lactic acid for an industrial application.

  19. Effect of plate preparation on active-material utilization and cycleability of positive plates in automotive lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgun, H.; Lam, L. T.; Rand, D. A. J.; Bhargava, S. K.

    The power demands from automotive lead/acid batteries are rising steadily with the increasing number of electronic accessories that are being fitted to modern vehicles. In order to meet new levels of performance, automotive batteries have been redesigned to use low-ohmic microporous separators, as well as thinner plates (to increase the number of plates per cell) that are made with a low paste density. This approach, however, has led to a separate problem, namely, an appreciable reduction in battery service life. To redress this situation, a research programme has been implemented in our laboratories to examine, in detail, the effect of plate preparation on the active-material utilization and cycleability of automotive positive plates with grids made from low-antimony alloy. The cycleability is evaluated in terms of repetitive reserve-capacity. The results suggest that a paste formula with a combination of high density and low acid-to-oxide ratio is the most appropriate technology for the production of the thin positive plates that are required in advanced designs of automotive batteries.

  20. Study of natural wetlands associated with acid mine drainage. Final research report Jul 87-Dec 90

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, L.R.

    1990-12-01

    Thirty-five natural wetlands impacted by acid mine drainage (mostly in western PA) were surveyed for abiotic and biotic parameters in relation to water quality. Using treatment efficiency and area-adjusted mass retention as wetland performance indices, correlation analyses and multiple regression techniques were employed to evaluate the influence of the wetland parameters on the mitigation of pH, Fe, Mn, and Al. Elevation of pH was correlated with large, broad, low-flow wetlands with shallow, non-channelized surface water, inlet alkalinity, and dense populations of vascular plants and bryophytes. Moderate and high iron concentrations interfered with the mitigation of pH. High Fe treatment efficiencies were correlated to low flows, large areas, broad shapes, non-channelized flows, exposed locations, a diverse and dense vegetative cover, and inlet alkalinity. Large wetlands having lush vascular plant cover and receiving alkaline waters low in total iron concentrations were implicated in significant Mn treatment. Outlet Fe concentrations were usually in compliance in wetlands that significantly lowered Mn concentrations. Algae tolerate manganese but probably do not play an active role in its elimination. Reliable indices of wetland performance include area-adjusted mass retention (for pH) and treatment efficiency (for metals).

  1. Development of ternary alloy cathode catalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jalan, V.; Kosek, J.; Giner, J.; Taylor, E. J.; Anderson, E.; Bianchi, V.; Brooks, C.; Cahill, K.; Cropley, C.; Desai, M.; Frost, D.; Morriseau, B.; Paul, B.; Poirier, J.; Rousseau, M.; Swette, L.; Waterhouse, R.

    1988-11-01

    The overall objective of the program was the identification development and incorporation of high activity platinum ternary alloys on corrosion resistant supports, for use in advanced phosphoric acid fuel cells. Two high activity ternary alloys, Pr-Cr-Ce and Pt-Ni-Co, both supported on Vulcan XC-72, were identified during the course of the program. The Pr-Ni-Co system was selected for optimization, including preparation and evaluation on corrosion resistant supports such as 2700/degree/C heat-treated Vulcan XC-72 and 2700/degree/ heat-treated Black Pearls 2000. A series of tests identified optimum metal ratios, heat-treatment temperatures and heat-treatment atmospheres for the Pr-Ni-Co system. During characterization testing, it was discovered that approximately 50% of the nickel and cobalt present in the starting material could be removed, subsequent to alloy formation, without degrading performance. Extremely stable full cell performance was observed for the Pt-Ni-Co system during a 10,000 hour atmosphere pressure life test. Several theories are proposed to explain the enhancement in activity due to alloy formation. Recommendations are made for future research in this area. 62 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Improving the stability of coal slurries: Final report. [Polygalacturonic acid and gum tragacanth

    SciTech Connect

    Fogler, H.S.

    1988-12-01

    Polysaccharides were found to stabilize colloidal dispersions (such as coal particles and polystyrene latex particles) even at high ionic strengths. The stability studies with various kinds of polysaccharides showed that rod-like molecules (such as poly (galacturonic acid) and gum tragacanth) are much more effective stabilizers than highly-branched molecules such as arabinogalactan. This effective stabilization with the rod-like molecules was found to result from the adsorption of polysaccharides on the particles, i.e., the steric stabilization mechanism. The stability depends significantly on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge of particles. Adsorption isotherms, the zeta potential and the conformation of adsorbed molecules (the steric layer thicknesses) were measured as a function of the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge. Photon correlation spectroscopy studies showed that the conformation of adsorbed molecules is strongly dependent on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge, suggesting that the dependence of stability on these parameters is due to the change of the conformation of the molecules adsorbed on the surface. In addition, the solution pH has a significant effect on the flocculation behavior of particles and can be modulated to bring about peptization of particles. This type of stabilization is referred to as electrosteric stabilization whereby steric stabilization is induced by changing the electrical properties of the system (the solution pH in this case). 41 refs., 43 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Identification and quantification of ethyl carbamate occurring in urea complexation processes commonly utilized for polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Luis; Prados, Isabel M; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F

    2017-08-15

    The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids by formation of urea adducts from three different sources was studied to elucidate the formation of ethyl carbamates in the course of these procedures. Two different methodologies were performed: with ethanol at high temperature and with hexane/ethanol mixtures at room temperature. It was proved that the amount of urethanes generated at high temperature was higher than at room temperature. Besides, subsequent washing steps of the PUFA fraction with water were efficient to remove the urethanes from the final products. The methodology at room temperature with 0.4mL ethanol and 3g urea provided good relationship between concentration and yield of the main bioactive PUFA, with the lowest formation of ethyl carbamates in the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of ammonium as a nitrogen source: effects of ambient acidity on growth and nitrogen accumulation by soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Dry matter accumulation of plants utilizing NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source generally is less than that of plants receiving NO3- unless acidity of the root-zone is controlled at a pH of about 6.0. To test the hypothesis that the reduction in growth is a consequence of nitrogen stress within the plant in response to effects of increased acidity during uptake of NH4+ by roots, nonnodulated soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) were grown for 24 days in flowing nutrient culture containing 1.0 millimolar NH4+ as the nitrogen source. Acidities of the culture solutions were controlled at pH 6.1, 5.1, and 4.1 +/- 0.1 by automatic additions of 0.01 N H2SO4 or Ca(OH)2. Plants were sampled at intervals of 3 to 4 days for determination of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation. Rates of NH4+ uptake per gram root dry weight were calculated from these data. Net CO2 exchange rates per unit leaf area were measured on attached leaves by infrared gas analysis. When acidity of the culture solution was increased from pH 6.1 to 5.1, dry matter and nitrogen accumulation were reduced by about 40% within 14 days. Net CO2 exchange rates per unit leaf area, however, were not affected, and the decreased growth was associated with a reduction in rates of appearance and expansion of new leaves. The uptake rates of NH4+ per gram root were about 25% lower throughout the 24 days at pH 5.1 than at 6.1. A further increase in solution acidity from pH 5.1 to 4.1 resulted in cessation of net dry matter production and appearance of new leaves within 10 days. Net CO2 exchange rates per unit leaf area declined rapidly until all viable leaves had abscised by 18 days. Uptake rates of NH4+, which were initially about 50% lower at pH 4.1 than at 6.1 continued to decline with time of exposure until net uptake ceased at 10 days. Since these responses also are characteristic of the sequence of responses that occur during onset and progression of a nitrogen stress, they corroborate our hypothesis.

  5. Utilization of ammonium as a nitrogen source: effects of ambient acidity on growth and nitrogen accumulation by soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Dry matter accumulation of plants utilizing NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source generally is less than that of plants receiving NO3- unless acidity of the root-zone is controlled at a pH of about 6.0. To test the hypothesis that the reduction in growth is a consequence of nitrogen stress within the plant in response to effects of increased acidity during uptake of NH4+ by roots, nonnodulated soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) were grown for 24 days in flowing nutrient culture containing 1.0 millimolar NH4+ as the nitrogen source. Acidities of the culture solutions were controlled at pH 6.1, 5.1, and 4.1 +/- 0.1 by automatic additions of 0.01 N H2SO4 or Ca(OH)2. Plants were sampled at intervals of 3 to 4 days for determination of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation. Rates of NH4+ uptake per gram root dry weight were calculated from these data. Net CO2 exchange rates per unit leaf area were measured on attached leaves by infrared gas analysis. When acidity of the culture solution was increased from pH 6.1 to 5.1, dry matter and nitrogen accumulation were reduced by about 40% within 14 days. Net CO2 exchange rates per unit leaf area, however, were not affected, and the decreased growth was associated with a reduction in rates of appearance and expansion of new leaves. The uptake rates of NH4+ per gram root were about 25% lower throughout the 24 days at pH 5.1 than at 6.1. A further increase in solution acidity from pH 5.1 to 4.1 resulted in cessation of net dry matter production and appearance of new leaves within 10 days. Net CO2 exchange rates per unit leaf area declined rapidly until all viable leaves had abscised by 18 days. Uptake rates of NH4+, which were initially about 50% lower at pH 4.1 than at 6.1 continued to decline with time of exposure until net uptake ceased at 10 days. Since these responses also are characteristic of the sequence of responses that occur during onset and progression of a nitrogen stress, they corroborate our hypothesis.

  6. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, Mark T

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, an d analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: (1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, (2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and (3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  7. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, Mark T.

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  8. Utilization of Condensed Distillers Solubles as Nutrient Supplement for Production of Nisin and Lactic Acid from Whey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W.

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  9. Utilization of condensed distillers solubles as nutrient supplement for production of nisin and lactic acid from whey.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W

    2007-04-01

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  10. Process gas chromatography study of a Selexol acid gas removal system. Final report Mar-Sep 82

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The report gives results of continuous compositional monitoring by process gas chromatography (GC) for three gas streams associated with the Selexol acid gas removal system at the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, PA. Data were obtained from the inlet and outlet streams of the Selexol system during tests in April and May 1982. Product gas composition data were logged for 55 hours of plant operation. The Bi-Gas pilot plant, utilizing a two-stage, entrained-bed, high-pressure slagging gasifier, produces a product gas that is low in tars and heavy oils. This gas stream required very little cleanup prior to instrumental analysis. However, some problems were encountered in the analysis of the Selexol acid gas stream due to the presence of high levels of naphthalene. The process gas chromatographs performed well and remained very stable during the tests. Material balances based on GC analyses and process flow rate data show a high degree of material accountability. The H/sub 2/S removal efficiency of the Selexol absorber was about 99% during the tests.

  11. A "hidden" co-crystal of caffeine and adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Bucar, Dejan-Kresimir; Henry, Rodger F; Lou, Xiaochun; Borchardt, Thomas B; Zhang, Geoff G Z

    2007-02-07

    Co-crystal formation between caffeine and adipic acid has been explored over the years without success; utilizing the newly developed co-crystal screening method, we have finally discovered this "hidden" caffeine and adipic acid co-crystal.

  12. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program -12184

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Christopher; Kothari, Vijendra; Starr, Ken; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey

    2012-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) program: Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns. DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk. DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships with the U

  13. Effect of feeding fresh or conditioned red clover on milk fatty acids and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R F; Theobald, V J; Tweed, J K S; Winters, A L; Scollan, N D

    2009-03-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in conditioned red clover (ensiled or cut and crushed) reduces both proteolysis and lipolysis in the herbage, which has led to increases in N use efficiency and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of milk when offered to dairy cows. In damaged plant cells, PPO is activated and binds protein through the formation of protein-bound phenols. This study investigated a) whether freshly cut red clover could increase N use efficiency and milk PUFA concentrations in dairy cows or whether PPO enzymes require prior activation before feeding to elicit a response, and b) apparent whole-tract amino acid digestibility to help determine the effect of PPO on amino acid utilization. Six multiparous Holstein x Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were allocated at random to 1 of 3 dietary treatments in a 3 x 3 Latin square: a control treatment of grass (low PPO, G); red clover (high PPO, RC), and conditioned red clover (high fully activated PPO, CRC). The CRC herbage was cut and chopped in the field and then transported with the G and RC herbages to the animal house. Each period consisted of a 2-wk adaptation to diet and a week of measuring dietary effects (N balance and milk collection). The PPO activity was greatest in the RC treatment as fed, whereas activation of latent PPO enzyme and protein-bound phenol levels were greatest in the CRC diet. Dry matter and total fatty acid intakes were comparable across treatments (18.8 kg/d and 550 g/d, respectively). Milk yields and total fatty acid content were similar across treatments (32.6 kg/d and 34.8 mg/mL, respectively). Cows offered either RC or CRC had greater levels of protein, C18 PUFA and total long-chain PUFA in their milk than animals offered grass with no difference between RC and CRC. Nitrogen intakes, and output in milk, urine, and feces were greater in cows offered the 2 red clover treatments than G, with no difference between RC and CRC. However, there were no differences in N use efficiency

  14. Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sunita; Schoenhofen, Ian C; Whitfield, Dennis M; Cox, Andrew D; Li, Jianjun; St Michael, Frank; Vinogradov, Evgeny V; Stupak, Jacek; Zheng, Bo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Unemo, Magnus; Lewis, Lisa A; Taylor, Rachel E; Landig, Corinna S; Diaz, Sandra; Reed, George W; Varki, Ajit; Rice, Peter A; Ram, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae deploys a novel immune evasion strategy wherein the lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is capped by the bacterial sialyltransferase, using host cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP)-activated forms of the nine-carbon nonulosonate (NulO) sugar N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a sialic acid (Sia) abundant in humans. This allows evasion of complement-mediated killing by recruiting factor H (FH), an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, and by limiting classical pathway activation ("serum-resistance"). We utilized CMP salts of six additional natural or synthetic NulOs, Neu5Gc, Neu5Gc8Me, Neu5Ac9Ac, Neu5Ac9Az, legionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac) and pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac), to define structural requirements of Sia-mediated serum-resistance. While all NulOs except Pse5Ac7Ac were incorporated into the LNnT-LOS, only Neu5Gc incorporation yielded high-level serum-resistance and FH binding that was comparable to Neu5Ac, whereas Neu5Ac9Az and Leg5Ac7Ac incorporation left bacteria fully serum-sensitive and did not enhance FH binding. Neu5Ac9Ac and Neu5Gc8Me rendered bacteria resistant only to low serum concentrations. While serum-resistance mediated by Neu5Ac was associated with classical pathway inhibition (decreased IgG binding and C4 deposition), Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac9Az incorporation did not inhibit the classical pathway. Remarkably, CMP-Neu5Ac9Az and CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac each prevented serum-resistance despite a 100-fold molar excess of CMP-Neu5Ac in growth media. The concomitant presence of Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac on LOS resulted in uninhibited classical pathway activation. Surprisingly, despite near-maximal FH binding in this instance, the alternative pathway was not regulated and factor Bb remained associated with bacteria. Intravaginal administration of CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac to BALB/c mice infected with gonorrhea (including a multidrug-resistant isolate) reduced clearance times and infection burden. Bacteria recovered from CMP

  15. Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Sunita; Schoenhofen, Ian C.; Whitfield, Dennis M.; Cox, Andrew D.; Li, Jianjun; St. Michael, Frank; Vinogradov, Evgeny V.; Stupak, Jacek; Zheng, Bo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Unemo, Magnus; Lewis, Lisa A.; Taylor, Rachel E.; Landig, Corinna S.; Diaz, Sandra; Reed, George W.; Varki, Ajit; Rice, Peter A.; Ram, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae deploys a novel immune evasion strategy wherein the lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is capped by the bacterial sialyltransferase, using host cytidine-5’-monophosphate (CMP)-activated forms of the nine-carbon nonulosonate (NulO) sugar N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a sialic acid (Sia) abundant in humans. This allows evasion of complement-mediated killing by recruiting factor H (FH), an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, and by limiting classical pathway activation (“serum-resistance”). We utilized CMP salts of six additional natural or synthetic NulOs, Neu5Gc, Neu5Gc8Me, Neu5Ac9Ac, Neu5Ac9Az, legionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac) and pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac), to define structural requirements of Sia-mediated serum-resistance. While all NulOs except Pse5Ac7Ac were incorporated into the LNnT-LOS, only Neu5Gc incorporation yielded high-level serum-resistance and FH binding that was comparable to Neu5Ac, whereas Neu5Ac9Az and Leg5Ac7Ac incorporation left bacteria fully serum-sensitive and did not enhance FH binding. Neu5Ac9Ac and Neu5Gc8Me rendered bacteria resistant only to low serum concentrations. While serum-resistance mediated by Neu5Ac was associated with classical pathway inhibition (decreased IgG binding and C4 deposition), Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac9Az incorporation did not inhibit the classical pathway. Remarkably, CMP-Neu5Ac9Az and CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac each prevented serum-resistance despite a 100-fold molar excess of CMP-Neu5Ac in growth media. The concomitant presence of Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac on LOS resulted in uninhibited classical pathway activation. Surprisingly, despite near-maximal FH binding in this instance, the alternative pathway was not regulated and factor Bb remained associated with bacteria. Intravaginal administration of CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac to BALB/c mice infected with gonorrhea (including a multidrug-resistant isolate) reduced clearance times and infection burden. Bacteria recovered from

  16. Acid rain program emissions scorecard 1997. SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], heat input, and CO[sub 2] emission trends in the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    Established under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Acid Rain Program requires the electric utility industry to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]), the pollutants that cause acid rain. To ensure that the desired emission reductions are achieved, the program implements an innovative market-based regulatory approach with utilities having flexible compliance options. After each calendar year, EPA determines the compliance of each facility relating to its SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions requirements and publishes a report documenting the results.

  17. Process development of itaconic acid production by a natural wild type strain of Aspergillus terreus to reach industrially relevant final titers.

    PubMed

    Krull, Susan; Hevekerl, Antje; Kuenz, Anja; Prüße, Ulf

    2017-05-01

    Itaconic acid is a promising organic acid and is commercially produced by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus terreus. The cultivation process of the sensitive filamentous fungus has been studied intensively since 1932, with respect to fermentation media components, oxygen supply, shearing rate, pH value, or culture method. Whereas increased final titers were achieved over the years, the productivity has so far remained quite low. In this study, the impact of the pH on the itaconic acid production was investigated in detail. The pH during the growth and production phase had a significant influence on the final itaconic acid concentration and pellet diameter. The highest itaconic acid concentration of 160 g/L was achieved at a 1.5-L scale within 6.7 days by raising and controlling the pH value to pH 3.4 in the production phase. An ammonia solution and an increased phosphate concentration were used with an itaconic acid yield of 0.46 (w/w) and an overall productivity of 0.99 g/L/h in a fed-batch mode. A cultivation with a lower phosphate concentration resulted in an equal final concentration with an increased yield of 0.58 (w/w) after 11.8 days and an overall productivity of 0.57 g/L/h. This optimized process was successfully transferred from a 1.5-L scale to a 15-L scale. After 9.7 days, comparable pellet morphology and a final concentration of 150 g/L itaconic acid was reached. This paper provides a process strategy to yield a final titer of itaconic acid from a wild-type strain of A. terreus which is in the same range as the well-known citric acid production.

  18. Ammonia Nitrogen Added to Diets Deficient in Dispensable Amino Acid Nitrogen Is Poorly Utilized for Urea Production in Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Wilfredo D; Silva, Kayla E; Zhu, Cuilan L; Nyachoti, Charles M; Htoo, John K; Cant, John P; de Lange, Cornelis Fm

    2017-10-11

    Background: Including ammonia in low-crude protein (CP) diets deficient in dispensable amino acid (DAAs) increases nitrogen retention in growing pigs.Objective: We investigated the absorption and metabolism of dietary ammonia nitrogen in the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver of pigs fed a diet deficient in DAA nitrogen.Methods: Eight pigs with an initial mean ± SD body weight (BW) of 26.5 ± 1.4 kg were surgically fitted with 4 catheters each (portal, hepatic and mesenteric veins, and carotid artery). The pigs were fed (2.8 × 191 kcal/kg BW(0.60)), for 7 d and every 8 h, a diet deficient in DAA nitrogen supplemented with increasing amounts of ammonia nitrogen (CP: 7.76%, 9.27%, and 10.77%; indispensable amino acid nitrogen:total nitrogen ratio: 0.71, 0.59, and 0.50 for control and low- and high-ammonia diets, respectively). The treatment sequence was based on a Latin square design with 3 consecutive periods. On the last day of each period, blood flows in the portal and hepatic veins were determined with a continuous infusion of ρ-amino hippuric acid into the mesenteric vein. Serial blood samples were taken to determine ammonia and urea nitrogen concentration. Net balances of ammonia and urea nitrogen were calculated for the PDV and liver.Results: Cumulative (8 h) ammonia nitrogen appearance in the portal vein increased (P ≤ 0.05) with ammonia intake (433, 958, and 1629 ± 60 mg ammonia nitrogen/meal for control and low- and high-ammonia diets, respectively). The cumulative hepatic uptake of ammonia nitrogen increased (P ≤ 0.05) with ammonia nitrogen supply. The cumulative urea nitrogen appearance in the hepatic vein tended to increase (P ≤ 0.10) only in high-ammonia treatment (-92.5, -59.4, and 209.7 ± 92 mg urea nitrogen/meal for control and low- and high-ammonia diets, respectively) and, relative to the control diet, represented -6.0% and 11% of ammonia nitrogen intake.Conclusion: Dietary ammonia nitrogen is poorly utilized for urea production

  19. Highly efficient rice straw utilization for poly-(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bao; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zongqi; Jiang, Yongxiang; Xu, Zheng; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been identified as an economic and environmental feedstock for future biotechnological production. Here, for the first time, poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using rice straw is investigated. Based on two-stage hydrolysis and characteristic consumption of xylose and glucose by B. subtilis NX-2, a co-fermentation strategy was designed to better accumulate PGA in a 7.5L fermentor by two feeding methods. The maximum cumulative respective PGA production and PGA productivity were 73.0 ± 0.5 g L(-1) and 0.81 g L(-1) h(-1) by the continuous feeding method, with carbon source cost was saved by 84.2% and 42.5% compared with glucose and cane molasse, respectively. These results suggest that rice straw, a type of abundant, low-cost, non-food lignocellulosic feedstock, may be feasibly and efficiently utilized for industrial-scale production of PGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The utility of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic diagnosis in the detection of intraoperative bile leakage.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshiro; Fujii, Kensuke; Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Hayashi, Michihiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the utility of the new intraoperative bile leakage test as a preventive measure of postoperative bile leakage. 737 patients were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the management of intra- and post-operative bile leakage. Nine (8.3%) of 109 patients evaluated using conventional white light fluorescent imaging were recognized as having intra-operative bile leakage. However, performance of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated PDD detected bile leakage intraoperatively not only in these 9 patients, but also in an additional 6 patients, such that 'red fluorescence' at the cut surface of the liver, was visualized in a total of 15 patients. The postoperative courses of most patients were uneventful, and postoperative bile leakages occurred in only one (0.9%) patient. 5-ALA fluorescence imaging may be needed to prevent postoperative bile leakage in patients at high risk for this surgical complication after hepatic resection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A fermentative approach towards optimizing directed biosynthesis of fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae 1526 utilizing apple industry waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2015-12-01

    The present research account deals with the bioproduction of fumaric acid (FA) from apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and apple pomace (AP) through fermentation. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae 1526 was used as a biocatalyst and its morphological impact on FA production was analysed in detail. For submerged fermentation, 40 g L(-1) of total solids concentration of APUS, pH 6.0, 30 °C, 200 rpm flask shaking speed and 72 h of incubation were found to be optimum for FA production (25.2 ± 1.0 g L(-1), 0.350 g (L(-1) h(-1))). Broth viscosity (cP), residual reducing sugar (g L(-1)) and ethanol (g L(-1)) produced as by-product, were also analysed. Plastic trays were used for solid state fermentation and at optimized level of moisture and incubation period, 52 ± 2.67 g FA per kg dry weight of AP was obtained. Changes in the total phenolic content (mg g(-1) dry weight of AP) were monitored at regular intervals. Utilization of APUS and AP for the directed synthesis of the high-value platform chemical FA by the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 was an excellent display of fungal physiological and morphological control over a fermentative product.

  2. Production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde by recombinant Escherichia coli co-expressing Lactobacillus reuteri propanediol utilization enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sabet-Azad, Ramin; Sardari, Roya R R; Linares-Pastén, Javier A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical for the biobased chemical industry. Lactobacillus reuteri produces 3-HP from glycerol via 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) through a CoA-dependent propanediol utilization (Pdu) pathway. This study was performed to verify and evaluate the pathway comprising propionaldehyde dehydrogenase (PduP), phosphotransacylase (PduL), and propionate kinase (PduW) for formation of 3-HP from 3-HPA. The pathway was confirmed using recombinant Escherichia coli co-expressing PduP, PduL and PduW of L. reuteri DSM 20016 and mutants lacking expression of either enzyme. Growing and resting cells of the recombinant strain produced 3-HP with a yield of 0.3mol/mol and 1mol/mol, respectively, from 3-HPA. 3-HP was the sole product with resting cells, while growing cells produced 1,3-propanediol as co-product. 3-HP production from glycerol was achieved with a yield of 0.68mol/mol by feeding recombinant E. coli with 3-HPA produced by L. reuteri and recovered using bisulfite-functionalized resin.

  3. N-Chlorosuccinimide-mediated oxidative chlorination of thiols to Nα-protected amino alkyl sulfonyl azides and their utility in the synthesis of sulfonyl triazole acids.

    PubMed

    Sharnabai, K M; Krishnamurthy, M; Sagar, N R; Santhosh, L; Vommina, Sureshbabu V

    2016-11-30

    An efficient oxidative chlorination of thiols to Nα-protected amino alkyl sulfonyl azides is delineated. The reaction involves in situ generation of sulfonyl chloride employing N-chlorosuccinimide and tetrabutylammonium chloride-water in acetonitrile, followed by the reaction with sodium azide. The protocol is simple, straight forward, mild and high yielding. Amino acids with simple as well as bifunctional side chains were used to obtain Nα-protected amino alkyl sulfonyl azides. Further, sulfonyl azides were utilized to synthesize unnatural amino acids via Cu(OAc)2.H2O/2-amino phenol catalyzed Click reaction with propiolic acid.

  4. Pseudomonas lini Strain ZBG1 Revealed Carboxylic Acid Utilization and Copper Resistance Features Required for Adaptation to Vineyard Soil Environment: A Draft Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Chong, Teik-Min; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Kher, Heng Leong; Grandclément, Catherine; Faure, Denis; Yin, Wai-Fong; Dessaux, Yves; Hong, Kar-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas lini strain ZBG1 was isolated from the soil of vineyard in Zellenberg, France and the draft genome was reported in this study. Bioinformatics analyses of the genome revealed presence of genes encoding tartaric and malic acid utilization as well as copper resistance that correspond to the adaptation this strain in vineyard soil environment. PMID:27512520

  5. Apical microleakage of different root canal sealers after use of maleic acid and EDTA as final irrigants.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Ozgür Ilke; Nayir, Yelda; Celik, Kezban; Yaman, Sis Darendeliler

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and maleic acid (MA) on the sealing ability of various root canal sealers. Eighty root canals were instrumented and irrigated with either EDTA or MA. They were divided into eight experimental groups and obturated as follows: Group 1: MA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 2: EDTA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 3: MA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 4: EDTA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 5: MA + EndoREZ/EndoREZ points. Group 6: EDTA + EndoREZ/EndoREZ points. Group 7: MA + AH Plus/gutta-percha. Group 8: EDTA + AH Plus/gutta-percha. Another ten roots were used as negative and positive controls. The microleakage of each sample was measured at 2-min intervals for 8 min using the fluid filtration method. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey, and paired-samples t tests. The minimum microleakage values were obtained from the teeth obturated with AH Plus and EndoREZ selaers (p < 0.001). The samples with Hybrid Root SEAL showed the maximum leakage (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between the groups irrigated with MA or EDTA in terms of microleakage (p < 0.05). Use of MA resulted in higher microleakage values compared with those using EDTA. The type of final irrigation solution seems to influence the postobturation apical seal. Use of AH Plus and EndoREZ sealers showed better sealing ability compared with IRoot SP and Hybrid Root SEAL.

  6. Analytical Performance and Clinical Utility of a Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification Assay for Detection of Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Donald J.; Kemper, M.; Stead, Andrew; Sillekens, P.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Espy, Mark J.; Paya, Carlos V.; Smith, Thomas F.; Roeles, Frits; Caliendo, Angela M.

    2000-01-01

    A nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay for qualitative detection of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp67 mRNA was evaluated in a multicenter study. Negative results were obtained for all specimens from 50 CMV-seronegative and 50 CMV-seropositive low-risk whole-blood donors. No interference with CMV mRNA amplification was observed in the testing of 288 specimens containing various potential interfering substances, nonspecifically reacting substances (including mRNA from other herpesviruses), and three anticoagulants. A total of 95% (50 of 51) of CMV-positive (cell culture- and antigenemia immunofluorescence [AG-IFA]-positive) clinical specimens were positive by the NASBA assay. Results from different operators over multiple testing days were consistent for each of four panel members containing different concentrations of CMV mRNA, indicating the reproducibility of the assay. The estimated 95% reliable upper detection limit of the assay was 600 mRNA copies; the lower limit of detection was less than 25 mRNA copies. The clinical utility of the assay was evaluated with longitudinally collected specimens from solid-organ transplant patients (n = 21). A total of 98% (81 of 83) of the specimens from CMV-negative patients were negative by the NASBA assay, while 90% (10 of 11) of patient specimens that were positive by cell culture or AG-IFA were positive by the NASBA assay. Positive NASBA assay results were obtained earlier than AG-IFA or cell culture results for 55% of the patients and at the same time for the remainder of the patients (45%). The overall agreement between the NASBA assay and current reference tests was 86% when active CMV infection was present. These studies indicate that the CMV pp67 mRNA NASBA assay has reproducible and sensitive performance characteristics that should enable more rapid diagnosis of CMV infection. PMID:11060058

  7. The utility of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the surveillance for postoperative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hee; Min, Yang Won; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the utility of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) in surveillance for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy. This retrospective study analyzed 147 patients who underwent surveillance with alternating multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and Gd-MRI after hepatectomy for HCC. The patients were followed-up every 3 months during the first 2 years, and every 6 months thereafter. At each visit, MDCT was performed but once a year (every 12 months), Gd-MRI was performed instead of MDCT. Each HCC recurrence detection rate of MDCT and Gd-MRI was evaluated, and recurrent HCC characteristics were compared according to the detection test. A total of 63 patients had recurrent HCC. Among them, 9 were detected with Gd-MRI and 29 with MDCT. The baseline characteristics of patients with recurrent HCC showed no significant differences according to the detection test. The HCC recurrence detection rate of Gd-MRI and MDCT was 4.8% (9/180) and 4.3% (29/580), respectively, on the per test basis (P = 0.764). However, in the population with a follow-up period of ≥12 months, the detection rate of Gd-MRI and MDCT was 4.3% (7/150) and 1.5% (19/400), respectively (P = 0.035). Recurrent HCCs detected with Gd-MRI were smaller than those detected with MDCT (tumor size < 2 cm, 100% vs 65.5%, P = 0.040). Our data suggest that Gd-MRI has advantages in detecting recurrent HCC after hepatectomy. Surveillance with alternating MDCT and Gd-MRI may identify more recurrent HCC in an early stage than with MDCT alone in patients who received hepatectomy for HCC. PMID:28002336

  8. 76 FR 77772 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...

  9. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic... Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  10. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... for Sulfuric Acid and Steam Coal Comment 5: Use of Tier One Benchmark for Sulfuric Acid and Steam Coal... Submission Comment 8: Export Prices for Sulfuric Acid from India and Thailand BILLING CODE 3510-DS-P ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of...

  11. Embryonic cerebellar neurons accumulate (/sup 3/H-gamma-aminobutyric acid: visualization of developing gamma-aminobutyric acid-utilizing neurons in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Hatten, M.E.; Francois, A.M.; Napolitano, E.; Roffler-Tarlov, S.

    1984-05-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the proposed neurotransmitter for four types of cerebellar neurons-Purkinje, Golgi, basket, and stellate neurons. With this investigation we have begun studies to establish when these neurons acquire their neurotransmitter ''identification''. Autoradiographic studies of both cultured embryonic (embryonic day 13) cerebellar cells and of intact embryonic cerebellum (embryonic day 13) were conducted with tritiated GABA. Two to 5% of the embryonic cerebellar cells accumulated (/sup 3/H)GABA in vitro. By morphological and immunocytochemical criteria, labeled cells were large neurons with either a thick, apical process, a multipolar shape, or were bipolar with longer processes. The identification of cells which accumulated (/sup 3/H)GABA as neuronal precursors was supported by the differential sensitivity to drugs that preferentially inhibit accumulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA by neurons and glia. The results of the in vitro experiments were confirmed and extended with in vivo experiments. When intact cerebellar tissue was removed at embryonic day 13, stripped of meninges and choroid plexus, exposed to low concentrations of (/sup 3/H)GABA, and processed for light microscopic autoradiography, heavily labeled cells were seen in the middle of the cerebellar anlage. Labeled cells were not seen in the ventricular zone of proliferating neuroblasts lining the fourth ventricle or in the external granular layer emerging at the lateral aspect of the pial surface. The accumulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA by these cells also showed the pharmacological characteristics of uptake by neurons. This study shows that among migrating, immature forms of the larger neurons of the embryonic cerebellum, there is a select group which accumulates (/sup 3/H)GABA and other classes of cells which do not. These results indicate very early acquisition of transmitter expression by cerebellar neurons, far in advance of their final positioning and establishment of synapses.

  12. Butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by engineered Clostridium tyrobutyricum overexpressing xylose catabolism genes for glucose and xylose co-utilization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongxin; Yang, Shang-Tian; Wang, Minqi; Wang, Jufang; Tang, I-Ching

    2017-06-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum can utilize glucose and xylose as carbon source for butyric acid production. However, xylose catabolism is inhibited by glucose, hampering butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates containing both glucose and xylose. In this study, an engineered strain of C. tyrobutyricum Ct-pTBA overexpressing heterologous xylose catabolism genes (xylT, xylA, and xylB) was investigated for co-utilizing glucose and xylose present in hydrolysates of plant biomass, including soybean hull, corn fiber, wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse. Compared to the wild-type strain, Ct-pTBA showed higher xylose utilization without significant glucose catabolite repression, achieving near 100% utilization of glucose and xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates in bioreactor at pH 6. About 42.6g/L butyrate at a productivity of 0.56g/L·h and yield of 0.36g/g was obtained in batch fermentation, demonstrating the potential of C. tyrobutyricum Ct-pTBA for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accumulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Containing Large Amounts of Unsaturated Monomers in Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07 Utilizing Saccharides and Its Inhibition by 2-Bromooctanoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Joo; Choi, Mun Hwan; Kim, Tae-Un; Yoon, Sung Chul

    2001-01-01

    A psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07, which is able to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) containing large amounts of 3-hydroxy-cis-5-dodecenoate unit up to 35 mol% in the cell from unrelated substrates such as fructose, succinate, etc., was isolated from an activated sludge in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. When it was grown on heptanoic acid (C7) to hexadecanoic acid (C16) as the sole carbon source, the monomer compositional characteristics of the synthesized PHA were similar to those observed in other fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to rRNA homology group I. However, growth on stearic acid (C18) led to no PHA accumulation, but instead free stearic acid was stored in the cell. The existence of the linkage between fatty acid de novo synthesis and PHA synthesis was confirmed by using inhibitors such as acrylic acid and two other compounds, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid, which are known to inhibit β-oxidation enzymes in animal cells. Acrylic acid completely inhibited PHA synthesis at a concentration of 4 mM in 40 mM octanoate-grown cells, but no inhibition of PHA synthesis occurred in 70 mM fructose-grown cells in the presence of 1 to 5 mM acrylic acid. 2-Bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid were found to much inhibit PHA synthesis much more strongly in fructose-grown cells than in octanoate-grown cells over concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mM. However, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid did not inhibit cell growth at all in the fructose media. Especially, with the cells grown on fructose, 2-bromooctanoic acid exhibited a steep rise in the percent PHA synthesis inhibition over a small range of concentrations below 100 μM, a finding indicative of a very specific inhibition, whereas 4-pentenoic acid showed a broad, featureless concentration dependence, suggesting a rather nonspecific inhibition. The apparent inhibition constant Ki (the concentration for 50% inhibition of PHA synthesis) for 2

  14. Diurnal variation in insulin-stimulated systemic glucose and amino acid utilization in pigs fed with identical meals at 12-hour intervals.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, S J; van der Meulen, J; Dekker, R; Corbijn, H; Mroz, Z

    2006-09-01

    The diurnal variation in insulin-stimulated systemic glucose and amino acid utilization was investigated in eleven pigs of approximately 40 kg. Pigs were fed isoenergetic/isoproteinic diets (366 kJ/kg BW (0.75) per meal) in two daily rations (06:00 and 18:00 h). After a 3-week habituation period, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic euaminoacidemic clamp studies (by intra-portal insulin, glucose and amino acids infusion and arterial blood sampling) were performed starting at 06:00 or 18:00 h (while skipping the meal), using a cross-over within-animal design. Basal (preclamp) plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, lactate, individual amino acids and urea were similar in the morning compared to the evening. Insulin-stimulated ( approximately 4-fold increase over basal) systemic glucose utilization was similar (17.6+/-1.4 and 18.9+/-1.8 mg x kg (-1) x min (-1)) but amino acid utilization was 19% greater in the morning VS. the evening (2.37+/-0.21 VS. 1.99+/-0.15 mg x kg (-1) x min (-1), p<0.05), respectively. Insulin-stimulated plasma lactate concentrations remained constant in the morning (0.77+/-0.06 to 0.71+/-0.04 mmol x l (-1)) but declined in the evening (0.89+/-0.09 to 0.65+/-0.06 mmol x l (-1), p<0.05). By contrast, insulin-stimulated plasma urea concentrations declined in the morning (2.48+/-0.11 to 2.03+/-0.10 mmol x l (-1), p<0.005) but remained constant in the evening (2.18+/-0.14 to 2.12+/-0.12 mmol x l (-1)). In conclusion, pigs fed identical meals at 12-hour intervals follow a clear diurnal biorhythm in protein anabolism, with greater insulin-stimulated systemic amino acid utilization and lower plasma urea response in the morning compared to the evening.

  15. Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert; Jarboe, Laura; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-04-01

    This work was to utilize acetic acid contained in bio-oil for growth and lipid production of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The acetic acid-rich bio-oil fraction derived from fast pyrolysis of softwood contained 26% (w/w) acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, furfural, acetol, and phenolics as identified compounds, and 13% (w/w) unidentified compounds. Among those identified compounds, phenolics were most inhibitory to algal growth, followed by furfural and acetol. To enhance the fermentability of the bio-oil fraction, activated carbon was used to reduce the toxicity of the bio-oil, while metabolic evolution was used to enhance the toxicity tolerance of the microalgae. Combining activated carbon treatment and using evolved algal strain resulted in significant algal growth improvement. The results collectively showed that fast pyrolysis-fermentation process was a viable approach for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals.

  16. High dietary phytase levels maximize phytate-phosphorus utilization but do not affect protein utilization in chicks fed phosphorus- or amino acid-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, N R; Baker, D H

    2004-04-01

    Four trials investigated the effect of high levels of three phytase enzymes on P and protein utilization in chicks. The three phytases were derived from Aspergillus (Fungal Phytase 1), Peniophora (Fungal Phytase 2), and E. coli. Within each assay, 8-d-old male chicks were given ad libitum access to their experimental diet for 10 to 14 d. For Trials 1, 2, and 3, the basal diet was a corn-soybean meal diet deficient in P that was analyzed to contain 23% CP and 0.38% total P (0.10% estimated available P, as-fed basis). Phytase supplementation levels were based on the assessment of phytase premix activity (i.e., P release from Na phytate at pH 5.5 and 37 degrees C). In Trial 1, supplementation of inorganic P from KH2PO4 (0 to 0.20%) resulted in a quadratic (P < 0.05) response in weight gain, gain:feed, and tibia ash concentration but a linear (P < 0.01) increase in tibia ash weight. Tibia ash was higher (P < 0.01) for chicks fed E. coli phytase than for those fed Fungal Phytase 1 at 500, 1,000, and 5,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg, but did not differ between these two phytases at 10,000 FTU/kg. In Trial 2, E. coli phytase supplementation at 1,000 FTU/kg maximized growth and bone responses, whereas addition of either of the two fungal phytases resulted in increasing responses up to 5,000 and 10,000 FTU/kg. Dietary addition of Fungal Phytase 2 resulted in the poorest (P < 0.01) responses among the three phytases. Escherichia coli phytase supplementation at 10,000 FTU/kg in Trial 3 resulted in tibia ash (millligrams) responses that were greater (P < 0.05) than those resulting from either 0.35% inorganic P supplementation or 10,000 FTU/kg of Fungal Phytase 1 or 2. Trial 4 showed that E. coli phytase supplementation at either 500 or 10,000 FTU/ kg did not improve protein efficiency ratio (gain per unit of protein intake) of chicks fed low-protein soybean meal or corn gluten meal diets that were first-limiting in either methionine or lysine, respectively. These results

  17. Efficient production of L-lactic acid from corncob molasses, a waste by-product in xylitol production, by a newly isolated xylose utilizing Bacillus sp. strain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Bo; Yu, Bo; Ma, Cuiqing; Su, Fei; Hua, Dongliang; Li, Qinggang; Ma, Yanhe; Xu, Ping

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars are considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentations of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. In the present study, corncob molasses containing a high content of xylose, which is one of the lignocellulosic biomasses and a waste by-product from xylitol production, was used for L-lactic acid production via a newly isolated xylose utilizing Bacillus sp. strain XZL9. Bacillus sp. strain XZL9 can utilize the mixture of sugars including xylose, arabinose, and glucose in corncob molasses for L-lactic acid production. High concentration of L-lactic acid (74.7 g l⁻¹) was obtained from corncob molasses (initial total sugars of 91.4 g l⁻¹) in fed-batch fermentation. This study provides an encouraging means of producing L-lactic acid from lignocellulosic resource such as the low-cost corncob molasses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of trace metals and sulfite oxidation of adipic acid degradation in FGD systems. Final report Dec 81-May 82

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, J.B.; Terry, J.C.; Schubert, S.A.; Utley, B.L.

    1982-12-01

    The report gives results of the measurement of the adipic acid degradation rate in a bench-scale flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system, designed to simulate many of the important aspects of full-scale FGD systems. Results show that the adipic acid degradation rate depends on the sulfite oxidation rate, the adipic acid concentration, the presence of manganese in solution, and temperature. The degradation rate is also affected by pH, but only when manganese is present. Adipic acid degradation products identified in the liquid phase include valeric, butyric, propionic, succinic, and glutaric acids. When manganese was present, the predominant degradation products were succinic and glutaric acids. Analysis of solids from the bench scale tests shows large concentrations of coprecipitated adipic acid in low oxidation sulfite solids. By contrast, low quantities of coprecipitated adipic acid were found in high oxidation gypsum solids.

  19. 76 FR 77206 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') has completed its administrative review of the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on citric acid and... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

  20. Final Technical Report for Contract No. DE-EE0006332, "Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation"

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier, Dallas; Edra, Sherwin; Espinoza, Michael; Daye, Tony; Kostylev, Vladimir; Pavlovski, Alexandre; Jelen, Deborah

    2014-12-29

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  1. Utilization of by-products derived from bioethanol production process for cost-effective production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Moon, Se-Kwon; Wee, Young-Jung; Choi, Gi-Wook

    2014-10-01

    The by-products of bioethanol production such as thin stillage (TS) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) were used as a potential nitrogen source for economical production of lactic acid. The effect of those by-products and their concentrations on lactic acid fermentation were investigated using Lactobacillus paracasei CHB2121. Approximately, 6.7 g/L of yeast extract at a carbon source to nitrogen source ratio of 15 was required to produce 90 g/L of lactic acid in the medium containing 100 g/L of glucose. Batch fermentation of TS medium resulted in 90 g/L of lactic acid after 48 h, and the medium containing 10 % CDS resulted in 95 g/L of lactic acid after 44 h. Therefore, TS and CDS could be considered as potential alternative fermentation medium for the economical production of lactic acid. Furthermore, lactic acid fermentation was performed using only cassava and CDS for commercial production of lactic acid. The volumetric productivity of lactic acid [2.94 g/(L·h)] was 37 % higher than the productivity obtained from the medium with glucose and CDS.

  2. Requirement of the Lactobacillus casei MaeKR two-component system for L-malic acid utilization via a malic enzyme pathway.

    PubMed

    Landete, José María; García-Haro, Luisa; Blasco, Amalia; Manzanares, Paloma; Berbegal, Carmen; Monedero, Vicente; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei can metabolize L-malic acid via malolactic enzyme (malolactic fermentation [MLF]) or malic enzyme (ME). Whereas utilization of L-malic acid via MLF does not support growth, the ME pathway enables L. casei to grow on L-malic acid. In this work, we have identified in the genomes of L. casei strains BL23 and ATCC 334 a cluster consisting of two diverging operons, maePE and maeKR, encoding a putative malate transporter (maeP), an ME (maeE), and a two-component (TC) system belonging to the citrate family (maeK and maeR). Homologous clusters were identified in Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Our results show that ME is essential for L-malic acid utilization in L. casei. Furthermore, deletion of either the gene encoding the histidine kinase or the response regulator of the TC system resulted in the loss of the ability to grow on L-malic acid, thus indicating that the cognate TC system regulates and is essential for the expression of ME. Transcriptional analyses showed that expression of maeE is induced in the presence of L-malic acid and repressed by glucose, whereas TC system expression was induced by L-malic acid and was not repressed by glucose. DNase I footprinting analysis showed that MaeR binds specifically to a set of direct repeats [5'-TTATT(A/T)AA-3'] in the mae promoter region. The location of the repeats strongly suggests that MaeR activates the expression of the diverging operons maePE and maeKR where the first one is also subjected to carbon catabolite repression.

  3. Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a lipolytic, anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium utilizing short- and long-chain fatty acids in syntrophic coculture with a methanogenic archaeum.

    PubMed

    Svetlitshnyi, V; Rainey, F; Wiegel, J

    1996-10-01

    Three strains of an anaerobic thermophilic organoheterotrophic lipolytic alkalitolerant bacterium, Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/VS-265T; DSM 11003), were isolated from alkaline hot springs of Lake Bogoria (Kenya). The cells were nonmotile, non-spore forming, straight or slightly curved rods. At 60 degrees C the pH range for growth determined at 25 degrees C [pH25 degrees C] was 7.15 to 9.5, with an optimum between 8.1 and 8.9 (pH60 degrees C of 7.6 and 8.1). At a pH25 degrees C of 8.5 the temperature range for growth was from 52 to 70 degrees C, with an optimum between 60 and 66 degrees C. The shortest doubling time was around 1 h. In pure culture the bacterium grew in a mineral base medium supplemented with yeast extract, tryptone, Casamino Acids, betaine, and crotonate as carbon sources, producing acetate as a major product and constitutively a lipase. During growth in the presence of olive oil, free long-chain fatty acids were accumulated in the medium but the pure culture could not utilize olive oil, triacylglycerols, short- and long-chain fatty acids, and glycerol for growth. In syntrophic coculture (Methanobacterium strain JW/VS-M29) the lipolytic bacteria grew on triacylglycerols and linear saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 4 to 18 carbon atoms, but glycerol was not utilized. Fatty acids with even numbers of carbon atoms were degraded to acetate and methane, while from odd-numbered fatty acids 1 mol of propionate per mol of fatty acid was additionally formed. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified Syntrophospora and Syntrophomonas spp. as closest phylogenetic neighbors.

  4. Identification of amino acid residues involved in heme binding and hemoprotein utilization in the Porphyromonas gingivalis heme receptor HmuR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyan; Olczak, Teresa; Guo, Hwai-Chen; Dixon, Dabney W; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2006-02-01

    We have previously identified and characterized a heme/hemoglobin receptor, HmuR, in Porphyromonas gingivalis. To analyze the conserved amino acid residues of HmuR that may be involved in hemin/hemoprotein binding and utilization, we constructed a series of P. gingivalis A7436 hmuR mutants with amino acid replacements and characterized the ability of these mutants to utilize hemin and hemoproteins. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to introduce mutations H95A, H434A, H95A-H434A, YRAP420-423YAAA, and NPDL442-445NAAA into HmuR in both P. gingivalis and Escherichia coli. Point mutations at H95 and H434 and in the NPDL motif of HmuR resulted in decreased binding to hemin, hemoglobin, and human serum albumin-hemin complex. Notably, mutations of these conserved sites and motifs led to reduced growth of P. gingivalis when human serum was used as the heme source. Analysis using a three-dimensional homology model of HmuR indicated that H95, H434, and the NPDL motif are present on apical or extracellular loops of HmuR, while the YRAP motif is present on the barrel wall. Taken together, these results support a role for H95, H434, and the NPDL motif of the P. gingivalis HmuR protein in heme binding and utilization of serum hemoproteins and the HmuR YRAP motif in serum hemoprotein utilization.

  5. Cultured representatives of two major phylogroups of human colonic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii can utilize pectin, uronic acids, and host-derived substrates for growth.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Khan, Tanweer M; Duncan, Sylvia H; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Garcia-Gil, L Jesús; Flint, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal bacteria in the healthy human large intestine, but information on genetic diversity and substrate utilization is limited. Here, we examine the phylogeny, phenotypic characteristics, and influence of gut environmental factors on growth of F. prausnitzii strains isolated from healthy subjects. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the cultured strains were representative of F. prausnitzii sequences detected by direct analysis of fecal DNA and separated the available isolates into two phylogroups. Most F. prausnitzii strains tested grew well under anaerobic conditions on apple pectin. Furthermore, F. prausnitzii strains competed successfully in coculture with two other abundant pectin-utilizing species, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Eubacterium eligens, with apple pectin as substrate, suggesting that this species makes a contribution to pectin fermentation in the colon. Many F. prausnitzii isolates were able to utilize uronic acids for growth, an ability previously thought to be confined to Bacteroides spp. among human colonic anaerobes. Most strains grew on N-acetylglucosamine, demonstrating an ability to utilize host-derived substrates. All strains tested were bile sensitive, showing at least 80% growth inhibition in the presence of 0.5 μg/ml bile salts, while inhibition at mildly acidic pH was strain dependent. These attributes help to explain the abundance of F. prausnitzii in the colonic community but also suggest factors in the gut environment that may limit its distribution.

  6. FadD Is Required for Utilization of Endogenous Fatty Acids Released from Membrane Lipids ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pech-Canul, Ángel; Nogales, Joaquina; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Álvarez, Laura; Geiger, Otto; Soto, María José; López-Lara, Isabel M.

    2011-01-01

    FadD is an acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase responsible for the activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) into acyl-CoAs. Mutation of fadD in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti promotes swarming motility and leads to defects in nodulation of alfalfa plants. In this study, we found that S. meliloti fadD mutants accumulated a mixture of free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. The composition of the free fatty acid pool and the results obtained after specific labeling of esterified fatty acids with a Δ5-desaturase (Δ5-Des) were in agreement with membrane phospholipids being the origin of the released fatty acids. Escherichia coli fadD mutants also accumulated free fatty acids released from membrane lipids in the stationary phase. This phenomenon did not occur in a mutant of E. coli with a deficient FadL fatty acid transporter, suggesting that the accumulation of fatty acids in fadD mutants occurs inside the cell. Our results indicate that, besides the activation of exogenous LCFA, in bacteria FadD plays a major role in the activation of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids. Furthermore, expression analysis performed with S. meliloti revealed that a functional FadD is required for the upregulation of genes involved in fatty acid degradation and suggested that in the wild-type strain, the fatty acids released from membrane lipids are degraded by β-oxidation in the stationary phase of growth. PMID:21926226

  7. Selective utilization of exogenous amino acids by Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 and its effects on growth and dechlorination activity.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Yi, Shan; Feng, Xueyang; Zinder, Stephen H; Tang, Yinjie J; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Bacteria of the genus Dehalococcoides are important members of bioremediation communities because of their ability to detoxify chloroethenes to the benign end product ethene. Genome-enabled studies conducted with Dehalococcoides ethenogenes 195 have revealed that two ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type amino acid transporters are expressed during its exponential growth stages. In light of previous findings that Casamino Acids enhanced its dechlorination activity, we hypothesized that strain 195 is capable of importing amino acids from its environment to facilitate dechlorination and growth. To test this hypothesis, we applied isotopomer-based dilution analysis with (13)C-labeled acetate to differentiate the amino acids that were taken up by strain 195 from those synthesized de novo and to determine the physiological changes caused by the significantly incorporated amino acids. Our results showed that glutamate/glutamine and aspartate/asparagine were almost exclusively synthesized by strain 195, even when provided in excess in the medium. In contrast, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, and methionine were identified as the four most highly incorporated amino acids, at levels >30% of respective proteinogenic amino acids. When either phenylalanine or all four highly incorporated amino acids were added to the defined mineral medium, the growth rates, dechlorination activities, and yields of strain 195 were enhanced to levels similar to those observed with supplementation with 20 amino acids. However, genes for the putative ABC-type amino acids transporters and phenylalanine biosynthesis exhibited insignificant regulation in response to the imported amino acids. This study also demonstrates that using isotopomer-based metabolite analysis can be an efficient strategy for optimizing nutritional conditions for slow-growing microorganisms.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis IO-1, a lactic acid bacterium that utilizes xylose and produces high levels of L-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroaki; Shiwa, Yuh; Oshima, Kenshiro; Machii, Miki; Araya-Kojima, Tomoko; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimizu-Kadota, Mariko; Hattori, Masahira; Sonomoto, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2012-04-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis IO-1 (= JCM7638). It is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, produces nisin Z, ferments xylose, and produces predominantly L-lactic acid at high xylose concentrations. From ortholog analysis with other five L. lactis strains, IO-1 was identified as L. lactis subsp. lactis.

  9. Fat utilization during exercise: adaptation to a fat-rich diet increases utilization of plasma fatty acids and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol in humans

    PubMed Central

    Helge, Jørn W; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A; Rennie, Michael J; Kiens, Bente

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62% fat, 21% carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20% fat, 65% carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 ± 1% of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-13C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 ± 0.01, mean ±s.e.m.) than in those consuming the carbohydrate-rich diet (0.93 ± 0.02). The leg fatty acid (FA) uptake (183 ± 37 vs. 105 ± 28 μmol min−1) and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol (VLDL-TG) uptake (132 ± 26 vs. 16 ± 21 μmol min−1) were both higher (each P < 0.05) in the subjects consuming the fat-rich diet. Whole-body plasma FA oxidation (determined by comparison of 13CO2 production and blood palmitate labelling) was 55-65% of total lipid oxidation, and was higher after the fat-rich diet than after the carbohydrate-rich diet (13.5 ± 1.2 vs. 8.9 ± 1.1 μmol min−1 kg−1; P < 0.05). Muscle glycogen breakdown was significantly lower in the subjects taking the fat-rich diet than those taking the carbohydrate-rich diet (2.6 ± 0.5 vs. 4.8 ± 0.5 mmol (kg dry weight)−1 min−1, respectively; P < 0.05), whereas leg glucose uptake was similar (1.07 ± 0.13 vs. 1.15 ± 0.13 mmol min−1). In conclusion, plasma VLDL-TG appears to be an important substrate source during aerobic exercise, and in combination with the higher plasma FA uptake it accounts for the increased fat oxidation

  10. Influence of surface defects and local structure on acid/base properties and oxidation pathways over metal oxide surfaces. Final report, June 1990--January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.F.

    1997-12-31

    This final report covers work done during project period one and project period two. All the work in project period one was focused on the selective oxidation of oxygenated hydrocarbons over the SnO{sub 2}(110) single crystal surface. In project period two, the emphasis was on the acid/base properties of SnO{sub 2}(110) as well as two different Cu{sub 2}O single crystal surfaces. Prior to the summary of results, a description of these different surfaces is given as background information. Results are described for the dissociation and reaction of Bronsted acids (methanol, formic acid, water, formaldehyde, acetone, propene, acetic acid, and carbon monoxide). Results from project period two include: ammonia adsorption, CO{sub 2} adsorption, propene adsorption and oxidation, with tin oxides; complimentary work with copper oxides; and STM investigations.

  11. Oxidative degradation of organic acids conjugated with sulfite oxidation in flue-gas desulfurization. Final report, June 1984-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.J.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    This report gives results of a study of organic acid-degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation under flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant, k12, is defined as the ratio of organic-acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation-rate times the ratio of the concentrations of dissolved S(IV) and organic acid. It is not significantly affected by pH or dissolved oxygen in the absence of Mn or Fe. However, k12 is increased by certain transition metals such as Fe, Co, and Ni and is decreased by Mn and halides. Lower dissolved S(IV) magnifies these effects. A free-radical mechanism was proposed to describe the kinetics. Hydroxy and sulfonated carboxylic acids degrade approximately three times slower than saturated dicarboxylic acids; while maleic acid, an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, degraded an order of magnitude faster. A wide spectrum of degradation products of adipic acid were found, including carbon dioxide (the major product), smaller dicarboxylic acids, monocarboxylic acids, other carbonyl compounds, and hydrocarbons.

  12. Monola oil versus canola oil as a fish oil replacer in rainbow trout feeds: effects on growth, fatty acid metabolism and final eating quality.

    PubMed

    Turchini, G M; Moretti, V M; Hermon, K; Caprino, F; Busetto, M L; Bellagamba, F; Rankin, T; Keast, R S J; Francis, D S

    2013-11-15

    Monola oil, a high oleic acid canola cultivar, and canola oil were evaluated as replacers of fish oil at three levels of inclusion (60%, 75% and 90%) in rainbow trout diets. After a 27-week grow-out cycle, the diet-induced effects on growth, fatty acid metabolism and final eating quality were assessed. Overall, no effects were noted for growth, feed utilisation or fish biometry, and the fatty acid composition of fish fillets mirrored that of the diets. Dietary treatments affected fillet lipid oxidation (free malondialdehyde), pigmentation and flavour volatile compounds, but only minor effects on sensorial attributes were detected. Ultimately, both oils were demonstrated to possess, to differing extents, suitable qualities to adequately replace fish oil from the perspective of fish performance and final product quality. However, further research is required to alleviate on-going issues associated with the loss of health promoting attributes (n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) of final farmed products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS. MODULE 1: WATER UTILITIES PLANNING GUIDE - INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  14. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS. MODULE 1: WATER UTILITIES PLANNING GUIDE - INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  15. Evaluation of adipic acid addition to a bench-scale Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, G.P.

    1981-12-01

    An experimental laboratory study testing the effectiveness of adipic acid in the Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD system has been sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. Additionally, economic calculations for the cost effectiveness of usng adipic acid in a commercial scale CT-121 FGD system have been performed. The results of this study indicate that although adipic acid can increase the SO/sub 2/ removal capability of the CT-121 system, it is not an economically attractive process improvement. This result is due to the CT-121 process chemistry which minimizes limestone consumption and sludge volume without the need of adipic acid. These two areas realize major cost savings when adipic is used in a conventional limestone FGD system. The economic evaluation indicates even though a lower gas-side pressue drop is achieved when adipic acid is used, the savings in electrical costs are insufficient to offset the cost of adipic acid.

  16. L-Lactic acid production by combined utilization of agricultural bioresources as renewable and economical substrates through batch and repeated-batch fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Lebaka Veeranjaneya; Kim, Young-Min; Yun, Jong-Sun; Ryu, Hwa-Won; Wee, Young-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 was used to produce l-lactic acid from hydrol, soybean curd residues (SCR), and malt. Hydrol was efficiently metabolized to l-lactic acid with optical purity of >97.5%, though hydrol contained mixed sugars such as glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltodextrin. Combined utilization of hydrol, SCR, and malt was enough to sustain lactic acid fermentation by E. faecalis RKY1. In order to reduce the amount of nitrogen sources and product inhibition, cell-recycle repeated-batch fermentation was employed, where a high cell mass (26.3g/L) was obtained. Lactic acid productivity was improved by removal of lactic acid from fermentation broth by membrane filtration and by linearly increased cell density. When the total of 10 repeated-batch fermentations were carried out using 100g/L hydrol, 150g/L SCR hydrolyzate, and 20g/L malt hydrolyzate as the main nutrients, lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 3.20g/L/h to 6.37g/L/h.

  17. The efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy and apparent absorption of amino acids in sheep given spring- and autumn-harvested dried grass.

    PubMed

    Macrae, J C; Smith, J S; Dewey, P J; Brewer, A C; Brown, D S; Walker, A

    1985-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted with sheep given spring-harvested dried grass (SHG) and autumn-harvested dried grass (AHG). The first was a calorimetric trial to determine the metabolizable energy (ME) content of each grass and the efficiency with which sheep utilize their extra ME intakes above the maintenance level of intake. The second examined the relative amounts of extra non-ammonia-nitrogen (NAN) and individual amino acids absorbed from the small intestine per unit extra ME intake as the level of feeding was raised from energy equilibrium (M) to approximately 1.5 M. The third was a further calorimetric trial to investigate the effect of an abomasal infusion of 30 g casein/d on the efficiency of utilization of AHG. The ME content of the SHG (11.8 MJ/kg dry matter (DM] was higher than that of AHG (10.0 MJ/kg DM). The efficiency of utilization of ME for productive purposes (i.e. above the M level of intake; kf) was higher when given SHG (kf 0.54 between M and 2 M) than when given AHG (kf 0.43 between M and 2 M). As the level of intake of each grass was raised from M to 1.5 M there was a greater increment in the amounts of NAN (P less than 0.001) and the total amino acid (P less than 0.05) absorbed from the small intestines when sheep were given the SHG (NAN absorption, SHG 5.4 g/d, AHG 1.5 g/d, SED 0.54; total amino acid absorption SHG 31.5 g/d, AHG 14.3 g/d, SED 5.24). Infusion of 30 g casein/d per abomasum of sheep given AHG at M and 1.5 M levels of intake increased (P less than 0.05) the efficiency of utilization of the herbage from kf 0.45 to kf 0.57. Consideration is given to the possibility that the higher efficiency of utilization of ME in sheep given SHG may be related to the amounts of extra glucogenic amino acids absorbed from the small intestine which provide extra reducing equivalents (NADPH) and glycerol phosphate necessary for the conversion of acetate into fatty acids.

  18. Utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services by pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at a regional referral hospital in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Maina-Gathigi, L; Omolo, J; Wanzala, P; Lindan, C; Makokha, A

    2013-09-01

    To determine utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation services among pregnant women in Kenya. A cross sectional study was conducted at Nyeri Hospital, a regional referral hospital in central Kenya. Women attending the antenatal clinic were selected through systematic sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services. Women who ingested folic acid or iron supplements for >4 days in a week were considered "highly compliant". The health worker in-charge of the antenatal clinic was interviewed about the frequency of supplement stock-outs during the past year. Haemoglobin concentration was measured directly from one drop of capillary blood and measured using portable HEMOCUE B-Hb photometer. Of the 381 women interviewed, only 23.6 % obtained antenatal care in the first trimester; 69.3 and 51.2 % received folic acid and iron supplements, respectively. However, only half (45-58 %) received any information about supplementation. Most women were initiated on folic acid (80.7 %) or iron (67.7 %) after 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, respectively, well after the recommended time period. However, more than 80 % of those who received folic acid and iron were highly compliant. Stock-outs were common at the facility. Of 361 women tested for Hb level, the prevalence of anaemia (Hb levels < 11 g/dl) was 7.8 %. Health workers need to better explain the importance of supplements to pregnant women. Women who come late to antenatal clinic miss opportunities to start supplementation early in pregnancy. Problems with supply chain management exacerbate the problem.

  19. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') on June 6, 2012.\\1\\ The period of... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Post- Preliminary...

  20. Continuous-Flow Electrophilic Amination of Arenes and Schmidt Reaction of Carboxylic Acids Utilizing the Superacidic Trimethylsilyl Azide/Triflic Acid Reagent System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuesu; Gutmann, Bernhard; Kappe, C Oliver

    2016-10-07

    A continuous flow protocol for the direct stoichiometric electrophilic amination of aromatic hydrocarbons and the Schmidt reaction of aromatic carboxylic acids using the superacidic trimethylsilyl azide/triflic acid system is described. Optimization of reagent stoichiometry, solvent, reaction time, and temperature led to an intensified protocol at elevated temperatures that allows the direct amination of arenes to be completed within 3 min at 90 °C. In order to improve the selectivity and scope of this direct amination protocol, aromatic carboxylic acids were additionally chosen as substrates. Selected carboxylic acids could be converted to their corresponding amine counterparts in good to excellent yields (11 examples, 55-83%) via a Schmidt reaction employing similar flow reaction conditions (<5 min at 90 °C) and a similar reactor setup as for the amination. The safety issues derived from the explosive, toxic, and volatile hydrazoic acid intermediate, the corrosive nature of triflic acid, and the exothermic quenching were addressed by designing a suitable continuous flow reaction setup for both types of transformations.