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Sample records for acid vitamin b5

  1. DFT study on the isomerization and tautomerism in vitamins B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid) and B7 (biotin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valadbeigi, Younes; Farrokhpour, Hossein; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Isomerization and tautomerism of the three water soluble vitamins including B3, B5 and B7 were studied applying density functional theory using B3LYP method in gas and aqueous phases. Activation energies (Ea), Gibbs free energies of activation (ΔG#), and imaginary frequencies of the transition state structures were calculated for all the isomerization and tautomerism reactions. Activation energies of the neutral → zwitterion (amine-enamine) tautomerism in vitamin B3 were 310-360 kJ/mol where these values for the keto-enol tautomerism were 100-130 kJ/mol. It was found that water molecule catalyzes the tautomerism and decreases the activation energies about 90-160 kJ/mol.

  2. Development of an ELISA for pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) for application in the nutrition and biological fields.

    PubMed

    Gonthier, A; Boullanger, P; Fayol, V; Hartmann, D J

    1998-01-01

    Immunological assays appear to be the only alternative to the microbiological method for analysis of pantothenic acid in foods and blood. In order to evaluate the influence of the linker on the immunogenicity of the hapten, we have tried to raise antisera against pantothenic acid in rabbits using different conjugates. The hapten was coupled to a carrier protein (BSA or thyroglobulin) using adipoyl dichloride (adipoyl conjugate) or bromoacetyl bromide (acetyl conjugate). Only the acetyl conjugate has induced the production of a specific antibody. With this antibody, an assay on microplate using the ELISA inhibition technique was developed to measure pantothenic acid. The use of pantothenic acid coupled to thyroglobulin with adipoyl dichloride as the capture antigen has improved the sensitivity of the ELISA. This assay was applied to food products and blood. PMID:9682130

  3. Experimental Raman and IR spectral and theoretical studies of vibrational spectrum and molecular structure of Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Mayuri; Singh, N. P.; Yadav, R. A.

    2014-08-01

    Vibrational spectrum of Pantothenic acid has been investigated using experimental IR and Raman spectroscopies and density functional theory methods available with the Gaussian 09 software. Vibrational assignments of the observed IR and Raman bands have been proposed in light of the results obtained from computations. In order to assign the observed IR and Raman frequencies the potential energy distributions (PEDs) have also been computed using GAR2PED software. Optimized geometrical parameters suggest that the overall symmetry of the molecule is C1. The molecule is found to possess eight conformations. Conformational analysis was carried out to obtain the most stable configuration of the molecule. In the present paper the vibrational features of the lowest energy conformer C-I have been studied. The two methyl groups have slightly distorted symmetries from C3V. The acidic Osbnd H bond is found to be the smallest one. To investigate molecular stability and bond strength we have used natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). Charge transfer occurs in the molecule have been shown by the calculated highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) energies. The mapping of electron density iso-surface with electrostatic potential (ESP), has been carried out to get the information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule.

  4. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePlus

    ... also applied topically for preventing and treating skin reactions to radiation therapy. ... Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to ... reactions from radiation therapy. Applying dexpanthenol, a chemical similar ...

  5. Towards engineering increased pantothenate (vitamin B(5)) levels in plants.

    PubMed

    Chakauya, Ereck; Coxon, Katy M; Wei, Ma; Macdonald, Mary V; Barsby, Tina; Abell, Chris; Smith, Alison G

    2008-11-01

    Pantothenate (vitamin B(5)) is the precursor of the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A and acyl-carrier protein. It is made by plants and microorganisms de novo, but is a dietary requirement for animals. The pantothenate biosynthetic pathway is well-established in bacteria, comprising four enzymic reactions catalysed by ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase (KPHMT), L: -aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase (ADC), pantothenate synthetase (PS) and ketopantoate reductase (KPR) encoded by panB, panD, panC and panE genes, respectively. In higher plants, the genes encoding the first (KPHMT) and last (PS) enzymes have been identified and characterised in several plant species. Commercially, pantothenate is chemically synthesised and used in vitamin supplements, feed additives and cosmetics. Biotransformation is an attractive alternative production system that would circumvent the expensive procedures of separating racemic intermediates. We explored the possibility of manipulating pantothenate biosynthesis in plants. Transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) lines were generated in which the E. coli KPHMT and PS genes were expressed under a strong constitutive CaMV35SS promoter. No significant change of pantothenate levels in PS transgenic lines was observed. In contrast plants expressing KPHMT had elevated pantothenate levels in leaves, flowers siliques and seed in the range of 1.5-2.5 fold increase compared to the wild type plant. Seeds contained the highest vitamin content, indicating that they might be the ideal target for production purposes.

  6. Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/ Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.16.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Campos-Giménez, Esther

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine repeatability and reproducibility of AOAC First Action Method 2012.16 [Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry], a collaborative study was organized. The study was divided in two parts: method setup and qualification of participants (part 1) and collaborative study participation (part 2). For part 1, each participating laboratory was asked to analyze two practice samples using the aforementioned method. Laboratories that provided results within a range of expected levels were qualified for part 2, during which each laboratory received 10 samples in blind duplicates. Results have been compared to the Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR®) 2012.009 established for pantothenic acid. Precision results (repeatability and reproducibility) were within the limits stated in the SMPR. Repeatability ranged from 1.3 to 3.3%, and reproducibility ranged from 4.1 to 7.0%. Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values were all <1, ranging from 0.33 to 0.69. The AOAC Expert Review Panel on Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Nutrient Methods determined that the data presented met the SMPR and recommended the method for Final Action status, which was then granted by the AOAC Official Methods Board.

  7. Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/ Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.16.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Campos-Giménez, Esther

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine repeatability and reproducibility of AOAC First Action Method 2012.16 [Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry], a collaborative study was organized. The study was divided in two parts: method setup and qualification of participants (part 1) and collaborative study participation (part 2). For part 1, each participating laboratory was asked to analyze two practice samples using the aforementioned method. Laboratories that provided results within a range of expected levels were qualified for part 2, during which each laboratory received 10 samples in blind duplicates. Results have been compared to the Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR®) 2012.009 established for pantothenic acid. Precision results (repeatability and reproducibility) were within the limits stated in the SMPR. Repeatability ranged from 1.3 to 3.3%, and reproducibility ranged from 4.1 to 7.0%. Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values were all <1, ranging from 0.33 to 0.69. The AOAC Expert Review Panel on Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Nutrient Methods determined that the data presented met the SMPR and recommended the method for Final Action status, which was then granted by the AOAC Official Methods Board. PMID:26651582

  8. Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-04-01

    Vitamins are essential organic compounds for humans, having lost the ability to de novo synthesize them. Hence, they represent dietary requirements, which are covered by plants as the main dietary source of most vitamins (through food or livestock's feed). Most vitamins synthesized by plants present amino acids as precursors (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9 and E) and are therefore linked to plant nitrogen metabolism. Amino acids play different roles in their biosynthesis and metabolism, either incorporated into the backbone of the vitamin or as amino, sulfur or one-carbon group donors. There is a high natural variation in vitamin contents in crops and its exploitation through breeding, metabolic engineering and agronomic practices can enhance their nutritional quality. While the underlying biochemical roles of vitamins as cosubstrates or cofactors are usually common for most eukaryotes, the impact of vitamins B and E in metabolism and physiology can be quite different on plants and animals. Here, we first aim at giving an overview of the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived vitamins in plants, with a particular focus on how this knowledge can be exploited to increase vitamin contents in crops. Second, we will focus on the functions of these vitamins in both plants and animals (and humans in particular), to unravel common and specific roles for vitamins in evolutionary distant organisms, in which these amino acid-derived vitamins play, however, an essential role.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of vitamin B5 loaded poly (l-lactide-co-caprolactone)/silk fiber aligned electrospun nanofibers for schwann cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bhutto, M Aqeel; Wu, Tong; Sun, Binbin; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-08-01

    Bioengineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration have been focusing on the development of alternative treatments for nerve repair. In present study we have blended the Vitamin B5 (50mg) with 8% P(LLA-CL) and P(LLA-CL)/SF solutions and produced aligned electrospun nanofiber mashes and characterized the material for its physiochemical and mechanical characteristics. The vitamin loaded composites nanofibers showed tensile strength of 8.73±1.38 and 8.4±1.37 in P(LLA-CL)/Vt and P(LLA-CL)/SF/Vt nanofibers mashes, respectively. By the addition of vitamin B5 the P(LLA-CL) nanofibers become hydrophilic and the contact angle decreased from 96° to 0° in 6min of duration. The effect of vitamin B5 on Schwann cells proliferation and viability were analyzed by using MTT assay and the number of cells cultured on vitamin loaded nanofiber mashes was significantly higher than the without vitamin loaded nanofiber samples after 5th day (p<0.05) whereas, P (LLA-CL)/SF/Vt exhibit the consistently highest cell numbers after 7th days culture as compare to P (LLA-CL)/Vt. The in vitro vitamin release behavior was observed in PBS solution and released vitamin was calculated by revers phase HPLC method. The sustain release behavior of vitamin B5 were noted higher in P(LLA-CL)/Vt (80%) nanofibers as compared to P (LLA-CL)/SF/Vt (62%) nanofibers after 24h. The present work provided a basis for further studies of this novel aligned nanofibrous material in nerve tissue repair or regeneration.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of vitamin B5 loaded poly (l-lactide-co-caprolactone)/silk fiber aligned electrospun nanofibers for schwann cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bhutto, M Aqeel; Wu, Tong; Sun, Binbin; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-08-01

    Bioengineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration have been focusing on the development of alternative treatments for nerve repair. In present study we have blended the Vitamin B5 (50mg) with 8% P(LLA-CL) and P(LLA-CL)/SF solutions and produced aligned electrospun nanofiber mashes and characterized the material for its physiochemical and mechanical characteristics. The vitamin loaded composites nanofibers showed tensile strength of 8.73±1.38 and 8.4±1.37 in P(LLA-CL)/Vt and P(LLA-CL)/SF/Vt nanofibers mashes, respectively. By the addition of vitamin B5 the P(LLA-CL) nanofibers become hydrophilic and the contact angle decreased from 96° to 0° in 6min of duration. The effect of vitamin B5 on Schwann cells proliferation and viability were analyzed by using MTT assay and the number of cells cultured on vitamin loaded nanofiber mashes was significantly higher than the without vitamin loaded nanofiber samples after 5th day (p<0.05) whereas, P (LLA-CL)/SF/Vt exhibit the consistently highest cell numbers after 7th days culture as compare to P (LLA-CL)/Vt. The in vitro vitamin release behavior was observed in PBS solution and released vitamin was calculated by revers phase HPLC method. The sustain release behavior of vitamin B5 were noted higher in P(LLA-CL)/Vt (80%) nanofibers as compared to P (LLA-CL)/SF/Vt (62%) nanofibers after 24h. The present work provided a basis for further studies of this novel aligned nanofibrous material in nerve tissue repair or regeneration. PMID:27085042

  11. Purification and characterization of two forms of cytochrome b5 from an arachidonic acid-producing fungus, Mortierella hygrophila.

    PubMed

    Kouzaki, N; Kawashima, H; Chung, M C; Shimizu, S

    1995-06-01

    Two forms of cytochrome b5 have been purified from the microsomes of an arachidonic acid-producing fungus, Mortierella hygrophila IFO 5941, after detergent solubilization. They have monomeric molecular masses of about 16 kDa and 19 kDa. Their absorption spectra are similar to those of mammalian cytochrome b5s. Their amino acid compositions show some similarity to those of mammalian cytochrome b5s, but the contents of some amino acids (glycine, alanine, aspartic acid + asparagine, glutamic acid + glutamine, arginine, proline, histidine, leucine and lysine) are unique to the cytochrome b5s of M. hygrophila. Some of their internal peptide sequences also show close homology with those of some mammals (approx. 65 to 67%), while some others show no or little homology. The addition of various acyl-CoAs to NADH-reduced microsomes caused an abrupt shiftdown of the steady state reduction level of cytochrome b5. This indicates the increased utilization of electrons for the desaturation process and may suggest that the cytochrome b5s of this fungus actually take part in its microsomal desaturation system for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis as electron carriers. PMID:7786894

  12. The cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19 is required for biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Haizhen; Zhang, Jingjing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Su, Xiong; Li, Tingting; Zou, Xiaoju; Liang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids with backbones containing more than one double bond, which are introduced by a series of desaturases that insert double bonds at specific carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain. It has been established that desaturases need flavoprotein-NADH-dependent cytochrome b5 reductase (simplified as cytochrome b5 reductase) and cytochrome b5 to pass through electrons for activation. However, it has remained unclear how this multi-enzyme system works for distinct desaturases. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans contains seven desaturases (FAT-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7) for the biosynthesis of PUFAS, providing an excellent model in which to characterize different desaturation reactions. Here, we show that RNAi inactivation of predicted cytochrome b5 reductases hpo-19 and T05H4.4 led to increased levels of C18:1n-9 but decreased levels of PUFAs, small lipid droplets, decreased fat accumulation, reduced brood size and impaired development. Dietary supplementation with different fatty acids showed that HPO-19 and T05H4.4 likely affect the activity of FAT-1, FAT-2, FAT-3, and FAT-4 desaturases, suggesting that these four desaturases use the same cytochrome b5 reductase to function. Collectively, these findings indicate that cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19/T05H4.4 is required for desaturation to biosynthesize PUFAs in C. elegans. PMID:26806391

  13. The cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19 is required for biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Haizhen; Zhang, Jingjing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Su, Xiong; Li, Tingting; Zou, Xiaoju; Liang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids with backbones containing more than one double bond, which are introduced by a series of desaturases that insert double bonds at specific carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain. It has been established that desaturases need flavoprotein-NADH-dependent cytochrome b5 reductase (simplified as cytochrome b5 reductase) and cytochrome b5 to pass through electrons for activation. However, it has remained unclear how this multi-enzyme system works for distinct desaturases. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans contains seven desaturases (FAT-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7) for the biosynthesis of PUFAS, providing an excellent model in which to characterize different desaturation reactions. Here, we show that RNAi inactivation of predicted cytochrome b5 reductases hpo-19 and T05H4.4 led to increased levels of C18:1n-9 but decreased levels of PUFAs, small lipid droplets, decreased fat accumulation, reduced brood size and impaired development. Dietary supplementation with different fatty acids showed that HPO-19 and T05H4.4 likely affect the activity of FAT-1, FAT-2, FAT-3, and FAT-4 desaturases, suggesting that these four desaturases use the same cytochrome b5 reductase to function. Collectively, these findings indicate that cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19/T05H4.4 is required for desaturation to biosynthesize PUFAs in C. elegans.

  14. Effects of charged amino-acid mutation on the solution structure of cytochrome b5 and binding between cytochrome b5 and cytochrome c

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chengmin; Yao, Yong; Ye, Keqiong; Wang, Jinfeng; Tang, Wenxia; Wang, Yunhua; Wang, Wenhu; Lu, Junxia; Xie, Yi; Huang, Zhongxian

    2001-01-01

    The solution structure of oxidized bovine microsomal cytochrome b5 mutant (E48, E56/A, D60/A) has been determined through 1524 meaningful nuclear Overhauser effect constraints together with 190 pseudocontact shift constraints. The final family of 35 conformers has rmsd values with respect to the mean structure of 0.045±0.009 nm and 0.088±0.011 nm for backbone and heavy atoms, respectively. A characteristic of this mutant is that of having no significant changes in the whole folding and secondary structure compared with the X-ray and solution structures of wild-type cytochrome b5. The binding of different surface mutants of cytochrome b5 with cytochrome c shows that electrostatic interactions play an important role in maintaining the stability and specificity of the protein complex formed. The differences in association constants demonstrate the electrostatic contributions of cytochrome b5 surface negatively charged residues, which were suggested to be involved in complex formation in the Northrup and Salemme models, have cumulative effect on the stability of cyt c-cyt b5 complex, and the contribution of Glu48 is a little higher than that of Glu44. Moreover, our result suggests that the docking geometry proposed by Northrup, which is involved in the participation of Glu48, Glu56, Asp60, and heme propionate of cytochrome b5, do occur in the association between cytochrome b5 and cytochrome c. PMID:11714912

  15. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitamin C , also called ascorbic acid, is an antioxidant that promotes healthy teeth and gums. It helps ... of calcium and phosphorus . Vitamin E is an antioxidant also known as tocopherol. It helps the body ...

  16. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  17. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  18. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  19. Cytochrome b5 null mouse: a new model for studying inherited skin disorders and the role of unsaturated fatty acids in normal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Finn, Robert D; McLaughlin, Lesley A; Hughes, Catherine; Song, Chengli; Henderson, Colin J; Roland Wolf, C

    2011-06-01

    Microsomal cytochrome b (5) is a ubiquitous, 15.2 kDa haemoprotein implicated in a number of cellular processes such as fatty acid desaturation, drug metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and methaemoglobin reduction. As a consequence of these functions this protein has been considered essential for life. Most of the ascribed functions of cytochrome b (5), however, stem from in vitro studies and for this reason we have carried out a germline deletion of this enzyme. We have unexpectedly found that cytochrome b (5) null mice were viable and fertile, with pups being born at expected Mendelian ratios. However, a number of intriguing phenotypes were identified, including altered drug metabolism, methaemoglobinemia and disrupted steroid hormone homeostasis. In addition to these previously identified roles for this protein, cytochrome b (5) null mice displayed skin defects closely resembling those observed in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis and retardation of neonatal development, indicating that this protein, possibly as a consequence of its role in the de novo biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, plays a central role in skin development and neonatal nutrition. Results from fatty acid profile analysis of several tissues suggest that cytochrome b (5) plays a role controlling saturated/unsaturated homeostasis. These data demonstrate that regional concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids are controlled by endogenous metabolic pathways and not by diet alone.

  20. Bioaccessibility of vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid from dietary supplements, fortified food and infant formula.

    PubMed

    Brandon, E F A; Bakker, M I; Kramer, E; Bouwmeester, H; Zuidema, T; Alewijn, M

    2014-06-01

    In the Netherlands, vitamin intake occurs mainly via food and for some vitamins also via fortified food. In addition, some people take dietary supplements. Information on the bioavailability of vitamins is important for a good estimation of the actual exposure to vitamins. Furthermore, for a reliable intake estimation, it is important to know the accurateness of the claimed vitamin concentration on the product label. In the current study, the amount of vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid in different products and their maximum bioavailability (bioaccessibility) were investigated. In about half of the products, the amount of vitamins significantly deviated from the declared amounts. The vitamin bioaccessibility ranged from <1% to 100%. When assessing the dietary intake exposure of vitamins, it is important to take into account both the possible deviation from the declared level and (the variability of) the bioaccessibility of the vitamin in the products.

  1. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... and folate) Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K You can usually get all your vitamins from ... foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need ...

  2. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability.

  3. Histidine-41 of the cytochrome b5 domain of the borage delta6 fatty acid desaturase is essential for enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Sayanova, O; Shewry, P R; Napier, J A

    1999-10-01

    Unlike most other plant microsomal desaturases, the Delta6-fatty acid desaturase from borage (Borago officinalis) contains an N-terminal extension that shows homology to the small hemoprotein cytochrome (Cyt) b5. To determine if this domain serves as a functional electron donor for the Delta6-fatty acid desaturase, mutagenesis and functional analysis by expression in transgenic Arabidopsis was carried out. Although expression of the wild-type borage Delta6-fatty acid desaturase resulted in the synthesis and accumulation of Delta6-unsaturated fatty acids, this was not observed in plants transformed with N-terminally deleted forms of the desaturase. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to disrupt one of the axial heme-binding residues (histidine-41) of the Cyt b5 domain; expression of this mutant form of the Delta6-desaturase in transgenic plants failed to produce Delta6-unsaturated fatty acids. These data indicate that the Cyt b5 domain of the borage Delta6-fatty acid desaturase is essential for enzymatic activity.

  4. Histidine-41 of the Cytochrome b5 Domain of the Borage Δ6 Fatty Acid Desaturase Is Essential for Enzyme Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Sayanova, Olga; Shewry, Peter R.; Napier, Johnathan A.

    1999-01-01

    Unlike most other plant microsomal desaturases, the Δ6-fatty acid desaturase from borage (Borago officinalis) contains an N-terminal extension that shows homology to the small hemoprotein cytochrome (Cyt) b5. To determine if this domain serves as a functional electron donor for the Δ6-fatty acid desaturase, mutagenesis and functional analysis by expression in transgenic Arabidopsis was carried out. Although expression of the wild-type borage Δ6-fatty acid desaturase resulted in the synthesis and accumulation of Δ6-unsaturated fatty acids, this was not observed in plants transformed with N-terminally deleted forms of the desaturase. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to disrupt one of the axial heme-binding residues (histidine-41) of the Cyt b5 domain; expression of this mutant form of the Δ6-desaturase in transgenic plants failed to produce Δ6-unsaturated fatty acids. These data indicate that the Cyt b5 domain of the borage Δ6-fatty acid desaturase is essential for enzymatic activity. PMID:10517856

  5. Amino Acid and Vitamin Requirements of Several Bacteroides Strains

    PubMed Central

    Quinto, Grace

    1966-01-01

    Nutritional studies were performed on nine Bacteroides strains, by use of the methodology and media of anaerobic rumen microbiology. Ristella perfoetens CCI required l-arginine hydrochloride, l-tryptophan, l-leucine, l-histidine hydrochloride, l-cysteine hydrochloride, dl-valine, dl-tyrosine, and the vitamin calcium-d-pantothenate, since scant turbidity developed in media without these nutrients. R. perfoetens was stimulated by glycine, dl-lysine hydrochloride, dl-isoleucine, l-proline, l-glutamic acid, dl-alanine, dl-phenylalanine, dl-methionine, and the vitamins nicotinamide and p-aminobenzoic acid, since maximal turbidity developed more slowly in media without these nutrients than in complete medium. Medium A-23, which was devised for R. perfoetens, contained salts, 0.0002% nicotinamide and calcium d-pantothenate, 0.00001% p-aminobenzoic acid, 0.044% l-tryptophan, 0.09% l-glutamic acid, and 0.1% of the other 13 amino acids listed above. Zuberella clostridiformis and seven strains of R. pseudoinsolita did not require vitamins, and showed no absolute requirement for any one amino acid. Various strains produced maximal turbidity more slowly in media deficient in l-proline, glycine, l-glutamic acid, dl-serine, l-histidine hydrochloride, dl-alanine, or l-cysteine hydrochloride, than in complete medium. These eight strains grew optimally in medium A-23 plus 0.1% dl-serine but without vitamins. PMID:16349673

  6. Folic acid - vitamin and panacea or genetic time bomb?

    PubMed

    Lucock, Mark; Yates, Zoë

    2005-03-01

    We live in a health-conscious age - many of us supplement our diet with essential micronutrients through the discretionary use of multivitamin pills or judicious selection of foods that have a health benefit beyond that conferred by the nutrient content alone - the so-called 'functional foods'. Indeed, the citizens of some nations have little choice, with a mandatory fortification policy in place for certain vitamins. But do we ever stop to consider the consequences of an increased exposure to micronutrients? We examine this issue in relation to the B-group vitamin folic acid, and ask whether supplementation with this vitamin could introduce a strong genetic selection pressure - one that has the side effect of increasing the prevalence of some of the most significant, human life-threatening diseases. Are we affecting our genetics - is this a case of human evolution in progress by altering our diet?

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin D in Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Güttler, Norbert; Zheleva, Kirila; Parahuleva, Mariana; Chasan, Ridvan; Bilgin, Mehmet; Neuhof, Christiane; Burgazli, Mehmet; Niemann, Bernd; Erdogan, Ali; Böning, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Dietary modification and supplementation play an increasingly important role in the conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease. Current interest has focused on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D. Clinical trial results on this subject are contradictory in many aspects. Several studies indicate that n-3 PUFA consumption improves vascular and cardiac hemodynamics, triglycerides, and possibly endothelial function, autonomic control, inflammation, thrombosis, and arrhythmia. Experimental studies show effects on membrane structure and associated functions, ion channel properties, genetic regulation, and production of anti-inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials evaluating a possible reduction in cardiovascular disease by n-3 PUFA have shown different results. Supplementation of vitamin D is common regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. But vitamin D also seems to have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and can predispose to essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, increased insulin resistance, and eventually to atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events. Randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D and omega-3 FA supplementation therapy should be recommended as a routine therapy for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23346457

  8. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability. PMID:26948608

  9. A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folic acid, ascorbic acid, and mercury uptake and methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, N.E.; Smith, J.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Ingestion of megadoses of certain vitamins appears to influence the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride in guinea pigs. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with folic acid resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels were significantly increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver (B{sub 12} only and B{sub 12}/folic acid) and brain (B{sub 12}/vitamin C). Incorporation of high levels of folic acid into the dietary regime also increased the methylmercury concentration particularly in the liver and hair tissues. The addition of vitamin C in the diet, particularly in combination with B{sub 12} (brain) or folic acid (muscle) resulted in increased methylmercury levels in these tissues and percent methylmercury values with B{sub 12} in the muscle and brain tissue.

  10. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... with an illness. Which foods are rich in vitamin C? citrus fruits, like oranges cantaloupe strawberries tomatoes broccoli cabbage kiwi fruit sweet red peppers previous continue Vitamin D No bones about it . . . vitamin D is ...

  11. Very high gravity ethanol and fatty acid production of Zymomonas mobilis without amino acid and vitamin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoyong; Cao, Shangzhi; Wang, William Tianshuo; Wang, Kaven Tianyv; Jia, Xianhui

    2016-06-01

    Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is the mainstream technology in ethanol industry, which requires the strains be resistant to multiple stresses such as high glucose concentration, high ethanol concentration, high temperature and harsh acidic conditions. To our knowledge, it was not reported previously that any ethanol-producing microbe showed a high performance in VHG fermentations without amino acid and vitamin. Here we demonstrate the engineering of a xylose utilizing recombinant Zymomonas mobilis for VHG ethanol fermentations. The recombinant strain can produce ethanol up to 136 g/L without amino acid and vitamin with a theoretical yield of 90 %, which is significantly superior to that produced by all the reported ethanol-producing strains. The intracellular fatty acids of the bacterial were about 16 % of the bacterial dry biomass, with the ratio of ethanol:fatty acids was about 273:1 (g/g). The recombinant strain was achieved by a multivariate-modular strategy tackles with the multiple stresses which are closely linked to the ethanol productivity of Z. mobilis. The over-expression of metB/yfdZ operon enabled the growth of the recombinant Z. mobilis in a chemically defined medium without amino acid and vitamin; and the fatty acids overproduction significantly increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production. The coupled production of ethanol with fatty acids of the Z. mobilis without amino acid and vitamin under VHG fermentation conditions may permit a significant reduction of the production cost of ethanol and microbial fatty acids.

  12. Influence of vitamin E on the antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid in human blood.

    PubMed

    González-Correa, J A; Arrebola, M M; Guerrero, A; Muñoz-Marín, J; Ruiz-Villafranca, D; Sánchez de La Cuesta, F; De La Cruz, J P

    2005-01-01

    We analysed the in vitro interaction between acetylsalicylic acid and vitamin E on the principal antiplatelet sites of action of acetylsalicylic acid, i.e., platelet aggregation, prostanoid production in platelets and leukocytes, and nitric oxide synthesis. Aggregation was measured in whole blood and in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with ADP, collagen or arachidonic acid as platelet inducers, and we measured the production of thromboxane B2, prostacyclin and nitric oxide. Vitamin E potentiated the antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid in both whole blood and PRP. In PRP induced with collagen the IC50 for acetylsalicylic acid alone was 339+/-11.26, and that of acetylsalicylic acid+vitamin E was 0.89+/-0.09 (P<0.05). Vitamin E did not enhance inhibition of platelet thromboxane production by acetylsalicylic acid. Vitamin E spared or even increased prostacyclin levels, and acetylsalicylic acid+vitamin E diminished the inhibition of prostacyclin synthesis by acetylsalicylic acid (IC50 acetylsalicylic acid alone=1.81+/-0.15 microM; IC50 acetylsalicylic acid+vitamin E= 12.92+/-1.10 microM, P<0.05). Vitamin E increased the effect of acetylsalicylic acid on neutrophil nitric oxide production 42-fold (P<0.05). We conclude that vitamin E potentiates the antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid in vitro, and thus merits further research in ex vivo studies.

  13. [Stability of folic acid and vitamin B12 in TPN].

    PubMed

    Almodóvar, M J; Hernández Jaras, M V; León-Sanz, M; Ortuño, B; Estenoz, J; Negro Vega, E; Marfagón, N; Herreros de Tejada, A

    1991-01-01

    The stability of folic acid (FA) in mixtures of Total Parenteral Nutrition has been and is a controversial subject, with discussion concerning the influence of factors such as temperature, light and storage time. As regards the stability of the vitamin B12, there are few studies in scientific literature. For all those reasons, we consider it necessary to make a proper study to evaluate the influence of different factors in the stability of both vitamins. The study was made on 3 liter TPN bags of the EVA type, the composition of which was as follows: AA (85g), glucosa (225g), fat (50g), Na (86mEq), K (60 mEq), Ca (15 mEq), Cl (90 mEq), P (17 mmol) acetate (149 mEq) and 10 ml of MVI-12 which contain 400 micrograms of PA and 5 micrograms of Vitamin B 12. Consideration was also given to the stability of these two vitamins in the same diet, to which were added 10 ml of a commercial preparation of oligo-elements. Six TPN bags were prepared (without oligo-elements); two of them were kept in a fridge and protected from the light, two were kept at room temperature and protected from the light and the other two at room temperature without protection from the light. Samples were taken from all the bags immediately after their preparation and after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The same process was carried with other TPN bags which did contain oligo-elements. The method for determining FA and Vitamin B12 was by radioassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1764534

  14. Stability of vitamin C derivatives in topical formulations containing lipoic acid, vitamins A and E.

    PubMed

    Segall, A I; Moyano, M A

    2008-12-01

    The stability of ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate in topical formulations was investigated by direct reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography after sample dilution with a suitable buffer - organic solvent mixture. Ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are derivatives of ascorbic acid which differ in hydrolipophilic properties. They are widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. According to the results, ascorbyl esters showed significant differences: sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are more stable derivatives of vitamin C than ascorbyl palmitate and may be easily used in cosmetic products.

  15. A new sample preparation and separation combination for precise, accurate, rapid, and simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and B9 in infant formula and related nutritionals by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cellar, Nicholas A; McClure, Sean C; Salvati, Louis M; Reddy, Todime M

    2016-08-31

    An improved method was developed for simultaneous determination of the fortified forms of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in infant formulas and related nutritionals. The method employed a simple, effective, and rapid sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It improved upon previous methodologies by offering facile and rugged sample preparation with improved chromatographic conditions, which culminated in a highly accurate and precise method for water-soluble vitamin determination in a wide range of formulas. The method was validated over six days in ten unique matrices with two analysts and on instruments in two different labs. Intermediate precision averaged 3.4 ± 2.6% relative standard deviation and over-spike recovery averaged 100.2 ± 2.4% (n = 160). Due to refinements in sample preparation, the method had high sample throughput capacity. PMID:27506358

  16. Effects of dietary vitamin E on muscle vitamin E and fatty acid content in Aohan fine-wool sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and decreasing the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of mutton can help to improve its nutritional value for consumers. Several laboratories have evaluated the effects of vitamin E on the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle in sheep. However, little information is available on wool sheep, even though wool sheep breeds are an important source of mutton, especially in northern China where sheep are extensively farmed. The present study was designed to address the effects of vitamin E on muscle FA composition in male Aohan fine-wool sheep. Methods Forty-two male Aohan fine-wool lambs (5 mo old) with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into seven groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 1,000, 2,000, or 2,400 IU/sheep/d vitamin E for 12 mo. Three lambs from each group were slaughtered to measure vitamin E and FA content in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. Results Vitamin E concentrations in the LL and GM increased significantly after 12 mo of vitamin E supplementation (P < 0.05). However, this increase did not occur in a dose-dependent manner because the muscle vitamin E concentration was highest in the 200 IU/sheep/d group. Dietary vitamin E supplementation also caused a significant reduction in SFA content and an increase in monounsaturated FA (MUFA) content in the LL and GM (P < 0.05). All six doses of vitamin E significantly increased cis9 trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9t11-CLA) content in the LL compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dietary supplementation with vitamin E increased muscle vitamin E content and improved the nutritional value of mutton by decreasing SFA content and increasing MUFA and c9t11-CLA contents in Aohan fine-wool sheep. These effects were greatest in sheep fed a diet containing 200 IU/sheep/d vitamin E. PMID:23777843

  17. Serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in Korean patients with vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Kim, S M; Kim, Y K; Hann, S K

    1999-06-01

    The association of vitiligo and pernicious anemia has been previously documented. The low levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were thought to be related to vitiligo. To date, there have been very few reports about the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo. Using radioimmunoassay, we measured the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in 100 Korean patients with vitiligo. The mean serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were 6.31 +/- 2.82 ng/ml and 630.25 +/- 230.94 pg/ml, respectively, in patients with vitiligo. These levels showed no significant difference compared to the normal control group, suggesting that folic acid and vitamin B12 do not appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo.

  18. Abnormal concentrations of B vitamins and amino acids in plasma and B vitamins in bile of rabbits with aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Viogt, M N; Clarke, J D; Jain, A V; Ayres, J C; Koehler, P E; Hatch, R C

    1981-01-01

    The dosages of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) required to produce significant changes in concentrations of B vitamins in plasma and bile and of amino acids in plasma of rabbits were determined. Folate increased by 98% in plasma, whereas concentration of thiamine, vitamin B6, and biotin decreased by more than 50%. In bile, choline and biotin increased 14- and 18-fold, respectively, whereas folate and niacin decreased by more than 50%. All amino acids in plasma increased between 76 and 155%. The dosages of AFB1 required to induce these changes were usually between 12.5 and 37.5 microgram/kg of body weight per day. Except for changes in biliary concentrations of pantothenic acid, folic acid, and biotin, lower threshold dosages of aflatoxin were required to produce weight loss and anorexia (5.0 and 8.5 microgram of AFB1/kg per day, respectively) than for changes in vitamins and amino acids (approximately 25 to 50 microgram of AFB1/kg per day). The data indicated that AFB1 interfered with the metabolism of B vitamins and amino acids in rabbits. PMID:6786221

  19. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (p<0.01) but reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p<0.05), liver mRNA levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) (p<0.05) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) (p<0.01) in the offspring. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to this group normalized cholesterol but not mRNA levels of ACC-1 and CPT-1. Vitamin B12 supplementation normalized the levels cholesterol to that of control but increased plasma triglyceride (p<0.01) and reduced liver mRNA levels of adiponectin, ACC-1, and CPT-1 (p<0.01 for all). Supplementation of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid normalized triglyceride and mRNA levels of all the above genes. Prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring.

  20. Mouse adaptation of a sub-genogroup B5 strain of human enterovirus 71 is associated with a novel lysine to glutamic acid substitution at position 244 in protein VP1.

    PubMed

    Zaini, Zainun; Phuektes, Patchara; McMinn, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Most human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains infect only primates and are unable to cause clinically apparent infection in mice. Here we describe a mouse-adapted HEV71 strain that belongs to sub-genogroup B5 with increased virulence in newborn BALB/c mice. The mouse-virulent strain was initially selected by serial passage of a HEV71 clinical isolate (HEV71-B5) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (CHO-B5), followed by serial passage in newborn mice. Virus from the fifth mouse passage was cultured twice on Vero cells and designated as MP-B5. MP-B5 induces severe disease of high mortality in newborn mice in a dose-dependent manner. Skeletal muscle is the primary site of virus replication and results in severe myositis. CHO-B5 harbours a single amino acid substitution (K(149) → I) in the VP2 capsid protein. Five additional nucleotide sequence changes were identified in MP-B5, two of which are located in the 5' UTR and the three within the open reading frame (ORF). Two of the ORF mutations resulted in deduced amino acid changes in the capsid protein VP1: S(241) → L and K(244) → E; the third ORF mutation was a synonymous C → T change at nucleotide position 6072 within the 3D polymerase gene. Infectious cDNA clone-derived mutant virus populations of HEV71 belonging to sub-genogroup B3 (CHO-26 M) that contain the VP1 mutations identified in MP-B5 were generated in order to determine the mutation(s) responsible for mouse virulence. Only viruses expressing the VP1 (K(244) → E) mutation were virulent in 5-day-old BALB/c mice, indicating that the VP1 (K(244) → E) change is the critical genetic determinant of mouse adaptation and virulence in this model.

  1. Formation of fatty acid esterified vitamin D3 in rat skin by exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, K.

    1983-04-01

    The formation of fatty acid esters of vitamin D3 was demonstrated in rat skin exposed to artificial ultraviolet rays by using multi-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This result indicated that the fatty acid esters of 7-dehydrocholesterol in rat skin (at least 80% of 7-dehydrocholesterol in rat skin is esterified) is also isomerized into vitamin D3 ester in vivo. The initial percentage of the esterified form was 84.3% and this did not significantly change up to the time when about half of the skin total vitamin D3 disappeared (2 days). Consequently, it was speculated that the vitamin D3 ester was delivered into the blood circulation from skin without having been hydrolyzed. This was supported by the presence of vitamin D3 ester in rat plasma exposed to ultraviolet radiation. In addition, in connection with the study of the restriction of vitamin D3 synthesis, distribution of total vitamin D3 in rat skin exposed to ultraviolet irradiation in vivo was compared with that in isolated skin exposed to ultraviolet radiation. The dermal layer of the isolated skin contained about 4 times more total vitamin D3 than that of in vivo skin. This finding suggests not only that ultraviolet rays could not penetrate deeply into the in vivo skin, but that the restriction of cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 observed in vivo may arise from this reduced penetration of ultraviolet rays.

  2. [The effect of terephthalic acid and film made from polyterephthalic acid esters on water soluble vitamins].

    PubMed

    Steiner, I

    1990-12-01

    Terephthalic acid is used for the production of polyterephthalic acid esters for foils that are applied for cooking, roasting, and baking; it is able to migrate as a monomer into foodstuffs. The effect of sodium terephthalate on vitamins such as thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and ascorbic acid at different conditions (variation of time and temperature); effects of a foil made of polyterephthalic acid esters was also tested. Thiamin and riboflavin are stabilized by sodium terephthalate while pyridoxine is decomposed faster, especially at higher temperatures. The tests of thiamin and riboflavin in the foils show similar results, whereas the losses of pyridoxine were not so high compared with the tests where sodium terephthalate had been added. Ascorbic acid is protected, too, by sodium terephthalate, except with long heating periods at a temperature of 220 degrees C.

  3. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  4. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  5. Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid; Dehydroascorbic acid ... Vitamin C is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It ... and teeth Aid in the absorption of iron Vitamin C is one of many antioxidants. Antioxidants are nutrients ...

  6. Associations between Homocysteine, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's Disease: Insights from Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The associations between homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid, and vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have gained much interest, while remaining controversial. We aim to perform meta-analyses to evaluate comprehensively: i) Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients in comparison with controls; and ii) the association between Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels and risk of AD. A literature search was performed using Medline and Scopus databases. A total of 68 studies were identified and included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analyses. First, AD patients may have higher level of Hcy, and lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma than controls. Further age-subgroup analysis showed no age effect for Hcy levels in plasma between AD patients and matched controls, while the differences in folate and vitamin B12 levels further enlarged with increased age. Second, data suggests that high Hcy and low folate levels may correlate with increased risk of AD occurrence. The comprehensive meta-analyses not only confirmed higher Hcy, lower folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients than controls, but also implicated that high Hcy and low folic acid levels may be risk factors of AD. Further studies are encouraged to elucidate mechanisms linking these conditions.

  7. Vitamin D interferes with transactivation of the growth hormone gene by thyroid hormone and retinoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Villalba, P; Jimenez-Lara, A M; Aranda, A

    1996-01-01

    The thyroid hormone, retinoic acid (RA), and vitamin D regulate gene expression by binding to similar receptors which act as ligand-inducible transcription factors. Incubation of pituitary GH4C1 cells with nanomolar concentrations of vitamin D markedly reduces the response of the rat growth hormone mRNA to thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) and RA. The stimulation of growth hormone gene expression by both ligands is mediated by a common hormone response element (TREGH) present in the 5'-flanking region of the gene, and the inhibition caused by vitamin D is due to transcriptional interference of the vitamin D receptor on this DNA element. No inhibition of the basal promoter activity by the vitamin was observed. The response to T3 and RA of a heterologous promoter containing this element, the palindromic T3- and RA-responsive sequence TREPAL, or a direct repeat of the same motif is also inhibited by vitamin D. In contrast, vitamin D strongly induces the activity of constructs containing a vitamin D response element, and neither T3 nor RA reduces vitamin D-mediated transactivation. Transfection with an expression vector for the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) increases transactivation by T3 and RA but does not abolish the inhibition caused by the vitamin. Gel retardation experiments show that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) as a heterodimer with RXR weakly binds to the T3- and RA-responsive elements. Additionally, VDR displaces binding of T3 and RA receptors in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggest the formation of TR-VDR and RAR-VDR heterodimers with RXR. The fact that the same response element mediates opposite effects of at least four different nuclear receptors provides a greater complexity and flexibility of the transcriptional responses to their ligands. PMID:8524311

  8. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  9. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p < 0.01) during pregnancy, increased systolic (p < 0.05) and diastolic (p < 0.01) blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p < 0.05 for both) but did not affect the lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p < 0.05) the levels of plasma triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  10. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p < 0.01) during pregnancy, increased systolic (p < 0.05) and diastolic (p < 0.01) blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p < 0.05 for both) but did not affect the lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p < 0.05) the levels of plasma triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial. PMID:27528436

  11. Therapeutic Response of Vitamin A, Vitamin B Complex, Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) and Vitamin E in the Treatment of Phrynoderma: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    S., Ragunatha; Kumar V., Jagannath; S.B., Murugesh; M., Ramesh; G., Narendra; Kapoor, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the treatment of phrynoderma, various nutrients have been tried in different dosages and routes with variable therapeutic outcomes. Aims: The present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of various nutrients in the treatment of phrynoderma. Settings and Design: An open label randomized controlled study was conducted in the out-patient department of Dermatology in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: The patients were divided into group of five and each patient received one of the five regimens [10 injections of Vitamin A 1 lakh units, intramuscularly (IM) on alternate day, 10 injections of Vitamin B complex, 2cc IM on alternate day, 2 table spoon of safflower oil, two times daily with meals, Tab Vitamin E 400mg once daily, and only topical keratolytic (salicylic acid 3% ointment) two times daily] respectively. The first four regimens also received topical keratolytic. The primary outcome measured was therapeutic response at the end of regimen. The response was graded based on the percentage of flattening and decrease in number of lesions. Less than 25% improvement was graded as poor, 26-50% improvement as moderate, 51-75% improvement as good, and more than 75% improvement as excellent response. In the statistical analysis, comparison was done using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test. Results: A total of 125 patients were included in the study with 25 patients each in five regimen groups. There were 79 (63.2%) males and 46 (36.8%) females with a ratio of 1.72:1. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 26 years with mean of 10.1±4.3 years. Out of 125 patients, 105 completed the study. In regimen 1 and 2, significant number of patients showed good to excellent response whereas significant number of patients in remaining regimen showed moderate to poor response with a p value of <0.05. The therapeutic response to Vitamin A and Vitamin B complex therapy was significantly better than other regimens. Conclusion: Intramuscular

  12. Industrial production of L-ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) and D-isoascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Pappenberger, Günter; Hohmann, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was first isolated in 1928 and subsequently identified as the long-sought antiscorbutic factor. Industrially produced L-ascorbic acid is widely used in the feed, food, and pharmaceutical sector as nutritional supplement and preservative, making use of its antioxidative properties. Until recently, the Reichstein-Grüssner process, designed in 1933, was the main industrial route. Here, D-sorbitol is converted to L-ascorbic acid via 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2KGA) as key intermediate, using a bio-oxidation with Gluconobacter oxydans and several chemical steps. Today, industrial production processes use additional bio-oxidation steps with Ketogulonicigenium vulgare as biocatalyst to convert D-sorbitol to the intermediate 2KGA without chemical steps. The enzymes involved are characterized by a broad substrate range, but remarkable regiospecificity. This puzzling specificity pattern can be understood from the preferences of these enyzmes for certain of the many isomeric structures which the carbohydrate substrates adopt in aqueous solution. Recently, novel enzymes were identified that generate L-ascorbic acid directly via oxidation of L-sorbosone, an intermediate of the bio-oxidation of D-sorbitol to 2KGA. This opens the possibility for a direct route from D-sorbitol to L-ascorbic acid, obviating the need for chemical rearrangement of 2KGA. Similar concepts for industrial processes apply for the production of D-isoascorbic acid, the C5 epimer of L-ascorbic acid. D-isoascorbic acid has the same conformation at C5 as D-glucose and can be derived more directly than L-ascorbic acid from this common carbohydrate feed stock.

  13. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken along with other B vitamins, such as niacin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and magnesium. A prescription form ... and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, ...

  14. Cobalamin and folate evaluation: measurement of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine vs vitamin B(12) and folate.

    PubMed

    Klee, G G

    2000-08-01

    Vitamin B(12) and folate are two vitamins that have interdependent roles in nucleic acid synthesis. Deficiencies of either vitamin can cause megaloblastic anemia; however, inappropriate treatment of B(12) deficiency with folate can cause irreversible nerve degeneration. Inadequate folate nutrition during early pregnancy can cause neural tube defects in the developing fetus. In addition, folate and vitamin B(12) deficiency and the compensatory increase in homocysteine are a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory support for the diagnosis and management of these multiple clinical entities is controversial and somewhat problematic. Automated ligand binding measurements of vitamin B(12) and folate are easiest to perform and widely used. Unfortunately, these tests are not the most sensitive indicators of disease. Measurement of red cell folate is less dependent on dietary fluctuations, but these measurements may not be reliable. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are better metabolic indicators of deficiencies at the tissue level. There are no "gold standards" for the diagnosis of these disorders, and controversy exists regarding the best diagnostic approach. Healthcare strategies that consider the impact of laboratory tests on the overall costs and quality of care should consider the advantages of including methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in the early evaluation of patients with suspected deficiencies of vitamin B(12) and folate.

  15. Effect of vitamin C-releasing acetylsalicylic acid on gastric mucosal damage before and after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Konturek, Peter C; Kania, Joanna; Gessner, Uwe; Konturek, Stanisław J; Hahn, Eckhart G; Konturek, Jan W

    2004-12-15

    The interaction between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as acetylsalicylic acid is still controversial. This study was designed to compare the effect of acetylsalicylic acid and vitamin C-releasing acetylsalicylic acid on the gastric mucosal damage and microbleeding before and after eradication of H. pylori in 10 young healthy volunteers. Acetylsalicylic acid induced significantly more gastric lesions and higher microbleeding than acetylsalicylic acid-vitamin C. After successful H. pylori eradication therapy, acetylsalicylic acid induced significantly higher mucosal lesions and microbleeding than before eradication. In contrast, after acetylsalicylic acid-vitamin C, gastric lesion index was significantly lower and eradication therapy failed to aggravate it. All H. pylori-positive subjects showed significant up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase). Plain acetylsalicylic acid stronger than acetylsalicylic acid-vitamin C reduced gastric gene expression of these antioxidant enzymes. H. pylori eradication significantly decreased expression of these enzymes and this was further enhanced by plain acetylsalicylic acid, but not acetylsalicylic acid-vitamin C. Under plain acetylsalicylic acid therapy, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines was increased before and after eradication of H. pylori. We conclude that vitamin C combined with acetylsalicylic acid, unlike plain acetylsalicylic acid without vitamin C, protects gastric mucosa in man probably due the attenuation of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines.

  16. Use of vitamins containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-09-17

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine (spina bifida) and brain (anencephaly), affecting approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. Periconceptional consumption of the B vitamin folic acid reduces the occurrence of NTDs by 50%-70%. To prevent these defects, the U.S. Public Health Service (1992) and Institute of Medicine (1998) issued separate recommendations that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 micro g of folic acid daily, and the Food and Drug Administration mandated fortification of cereal grain products with folic acid to increase women's daily intake. Fortification of the U.S. food supply with folic acid has resulted in a 26% reduction in NTDs. However, even with fortification, not all women receive adequate levels of folic acid from their diets. Therefore, increasing the use of vitamins containing folic acid remains an important component of NTD prevention. To monitor the use of vitamins containing folic acid among women of childbearing age, the Gallup Organization has conducted a series of surveys for the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation since 1995. This report presents results from the 2004 survey, which indicated that although no substantial increase in the proportion of women who use vitamins containing folic acid daily occurred during 1995-2003, a substantial increase was observed in 2004, with 40% of women aged 18-45 years reporting daily consumption of a vitamin containing folic acid. This report also presents information about women's dieting behaviors. Regardless of dieting status, public health programs should stress the importance of women in their childbearing years consuming 400 micro g of folic acid daily through supplements, fortified foods, and a diet containing folate-rich foods.

  17. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  18. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals. PMID:27053467

  19. Antiapoptotic efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B₁₂ against arsenic-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sangita; Maiti, Anasuya; Karmakar, Subhra; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Mukherjee, Sandip; Das, Dolan; Mitra, Chandan

    2012-05-01

    Earlier, we proposed that the ability of folic acid and vitamin B₁₂ to preserve systemic and mitochondrial function after short-term exposure to arsenic may prevent further progression to more permanent injury and pathological changes leading to cell death. To elucidate its mechanism, the present study examined the antiapoptotic efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B₁₂ against short-term arsenic exposure-induced hepatic mitochondria oxidative stress and dysfunction. Sixteen to eighteen weeks old male albino rats weighing 140-150 × g were divided into five groups: Control (A), Arsenic-treated (B), Arsenic + folic acid (C), Arsenic +vitamin B₁₂ (D), and Arsenic + folic acid + vitamin B₁₂ (E). Data generated indicated that folic acid and vitamin B₁₂ separately or in combination can give significant protection against alterations in oxidative stress and apoptotic marker parameters and downstream changes in mitochondria, namely pro-oxidative (NO, TBARS, OH⁻) and antioxidative defense (SOD, CAT, GSH) markers, iNOS protein expression, mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c oxidase and Ca²⁺-ATPase activity, Ca²⁺ content, caspase-3 activity. Additionally, results of hepatic cell DNA fragmentation, arsenic load of blood, hepatic tissue and urine, and histological observations, all strongly support that both these supplements have efficacy in preventing apoptotic changes and cellular damage. As the mechanisms of actions of both of these supplements are methylation related, a combined application was more effective. Results further reveal new molecular targets through which folic acid and vitamin B₁₂ separately or in combination work to alleviate one critical component of arsenic-induced liver injury: mitochondria dysfunction.

  20. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children.

  1. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children. PMID:21840465

  2. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)-commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis.

  3. l-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)—commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation—was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25 mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs—as in humans—is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis. PMID:26609560

  4. Fatty acid and vitamin interventions in adults with schizophrenia: a systematic review of the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Chia, Siok Ching; Henry, Jeyakumar; Mok, Yee Ming; Honer, William G; Sim, Kang

    2015-12-01

    Current psychopharmacological approaches to reduce psychotic phenomenology in schizophrenia are associated with adverse effects including extrapyramidal and metabolic side effects. In view of the emerging data on nutritional supplementation interventions in schizophrenia which are not entirely consistent, we aimed to review existent studies focusing on fatty acid and vitamin interventions and summarise current evidence on such nutritional supplementations in schizophrenia. We searched the digital databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLINK, PubMed/Medline) for relevant studies pertaining to fatty acid and vitamin supplementation interventions in the management of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia up to February 2015. Overall, there were more studies conducted on fatty acid over vitamin supplementations in patients with schizophrenia. There were more positive findings in support of fatty acid supplementation compared with vitamin supplementation in the context of specific intervention features (dose of nutrient supplementation, single versus combination nutritional interventions, specific antipsychotic), subject features (older age, long duration of illness, baseline polyunsaturated fatty acid levels) and clinical outcomes (improvements of psychotic symptoms and/or extrapyramidal side effects from antipsychotics). However, investigations of both supplementation modalities were limited by relatively small study sample sizes, short study duration, which precluded further segmentation of impact on more diverse patient subtypes and symptom profiles. Future studies may consider examining larger samples over a longer time period, recruiting younger subjects with shorter duration of illness, examination of different clinical features including specific cognitive domains, and use of single versus combination nutritional interventions.

  5. Vitamin E in foods from high and low linoleic acid diets.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, J; Martin, H L; Lashley, E L; Marshall, M W; Judd, J T

    1986-09-01

    As part of a human diet study, vitamin E activity was estimated in foods used in seven daily menus. Each menu was designed to contain 35% fat calories with either 10 or 30 gm/day of linoleic acid (18:2) and 500 mg/day of cholesterol. To estimate vitamin E activity, each food used in the menus was analyzed for alpha and gamma tocopherol content by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. This article reports the alpha and gamma tocopherol contents of those foods, tocopherol contributions from each food in one sample 2,400-kcal menu, and the mean daily vitamin E activity (milligram alpha tocopherol equivalents) of all seven menus at five caloric levels. Major sources of alpha tocopherol (greater than 10% of the RDA) common to both diets (10 and 30 gm linoleic acid) were olive oil and a few fruits and vegetables. Additional major sources in the 30-gm linoleic acid diets were polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) vegetable oils and margarine. Contrary to a common assumption, increasing the level of PUFA in the menus did not necessarily result in higher milligram equivalents of alpha tocopherol because soybean oil, with a tocopherol composition that is predominantly gamma tocopherol, was the major source of linoleic acid in the diets. Thus, vitamin E activity was not necessarily increased when soybean oil was substituted for a less saturated fat such as olive oil, which has mostly alpha tocopherol.

  6. Fatty acid and vitamin interventions in adults with schizophrenia: a systematic review of the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Chia, Siok Ching; Henry, Jeyakumar; Mok, Yee Ming; Honer, William G; Sim, Kang

    2015-12-01

    Current psychopharmacological approaches to reduce psychotic phenomenology in schizophrenia are associated with adverse effects including extrapyramidal and metabolic side effects. In view of the emerging data on nutritional supplementation interventions in schizophrenia which are not entirely consistent, we aimed to review existent studies focusing on fatty acid and vitamin interventions and summarise current evidence on such nutritional supplementations in schizophrenia. We searched the digital databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLINK, PubMed/Medline) for relevant studies pertaining to fatty acid and vitamin supplementation interventions in the management of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia up to February 2015. Overall, there were more studies conducted on fatty acid over vitamin supplementations in patients with schizophrenia. There were more positive findings in support of fatty acid supplementation compared with vitamin supplementation in the context of specific intervention features (dose of nutrient supplementation, single versus combination nutritional interventions, specific antipsychotic), subject features (older age, long duration of illness, baseline polyunsaturated fatty acid levels) and clinical outcomes (improvements of psychotic symptoms and/or extrapyramidal side effects from antipsychotics). However, investigations of both supplementation modalities were limited by relatively small study sample sizes, short study duration, which precluded further segmentation of impact on more diverse patient subtypes and symptom profiles. Future studies may consider examining larger samples over a longer time period, recruiting younger subjects with shorter duration of illness, examination of different clinical features including specific cognitive domains, and use of single versus combination nutritional interventions. PMID:26354100

  7. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  8. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    PubMed

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-11-10

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  9. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... body to absorb vitamin B12 from food. First, hydrochloric acid in the stomach separates vitamin B12 from ... Many older adults, who do not have enough hydrochloric acid in their stomach to absorb the vitamin ...

  10. Vitamin B-6 restriction impairs fatty acid synthesis in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei; Ralat, Maria A; da Silva, Vanessa; Garrett, Timothy J; Melnyk, Stephan; James, S Jill; Gregory, Jesse F

    2013-02-15

    Vitamin B-6 deficiency has been reported to alter n-6 and n-3 fatty acid profiles in plasma and tissue lipids; however, the mechanisms underlying such metabolic changes remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on fatty acid profiles and fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Cells were cultured for 6 wk in media with four different vitamin B-6 concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 2,000 nM added pyridoxal, representing deficient, marginal, adequate, and supraphysiological conditions) that induced a range of steady-state cellular concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate. Total cellular lipid content was greatest in the deficient (10 nM pyridoxal) medium. The percentage of arachidonic acid and the ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid in the total lipid fraction were ~15% lower in vitamin B-6-restricted cells, which suggests that vitamin B-6 restriction affects n-6 fatty acid interconversions. Metabolic flux studies indicated significantly lower fractional synthesis rate of oleic acid and arachidonic acid at 10, 20, and 50 nM pyridoxal, whereas that of eicosapentaenoic acid was lower in the cells cultured in 10 nM pyridoxal. Additionally, relative mRNA expressions of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases were 40-50% lower in vitamin B-6-restricted cells. Overall, these findings suggest that vitamin B-6 restriction alters unsaturated fatty acid synthesis, particularly n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. These results and observations of changes in human plasma fatty acid profiles caused by vitamin B-6 restriction suggest a mechanism by which vitamin B-6 inadequacy influences the cardiovascular risk.

  11. Hepatoprotective role of vitamin B(12) and folic acid in arsenic intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Deb, Bimal; Maiti, Smarajit

    2012-01-01

    The present study elucidated the protective role of vitamin B(12) with folic acid against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in female rats. Ingestion of sodium-arsenite- contaminated water [0.4 ppm/100 g body weight (b.w.)/day] in combination with vitamin B(12) plus folic acid (0.07 and 4.0 μg, respectively/100 g b.w./day) for 24 days to Wistar rats offered a significant protection against alone arsenic-induced distorted liver function, damaged histoarchitecture, elevated oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation of hepatic tissues. Arsenic only exposure decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activities, and the level of nonprotein-soluble thiol (NPSH), with a concomitant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CDs) in the liver. Vitamin supplementation restrained the increase of TBARS and CDs by restoring catalase, SOD, and NPSH levels. Restricted generation of free radicals may be correlated to the protection of DNA stability and hepatic morphology. This study explains the decisive role of vitamin B(12) with folic acid to ameliorate arsenic-mediated liver injuries. PMID:21848401

  12. Hepatoprotective role of vitamin B(12) and folic acid in arsenic intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Deb, Bimal; Maiti, Smarajit

    2012-01-01

    The present study elucidated the protective role of vitamin B(12) with folic acid against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in female rats. Ingestion of sodium-arsenite- contaminated water [0.4 ppm/100 g body weight (b.w.)/day] in combination with vitamin B(12) plus folic acid (0.07 and 4.0 μg, respectively/100 g b.w./day) for 24 days to Wistar rats offered a significant protection against alone arsenic-induced distorted liver function, damaged histoarchitecture, elevated oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation of hepatic tissues. Arsenic only exposure decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activities, and the level of nonprotein-soluble thiol (NPSH), with a concomitant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CDs) in the liver. Vitamin supplementation restrained the increase of TBARS and CDs by restoring catalase, SOD, and NPSH levels. Restricted generation of free radicals may be correlated to the protection of DNA stability and hepatic morphology. This study explains the decisive role of vitamin B(12) with folic acid to ameliorate arsenic-mediated liver injuries.

  13. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  14. Expression of a borage desaturase cDNA containing an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain results in the accumulation of high levels of delta6-desaturated fatty acids in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sayanova, O; Smith, M A; Lapinskas, P; Stobart, A K; Dobson, G; Christie, W W; Shewry, P R; Napier, J A

    1997-04-15

    gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA; C18:3 delta(6,9,12)) is a component of the seed oils of evening primrose (Oenothera spp.), borage (Borago officinalis L.), and some other plants. It is widely used as a dietary supplement and for treatment of various medical conditions. GLA is synthesized by a delta6-fatty acid desaturase using linoleic acid (C18:2 delta(9,12)) as a substrate. To enable the production of GLA in conventional oilseeds, we have isolated a cDNA encoding the delta6-fatty acid desaturase from developing seeds of borage and confirmed its function by expression in transgenic tobacco plants. Analysis of leaf lipids from a transformed plant demonstrated the accumulation of GLA and octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 delta(6,9,12,15)) to levels of 13.2% and 9.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The borage delta6-fatty acid desaturase differs from other desaturase enzymes, characterized from higher plants previously, by the presence of an N-terminal domain related to cytochrome b5.

  15. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin, is an enzyme cofactor for post-translation modification of specific glutamate residues that are converted into '-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues by a vitamin K-dependent (VKD) carboxylase. Seven VKD coagulation proteins are synthesized in the liver. The extra-he...

  16. Improvement of bone formation biomarkers after 1-year consumption with milk fortified with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, and selected vitamins.

    PubMed

    Martin-Bautista, Elena; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; Fonolla, Juristo; Quesada, Miguel; Poyatos, Antonio; Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that the replacement of regular milk with fortified milk in hyperlipidemic adults for 1 year would improve bone biomarkers. The fortified milk contained eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish oils, oleic acid, vitamins A, B(6), and E, as well as folic acid. We believe that the fortified milk will improve the blood fatty acid profile and vitamin status in subjects to benefit bone health biomarkers. From the 84 patients who accepted to participate, 11 of these were excluded for the presence of metabolic diseases and 1 was excluded for noncompliance with the protocol. Seventy-two hyperlipidemic patients (35-65 years) were randomly divided between 2 study groups. The supplement group (E; n = 39) consumed 0.5 L/d of fortified milk that contained fish oil, oleic acid, and vitamins. The control group (C; n = 33) consumed 0.5 L/d of semiskimmed milk containing the same amount of total fat. Blood samples were taken at T(0), T(3), T(6), and T(12) months to determine plasma fatty acids, vitamins B(6), E, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum folate, calcium, soluble osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteocalcin, parathormone, type I collagen carboxy-terminal telopeptide, and malondialdehyde. After 1 year, the E group showed a significant increase in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (42%), docosahexaenoic acid (60%), vitamin B6 (38%), OPG (18%), RANKL (7%), OPG/RANKL (10%), red blood cell folate (21%), serum folate (53%), calcium (4%), vitamin D (11%), and osteocalcin (22%). Dietary supplementation with the fortified milk drink improved nutritional status and bone formation markers in adult hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:20579524

  17. Vitamin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, Ronald B.; Landen, W. O.; Eitenmiller, Ronald R.

    Vitamins are defined as relatively low-molecular-weight compounds which humans, and for that matter, any living organism that depends on organic matter as a source of nutrients, require small quantities for normal metabolism. With few exceptions, humans cannot synthesize most vitamins and therefore need to obtain them from food and supplements. Insufficient levels of vitamins result in deficiency diseases [e.g., scurvy and pellagra, which are due to the lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and niacin, respectively].

  18. Serum vitamin B12 and folic Acid levels in acute cerebral atherothrombotic infarction.

    PubMed

    Kocer, Abdulkadir; Ince, Nurhan; Canbulat, Cuneyt E; Sargin, Mehmet

    2004-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cerebral stroke. Vitamin B12 and folic acid are important determinants of homocysteine metabolism. We aimed to evaluate the relationship, if present, between vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and acute cerebral stroke in this study. Blood aliquots drawn within 24 hours after the stroke from hospitalized patients (n=66) with the diagnosis of acute ischemic cerebrovascular episode and also blood samples from 38 healthy controls without any vascular risk factor were analyzed. With a competitive, chemoluminescence assay, serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured in blood samples taken within 24 hours after the stroke. The differences and correlations were tested using frequency test, student-t test and multivariate analysis. Mean serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower in the patients than in the control subjects, 245.40 (S.D.: 72.9) and 343.2 (S.D.: 113.0) pg/ml respectively (p=0.0001). This difference was independent from other risk factors. Likewise, mean serum folic acid levels were lower in the patients than in the control subjects, 4.62 (S.D.: 1.94) and 5.97 (S.D.: 1.19) ng/ml, respectively (p=0.003). Mean serum levels of vitamin B12 and folate at the convalescence phase were 253.05 (S.D.: 68.78) pg/ml and 4.48 (S.D.: 2.08) ng/ml, respectively; the values obtained at the acute phase were not significantly different from the values obtained at the convalescence phase. We conclude that low vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations are associated with an increased risk of stroke, and the relationship for vitamin B12 is independent from the other known modifiable stroke risk factors. For understanding the effects of B12 and folate in stroke patients, more detailed follow-up studies with long period are needed.

  19. A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Sanket K.; Aundhakar, Swati C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study summarizes the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population coming to tertiary care center in Western Maharashtra along with the main presenting symptom routinely misinterpreted in daily practice. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population of western Maharashtra. 2. To correlate the symptoms with serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional observation study carried out on patients from western Maharashtra seeking medical attention on outpatient and inpatient basis in the medicine department of a teaching institute in Karad. One-hundred patients were selected on basis of below mentioned symptoms viz. tingling and numbness in extremities, dizziness, unsteady gait, early tiredness, forgetfulness, proximal weakness, distal weakness, chronic headache, less interest in work, chronic loose stools, strict vegetarians, alcoholics, intake of medications like anti-tubercular treatment, surgery involving terminal ileum. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels of these patients were observed. Deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid was studied in 4 groups: (a) Absolute vitamin B12 deficiency; (b) Absolute folic acid deficiency; (c) Borderline vitamin B12 deficiency; (d) Combined vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. Results: Of the 100 cases, 33% patients were vegetarian. Folic acid deficiency formed the major chunk of deficiency group. Six percent patients had neuropsychiatric manifestations. Depressive illness in 1% patients, dementia in 0% patients, forgetfulness in 1% patients, mania/hallucination in 0% patients each, and chronic headache in 1% patients. Neuropathy in form of loss of reflexes, decreased touch sensation was present in 9% patients. Posterior column involvement viz. Loss of joint position, vibration, positive Romberg's sign were present in 34% patients of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency

  20. [The effect of a water-soluble vitamins on the activity of some enzymes in diabetes].

    PubMed

    Petrov, S A; Danilova, A O; Karpov, L M

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of the vitamin complex containing: thiamine chloride (B1), riboflavin (B2), lipoic acid (N), calcium pantothenate (B5), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6), folic acid (B9), ascorbic acid (C) can reduce the blood glucose level in serum of rats with alloxan diabetes, stabilize activity of some enzymes of energy metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. PMID:25552500

  1. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  2. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Imbalance Modifies NK Cytotoxicity, Lymphocytes B and Lymphoprolipheration in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Úbeda, Natalia; Montero, Ana; Achón, María; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Different vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations could exacerbate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate different dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 levels on the immune response in aged rats. Male Sprague Dawley aged rats were assigned to three folic acid groups (deficient, control, supplemented) each in absence of vitamin B12 for 30 days. Several parameters of innate and acquired immune responses were measured. Serum and hepatic folate levels increased according to folic acid dietary level, while vitamin B12 levels decreased. There was a significant decrease in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen for the vitamin B12 deficient diet and folic acid control diet groups. Significant changes in CD45 lymphocyte subsets were also observed according to dietary imbalance. Lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin did not differ significantly between groups. The spleen response to lipopolysaccharide increased significantly, but was unmodified for the other organs. An imbalance between dietary vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations alters some immunological parameters in aged rats. Therefore, the ratio between folate and vitamin B12 could be as important as their absolute dietary concentrations. PMID:24288024

  3. Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine as Indicators of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vashi, Pankaj; Edwin, Persis; Popiel, Brenten; Lammersfeld, Carolyn; Gupta, Digant

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Normal or high serum vitamin B-12 levels can sometimes be seen in a B-12 deficient state, and can therefore be misleading. High levels of Methymalonic Acid (MMA) and Homocysteine (HC) have been identified as better indicators of B-12 deficiency than the actual serum B-12 level itself. We evaluated the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency using appropriate cut-off levels of vitamin B-12, MMA and HC, and determined the relationship between serum levels of vitamin B-12, MMA and HC in cancer. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using a consecutive case series of 316 cancer patients first seen at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA) at Midwestern Regional Medical Center between April 2014 and June 2014. All patients were evaluated at baseline for vitamin B-12 (pg/mL), MMA (nmol/L) and HC (μmol/L) levels. In accordance with previously published research, the following cut-offs were used to define vitamin B-12 deficiency: <300 pg/mL for vitamin B-12, >260 nmol/L for MMA and >12 μmol/L for HC. The relationship between B-12, MMA and HC was evaluated using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient and cross-tabulation analysis. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to further evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of vitamin B-12 using Fedosov quotient as the "gold standard". Results Mean age at presentation was 52.5 years. 134 (42.4%) patients were males while 182 (57.6%) were females. Median vitamin B-12, MMA and HC levels were 582.5 pg/mL, 146.5 nmol/L and 8.4 μmol/L respectively. Of 316 patients, 28 (8.9%) were vitamin B-12 deficient based on vitamin B-12 (<300pg/mL), 34 (10.8%) were deficient based on MMA (>260 nmol/L) while 55 (17.4%) were deficient based on HC (>12 μmol/L). Correlation analysis revealed a significant weak negative correlation between vitamin B-12 and MMA (rho = -0.22) as well as B-12 and HC (rho = -0.35). ROC curves suggested MMA to have the best discriminatory power in

  4. Influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipemic effect of vitamin B6 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bergami, R; Maranesi, M; Marchetti, M; Sangiorgi, Z; Tolomelli, B

    1999-09-01

    Since many connections exist between vitamin B6 and lipid metabolism, we aim to investigate the lipemic effect of different dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rats fed a vitamin B6 deficient diet. Diets were either vitamin B6 deficient (-B6) or vitamin B6 sufficient, pair-fed to the deficient group (PF) and ad libitum (N). The diets were combined with normal lipid (LC: soya bean-coconut-palm oils) and fish oil (FO: soya bean-fish oil). The fish oil diet with sufficient vitamin B6 content caused an increase in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in arachidonic acid. In the -B6 group fed a normal lipid diet, the arachidonic acid percentage decreased and the linoleic acid percentage increased; in the -B6 group fed fish oil these changes in fatty acid composition, already consequent upon dietary intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, did not show further variations. In the dietary condition of vitamin B6 deficiency, plasma cholesterol content increased in rats fed a lipid control diet, whereas no hypocholesterolemic effect was observed in those fed a fish oil diet. Plasma triglyceride contents were not influenced by dietary lipid quality because, in all conditions, the lower food intake of the PF groups caused a decrease and vitamin B6 deficiency caused an elevation in triglyceride contents which reached those of the ad libitum groups. The study highlights the interaction between vitamin B6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids and the opportunity of dietary intake of fish oil to counterbalance some effects of vitamin B6 deficiency.

  5. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice

    PubMed Central

    Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R

    2014-01-01

    Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFMTM (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM. PMID:24717228

  6. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded. PMID:23510655

  7. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded.

  8. The association of vitamin C, alcohol, coffee, tea, milk and yogurt with uric acid and gout.

    PubMed

    Towiwat, Patapong; Li, Zhan-Guo

    2015-06-01

    About 2500 years ago, gout was observed by Hippocrates and many people suffered severe pain and deformity. Lifestyle and diet play a significant role in gout and serum uric acid levels. Epidemiological and research studies have supported this evidence. Many recommendations and guidelines from different parts of the world mention the impact of diet on gout. Recently, new research has shown associations between vitamin C, alcohol, coffee, tea, milk and yogurt with uric acid and the risk of gout. Our review summarizes recently published research regarding dietary impact on the risk of gout and serum uric acid levels.

  9. The association of vitamin C, alcohol, coffee, tea, milk and yogurt with uric acid and gout.

    PubMed

    Towiwat, Patapong; Li, Zhan-Guo

    2015-06-01

    About 2500 years ago, gout was observed by Hippocrates and many people suffered severe pain and deformity. Lifestyle and diet play a significant role in gout and serum uric acid levels. Epidemiological and research studies have supported this evidence. Many recommendations and guidelines from different parts of the world mention the impact of diet on gout. Recently, new research has shown associations between vitamin C, alcohol, coffee, tea, milk and yogurt with uric acid and the risk of gout. Our review summarizes recently published research regarding dietary impact on the risk of gout and serum uric acid levels. PMID:26082349

  10. Topical vitamins.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Cheryl

    2008-07-01

    Vitamins are a natural constituent of human skin and are part of a system of antioxidants that protect the skin from oxidative stress. There has been an increased interest in the use of natural antioxidants such as vitamins to help restore dermal antioxidant activity. Vitamins A, C, E, and B3 have been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but to achieve optimal effectiveness, products must be delivered in appropriate formulations. Products containing alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), retinol (vitamin A), and niacinamide (vitamin B3), are effective for the treatment of photoaging. These compounds have also shown effectiveness in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, acne, and pigmentation disorders and wound healing. There is emerging evidence that combinations of vitamins have additive effects that provide enhanced efficacy compared with individual compounds.

  11. Effects of excess pantothenic acid administration on the other water-soluble vitamin metabolisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Takahashi, Chisato; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Ryuzo

    2005-12-01

    To acquire the data concerning the tolerable upper intake level which prevents health problems from an excessive intake of pantothenic acid, an animal experiment was done. Rats of the Wistar strain (male, 3 wk old) were fed on a diet which contains 0%, 0.0016% (control group), 1%, or 3% calcium pantothenate for 29 d. The amount of weight increase, the food intake, and the organ weights were measured, as well as the pantothenic acid contents in urine, the liver and blood. Moreover, to learn the influence of excessive pantothenic acid on other water-soluble vitamin metabolism, thiamin, riboflavin, a vitamin B6 catabolite, the niacin catabolites, and ascorbic acid in urine were measured. As for the 3% addition group, enlargement of the testis, diarrhea, and hair damage were observed, and the amount of weight increase and the food intake were less than those of the control group. However, abnormality was not seen in the 1% addition group. The amount of pantothenic acid in urine, the liver, and blood showed a high correlation with intake level of pantothenic acid. It was only for 4-pyridoxic acid, a vitamin B6 catabolite, in urine that a remarkable difference was observed against the control group. Moreover, the (2-Py+4-Py)/MNA excretion ratio for these metabolites of the nicotinamide also indicated a low value in the 3% pantothenic acid group. As for the calcium pantothenate, it was found that the 3% level in the diet was the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and the 1% level was the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL). PMID:16521696

  12. Gene-nutrient interactions: importance of folic acid and vitamin B12 during early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Finnell, Richard H; Shaw, Gary M; Lammer, Edward J; Rosenquist, Thomas H

    2008-06-01

    The role that nutritional factors play in mammalian development has received renewed attention over the past two decades as the scientific literature has exploded with reports that folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period can protect embryos from a number of highly significant malformations. As is often the case, the relationship between B vitamin supplementation and improved pregnancy outcomes is more complicated than initially perceived, as the interaction between nutritional factors and selected genes must be considered. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex clinical and experimental literature on nutritional factors, their biological transport mechanisms, and interactions with genetic polymorphisms that impact early embryogenesis. While not exhaustive, our goal was to provide an overview of important gene-nutrient interactions, focusing on folic acid and vitamin B12, to serve as a framework for understanding the multiple roles they play in early embryogenesis.

  13. Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bogan, Katrina L; Brenner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Although baseline requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis can be met either with dietary tryptophan or with less than 20 mg of daily niacin, which consists of nicotinic acid and/or nicotinamide, there is growing evidence that substantially greater rates of NAD+ synthesis may be beneficial to protect against neurological degeneration, Candida glabrata infection, and possibly to enhance reverse cholesterol transport. The distinct and tissue-specific biosynthetic and/or ligand activities of tryptophan, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and the newly identified NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside, reviewed herein, are responsible for vitamin-specific effects and side effects. Because current data suggest that nicotinamide riboside may be the only vitamin precursor that supports neuronal NAD+ synthesis, we present prospects for human nicotinamide riboside supplementation and propose areas for future research. PMID:18429699

  14. Theoretical investigation on antioxidant activity of vitamins and phenolic acids for designing a novel antioxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajeri, Afshan; Asemani, S. Somayeh

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed to predict antioxidant property for two interesting classes of compounds including phenolic acids and vitamins. Important characteristics of antioxidants such as O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP) were calculated in the gas-phase to analyze the effect of heterocyclic ring, intramolecular hydrogen bonding and presence of electron donating group near the O-H on the antioxidant activity. The results reveal that the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding through ortho-hydroxy group lowers BDE, IP and spin density. In general, phenolic acids were found to be more effective antioxidant than vitamins. The H-atom transfer (HAT) mechanism was selected to study the hydrogen abstraction from phenolic compounds by hydroperoxyl radical. It is found that the antioxidant with lower BDE undergoes hydrogen abstraction with low barrier and considerable exothermicity. On the basis of these results we were able to design a novel antioxidant with enhanced activity.

  15. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    because of their low sensitivity and poor selectivity. Pakin et al. proposed a post-column derivatization of pantothenic acid as a fluorescent compound and used this principle in a specific and sensitive method for the determination of free and bound pantothenic acid in a large variety of foods. A French laboratory invited European laboratories to participate in a series of collaborative studies for this method, which will be carried out in 2005/2006. A more sophisticated method was described by Mittermayer et al. They developed an LC-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the determination of vitamin B5 in a wide range of fortified food products. Application of the method to various samples showed consistent results with those obtained by microbiology. Vitamin B6.-Method 2004.07, an LC method for the analysis of vitamin B6 in reconstituted infant formula, was published by Mann et al. In contrast with this method, which quantifies vitamin B6 after converting the phosphorylated and free vitamers into pyridoxine, Viñas et al. published an LC method which determines 6 vitamin B6 related compounds, the 3 B6 vitamers, their corresponding phosphorylated esters, and a metabolite. Accuracy was determined using 2 CRMs. Results were within the certified ranges. Vitamin C.-Franke et al. described an extensive study to vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. Vitamin C was determined by measuring ascorbic acid in its reduced state by LC and coulometric detection along with UV absorbance detection at 245 nm. No attempts were made to assess levels of dehydroascorbic acid. Most recent research revealed that cell uptake of dehydroascorbic acid is unlikely to play a major role, which may explain the very low vitamin C activity of orally administered L-dehydroascorbic acid in rats. The food levels found by Franke et al. are variably lower, higher, or equal in comparison to other studies. Iwase described a method for the determination of ascorbic acid in

  16. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks. PMID:24840090

  17. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.

  18. Placental amino acid transport may be regulated by maternal vitamin D and vitamin D-binding protein: results from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Cleal, J K; Day, P E; Simner, C L; Barton, S J; Mahon, P A; Inskip, H M; Godfrey, K M; Hanson, M A; Cooper, C; Lewis, R M; Harvey, N C

    2015-06-28

    Both maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations during pregnancy and placental amino acid transporter gene expression have been associated with development of the offspring in terms of body composition and bone structure. Several amino acid transporter genes have vitamin D response elements in their promoters suggesting the possible linkage of these two mechanisms. We aimed to establish whether maternal 25(OH)D and vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) levels relate to expression of placental amino acid transporters. RNA was extracted from 102 placental samples collected in the Southampton Women's Survey, and gene expression was analysed using quantitative real-time PCR. Gene expression data were normalised to the geometric mean of three housekeeping genes, and related to maternal factors and childhood body composition. Maternal serum 25(OH)D and VDBP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Maternal 25(OH)D and VDBP levels were positively associated with placental expression of specific genes involved in amino acid transport. Maternal 25(OH)D and VDBP concentrations were correlated with the expression of specific placental amino acid transporters, and thus may be involved in the regulation of amino acid transfer to the fetus. The positive correlation of VDBP levels and placental transporter expression suggests that delivery of vitamin D to the placenta may be important. This exploratory study identifies placental amino acid transporters which may be altered in response to modifiable maternal factors and provides a basis for further studies.

  19. Chemical stability study of vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid in parenteral nutrition for neonatal use

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this work was to study the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C stability in a pediatric formulation containing high amounts of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements under different conditions using developed and validated analytical methods. Methods The study was carried out during 72 h with formulations packaged in recommended storage temperature (4°C) and 25°C, with and without photoprotection. Results The results showed that the methodologies used for assessing the chemical stability of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C in the formulation were selective, linear, precise and accurate. The vitamins could be considered stable in the formulation during the three days of study if stored at 4°C. When stored at 25°C vitamin C presented instability after 48 h. Conclusion The pediatric formulation containing high amount of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements packaged in bag-type trilaminate presented a shelf life of the 72 h, when maintained under refrigeration, between 2°C and 8°C. This shelf life was measured considering the vitamins studied. Further studies are needed including all the vitamins present in this formulation. PMID:21569609

  20. RP-HPLC determination of water-soluble vitamins in honey.

    PubMed

    Ciulu, Marco; Solinas, Silvia; Floris, Ignazio; Panzanelli, Angelo; Pilo, Maria I; Piu, Paola C; Spano, Nadia; Sanna, Gavino

    2011-01-15

    The assessment and validation of reliable analytical methods for the determination of vitamins in sugar-based matrices (e.g. honey) are still scarcely explored fields of research. This study proposes and fully validates a simple and fast RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of five water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B(2), riboflavin; vitamin B(3), nicotinic acid; vitamin B(5), pantothenic acid; vitamin B(9), folic acid; and vitamin C, ascorbic acid) in honey. The method provides low detection and quantification limits, very good linearity in a large concentration interval, very good precision, and the absence of any bias. It has been successfully applied to 28 honey samples (mainly from Sardinia, Italy) of 12 different botanical origins. While the overall amount of the analytes in the samples is quite low (always below 40 mg kg(-1)), we have observed a marked dependence of some of their concentrations (i.e. vitamin B(3) and vitamin B(5)) and the botanical origin of the honey. This insight might lead to important characterization features for this food item.

  1. Perspectives on obesity and sweeteners, folic acid fortification and vitamin D requirements.

    PubMed

    Halsted, Charles H

    2008-12-01

    This review summarizes three controversial areas of clinical practice that were discussed in many articles that appeared in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition during the author's tenure as editor in chief. Controversy 1-obesity and high-fructose corn syrup. The increased frequency of obesity in the US is paralleled by increasing annual consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, an extracted sweetener that is routinely added to soft drinks and to many processed foods in the US diet. Metabolic studies implicate increased fructose consumption in increased body fat and obesity and with increased circulating triglyceride levels and hypercholesterolaemia in children. Controversy 2-folic acid fortification and supplements. Together with widespread use of supplemental multivitamins, fortification of the US diet with folic acid has resulted in high serum folate levels in much of the population, which may be associated with increased risk of cognitive decline in ageing people with low vitamin B12 status, decreased natural killer T-cell immune function and increased risk of recurrent advanced precancerous colorectal adenomas and breast cancer. Controversy 3-recommended intakes of vitamin D. Levels of serum 25(OH)D sufficient for fracture prevention are at least 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml) but cannot be achieved by the current recommended dietary intakes in the US. A recent fracture risk prevention trial showed that the 4-year incidence of all cancers was reduced in US women who received high supplemental doses of both calcium and vitamin D. PMID:18826993

  2. Comparison of the Protective Effects of Radix Astragali, α-Lipoic Acid, and Vitamin E on Acute Acoustic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Min; Lai, Huangwen; Yang, Chuanhong; Huang, Weiyi; Wang, Jian; Fu, Xiaoyan; He, Qinglian

    2012-01-01

    Objective Oxidative damage is a critical role which involves hearing loss induced by impulse noise. That exogenous antioxidant agents reduce noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been well demonstrated in both animal studies and clinical practices. Choosing a stronger and more effective antioxidant is very important for treatment of NIHL. Vitamin E, α-lipoic acid, and radix astragali are the most commonly used anti-oxidants for cochlear oxidative damage from acoustic trauma. In this study, the protective effects of radix astragali, α-lipoic acid, and vitamin E on acute acoustic trauma are investigated. Methods Guinea pigs in the experimental groups were intragastrically administered vitamin E, α-lipoic acid, and radix astragali. Auditory thresholds were assessed by sound-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) at click and tone bursts of 8, 16 and 32 kHz, 24 hours before and 72 hours after exposure to impulse noise. Cochlear malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were detected. Hair cell damage was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results Vitamin E, α-lipoic acid, and radix astragali significantly reduced ABR deficits, reduced hair cell damage, and decreased the concentrations of MDA. α-lipoic acid and radix astragali were better than vitamin E, and there were no significant differences between α-lipoic acid and radix astragali. Conclusions α-lipoic acid or radix astragali are recommended for treatment of NIHL. PMID:24179406

  3. [Vitamin C].

    PubMed

    Fain, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin which is mainly fresh fruits and vegetables foodborne. Vitamin C deficiency is most often due to a lack of daily amount. Scurvy is characterized by the occurrence of fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia, purpura, bleeding disorders, and later by dental manifestations. Biological signs are nonspecific: anemia, hypocholesterolemia, hypoalbuminemia. Clinical suspicion is confirmed by the decrease in ascorbic acid level (< 2 mg/L). It must be interpreted in light of the acute phase reactants. The treatment is the administration of 1 g of vitamin C per day for 15 days. Vitamin C depletion (ascorbic acid: 2 to 5 mg/L) could induce long-term complications. The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C protect from these risks. PMID:24298827

  4. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid stability in o/w emulsions for cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Moyano, M A; Segall, A

    2011-01-01

    Skin becomes thin, dry, pale, and finely wrinkled with age. Retinoids are a large class of compounds that are important in modern therapy for dermatological treatment of wrinkled skin. Of the retinoids, retinol and vitamin A palmitate are thought to induce thickening of the epidermis and to be effective for treatment of skin diseases. Accordingly, α-lipoic acid or the reduced form, dihydrolipoate, are potent scavengers of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, and nitric oxide with anti-inflammatory properties (1). Cosmetic ingredient stability prediction relies on kinetic quantitative chemical analysis of active components at different temperatures. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid, are known to be unstable to light or heat (2). The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate in the presence of vitamin E (acetate) and other antioxidants in lipophilic/hydrophilic medium (O/W emulsions) at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. The formulations that were investigated contained 0.12% (w/w) vitamin A palmitate, 0.4% (w/w) vitamin E acetate, and 0.5 % α-lipoic acid (formulation A), supplemented with ascorbyl palmitate, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, and vitamin C (formulation B) or with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT, formulation C) or ascorbyl palmitate (formulation D). The chemical analyses of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate were carried out by HPLC. Formulations C and D at pH 7.0 were selected as the most stable for these components. The purpose of this paper is the selection of the most stable formulations for their application in in vivo studies.

  5. Bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to condiments and seasonings.

    PubMed

    Degerud, Eirik M; Manger, Mari Skar; Strand, Tor A; Dierkes, Jutta

    2015-11-01

    Seasonings and condiments can be candidate vehicles for micronutrient fortification if consumed consistently and if dietary practices ensure bioavailability of the nutrient. In this review, we identify factors that may affect the bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to seasonings and condiments and evaluate their effects on micronutrient status. We take into consideration the chemical and physical properties of different forms of the micronutrients, the influence of the physical and chemical properties of foods and meals to which fortified seasonings and condiments are typically added, and interactions between micronutrients and the physiological and nutritional status of the target population. Bioavailable fortificants of iron have been developed for use in dry or fluid vehicles. For example, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) and ferrous sulfate with citric acid are options for iron fortification of fish and soy sauce. Furthermore, NaFeEDTA, microencapsulated ferrous fumarate, and micronized elemental iron are potential fortificants in curry powder and salt. Dry forms of retinyl acetate or palmitate are bioavailable fortificants of vitamin A in dry candidate vehicles, but there are no published studies of these fortificants in fluid vehicles. Studies of zinc and folic acid bioavailability in seasonings and condiments are also lacking.

  6. Bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to condiments and seasonings.

    PubMed

    Degerud, Eirik M; Manger, Mari Skar; Strand, Tor A; Dierkes, Jutta

    2015-11-01

    Seasonings and condiments can be candidate vehicles for micronutrient fortification if consumed consistently and if dietary practices ensure bioavailability of the nutrient. In this review, we identify factors that may affect the bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to seasonings and condiments and evaluate their effects on micronutrient status. We take into consideration the chemical and physical properties of different forms of the micronutrients, the influence of the physical and chemical properties of foods and meals to which fortified seasonings and condiments are typically added, and interactions between micronutrients and the physiological and nutritional status of the target population. Bioavailable fortificants of iron have been developed for use in dry or fluid vehicles. For example, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) and ferrous sulfate with citric acid are options for iron fortification of fish and soy sauce. Furthermore, NaFeEDTA, microencapsulated ferrous fumarate, and micronized elemental iron are potential fortificants in curry powder and salt. Dry forms of retinyl acetate or palmitate are bioavailable fortificants of vitamin A in dry candidate vehicles, but there are no published studies of these fortificants in fluid vehicles. Studies of zinc and folic acid bioavailability in seasonings and condiments are also lacking. PMID:26469774

  7. Bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to condiments and seasonings

    PubMed Central

    Degerud, Eirik M.; Manger, Mari Skar; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonings and condiments can be candidate vehicles for micronutrient fortification if consumed consistently and if dietary practices ensure bioavailability of the nutrient. In this review, we identify factors that may affect the bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to seasonings and condiments and evaluate their effects on micronutrient status. We take into consideration the chemical and physical properties of different forms of the micronutrients, the influence of the physical and chemical properties of foods and meals to which fortified seasonings and condiments are typically added, and interactions between micronutrients and the physiological and nutritional status of the target population. Bioavailable fortificants of iron have been developed for use in dry or fluid vehicles. For example, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) and ferrous sulfate with citric acid are options for iron fortification of fish and soy sauce. Furthermore, NaFeEDTA, microencapsulated ferrous fumarate, and micronized elemental iron are potential fortificants in curry powder and salt. Dry forms of retinyl acetate or palmitate are bioavailable fortificants of vitamin A in dry candidate vehicles, but there are no published studies of these fortificants in fluid vehicles. Studies of zinc and folic acid bioavailability in seasonings and condiments are also lacking. PMID:26469774

  8. Maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids: implications for neurodevelopmental risk in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Roy, Suchitra; Kale, Anvita; Dangat, Kamini; Sable, Pratiksha; Kulkarni, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-01-01

    Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) are suggested to be at the heart of intra-uterine programming of adult diseases. We have recently described interactions of folic acid, vitamin B(12) and docosahexaenoic acid in one carbon metabolism that is considered to play a key role in regulation oxidative stress and chromatin methylation. However its impact on fetal oxidative stress and brain fatty acid levels has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined the effect of imbalance in maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on oxidative stress parameters and brain fatty acids and in the offspring at birth. Pregnant female rats were divided into six groups at two levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). Both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. Oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde) and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles in plasma and brain were analyzed in dam and offspring at d20. Our results for the first time indicate that imbalance in maternal micronutrients (excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a B(12) deficient diet) increases (p<0.01) oxidative stress in both mother and pups. This increased maternal oxidative stress resulted in lower (p<0.01) fetal brain DHA levels. Omega 3 fatty acid supplementation was able to restore (p<0.05) the levels of brain DHA in both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups. Our data has implications for implications for neurodevelopmental disorders since micronutrients and DHA are important modulators for neural functioning. PMID:21300490

  9. Maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids: implications for neurodevelopmental risk in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Roy, Suchitra; Kale, Anvita; Dangat, Kamini; Sable, Pratiksha; Kulkarni, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-01-01

    Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) are suggested to be at the heart of intra-uterine programming of adult diseases. We have recently described interactions of folic acid, vitamin B(12) and docosahexaenoic acid in one carbon metabolism that is considered to play a key role in regulation oxidative stress and chromatin methylation. However its impact on fetal oxidative stress and brain fatty acid levels has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined the effect of imbalance in maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on oxidative stress parameters and brain fatty acids and in the offspring at birth. Pregnant female rats were divided into six groups at two levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). Both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. Oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde) and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles in plasma and brain were analyzed in dam and offspring at d20. Our results for the first time indicate that imbalance in maternal micronutrients (excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a B(12) deficient diet) increases (p<0.01) oxidative stress in both mother and pups. This increased maternal oxidative stress resulted in lower (p<0.01) fetal brain DHA levels. Omega 3 fatty acid supplementation was able to restore (p<0.05) the levels of brain DHA in both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups. Our data has implications for implications for neurodevelopmental disorders since micronutrients and DHA are important modulators for neural functioning.

  10. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked.

  11. Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid, α-Tocopherol, Zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene are Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Aya; Inoue, Maiko; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Obata, Ryo; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Shinkai, Shoji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    This case-control study reports the association between nutrient intake and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japan. The nutrient intake of 161 neovascular AMD cases from two university hospitals and 369 population-based control subjects from a cohort study was assessed using a brief-type self-administered questionnaire on diet history, which required respondent recall of the usual intake of 58 foods during the preceding month. Energy-adjusted nutrient intake values were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for smoking history, age, sex, chronic disease history, supplement use, and alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that low intakes of n-3 fatty acid, α-tocopherol, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene were associated with neovascular AMD (Trend P < 0.0001 for n-3 fatty acid, Trend P < 0.0001 for α-tocopherol, Trend P < 0.0001 for zinc, Trend P = 0.002 for vitamin D, Trend P = 0.04 for vitamin C, Trend P = 0.0004 for β-carotene). There was no association with retinol or cryptoxanthin intake and neovascular AMD (P = 0.67, 0.06). PMID:26846575

  12. Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid, α-Tocopherol, Zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene are Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Aya; Inoue, Maiko; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Obata, Ryo; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Shinkai, Shoji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    This case-control study reports the association between nutrient intake and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japan. The nutrient intake of 161 neovascular AMD cases from two university hospitals and 369 population-based control subjects from a cohort study was assessed using a brief-type self-administered questionnaire on diet history, which required respondent recall of the usual intake of 58 foods during the preceding month. Energy-adjusted nutrient intake values were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for smoking history, age, sex, chronic disease history, supplement use, and alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that low intakes of n-3 fatty acid, α-tocopherol, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene were associated with neovascular AMD (Trend P < 0.0001 for n-3 fatty acid, Trend P < 0.0001 for α-tocopherol, Trend P < 0.0001 for zinc, Trend P = 0.002 for vitamin D, Trend P = 0.04 for vitamin C, Trend P = 0.0004 for β-carotene). There was no association with retinol or cryptoxanthin intake and neovascular AMD (P = 0.67, 0.06). PMID:26846575

  13. Fetotoxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rats and the protective role of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Mazhar, Fatma M; Moawad, Karima M; El-Dakdoky, Mai H; Amer, Amany S

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the potential role of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in inducing developmental toxicity and oxidative damage in pregnant rats and their fetuses as well as to assess the efficacy of vitamin E to prevent or alleviate such defects. Pregnant rats received 2,4-D (100 mg/kg bw) alone or in combination with vitamin E (100 mg/kg bw) daily from gestation day 1 to 19. The number of implantations, viable and resorbed fetuses and sex ratio were not statistically different among groups. However, fetuses maternally treated with 2,4-D were characterized by lower body weight and higher morphologic and skeletal defect rate. 2,4-D induced oxidative stress in the liver of mothers and fetuses which was indicated by a significant elevation of malondialdehyde level with reduction in catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity. Coadministration of vitamin E can counteract the deleterious effects of 2,4-D by successive reduction in the oxidative stress.

  14. 32 CFR 242b.5 - Voting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voting. 242b.5 Section 242b.5 National Defense... SCIENCES § 242b.5 Voting. (a) The concurrence of a majority of the Regents present at a meeting shall be... notation voting, by voting on material circulated to Regents individually or serially, or by polling...

  15. 45 CFR 73b.5 - Hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hearings. 73b.5 Section 73b.5 Public Welfare... § 73b.5 Hearings. (a) Hearings shall be stenographically recorded and transcribed and the testimony of witnesses shall be taken under oath or affirmation. Hearings will be closed unless an open hearing...

  16. 45 CFR 73b.5 - Hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearings. 73b.5 Section 73b.5 Public Welfare... § 73b.5 Hearings. (a) Hearings shall be stenographically recorded and transcribed and the testimony of witnesses shall be taken under oath or affirmation. Hearings will be closed unless an open hearing...

  17. 12 CFR 261b.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions. 261b.5 Section 261b.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.5 Exemptions. (a) Except in a case where the agency...

  18. 7 CFR 15b.5 - Assurances required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assurances required. 15b.5 Section 15b.5 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.5 Assurances required. (a) Assurances. An applicant for Federal financial assistance to which this part applies shall submit...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  20. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  1. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  2. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  3. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  4. Novel insights into the effect of vitamin B₁₂ and omega-3 fatty acids on brain function.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-01-25

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders which are characterized by cognitive decline is increasing at an alarming rate and account for a significant proportion of the global disease burden. Evidences from human and animal studies indicate that neurocognitive development is influenced by various environmental factors including nutrition. It has been established that nutrition affects the brain throughout life. However, the mechanisms through which nutrition modulates mental health are still not well understood. It has been suggested that the deficiencies of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids can have adverse effects on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Studies indicate a need for supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of cognitive decline, although the results of intervention trials using these nutrients in isolation are inconclusive. In the present article, we provide an overview of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids, the possible mechanisms and the evidences through which vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids modulate mental health and cognition. Understanding the role of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on brain functioning may provide important clues to prevent early cognitive deficits and later neurobehavioral disorders.

  5. Novel insights into the effect of vitamin B₁₂ and omega-3 fatty acids on brain function.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders which are characterized by cognitive decline is increasing at an alarming rate and account for a significant proportion of the global disease burden. Evidences from human and animal studies indicate that neurocognitive development is influenced by various environmental factors including nutrition. It has been established that nutrition affects the brain throughout life. However, the mechanisms through which nutrition modulates mental health are still not well understood. It has been suggested that the deficiencies of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids can have adverse effects on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Studies indicate a need for supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of cognitive decline, although the results of intervention trials using these nutrients in isolation are inconclusive. In the present article, we provide an overview of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids, the possible mechanisms and the evidences through which vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids modulate mental health and cognition. Understanding the role of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on brain functioning may provide important clues to prevent early cognitive deficits and later neurobehavioral disorders. PMID:26809263

  6. Vitamin D Regulates Fatty Acid Composition in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Through Elovl3.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lijuan; Gupta, Mihir; Feldman, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are a major energy source in the body. White adipose tissue (WAT) is a primary site where FAs are stored as triacylglycerols. Brown adipose tissue also stores and recruits FAs as a carbon source for uncoupled β-oxidation during thermogenesis. The deletion of the vitamin D nuclear hormone receptor (VDR) gene in mice (VDRKO) results in a lean WAT phenotype with increased levels of expression of the brown adipose tissue marker Ucp1 in the WAT. However, the impact of vitamin D/VDR on FA composition in WAT has not been explored in detail. To address this question, we examined the FA composition of sc and visceral white adipose depots of VDRKO mice. We found that the levels of a subset of saturated and monounsaturated FAs of C18-C24 are specifically increased in the sc adipose depot in VDRKO mice. We revealed that a specific elongase enzyme (Elovl3), which has an important role in brown fat biology, is directly regulated by VDR and likely contributes to the altered FA composition in VDRKO mice. We also demonstrate that Elovl3 is regulated by vitamin D in vivo and tissue specifically in the sc WAT depot. We discovered that regulation of Elovl3 expression is mediated by ligand-dependent VDR occupancy of a negative-response element in the promoter proximal region of the Elovl3 gene. These data suggest that vitamin D/VDR tissue specifically modulates FA composition in sc WAT through direct regulation of Elovl3 expression. PMID:26488808

  7. Lycopene synergistically inhibits LDL oxidation in combination with vitamin E, glabridin, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, or garlic.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, B; Volkova, N; Rosenblat, M; Aviram, M

    2000-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is atherogenic, and that atherosclerosis can be attenuated by natural antioxidants, which inhibit LDL oxidation. This study was conducted to determine the effect of tomato lycopene alone, or in combination with other natural antioxidants, on LDL oxidation. LDL (100 microg of protein/ml) was incubated with increasing concentrations of lycopene or of tomato oleoresin (lipid extract of tomatoes containing 6% lycopene, 0.1% beta-carotene, 1% vitamin E, and polyphenols), after which it was oxidized by the addition of 5 micromol/liter of CuSO4. Tomato oleoresin exhibited superior capacity to inhibit LDL oxidation in comparison to pure lycopene, by up to five-fold [97% vs. 22% inhibition of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, and 93% vs. 27% inhibition of lipid peroxides formation, respectively]. Because tomato oleoresin also contains, in addition to lycopene, vitamin E, flavonoids, and phenolics, a possible cooperative interaction between lycopene and such natural antioxidants was studied. A combination of lycopene (5 micromol/liter) with vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) in the concentration range of 1-10 micromol/liter resulted in an inhibition of copper ion-induced LDL oxidation that was significantly greater than the expected additive individual inhibitions. The synergistic antioxidative effect of lycopene with vitamin E was not shared by gamma-to-cotrienol. The polyphenols glabridin (derived from licorice), rosmarinic acid or carnosic acid (derived from rosemary), as well as garlic (which contains a mixture of natural antioxidants) inhibited LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. When lycopene (5 micromol/liter) was added to LDL in combination with glabridin, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, or garlic, synergistic antioxidative effects were obtained against LDL oxidation induced either by copper ions or by the radical generator AAPH. Similar interactive

  8. Effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on liver fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Manglekar, Rupali R; Dangat, Kamini D; Kulkarni, Asmita V; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2012-01-01

    A disturbed fatty acid metabolism increases the risk of adult non-communicable diseases. This study examines the effect of maternal micronutrients on the fatty acid composition, desaturase activity, mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in the liver. Pregnant female rats were divided into 6 groups at 2 levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). The vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. An imbalance of maternal micronutrients reduces liver docosahexaenoic acid, increases Δ5 desaturase activity but decreases mRNA levels, decreases Δ6 desaturase activity but not mRNA levels as compared to control. mRNA level of Δ5 desaturase reverts back to the levels of the control group as a result of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation. Our data for the first time indicates that maternal micronutrients differentially alter the activity and expression of fatty acid desaturases in the liver.

  9. Entacapone is an Antioxidant More Potent than Vitamin C and Vitamin E for Scavenging of Hypochlorous Acid and Peroxynitrite, and the Inhibition of Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aaron Y.; Lü, Jian-Ming; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Entacapone (ENT), a clinical drug for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, has been shown to have antioxidant effects, but little is known about its antioxidant mechanisms. The objective of the current study was to determine the antioxidant activity of ENT against different species of oxidants and compared it with that of vitamin C and vitamin E. We also determined the effect of ENT on oxidative stress-induced cell death in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Material/Methods The total antioxidant activities of ENT, vitamin C and vitamin E were determined with a standard DPPH-scavenging assay. Specific assays to determine ENT’s scavenging activity on hypochlorous acid (HOCl), peroxynitrite (ONOO−), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the chelating effect on Fe(II) were used. H2O2-induced cell death in HUVECs was determined with the MTT assay. Results ENT (10 and 20 μM) scavenged 60% and 83% of DPPH activity, respectively. These percentages were greater than those resulting from using the same concentrations of vitamin C and vitamin E. ENT’s HOCl-scavenging activity was concentration-dependent and 8 to 20 times stronger than those of vitamin C and vitamin E. ENT’s ONOO−-scavenging activity was 8% to 30% stronger than that of vitamin C. However, ENT, vitamin C, and vitamin E were not able to directly scavenge H2O2, and did not show any chelating effect on Fe(II). Importantly ENT, but not vitamin C or vitamin E, inhibited H2O2-induced cell death in HUVECs. Conclusions ENT is an antioxidant that can scavenge toxic HOCl and ONOO− species and inhibit oxidative stress-induced cell death more effectively than vitamin C and vitamin E. ENT may have new clinical applications as an antioxidant in the treatment of ROS-induced diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26927838

  10. [The important role of vitamins in the over-production of pyruvic acid].

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Chen, J; Lun, S; Rui, X

    2000-10-01

    The effect of nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, biotin and riboflavin on the production of pyruvic acid by Torulopsis glabrata WSH-IP303 with glucose as carbon source and NH4Cl as sole nitrogen source was investigated. By using orthogonal experiment method, thiamine was confirmed to be the most important factor affecting the production of pyruvic acid. Based on a certain concentration range of thiamine (0.01-0.015 mg/L), glucose consumption rate can be enhanced by increasing the concentration of nicotinic acid. When the concentration of nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, biotin and riboflavin were 8, 0.015, 0.4, 0.04 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, the concentration and yield to glucose of pyruvic acid reached 52.4 g/L and 0.525 g/g at 48 h in flask culture, respectively. Batch culture was conducted in a 2.5 L fermentor with initial glucose concentration of 120 g/L. By adopting the optimal concentration combination of vitamins, the concentration and yield to glucose of pyruvic acid reached 69.4 g/L and 0.593 g/g at 57.5 h, which were increased by 32.4% and 13% than the best results in flask culture, respectively. PMID:12548766

  11. Improving the nutritional value of crops through enhancement of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content: rationale and biotechnological opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Robert D; Viola, Roberto

    2005-06-29

    L-Ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) is an essential human nutrient that must be obtained in the diet, with the vast majority being obtained from plant foods. A vitamin C-deficient diet results in the onset of scurvy, which can have lethal consequences. However, vitamin C has also been implicated in the prevention of chronic diseases such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, and several neurodegenerative diseases. Although the supporting evidence for these claims is disputed, the dietary allowances for vitamin C have been recently increased in several countries, including the United States. This scenario, together with the general perception by consumers of vitamin C as being of benefit in the prevention of several lifestyle diseases and associated with general "well-being", contributes to a market rationale for enhancing the vitamin C content of crops. In recent years, there has been substantial progress in the understanding of vitamin C biochemistry in plants with a number of structural genes cloned. Here these findings are reviewed, and a description of how such knowledge could be applied to the nutritional enhancement of crops is given. PMID:15969504

  12. [Effect of the B-group vitamin complex on the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Vodoevich, V P; Buko, V U

    1986-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, under the influence of the functionally-associated vitamin-B complex, in 45 patients with coronary heart disease and essential hypertension. The vitamins were given daily in the following doses: thiamine diphosphate 50 mg, riboflavine 40 mg, calcium pantothenate 200 mg, nicotinic acid 200 mg and lipoic acid 50 mg. Favourable shifts leading to positive clinical effects were recorded in the fatty acid metabolism after 10-day taking the vitamin-B complex: the content of unsaturated (linoleic and arachidonic) fatty acids increased while that of saturated (stearic and palmitic) fatty acids decreased. PMID:3705551

  13. Site-specific regulation of adult neurogenesis by dietary fatty acid content, vitamin E and flight exercise in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Hall, Zachary J; Bauchinger, Ulf; Gerson, Alexander R; Price, Edwin R; Langlois, Lillie A; Boyles, Michelle; Pierce, Barbara; McWilliams, Scott R; Sherry, David F; Macdougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2014-03-01

    Exercise is known to have a strong effect on neuroproliferation in mammals ranging from rodents to humans. Recent studies have also shown that fatty acids and other dietary supplements can cause an upregulation of neurogenesis. It is not known, however, how exercise and diet interact in their effects on adult neurogenesis. We examined neuronal recruitment in multiple telencephalic sites in adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to a factorial combination of flight exercise, dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. Experimental birds were flown in a wind tunnel following a training regime that mimicked the bird's natural flight behaviour. In addition to flight exercise, we manipulated the composition of dietary fatty acids and the level of enrichment with vitamin E, an antioxidant reported to enhance neuronal recruitment. We found that all three factors - flight exercise, fatty acid composition and vitamin E enrichment - regulate neuronal recruitment in a site-specific manner. We also found a robust interaction between flight training and vitamin E enrichment at multiple sites of neuronal recruitment. Specifically, flight training was found to enhance neuronal recruitment across the telencephalon, but only in birds fed a diet with a low level of vitamin E. Conversely, dietary enrichment with vitamin E upregulated neuronal recruitment, but only in birds not flown in the wind tunnel. These findings indicate conserved modulation of adult neurogenesis by exercise and diet across vertebrate taxa and indicate possible therapeutic interventions in disorders characterized by reduced adult neurogenesis.

  14. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    PubMed Central

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. PMID:26771632

  15. Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrochemical Detection

    PubMed Central

    Gazdik, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Petrlova, Jitka; Adam, Vojtech; Zehnalek, Josef; Horna, Ales; Reznicek, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ascorbate, AA) is a water soluble organic compound that participates in many biological processes. The main aim of this paper was to utilize two electrochemical detectors (amperometric – Coulouchem III and coulometric – CoulArray) coupled with flow injection analysis for the detection of ascorbic acid. Primarily, we optimized the experimental conditions. The optimized conditions were as follows: detector potential 100 mV, temperature 25 °C, mobile phase 0.09% TFA:ACN, 3:97 (v/v) and flow rate 0.13 mL·min-1. The tangents of the calibration curves were 0.3788 for the coulometric method and 0.0136 for the amperometric one. The tangent of the calibration curve measured by the coulometric detector was almost 30 times higher than the tangent measured by the amperometric detector. Consequently, we coupled a CoulArray electrochemical detector with high performance liquid chromatography and estimated the detection limit for AA as 90 nM (450 fmol per 5 μL injection). The method was used for the determination of vitamin C in a pharmaceutical preparations (98 ± 2 mg per tablet), in oranges (Citrus aurantium) (varied from 30 to 56 mg/100 g fresh weight), in apples (Malus sp.) (varied from 11 to 19 mg/100 g fresh weight), and in human blood serum (varied from 38 to 78 μM). The recoveries were also determined.

  16. Effect of vitamin C and folic acid on seed vigour response and phenolic-linked antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Burguieres, Elizabeth; McCue, Patrick; Kwon, Young-In; Shetty, Kalidas

    2007-05-01

    Folic acid and vitamin C were used in the concentration range of 0-500muM as exogenous growth enhancers to stimulate pea (Pisum sativum) seedling vigour. The results suggest that a concentration of 50muM folic acid and 500muM vitamin C were optimum in maximally enhancing seed vigour and potentially seedling performance according to both agronomic and biochemical seed vigour parameters. Results indicated that germination percentage, shoot weight, shoot height, and root length were enhanced in folic acid and vitamin C treated plants compared to control plants. The levels of enhanced phenolic content in response to folic acid and vitamin C treatments were highest on days 8 and 10. Evaluation of critical biochemical parameters indicated that the average glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity and proline content in response to treatments were higher than control and correlated to enhanced phenolic content and DPPH-based antioxidant activity. Key enzymes, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were also higher in response to treatments and correlated to enhanced phenolic content and DPPH-based antioxidant activity. Taken together, these studies support the hypothesis that the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway stimulates phenolic synthesis and related free-radical scavenging antioxidant activity. Further, this proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway stimulation in response to folic acid and vitamin C was also correlated to antioxidant enzyme response indicated by the stimulation of GPX, SOD, and CAT activities. Therefore, this study indicates the enhancement of seed vigour response by folic acid and vitamin C as reflected in both agronomic and biochemical responses, and this occurred through the stimulation of phenolic-linked antioxidant response that is likely positively modulated through the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway.

  17. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Asmita; Dangat, Kamini; Kale, Anvita; Sable, Pratiksha; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2011-01-01

    Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12) are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12) deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12) deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12) lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05) and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05). When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta. PMID:21423696

  18. Reduced folate and serum vitamin metabolites in patients with rectal carcinoma: an open-label feasibility study of pemetrexed with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, Clemens C; Odin, Elisabeth A; Carlsson, Göran U; Kurlberg, Göran K; Björkqvist, Hillevi G; Tångefjord, Maria T; Gustavsson, Bengt G

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this single-center, open-label, phase II study were to evaluate (a) the feasibility and safety of neoadjuvant administration of pemetrexed with oral folic acid and vitamin B12 (FA/B12) in newly diagnosed patients with resectable rectal cancer and (b) intracellular and systemic vitamin metabolism. Patients were treated with three cycles of pemetrexed (500 mg/m, every 3 weeks) and FA/B12 before surgery. The reduced folates tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate were evaluated from biopsies in tumor tissue and in adjacent mucosa. Serum levels of homocysteine, cystathionine, and methylmalonic acid were also measured. All 37 patients received three cycles of pemetrexed; 89.2% completed their planned dosage within a 9-week feasibility time frame. Neither dose reductions nor study drug-related serious adverse events were reported. Reduced folate levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue compared with adjacent mucosa at baseline. After FA/B12 administration, tissue levels of reduced folates increased significantly and remained high during treatment in both tumor and mucosa until surgery. Serum levels of cystathionine increased significantly compared with baseline after FA/B12 administration, but then decreased, fluctuating cyclically during pemetrexed therapy. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels decreased significantly after FA/B12 administration, and remained below baseline levels during the study. These results indicate that administration of three neoadjuvant cycles of single-agent pemetrexed, every 3 weeks, with FA/B12 in patients with resectable rectal cancer is feasible and tolerable. Tissue and serum vitamin metabolism results demonstrate the influence of pemetrexed and FA/B12 on vitamin metabolism and warrant further study. PMID:26825869

  19. Reduced folate and serum vitamin metabolites in patients with rectal carcinoma: an open-label feasibility study of pemetrexed with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, Clemens C; Odin, Elisabeth A; Carlsson, Göran U; Kurlberg, Göran K; Björkqvist, Hillevi G; Tångefjord, Maria T; Gustavsson, Bengt G

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this single-center, open-label, phase II study were to evaluate (a) the feasibility and safety of neoadjuvant administration of pemetrexed with oral folic acid and vitamin B12 (FA/B12) in newly diagnosed patients with resectable rectal cancer and (b) intracellular and systemic vitamin metabolism. Patients were treated with three cycles of pemetrexed (500 mg/m, every 3 weeks) and FA/B12 before surgery. The reduced folates tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate were evaluated from biopsies in tumor tissue and in adjacent mucosa. Serum levels of homocysteine, cystathionine, and methylmalonic acid were also measured. All 37 patients received three cycles of pemetrexed; 89.2% completed their planned dosage within a 9-week feasibility time frame. Neither dose reductions nor study drug-related serious adverse events were reported. Reduced folate levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue compared with adjacent mucosa at baseline. After FA/B12 administration, tissue levels of reduced folates increased significantly and remained high during treatment in both tumor and mucosa until surgery. Serum levels of cystathionine increased significantly compared with baseline after FA/B12 administration, but then decreased, fluctuating cyclically during pemetrexed therapy. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels decreased significantly after FA/B12 administration, and remained below baseline levels during the study. These results indicate that administration of three neoadjuvant cycles of single-agent pemetrexed, every 3 weeks, with FA/B12 in patients with resectable rectal cancer is feasible and tolerable. Tissue and serum vitamin metabolism results demonstrate the influence of pemetrexed and FA/B12 on vitamin metabolism and warrant further study.

  20. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of an omega-3 fatty acid and vitamins E+C in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bentsen, H; Osnes, K; Refsum, H; Solberg, D K; Bøhmer, T

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid metabolism and redox regulation may be disturbed in schizophrenia. We examined the clinical effect of adding an omega-3 fatty acid and/or vitamins E+C to antipsychotics. It was hypothesized that lower baseline levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) would predict more benefit from the add-on treatment. The trial had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial design. Patients aged 18–39 years with schizophrenia or related psychoses were consecutively included at admission to psychiatric departments in Norway. They received active or placebo ethyl-eicosapentaenoate (EPA) 2 g day−1 and active or placebo vitamin E 364 mg day−1+vitamin C 1000 mg day−1 (vitamins) for 16 weeks. The main outcome measures were Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscales scores, analyzed by linear mixed models. Ninety-nine patients were included. At baseline, erythrocyte PUFA were measured in 97 subjects. Given separately, EPA and vitamins increased drop-out rates, whereas when combined they did not differ from placebo. In low PUFA patients, EPA alone impaired the course of total PANSS (Cohen's d=0.29; P=0.03) and psychotic symptoms (d=0.40; P=0.003), especially persecutory delusions (d=0.48; P=0.0004). Vitamins alone impaired the course of psychotic symptoms (d= 0.37; P=0.005), especially persecutory delusions (d=0.47; P=0.0005). Adding vitamins to EPA neutralized the detrimental effect on psychosis (interaction d=0.31; P=0.02). In high PUFA patients, there were no significant effects of trial drugs on PANSS scales. In conclusion, given separately during an acute episode, EPA and vitamins E+C induce psychotic symptoms in patients with low levels of PUFA. Combined, these agents seem safe. PMID:24346133

  1. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of an omega-3 fatty acid and vitamins E+C in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bentsen, H; Osnes, K; Refsum, H; Solberg, D K; Bøhmer, T

    2013-12-17

    Membrane lipid metabolism and redox regulation may be disturbed in schizophrenia. We examined the clinical effect of adding an omega-3 fatty acid and/or vitamins E+C to antipsychotics. It was hypothesized that lower baseline levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) would predict more benefit from the add-on treatment. The trial had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial design. Patients aged 18-39 years with schizophrenia or related psychoses were consecutively included at admission to psychiatric departments in Norway. They received active or placebo ethyl-eicosapentaenoate (EPA) 2 g day⁻¹ and active or placebo vitamin E 364 mg day⁻¹+vitamin C 1000 mg day⁻¹ (vitamins) for 16 weeks. The main outcome measures were Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscales scores, analyzed by linear mixed models. Ninety-nine patients were included. At baseline, erythrocyte PUFA were measured in 97 subjects. Given separately, EPA and vitamins increased drop-out rates, whereas when combined they did not differ from placebo. In low PUFA patients, EPA alone impaired the course of total PANSS (Cohen's d=0.29; P=0.03) and psychotic symptoms (d=0.40; P=0.003), especially persecutory delusions (d=0.48; P=0.0004). Vitamins alone impaired the course of psychotic symptoms (d= 0.37; P=0.005), especially persecutory delusions (d=0.47; P=0.0005). Adding vitamins to EPA neutralized the detrimental effect on psychosis (interaction d=0.31; P=0.02). In high PUFA patients, there were no significant effects of trial drugs on PANSS scales. In conclusion, given separately during an acute episode, EPA and vitamins E+C induce psychotic symptoms in patients with low levels of PUFA. Combined, these agents seem safe.

  2. Secondary palatal closure in rats in association with relative maternofetal levels of folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Weingärtner, Jens; Maile, Sergei; Proff, Peter; Reicheneder, Claudia; Bienengräber, Volker; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Animal experiments are used in embryological and teratological studies of matters relevant to humans. In gravid rats, a decrease in the levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 was observed in maternal blood and in amniotic fluid. At the time of secondary palatal closure (14th day of pregnancy), the folic acid level of the amniotic fluid was 73% lower than that of the maternal blood. A drop in vitamin B12 in conjunction with an increase in amniotic homocysteine levels is seen as a risk factor for malformation of the palate. The understanding of causes of cleft generation could lead to a prophylactic treatment approach.

  3. Combined treatment with vitamin B12b and ascorbic acid causes in vitro DNA degradation in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, A I; Akatov, V S; Kreshchenko, N D; Solov'eva, M E; Leshchenko, V V; Lezhnev, E I; Yakubovskaya, R I

    2001-04-01

    Incubation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and HEp-2 human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma cells with hydroxycobalamin (vitamin B12b) and ascorbic acid induced generation and accumulation of double-stranded DNA fragments (23,000 b.p. and longer) in cells. The same vitamins alone in the same concentrations produced no such effects. DNA degradation in HEp-2 cells caused by long-term (4 h) incubation with 5-25 microM hydroxycobalamin and ascorbic acid (1:10-1:40 molar ratio) at 37 degrees C was comparable with that induced by gamma-irradiation in a dose of 150 Gy at 4 degrees C.

  4. On the formation of niacin (vitamin B3) and pyridine carboxylic acids in interstellar model ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtry, Brandon M.; Turner, Andrew M.; Saito, Sean E. J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of pyridine carboxylic acids in interstellar ice grains was simulated by electron exposures of binary pyridine (C5H5N)-carbon dioxide (CO2) ice mixtures at 10 K under contamination-free ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Chemical processing of the pristine ice and subsequent warm-up phase was monitored on line and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe for the formation of new radiation induced species. In the infrared spectra of the irradiated ice, bands assigned to nicotinic acid (niacin; vitamin B3; m-C5H4NCOOH) along with 2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4-, and 3,5-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (C5H3N(COOH)2) were unambiguously identified along with the hydroxycarbonyl (HOCO) radical. Our study suggests that the reactive pathway responsible for pyridine carboxylic acids formation involves a HOCO intermediate, which forms through the reaction of suprathermal hydrogen ejected from pyridine with carbon dioxide. The newly formed pyridinyl radical may then undergo radical-radical recombination with a hydroxycarbonyl radical to form a pyridine carboxylic acid.

  5. A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kemse, Nisha G.; Kale, Anvita A.; Joshi, Sadhana R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Results Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF–ά) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Conclusion Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25405347

  6. [B-vitamins (thiamine, vitamin b6, pantothenic acid) in lean muscle tissue of growing cattle of the German Simmental breed under different feeding intensities].

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, M; Roth-Maier, D A; Heindl, U; Schwarz, F J

    1995-07-01

    In a comparative slaughter experiment the thiamin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid content of lean tissue of foreloin of growing cattle was determined by whole body analyses. 54 bulls, 45 heifers and 45 steers were fed until a live mass of 200 kg, 350 kg, 425 kg (only heifers) 500 kg and 575 kg, 650 kg, respectively (only bulls and steers). One half of each carcass was divided into 13 cuts and afterwards the cuts were each divided into lean, adipose and bone tissue and tendons. The lean tissue of the foreloin was subjected to analysis of thiamin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid. The mean thiamin content of 0.75 mg kg-1 fresh matter (200 kg live mass) decreased with rising live mass and under intensive feeding conditions in bulls and steers to 0.53 mg and in heifers to 0.61 mg. Restrictively feeding caused a mean thiamin content of 0.60 mg per kg fresh matter in bulls, steers and heifers. Under both feeding conditions in the lean tissue of the foreloin on average a vitamin B6 content of 2.6 mg (bulls), 3.1 mg (heifers) and 3.0 mg kg-1 fresh matter (steers) was analysed. A mean content of pantothenic acid of 2.6 mg kg-1 fresh matter was determined in bulls independent of live mass and feeding intensity. In heifers the content of pantothenic acid on average was 3.0 mg under intensive feeding system and 2.6 mg under low feeding conditions, whereas steers reached contents of 2.7 mg (high feeding) and 2.2 mg kg-1 fresh matter (low feeding). PMID:7571861

  7. Protective effect of vitamin E on sperm motility and oxidative stress in valproic acid treated rats.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Giovana M; Saccol, Etiane M H; Pês, Tanise S; Glanzner, Werner G; Schiefelbein, Sun Hee; Woehl, Viviane M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Pavanato, Maria A; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Barreto, Kátia P

    2016-09-01

    Long-term administration of valproic acid (VPA) is known to promote reproductive impairment mediated by increase in testicular oxidative stress. Vitamin E (VitE) is a lipophilic antioxidant known to be essential for mammalian spermatogenesis. However, the capacity of this vitamin to abrogate the VPA-mediated oxidative stress has not yet been assessed. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effect of VitE on functional abnormalities related to VPA-induced oxidative stress in the male reproductive system. VPA (400 mg kg(-1)) was administered by gavage and VitE (50 mg kg(-1)) intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats for 28 days. Analysis of spermatozoa from the cauda epididymides was performed. The testes and epididymides were collected for measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers. Treatment with VPA induced a decrease in sperm motility accompanied by an increase in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, depletion of reduced glutathione and a decrease in total reactive antioxidant potential on testes and epididymides. Co-administration of VitE restored the antioxidant potential and prevented oxidative damage on testes and epididymides, restoring sperm motility. Thus, VitE protects the reproductive system from the VPA-induced damage, suggesting that it may be a useful compound to minimize the reproductive impairment in patients requiring long-term treatment with VPA.

  8. Protective effect of vitamin E on sperm motility and oxidative stress in valproic acid treated rats.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Giovana M; Saccol, Etiane M H; Pês, Tanise S; Glanzner, Werner G; Schiefelbein, Sun Hee; Woehl, Viviane M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Pavanato, Maria A; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Barreto, Kátia P

    2016-09-01

    Long-term administration of valproic acid (VPA) is known to promote reproductive impairment mediated by increase in testicular oxidative stress. Vitamin E (VitE) is a lipophilic antioxidant known to be essential for mammalian spermatogenesis. However, the capacity of this vitamin to abrogate the VPA-mediated oxidative stress has not yet been assessed. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effect of VitE on functional abnormalities related to VPA-induced oxidative stress in the male reproductive system. VPA (400 mg kg(-1)) was administered by gavage and VitE (50 mg kg(-1)) intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats for 28 days. Analysis of spermatozoa from the cauda epididymides was performed. The testes and epididymides were collected for measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers. Treatment with VPA induced a decrease in sperm motility accompanied by an increase in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, depletion of reduced glutathione and a decrease in total reactive antioxidant potential on testes and epididymides. Co-administration of VitE restored the antioxidant potential and prevented oxidative damage on testes and epididymides, restoring sperm motility. Thus, VitE protects the reproductive system from the VPA-induced damage, suggesting that it may be a useful compound to minimize the reproductive impairment in patients requiring long-term treatment with VPA. PMID:27424124

  9. Maternal Vitamin D, Folate, and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status and Bacterial Vaginosis during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Anne L.; Taylor, Robert N.; Tangpricha, Vin; Fortunato, Stephen; Menon, Ramkumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate associations among serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D), folate, omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and bacterial vaginosis (BV) during pregnancy. Methods. Biospecimens and data were derived from a random sample (N = 160) of women from the Nashville Birth Cohort. We compared mean plasma nutrient concentrations for women with and without BV during pregnancy (based on Nugent score ≥7) and assessed the odds of BV for those with 25-OH-D <12 ng/mL, folate <5 ug/L, and omega-6/omega-3 ratio >15. Results. The mean plasma 25-OH-D was significantly lower among women with BV during pregnancy (18.00±8.14 ng/mL versus 24.34±11.97 ng/mL, P = 0.044). The adjusted odds of BV were significantly increased among pregnant women with 25-OH-D <12 ng/mL (aOR 5.11, 95% CI: 1.19–21.97) and folate <5 ug/L (aOR 7.06, 95% CI: 1.07–54.05). Conclusion. Vitamin D and folate deficiencies were strongly associated with BV (Nugent score ≥7) during pregnancy. PMID:22190843

  10. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  11. Can ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E reduce symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders?

    PubMed

    Gumpricht, Eric; Rockway, Susie

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, which include autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders, and apraxia, are increasing worldwide and have a profound effect on the behaviors, cognitive skills, mood, and self-esteem of these children. Although the etiologies of these disorders are unclear, they often accompany genetic and biochemical abnormalities resulting in cognitive and communication difficulties. Because cognitive and neural development require essential fatty acids (particularly long-chain ω-3 fatty acids often lacking in mother's and children's diets) during critical growth periods, the potential behavior-modifying effects of these fatty acids as "brain nutrients" has attracted considerable attention. Additionally, there is compelling evidence for increased oxidative stress, altered antioxidant defenses, and neuroinflammation in these children. The purpose of this review is to provide a scientific rationale based on cellular, experimental animal model, observational, and clinical intervention studies for incorporating the combination of ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E as complementary nutritional therapies in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Should this nutritional combination correct key clinical or biochemical outcomes and/or improve behavioral patterns, it would provide a safe, complementary option for these children.

  12. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize.

  13. Can ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E reduce symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders?

    PubMed

    Gumpricht, Eric; Rockway, Susie

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, which include autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders, and apraxia, are increasing worldwide and have a profound effect on the behaviors, cognitive skills, mood, and self-esteem of these children. Although the etiologies of these disorders are unclear, they often accompany genetic and biochemical abnormalities resulting in cognitive and communication difficulties. Because cognitive and neural development require essential fatty acids (particularly long-chain ω-3 fatty acids often lacking in mother's and children's diets) during critical growth periods, the potential behavior-modifying effects of these fatty acids as "brain nutrients" has attracted considerable attention. Additionally, there is compelling evidence for increased oxidative stress, altered antioxidant defenses, and neuroinflammation in these children. The purpose of this review is to provide a scientific rationale based on cellular, experimental animal model, observational, and clinical intervention studies for incorporating the combination of ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E as complementary nutritional therapies in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Should this nutritional combination correct key clinical or biochemical outcomes and/or improve behavioral patterns, it would provide a safe, complementary option for these children. PMID:24631384

  14. Effects of Fatty Liver Induced by Excess Orotic Acid on B-Group Vitamin Concentrations of Liver, Blood, and Urine in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Morita, Nobuya; Kawamura, Tomoyo; Tsuji, Ai; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Fatty liver is caused when rats are given orotic acid of the pyrimidine base in large quantities. The lack of B-group vitamins suppresses the biosynthesis of fatty acids. We investigated how orotic acid-induced fatty liver affects the concentrations of liver, blood, and urine B-group vitamins in rats. The vitamin B6 and B12 concentrations of liver, blood, and urine were not affected by orotic acid-induced fatty liver. Vitamin B2 was measured only in the urine, but was unchanged. The liver, blood, and urine concentrations of niacin and its metabolites fell dramatically. Niacin and its metabolites in the liver, blood, and urine were affected as expected. Although the concentrations of vitamin B1, pantothenic acid, folate, and biotin in liver and blood were decreased by orotic acid-induced fatty liver, these urinary excretion amounts showed a specific pattern toward increase. Generally, as for the typical urinary excretion of B-group vitamins, these are excreted when the body is saturated. However, the ability to sustain vitamin B1, pantothenic acid, folate, and biotin decreased in fatty liver, which is hypothesized as a specific phenomenon. This metabolic response might occur to prevent an abnormally increased biosynthesis of fatty acids by orotic acid.

  15. Effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric symptoms and immune response in HIV-positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prabha M.; Chowta, Mukta N.; Ramapuram, John T.; Rao, Satish B.; Udupa, Karthik; Acharya, Sahana D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronutrients such as B12 and folic acid deficiencies are found in higher number in HIV-infected patients. Objective: We conducted a study to examine the effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric manifestations, CD4 count, and anthropometric measurements in HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: Three different groups of HIV patients, namely, HIV patients with tuberculosis, HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations, and asymptomatic HIV patients with 50 patients in each group were included in the study. Baseline and follow-up CD4 count, anthropometric measurements, neuropsychiatric assessments, Vitamin B12, and folic acid estimation were done. Results: The prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 27.1% in Group I, 31.9% in Group II, and 23.4% in Group III. The prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency was 8.16% in Group I, 6.12% in Group II, and 4.16% in Group III. HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations were noted to have the lowest mean mini–mental score. After the supplementation of vitamins, anthropometric measurements, MMSE as well as Hamilton depression scores, improved in all the three groups whereas Hamilton anxiety scores improved only in Group III. The CD4 count also improved in Groups I and II after the supplementation of vitamins. Conclusion: Folic acid deficiency was highest among neuropsychiatric patients. The majority of people who had a folic acid deficiency have shown improvement in their neuropsychiatric assessment scores as well as CD4 count after its supplementation. PMID:27365952

  16. Folic acid or combination of folic acid and vitamin B(12) prevents short-term arsenic trioxide-induced systemic and mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sangita; Mukherjee, Sandip; Maiti, Anasuya; Karmakar, Subhra; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Nanda, Arunabha; Mitra, Chandan

    2009-08-01

    The effect of folic acid and folic acid + vitamin B(12) supplementation upon short-term arsenic-induced systemic and pancreatic islet cell mitochondria oxidative stress was investigated in male rats. Arsenic trioxide was administered orally at a dose of 3 mg kg body weight(-1) day(-1) for 30 days, and folic acid and vitamin B(12) were administered at a dose of 36 and 0.63 microg kg body weight(-1) day(-1), respectively, for 30 days. Compared to control, arsenic-treated group showed a significant increase in the levels of systemic oxidative markers, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and hydroxyl radical (OH(-)) formation, which were found decreased significantly after supplementation either with folic acid or a combination of folic acid + vitamin B(12). Similar supplementations were found effective against arsenic-induced oxidative marker changes (MDA, NO, and OH(-)) in pancreatic islet cell mitochondria. Also, low activities of antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, and level of antioxidant glutathione, all could regain significantly on supplementations both against systemic and islet cell mitochondria oxidative stress. Results of agarose-gel electrophoresis of DNA from lymphocytes and islet cells of arsenic-exposed rats showed DNA smearing, which could be reduced with simultaneous administration either with folic acid or a combination of folic acid + vitamin B(12). Significantly, similar supplementations were found effective in increasing the urinary clearance of arsenic. Together, these results indicate that folic acid and vitamin B(12) may be effective to reduce the arsenic-induced damage at molecular target level.

  17. 15 CFR 8b.5 - Assurances required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assurances required. 8b.5 Section 8b.5... Assurances required. (a) Assurances. An applicant for Federal financial assistance to which this part applies shall submit an assurance, on a form specified by the Secretary, that the program or activity will...

  18. 15 CFR 8b.5 - Assurances required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assurances required. 8b.5 Section 8b.5... Assurances required. (a) Assurances. An applicant for Federal financial assistance to which this part applies shall submit an assurance, on a form specified by the Secretary, that the program or activity will...

  19. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5 Section 3b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  20. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5 Section 3b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  1. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5 Section 3b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  2. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5 Section 3b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  3. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5 Section 3b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  4. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Ankita; Prasad, Shilpi Kumari; Pal, Swagata; Maji, Bithin; Syamal, Alak Kumar; Banerjee, Arnab; Mukherjee, Sandip

    2015-06-01

    Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/ day) with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day) or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day) alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat. PMID:27486368

  5. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Ankita; Prasad, Shilpi Kumari; Pal, Swagata; Maji, Bithin; Syamal, Alak Kumar; Banerjee, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/ day) with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day) or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day) alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat. PMID:27486368

  6. SERUM VITAMIN B12, IRON AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES IN OBESE INDIVIDUALS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT BARIATRIC TECHNIQUES

    PubMed Central

    SILVA, Rafaella de Andrade; MALTA, Flávia Monteiro França; CORREIA, Maria Flora Ferreira Sampaio Carvalho; BURGOS, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Different surgical techniques to combat obesity combine malabsorption with restrictive procedures and can lead to metabolic problems, such as micronutrient deficiencies. Aim: Assess vitamin B12, iron and folic acid deficiencies associated with the lifestyle of obese individuals having been submitted to different bariatric techniques. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the electronic charts of patients submitted to bariatric surgery involving adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at the São João Hospital Center in the city of Porto, Portugal, between 2005 and 2010. The following data were collected: surgical technique, sex, age, marital status, serum concentrations of vitamin B12, iron and folic acid and postoperative lifestyle. A 5% significance level was used for the statistical analysis (p<0.05). Results: Among 286 individuals evaluated, females accounted for 90.9% of the overall sample (both techniques). Gastric banding was performed more (68.9%), but greater nutrient deficiencies were found following gastric bypass. Iron was the most prevalent deficiency (21.3%), followed by vitamin B12 (16.9%) and folic acid (4.5%). Mild to moderate alcohol intake, adherence to the diet and the use of multivitamins reduced the frequency, but did not avoid micronutrient deficiency. Conclusion: Vitamin B12, iron and folic acid deficiencies were found in the first and second year following the two bariatric techniques analyzed and were more frequent among individuals submitted to gastric bypass. PMID:27683779

  7. Quantification of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C in inbred lines of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Suhyoung; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Lee, Min-Ki; Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang-Won; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2014-02-15

    We profiled and quantified glucosinolates (GSLs), anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C metabolites in forty-five lines of green and red cabbages. Analysis of these distinct cabbages revealed the presence of 11 GSLs, 13 anthocyanins, 22 free amino acids, and vitamin C. GSL contents were varied amongst the different lines of cabbage. The total GSL content was mean 10.6 μmol/g DW, and sinigrin was the predominant GSL accounted mean 4.0 μmol/g DW (37.7% of the total) followed by glucoraphanin (1.9) and glucobrassicin (2.4). Amongst the 13 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. The amounts of total free amino acids in green cabbage lines ranged 365.9 mg/100g fresh weight (FW) to 1089.1mg/100g FW. Vitamin C levels were much higher in red cabbage line (129.9 mg/100g FW). Thus, the amounts of GSLs, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the lines of cabbage were significant.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and antimicrobial studies of diabetic drug models: Complexes of vanadyl(II) sulfate with ascorbic acid (vitamin C), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2010-04-01

    The oxovanadium(II) complexes of the different vitamins like ascorbic acid (vitamin C; Vit. C), riboflavin (vitamin B2; Vit. B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3; Vit. B3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic, magnetic measurements, thermal studies, XRD and SEM. Conductance measurements indicated that the vanadyl(II) complexes of Vit. B2 and Vit. B3 are 1:2 electrolytes except for [VO(Vit. C) 2(H 2O) 2] complex is non-electrolyte. IR data show that Vit. B2 is bidentate ligand against azomethine nitrogen of pyrazine ring and C dbnd O of pyrimidine-2,4-dione but Vit. B3 and Vit. C acts as a monodentate ligand through pyridine nitrogen and hydroxo oxygen of furan ring, respectively. Electronic spectral measurements indicated that all VO(II) complexes have a square-pyramidal geometry. Magnetic measurements for the new vanadyl(II) complexes are in a good agreement with the proposed formula. Thermal analyses (TG/DSC) of the studied complexes show that the decomposition process takes place in more than two steps. XRD refer that VO(II) complexes have an amorphous behavior. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands and its complexes indicate that the vanadyl(II) complexes possess high antibacterial and antifungal activities towards the bacterial species and the fungal species than start ligands.

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status Enhances the Prevention of Cognitive Decline by B Vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Jernerén, Fredrik; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A. David; de Jager, Celeste A.

    2016-01-01

    A randomized trial (VITACOG) in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) found that B vitamin treatment to lower homocysteine slowed the rate of cognitive and clinical decline. We have used data from this trial to see whether baseline omega-3 fatty acid status interacts with the effects of B vitamin treatment. 266 participants with MCI aged ≥70 years were randomized to B vitamins (folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12) or placebo for 2 years. Baseline cognitive test performance, clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine, total docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (omega-3 fatty acids) were measured. Final scores for verbal delayed recall, global cognition, and CDR sum-of-boxes were better in the B vitamin-treated group according to increasing baseline concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, whereas scores in the placebo group were similar across these concentrations. Among those with good omega-3 status, 33% of those on B vitamin treatment had global CDR scores >0 compared with 59% among those on placebo. For all three outcome measures, higher concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid alone significantly enhanced the cognitive effects of B vitamins, while eicosapentaenoic acid appeared less effective. When omega-3 fatty acid concentrations are low, B vitamin treatment has no effect on cognitive decline in MCI, but when omega-3 levels are in the upper normal range, B vitamins interact to slow cognitive decline. A clinical trial of B vitamins combined with omega-3 fatty acids is needed to see whether it is possible to slow the conversion from MCI to AD. PMID:26757190

  10. Fatty acid, cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamin composition of wild and captive freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus).

    PubMed

    Harlioglu, A Gül; Aydin, S; Yilmaz, O

    2012-02-01

    The proximate analysis (dry matter, protein, fat and ash), cholesterol, fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin compositions of the tail muscle of wild caught and captive crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) were investigated. Captive crayfish contained higher moisture and fat content than wild crayfish. In contrast, wild crayfish contained a higher level of crude protein, ash and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than captive crayfish. Arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) was the major n-6 PUFA in wild A. leptodactylus, and linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was the major n-6 PUFA in captive A. leptodactylus. The percentages of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), PUFA, and n-3/n-6 ratio were higher in wild crayfish and total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were lower. Although differences existed between wild and captive crayfish in vitamins A (p < 0.001), δ-Tocopherol (p < 0.001), α-Tocopherol acetate (p < 0.05), no differences were found in vitamins D(2), D(3), α- Tocopherol and K (p > 0.05). The differences may be originated from the diet provided to captive crayfish. Since wild A. leptodactylus contained higher n-3/n-6 ratio than captive A. leptodactylus, crayfish farms can potentially produce a better quality of crayfish meat by increasing the PUFA n-3 (especially DHA and EPA) in the diets of A. leptodactylus.

  11. Effects of intramuscular administration of folic acid and vitamin B12 on granulosa cells gene expression in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A; Khan, D R; Sirard, M-A; Girard, C L; Laforest, J-P; Richard, F J

    2015-11-01

    The fertility of dairy cows is challenged during early lactation, and better nutritional strategies need to be developed to address this issue. Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 improve energy metabolism in the dairy cow during early lactation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of this supplement on gene expression in granulosa cells from the dominant follicle during the postpartum period. Multiparous Holstein cows received weekly intramuscular injection of 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12 (treated group) beginning 24 (standard deviation=4) d before calving until 56 d after calving, whereas the control group received saline. The urea plasma concentration was significantly decreased during the precalving period, and the concentration of both folate and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Milk production and dry matter intake were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Plasma concentrations of folates and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Daily dry matter intake was not significantly different between the 2 groups before [13.5 kg; standard error (SE)=0.5] and after (23.6 kg; SE=0.9) calving. Average energy-corrected milk tended to be greater in vitamin-treated cows, 39.7 (SE=1.4) and 38.1 (SE=1.3) kg/d for treated and control cows, respectively. After calving, average plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate tended to be lower in cows injected with the vitamin supplement, 0.47 (SE=0.04) versus 0.55 (SE=0.03) for treated and control cows, respectively. The ovarian follicle ≥12 mm in diameter was collected by ovum pick-up after estrus synchronization. Recovered follicular fluid volumes were greater in the vitamin-treated group. A microarray platform was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression of granulosa cells. Lower expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and higher expression of genes associated with granulosa cell differentiation

  12. Vitamin A increases nerve growth factor and retinoic acid receptor beta and improves diabetic neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Ordoñez, Graciela; Pineda, Benjamin; Rangel-López, Edgar; Salazar-Ramiro, Aleli; Arrieta, Oscar; Sotelo, Julio

    2014-09-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) promotes the endogenous expression of both nerve growth factor (NGF) and retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-β). We have previously shown that the administration of ATRA partly reverts the damage induced by diabetic neuropathy (DN). In this investigation, we evaluated the effects of vitamin A, a commercial, inexpensive compound of retinoic acid, on the therapy of DN. A total of 70 rats were randomized into 4 groups. Group A was the control, and groups B, C, and D received a total dose of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin intraperitoneally. When signs of DN developed, groups C and D were treated either with vitamin A (20,000 IU) or with ATRA 25 mg/kg for 60 days. Plasma glucose, contents of NGF, thermal and nociceptive tests, and RAR-β expression were evaluated. All diabetic rats developed neuropathy. The treatment with vitamin A and ATRA reverted similarly the sensorial disturbances, which was associated with increased contents of NGF and RAR-β expression. Our results indicate that the administration of vitamin A has the same therapeutic effect as ATRA on peripheral neuropathy and suggest its potential therapeutic use in patients with diabetes.

  13. Effect of long-term supplementation with folic acid and B vitamins on risk of depression in older women

    PubMed Central

    Okereke, Olivia I.; Cook, Nancy R.; Albert, Christine M.; Van Denburgh, Martin; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Homocysteine-lowering nutrients may have preventive/ameliorative roles in depression. Aims To test whether long-term B-vitamin/folate supplementation reduces depression risk. Method Participants were 4331 women (mean age 63.6 years), without prior depression, from the Women’s Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study – a randomised controlled trial of cardiovascular disease prevention among 5442 women. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a combination of folic acid (2.5 mg/d), vitamin B6 (50 mg/d) and vitamin B12 (1 mg/d) or a matching placebo. Average treatment duration was 7 years. The outcome was incident depression, defined as self-reported physician/clinician-diagnosed depression or clinically significant depressive symptoms. Results There were 524 incident cases. There was no difference between active v. placebo groups in depression risk (adjusted relative risk 1.02, 95% CI 0.86–1.21, P = 0.81), despite significant homocysteine level reduction. Conclusions Long-term, high-dose, daily supplementation with folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 did not reduce overall depression risk in mid-life and older women. PMID:25573400

  14. Circulating B-Vitamins and Smoking Habits Are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Patients with Suspected Coronary Heart Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Skeie, Eli; Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva R.; Bjørndal, Bodil; Bohov, Pavol; Berge, Rolf K.; Svingen, Gard F. T.; Seifert, Reinhard; Ueland, Per M.; Midttun, Øivind; Ulvik, Arve; Hustad, Steinar; Drevon, Christian A.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Nygård, Ottar

    2015-01-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to be of major health importance, and recent studies indicate that their endogenous metabolism is influenced by B-vitamin status and smoking habits. We investigated the associations of circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits with serum polyunsaturated fatty acids among 1,366 patients who underwent coronary angiography due to suspected coronary heart disease at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway. Of these, 52% provided information on dietary habits by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were assessed using partial correlation (Spearman’s rho). In the total population, the concentrations of most circulating B-vitamins were positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the associations between B-vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids tended to be weaker in smokers. This could not be solely explained by differences in dietary intake. Furthermore, plasma cotinine, a marker of recent nicotine exposure, showed a negative relationship with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a positive relationship with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, circulating B-vitamins are, in contrast to plasma cotinine, generally positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease. Further studies should investigate whether B-vitamin status and smoking habits may modify the clinical effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. PMID:26039046

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for profiling 2-oxo acids in urine and its application in evaluating vitamin status in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Nakata, Chifumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    B-group vitamins are involved in the catabolism of 2-oxo acids. To identify the functional biomarkers of B-group vitamins, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for profiling 2-oxo acids in urine and applied this method to urine samples from rats deficient in vitamins B1 and B6 and pantothenic acid. 2-Oxo acids were reacted with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenebenzene to produce fluorescent derivatives, which were then separated using a TSKgel ODS-80Ts column with 30 mmol/L of KH2PO4 (pH 3.0):acetonitrile (7:3) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Vitamin B1 deficiency increased urinary levels of all 2-oxo acids, while vitamin B6 deficiency only increased levels of sum of 2-oxaloacetic acid and pyruvic acid, and pantothenic acid deficiency only increased levels of 2-oxoisovaleric acid. Profiles of 2-oxo acids in urine samples might be a non-invasive way of clarifying the functional biomarker of B-group vitamins.

  16. Effect of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in rats: A multigeneration study.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p < 0.01) NGF in the cortex but not BDNF levels although the cognition was impaired (p < 0.01). In contrast, in the BDO group, higher NGF levels were observed in the hippocampus and animals demonstrated improved (p < 0.01) cognitive performance. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p < 0.05). These animals showed more reference and working memory errors (p < 0.01) as compared to the control group. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p < 0.01) levels of DHA and NGF in the hippocampus, higher BDNF in both hippocampus and cortex and improved cognitive performance. Our findings have implications for fortification of foods with vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development.

  17. Effect of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in rats: A multigeneration study.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p < 0.01) NGF in the cortex but not BDNF levels although the cognition was impaired (p < 0.01). In contrast, in the BDO group, higher NGF levels were observed in the hippocampus and animals demonstrated improved (p < 0.01) cognitive performance. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p < 0.05). These animals showed more reference and working memory errors (p < 0.01) as compared to the control group. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p < 0.01) levels of DHA and NGF in the hippocampus, higher BDNF in both hippocampus and cortex and improved cognitive performance. Our findings have implications for fortification of foods with vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development. PMID:27569259

  18. A combination of omega-3 fatty acids, folic acid and B-group vitamins is superior at lowering homocysteine than omega-3 alone: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Samantha Loren; Bowe, Steven John; Crowe, Timothy Charles

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alone or in combination with folic acid and B-group vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine. The Medline Ovid, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized-controlled trial studies that intervened with omega-3 supplementation (with or without folic acid) and measured changes in homocysteine concentration. Studies were pooled using a random effects model for meta-analysis. Three different models were analyzed: all trials combined, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid trials, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with folic acid and B-group vitamin trials. Nineteen studies were included, consisting of 3267 participants completing 21 trials. Studies were heterogeneous; varying by dose, duration and participant health conditions. Across all trials, omega-3 supplementation was effective in lowering homocysteine by an average of 1.18μmol/L (95%CI: (-1.89, -0.48), P=.001). The average homocysteine-lowering effect was greater when omega-3 supplementation was combined with folic acid and B-group vitamins (-1.37μmol/L, 95%CI: (-2.38, -0.36), P<.01) compared to omega-3 supplementation alone (-1.09μmol/L 95%CI: (-2.04, -0.13), P=.03). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation was associated with a modest reduction in homocysteine. For the purposes of reducing homocysteine, a combination of omega-3s (0.2-6g/day), folic acid (150 - 2500μg/day) and vitamins B6 and B12 may be more effective than omega-3 supplementation alone.

  19. A combination of omega-3 fatty acids, folic acid and B-group vitamins is superior at lowering homocysteine than omega-3 alone: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Samantha Loren; Bowe, Steven John; Crowe, Timothy Charles

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alone or in combination with folic acid and B-group vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine. The Medline Ovid, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized-controlled trial studies that intervened with omega-3 supplementation (with or without folic acid) and measured changes in homocysteine concentration. Studies were pooled using a random effects model for meta-analysis. Three different models were analyzed: all trials combined, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid trials, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with folic acid and B-group vitamin trials. Nineteen studies were included, consisting of 3267 participants completing 21 trials. Studies were heterogeneous; varying by dose, duration and participant health conditions. Across all trials, omega-3 supplementation was effective in lowering homocysteine by an average of 1.18μmol/L (95%CI: (-1.89, -0.48), P=.001). The average homocysteine-lowering effect was greater when omega-3 supplementation was combined with folic acid and B-group vitamins (-1.37μmol/L, 95%CI: (-2.38, -0.36), P<.01) compared to omega-3 supplementation alone (-1.09μmol/L 95%CI: (-2.04, -0.13), P=.03). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation was associated with a modest reduction in homocysteine. For the purposes of reducing homocysteine, a combination of omega-3s (0.2-6g/day), folic acid (150 - 2500μg/day) and vitamins B6 and B12 may be more effective than omega-3 supplementation alone. PMID:27188895

  20. Fatty acid-binding site environments of serum vitamin D-binding protein and albumin are different

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Narasimha; Ray, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and albumin (ALB) are abundant serum proteins and both possess high-affinity binding for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. However, certain differences exist. We surmised that in cases where serum albumin level is low, DBP presumably can act as a transporter of fatty acids. To explore this possibility we synthesized several alkylating derivatives of 14C-palmitic acid to probe the fatty acid binding pockets of DBP and ALB. We observed that N-ethyl-5-phenylisooxazolium-3′-sulfonate-ester (WRK ester) of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled DBP; but p-nitrophenyl- and N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-esters failed to do so. However, p-nitrophenyl ester of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled bovine ALB, indicating that the micro-environment of the fatty acid-binding domains of DBP and ALB may be different; and DBP may not replace ALB as a transporter of fatty acids. PMID:18374965

  1. [Correction of polyhypovitaminosis in rats, having standard and enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids family omega-3 diets with different doses of vitamins].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Preverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of the correction of combined alimentary vitamin deficit in male Wistar rats (body weight 90-121 g) fed standard diet or enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids diet (by replacing sunflower oil (4.5% of the diet) with linseed oil) with different doses (physiological and enhanced) of vitamins has been investigated. The control group of animals (n = 12) received a complete semisynthetic diet during all experimental period (42 d). The animals of the test groups (each of 20 rats) received vitamin-deficient diet containing sunflower or linseed oil and 20% per cent of vitamin mixture amount in control diet from which vitamin E had been excluded. After 28 days of such feeding each of test groups was divided into two subgroups (6-8 rats in each), and the next 14 days the animals of subgroups received the diet with different degree of vitamin compensation (50 or 180% percent of vitamin content in the diet of the control group). The addition of both low and high vitamin dose in deficient diet based on standard fat component did not compensate the reduced liver vitamin A content, which amounted to 47.4% of the level in the liver of the control group. The lack of vitamin E in animals was eliminated only after adding of the enhanced dose of vitamin E to the ration. Recovering of decreased plasma and liver B2 level, plasma 25(OH)D and liver vitamin B1 content have been occurred after addition of the low dose of these vitamins to rat diet. Increasing of omega-3 PUFA diet level improved vitamins A and D sufficiency to some extent, but was accompanied by the significant reduction of rat liver alfa-tocopherol content both under combined vitamin deficiency (by 14%) and increased vitamins consumption (by 43%). PUFA enrichment of the diet of rats with vitamin deficiency had no impact on vitamin B1 and B2 liver level. The use of high doses of vitamins for a long time to eliminate a combined deficiency of vitamins has been proved.

  2. Isotope-dilution assay for urinary methylmalonic acid in the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. A prospective clinical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Matchar, D.B.; Feussner, J.R.; Millington, D.S.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Watson, D.J.; Gale, D.

    1987-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a frequently considered diagnosis for which there is no single, commonly available and accurate test. A urinary methylmalonic acid assay using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed as the preferred test. We reviewed vitamin B12 assays on 1599 consecutive patients and prospectively studied all patients with low serum B12 levels (n = 75) and a random sample of patients with normal levels (n = 68). Of 96 evaluable patients, 7 had clinical deficiency. All 7 deficient patients had urinary methylmalonic acid levels greater than 5 micrograms/mg creatine (sensitivity, 100%; confidence interval, 65% to 100%). Of the 89 patients who were not clinically deficient, 88 had urinary methylmalonic acid levels less than or equal to 5 micrograms/mg creatinine (specificity, 99%). The overall test accuracy in this population was 99%. If the high sensitivity and specificity of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for urinary methylmalonic acid is supported by other clinical studies, the methylmalonic acid assay may become the reference standard for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  3. Regulation of vitamin D receptor expression by retinoic acid receptor alpha in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Marchwicka, Aleksandra; Cebrat, Małgorzata; Łaszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Śnieżewski, Łukasz; Brown, Geoffrey; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the predominant acute leukemia among adults, characterized by an accumulation of malignant immature myeloid precursors. A very promising way to treat AML is differentiation therapy using either all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), or the use of both these differentiation-inducing agents. However, the effect of combination treatment varies in different AML cell lines, and this is due to ATRA either down- or up-regulating transcription of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the cells examined. The mechanism of transcriptional regulation of VDR in response to ATRA has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) is responsible for regulating VDR transcription in AML cells. We have shown that a VDR transcriptional variant, originating in exon 1a, is regulated by RARα agonists in AML cells. Moreover, in cells with a high basal level of RARα protein, the VDR gene is transcriptionally repressed as long as RARα agonist is absent. In these cells down-regulation of the level of RARα leads to increased expression of VDR. We consider that our findings provide a mechanistic background to explain the different outcomes from treating AML cell lines with a combination of ATRA and 1,25D. PMID:26969398

  4. Retinol kinetics in unsupplemented and vitamin A-retinoic acid supplemented neonatal rats: a preliminary model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Libo; Wray, Amanda E.; Green, Michael H.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) metabolism in neonates is virtually uncharacterized. Our objective was to develop a compartmental model of VA metabolism in unsupplemented and VA-supplemented neonatal rats. On postnatal day 4, pups (n = 3/time) received 11,12-[3H]retinol orally, in either oil (control) or VA combined with retinoic acid (VARA) [VA (∼6 mg/kg body weight) + 10% retinoic acid]. Plasma and tissues were collected at 14 time points up to 14 days after dose administration. VARA supplementation rapidly, but transiently, increased total retinol mass in plasma, liver, and lung. It decreased the peak fraction of the dose in plasma. A multi-compartmental model developed to fit plasma [3H]retinol data predicted more extensive recycling of retinol between plasma and tissues in neonates compared with that reported in adults (144 vs. 12–13 times). In VARA pups, the recycling number for retinol between plasma and tissues (100 times) and the time that retinol spent in plasma were both lower compared with controls; VARA also stimulated the uptake of plasma VA into extravascular tissues. A VARA perturbation model indicated that the effect of VARA in stimulating VA uptake into tissues in neonates is both dramatic and transient. PMID:24711633

  5. Isolation of Nicotinic Acid (Vitamin B3) and N-Propylamine after Myosmine Peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Zwickenpflug, Wolfgang; Högg, Christof; Feierfeil, Johannes; Dachs, Manuel; Gudermann, Thomas

    2016-01-13

    The alkaloid myosmine (3-(1-pyrroline-2-yl)pyridine) is widespread in biological matrixes including foodstuffs and tobacco products. Some in vitro tests in cellular systems showed mutagenic activity for myosmine. Myosmine activation including peroxidation mechanism employs unstable oxazirane intermediates. The formation of minor metabolite 3-hydroxymethyl-pyridine in rat metabolism experiments as well as in in vitro peroxidation assays suggests its further oxidation to nicotinic acid and possible concomitant formation of n-propylamine. A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for the direct analysis of n-propylamine in the peroxidation assay solution of myosmine employing derivatization with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride. Additionally, during peroxidation procedures, formation of 3-pyridylmethanol to nicotinic acid, the essential vitamin B3, was observed and characterized using HPLC-UV and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This new reaction pathway may present further contribution to our knowledge of myosmine's significance in human food including its activation in human organism, foodstuffs, and biological systems. PMID:26673015

  6. Vitamin B(12) deficiency stimulates osteoclastogenesis via increased homocysteine and methylmalonic acid.

    PubMed

    Vaes, Bart L T; Lute, Carolien; Blom, Henk J; Bravenboer, Nathalie; de Vries, Teun J; Everts, Vincent; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A; Müller, Michael; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2009-05-01

    The risk of nutrient deficiencies increases with age in our modern Western society, and vitamin B(12) deficiency is especially prevalent in the elderly and causes increased homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. These three factors have been recognized as risk factors for reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk, though mechanistic evidence is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the influence of B(12), Hcy, and MMA on differentiation and activity of bone cells. B(12) deficiency did not affect the onset of osteoblast differentiation, maturation, matrix mineralization, or adipocyte differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). B(12) deficiency caused an increase in the secretion of Hcy and MMA into the culture medium by osteoblasts, but Hcy and MMA appeared to have no effect on hMSC osteoblast differentiation. We further studied the effect of B(12), Hcy, and MMA on the formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow. We observed that B(12) did not show an effect on osteoclastogenesis. However, Hcy as well as MMA were found to induce osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. On the basis of these results, we conclude that B(12) deficiency may lead to decreased bone mass by increased osteoclast formation due to increased MMA and Hcy levels.

  7. Fatty acid profile and meat quality of young bulls fed ground soybean or ground cottonseed and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Machado Neto, O R; Chizzotti, M L; Ramos, E M; Oliveira, D M; Lanna, D P D; Ribeiro, J S; Lopes, L S; Descalzo, A M; Amorim, T R; Ladeira, M M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile and qualitative characteristics of meat from feedlot young bulls fed ground soybean or ground cottonseed, with or without supplementation of vitamin E. A total of 40 Red Norte young bulls, with an initial average age of 20 months, and an initial average BW of 339±15 kg, were allotted in a completely randomized design using a 2×2 factorial arrangement, with two oilseeds, and daily supplementation or not of 2500 IU of vitamin E. The experimental period was for 84 days, which was preceded by an adaptation period of 28 days. The treatments were ground soybean (SB), ground soybean plus vitamin E (SBE), ground cottonseed (CS) and ground cottonseed plus vitamin E (CSE). The percentage of cottonseed and soybean in the diets (dry matter basis) was 24% and 20%, respectively. Diets were isonitrogenous (13% CP) and presented similar amount of ether extract (6.5%). The animals were slaughtered at average live weight of 464±15 kg, and samples were taken from the longissimus dorsi muscle for the measurement of fatty acid concentration and the evaluation of lipid oxidation and color of the beef. Before fatty acid extraction, muscle tissue and subcutaneous fat of the longissimus dorsi were separated to analyze fatty acid profile in both tissues. Supplementation of vitamin E did not affect fatty acid concentration, lipid oxidation and color (P>0.05). Subcutaneous fat from animals fed CS diet had greater C12:0, C16:0 and C18:0 contents (P<0.03). In addition, CS diets reduced the C18:1 and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 contents in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05). The muscle from animals fed CS tended to higher C16:0 and C18:0 contents (P<0.11), and decreased C18:1, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18:3 contents (P<0.05) compared with SB. The Δ9-desaturase index was greater in muscle from animals fed SB (P<0.01). At 42 days of age, meat from cattle fed SB had a greater lipid oxidation rate (P<0.05). Meat from animals fed SB diets had

  8. Fatty acid profile and meat quality of young bulls fed ground soybean or ground cottonseed and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Machado Neto, O R; Chizzotti, M L; Ramos, E M; Oliveira, D M; Lanna, D P D; Ribeiro, J S; Lopes, L S; Descalzo, A M; Amorim, T R; Ladeira, M M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile and qualitative characteristics of meat from feedlot young bulls fed ground soybean or ground cottonseed, with or without supplementation of vitamin E. A total of 40 Red Norte young bulls, with an initial average age of 20 months, and an initial average BW of 339±15 kg, were allotted in a completely randomized design using a 2×2 factorial arrangement, with two oilseeds, and daily supplementation or not of 2500 IU of vitamin E. The experimental period was for 84 days, which was preceded by an adaptation period of 28 days. The treatments were ground soybean (SB), ground soybean plus vitamin E (SBE), ground cottonseed (CS) and ground cottonseed plus vitamin E (CSE). The percentage of cottonseed and soybean in the diets (dry matter basis) was 24% and 20%, respectively. Diets were isonitrogenous (13% CP) and presented similar amount of ether extract (6.5%). The animals were slaughtered at average live weight of 464±15 kg, and samples were taken from the longissimus dorsi muscle for the measurement of fatty acid concentration and the evaluation of lipid oxidation and color of the beef. Before fatty acid extraction, muscle tissue and subcutaneous fat of the longissimus dorsi were separated to analyze fatty acid profile in both tissues. Supplementation of vitamin E did not affect fatty acid concentration, lipid oxidation and color (P>0.05). Subcutaneous fat from animals fed CS diet had greater C12:0, C16:0 and C18:0 contents (P<0.03). In addition, CS diets reduced the C18:1 and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 contents in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05). The muscle from animals fed CS tended to higher C16:0 and C18:0 contents (P<0.11), and decreased C18:1, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18:3 contents (P<0.05) compared with SB. The Δ9-desaturase index was greater in muscle from animals fed SB (P<0.01). At 42 days of age, meat from cattle fed SB had a greater lipid oxidation rate (P<0.05). Meat from animals fed SB diets had

  9. Altered brain neurotrophins at birth: consequence of imbalance in maternal folic acid and vitamin B₁₂ metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sable, P; Dangat, K; Kale, A; Joshi, S

    2011-09-01

    Folic acid fortification to pregnant women is suggested to mask vitamin B₁₂ deficiency leading to adverse neurologic consequences. The present study examines the effect of maternal folic acid supplementation at normal and excess levels both in the presence and absence of vitamin B₁₂ on levels and expression of brain neurotrophins in Wistar Albino rats. Pregnant female rats were assigned to six dietary groups with varying levels of folic acid and vitamin B₁₂, that is, (NFB: 2 mg folic acid+B₁₂; NFBD: 2 mg folic acid-B₁₂; EFB: 8 mg folic acid+B₁₂; EFBD: 8 mg folic acid-B₁₂; NFBDO: 2 mg folic acid-B₁₂+DHA and EFBDO: 8 mg folic acid-B₁₂+DHA). On day 20 of gestation pup brain samples were collected to assess protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). Brain BDNF protein and mRNA levels were reduced (P<0.01 for both) in the EFBD group as compared to control. However, NGF protein levels were reduced (P<0.05) only in the EFBD group in comparison to EFB and control. Maternal supplementation of DHA improved pup brain NGF protein levels only in the NFBDO (P<0.05) and EFBDO (P<0.05) groups compared to NFBD and EFBD respectively. Our results suggest that maternal micronutrients during pregnancy play an important role in regulating protein and mRNA levels of neurotrophins. Maternal DHA supplementation to a micronutrient imbalanced diet could ameliorate the negative effects only for NGF but not for BDNF. PMID:21640168

  10. Gallic acid as a protective antioxidant against anthocyanin degradation and color loss in vitamin-C fortified cranberry juice.

    PubMed

    Roidoung, Sunisa; Dolan, Kirk D; Siddiq, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different antioxidants for anthocyanin (ACY) retention in vitamin C fortified cranberry juice and assess its quality. Cranberry juice was fortified with 40-80mg/100mL vitamin C and added hesperidin, catechin, and gallic acid at different concentrations. Juice was pasteurized at 85°C for 1min and stored at 23°C for 16days. ACYs, vitamin C, color intensity, and browning index (BI) were evaluated at 2-day intervals. Gallic acid was found to be the most effective antioxidant against ACYs degradation and significantly (p<0.05) increased red color intensity by 37% and ACY concentration by 41%, compared to the control. After 16-day storage, the BI of gallic acid-added juice was significantly lower (0.80 vs 1.00) than the control juice. The outcome of this research provided a potential solution of using gallic acid to preserve a health-beneficial component (ACYs), and endogenous red color in cranberry juice.

  11. A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folate, ascorbic acid, and mercury metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C on the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride was studied in guinea pigs. The incorporation of high levels of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C resulted in a decrease in both inorganic mercury and methylmercury concentrations in all tissues except the lungs and heart compared to controls. However, percent methylmercury levels tended to increase with vitamin treatment. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with the other vitamins resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver, spleen, and kidney tissues of the guinea pig. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver, heart, and kidney. Incorporation of high levels of folate into the dietary regime also affected the mercury methylation process particularly in the liver, heart, kidney and hair tissues. However, this effect was observed most often in animals fed both B{sub 12} and folate. Vitamin C appears to play a synergistic role with vitamin B{sub 12} and/or folate in the methylation of mercury.

  12. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio and vitamin E on semen quality, fatty acid composition and antioxidant status in boars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Zhou, Y F; Duan, R J; Wei, H K; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio and vitamin E on the semen quality, FA composition and antioxidant status of boars. Forty-eight Landrace boars were randomly distributed in a 3×2 factorial design with three n-6:n-3 FA ratios (14.4, 6.6 and 2.2) by the inclusion of three oil sources (soybean, fish/soybean, fish) and two vitamin E levels (200 and 400mg/kg). During the 8 weeks of treatment, semen parameters were evaluated. Serum, sperm and seminal plasma samples were taken at 0 and 8 weeks to monitor the FA composition and antioxidant status. Results showed that the 6.6 and 2.2 dietary ratios very effectively increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and decreased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and n-6:n-3 ratio in spermatozoa. The 6.6 dietary ratio contributed to a greater progressive sperm motility (P<0.05) than the 14.4 and 2.2 dietary ratio, and this ratio also enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P<0.05) in seminal plasma more significantly than the other two ratios at week 8. Compared with 200mg/kg supplementation of vitamin E, 400mg/kg supplementation of vitamin E increased the progressive sperm motility, SOD of sperm, TAC and SOD of seminal plasma and serum, and decreased sperm malondialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the 6.6 dietary ratio and 400mg/kg vitamin E supplementation improve progressive sperm motility by modifying the sperm FA composition and antioxidant status.

  13. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 supplementation on brain docosahexaenoic acid, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and cognitive performance in the second-generation Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-01-01

    In vegetarian population, vitamin B12 deficiency coexists with suboptimal levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies indicate a need for supplementation/fortification of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of brain disorders. We have described the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in F1 generation animals. The current study investigates the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on brain function and cognition. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient (BD), vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (BS), vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The same diets were continued for two generations. BDO group showed higher (P < 0.05) levels of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in the cortex and hippocampus as compared with the BD group. The cognitive performance was also normalized in this group. BS showed comparable levels of DHA, BDNF (protein and mRNA), and CREB mRNA (cAMP response element-binding protein) to that of control group while Tropomyosin receptor kinase mRNA levels were higher. The combined vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation further enhanced the levels of DHA (P < 0.05) and BDNF (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus and CREB mRNA (P < 0.01) in the cortex as compared with BS group. The cognitive performance of these animals was higher (P < 0.05) as compared with BS group. Our data indicates the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across two generations on brain development and function.

  14. Vitamin U, a novel free radical scavenger, prevents lens injury in rats administered with valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Tunali, S; Kahraman, S; Yanardag, R

    2015-09-01

    Valproic acid (2-propyl-pentanoic acid, VPA) is the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drug due to its ability to treat a broad spectrum of seizure types. VPA exhibits various side effects such as organ toxicity, teratogenicity, and visual disturbances. S-Methylmethioninesulfonium is a derivative of the amino acid methionine and it is widely referred to as vitamin U (Vit U). This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Vit U on lens damage parameters of rats exposed to VPA. Female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Group I comprised control animals. Group II included control rats supplemented with Vit U (50 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Group III was given only VPA (500 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Group IV was given VPA + Vit U (in same dose and time). Vit U was given to rats by gavage and VPA was given intraperitoneally. On the 16th day of experiment, all the animals which were fasted overnight were killed. Lens was taken from animals, homogenized in 0.9% saline to make up to 10% (w/v) homogenate. The homogenates were used for protein, glutathione, lipid peroxidation levels, and antioxidant enzymes activities. Lens lipid peroxidation levels and aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were increased in VPA group. On the other hand, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and paraoxonase activities were decreased in VPA groups. Treatment with Vit U reversed these effects. This study showed that Vit U exerted antioxidant properties and may prevent lens damage caused by VPA.

  15. Expression of retinoic acid nuclear receptors and tissue transglutaminase is altered in various tissues of rats fed a vitamin A-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Shoemaker, A; Simsiman, R; Denning, M; Zachman, R D

    1992-11-01

    The effects of vitamin A nutritional status on the levels of expression of retinoic acid nuclear receptors (RAR), and the retinoic acid-responsive gene, tissue transglutaminase, were determined in rats. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a vitamin A-deficient diet for approximately 7 wk developed vitamin A deficiency, as confirmed by the depletion of liver retinol and retinyl palmitate. Controls were fed the same diet supplemented with 24 mg/kg retinyl acetate. The levels of expression of RAR beta mRNA were approximately 80% lower in bladder, brain, liver, lung and trachea and those of RAR gamma mRNA were approximately 50% lower in bladder, lung and trachea of rats fed the vitamin A-deficient diet than in controls. The levels of expression of RAR alpha mRNA were approximately 90% lower in brain and approximately 30% greater in liver, kidney, intestine and lung of rats fed the vitamin A-deficient diet. Vitamin A deficiency also resulted in reduced expression of tissue transglutaminase in the bladder, lungs and trachea, which paralleled the effects observed for RAR beta and RAR gamma. When vitamin A-deficient rats were subsequently fed a retinol-deficient diet supplemented with retinoic acid for 4 wk, the expression of RAR (beta and gamma) and tissue transglutaminase returned to the control levels. These results indicate that vitamin A nutritional status in rats influences the expression of both RAR and tissue transglutaminase in certain tissues. PMID:1279143

  16. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  17. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Musazcan Özcan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  18. Effect of Oral Vitamin C Supplementation on Serum Uric Acid: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Juraschek, Stephen P.; Miller, Edgar R.; Gelber, Allan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of vitamin C supplementation on serum uric acid (SUA) by pooling the findings from published randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). Methods A total of 2,082 publications identified through systematic search were subjected to the following inclusion criteria: (1) RCTs conducted on human subjects; (2) reported end-trial SUA means and variance; (3) study design with oral vitamin C supplementation and concurrent control groups; and (4) trial duration of at least one week. Trials that enrolled children or patients on dialysis were excluded. Two investigators independently abstracted trial and participant characteristics. SUA effects were pooled by random-effects models and weighted by inverse variance. Results Thirteen RCTs were identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases. The total number of participants was 556, median dose of vitamin C was 500 mg/d, trial size ranged from 8 to 184 participants, and median study duration was 30 days. Pretreatment SUA values ranged from 2.9 to 7.0 mg/dL (SI: 172.5 – 416.4 μmol/L). The combined effect of these trials was a significant reduction in SUA of -0.35 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.66, -0.03; P = 0.032; SI: -20.8 μmol/L). Trial heterogeneity was significant (I2 = 77%; P < 0.01). Subgroup analyses based on trial characteristics indicated larger reductions in uric acid in trials that were placebo-controlled. Conclusions In aggregate, vitamin C supplementation significantly lowered SUA. Future trials are needed to determine whether vitamin C supplementation can reduce hyperuricemia or prevent incident and recurrent gout. PMID:21671418

  19. Effects of vitamins, coenzymes and amino acids on reactions of homolytic cleavage of the O-glycoside bond in carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Shadyro, O I; Kisel, R M; Vysotskii, V V; Edimecheva, I P

    2006-09-15

    It has been established that vitamins B1, K3 and C, coenzyme Q0 and amino acids cysteine and histidine effectively inhibit reactions of homolytic cleavage of the O-glycoside bond, which are responsible for the destruction of di- and polysaccharides on gamma-irradiation or the action of other reactive radical initiators. This effect was shown to originate from either oxidation or reduction of the radicals of carbohydrates undergoing destruction.

  20. Vitamin supplementation and megadoses.

    PubMed

    Blair, K A

    1986-07-01

    Almost one-third of American adults regularly take vitamins and supplements. If taken incorrectly or in excess, these vitamins may be a potential health hazard. Vitamins are essential nutrients which, in combination with other nutrients (e.g., fats, carbohydrates and proteins), foster normal metabolism. Vitamins also interact with each other. For example, vitamin C participates in the metabolism of folic acid, and vitamin E facilitates the absorption and storage of vitamin A. Because the biological functions of vitamins are interrelated, a diet poor in vitamins, carbohydrates, fats and proteins is not necessarily enhanced by vitamin supplementation. When vitamins are taken in excess of the Recommended Dietary Allowances or the individual's needs, the vitamins no longer function as vitamins but instead act as drugs, with such pharmacological effects as clinical toxicities and the abnormal utilization of vitamins. There are six categories that require vitamin supplements and, in some cases, megadoses. These will be discussed in detail. In addition, a brief table showing the Recommended Dietary Allowances will be given which the nurse practitioner can use in assessing nutritional needs of the client so that necessary adjustments can be made. Finally, a brief review of the potential risks and benefits of megadoses in normal, healthy adults will be given. PMID:3737019

  1. The combination of vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids has an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect on microglia.

    PubMed

    Kurtys, E; Eisel, U L M; Verkuyl, J M; Broersen, L M; Dierckx, R A J O; de Vries, E F J

    2016-10-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common phenomenon in the pathology of many brain diseases. In this paper we explore whether selected vitamins and fatty acids known to modulate inflammation exert an effect on microglia, the key cell type involved in neuroinflammation. Previously these nutrients have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory properties acting on specific inflammatory pathways. We hypothesized that combining nutrients acting on converging anti-inflammatory pathways may lead to enhanced anti-inflammatory properties as compared to the action of a single nutrient. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of combinations of nutrients based on the ability to inhibit the LPS-induced release of nitric oxide and interleukin-6 from BV-2 cells. Results show that omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins A and D can individually reduce the LPS-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by BV-2 cells. Moreover, we show that vitamins A, D and omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic) at concentrations where they individually had little effect, significantly reduced the secretion of the inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, when they were combined. The conclusion of this study is that combining different nutrients acting on convergent anti-inflammatory pathways may result in an increased anti-inflammatory efficacy. PMID:27465516

  2. The combination of vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids has an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect on microglia.

    PubMed

    Kurtys, E; Eisel, U L M; Verkuyl, J M; Broersen, L M; Dierckx, R A J O; de Vries, E F J

    2016-10-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common phenomenon in the pathology of many brain diseases. In this paper we explore whether selected vitamins and fatty acids known to modulate inflammation exert an effect on microglia, the key cell type involved in neuroinflammation. Previously these nutrients have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory properties acting on specific inflammatory pathways. We hypothesized that combining nutrients acting on converging anti-inflammatory pathways may lead to enhanced anti-inflammatory properties as compared to the action of a single nutrient. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of combinations of nutrients based on the ability to inhibit the LPS-induced release of nitric oxide and interleukin-6 from BV-2 cells. Results show that omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins A and D can individually reduce the LPS-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by BV-2 cells. Moreover, we show that vitamins A, D and omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic) at concentrations where they individually had little effect, significantly reduced the secretion of the inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, when they were combined. The conclusion of this study is that combining different nutrients acting on convergent anti-inflammatory pathways may result in an increased anti-inflammatory efficacy.

  3. Interleukin-1 family members are enhanced in psoriasis and suppressed by vitamin D and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Balato, Anna; Schiattarella, Maria; Lembo, Serena; Mattii, Martina; Prevete, Nella; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 family comprise 11 members that play an important role in immune regulation and inflammatory process. Retinoids exert complex effects on the immune system, having anti-inflammatory effects in chronic dermatological diseases. Vitamin D (vitD) and analogs have been shown to suppress TNF-α-induced IL-1α in human keratinocytes (KCs). In the present study, we investigated IL-1 family members in psoriasis and the effects of vitD and retinoic acid (RA) on these members. We analyzed IL-1 family members gene expression in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ culture exposed to TNF-α, IL-17 or broadband UVB; afterwards, treatment with vitD or RA was performed and IL-1 family members mRNA was evaluated. Similarly, KCs were stimulated with IL-17 and subsequently treated with vitD. IL-1 family members were enhanced in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ cultures after pro-inflammatory stimuli (TNF-α, IL-17 and UVB). RA and vitD were able to suppress this enhancement.

  4. Preparation and characterization of nanoliposomes entrapping medium-chain fatty acids and vitamin C by lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuibing; Liu, Chengmei; Liu, Wei; Yu, Haixia; Zheng, Huijuan; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-01-01

    The complex nanoliposomes encapsulating both a hydrophilic drug vitamin C (vit C) and hydrophobic drug medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was prepared by combining double emulsion method with dynamic high pressure microfluidization. The complex nanoliposomes was further freeze-dried under -86 °C for 48 h with sucrose at the sucrose/lipids ratio of 2:1(w/w) in order to enhance its stability. The freeze-dried complex nanoliposomes under the suitable conditions exhibited high entrapment efficiency of MCFAs (44.26 ± 3.34)%, relatively high entrapment efficiency of vit C (62.25 ± 3.43)%, low average size diameter (110.4 ± 7.28) nm and good storage stability at 4 °C for 60 days with slight changes in mean particle diameter and drug entrapment efficiencies. The results of transmission electron microscopy of freeze-dried complex nanoliposomes also showed that the freeze-dried samples with sucrose were stable without great increase in their particle sizes and without destroying their spherical shape. The results indicated that sucrose presented well protection effects in MCFAs-vit C complex nanoliposomes, suggesting the possibility of further usage in commercial liposomes. PMID:24084723

  5. Effect of nicotinamide on amino acids content in bone collagen depending on biological availability of vitamins in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Guzyk, M M; Sergiichuk, Iu T; Dyakun, K O; Yanitska, L V; Kuchmerovska, T M

    2014-01-01

    Connective tissue is highly susceptible to imbalances induced by diabetes. Diabetes-related osteopenia, decreased bone strength etc. may be associated with altered metabolism of various collagens: Although it is assumed that alterations in collagen amino acids (AA) may strongly affect protein properties andphysiological functions, however, very limited evidences are present at the moment regarding AA composition of bone type I collagen and its relevance to abnormal availability of vitamins which are necessary for collagen synthesis in diabetes. We have tested whether nicotinamide (NAm) can influence type Icollagen formation and AA composition as well as vitamins availability in diabetes. After 4 weeks of STZ-induced diabetes (60 mg/ kg) male Wistar rats were injected for 2 weeks with/without NAm (200 mg/kg b. w). Acid extraction of type I collagen from the bones was performed with following stepwise salting out. The content of type I collagen after its acid extraction from the bones was estimated by the amounts of hydroxyproline. Amino acids were assayed by cation exchange chromatography Diabetes-associated changes in AA composition of type I collagen mainly affect those amino acids which are known to be involved in helix formation and cross-linking of the molecules. Diabetes was found to significantly reduce bone collagen contents of o-Pro, Gly, Ala, o-Lys and Pro, whereas Lys, His, Arg, Glu, Thr, Leu, Phe contents were elevated (P < 0.05). NAm treatment was able to partially normalise AA contents. In diabetes, blood serum and hepatic vitamin C and B3 contents were shown to be significantly lowered, whereas a-tocopherol was slightly increased compared with control (P < 0.05). Restoration of circulatory and liver vitamin C and B3 was observed. The data demonstrate the close relationship between the diabetes-associated decrease in type I collagen deposition, altered amino acids metabolism and impaired availability of vitamins, which are necessary for collagen

  6. Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rhonda P; Ames, Bruce N

    2015-06-01

    Serotonin regulates a wide variety of brain functions and behaviors. Here, we synthesize previous findings that serotonin regulates executive function, sensory gating, and social behavior and that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior all share in common defects in these functions. It has remained unclear why supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D improve cognitive function and behavior in these brain disorders. Here, we propose mechanisms by which serotonin synthesis, release, and function in the brain are modulated by vitamin D and the 2 marine omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Brain serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase 2, which is transcriptionally activated by vitamin D hormone. Inadequate levels of vitamin D (∼70% of the population) and omega-3 fatty acids are common, suggesting that brain serotonin synthesis is not optimal. We propose mechanisms by which EPA increases serotonin release from presynaptic neurons by reducing E2 series prostaglandins and DHA influences serotonin receptor action by increasing cell membrane fluidity in postsynaptic neurons. We propose a model whereby insufficient levels of vitamin D, EPA, or DHA, in combination with genetic factors and at key periods during development, would lead to dysfunctional serotonin activation and function and may be one underlying mechanism that contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. This model suggests that optimizing vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake may help prevent and modulate the severity of brain dysfunction.

  7. Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rhonda P; Ames, Bruce N

    2015-06-01

    Serotonin regulates a wide variety of brain functions and behaviors. Here, we synthesize previous findings that serotonin regulates executive function, sensory gating, and social behavior and that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior all share in common defects in these functions. It has remained unclear why supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D improve cognitive function and behavior in these brain disorders. Here, we propose mechanisms by which serotonin synthesis, release, and function in the brain are modulated by vitamin D and the 2 marine omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Brain serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase 2, which is transcriptionally activated by vitamin D hormone. Inadequate levels of vitamin D (∼70% of the population) and omega-3 fatty acids are common, suggesting that brain serotonin synthesis is not optimal. We propose mechanisms by which EPA increases serotonin release from presynaptic neurons by reducing E2 series prostaglandins and DHA influences serotonin receptor action by increasing cell membrane fluidity in postsynaptic neurons. We propose a model whereby insufficient levels of vitamin D, EPA, or DHA, in combination with genetic factors and at key periods during development, would lead to dysfunctional serotonin activation and function and may be one underlying mechanism that contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. This model suggests that optimizing vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake may help prevent and modulate the severity of brain dysfunction. PMID:25713056

  8. The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Puziah

    2014-03-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban is well known in promoting wound healing and provides significant benefits in skin care and therapeutic products formulation. Glycolic acid and vitamins also play a role in the enhancement of collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Here, we evaluate the specific effect of Centella asiatica (CA), vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixture preparations to stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells are incubated with CA, glycolic acid, vitamins and their mixture preparations for 48 h. The cell lysates were analyzed for protein content and collagen synthesis by direct binding enzyme immunoassay. The fibronectin of the cultured supernatant was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E and C significantly stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in the fibroblast. Addition of glycolic acid and vitamins to CA further increased the levels of collagen and fibronectin synthesis to 8.55 and 23.75 μg/100 μg, respectively. CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E, and C, and their mixtures demonstrated stimulatory effect on both extra-cellular matrix synthesis of collagen and fibronectin in in vitro studies on human foreskin fibroblasts, which is beneficial to skin care and therapeutic products formulation.

  9. Methionine, folic acid and vitamin B12 in growing-finishing pigs: impact on growth performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Giguére, Alain; Girard, Christiane L; Matte, J Jacques

    2008-06-01

    Growth performance, metabolic variables, and meat quality were measured in 78 growing-finishing pigs using supplements of 0 (C), or 0.2% of DL-methionine (M), and three combinations of folic acid [mg/kg] and cyanocobalamin [microg/kg], respectively 0 and 0 (V0), 10 and 25 (V1), and 10 and 150 (V2) in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Feed conversion was lower (p = 0.05) in M than in C pigs during the growing period (0-4 weeks). Both V1 and V2 treatments increased plasma vitamin B12 (p < 0.01) and decreased plasma homocysteine (p < 0.01). Plasma 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolates were the lowest, highest and intermediate in V0, V1 and V2 pigs (p < 0.04), respectively. In V2 meat, folates were 32% higher, vitamin B12, 55% higher and homocysteine, 28% lower than in V0 (p < 0.01). Oxidative stability of the fresh meat was similar among treatments during a storage period of 42 days. Therefore, methionine supplements improved growth performance during the growing period. Vitamin supplements interacted with the methionine cycle pathway, increased vitamin content of pork meat but did not improve oxidative stability of the fresh meat during storage.

  10. [The use of mixed feed with reduced content of vitamin A, E and nicotinic acid in the fattening of cairinas].

    PubMed

    Richter, G; Lüdke, C; Klinkhardt, K F

    1989-12-01

    In three fattening experiments with 1344 male cairinas (Cairina moschata domestica L.) from hatching to the 77th day vitamin A supplement was reduced to 2500 IU/kg feed from hatching to the 21st day and to 1250 IU/kg feed from the 22nd to the 77th day. There was no supplementation of the feed with vitamin E or nicotinic acid. The reduction and elimination of the vitamin supplements on average did not have significant effects on fattening performance, feed intake, body weight, feed conversion and losses of animals in the starter and fattening periods. In the fattening period there was a tendency towards a higher intake and expenditure of feed in two experiments. Presumably the supplementation of 1250 IU/kg mixed feed is not always sufficient for an optimal fattening performance. In three production experiments with 33,850 cairinas no disadvantageous influence on fattening performance could be ascertained after a supplementation of 4,000 IU in the starter feed and 2,000 IU vitamin A in the fattening feed.

  11. RDH10 is the primary enzyme responsible for the first step of embryonic Vitamin A metabolism and retinoic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Farjo, Krysten M; Moiseyev, Gennadiy; Nikolaeva, Olga; Sandell, Lisa L; Trainor, Paul A; Ma, Jian-xing

    2011-09-15

    Retinoic acid (atRA) signaling is essential for regulating embryonic development, and atRA levels must be tightly controlled in order to prevent congenital abnormalities and fetal death which can result from both excessive and insufficient atRA signaling. Cellular enzymes synthesize atRA from Vitamin A, which is obtained from dietary sources. Embryos express multiple enzymes that are biochemically capable of catalyzing the initial step of Vitamin A oxidation, but the precise contribution of these enzymes to embryonic atRA synthesis remains unknown. Using Rdh10(trex)-mutant embryos, dietary supplementation of retinaldehyde, and retinol dehydrogenase (RDH) activity assays, we demonstrate that RDH10 is the primary RDH responsible for the first step of embryonic Vitamin A oxidation. Moreover, we show that this initial step of atRA synthesis occurs predominantly in a membrane-bound cellular compartment, which prevents inhibition by the cytosolic cellular retinol-binding protein (RBP1). These studies reveal that widely expressed cytosolic enzymes with RDH activity play a very limited role in embryonic atRA synthesis under normal dietary conditions. This provides a breakthrough in understanding the precise cellular mechanisms that regulate Vitamin A metabolism and the synthesis of the essential embryonic regulatory molecule atRA.

  12. Analysis of olfactory sensitivity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reveals their ability to detect lactic acid, pyruvic acid and four B vitamins.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Joaquín; Olivares, Jesús; Ponce, Daniela; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Salmonid fishes like the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have a highly developed olfactory sense that allows them to perceive some odorants at very low concentrations, such as certain amino acids and bile salts. Previous behavioral and electrophysiological studies in salmonids have shown strong responses to human skin odor. Because this stimulus represents a complex and heterogeneous mixture of components, we sought to determine which odorants contribute to the sensitive detection of human skin odor by salmonids. In vivo electroolfactogram recordings in O. mykiss revealed lactic acid, pyruvic acid and two B vitamins, thiamine and riboflavin, as novel, potent odorants which triggered responses at nanomolar concentrations. Two more B vitamins, nicotinic and pantothenic acid, were detected at micromolar concentrations. These compounds share important roles in cellular energy metabolism, supporting an original role in food search and feeding behavior of this species and most likely other fishes. The olfactory detection of B vitamins by salmonids represents a new paradigm in chemosensation, warranting further investigation in other teleosts. PMID:25864178

  13. 32 CFR 242b.5 - Voting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SCIENCES § 242b.5 Voting. (a) The concurrence of a majority of the Regents present at a meeting shall be necessary for the transaction of business. (b) Unless a written ballot is required by a Regent, no actions taken by the Board need be by written ballot. (c) The Chairman of the Board and of each Committee...

  14. Using protein-fatty acid complexes to improve vitamin D stability.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jannik Nedergaard; Frislev, Henriette Søster; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Otzen, Daniel E

    2016-10-01

    Liprotides are complexes between lipids and partially denatured proteins in which the protein forms a stabilizing shell around a fatty acid micelle core. We have previously shown that liprotides stabilize small aliphatic molecules such as retinal and tocopherol by sequestering these molecules in the fatty acid core. This opens up the use of liprotides to formulate food additives. Here, we expand our investigations to the large and bulky molecule vitamin D3 (vitD), motivated by the population-wide occurrence of vitD deficiency. We prepared liprotides using different proteins and fatty acids and evaluated their ability to protect vitD upon exposure to heating or intense UV light. Additionally, we determined the stability of liprotides toward pH, Ca(2+), and BSA. The best results were obtained with liprotides made from α-lactalbumin and oleate. These liprotides were able to completely solubilize vitD, increase the stability toward UV light 9-fold, and increase the long-term stability at 37°C up to 1,000-fold. Native α-lactalbumin binds Ca(2+), making Ca(2+) potentially disruptive toward liprotides. However, liprotides prepared by incubation at 80°C were stable toward Ca(2+), in contrast to those made at 20°C. Nevertheless, the fatty acid binding protein BSA reduced the ability of both liprotides to protect vitD; the amount of vitD remianing after 20d at 20°C decreased from 79±3% in the absence of BSA to 49±4 and 23±3% in the presence of BSA for liprotides made at 80 and 20°C, respectively. Both classes of liprotides were able to release their vitD content, as demonstrated by the transfer of vitD encapsulated in liprotides to phospholipid vesicles. Importantly, liprotides were not stable at pH 6 and below, limiting the useful pH range of the liprotides to >pH 6. Our results indicate that vitD may be encapsulated and stabilized for enrichment of clear beverages at neutral pH to improve the intake and bioavailability of vitD. PMID:27474981

  15. Reductive detoxification of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens by human NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Joseph R; Chin, Nathaniel A; Longlais, Brett J; Hayes, Kristie L; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2006-10-01

    Heterocyclic and aromatic amine carcinogens are thought to lead to tumor initiation via the formation of DNA adducts, and bioactivation to arylhydroxylamine metabolites is necessary for reactivity with DNA. Carcinogenic arylhydroxylamine metabolites are cleared by a microsomal, NADH-dependent, oxygen-insensitive reduction pathway in humans, which may be a source of interindividual variability in response to aromatic amine carcinogens. The purpose of this study was to characterize the identity of this reduction pathway in human liver. On the basis of our findings with structurally similar arylhydroxylamine metabolites of therapeutic drugs, we hypothesized that the reductive detoxification of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens was catalyzed by NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5). We found that reduction of the carcinogenic hydroxylamines of the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP; found in cigarette smoke) and the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP; found in grilled meats) was indeed catalyzed by a purified system containing only human b5R and cyt b5. Specific activities were 56-346-fold higher in the purified system as compared to human liver microsomes (HLM), with similar Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m) values) in both systems. The stoichiometry for b5R and cyt b5 that yielded the highest activity in the purified system was also similar to that found in native HLM ( approximately 1:8 to 1:10). Polyclonal antisera to either b5R or cyt b5 significantly inhibited N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (NHOH-4-ABP) reduction by 95 and 89%, respectively, and immunoreactive cyt b5 protein content in individual HLM was significantly correlated with individual reduction of both NHOH-4-ABP and N-hydroxy-PhIP (NHOH-PhIP). Finally, titration of HLM into the purified b5R/cyt b5 system did not enhance the efficiency of reduction activity. We conclude that b5R and cyt b5 are together solely capable of the reduction of

  16. Effect of selenium and vitamin E deficiencies on the fate of arachidonic acid in rat isolated lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Uotila, P.; Puustinen, T.

    1985-06-01

    The fate of exogenous /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid (/sup 14/C-AA) was investigated in the isolated lungs of rats fed selenium and vitamin E deficient diet or diets supplemented with selenium and/or vitamin E. When 80 nmol of /sup 14/C-AA was infused into the pulmonary circulation most of the infused /sup 14/C-AA was found in different phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions of the perfused lungs. Only less than ten percent of the infused radioactivity was recovered in the perfusion effluent. The amount of arachidonate metabolites in the perfusion effluent was negligible, and most of the radioactivity in the perfusion effluent consisted of unmetabolized arachidonate. Selenium deficiency had no significant effect on the distribution of /sup 14/C-AA in different lung lipid fractions. However, in the lungs of vitamin E deficient rats the amount of radioactivity was slightly increased in the neutral lipid fraction, which was due to the increased amount of /sup 14/C-AA in the diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of /sup 14/C-AA in the triacylglycerols and in different phospholipids was not significantly changed. The present study might indicate that selenium deficiency has no significant effect on the fate of exogenous arachidonic acid in isolated rat lungs, and that vitamin E deficiency would slightly increase the amount of arachidonic acid in the diacylglycerols.

  17. Vitamin C, uric acid, and glutathione gradients in murine stratum corneum and their susceptibility to ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Weber, S U; Thiele, J J; Cross, C E; Packer, L

    1999-12-01

    The stratum corneum has been recognized as the main cutaneous oxidation target of atmospheric ozone (O3), a major part of photochemical smog. This study reports the presence and distribution of vitamin C, glutathione, and uric acid in murine stratum corneum, and evaluates their susceptibility to acute environmental exposure to O3. Based on tape stripping and a modified extraction method with high performance liquid chromatography electrochemical analysis, we detected vitamin C (208.0 +/- 82.5 pmol per 10 consecutive pooled tapes), glutathione (283.7 +/-96.3), and uric acid (286.4 +/-47.1) in murine stratum corneum as compared with only 16.5 +/- 1.4 pmol alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin C, glutathione (both p < 00.001), and urate (p < 0.01) were found to exhibit a gradient with the lowest concentrations in the outer layers and a steep increase in the deeper layers. To investigate the effect of O3 exposure on hydrophilic antioxidants, we exposed SKH-1 hairless mice to O3 concentrations of 0, 0.8, 1, and 10 p.p.m., and stratum corneum was analyzed before and after exposure. Whereas mock exposure with 0 p.p. m. for 2 h had no significant effect, O3 doses of 1 p.p.m. for 2 h and above showed depletion of all three antioxidants. Vitamin C was decreased to 80% +/- 15% of its pretreatment content (p < 0.05), GSH to 41% +/- 24% (p < 0.01), and uric acid to 44% +/- 28% (p < 0.01). This report demonstrates the previously unrecognized role of hydrophilic antioxidants in the stratum corneum and provides further evidence that O3 induces oxidative stress in this outer skin layer.

  18. Vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and urinary methylmalonic acid levels in infants.

    PubMed

    Karademir, F; Suleymanoglu, S; Ersen, A; Aydinoz, S; Gultepe, M; Meral, C; Ozkaya, H; Gocmen, I

    2007-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12 and folate, and their functional markers, plasma homocysteine and urinary methylmalonate (uMMA) were measured in 204 healthy, term infants at birth, and at 2 and 6 months. Compared with infants receiving formula food, those fed mother's milk had lower vitamin B12 and folate at 2 and 6 months. In infants receiving mother's milk, vitamin B12 levels were similar at birth (238 pg/ml) and 2 months (243 pg/ml), whereas with formula milk the level was significantly higher at 2 months (558 pg/ml) than at birth (257 pg/ml). Vitamin B12 was negatively correlated with homocysteine at birth and 6 months. The level of uMMA (mmol/mol creatinine) was higher at 2 (mother's milk, 25.5; formula, 23.97) and 6 months (19.77; 15) than at birth (11.97; 10.88), and was not correlated with vitamin B12 levels. Homocysteine may be a reliable marker of vitamin B12 status in neonates and infants; however, uMMA is not suitable as a marker of vitamin B12 status.

  19. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplements on folate and homocysteine metabolism in pigs during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guay, Frédéric; Jacques Matte, J; Girard, Christiane L; Palin, Marie-France; Giguère, Alain; Laforest, Jean-Paul

    2002-09-01

    The present experiment aimed to determine the effects of supplements of folic acid (FA) alone or in combination with vitamin B12 on folate and homocysteine metabolism in gestating nulliparous Yorkshire-Landrace (YL) and multiparous Landrace (LD) occidental sows and multiparous Chinese Meishan-Landrace (ML) sows. LD sows were randomly assigned to two treatments: 0 or 15 mg FA/kg diet while YL and ML sows were assigned to three treatments: 0 mg FA/kg diet, 15 mg FA/kg or 15 mg vitamin B12/kg diet. Supplements were given from the oestrus preceding insemination up to slaughter on day 15 of gestation. At slaughter, a uterine flush was collected to determine uterine contents of homocysteine, methionine, tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methyl-THF, pyridoxal 5-phosphate (P5P) and vitamin B12. Blood samples were taken at first oestrus, at insemination and on days 5, 10 and 15 of gestation to determine plasma concentrations of homocysteine, methionine, THF, 5-methyl-THF, P5P, vitamin B12 and relative total folate-binding capacity. In occidental sows (YL and LD), the FA supplement tended to decrease uterine flush content of homocysteine (P=0.06) and concentrations of plasma homocysteine (P=0.09). Nulliparous YL sows had lower concentrations of plasma homocysteine, methionine, THF and 5-methyl-THF (P<0.05) than multiparous LD sows. Multiparous ML and LD sows had similar concentrations of plasma THF, 5-methyl-THF, methionine and vitamin B12, but ML sows had lower concentrations of plasma homocysteine (P<0.05). The vitamin B12 supplement increased concentrations of plasma vitamin B12 (P<0.05) both in multiparous ML and nulliparous YL sows, but had no effect on the composition of either uterine flush or plasma. The present results showed also that sows had a low vitamin B12 status (<200 pg/ml) and high circulating homocysteine levels (>15 microm) during the first 15 d of gestation. Furthermore, the vitamin B12 content in uterine secretions represented between 180 and 300 % of the total

  20. Dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol affect the gonad development and reproductive performance of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiying; Li, Baoshan; Liu, Xudong; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Shixin; Zhang, Limin

    2014-03-01

    The present trial was conducted with starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol on the gonadal development and reproductive performance. 8 000 IU/kg diet vitamin A (VA group), 500 mg/kg diet ascorbic acid (Vcpp group), or 250 mg/kg diet α-tocopherol (α-TA group) was added into basal diet to create 3 vitamin experimental diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to 450 starry flounder broodstock for 104 days. Samples were collected weekly. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of 3 vitamin experimental groups first decreased and then increased. Maximum GSI of Vcpp group was higher than that of α-TA group but lower than that of VA group. The spawning periods of 3 vitamin experimental groups lasted 49, 56, and 45 days, respectively. No mature eggs were observed in the control group during the trial. The absolute fecundity (AF) and relative fecundity (RF) of α-TA group was higher than that of Vcpp group but lower than that of VA group. The results suggest that different vitamins play different roles in the fish reproductive process. Vitamin A stimulated the maturation of the ovary, ascorbic acid prolonged the spawning period, and α-tocopherol affected the development of the eggs.

  1. [The amount of L-dehydroascorbic acid on total-vitamin C of vegetable products (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lehnard, A

    1979-08-01

    Spectrophotometric determinations of vitamin C were carried out on different kinds of vegetable products in raw state, after steam-cooking and freezedrying. Indicators used were in part 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol (DIP) and in part N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and starch iodide, which at the same time allows a determination of other reducing interfering substances. The amount of L-dehydroascorbic acid (DAS), which together with L-ascorbic acid (AS) becomes vitamin C or total-vitamin C (VC), proved to be of special interest. During homogenisation of the vegetable samples in oxalic oxid solution AS was not oxidized. Other precautions like cooling or on oxygen-free atmosphere were not required. DAS was not found in raw vegetable products or after cooking. A high proportion of interfering substances especially when estimating VC was considered the cause for the normally measured amount of DAS. In freeze-dried samples of vegetable products a small amount DAS could be identified depending on the freezing process.

  2. Influence of folic acid, vitamin B2 and B6 supplementation on feed intake, body and organs weight, and liver fatty acids composition in rats subjected to severe protein deprivation.

    PubMed

    Debski, B; Bertrandt, J; Klos, A; Gralak, M

    2006-01-01

    Growing rats fed for 3 months a low-protein (LP) diet (4.5% of energy from protein), possessed about 29% lower body weight than animals consuming adequate-protein diet (20% energy from protein). The LP diet feeding caused an increase in daily feed intake followed by a decrease in feed conversion efficiency. The enrichment of LP diet with folic acid, vitamin B2 and B6 (3 times above the level applied in the control diet) did not have any impact on rats BW and supplementation with these vitamins minimize the effect of LP diet on feed intake. The use of examined vitamins had a tendency to diminish an increase in feed conversion ratio caused by the LP nutrition. This effect was significant when all vitamins were added together. Rats fed the LP diet had higher relative weights of lungs, heart, liver and testis. Vitamins enriching the LP diet were observed to decrease a relative weight of lungs (folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin mixture), and liver (vitamin B6 and vitamin mixture). A tendency of increasing relative testis weight was also revealed in rats given the LP diet enriched with vitamins. The lower content of hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and a tendency for monounsaturated FA content to be higher were found in rats fed the LP diet. The LP diet enrichment with folic acid caused that these changes were more pronounced and statistically significant. Enrichment of LP diet with vitamins tested may cause a partial reverse of changes observed in the hepatic FA composition.

  3. Establishing safe and potentially efficacious fortification contents for folic acid and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Dary, Omar

    2008-06-01

    Determining the micronutrient contents infortified foods depends not only on the health goal (additional intake to complement the diet), but also on ensuring that fortification does not raise micronutrient intakes beyond the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), i.e., the safe limit. Technological incompatibility and cost may also restrict the fortification contents. For folic acid, the limiting factor is safety, while for vitamin B12, it is cost. However, adequate fortification contents that are both safe and efficacious can be estimated for both nutrients. In order to obtain the maximum benefit from the fortification programs, three different formulas responding to three categories of consumption, as specified by the median and 95th percentile of consumption, are proposed. The model presented is based on the estimation of a Feasible Fortification Level (FFL), which then is used to determine the average, minimum, and maximum contents of the nutrients during production, taking into consideration the acceptable variation of the fortification process. Finally, the regulatory parameters, which support standards and enforcement, are calculated by reducing the proportion of the nutrient that is degraded during the usual marketing process of the fortified food. It is expected that this model will establish a common standard for food fortification, and improve the reliability and enforcement procedures of these programs. The model was applied to flours as vehicles for folic acid in the United States, Guatemala, and Chile. Analysis of the data revealed that, with the exception of Chile, where wheat flour consumption is very high and probably within a narrow range, supplementation with folic acid is still needed to cover individuals at the low end of consumption. This is especially true when the difference in flour consumption is too wide, as in the case of Guatemala, where the proportional difference between consumption at the 95th percentile of the nonpoor group is as high

  4. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  5. Simultaneous purification and characterization of cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5 from sheep liver.

    PubMed

    Arinç, E; Cakir, D

    1999-02-01

    Cytochrome b5 was purified from detergent solubilized sheep liver microsomes by using three successive DEAE-cellulose, and Sephadex G-100 column chromatographies. It was purified 54-fold and the yield was 23.5% with respect to microsomes. The apparent Mr of cytochrome b5 was estimated to be 16,200 +/- 500 by SDS-PAGE. Absolute absorption spectrum of the purified cytochrome b5 showed maximal absorption at 412 nm and dithionite-reduced cytochrome b5 gave peaks at 557, 526.5 and 423 nm. The ability of the purified sheep liver cytochrome b5 to transfer electrons from NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase to cytochrome c was investigated. The K(m) and Vmax values were calculated to be 0.088 microM cytochrome b5 and 315.8 microM cytochrome c reduced/min/mg enzyme, respectively. Also the reduction of cytochrome b5 by reductase was studied and K(m) and Vmax values were determined to be 5 microM cytochrome b5 and 5200 nmol cytochrome b5 reduced/min/mg enzyme, respectively. The K(m) and Vmax values for the cofactor NADH in the presence of saturating concentration of cytochrome b5 were found to be 0.0017 mM NADH and 6944 nmol cytochrome b5 reduced/min/mg enzyme, respectively. NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase was also partially purified from the same source, detergent solubilized sheep liver microsomes, by using two successive DEAE-cellulose, and 5'-ADP-agarose affinity column chromatographies. It was purified 144-fold and the yield was 7% with respect to microsomes. The apparent monomer Mr of reductase was estimated to be 34,000 by SDS-PAGE. When ferricyanide was used as an electron acceptor, reductase showed maximum activity between 6.8 and 7.5. The K(m) and Vmax values of the enzyme for ferricyanide were calculated as 0.024 mM ferricyanide and 673 mumol ferricyanide reduced/min/mg enzyme, respectively. The K(m) and Vmax values for the cofactor NADH in the presence of saturating amounts of ferricyanide were found to be 0.020 mM NADH and 699 mumol ferricyanide reduced/min/mg enzyme

  6. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jayong; Veeramachaneni, Sudipta; Liu, Chun; Mernitz, Heather; Russell, Robert M; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2009-09-01

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby preventing ethanol-induced hepatocyte hyperproliferation. For 1 month, 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol (36% of the total energy) diet as follows: either ethanol alone (Alc group) or ethanol in combination with 0.1 mg/kg body weight of all-trans-RA (Alc + RA group), 2 mg/kg body weight of VE (Alc + VE group), or both together (Alc + RA + VE group). Control rats were pair-fed a liquid diet with an isocaloric amount of maltodextrin instead of ethanol. The ethanol-fed groups had 3-fold higher hepatic CYP2E1 levels, 50% lower hepatic RA levels, and significantly increased hepatocyte proliferation when compared with the controls. The ethanol-fed rats given VE had more than 4-fold higher hepatic VE concentrations than the ethanol-fed rats without VE, but this did not prevent ethanol induction of CYP2E1, lower hepatic retinoid levels, or hepatocellular hyperproliferation. Furthermore, VE supplementation could not prevent RA catabolism in liver microsomal fractions of the ethanol-fed rats in vitro. These results show that VE supplementation can neither inhibit ethanol-induced changes in RA catabolism nor prevent ethanol-induced hepatocyte hyperproliferation in the rat liver.

  7. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P < 0.01). When analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, PdxR deficiency was found to drastically reduce expression of an apparent operon encoding a pyridoxal kinase (SMU865) and a pyridoxal permease (SMU866) of the salvage pathway of vitamin B6 biosynthesis. In addition, PdxR deficiency also altered the expression of genes for ClpL protease, glucosyltransferase B and adhesin SpaP, which are known to play important roles in stress tolerance and biofilm formation. Consistently, PdxR-deficiency affected the growth of the deficient mutant when grown in defined medium with and without vitamin B6 . Further studies revealed that although S. mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. PMID:25421565

  8. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P < 0.01). When analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, PdxR deficiency was found to drastically reduce expression of an apparent operon encoding a pyridoxal kinase (SMU865) and a pyridoxal permease (SMU866) of the salvage pathway of vitamin B6 biosynthesis. In addition, PdxR deficiency also altered the expression of genes for ClpL protease, glucosyltransferase B and adhesin SpaP, which are known to play important roles in stress tolerance and biofilm formation. Consistently, PdxR-deficiency affected the growth of the deficient mutant when grown in defined medium with and without vitamin B6 . Further studies revealed that although S. mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

  9. Technical description of Stack 296-B-5

    SciTech Connect

    Ridge, T.M.

    1994-11-15

    Of particular concern to facilities on the Hanford site is Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 40, Part 61, Subpart H, ``National emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities.`` Assessments of facility stacks and potential radionuclide emissions determined whether these stacks would be subject to the sampling and monitoring requirements of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. Stack 296-B-5 exhausts 221-BB building which houses tanks containing B Plant steam condensate and B Plant process condensate from the operation of the low-level waste concentrator. The assessment of potential radionuclide emissions from the 296-B-5 stack resulted in an effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual of less than 0.1 millirem per year. Therefore, the stack is not subject to the sampling and monitoring requirements of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. However, the sampling and monitoring system must be in compliance with the Environmental Compliance Manual, WHC-CM-7-5. Currently, 296-B-5 is sampled continuously with a record sampler and continuous air monitor (CAM).

  10. Cytochrome b5 and NADH cytochrome b5 reductase: genotype-phenotype correlations for hydroxylamine reduction

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, James C.; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (b5) catalyze the reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-HA), which can contribute to sulfonamide hypersensitivity, to the parent drug sulfamethoxazole. Variability in hydroxylamine reduction could thus play a role in adverse drug reactions. The aim of this study was to characterize variability in SMX-HA reduction in 111 human livers, and investigate its association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in b5 and b5R cDNA. Methods Liver microsomes were assayed for SMX-HA reduction activity, and b5 and b5R expression was semi-quantified by immunoblotting. The coding regions of the b5 (CYB5A) and b5R (CYB5R3) genes were resequenced. Results Hepatic SMX-HA reduction displayed a 19-fold range of individual variability (0.06–1.11 nmol/min/mg protein), and a 17-fold range in efficiency (Vmax/Km) among outliers. SMX-HA reduction was positively correlated with b5 and b5R protein content (p < 0.0001, r = 0.42; p = 0.01, r = 0.23, respectively), and expression of both proteins correlated with one another (p < 0.0001; r = 0.74). A novel cSNP in CYB5A (S5A) was associated with very low activity and protein expression. Two novel CYB5R3 SNPs, R59H and R297H, displayed atypical SMX-HA reduction kinetics and decreased SMX-HA reduction efficiency. Conclusion These studies indicate that while novel cSNPs in CYB5A and CYB5R3 are associated with significantly altered protein expression and/or hydroxylamine reduction activities, these low frequency cSNPs only appear to minimally impact overall observed phenotypic variability. Work is underway to characterize polymorphisms in other regions of these genes to further account for individual variability in hydroxylamine reduction. PMID:19997042

  11. Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids through oxidative stress may reduce neurotrophic factors in preterm pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhobale, Madhavi; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-04-01

    Preterm pregnancies account for approximately 10% of the total pregnancies and are associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Recent studies have shown that LBW babies are at an increased risk of developing brain disorders such as cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (folic acid, vitamin B(12), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) have a major role during pregnancy for developing fetus and are important determinants of epigenesis. A series of our studies in pregnancy complications have well established the importance of omega 3 fatty acids especially DHA. DHA regulates levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor, which are required for normal neurological development. We have recently described that in one carbon metabolic pathway, membrane phospholipids are major methyl group acceptors and reduced DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups toward deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. In this review, we propose that altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)), increased homocysteine, and oxidative stress levels that cause epigenetic modifications may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to preterm birth and poor fetal outcome, increasing risk for behavioural disorders in children. PMID:21609203

  12. Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids through oxidative stress may reduce neurotrophic factors in preterm pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhobale, Madhavi; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-04-01

    Preterm pregnancies account for approximately 10% of the total pregnancies and are associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Recent studies have shown that LBW babies are at an increased risk of developing brain disorders such as cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (folic acid, vitamin B(12), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) have a major role during pregnancy for developing fetus and are important determinants of epigenesis. A series of our studies in pregnancy complications have well established the importance of omega 3 fatty acids especially DHA. DHA regulates levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor, which are required for normal neurological development. We have recently described that in one carbon metabolic pathway, membrane phospholipids are major methyl group acceptors and reduced DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups toward deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. In this review, we propose that altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)), increased homocysteine, and oxidative stress levels that cause epigenetic modifications may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to preterm birth and poor fetal outcome, increasing risk for behavioural disorders in children.

  13. Folic Acid and Vitamins D and B12 Correlate With Homocysteine in Chinese Patients With Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, or Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xudong; Xing, Xubin; Xu, Rong; Gong, Qing; He, Yue; Li, Shuijun; Wang, Hongfu; Liu, Cong; Ding, Xin; Na, Rishu; Liu, Zhiwen; Qu, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Elevated serum homocysteine has been shown to be a risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).We characterized the relationships between the serum levels of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins D2, D3, and B12 in patients with T2DM, CVD, and hypertension in Shanghai, China. The levels of these serum biochemical markers were determined for 9311 Chinese patients (mean age: 79.50 ± 13.26 years) with T2DM (N = 839), hypertension (N = 490), or CVD (N = 7925). The demographic and serum biochemical data were compared using an analysis of variance. We performed stratified analyses using Pearson linear regression to investigate correlations between the different variables in the T2DM, CVD, and hypertension groups and in patients aged < 50, 50 to 64, 65 to 80, and ≥80 years. A subgroup analysis was also performed to identify correlations between the serum biochemical markers. Stratified chi-squared analyses were performed based on the levels of folic acid and total vitamin D.In all 3 patient groups, elevated levels of vitamin D2 and homocysteine were observed, whereas the levels of folic acid and vitamins D3 and B12 were lower than the reference range for each serum marker (P < 0.05 for all). The linear regression and stratified analyses showed that the highest levels of folic acid and vitamins D2 and D3 correlated with the lowest level of homocysteine in T2DM, CVD, and hypertension patients (P < 0.05 for all), whereas the highest level of vitamin B12 correlated with a lowest level of homocysteine in CVD patients only (P < 0.05).Our results indicate that the contributions of both vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 should be considered in investigations of the effects of vitamin D supplements in T2DM, CVD, and hypertension patients. Our findings warrant future studies of the benefits of vitamin D and folic acid supplements for reducing the risk of T2DM, CVD, and hypertension in elderly Chinese

  14. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  15. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  16. Impact of processing conditions on the kinetic of vitamin C degradation and 2-furoylmethyl amino acid formation in dried strawberries.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Soria, A Cristina; Olano, Agustín; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, a study on the usefulness of the determination of vitamin C together with indicators of the initial steps of Maillard reaction (2-furoylmethyl amino acids, 2-FM-AA) during the convective drying of strawberries has been carried out for the first time, paying special attention to the kinetics of degradation and formation, respectively, of both parameters. Formation of 2-FM-AA of Lys, Arg and GABA and vitamin C loss increased with time and temperature following, respectively, a zero and first-order kinetics. As supported by its lower activation energy, 2-FM-GABA (55.9 kJ/mol) and 2-FM-Lys+2-FM-Arg (58.2 kJ/mol) were shown to be slightly more sensitive indicators than vitamin C (82.1 kJ/mol). The obtained results, together with a complementary study on the rehydration ability and sensorial attributes of samples, pointed out the suitability of the convective drying system to obtain dried strawberries of high nutritive quality and bioactivity and good consumer acceptance. PMID:24491716

  17. Fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins in ewe's milk predicted by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Determination of seasonality.

    PubMed

    Revilla, I; Escuredo, O; González-Martín, M I; Palacios, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin composition and the season of ewe's milk production using NIR spectroscopy. 219 ewe's milk samples from different breeds and feeding regimes were taken each month over one year. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography, and retinol and α-, and γ-tocopherol by liquid chromatography. The results showed that the quantification was more accurate for the milk dried on paper, except for vitamins. Calibration statistical descriptors on milk dried on paper were good for capric, lauric, myristic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids, and acceptable for caprilic, undecanoic, 9c, 11tCLA, ΣCLA, PUFA, ω3, ω6, retinol and α-tocopherol. The equations for the discrimination of seasonality was obtained using the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) algorithm. 93% of winter samples and 89% of summer samples were correctly classified using the NIR spectra of milk dried on paper. PMID:27507500

  18. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  19. Effect of gestational age and retinol (vitamin A) deficiency on fetal rat lung nuclear retinoic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    McMenamy, K R; Zachman, R D

    1993-03-01

    Retinol, or one of its metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA), is an important factor in the differentiation and maintenance of integrity of lung epithelium. Retinol deficiency in rats induces morphologic changes in respiratory tract epithelial cells that are histologically similar to those found in human premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The exact mechanism of retinoid action in cellular growth and differentiation is not understood, but recently investigators have focused on mechanisms mediated by nuclear RA receptors (RAR). The role of these RAR as regulators of retinoid function is being studied in adult animal tissues and malignant cell lines, but little is known about RAR in developing fetal lung tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gestational age and vitamin A deficiency on fetal rat lung nuclear RAR. RAR were also assayed in vitamin A control and vitamin A-deficient adult rat lung. A competitive binding assay and size exclusion HPLC separation were used to quantitate total RAR-specific binding. Binding analysis revealed a single class of receptor binding sites with high affinity (kd approximately 10(-9) M) for RA and RAR saturation at 2-5 nM RA. Specific binding of lung RAR in rat fetuses at 18 d gestation was two to three times greater than in fetuses at 20-21 d gestation, newborn pups, or adults. Western blot analysis revealed a predominance of RAR-beta receptors in fetal lung. Lungs from vitamin A-deficient fetuses demonstrated up-regulation of nuclear RAR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8384711

  20. Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin D and Iodine on Foetal and Infant Brain Development and Function Following Maternal Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. Purpose: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function. Methods: English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies were obtained through searches on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2000 through to February 2012 and reference lists of retrieved articles. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal supplementation of DHA, vitamin D, folic acid or iodine supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation. Results: Maternal DHA intake during pregnancy and/or lactation can prolong high risk pregnancies, increase birth weight, head circumference and birth length, and can enhance visual acuity, hand and eye co-ordination, attention, problem solving and information processing. Vitamin D helps maintain pregnancy and promotes normal skeletal and brain development. Folic acid is necessary for normal foetal spine, brain and skull development. Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production necessary for normal brain and nervous system development during gestation that impacts childhood function. Conclusion: Maternal supplementation within recommended safe intakes in populations with dietary deficiencies may prevent many brain and central nervous system malfunctions and even enhance brain development and function in their offspring. PMID:22852064

  1. Effect of linoleic acid and dietary vitamin E supplementation on sustained conjugated linoleic acid production in milk fat from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Capper, J L; Weiss, W P; Bauman, D E

    2012-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; cis-9,trans-11 18:2), a bioactive fatty acid (FA) found in milk and dairy products, has potential human health benefits due to its anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties. Conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk fat can be markedly increased by dietary manipulation; however, high levels of CLA are difficult to sustain as rumen biohydrogenation shifts and milk fat depression (MFD) is often induced. Our objective was to feed a typical Northeastern corn-based diet and investigate whether vitamin E and soybean oil supplementation would sustain an enhanced milk fat CLA content while avoiding MFD. Holstein cows (n=48) were assigned to a completely randomized block design with repeated measures for 28 d and received 1 of 4 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), (2) 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (VE), (3) 2.5% soybean oil (SO), and (4) 2.5% soybean oil plus 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (SO-VE). A 2-wk pretreatment control diet served as the covariate. Milk fat percentage was reduced by both high-oil diets (3.53, 3.56, 2.94, and 2.92% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), whereas milk yield increased significantly for the SO-VE diet only, thus partially mitigating MFD by oil feeding. Milk protein percentage was higher for cows fed the SO diet (3.04, 3.05, 3.28, and 3.03% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), implying that nutrient partitioning or ruminal supply of microbial protein was altered in response to the reduction in milk fat. Milk fat concentration of CLA more than doubled in cows fed the diets supplemented with soybean oil, with concurrent increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-11 18:1 FA. Moreover, milk fat from cows fed the 2 soybean oil diets had 39.1% less de novo synthesized FA and 33.8% more long-chain preformed FA, and vitamin E had no effect on milk fat composition. Overall, dietary supplements of soybean oil caused a reduction in milk fat percentage and a shift in FA composition characteristic of MFD. Supplementing diets with vitamin E

  2. Vitamin D treatment attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis but not oxazolone-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianjing; Shi, Yongyan; Du, Jie; Ge, Xin; Teng, Xu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Enbo; Zhao, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have different immunological mechanisms, while both of them are potential targets of vitamin D treatment. In this study, we have tried to address the role of vitamin D in CD and UC using two mouse models. Mice of C57B6L were given vitamin D before the induction of colitis. Our results showed that vitamin D attenuated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis but not oxazolone-induced colitis. Vitamin D could preserve the local histology, alleviate inflammation, suppress apoptosis, maintain tight junction function and decrease permeability. Interestingly, it has more of an effect on local structure preservation and inflammation inhibition in CD than in UC mice. Vitamin D blocked the increase of helper T-cell type 1 (Th1)- and helper T-cell type 17 (Th17)-related cytokines in TNBS-induced colitis. But the increase of helper T-cell type 2 (Th2)- and regulatory T cells (Treg)-related cytokines was augmented at the same time in oxazolone-induced colitis which counteracted each other. Our study helps elucidate the differential protective effects of vitamin D on CD and UC patients, as reported in literature. PMID:27620138

  3. Vitamin D treatment attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis but not oxazolone-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianjing; Shi, Yongyan; Du, Jie; Ge, Xin; Teng, Xu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Enbo; Zhao, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have different immunological mechanisms, while both of them are potential targets of vitamin D treatment. In this study, we have tried to address the role of vitamin D in CD and UC using two mouse models. Mice of C57B6L were given vitamin D before the induction of colitis. Our results showed that vitamin D attenuated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis but not oxazolone-induced colitis. Vitamin D could preserve the local histology, alleviate inflammation, suppress apoptosis, maintain tight junction function and decrease permeability. Interestingly, it has more of an effect on local structure preservation and inflammation inhibition in CD than in UC mice. Vitamin D blocked the increase of helper T-cell type 1 (Th1)- and helper T-cell type 17 (Th17)-related cytokines in TNBS-induced colitis. But the increase of helper T-cell type 2 (Th2)- and regulatory T cells (Treg)-related cytokines was augmented at the same time in oxazolone-induced colitis which counteracted each other. Our study helps elucidate the differential protective effects of vitamin D on CD and UC patients, as reported in literature. PMID:27620138

  4. An eye on nutrition: The role of vitamins, essential fatty acids, and antioxidants in age-related macular degeneration, dry eye syndrome, and cataract.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Meagen M; Durrani, Khayyam; Payette, Michael J; Suchecki, Jeanine

    2016-01-01

    Visual impairment is a global epidemic. In developing countries, nutritional deficiency and cataracts continue to be the leading cause of blindness, whereas age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts are the leading causes in developed nations. The World Health Organization has instituted VISION 2020: "The Right to Sight" as a global mission to put an end to worldwide blindness. In industrialized societies, patients, physicians, researchers, nutritionists, and biochemists have been looking toward vitamins and nutrients to prevent AMD, cataracts, and dry eye syndrome (DES). Nutrients from the AREDS2 study (lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, copper, eicosapentanoic acid [EPA], and docosahexanoic acid [DHA]) set forth by the National Institutes of Health remain the most proven nutritional therapy for reducing the rate of advanced AMD. Omega-3 fatty acids, especially DHA, have been found to improve DES in randomized clinical trials. Conflicting results have been seen with regard to multivitamin supplementation on the prevention of cataract. PMID:26903189

  5. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. Methods In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Results Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 μmol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730 PMID:26098427

  6. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and vitamin C on glycemic indices, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic Iranian males

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudabadi, Mohammad Mehdi Shakouri; Djalali, Mahmoud; Djazayery, Seyed Abolghassem; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Yaraghi, Ali Akbar Saboor; Askari, Gholamreza; Ghiasvand, Reza; Zarei, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is the principal ω-3 fatty acids in marine oils. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c and some of the plasma lipids and lipoproteins has been negatively related to the intake of ω-3 fatty acids and ascorbic acid, in some studies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of EPA and/or vitamin C on glycemic indices, blood pressure, and plasma lipids in type 2 diabetic Iranian males. METHODS: Sixty five men with type 2 diabetes were enrolled into the study between April 2 and June 27, 2008. Venous blood samples were obtained from all participants after 10 hours of fasting, at the baseline and after the intervention. Subjects received 500 mg EPA and/or 200 mg vitamin C and/or placebo depending on their groups. For eight weeks, 15 participants received EPA supplements with vitamin C (group 1), 16 took EPA supplements and vitamin C placebo (group 2), 17 took EPA placebo and vitamin C (group 3), and 17 received EPA placebo and vitamin C placebo (group 4), daily. RESULTS: There were significant decreases in FBS, HbA1C, LDL-C and TG in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 (p < 0.01), but significant decreases in TC were shown only in groups 1, 2 and 3 (p < 0.01). There was a significant increase in HDL-C in all groups (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In summary, it is concluded that, eight weeks of taking EPA + vitamin C supplementation improved the plasma levels of cardiovascular markers but didn’t reduce BP. PMID:22247720

  7. Content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver of rats fed restricted diets supplemented with vitamins B2, B6 and folic acid.

    PubMed

    Bertrandt, Jerzy; Klos, Anna; Debski, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate an influence of nutritional deficiency and dietary addition of vit. B(2), B(6) and folic acid on PUFAs content in rats' serum and liver. Limitation of consumption full value diet to 50% of its previously determined daily consumption, enriched with m/a vitamins, significant decreased of linoleic (LA) and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acids as well as distinctly increased arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids content in serum in 30th day. In 60th day lower content of AA and DHA fatty acids was found. Nutrition with such diet, lasting 90 days caused decrease of LA content and increase of AA. Diet limitation to its 30% of daily consumption decreased of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA in the 30th day, while AA and DHA content was increased in the 60th day. Distinct decrease of AA content and increase of EPA content were found in the 90th day of experiment. Use of diets, with limited consumption to 50% caused increase of LA and ALA acids content while AA and DHA acids content were significantly decreased in the liver, in 90th day. Limited consumption supplemented diet to 30% caused in liver significant decrease of LA and increase of EPA acids content.

  8. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat. PMID:27542466

  9. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat.

  10. Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians with a Suspected Vitamin B₁₂ Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Randall Edward; Phillips, Todd W; Udani, Jay

    2015-12-01

    Since vitamin B12 occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals, vegetarians and particularly vegans are at risk of developing deficiencies of this essential vitamin. The chlorella used for this study is a commercially available whole-food supplement, which is believed to contain the physiologically active form of the vitamin. This exploratory open-label study was performed to determine if adding 9 g of Chlorella pyrenoidosa daily could help mitigate a vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Seventeen vegan or vegetarian adults (26-57 years of age) with a known vitamin B12 deficiency, as evidenced by a baseline serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) level above 270 nmol/L at screening, but who otherwise appeared healthy were enrolled in the study. Each participant added 9 g of C. pyrenoidosa to their daily diet for 60 ± 5 days and their serum MMA, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at 30 and 60 days from baseline. After 30 and 60 days, the serum MMA level fell significantly (P < .05) by an average ∼34%. Fifteen of the 17 (88%) subjects showed at least a 10% drop in MMA. At the same time, Hcy trended downward and serum vitamin B12 trended upward, while MCV, Hgb, and Hct appeared unchanged. The results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need.

  11. Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians with a Suspected Vitamin B₁₂ Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Randall Edward; Phillips, Todd W; Udani, Jay

    2015-12-01

    Since vitamin B12 occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals, vegetarians and particularly vegans are at risk of developing deficiencies of this essential vitamin. The chlorella used for this study is a commercially available whole-food supplement, which is believed to contain the physiologically active form of the vitamin. This exploratory open-label study was performed to determine if adding 9 g of Chlorella pyrenoidosa daily could help mitigate a vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Seventeen vegan or vegetarian adults (26-57 years of age) with a known vitamin B12 deficiency, as evidenced by a baseline serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) level above 270 nmol/L at screening, but who otherwise appeared healthy were enrolled in the study. Each participant added 9 g of C. pyrenoidosa to their daily diet for 60 ± 5 days and their serum MMA, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at 30 and 60 days from baseline. After 30 and 60 days, the serum MMA level fell significantly (P < .05) by an average ∼34%. Fifteen of the 17 (88%) subjects showed at least a 10% drop in MMA. At the same time, Hcy trended downward and serum vitamin B12 trended upward, while MCV, Hgb, and Hct appeared unchanged. The results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need. PMID:26485478

  12. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids on ( sup 3 H)-vitamin E incorporation into pulmonary artery endothelial cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Sekharam, K.M.; Patel, J.M.; Block, E.R. )

    1990-12-01

    Vitamin E, a dietary antioxidant, is presumed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer of biological membranes to an extent proportional to the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids or phospholipids in the membrane. In the present study we evaluated the distribution of incorporated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in various membranes of pulmonary artery endothelial cells. We also studied whether incorporation of PUFA or PE is responsible for increased incorporation of (3H)-vitamin E into the membranes of these cells. Following a 24-hr incubation with linoleic acid (18:2), 18:2 was increased by 6.9-, 9.2-, and 13.2-fold in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. Incorporation of 18:2 caused significant increases in the unsaturation indexes of mitochondrial and microsomal polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Incubation with arachidonic acid (20:4) for 24 hr resulted in 1.5-, 2.3-, and 2.4-fold increases in 20:4 in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. The unsaturation indexes of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes also increased (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Although incubations with 18:2 or 20:4 resulted in several-fold increases in membrane 18:2 or 20:4 fatty acids, incorporation of (3H)-vitamin E into these membranes was similar to that in controls. Following a 24-hr incubation with PE, membrane PE content was significantly increased, and (3H)-vitamin E incorporation was also increased to a comparable degree, i.e., plasma membrane greater than mitochondria greater than microsomes. Endogenous vitamin E content of the cells was not altered because of increased incorporation of PE and (3H)-vitamin E.

  13. Promising new applications of Castanea sativa shell: nutritional composition, antioxidant activity, amino acids and vitamin E profile.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Santos, Joana; Pimentel, Filipa B; Braga, Nair; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the macronutrient composition and the amino acid and vitamin E profiles of Castanea sativa shell from different production regions of Portugal (Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Beira-Alta). The nutritional composition was similar for all samples, with a high moisture content and low fat amounts. Arginine and leucine were the predominant essential amino acids (EAA) accounting for 3.55-7.21% and 1.59-2.08%, respectively, for samples of the different production zones. All the shells presented high contents of vitamin E (481.5 mg per 100 g sample, 962.8 mg per 100 g sample and 567.5 mg per 100 g sample, respectively, for Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Beira-Alta). The predominant vitamer was γ-tocopherol (670 mg per 100 g sample for Trás-os-Montes). The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of C. sativa shell were also determined. Trás-os-Montes extracts displayed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 31.8 ± 1.3 μg mL(-1) for DPPH; 8083.5 ± 164.8 μmol per mg db for FRAP). The total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 241.9 mg to 796.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g db sample, the highest TPC being obtained for Trás-os-Montes. The total flavonoid content (TFC) varied from 31.4 to 43.3 mg of catechin equivalents (CEQ) per g db sample. No antimicrobial activity was observed. The results showed the potentialities of C. sativa shell extracts.

  14. Changes of phenolic-acids and vitamin E profiles on germinated rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) treated by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Li, Meishan; Lee, Youn Ri; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2017-02-15

    This study was performed to investigate changes in the phenolic acid and vitamin E profiles of germinated rough rice following high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HPT). Rough rice was germinated at 37°C for two days and subjected to 0.1, 10, 30, 50, and 100MPa pressures for 24h. The total phenolic acid content increased from 85.37μg/g at 0.1MPa to 183.52μg/g at 100MPa. The highest gallic acid (4.29μg/g), catechin (9.55μg/g), p-coumaric acid (8.36μg/g), ferulic acid (14.99μg/g), salicylic acid (14.88μg/g), naringin (6.18μg/g), trans-cinnamic acid (45.23μg/g), and kaempferol (40.95μg/g) contents occurred in the sample treated at 100MPa after germination. The maximum vitamin E content of about 2.56 (BG) and 4.34mg/100g (AG) were achieved at 30MPa. These result suggest that a combination of HPT and germination are efficient method for enhancement of functionality in rough rice, and clarify the influence of HPT conditions on the vitamin E and phenolic acid in germination rough rice. PMID:27664614

  15. Effects of linseed oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E supplementation in lactating ewes' diets on meat fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation from their milk fed lambs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, B; Manca, M G; Mantecón, A R; Nudda, A; Manso, T

    2015-04-01

    Forty-eight Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were separated into four dietary treatments: Control (without added fat), LO (with 3% linseed oil), LO-Syn E (LO plus 400 mg/kg TMR of synthetic vitamin E) and LO-Nat E (LO plus 400 g/kg TMR of natural vitamin E). Linseed oil caused an increase in trans-11 C18:1 (VA), trans-10 C18:1, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (RA), trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and C18:3 n-3 (ALA) in milk fat compared to the Control. The addition of vitamin E to the LO diets did not influence significantly the majority of milk fatty acids compared with the LO diet alone. Trans-10 C18:1, VA, RA, trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and LA levels were higher in intramuscular lamb fat from treatments with linseed oil. No statistically significant differences were observed in these FA due to vitamin E supplementation or the type of vitamin E (synthetic vs. natural). Vitamin supplementation resulted in lipid oxidation levels below the threshold values for detection of rancidity in lamb meat. PMID:25553412

  16. Associations between concentrations of uric acid with concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene among adults in the United States☆

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Earl S.; Choi, Hyon K.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional associations between concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene, a major source of vitamin A, with concentrations of uric acid in a nationally representative sample of adults from the United States. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from up to 10893 participants aged ≥20 years of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006. Concentrations of uric acid adjusted for numerous covariates increased from 305.8 μmol/L in the lowest quintile of vitamin A to 335.3 μmol/L in the highest quintile (p for linear trend <0.001). The prevalence ratio for hyperuricemia also increased progressively across quintiles of serum vitamin A reaching 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52, 2.16; p for linear trend <0.001) in the top quintile in the maximally adjusted model. Adjusted mean concentrations of uric acid decreased progressively from quintile 1 (333.8 μmol/L) through quintile 4 of concentrations of beta-carotene and were similar for quintiles 4 (313.5 μmol/L) and 5 (313.8 μmol/L). Concentrations of beta-carotene were inversely associated with hyperuricemia (adjusted prevalence ratio comparing highest with lowest quintile = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.72; p for linear trend <0.001). Concentrations of uric acid were significantly and positively associated with concentrations of vitamin A and inversely with concentrations of beta-carotene. These cross-sectional findings require confirmation with experimental studies of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. PMID:24267038

  17. Bacterial adhesion to poly-(D,L)lactic acid blended with vitamin E: toward gentle anti-infective biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Campoccia, Davide; Visai, Livia; Renò, Filippo; Cangini, Ilaria; Rizzi, Manuela; Poggi, Alessandro; Montanaro, Lucio; Rimondini, Lia; Arciola, Carla Renata

    2015-04-01

    Anti-infective properties of biomedical materials are often achieved by loading or coating them with powerful bactericides. Undesirably, these bioactive molecules can damage the host cells at the biomaterial-tissues interface and, sometimes, even determine systemic toxic effects. The search for biomaterials able to actively resist infection while displaying a safe cytocompatibility profile toward eukaryotic cells is being progressively developed. Poly-(D,L)lactic acid (PLA) is a broadly used resorbable material with established biocompatibility properties. The dissolving surfaces of a biodegradable material tend to be per se elusive for bacteria. Here, films of pristine PLA, of PLA blended with vitamin E (VitE) and PLA blended with vitamin E acetate (VitE ac) were challenged in vitro with the biofilm-producers Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. The bacterial adhesion properties of the different materials were investigated on small film disc specimens by a method based on microtiter plates. Adherent bacteria were quantified by both CFU plating and bioluminescence. Significant decrease in bacterial adhesion and biofilm accumulation was found on the surface of both the enriched polymers. These findings, together with the favorable intrinsic properties of PLA and the desirable bioactivities conferred by VitE, point up the VitE-blended PLA polymers as gentle anti-infective biomaterials.

  18. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    PubMed

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. PMID:27283631

  19. Associations of Uric Acid with Polymorphisms in the δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase, Vitamin D Receptor, and Nitric Oxide Synthase Genes in Korean Lead Workers

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Schwartz, Brian S.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Ahn, Kyu-Dong; Todd, Andrew C.; Lee, Sung-Soo; Kelsey, Karl T.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Lustberg, Mark E.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Wen, Jiayu; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that uric acid may be nephrotoxic at lower levels than previously recognized and that it may be one mechanism for lead-related nephrotoxicity. Therefore, in understanding mechanisms for lead-related nephrotoxicity, it would be of value to determine whether genetic polymorphisms that are associated with renal outcomes in lead workers and/or modify associations between lead dose and renal function are also associated with uric acid and/or modify associations between lead dose and uric acid. We analyzed data on three such genetic polymorphisms: δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Mean (± SD) tibia, blood, and dimercaptosuccinic acid–chelatable lead levels were 37.2 ± 40.4 μg/g bone mineral, 32.0± 15.0 g/dL, and 0.77± 0.86 μg/mg creatinine, respectively, in 798 current and former lead workers. Participants with the eNOS Asp allele had lower mean serum uric acid compared with those with the Glu/Glu genotype. Among older workers (age ≥ median of 40.6 years), ALAD genotype modified associations between lead dose and uric acid levels. Higher lead dose was significantly associated with higher uric acid in workers with the ALAD1-1 genotype; associations were in the opposite direction in participants with the variant ALAD1-2 genotype. In contrast, higher tibia lead was associated with higher uric acid in those with the variant VDR B allele; however, modification was dependent on participants with the bb genotype and high tibia lead levels. We conclude that genetic polymorphisms may modify uric acid mediation of lead-related adverse renal effects. PMID:16263504

  20. The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL): Rationale and Design of a Large Randomized Controlled Trial of Vitamin D and Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Manson, JoAnn E.; Bassuk, Shari S.; Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R.; Albert, Michelle A.; Gordon, David; Zaharris, Elaine; MacFadyen, Jean G.; Danielson, Eleanor; Lin, Jennifer; Zhang, Shumin M.; Buring, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    Data from laboratory studies, observational research, and/or secondary prevention trials suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD), but primary prevention trials with adequate dosing in general populations (i.e., unselected for disease risk) are lacking. The ongoing VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial trial of vitamin D (in the form of vitamin D3 [cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 fatty acid (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] + docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1 g/day) supplements in the primary prevention of cancer and CVD among a multi-ethnic population of 20,000 U.S. men aged ≥50 and women aged ≥55. The mean treatment period will be 5 years. Baseline blood samples will be collected in at least 16,000 participants, with follow-up blood collection in about 6000 participants. Yearly follow-up questionnaires will assess treatment compliance (plasma biomarker measures will also assess compliance in a random sample of participants), use of non-study drugs or supplements, occurence of endpoints, and cancer and vascular risk factors. Self-reported endpoints will be confirmed by medical record review by physicians blinded to treatment assignment, and deaths will be ascertained through national registries and other sources. Ancillary studies will investigate whether these agents affect risk for diabetes and glucose intolerance; hypertension; cognitive decline; depression; osteoporosis and fracture; physical disability and falls; asthma and other respiratory diseases; infections; rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid diseases, and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:21986389

  1. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  2. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  3. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  4. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  5. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2000-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2000-04-01 2000-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a) Each application for a stay of a trustee's duty...

  6. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2005-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2005-04-01 2005-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  7. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  8. 49 CFR 178.33b-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Material. 178.33b-5 Section 178.33b-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-5 Material. (a) The receptacles must be constructed of...

  9. 49 CFR 178.33b-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Material. 178.33b-5 Section 178.33b-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-5 Material. (a) The receptacles must be constructed of...

  10. 49 CFR 178.33b-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Material. 178.33b-5 Section 178.33b-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-5 Material. (a) The receptacles must be constructed of...

  11. 49 CFR 178.33b-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Material. 178.33b-5 Section 178.33b-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-5 Material. (a) The receptacles must be constructed of...

  12. 29 CFR 2530.200b-5 - Seasonal industries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seasonal industries. 2530.200b-5 Section 2530.200b-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Provisions § 2530.200b-5 Seasonal industries....

  13. 29 CFR 2530.200b-5 - Seasonal industries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seasonal industries. 2530.200b-5 Section 2530.200b-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Provisions § 2530.200b-5 Seasonal industries....

  14. 29 CFR 2530.200b-5 - Seasonal industries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seasonal industries. 2530.200b-5 Section 2530.200b-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Provisions § 2530.200b-5 Seasonal industries....

  15. 29 CFR 2530.200b-5 - Seasonal industries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seasonal industries. 2530.200b-5 Section 2530.200b-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Provisions § 2530.200b-5 Seasonal industries....

  16. 29 CFR 2530.200b-5 - Seasonal industries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seasonal industries. 2530.200b-5 Section 2530.200b-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Provisions § 2530.200b-5 Seasonal industries....

  17. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  18. 42 CFR 52b.5 - How will NIH evaluate applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will NIH evaluate applications? 52b.5 Section 52b.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.5 How will NIH evaluate applications? (a) In evaluating...

  19. 42 CFR 52b.5 - How will NIH evaluate applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIH evaluate applications? 52b.5 Section 52b.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.5 How will NIH evaluate applications? (a) In evaluating...

  20. In vitro development of bovine one-cell embryos: Influence of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; First, N L

    1992-05-01

    To elucidate the effect of nutrient substrates on embryo development, in vitro fertilized bovine one-cell embryos were cultured in a medium similar to synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) but without glucose and containing 3.3 mM lactate, 0.3 mM pyruvate and 3 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 39 degrees C in 5% CO(2) in air. Results indicated that addition of glucose was not only unnecessary, but it also had a deleterious effect on embryo development to the morula stage. Lactate supported embryo development up to the morula stage as well as pyruvate. Supplementation with 20 amino acids contained in basal medium Eagle's (BME) and minimum essential medium (MEM) improved development to the morula stage dramatically and increased the cell number compared with that of the controls. Addition of the vitamins from MEM to SOF had no beneficial effect. The SOF with amino acids did not increase the frequency of blastocysts 7 days after in-vitro fertilization but did increase the total number of cells compared with that of the controls. Frequency of blastocysts at Day 7 in SOF with amino acids was equivalent to that of co-culture although the total cell number was lower. These results demonstrate that a semi-chemically defined medium can successfully support the development of bovine embryos to the morula stage to a limited extent, but the medium lacks some nutrients or growth factors to fully support development through the blastocyst stage. PMID:16727096

  1. In vitro development of bovine one-cell embryos: Influence of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; First, N L

    1992-05-01

    To elucidate the effect of nutrient substrates on embryo development, in vitro fertilized bovine one-cell embryos were cultured in a medium similar to synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) but without glucose and containing 3.3 mM lactate, 0.3 mM pyruvate and 3 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 39 degrees C in 5% CO(2) in air. Results indicated that addition of glucose was not only unnecessary, but it also had a deleterious effect on embryo development to the morula stage. Lactate supported embryo development up to the morula stage as well as pyruvate. Supplementation with 20 amino acids contained in basal medium Eagle's (BME) and minimum essential medium (MEM) improved development to the morula stage dramatically and increased the cell number compared with that of the controls. Addition of the vitamins from MEM to SOF had no beneficial effect. The SOF with amino acids did not increase the frequency of blastocysts 7 days after in-vitro fertilization but did increase the total number of cells compared with that of the controls. Frequency of blastocysts at Day 7 in SOF with amino acids was equivalent to that of co-culture although the total cell number was lower. These results demonstrate that a semi-chemically defined medium can successfully support the development of bovine embryos to the morula stage to a limited extent, but the medium lacks some nutrients or growth factors to fully support development through the blastocyst stage.

  2. Expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the one carbon cycle in rat placenta is determined by maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Khot, Vinita; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that folic acid, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and have implications for fetal programming. Our earlier studies demonstrate that an imbalance in maternal micronutrients influence long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and global methylation in rat placenta. We hypothesize that these changes are mediated through micronutrient dependent regulation of enzymes in one carbon cycle. Pregnant dams were assigned to six dietary groups with varying folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 deficient groups were supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid. Placental mRNA levels of enzymes, levels of phospholipids, and glutathione were determined. Results suggest that maternal micronutrient imbalance (excess folic acid with vitamin B12 deficiency) leads to lower mRNA levels of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase , but higher cystathionine b-synthase (CBS) and Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) as compared to control. Omega-3 supplementation normalized CBS and MTHFR mRNA levels. Increased placental phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), in the same group was also observed. Our data suggests that adverse effects of a maternal micronutrient imbalanced diet may be due to differential regulation of key genes encoding enzymes in one carbon cycle and omega-3 supplementation may ameliorate most of these changes.

  3. Dietary alpha-tocopherol affects tissue vitamin e and malondialdehyde levels but does not change antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Faizan, Mohammad; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Menoyo, David; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wagner, Anika E; Struksnæs, Gunvor; Koppe, Wolfgang; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of increasing dietary alpha tocopherol on vitamin E tissue concentrations, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes, and fatty acid composition has been investigated in farmed Atlantic salmon. To this end fish (initial body weight ~ 193 g, n = 70 per group) were fed diets based on fish oil (27.5 %), fish meal (15.0 %), wheat gluten (20.6 %), and soy protein concentrate (24.0 %) for 14 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 0 (negative control), 150, and 400 mg/kg vitamin E as all-rac alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Dietary vitamin E did not affect feed conversion efficiency ratio but significantly (p < 0.05) increased alpha-tocopherol concentrations in salmon plasma, liver, and fillet (n = 8 per group each). The increase in fillet alpha-tocopherol was accompanied by a considerable decrease (p < 0.01) in malondialdehyde concentrations at the higher supplementation level. Furthermore, we observed an antagonistic interaction between alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in plasma at the highest supplementation level, since high dietary alpha-tocopherol reduced plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Liver antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, remained largely unchanged in response to dietary alpha-tocopherol. Dietary alpha-tocopherol did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in salmon fillet. Present data suggest that alpha-tocopherol supplementations beyond dietary recommendations may further improve flesh quality and nutritional value of Atlantic salmon fillet as far as malondialdehyde and vitamin E concentrations are concerned. PMID:25008014

  4. Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for ... promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources ...

  5. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  6. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  7. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role ... immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds ...

  8. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is ... main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as ...

  9. Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting enough vitamin C? Most people in the United States get enough vitamin C from foods and beverages. ... C? Vitamin C deficiency is rare in the United States and Canada. People who get little or no ...

  10. Liposomal-encapsulated Ascorbic Acid: Influence on Vitamin C Bioavailability and Capacity to Protect Against Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Janelle L.; Paris, Hunter L.; Beals, Joseph W.; Binns, Scott E.; Giordano, Gregory R.; Scalzo, Rebecca L.; Schweder, Melani M.; Blair, Emek; Bell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous administration of vitamin C has been shown to decrease oxidative stress and, in some instances, improve physiological function in adult humans. Oral vitamin C administration is typically less effective than intravenous, due in part to inferior vitamin C bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral delivery of vitamin C encapsulated in liposomes. On 4 separate randomly ordered occasions, 11 men and women were administered an oral placebo, or 4 g of vitamin C via oral, oral liposomal, or intravenous delivery. The data indicate that oral delivery of 4 g of vitamin C encapsulated in liposomes (1) produces circulating concentrations of vitamin C that are greater than unencapsulated oral but less than intravenous administration and (2) provides protection from ischemia–reperfusion-mediated oxidative stress that is similar to the protection provided by unencapsulated oral and intravenous administrations. PMID:27375360

  11. Trends in neural tube defect prevalence, folic acid fortification, and vitamin supplement use.

    PubMed

    Olney, Richard S; Mulinare, Joseph

    2002-08-01

    In this review, the authors analyze international trends in rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) during the past three decades. Population-based data sources include the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program and other US birth defects surveillance programs in the National Birth Defects Prevention Network, the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems, and US and Canadian vital records. To analyze trends in vitamin consumption, we review data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and international surveys of multivitamin use. We discuss the role of factors associated with historic and continuing declines in NTD rates in most countries. These factors include the introduction and increased utilization of prenatal diagnosis, recommendations for multivitamin use in women of childbearing age, and population-wide increases in blood folate levels that have occurred since food fortification was mandated. We also discuss research needs for further NTD prevention. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use.

  12. Effects of oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E on ruminal and milk fatty acid profiles in cows receiving a high-starch diet.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Najar, T; Enjalbert, F

    2012-10-01

    Among trans fatty acids, trans-10,cis-12 CLA has negative effects on cow milk fat production and can affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. In some but not all experiments, vitamin E has been shown to control this shift. To ascertain the effects of vitamin E on this shift of BH pathway, 2 studies were conducted. The first study explored in vitro the effects of addition of natural (RRR-α-tocopherol acetate) and synthetic (dl-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E. Compared with control and synthetic vitamin E, the natural form resulted in a greater trans-10/trans-11 ratio; however, the effect was very low, suggesting that vitamin E was neither a limiting factor for rumen BH nor a modulator of the BH pathway. An in vivo study investigated the effect of natural vitamin E (RRR-α-tocopherol) on this shift and subsequent milk fat depression. Six rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 2×2 crossover design. Cows received 20-kg DM of a control diet based on corn silage with 22% of wheat, and after 2 wk of adaptation, the diet was supplemented with 600 g of sunflower oil for 2 more weeks. During the last week of this 4-wk experimental period, cows were divided into 2 groups: an unsupplemented control group and a group receiving 11 g of RRR-α-tocopherol acetate per day. A trans-10 shift of ruminal BH associated with milk fat depression due to oil supplementation of a high-wheat diet was observed, but vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows did not result in a reversal toward a trans-11 BH pathway, and did not restore milk fat content.

  13. Monitoring utilizations of amino acids and vitamins in culture media and Chinese hamster ovary cells by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jinshu; Chan, Pik Kay; Bondarenko, Pavel V

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring amino acids and vitamins is important for understanding human health, food nutrition and the culture of mammalian cells used to produce therapeutic proteins in biotechnology. A method including ion pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and optimized to quantify 21 amino acids and 9 water-soluble vitamins in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and culture media. By optimizing the chromatographic separation, scan time, monitoring time window, and sample preparation procedure, and using isotopically labeled (13)C, (15)N and (2)H internal standards, low limits of quantitation (≤0.054 mg/L), good precision (<10%) and good accuracy (100±10%) were achieved for nearly all the 30 compounds. Applying this method to CHO cell extracts, statistically significant differences in the metabolite levels were measured between two cell lines originated from the same host, indicating differences in genetic makeup or metabolic activities and nutrient supply levels in the culture media. In a fed-batch process of manufacturing scale bioreactors, two distinguished trends for changes in amino acid concentrations were identified in response to feeding. Ten essential amino acids showed a zigzag pattern with maxima at the feeding days, and 9 non-essential amino acids displayed a smoothly changing profile as they were mainly products of cellular metabolism. Five of 9 vitamins accumulated continuously during the culture period, suggesting that they were fed in access. The method serves as an effective tool for the development and optimization of mammalian cell cultures. PMID:26355770

  14. Monitoring utilizations of amino acids and vitamins in culture media and Chinese hamster ovary cells by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jinshu; Chan, Pik Kay; Bondarenko, Pavel V

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring amino acids and vitamins is important for understanding human health, food nutrition and the culture of mammalian cells used to produce therapeutic proteins in biotechnology. A method including ion pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and optimized to quantify 21 amino acids and 9 water-soluble vitamins in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and culture media. By optimizing the chromatographic separation, scan time, monitoring time window, and sample preparation procedure, and using isotopically labeled (13)C, (15)N and (2)H internal standards, low limits of quantitation (≤0.054 mg/L), good precision (<10%) and good accuracy (100±10%) were achieved for nearly all the 30 compounds. Applying this method to CHO cell extracts, statistically significant differences in the metabolite levels were measured between two cell lines originated from the same host, indicating differences in genetic makeup or metabolic activities and nutrient supply levels in the culture media. In a fed-batch process of manufacturing scale bioreactors, two distinguished trends for changes in amino acid concentrations were identified in response to feeding. Ten essential amino acids showed a zigzag pattern with maxima at the feeding days, and 9 non-essential amino acids displayed a smoothly changing profile as they were mainly products of cellular metabolism. Five of 9 vitamins accumulated continuously during the culture period, suggesting that they were fed in access. The method serves as an effective tool for the development and optimization of mammalian cell cultures.

  15. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908

  16. Redox cycles of vitamin E: Hydrolysis and ascorbic acid dependent reduction of 8a-(alkyldioxy)tocopherones

    SciTech Connect

    Liebler, D.C.; Kaysen, K.L.; Kennedy, T.A. )

    1989-12-12

    Oxidation of the biological antioxidant {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E; TH) by peroxyl radicals yields 8a-(alkyldioxy)tocopherones, which either may hydrolyze to {alpha}-tocopheryl quinone (TQ) or may be reduced by ascorbic acid to regenerate TH. To define the chemistry of this putative two-electron TH redox cycle, we studied the hydrolysis and reduction of 8a-((2,4-dimethyl-1-nitrilopent-2-yl)dioxyl)tocopherone (1) in acetonitrile/buffer mixtures and in phospholipid liposomes. TQ formation in acetonitrile/buffer mixtures, which was monitored spectrophotometrically, declined with increasing pH and could not be detected above pH 4. The rate of TQ formation from 1 first increased with time and then decreased in a first-order terminal phase. Rearrangement of 8a-hydroxy-{alpha}-tocopherone (2) to TQ displayed first-order kinetics identical with the terminal phase for TQ formation from 1. Both rate constants increased with decreasing pH. Hydrolysis of 1 in acetonitrile/H{sub 2}{sup 18}O yielded ({sup 18}O)TQ. These observations suggest that 1 loses the 8a-(alkyldioxy) moiety to produce the tocopherone cation (T{sup +}), which hydrolyzes to 2, the TQ-forming intermediate. Incubation of either 1 or 2 with ascorbic acid in acetonitrile/buffer yielded TH. Reduction of both 1 and 2 decreased with increasing pH. In phosphatidylcholine liposomes at pH 7, approximately 10% of the T{sup +} generated from 1 was reduced to TH by 5 mM ascorbic acid. The results collectively demonstrate that T{sup +} is the ascorbic acid reducible intermediate in a two-electron TH redox cycle, a process that probably would require biocatalysis to proceed in biological membranes.

  17. Improvement of shelf-life of buffalo meat using lactic acid, clove oil and vitamin C during retail display.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Muthukumar, M; Sen, A R; Babji, Y; Murthy, T R K

    2006-10-01

    Buffalo meat steaks dipped in either (1) distilled water (control), (2) lactic acid (LA), (3) LA+clove oil (clove), or (4) LA+clove+vitamin C (Vit C) were displayed at 4±1°C, illuminated by a standard fluorescent lamp. The pH, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental colour (CIE L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)), aerobic plate counts (APC), psychrotrophic counts (PPC), coliform counts and sensory colour and odour were determined up to 12th day of display at 3 days interval. Results showed that, all the treatments have significantly (P<0.05) reduced the TBARS values compared to control. Among treatments, use of LA+clove has exhibited significantly (P<0.05) lowest TBARS values throughout display period than others. Buffalo meat steaks treated with either LA+clove or LA+clove+Vit C had significantly (P<0.05) lower APC, PPC and coliform counts than control or LA treated samples. LA+clove+Vit C treated samples maintained significantly (P<0.05) higher a(∗) and b(∗) values during display as well as improvement in sensory colour and odour than others. Treatment with either LA+clove or LA+clove+Vit C extended the display life of buffalo meat steaks at 4±1°C. There appears to be a significant advantage to using LA+clove or LA+clove+Vit C over LA alone.

  18. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere. PMID:22382378

  19. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  20. Effect of high versus low doses of fat and vitamin A dietary supplementation on fatty acid composition of phospholipids in mice.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kathrin; Mihály, Johanna; Liebisch, Gerhard; Marosvölgyi, Tamás; Garcia, Ada L; Schmitz, Gerd; Decsi, Tamás; Rühl, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and vitamin A provide important precursors for potent bioactive ligands of nuclear hormone receptors, which regulate various enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis, metabolism and inflammation. We determined the effects of dietary fat and dietary vitamin A on hepatic expression of two fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, elongase 6 (ELOVL6) and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) and the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) of phospholipids in serum and liver. Mice (n = 6) were fed 4 weeks with diets containing 2, 5 and 25 % of fat or vitamin A (0, 2,500 and 326,500 RE/kg as retinyl palmitate). MUFAs and SAFAs were measured using GC and ESI-MS/MS. Hepatic expression of metabolizing enzymes was determined using QRT-PCR. ELOVL6 was significantly down-regulated in response to a high-fat diet (p < 0.001) and significantly up-regulated in response to low-fat diet (p < 0.05). SCD1 expression was significantly lower in high- versus low-fat diet (p < 0.05). The vitamin A content in the diet did not influence the hepatic expression of both enzymes. In plasma, the amounts of MUFAs bound to phospholipids significantly decreased in response to a high-fat diet and increased after a low-fat diet. This tendency was also observed in the liver for various phospholipids sub-classes. In summary, this study shows that fat content in the diet has a stronger impact than the content of vitamin A on hepatic gene expression of SCD1 and ELOVL6 and thereby on MUFA and SAFA concentrations in liver and plasma. PMID:24306959

  1. Prospective role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in attenuating hexavalent chromium-induced functional and cellular damage in rat thyroid.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Mahmood, Tariq

    2010-07-01

    Occupational exposure to toxic heavy metals may render industrial workers with thyroid-related problems. Here, we examined the role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) against hexavalent chromium Cr (VI)-induced damage in rat thyroid gland. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and ascorbic acid doses were 60 microg and 120 mg kg(-1) body wt (intraperitoneally [i.p.]) respectively. Treatment regimens were group I rats, saline treated control; group II, only K2Cr2O7; group III, ascorbic acid 1 hour prior K2Cr2O7; group IV, simultaneous doses of ascorbic acid and K2Cr2O7, and group V, a combined premix dose of ascorbic acid and K2 Cr2O7 (2:1 ratio). Blood samples were taken before dosing the animals and 48 hours post exposure to determine the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations. Toward end of experiment, rats were sacrificed and thyroid glands were processed to evaluate the extent of cellular insult. Results showed significantly increased TSH and decreased FT3 and FT4 concentrations in groups II, III and IV rats as compared to control levels (p < 0.05). In contrast, in group V rats, serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 concentrations neared control concentrations. Histopathologically, protective effect of ascorbic acid was found in group V rats only, where thyroid gland structure neared control thyroid except the follicular size that was decreased (p < 0.05). Follicular density was no different from control. Basal laminae were intact, interfollicular spaces were normal. Colloid retraction and/or reabsorption were reduced maximally. Epithelial cell height was no different from control; epithelial follicular index increased only 1.3 fold, whereas nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio was decreased by 14% only. The study indicates that the ascorbic acid may have the potential to protect thyroid gland from chromium toxicity; however, the study warrants further in-depth experimentation to precisely elucidate this role. PMID:20504825

  2. Fat-soluble vitamins and plasma and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in chylothorax pediatric patients receiving a medium-chain triglyceride-rich diet

    PubMed Central

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Tirapongporn, Hathaichanok; Wongarn, Renu; Chotipanang, Kwanjai; Phuangphan, Phakkanan; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative chylothorax can be cured by a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-rich diet. However, there is concern that an MCT-rich diet results in clinical and biochemical deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. We compared fat-soluble vitamins status and fatty acids status before and after administration of an MCT-rich diet. Nine children with congenital heart disease developed chylothorax after cardiac surgery. Blood samples were drawn from each subject twice, first prior to administration of an MCT-rich diet and secondly when the chylothorax was clinically cured and the MCT diet discontinued. Both blood samples were analyzed for retinol and 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations, the ratio of α-tocopherol to total lipids (α-TE/TL), coagulogram, and the fatty acid composition in plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. In spite of a decrease in the α-TE/TL ratio (3.78 ± 0.89 vs 2.36 ± 0.44 mg/g, p<0.05), this decrease did not reach the deficiency cut-off level. Linoleic acid in both plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids decreased significantly (25.25 ± 8.06 vs 14.25 ± 2.88%, and 11.19 ± 2.15 vs 6.89 ± 2.45%, respectively). Administration of an MCT-rich diet for treatment of postoperative chylothorax caused a reduction in vitamin E status and linoleic acid, but without any symptoms of deficiency. PMID:25411522

  3. Vitamin Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain function. You'll find high levels of vitamin C in citrus fruits, strawberries, kiwi, guava, peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, and spinach. Teen guys need 75 mg (milligrams; 1 milligram equals 1,000 micrograms) and girls need 65 mg of vitamin C a day. Vitamin D Vitamin D strengthens ...

  4. Effect of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase activity and stability on vitamin C in carrots (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) during thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Leong, Sze Ying; Oey, Indrawati

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) on vitamin C in carrots (Daucus carota subsp. sativus), namely Nantes, Egmont Gold and baby carrots during thermal treatment. Enzyme-substrate reaction kinetics of AAO were described using Michaelis-Menten equation. The estimated K(m) and V(max) values of AAO ranged from 50.34 to 63.54 μM and 23.70 to 26.82 μmol/min, respectively. Nantes carrots had the lowest AAO activity. On the other hand, Egmont Gold had the highest V(max). AAO activity in all carrot cultivars was stable up to 50 °C and inactivated above 50 °C. Irreversible thermal inactivation of AAO followed first order kinetics (55-70 °C) and the estimated activation energy of the three carrot cultivars situated between 114.33 and 191.45 kJ/mol. Regarding vitamin C stability, thermal treatment at 60-70 °C has resulted in total conversion of l-AA to DHAA due to residual AAO activity; a complete AAO inactivation was found in 80 °C-treated carrots with high vitamin C retention predominantly in l-AA form, up to 90%. On average, the carrots had a total vitamin C content amounting from 368.24 to 379.87 μg/g dry matter and the Nantes carrots had the highest vitamin C content. The effectiveness of rapid inactivation of endogenous AAO via heating (>80 °C, 10 min) prior to matrix disruption gave protection to l-AA towards enzymatic oxidation, thus resulted in a higher vitamin C content and stability in carrots.

  5. Effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, breed and dietary vitamin E on the fatty acids of lamb muscle, liver and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Demirel, G; Wachira, A M; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Wood, J D; Enser, M

    2004-04-01

    The effect of feeding n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of muscle, adipose tissue and liver of lambs was investigated. Groups of eight ram lambs per breed, SuffolkxLleyn (24 kg live weight) and Scottish Blackface (18 kg live weight), were each fed one of six diets containing one of three fat sources (50 g fatty acids/kg DM; Megalac((R)) (calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate; Volac Ltd, Royston, Herts., UK) and formaldehyde-treated whole linseed (Trouw Nutrition UK, Northwich, Ches., UK) either alone or with fish oil (1:1, w/w) and either 100 or 500 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg DM. Feed was offered ad libitum until slaughter at approximately half breed mature live weight. The type of dietary fat had no effect on intake, growth rate or feed conversion ratio. The 3.0-fold higher concentration of 18 : 3n-3 in the linseed compared with the Megalac((R)) diet approximately doubled (P<0.001) the concentration in the neutral and polar lipid fractions of musculus semimembranosus and liver, and in adipose tissue it increased 2.5-fold. Feeding protected linseed also increased (P<0.001) concentrations of 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 5n-3 in muscle polar lipids and both lipid fractions of liver. The linseed-fish oil raised the 20 : 5n-3 concentrations above those for the linseed diet and also increased 22 : 6n-3. Scottish Blackface lambs had lower concentrations of 18 : 3n-3 in all lipids compared with Suffolk x Lleyn lambs, but more 20 : 5n-3 in the polar lipids of muscle and liver. High levels of dietary vitamin E were associated with small decreases in the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids and increases in PUFA. Linseed raised the PUFA : saturated fatty acid ratios in liver and adipose tissue but not in muscle, and improved the n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio, as did the linseed-fish oil. Different combinations of dietary fatty acids and better protection against rumen biohydrogenation are required to improve muscle PUFA : saturated fatty acids ratios.

  6. Multiple cytochrome P-450 genes are concomitantly regulated by vitamin A under steady-state conditions and by retinoic acid during hepatic first-pass metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ross, A Catharine; Cifelli, Christopher J; Zolfaghari, Reza; Li, Nan-Qian

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) is an essential precursor for the production of retinoic acid (RA), which in turn is a major regulator of gene expression, affecting cell differentiation throughout the body. Understanding how vitamin A nutritional status, as well as therapeutic retinoid treatment, regulates the expression of retinoid homeostatic genes is important for improvement of dietary recommendations and therapeutic strategies using retinoids. This study investigated genes central to processes of retinoid uptake and storage, release to plasma, and oxidation in the liver of rats under steady-state conditions after different exposures to dietary vitamin A (deficient, marginal, adequate, and supplemented) and acutely after administration of a therapeutic dose of all-trans-RA. Over a very wide range of dietary vitamin A, lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) as well as multiple cytochrome P-450s (CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP2C22) differed by diet and were highly correlated with one another and with vitamin A status assessed by liver retinol concentration (all correlations, P < 0.05). After acute treatment with RA, the same genes were rapidly and concomitantly induced, preceding retinoic acid receptor (RAR)β, a classical direct target of RA. CYP26A1 mRNA exhibited the greatest dynamic range (change of log 2(6) in 3 h). Moreover, CYP26A1 increased more rapidly in the liver of RA-primed rats than naive rats, evidenced by increased CYP26A1 gene expression and increased conversion of [(3)H]RA to polar metabolites. By in situ hybridization, CYP26A1 mRNA was strongly regulated within hepatocytes, closely resembling retinol-binding protein (RBP)4 in location. Overall, whether RA is produced endogenously from retinol or administered exogenously, changes in retinoid homeostatic gene expression simultaneously favor both retinol esterification and RA oxidation, with CYP26A1 exhibiting the greatest dynamic change.

  7. High intake of folic acid or complex of B vitamins provides anti-Parkinsonism effect: no role for serum level of homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Haghdoost-Yazdi, Hashem; Fraidouni, Negin; Faraji, Ayda; Jahanihashemi, Hassan; Sarookhani, Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    Several lines of evidence show that homocysteine (Hcy) levels are increased in blood and CSF of patients with Parkinson's disease. B vitamins are necessary for Hcy metabolism and their deficiencies cause hyperhomocysteinemia and neurodegeneration. In present study, effect of B vitamin supplementation on the severity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinsonism was investigated. Rats were nourished with B vitamin supplements from 1 month before of stereotaxic injection of 6-OHDA to the end of experiments. Total serum Hcy was measured at the end of experiments to identify its association with Parkinsonism. Both rotational and rotarod tests revealed that supplementation of folic acid, in a dose dependent manner, attenuates severity of Parkinsonism. Supplement of B complex also had beneficial effect and improved motor performance in rotarod test and decreased biased swings in elevated body swing test but had no effect on the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. Supplement of B(6) attenuated rotational behavior but had no effect on the rotarod performance and swinging behavior. Supplement of B(12) or combination of folic acid with B(6) and B(12) had no effect on the behavioral symptoms of Parkinsonism. Except one group, the levels of Hcy in other vitamin B treated groups were near to that in control group. Surprisingly, Hcy in group of rats that received high intake of folic acid was significantly higher than that in control group. Our results indicate that high intake of folic acid or B complex provides anti-Parkinsonism effect but it is not mediated by lowering plasma Hcy.

  8. Pros and cons of increasing folic acid and vitamin B12 intake by fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no doubt that folic acid fortification can be effective for reducing the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The degree of efficacy depends on both the level of folate depletion and other, yet to be fully characterized, genetic and/or environmental factors. This article summarizes brie...

  9. Folic Acid Promotion for Hispanic Women in Florida: A Vitamin Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kamilah B.; Hauser, Kimberlea; Rodriguez, Nydia Y.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the barriers and benefits of taking multivitamins among Hispanic women exposed to a folic acid social marketing campaign in Florida, USA. Design and setting: Evaluation of non-pregnant women aged 18-35 from multiple Hispanic subgroups. Method: For 6 months, participants exposed to social marketing campaign educational…

  10. Maternal dietary folate, folic acid and vitamin D intakes during pregnancy and lactation and the risk of cows' milk allergy in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Tuokkola, Jetta; Luukkainen, Päivi; Kaila, Minna; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Niinistö, Sari; Veijola, Riitta; Virta, Lauri J; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2016-08-01

    Maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation potentially influences the development of allergic diseases. Cows' milk allergy (CMA) is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases, but the impact of early nutritional influences on CMA has not been explored. The associations between maternal intakes of folate, folic acid and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation were addressed in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Mothers of 4921 children during pregnancy and 2940 children during lactation provided information on maternal dietary intake during the 8th month of pregnancy and the 3rd month of lactation using a detailed, validated FFQ. Information on diagnosed CMA in the offspring was obtained from a medical registry as well as queried from the parents. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate nutrient intake. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses. Folate intake and folic acid and vitamin D supplement use were associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring, whereas vitamin D intake from foods during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of CMA. Thus, maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation may affect the development of CMA in offspring. Supplementation with folic acid may not be beneficial in terms of CMA development, especially in children of allergic mothers. The association between dietary supplement use and CMA risk can at least partly be explained by increased health-seeking behaviour among more educated mothers who also use more dietary supplements. PMID:27350011

  11. Fatty Acid Blood Levels, Vitamin D Status, Physical Performance, Activity, and Resiliency: A Novel Potential Screening Tool for Depressed Mood in Active Duty Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Barringer, Nicholas D; Kotwal, Russ S; Lewis, Michael D; Funderburk, Leslee K; Elliott, Timothy R; Crouse, Stephen F; Smith, Stephen B; Greenwood, Michael; Kreider, Richard B

    2016-09-01

    This study examined whether blood fatty acid levels, vitamin D status, and/or physical activity are associated with physical fitness scores; a measure of mood, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; and a measure of resiliency, Dispositional Resiliency Scale-15 in active duty Soldiers. 100 active duty males at Fort Hood, Texas, underwent a battery of psychometric tests, anthropometric measurements, and fitness tests, and they also provided fasting blood samples for fatty acid and vitamin D analysis. Pearson bivariate correlation analysis revealed significant correlations among psychometric tests, anthropometric measurements, physical performance, reported physical inactivity (sitting time), and fatty acid and vitamin D blood levels. On the basis of these findings, a regression equation was developed to predict a depressed mood status as determined by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The equation accurately predicted depressed mood status in 80% of our participants with a sensitivity of 76.9% and a specificity of 80.5%. Results indicate that the use of a regression equation may be helpful in identifying Soldiers at higher risk for mental health issues. Future studies should evaluate the impact of exercise and diet as a means of improving resiliency and reducing depressed mood in Soldiers. PMID:27612362

  12. 42 CFR 52b.5 - How will NIH evaluate applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will NIH evaluate applications? 52b.5 Section... INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.5 How will NIH evaluate applications? (a) In evaluating and... other pertinent factors, the following: (1) The priority score assigned to the application by an...

  13. 42 CFR 52b.5 - How will NIH evaluate applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will NIH evaluate applications? 52b.5 Section... INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.5 How will NIH evaluate applications? (a) In evaluating and... other pertinent factors, the following: (1) The priority score assigned to the application by an...

  14. 42 CFR 52b.5 - How will NIH evaluate applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will NIH evaluate applications? 52b.5 Section... INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.5 How will NIH evaluate applications? (a) In evaluating and... other pertinent factors, the following: (1) The priority score assigned to the application by an...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-5 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxes imposed by section 4161(b) are effective with respect to sales made on and after January 1, 1975. ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effective date. 48.4161(b)-5 Section 48.4161(b)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  16. 8 CFR 343b.5 - Verification of naturalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Verification of naturalization. 343b.5... CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.5 Verification of naturalization. The application shall not be granted without first obtaining verification of the applicant's naturalization....

  17. 8 CFR 343b.5 - Verification of naturalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Verification of naturalization. 343b.5... CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.5 Verification of naturalization. The application shall not be granted without first obtaining verification of the applicant's naturalization....

  18. 8 CFR 343b.5 - Verification of naturalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Verification of naturalization. 343b.5... CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.5 Verification of naturalization. The application shall not be granted without first obtaining verification of the applicant's naturalization....

  19. 8 CFR 343b.5 - Verification of naturalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Verification of naturalization. 343b.5... CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.5 Verification of naturalization. The application shall not be granted without first obtaining verification of the applicant's naturalization....

  20. 8 CFR 343b.5 - Verification of naturalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Verification of naturalization. 343b.5... CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.5 Verification of naturalization. The application shall not be granted without first obtaining verification of the applicant's naturalization....

  1. 49 CFR 178.33b-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material. 178.33b-5 Section 178.33b-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR...

  2. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on blood ascorbic acid, vitamin E, an lipid peroxide in chronic cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, S Z; Ognjanović, B I; Stajn, A S; Zikić, R V; Saicić, Z S; Petrović, V M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the possible protective role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) administration on ascorbic acid (AsA), vitamin E (vit E), and lipid peroxide (LP) concentrations in the blood of rats chronically treated with cadmium. Results were compared to those obtained in control animals, as well as to those obtained in animals treated with olive oil. Compared to that of the control animals, the AsA concentration was significantly increased in rats treated with CoQ10 and olive oil, whereas vit E concentration was significantly increased in animals treated with cadmium, CoQ10, or cadmium + CoQ10. A significant decrease in LP concentration was noted in animals treated with cadmium or with cadmium + CoQ10o, whereas a significant increase was seen in animals treated with olive oil. Compared to that of the animals treated with olive oil, the ascorbic acid concentration was significantly decreased in rats treated with cadmium or with cadmium + CoQ10, whereas vit E concentration was significantly increased in animals treated with cadmium, CoQ10, or cadmium + CoQ10. LP concentration was significantly decreased in rats treated with cadmium, CoQ10, or cadmium + CoQ10. Our study showed that CoQ10 administration in rats chronically exposed to exogenous cadmium exerts beneficial effects on the nonenzymatic components of the antioxidant defense system, such as AsA and vit E, resulting in a decreased concentration of LP in the blood. PMID:11394712

  3. [Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)].

    PubMed

    Guilland, Jean-Claude; Aimone-Gastin, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    The term "vitamin B12" refers to four cobalamins (Cbl), including methyl-Cbl and adenosyl-Cbl, the two enzyme co-factors of methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, respectively. Vitamin B12 deficiency produces clinical disorders that include mainly megaloblastic anaemia, peripheral and central neurological manifestations. The clinical significance of low blood B12 concentrations in the absence of manifestations of deficiency is a matter of debate. The biochemical diagnosis of the subclinical and clinical deficiency of vitamin B12 has been enriched by several parameters, including serum methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, and holo-transcobalamine, which have been evaluated over the past two decades. PMID:24298826

  4. Serum concentration comparisons of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals between zoo and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Debra A; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Griffin, Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in zoo giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) were compared to values obtained from free-ranging giraffes in an effort to identify potential nutritional differences in the zoo population. Zoo giraffes have a specific set of maladies that may be nutritionally related, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism. Dietary requirements for giraffes are not known; invasive studies used with domestic animals cannot be performed on zoo animals. Though domestic animal standards are often used to evaluate nutritional health of exotic animals, they may not be the most appropriate standards to use. Serum samples from 20 zoo giraffes at 10 zoological institutions in the United States were compared to previously collected samples from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Thirteen of the zoo animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection, and seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. Dietary information was also collected on each zoo giraffe; most zoo giraffe diets consisted of alfalfa-based pellets (acid detergent fiber-16), alfalfa hay, and browse in varying quantities. Differences between zoo and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed with the use of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) for mean separation. Of the 84 parameters measured, 54 (60%) were significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between zoo and free-ranging giraffes. Nine (11%) items were significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between adult and subadult animals. Only one parameter, sodium concentration, was found to be significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between genders. Further investigation in zoo giraffe diets is needed to address the differences seen in this study and the potentially related health

  5. Serum concentration comparisons of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals between zoo and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Debra A; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Griffin, Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in zoo giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) were compared to values obtained from free-ranging giraffes in an effort to identify potential nutritional differences in the zoo population. Zoo giraffes have a specific set of maladies that may be nutritionally related, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism. Dietary requirements for giraffes are not known; invasive studies used with domestic animals cannot be performed on zoo animals. Though domestic animal standards are often used to evaluate nutritional health of exotic animals, they may not be the most appropriate standards to use. Serum samples from 20 zoo giraffes at 10 zoological institutions in the United States were compared to previously collected samples from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Thirteen of the zoo animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection, and seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. Dietary information was also collected on each zoo giraffe; most zoo giraffe diets consisted of alfalfa-based pellets (acid detergent fiber-16), alfalfa hay, and browse in varying quantities. Differences between zoo and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed with the use of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) for mean separation. Of the 84 parameters measured, 54 (60%) were significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between zoo and free-ranging giraffes. Nine (11%) items were significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between adult and subadult animals. Only one parameter, sodium concentration, was found to be significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between genders. Further investigation in zoo giraffe diets is needed to address the differences seen in this study and the potentially related health

  6. [Effect of a diet containing calcium pantothenate on urinary vitamin excretion and on the liver and kidney total pantothenic acid level in rats].

    PubMed

    Lhuissier, M; Bringer, M

    1988-01-01

    Four groups of five adult rats weighing 310 g received during 20 days a diet containing 0, 1.68, 16.8 or 168 mumol of pantothenic acid per kg of diet. The daily urinary vitamin excretion was, in nmol per day: 32 +/- 8, 32 +/- 4, 180 +/- 23 and 2,100 +/- 91, respectively (mean +/- SEM). Liver and kidney pantothenic acid content was the same in all groups, in nmol per g of fresh tissue: 300 +/- 36 and 190 +/- 6, respectively (mean +/- SEM, n = 20). PMID:2978017

  7. Clinical use and rational management of homocysteine, folic acid, and B vitamins in cardiovascular and thrombotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Stanger, O; Herrmann, W; Pietrzik, K; Fowler, B; Geisel, J; Dierkes, J; Weger, M

    2004-06-01

    About half of all deaths are due to cardiovascular disease and its complications. The economic burden on society and the healthcare system from cardiovascular disability, complications, and treatments is huge and becoming larger in the rapidly aging populations of developed countries. As conventional risk factors fail to account for part of the cases, homocysteine, a "new" risk factor, is being viewed with mounting interest. Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing intermediate product in the normal metabolism of methionine, an essential amino acid. Folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) deficiency and reduced enzyme activities inhibit the breakdown of homocysteine, thus increasing the intracellular homocysteine concentration. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies have consistently found an independent relationship between mild hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality. Starting at a plasma homocysteine concentration of approximately 10 micromol/l, the risk increase follows a linear dose-response relationship with no specific threshold level. Hyperhomocysteinemia as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease is thought to be responsible for about 10 percent of total risk. Elevated plasma homocysteine levels (> 12 micromol/l; moderate hyperhomocysteinemia) are considered cytotoxic and are found in 5 to 10 percent of the general population and in up to 40 percent of patients with vascular disease. Additional risk factors (smoking, arterial hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia) may additively or, by interacting with homocysteine, synergistically (and hence overproportionally) increase overall risk. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with alterations in vascular morphology, loss of endothelial antithrombotic function, and induction of a procoagulant environment. Most known forms of damage or injury are due to homocysteine-mediated oxidative stresses. Especially when acting as direct or indirect antagonists of

  8. Interactions between plasma concentrations of folate and markers of vitamin B(12) status with cognitive performance in elderly people not exposed to folic acid fortification: the Hordaland Health Study.

    PubMed

    Doets, Esmée L; Ueland, Per M; Tell, Grethe S; Vollset, Stein Emil; Nygård, Ottar K; Van't Veer, Pieter; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Nurk, Eha; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David; Eussen, Simone J P M

    2014-03-28

    A combination of high folate with low vitamin B12 plasma status has been associated with cognitive impairment in a population exposed to mandatory folic acid fortification. The objective of the present study was to examine the interactions between plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 markers in relation to cognitive performance in Norwegian elderly who were unexposed to mandatory or voluntary folic acid fortification. Cognitive performance was assessed by six cognitive tests in 2203 individuals aged 72-74 years. A combined score was calculated using principal component analysis. The associations of folate concentrations, vitamin B12 markers (total vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC) and methylmalonic acid (MMA)) and their interactions in relation to cognitive performance were evaluated by quantile regression and least-squares regression, adjusted for sex, education, apo-ɛ4 genotype, history of CVD/hypertension and creatinine. Cross-sectional analyses revealed an interaction (P= 0·009) between plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in relation to cognitive performance. Plasma vitamin B12 concentrations in the lowest quartile ( < 274 pmol/l) combined with plasma folate concentrations in the highest quartile (>18·5 nmol/l) were associated with a reduced risk of cognitive impairment compared with plasma concentrations in the middle quartiles of both vitamins (OR 0·22, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·92). The interaction between folate and holoTC or MMA in relation to cognitive performance was not significant. In conclusion, this large study population unexposed to mandatory folic acid fortification showed that plasma folate, but not plasma vitamin B12, was associated with cognitive performance. Among the elderly participants with vitamin B12 concentrations in the lower range, the association between plasma folate and cognitive performance was strongest.

  9. Rapid determination of thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid and ascorbic acid in Vitamins with Minerals Tablets by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengfei; Xia, Lufeng; Li, Zheng; Che, Ning; Zou, Ding; Hu, Xin

    2012-11-01

    A simple, isocratic, and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the rapid determination of thiamine (VB(1)), niacinamide (VB(3)), pyridoxine (VB(6)), ascorbic acid (VC), pantothenic acid (VB(5)), riboflavin (VB(2)) and folic acid (VB(9)) in Vitamins with Minerals Tablets (VMT). An Alltima C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) was used for the separation at ambient temperature, with 50mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (adjusting with phosphoric acid to pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.5 ml min(-1). VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC and VB(5) were extracted with a solution containing 0.05% phosphoric acid (v/v) and 0.3% sodium thiosulfate (w/v), and were then simultaneously analyzed by using the mobile phase of phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (95:5, v/v), while VB(2) and VB(9) were extracted with a solution containing 0.5% ammonium hydroxide solution (v/v), and were then simultaneously analyzed by using the mobile phase of phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (85:15, v/v). The detection wavelengths were 275 nm for VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC, 210 nm for VB(5), and 282 nm for VB(2) and VB(9). The method showed good system suitability, sensitivity, linearity, specificity, precision, stability and accuracy. All the seven water-soluble vitamins were well separated from other ingredients and degradation products. Method comparison indicated good concordance between the developed method and the USP method. The developed method was reliable and convenient for the rapid determination of VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC, VB(5), VB(2) and VB(9) in VMT.

  10. Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia).

    PubMed

    Fracassetti, Daniela; Costa, Carlos; Moulay, Leila; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this study were the evaluation of polyphenols and vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated pulp powder and the dried flour obtained from the skin and seeds residue remaining after pulp preparation from camu-camu (Myrciaria dudia). Fifty-three different phenolics were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS and UPLC-HR-QTOF-MS-MS. The phenolic content of camu-camu flour was higher than that of the pulp powder (4007.95 mg/100 g vs. 48.54 mg/100 g). In both products the flavonol myricetin and conjugates, ellagic acid and conjugates and ellagitannins were detected. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3). The vitamin C content was lower in pulp powder (3.5%) than in the flour (9.1%). The radical-scavenging capacity of both powders was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, and was higher for camu-camu flour as could be expected for its higher phenolics and vitamin C content. Comparative analyses with fresh camu-camu berries indicate that some transformations occur during processing. Analysis of fresh berries showed that ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins were mainly present in the seeds, while proanthocyanidins were present both in the seeds and skin. PMID:23561148

  11. Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia).

    PubMed

    Fracassetti, Daniela; Costa, Carlos; Moulay, Leila; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this study were the evaluation of polyphenols and vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated pulp powder and the dried flour obtained from the skin and seeds residue remaining after pulp preparation from camu-camu (Myrciaria dudia). Fifty-three different phenolics were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS and UPLC-HR-QTOF-MS-MS. The phenolic content of camu-camu flour was higher than that of the pulp powder (4007.95 mg/100 g vs. 48.54 mg/100 g). In both products the flavonol myricetin and conjugates, ellagic acid and conjugates and ellagitannins were detected. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3). The vitamin C content was lower in pulp powder (3.5%) than in the flour (9.1%). The radical-scavenging capacity of both powders was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, and was higher for camu-camu flour as could be expected for its higher phenolics and vitamin C content. Comparative analyses with fresh camu-camu berries indicate that some transformations occur during processing. Analysis of fresh berries showed that ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins were mainly present in the seeds, while proanthocyanidins were present both in the seeds and skin.

  12. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: I. Cysteamine and 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The reaction of NH3 and SO3(2-) with ethylene sulfide is shown to be a prebiotic synthesis of cysteamine and 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M). A similar reaction with ethylene imine would give cysteamine and taurine. Ethylene oxide would react with NH3 and N(CH3)3 to give the phospholipid components ethanolamine and choline. The prebiotic sources of ethylene sulfide, ethylene imine and ethylene oxide are discussed. Cysteamine itself is not a suitable thioester for metabolic processes because of acyl transfer to the amino group, but this can be prevented by using an amide of cysteamine. The use of cysteamine in coenzyme A may have been due to its prebiotic abundance. The facile prebiotic synthesis of both cysteamine and coenzyme M suggests that they were involved in very early metabolic pathways.

  13. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron Manganese, Molybdenium, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001. ...

  14. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2011. PMID: 21796828 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796828 . Mason JB. Vitamins, ...

  15. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... thin, and brittle bones, a condition known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D ... the body. In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, where the bones become soft and bend. It's ...

  16. Li2AlB5O10.

    PubMed

    He, M; Li, H; Chen, X; Xu, Y; Xu, T

    2001-09-01

    A new compound, dilithium aluminium pentaborate, Li(2)AlB(5)O(10), has been synthesized by solid-state reaction and its structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This compound is composed of [B(5)O(10)](5-) groups linked by AlO(4) tetrahedra. The [B(5)O(10)](5-) group consists of two hexagonal B-O rings perpendicular to each other connected by tetracoordinated boron. All the B-O rings in this structure can be divided into two groups, with one group approximately parallel and the other perpendicular to the c axis. PMID:11588352

  17. Determining the Effect of Gutkha on Serum Levels of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid as Compared to Smoking among Chronic Periodontitis Subjects : A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Warad, Shivaraj; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B; Kalburgi, Veena C; Koregol, Arati C; Patanashetti, Jyoti; Rao, Subramaniam; Kokatnur, M. Vijayalaxmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis, being a common inflammatory disease has a multifactorial origin , with smoking and gutkha as few of the causative entities. The role of smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis is been well documented in literature. Cigarette smoke also affects vitamin B12 and folic acid mechanisms. Nutritionally derived vitamin B12 occurs mainly as either hydroxycobalamin or deoxyadenosycobalmin. Folic acid is also heat sensitive and water soluble, closely linked to vitamin B12 in its metabolism. However, effect of smokeless tobacco in form of gutkha on serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid is yet to be explored. Aims and Objectives: To estimate and correlate serum vitamin B12 (VB12) and folic acid (FA) levels among periodontally healthy subjects and Chronic Periodontitis (CP) subjects with habit of smoking and gutkha chewing. Materials and Methods: The study included 111 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 60 y. Participants were divided into four groups: 30 healthy subjects (Group I), 29 subjects with CP (Group II), 25 smokers with CP (Group III) and 27 gutkha chewers with CP (Group IV). Clinical parameters included pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) & gingival index (GI) following which VB12 and FA levels were estimated through UV-spectrophotometry method and data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists software, Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. p-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results : Pairwise comparison by Mann-Whitney U-test showed an increase in the serum VB12 in Group IV when compared to Group I (p=0.01) and Group II (p=0.01). Although serum FA levels were found to be low in Group III (7.61 ug/ml) & Group IV (8.64 ug/ml), Group III was found to be statistically significant (P=0.046). The clinical parameters GI, PPD and CAL among the four groups of patients were also statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study results suggested that

  18. [Vitamin sufficiency of young basketball players].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Pereverzeva, O G; Beketova, N A; Isaeva, V A; Kharitonchik, L A; Kodentsova, V M; Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of vitamin sufficiency of young basket-ball players 14-16 years old (17 girls and 14 boys) has been carried out 59-77 per cent of the children had the deficiency of B group vitamins, 24-54 per cent--vitamin E insufficiency, most of them (82-100 per cent)--deficit of carotenoids while they were sufficiently vitamins C and A supplied. The girls were supplied with vitamins better than boys. There was no one adequately supplied with all vitamins among boys while 12 per cent of girls had adequately sufficiency. The girls had deficit of 1-2 vitamins more often whereas the combined insufficiency of 3-4 vitamins took place in 1.8-2.3 fold more frequently among boys. Daily intake of multivitamin containing 10 vitamins in daily recommended doses, lipoic acid, methionin and 9 minerals by boys lead to their blood plasma vitamin C, E, B-2 and beta-carotene level increase. Vitamin C insufficiency disappeared. Deficit of beta-carotene and vitamin B-6 became 1.5 fold rarely, vitamin B-2--2 fold, vitamin E--6 fold. Thus daily intake of recommended doses of vitamins eliminates biochemical signs of vitamin deficiency.

  19. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating a variety of foods including the following: Vegetable oils like wheat germ, sunflower, and safflower oils are ... best sources of vitamin E. Corn and soybean oils also provide some vitamin E. Nuts ... vegetables, such as spinach and broccoli, provide some vitamin ...

  20. Dietary vitamin A restriction affects adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Ayuso, M; Óvilo, C; Rodríguez-Bertos, A; Rey, A I; Daza, A; Fenández, A; González-Bulnes, A; López-Bote, C J; Isabel, B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary vitamin A level is associated with differences in adipocyte differentiation or lipid accumulation in Iberian pigs at early growing (35.8kg live weight) and at finishing (158kg live weight). Iberian pigs of 16.3kg live weight were allocated to two feeding groups, one group received 10,000IU of vitamin A/kg diet (control); the other group received a diet with 0IU of vitamin A (var) for the whole experimental period. The dietary vitamin A level had no effect on growth performance and carcass traits. The early suppression of vitamin A increased the preadipocyte number in Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in the early growth period (P<0.001) and the neutral lipid content and composition (higher MUFA and lower SFA content) at the end of the finishing period (P<0.05). Vitamin A restriction in young pigs increases their lipogenic potential without affecting carcass traits.

  1. Development of novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid and collagen sponge containing epidermal growth factor and vitamin C derivative.

    PubMed

    Niiyama, Hayato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential of a wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen (Col) spongy sheet containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vitamin C derivative (VC). High-molecular-weight HA aqueous solution, hydrolyzed low-molecular-weight HA aqueous solution and heat-denatured Col aqueous solution were mixed, followed by freeze-drying to obtain a spongy sheet. Cross-linkage between Col molecules was induced by UV irradiation of the spongy sheet (C-wound dressing). In a similar manner, three types of spongy sheet containing EGF (EGF-wound dressing), containing VC (VC-wound dressing) or containing EGF and VC (EGF·VC-wound dressing) were prepared by freeze-drying the mixed solution containing the specified components. Cytokine production by fibroblasts was assessed in a wound surface model using a fibroblast-incorporating Col gel sheet (cultured dermal substitute; CDS). CDS was elevated to the air-medium interface, onto which each wound dressing was placed and cultured for 7 days. Fibroblasts in CDS covered with EGF-wound dressing released 3.6 times more VEGF and 3.0 times more HGF, as compared with the C-wound dressing. Fibroblasts in CDS covered with EGF·VC-wound dressing released 4.2 times more VEGF and 6.0 times more HGF, as compared with the C-wound dressing. The efficacy of these wound dressings was evaluated in animal tests using diabetic mice. Each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect on the dorsal area measuring 1.5 × 2.0 cm. After 1 week of application, wound conditions were evaluated histologically. The EGF·VC-wound dressing more effectively promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis, as compared with other wound dressings.

  2. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation.

  3. Structural rearrangements and interaction within H(II) mesophase induced by cosolubilization of vitamin E and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Bitan-Cherbakovsky, Liron; Yuli-Amar, Idit; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2009-11-17

    We investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) cosolubilized with vitamin E (VE) on reverse hexagonal (H(II)) mesophase. The H(II) phase comprises monoolein (GMO)/d-alpha-tocopherol (VE) in a ratio of 90/10 by weight and 12.5 wt % water. The macrostructural characteristics of this system were determined by polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. We used differential scanning calorimetry and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared to characterize the microstructure, the vibration of the functional groups, and the location of the AA guest molecule. AA was incorporated to the system in two steps: 1-4 wt % AA and 5-6 wt % AA. We compared this system to one containing tricaprylin as the oil phase, as previously reported. These measurements revealed that AA is localized first in the water rich-core and in the interface, and acts as a chaotropic molecule that decreases the water melting point. When a larger quantity of AA (5-6 wt %) is added, the system is saturated, and the AA is located in the inner cylinder and manifested by more moderate distortion. The addition of AA also causes alteration in the behavior of the GMO hydrocarbon chains and makes them more flexible. Further addition of AA caused the GMO hydrocarbon chain to be more solvated by the VE hydrocarbon chain and enabled additional migration of VE; hence a decrease in the hydrophobic melting temperature occurred (similar to tricaprylin). Increasing the amount of AA weakened the bonding between the GMO and water and created new bonds between AA and GMO and AA with water.

  4. Bilayer structure and physical dynamics of the cytochrome b5 dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Chester, D W; Skita, V; Young, H S; Mavromoustakos, T; Strittmatter, P

    1992-01-01

    Cytochrome b5 is a microsomal membrane protein which provides reducing potential to delta 5-, delta 6-, and delta 9-fatty acid desaturases through its interaction with cytochrome b5 reductase. Low angle x-ray diffraction has been used to determine the structure of an asymmetrically reconstituted cytochrome b5:DMPC model membrane system. Differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence anisotropy studies were performed to examine the bilayer physical dynamics of this reconstituted system. These latter studies allow us to constrain structural models to those which are consistent with physical dynamics data. Additionally, because the nonpolar peptide secondary structure remains unclear, we tested the sensitivity of our model to different nonpolar peptide domain configurations. In this modeling approach, the nonpolar peptide moiety was arranged in the membrane to meet such chemically determined criteria as protease susceptibility of carboxyl- and amino-termini, tyrosine availability for pH titration and tryptophan 109 location, et cetera. In these studies, we have obtained a reconstituted cytochrome b5:DMPC bilayer structure at approximately 6.3 A resolution and conclude that the nonpolar peptide does not penetrate beyond the bilayer midplane. Structural correlations with calorimetry, fluorescence anisotropy and acyl chain packing data suggest that asymmetric cytochrome b5 incorporation into the bilayer increases acyl chain order. Additionally, we suggest that the heme peptide:bilayer interaction facilitates a discreet heme peptide orientation which would be dependent upon phospholipid headgroup composition. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7 PMID:1600082

  5. A liquid chromatography method for determination of selected amino acids, coenzymes, growth regulators, and vitamins from Cicer arietinum (L.) and Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

    PubMed

    Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra

    2012-01-01

    A bottleneck in crosstalk and QC research has been the quantification of diverse chemotypes in small amounts of tissue. An LC-UV method for estimating 28 selected metabolites of the regulatory network underlying growth, development, maintenance, vital functions, defense reactions, and food quality is reported. The method was based on binary gradient resolutions of the analytes in an RP C18 column. The mobile phase comprised solvent A [water+0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)] and B (acetonitrile + 0.085% TFA at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Twenty-three metabolites (selected amino acids, coenzymes, growth regulators, phenolic antioxidant, and water-soluble vitamins) were detected at 254 nm, and four fat-soluble vitamins at 280 nm. Jasmonic acid was quantified at 210 nm. The RSDs of peak area and retention time for each metabolite were <5.8%. The calibration graphs were linear with R2 values ranging from 0.98 to 0.99. The LODs (microg/mL) were about 0.01-1.0 for 23 metabolites quantified at 254 nm, 0.1-0.2 for fat-soluble vitamins, and 0.1 for jasmonic acid. The recoveries ranged from 80 to 105%, with RSDs of 2.8 to 11.2%. The method has been satisfactorily applied for determination of 28 metabolites from Cicer arietinum (L.) and Solanum lycopersicum (L.). It could be an alternative and competitive method of choice that can cheaply and easily perform routine analysis for food quality and targeted metabolomics of chickpea and tomato in response to stressors.

  6. Effect of organic and conventional cropping systems on ascorbic acid, vitamin C, flavonoids, nitrate, and oxalate in 27 varieties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Koh, Eunmi; Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2012-03-28

    This study was undertaken to compare the levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin C, flavonoids, nitrate, and oxalate in 27 spinach varieties grown in certified organic and conventional cropping systems. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-(ESI)MS/MS) of methanolic extracts of spinach demonstrated 17 flavonoids, including glucuronides and acylated di- and triglycosides of methylated and methylenedioxyderivatives of 6-oxygenated flavonoids. The mean levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoids were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in the organically grown [40.48 ± 6.16 and 2.83 ± 0.03 mg/kg of fresh weight (FW)] spinach compared to the conventionally grown spinach (25.75 ± 6.12 and 2.27 ± 0.02 mg/kg of FW). Conversely, the mean levels of nitrate were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in the conventionally grown spinach compared to the organically grown spinach. No significant effects were observed in the oxalate content of spinach from either production system. The levels of nitrate correlated negatively with those of ascorbic acid, vitamin C, and total flavonoids and showed a positive correlation with the oxalate content. These results suggest that organic cropping systems result in spinach with lower levels of nitrates and higher levels of flavonoids and ascorbic acid.

  7. Effect of forage conservation method, concentrate level and propylene glycol on the fatty acid composition and vitamin content of cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, Kevin J; Salo-Väänänen, Pirjo; Pahkala, Eero; Toivonen, Vesa; Jaakkola, Seija; Piironen, Vieno; Huhtanen, Pekka

    2005-08-01

    Based on potential health benefits, there is a need to develop effective strategies for enhancing milk fat concentrations of cis-9 18:1, 18:3 n-3 and conjugated linoleic (CLA) content in milk without compromising the sensory or storage characteristics of processed milk or dairy products. Sixteen Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-d experimental periods and a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of forage conservation method, concentrate level and supplements of propylene glycol (PG), and their interactions on milk fatty acid composition and vitamin content. Experimental treatments consisted of four conserved forages offered ad libitum, supplemented with two levels of a standard concentrate (7 or 10 kg/d) and PG (0 and 210 g/d) fed as three equal meals. Primary growths of timothy and meadow fescue sward were conserved by ensiling with none (NA), an inoculant enzyme preparation (IE) or a formic acid based (FORM) additive or as hay 1 week later. Conservation of grass by drying rather than ensiling resulted in lower forage 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, total fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations. In spite of lower intakes, milk fat 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 content was higher (P < 0.05) for hay than for silage diets (12.1, 9.6, 9.6 and 9.3 and 5.00, 3.51, 4.27 and 2.93 g/kg total fatty acids, for hay, NA, IE and FORM silages, respectively). Forage conservation method had no clear effects on milk trans 18:1 or CLA content. Compared with silage, hay diets resulted in milk containing lower (P < 0.001) riboflavin, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene concentrations, but had no effect on ascorbic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine or retinol content. Feeding more concentrates had no effect on milk fatty acid composition or milk vitamin content, other than lowering (P < 0.001) 16:0 concentrations from 348 to 338 g/kg fatty acids. Supplements of PG led to small (P < 0.05) increases in milk 13:0 anteiso and 15

  8. Effects of phytanic acid on the vitamin E status, lipid composition and physical properties of retinal cell membranes: implications for adult Refsum disease.

    PubMed

    Young, S P; Johnson, A W; Muller, D P

    2001-12-01

    Adult Refsum disease is an inherited disorder in which phytanic acid accumulates in tissues and serum. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of this condition. The molecular distortion hypothesis suggests that phytanic acid may alter membrane composition and structure, thereby affecting membrane function(s). The anti-metabolite hypothesis suggests that an accumulation of phytanic acid in membranes may interfere with vitamin E function. These two hypotheses were investigated by studying the effects of modulating phytanic acid and alpha-tocopherol concentrations on the fatty acid composition and certain physical parameters of cultured retinal cells. Results showed that (a) the phospholipid fraction of retinal cells readily incorporated phytanic acid, (b) the incorporation of phytanic acid increased membrane fluidity, (c) there was no competition for uptake between phytanic acid and alpha-tocopherol, and (d) the incorporation of phytanic acid did not increase the susceptibility of membranes to lipid peroxidation in vitro. These results obtained with cultured retinal cells suggest that the molecular distortion hypothesis, but not the anti-metabolite hypothesis, could explain the pathogenesis of adult Refsum disease. In vitro tissue culture models can, however, only approximate to the much more complex situation that occurs in vivo.

  9. Do diet, folic acid, and vitamins matter? What did we learn from the Women's Health Initiative, the Women's Health Study, the Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study, and other clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Wenger, Nanette K

    2007-01-01

    Data from recent randomized clinical trials have contributed substantially to our understanding of appropriate interventions for coronary heart disease in women. Addressed in this monograph are issues of diet, folic acid, and antioxidant vitamins. Importantly, these randomized clinical trials have helped to clarify conflicting information from observational data, and to aid clinicians and their women patients in making appropriate choices of coronary and cardiovascular preventive therapy.

  10. Comparison of amino acid sequence of bovine coagulation Factor IX (Christmas Factor) with that of other vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Katayama, K; Ericsson, L H; Enfield, D L; Walsh, K A; Neurath, H; Davie, E W; Titani, K

    1979-10-01

    The amino acid sequence of bovine blood coagulation Factor IX (Christmas Factor) is presented and compared with the sequences of other vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins and pancreatic trypsinogen. The 416-residue sequence of Factor IX was determined largely by automated Edman degradation of two large segments, containing 181 and 235 residues, isolated after activating Factor IX with a protease from Russell's viper venom. Subfragments of the two segments were produced by enzymatic digestion and by chemical cleavage of methionyl, tryptophyl, and asparaginyl-glycyl bonds. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of Factor IX, Factor X, and Protein C demonstrates that they are homologous throughout. Their homology with prothrombin, however, is restricted to the amino-terminal region, which is rich in gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, and the carboxyl-terminal region, which represents the catalytic domain of these proteins and corresponds to that of pancreatic serine proteases.

  11. In vitro release studies of vitamin B 12 from poly N-vinyl pyrrolidone/starch hydrogels grafted with acrylic acid synthesized by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, M.

    2008-12-01

    Co-polymeric hydrogels containing N-vinyl pyrrolidone and starch grafted with acrylic acid were synthesized by gamma radiation to be used as drug delivery system. Their gel contents, grafting swelling and thermal gravimetric analysis were evaluated. The gel content increases by increasing the irradiation dose up to 50 kGy, then decreases. The grafting percent increases by the increasing of acrylic acid. The thermal stability and the rate of the thermal decomposition changed according to the different compositions. The maximum rate of the thermal decomposition decreases by increasing the irradiation dose from 20 to 30 kGy and increases by increasing the irradiation dose from 30 to 70 kGy. The hydrogels loaded with vitamin B 12 demonstrated a decrease release in acidic medium than the neutral one.

  12. Selective and compartmentalized myelin expression of HspB5.

    PubMed

    Quraishe, S; Wyttenbach, A; Matinyarare, N; Perry, V H; Fern, R; O'Connor, V

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we reveal myelin-specific expression and targeting of mRNA and biochemical pools of HspB5 in the mouse CNS. Our observations are based on in situ hybridization, electron microscopy and co-localization with 2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide 3'-Phosphodiesterase (CNPase), reinforcing this myelin-selective expression. HspB5 mRNA might be targeted to these structures based on its presence in discrete clusters resembling RNA granules and the presence of a putative RNA transport signal. Further, sub-cellular fractionation of myelin membranes reveals a distinct sub-compartment-specific association and detergent solubility of HspB5. This is akin to other abundant myelin proteins and is consistent with HspB5's association with cytoskeletal/membrane assemblies. Oligodendrocytes have a pivotal role in supporting axonal function via generating and segregating the ensheathing myelin. This specialization places extreme structural and metabolic demands on this glial cell type. Our observations place HspB5 in oligodendrocytes which may require selective and specific chaperone capabilities to maintain normal function and neuronal support.

  13. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Jonathan D; Steinsaltz, David; Bester, D W; Semb-Andenaes, Turid; Stein, John F

    2016-01-28

    Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour. PMID:26573368

  14. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Jonathan D; Steinsaltz, David; Bester, D W; Semb-Andenaes, Turid; Stein, John F

    2016-01-28

    Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour.

  15. B5r gene based sequence analysis of Indian buffalopox virus isolates in relation to other orthopoxviruses.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; DE, U K; Chandra, B M; Krishnappa M P, G

    2007-01-01

    We determined complete nucleotide sequence of B5R gene homologue of Vaccinia virus (VACV) in five Buffalopox virus (BPXV) isolates of Indian origin. The obtained sequences were compared with themselves and with corresponding sequences of the other orthopoxviruses. Sequence analysis revealed 99.799.8% and 99.499.7% identities among the BPXV isolates for B5R gene at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Sequence identities of B5R gene between BPXV and VACV isolates (98.199.7%) or other orthopoxviruses (95.699.2%) showed highly conserved nature of this protein and a closer relationship of BPXV isolates to VACV than to other orthopoxviruses.

  16. [Abuse of megadoses of vitamins].

    PubMed

    Arroyave, G

    1988-09-01

    There is no evidence of any nutritional benefit derived from the consumption of vitamin supplements in excess of the daily intakes recommended by the various international and national expert committees. Furthermore, in the case of certain of the vitamins such as vitamin A and vitamin D, excessive intakes result in toxic effects. To a lesser extent this is also the case for vitamin C and nicotinic acid. In addition, the use of high supplements or megadoses of any vitamin results in a wasteful misuse of economic resources. This reduces the capacity to acquire foods which would have clear nutritional benefits for the whole family. Consequently, the indiscriminate use of these megadoses must be discouraged. Their application is exclusively justified in clinical situations under direct medical supervision. PMID:3153129

  17. [Abuse of megadoses of vitamins].

    PubMed

    Arroyave, G

    1988-09-01

    There is no evidence of any nutritional benefit derived from the consumption of vitamin supplements in excess of the daily intakes recommended by the various international and national expert committees. Furthermore, in the case of certain of the vitamins such as vitamin A and vitamin D, excessive intakes result in toxic effects. To a lesser extent this is also the case for vitamin C and nicotinic acid. In addition, the use of high supplements or megadoses of any vitamin results in a wasteful misuse of economic resources. This reduces the capacity to acquire foods which would have clear nutritional benefits for the whole family. Consequently, the indiscriminate use of these megadoses must be discouraged. Their application is exclusively justified in clinical situations under direct medical supervision.

  18. Formulas providing adequate pantothenic acid, vitamin D, manganese, iron and vitamin A for infants fed with mother's milk (aged 6-11 months) according to the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes prepared by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2005 edition).

    PubMed

    Tsutie, Setsuko; Kurihara, Nobutaka; Sasaki, Aki; Takagi, Arisa; Seguti, Harumiti; Inatome, Tetsuya

    2010-04-01

    Weaning formulas served in hospitals and care facilities in Japan should conform to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). We examined whether the DRI for breastfed infants aged 6-11 months can be satisfied in dietary practice, with a particular focus on the fulfilment rates for vitamins, minerals, trace elements and electrolytes in weaning formulas containing energy and protein at levels either greater than or equal to the DRIs, as well as on the dietary profiles of weaning formulas to achieve the DRI for every nutrient. The results showed that no weaning formulas examined in this study fulfilled the DRI for pantothenic acid (5 mg), vitamin D (4 microg), manganese (1.2 mg) or iron (5.5 mg). Furthermore, their vitamin A content exceeded the DRI (350 microg RE). The discrepancy between the guidelines and actual dietary practice is probably because of the fact that the estimated reference values poorly reflect the actual dietary intake in the target population; for example, the pantothenic acid and manganese DRIs for breastfed infants aged 6-11 months were set based on the breast milk intake of younger infants (0-5 months) in combination with the breast milk contents. Our results suggest that dietary guidance for infants should include information to promote proper intakes of vitamins A and D, and iron by reducing the amount of vitamin A-rich foods and utilizing dietary vitamin D and iron supplements including government-approved specified health foods.

  19. Associations of blood lead, dimercaptosuccinic acid-chelatable lead, and tibia lead with polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, B S; Lee, B K; Lee, G S; Stewart, W F; Simon, D; Kelsey, K; Todd, A C

    2000-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in the [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes on blood lead, tibia lead, and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead levels in 798 lead workers and 135 controls without occupational lead exposure in the Republic of Korea. Tibia lead was assessed with a 30-min measurement by (109)Cd-induced K-shell X-ray fluorescence, and DMSA-chelatable lead was estimated as 4-hr urinary lead excretion after oral administration of 10 mg/kg DMSA. The primary goals of the analysis were to examine blood lead, tibia lead, and DMSA-chelatable lead levels by ALAD and VDR genotypes, controlling for covariates; and to evaluate whether ALAD and VDR genotype modified relations among the different lead biomarkers. There was a wide range of blood lead (4-86 microg/dL), tibia lead (-7-338 microg Pb/g bone mineral), and DMSA-chelatable lead (4.8-2,103 microg) levels among lead workers. Among lead workers, 9.9% (n = 79) were heterozygous for the ALAD(2) allele and there were no homozygotes. For VDR, 10.7% (n = 85) had the Bb genotype, and 0.5% (n = 4) had the BB genotype. Although the ALAD and VDR genes are located on different chromosomes, lead workers homozygous for the ALAD(1) allele were much less likely to have the VDR bb genotype (crude odds ratio = 0.29, 95% exact confidence interval = 0.06-0.91). In adjusted analyses, subjects with the ALAD(2) allele had higher blood lead levels (on average, 2.9 microg/dL, p = 0.07) but no difference in tibia lead levels compared with subjects without the allele. In adjusted analyses, lead workers with the VDR B allele had significantly (p < 0.05) higher blood lead levels (on average, 4.2 microg/dL), chelatable lead levels (on average, 37.3 microg), and tibia lead levels (on average, 6.4 microg/g) than did workers with the VDR bb genotype. The current data confirm past observations that the ALAD gene modifies the

  20. Effects of a dietary antioxidant blend and vitamin E on fatty acid profile, liver function, and inflammatory response in broiler chickens fed a diet high in oxidants.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Zhao, J; Corl, B A; LeRoith, T; Dalloul, R A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of a dietary antioxidant blend and vitamin E on fatty acid profile, inflammatory response, and liver function. Cobb 500 male broilers (n = 1,200, d 0) were randomly distributed into 6 treatments with 10 replicate floor pens. Treatments included (1) a high-oxidant diet, with vitamin E at 10 IU/kg, 3% oxidized oil, 3% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) source (HO); (2) the HO diet with vitamin E at 200 IU/kg (VE); (3) the HO diet with an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg (AOX); (4) the HO diet with both vitamin E at 200 IU/kg and an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg (VE+AOX); (5) standard control (SC); and (6) a positive control, which was the SC diet with an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg. The concentrations of 20:4, 20:5, 22:5, 22:6, and all the n-3 fatty acids were greater in the abdominal fat of HO, VE, AOX, and VE+AOX birds than SC and positive control birds on d 21 and 42 (P < 0.001). Compared with HO treatment, AOX and VE+AOX preserved the deposition of PUFA better (P < 0.001). The HO birds had greater concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase on d 21 and 42, and γ-glutamyl transferase on d 21, whereas AOX and VE+AOX chickens had restored γ-glutamyl transferase concentration (P < 0.01). The inflammation scores of abdominal fat of AOX and VE+AOX birds were lower than the HO on d 21 (P < 0.001). Compared with SC, the VE and VE+AOX birds exhibited greater vacuole scores on d 21 and 42 (P < 0.01). The lower vacuoles score in SC was associated with a greater expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor -γ and -α (P < 0.05). The expression of inflammatory genes in the liver did not differ among treatments. In conclusion, the AOX and AOX+VE diets were effective in preserving PUFA in the abdominal fat, moderately improved liver function, and reduced inflammation in fat.

  1. [Studying the mechanism of antioxidant effect of vitamins and flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Makarov, V G; Makarova, M N; Selezneva, A I

    2005-01-01

    In work antiradical activity of vitamins and flafonoids in relation to hydroxyl radical is established. The most antiradical activity is established for flavonoids quercetin, routin, daidzein, biochanin A and luteolin-7glucosid, Among vitamins of group in the most antiradical activity have shown vitamins B12, B2, B5, Bc. In group of fat-soluble vitamins ascorbic palmitat, vitamin K1, vitamin A and beta-carotin have shown activity above, than a known antioxidant vitamin E. The carried out work allows to draw a conclusion that antiradical activity in the relation hydroxyl radical shows the broad audience of vitamins that probably is one of aspects of their therapeutic action. PMID:15822637

  2. Mechanisms of ozone toxicity in cultured cells. I. Reduced clonogenic ability of polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented fibroblasts. Effect of vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The direct action of ozone on viability and survival of normal and modified mouse lung fibroblasts has been studied. By cell manipulation of fibroblasts in culture, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the phospholipids was increased from about 6% to about 40%. The cellular content of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) (vitamin E) could be drastically enhanced. Vitamin E supplementation to the cell did not influence the PUFA manipulation. Normal, PUFA, and PUFA(alpha-T) fibroblasts were exposed to ozone by bubbling 10 ppm through the cell suspensions for different periods of time (0-6 h). No significant effects of the ozone exposure could be established when normal fibroblasts were used. The PUFA fibroblasts, however, were very vulnerable to ozone toxicity, both in terms of dye uptake (Trypan blue) and cell death (clonogenic ability). When alpha-tocopherol was present in the cell (200 ng/10(6) cells), a clear protection against ozone toxicity was found. It is concluded that ozone toxicity might be higher under conditions of a relative high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the membrane phospholipids of the cell and a low cellular antioxidant capacity. Cellular membranes are probably an important target for ozone-induced cell death.

  3. Clinical Usefulness of Oral Supplementation with Alpha-Lipoic Acid, Curcumin Phytosome, and B-Group Vitamins in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Undergoing Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pajardi, Giorgio; Bortot, Paola; Ponti, Veronica; Novelli, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the clinical usefulness of oral supplementation with a combination product containing alpha-lipoic acid, curcumin phytosome, and B-group vitamins in 180 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), scheduled to undergo surgical decompression of the median nerve. Patients in Group A (n = 60) served as controls and did not receive any treatment either before or after surgery. Patients in Group B (n = 60) received oral supplementation twice a day for 3 months both before and after surgery (totaling 6 months of supplementation). Patients in Group C (n = 60) received oral supplementation twice a day for 3 months before surgery only. Patients in Group B showed significantly lower nocturnal symptoms scores compared with Group A subjects at both 40 days and 3 months after surgery (both P values <0.05). Moreover, patients in Group B had a significantly lower number of positive Phalen's tests at 3 months compared with the other study groups (P < 0.05). We conclude that oral supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid, curcumin phytosome, and B-group vitamins twice a day both before and after surgery is safe and effective in CTS patients scheduled to undergo surgical decompression of the median nerve. PMID:24563654

  4. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (P<0.003; 1.0 vs 1.3mg/kg of muscle) compared with lambs fed a diet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected.

  5. A Regenerative Antioxidant Protocol of Vitamin E and α-Lipoic Acid Ameliorates Cardiovascular and Metabolic Changes in Fructose-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jatin; Matnor, Nur Azim; Iyer, Abishek; Brown, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major cause of cardiovascular disease. We have determined whether the metabolic and cardiovascular changes induced by a diet high in fructose in young adult male Wistar rats could be prevented or reversed by chronic intervention with natural antioxidants. We administered a regenerative antioxidant protocol using two natural compounds: α-lipoic acid together with vitamin E (α-tocopherol alone or a tocotrienol-rich fraction), given as either a prevention or reversal protocol in the food. These rats developed glucose intolerance, hypertension, and increased collagen deposition in the heart together with an increased ventricular stiffness. Treatment with a fixed combination of vitamin E (either α-tocopherol or tocotrienol-rich fraction, 0.84 g/kg food) and α-lipoic acid (1.6 g/kg food) normalized glucose tolerance, blood pressure, cardiac collagen deposition, and ventricular stiffness in both prevention and reversal protocols in these fructose-fed rats. These results suggest that adequate antioxidant therapy can both prevent and reverse the metabolic and cardiovascular damage in type 2 diabetes. PMID:21437191

  6. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (P<0.003; 1.0 vs 1.3mg/kg of muscle) compared with lambs fed a diet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. PMID:26409038

  7. Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Spitz, Jörg; Reichrath, Jörg; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease. The recent data on vitamin D from experimental, ecological, case-control, retrospective and prospective observational studies, as well as smaller intervention studies, are significant and confirm the sunshine vitamin’s essential role in a variety of physiological and preventative functions. The results of these studies justify the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations. In general, closer attention should therefore be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. PMID:24516687

  8. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K was identified in the early 1930’s when it was shown to be essential for normal blood coagulation. Phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) found in green plants is the major source of the vitamin. Large amounts of menaquinones with lengthy side chains are also synthesized in...

  9. B Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. They also help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, and dairy products. Leafy green vegetables, beans, and peas also have B vitamins. ...

  10. [Vitamin B9].

    PubMed

    Guilland, Jean-Claude; Aimone-Gastin, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin B9 is represented by the group of folate, whose structure is derived from folic acid. The biologically active form is reduced tetrahydrofolates, serving as an essential cofactor in methylation reactions, including the vitamin B12-dependent formation of methionine from homocysteine, and as a carrier of one-carbon units involved in the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Folate deficiency is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, megaloblastic anemia, leuco- and thrombocytopenia, cardiovascular disease, embryonic defects, in particular neural tube defects, and, possibly, malignancies, depression and cognitive impairment. PMID:24298825

  11. VITAL-Bone Health: rationale and design of two ancillary studies evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or omega-3 fatty acid supplements on incident fractures and bone health outcomes in the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)

    PubMed Central

    LeBoff, Meryl S.; Yue, Amy Y.; Copeland, Trisha; Cook, Nancy R.; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Although vitamin D is widely used to promote skeletal health, definitive data on benefits and risks of supplemental vitamin D alone on bone are lacking. Results from large, randomized controlled trials in the general population are sparse. Data on the effects of supplemental omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) on bone are also limited. Design The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the role of vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d) and omega-3 FA (1 g/d) supplements in reducing risks of cancer and cardiovascular disease among U.S. men aged ≥50 and women aged ≥55. To comprehensively test effects of supplemental vitamin D and/or omega-3 FAs on skeletal health, the VITAL: Effects on Fractures ancillary study is determining the effects of these supplements on incident fractures among 25,875 participants enrolled in the parent trial. Study investigators adjudicate fractures through detailed review of medical records and radiological images (hip and femur). In a complementary ancillary, VITAL: Effects on Structure and Architecture is determining the effects of supplemental vitamin D and/or omega-3 FAs on bone with detailed phenotyping during in-person visits. Comprehensive assessments of bone density, turnover, structure/architecture, body composition, and physical performance are being performed at baseline and 2 years post-randomization. Conclusion Results from these studies will clarify the relationship between supplemental vitamin D and/or omega-3 FAs on bone health outcomes, and inform clinical care and public health guidelines on the use of supplemental vitamin D for the primary prevention of fractures in women and men. PMID:25623291

  12. Separation of water-soluble vitamins by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detection: application to polyvitaminated premixes.

    PubMed

    Heudi, Olivier; Kilinç, Tamara; Fontannaz, Patric

    2005-04-01

    Nine water-soluble vitamins: [thiamine (B1), ascorbic acid (C), nicotinamide (PP), pyridoxine (B6), calcium pantothenate (B5), folic acid (B9), cyanocobalamin (B12), riboflavin (B2) and biotin (B8)] were separated on a YMC-Pack Pro C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm particle size) in a single run with a gradient elution of mobile phase consisting of 0.025% trifluoroacetic acid pH 2.6 (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B). The separation was achieved within 17 min with a flow rate of 0.8 ml min(-1) and the detection was performed at two wavelengths (210 and 275 nm). The calibration graphs plotted with six concentrations of each vitamin were linear with a regression coefficient R2 > 0.995. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins B1, C, PP, B6, B5, B9 B2 and B8 in polyvitaminated premixes (premixes) used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The sample preparation involves an aqueous extraction of vitamins and two different samples dilution were used prior the LC-analysis. The specificity of the method was demonstrated by the retention characteristics, UV spectra and by comparing the peak purity with the standard of each vitamin. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different level of concentrations on 12 premixes and the coefficients of variation (CVr) were below 6.5%. The values of the intermediate precision (CV1) were below 9.6% (n = 6). The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with our method were comparable to the declared values, since no bias was found between the two sets of results at 95% confidence. The simplicity of the procedure should make it highly desirable for quality control of premixes in the food industry. PMID:15861787

  13. Structural stability of W2B5 under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N. R. Sanjay; Shekar, N. V. Chandra; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2015-05-01

    High-pressure structural stability studies have been carried out on tungsten boride W2B5 up to maximum pressure of 36 GPa using a Mao-Bell diamond-anvil cell at beamline BR-12 of the ELETTRA synchrotron facility (λ = 0.68881 Å). The hexagonal phase (S.G:P63/mmc) of W2B5 is stable up to the maximum pressure studied. The bulk modulus is estimated to be ~347 GPa using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The variation of lattice parameters and bond lengths B-B and W-B have been studied and the c-axis is seen to be marginally more compressible than the a-axis.

  14. Fatty acid content, vitamins and selenium in bulk tank milk from organic and conventional Swedish dairy herds during the indoor season.

    PubMed

    Fall, Nils; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2011-08-01

    Fatty acids, vitamins and minerals in milk are important for the human consumer, the calf and the cow. Studies indicate that milk from organic and conventional dairy herds may differ in these aspects. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether there are differences in the fatty acid composition and concentration of vitamins and selenium in milk between organic and conventional herds in Sweden. Bulk tank milk was sampled in 18 organic and 19 conventional dairy herds on three occasions during the indoor season 2005-2006. Herd characteristics were collected by questionnaires and from the official milk recording scheme. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to evaluate the associations between milk composition and type of herd, while adjusting for potential confounders and the repeated observations within herd. In addition to management type, variables included in the initial models were housing type, milk fat content, herd size, average milk yield and time on pasture during summer. The median concentration of conjugated linoleic fatty acids (CLA) was 0·63% in organic compared with 0·48% in conventional herds, the content of total n-3 fatty acids was 1·44% and 1·04% in organic and conventional milk, respectively, and the content of total n-6 fatty acids was 2·72% and 2·20% in organic and conventional milk, respectively. The multivariable regression models indicated significantly higher concentrations of CLA, total n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in organic milk and a more desirable ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids, for the human consumer, in organic milk. The multivariable models did not demonstrate any differences in retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene or selenium concentrations between systems. Median concentrations of α-tocopherol were 0·80 μg/ml in organic and 0·88 μg/ml in conventional milk, while for β-carotene the median concentrations were 0·19 and 0·18 μg/ml, respectively; for retinol, the median concentration was 0·32 μg/ml in

  15. Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes.

  16. Vitamin C: the known and the unknown and Goldilocks.

    PubMed

    Padayatty, S J; Levine, M

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid), the antiscorbutic vitamin, cannot be synthesized by humans and other primates, and has to be obtained from diet. Ascorbic acid is an electron donor and acts as a cofactor for fifteen mammalian enzymes. Two sodium-dependent transporters are specific for ascorbic acid, and its oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid is transported by glucose transporters. Ascorbic acid is differentially accumulated by most tissues and body fluids. Plasma and tissue vitamin C concentrations are dependent on amount consumed, bioavailability, renal excretion, and utilization. To be biologically meaningful or to be clinically relevant, in vitro and in vivo studies of vitamin C actions have to take into account physiologic concentrations of the vitamin. In this paper, we review vitamin C physiology; the many phenomena involving vitamin C where new knowledge has accrued or where understanding remains limited; raise questions about the vitamin that remain to be answered; and explore lines of investigations that are likely to be fruitful. PMID:26808119

  17. Interaction of functionally bound vitamins in the distribution and metabolism of (/sup 14/C)nicotinic acid in tissues and blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rozanov, A.Ya.; Yakubik, E.Yu.

    1986-03-10

    Leukocytes absorb two orders of magnitude more of labeled nicotinic acid ((/sup 14/C)NA) than erythrocytes (recalculated per cell). The dynamics of the binding of the labeled vitamin by leukocytes is biphasic, with the formation chiefly of (/sup 14/C)-nicotinic coenzymes in the shortest periods after its injection into rats. At the same time, injected thiamine, riboflavin, lipoate, and pantothenate increase the accumulation of labeled metabolites of nicotinate in the blood and leukocytes of rats by a factor of 2.1 and 4.1, respectively. The metabolism of subcutaneously injected (/sup 14/C)NA occurs chiefly in the digestive system, with a pronounced biphasic dynamics of the changes in the content of labeled metabolites in the liver and small intestine, with secretion of substantial amounts of them with the digestive juices. At the same time, functionally bound vitamins introduced increase the incorporation of the total label into liver tissue (to 45% of the introduced dose, versus 33% in the control) and the rise in the content of (/sup 14/C)-pyridine nucleotides. Analogous effects were also observed in the accumulation of labeled metabolites of (/sup 14/C)NA in the membranes of the small intestine.

  18. Vitamins: Nutrients, Hormones, Drugs or Poisons?

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Conventional concepts of daily vitamin requirements may need revision. For example, recent studies on Vitamin C suggest that the recommended daily allowance, while it certainly prevents scurvy, may not saturate the body. Certain disease states and medications raise the daily requirement for specific vitamins. Most claims made by proponents of megavitamin therapy are unproven and without convincing theoretical bases. However, in at least two instances there is enough suggestive evidence to warrant more extensive trials. Although it seems that many vitamins can be given in large doses safely, Vitamins A and D and nicotinic acid, because of their toxicity, must be used with caution. PMID:20468999

  19. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin A and E composition, and trans fats in eggs from brown and white egg strains that were molted or nonmolted.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kenneth E

    2013-12-01

    The impact of egg color, hen strain, and molting on the nutritional composition of eggs is limited. Therefore, this study compared nutritional composition and component percentages of cage-produced shell eggs with respect to egg color, hen strain, and molt. Four strains were selected from the North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test: Hy-Line Brown (HB) and Bovans Brown (BB), and Hy-Line W-36 (HW) and Bovans White (BovW) were selected. Two groups from each strain were selected and 2 groups of molted HW and BovW were selected and compared with their nonmolted counterparts to examine the molt's impact. Two sets of eggs from each replicate were collected simultaneously at 101 wk of age. One sample of eggs was broken into a 12-egg pool stomached for 3 min (n = 12 samples), then divided into six 50-mL tubes, sealed, and frozen to be sent for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E analyses. The other set of 12 eggs was then assessed for component percentages. The HW eggs had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of yolk than the BovW eggs of 28.12 versus 27.00%, respectively; however, the BovW eggs had 1.0% more albumen. The HB and BB egg components were not different. Brown eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) than white eggs. White eggs had greater (P < 0.0001) percent yolk and the brown eggs had greater (P < 0.0001) percent albumen. The eggs from molted hens had a greater (P < 0.001) percent shell. Total fat content in the samples was (P < 0.05) higher in white eggs by 0.70% than brown eggs due to increased saturated and polyunsaturated fats. The molting of hens reduced (P < 0.01) saturated fats by 0.21% in the egg. Vitamin A levels were higher (P < 0.0001) in white eggs, and vitamin E was higher (P < 0.0001) in brown eggs. Strain and molt appear to influence nutrient composition and component percentages in eggs produced from laying hens. PMID:24235237

  20. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin A and E composition, and trans fats in eggs from brown and white egg strains that were molted or nonmolted.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kenneth E

    2013-12-01

    The impact of egg color, hen strain, and molting on the nutritional composition of eggs is limited. Therefore, this study compared nutritional composition and component percentages of cage-produced shell eggs with respect to egg color, hen strain, and molt. Four strains were selected from the North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test: Hy-Line Brown (HB) and Bovans Brown (BB), and Hy-Line W-36 (HW) and Bovans White (BovW) were selected. Two groups from each strain were selected and 2 groups of molted HW and BovW were selected and compared with their nonmolted counterparts to examine the molt's impact. Two sets of eggs from each replicate were collected simultaneously at 101 wk of age. One sample of eggs was broken into a 12-egg pool stomached for 3 min (n = 12 samples), then divided into six 50-mL tubes, sealed, and frozen to be sent for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E analyses. The other set of 12 eggs was then assessed for component percentages. The HW eggs had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of yolk than the BovW eggs of 28.12 versus 27.00%, respectively; however, the BovW eggs had 1.0% more albumen. The HB and BB egg components were not different. Brown eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) than white eggs. White eggs had greater (P < 0.0001) percent yolk and the brown eggs had greater (P < 0.0001) percent albumen. The eggs from molted hens had a greater (P < 0.001) percent shell. Total fat content in the samples was (P < 0.05) higher in white eggs by 0.70% than brown eggs due to increased saturated and polyunsaturated fats. The molting of hens reduced (P < 0.01) saturated fats by 0.21% in the egg. Vitamin A levels were higher (P < 0.0001) in white eggs, and vitamin E was higher (P < 0.0001) in brown eggs. Strain and molt appear to influence nutrient composition and component percentages in eggs produced from laying hens.

  1. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  2. Folate and Vitamin B12 Transport Systems in the Developing Infant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B vitamin transport systems in infants are not as well studied as those for amino acids and glucose. For most B vitamins, a 2-step process allows for digestion of coenzyme forms of the vitamins in food, followed by specific transport systems for the free vitamin in the intestine. Folate and vitamin ...

  3. [Blood deficiency values of polyunsaturated fatty acids of phospholipids, vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase as possible risk factors in the onset and development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Passi, S; De Luca, C; Picardo, M; Morrone, A; Ippolito, F

    1990-04-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin E (vit E) and polyunsatured fatty acids of phospholipids (PUFA-PL) as well as erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity are significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in patients HIV sero-positive (AIDS and ARC cases) both affected and not affected with seborrheic dermatitis and in 32% of HIV sero-negative intravenous drug abusers (IVDA, A subgroup) than in controls. The deficiency of PUFA-PL (mainly C20:3 n-6, C20:4 n-6 and C22:6 n-3) which is associated with a significant increase (p less than 0.001) of saturated palmitic and stearic acids and monounsaturated oleic acid, cannot be correlated to an active lipoperoxidative process. In fact the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive materials (TBA-RM) are not increased in the plasma of HIV sero-positive patients and A subgroup of IVDA. It is likely that the reduction of PUFA-PL is due to an inhibition of hepatic microsomal desaturase enzymes (delta 6 desaturase, delta 5 desaturase, delta 4 desaturase) which are involved in both n-6 and n-3 pathways. Since IVDA represent, and not only in Italy, a major risk category for HIV infection, we suggest that reduced blood levels of vit E, GSH-Px and particularly PUFA-PL may be added to the list of risk factors favouring the onset and the development of AIDS.

  4. Acidic retinoids synergize with vitamin A to enhance retinol uptake and STRA6, LRAT, and CYP26B1 expression in neonatal lung.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lili; Ross, A Catharine

    2010-02-01

    Vitamin A (VA) is essential for fetal lung development and postnatal lung maturation. VA is stored mainly as retinyl esters (REs), which may be mobilized for production of retinoic acid (RA). This study was designed 1) to evaluate several acidic retinoids for their potential to increase RE in the lungs of VA-supplemented neonatal rats, and 2) to determine the expression of retinoid homeostatic genes related to retinol uptake, esterification, and catabolism as possible mechanisms. When neonatal rats were treated with VA combined with any one of several acidic retinoids (RA, 9-cis-RA, or Am580, a stable analog of RA), lung RE increased approximately 5-7 times more than after an equal amount of VA alone. Retinol uptake and esterification during the period of absorption correlated with increased expression of both STRA6 (retinol-binding protein receptor) and LRAT (retinol esterification), while a reduction in RE after 12 h in Am580-treated, VA-supplemented rats correlated with a strong and persistent increase in CYP26B1 (RA hydroxylase). We conclude that neonatal lung RE can be increased synergistically by VA combined with both natural and synthetic acidic retinoids, concomitant with induction of the dyad of STRA6 and LRAT. However, the pronounced and prolonged induction of CYP26B1 by Am580 may counteract lung RE accumulation after the absorption process is completed.

  5. Effect of vitamin E supplementation or alfalfa grazing on fatty acid composition and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in lambs.

    PubMed

    González-Calvo, L; Joy, M; Blanco, M; Dervishi, E; Molino, F; Sarto, P; Ripoll, G; Serrano, M; Calvo, J H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E (VE) supplementation and alfalfa grazing during fattening on fatty acid composition and mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in the LM of Rasa Aragonesa light lambs. After weaning, 48 lambs were kept indoors and fed a commercial concentrate and a VE supplemented concentrate (480 mg DL-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg DM) for 0 (control [CON]), 10 (VE10d), 20 (VE20d), and 30 d (VE30d) before slaughtering at 22 to 24 kg. Simultaneously, 8 unweaned lambs grazed in alfalfa (154 mg α-tocopherol/kg DM) paddocks with their dams and supplemented with the commercial concentrate (ALF). Immediately after slaughter, LM was sampled to determine gene expression. After 24 h of cooling at 4°C, LM was extracted to determine intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition. The IMF content did not differ with the dietary treatment ( = 0.212). Unweaned grazing alfalfa lambs had greater concentration of rumenic acid (C18:2 c9,t11; P < 0.001) and lower oleic acid (C18:1 c9; = 0.001) content and PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio (P < 0.001) but similar expression of genes implicated in lipid metabolism compared to the concentrate-fed lambs. Vitamin E supplementation did not modify muscle fatty acid composition; however, it increased the expression of FADS2 and ELOVL6, which are involved in desaturation of long-chain fatty acid and the elongation of SFA and MUFA. The results showed that a short period of VE supplementation, especially 10 (VE10d) and 20 d (VE20d), modified gene expression. Overall, the results showed that VE may be acting as a regulatory factor for transcriptional control of genes related to lipid metabolism in the muscle of Rasa Aragonesa light lambs (22-24 kg live weight and younger than 90 d old). PMID:26115290

  6. Effects of vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the level of paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: an investigation of activities in plasma, and heart and liver homogenates

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Mahnaz; Fakher, Shima; Tabei, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Derakhshanian, Hoda; Farahbakhsh-Farsi, Payam; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Ebrahim; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study was designed and conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the activity of paraoxonase and arylesterase in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus. METHODS A total of 64 male Sprague Dawley® rats, each weighing 250 g, were randomly distributed into four groups: (a) normal control; (b) diabetic control; (c) diabetic with vitamin A, C and E supplementation; and (d) diabetic with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The animals were anaesthetised after four weeks of intervention, and paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in blood plasma, and liver and heart homogenates were measured. RESULTS Arylesterase activity in the heart and liver homogenates was significantly lower in the diabetic control group than in the normal control group (p < 0.01). Vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation significantly increased liver arylesterase activity (p < 0.05). No significant change was observed in paraoxonase activity and other investigated factors. CONCLUSION Vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation were found to increase liver arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. These supplements may be potential agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus complications. PMID:26996784

  7. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitamin E is found in the following foods: Vegetable oils (such as wheat germ, sunflower, safflower, corn, and soybean oils) Nuts (such as almonds, peanuts, and hazelnuts/filberts) ... (such as spinach and broccoli) Fortified breakfast cereals, ...

  8. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    ... apply vitamin K to the skin to remove spider veins, bruises, scars, stretch marks, and burns. It ... not linked with a reduced risk of stroke. Spider veins. Bruises. Scars. Stretch marks. Burns. Swelling. Other ...

  9. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    ... carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by substances called ... A can lead to hyperkeratosis or dry, scaly skin. If you get too much vitamin A, you ...

  10. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the

  11. Oral chemoprevention with acetyl salicylic Acid, vitamin D and calcium reduces the risk of tobacco carcinogen-induced bladder tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Pommergaard, H C; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J; Raskov, H

    2013-08-01

    Bladder cancer is a common urological malignancy with high recurrence rate, which may be reduced by chemoprevention. The aim was to evaluate chemoprevention in a mouse model of tobacco carcinogen-induced bladder tumors. A total of 60 A/J mice were randomized to normal diet, diet with low calcium, and diet with chemoprevention (acetyl salicylic acid, 1-alpha 25(OH)2-vitamin D3 and calcium). There were significantly fewer tumors (0 (0-0) vs. 0 (0-2), p = .045) and fewer animals with tumors (0/20 vs. 5/20, p = .045) in the chemoprevention group compared with controls. Thus, chemoprevention diet effectively reduced the tumor promoting effect of tobacco carcinogens in the mouse bladder.

  12. Prevalence of anemia, iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency in two Bari Indian communities from western Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Diez-Ewald, M; Torres-Guerra, E; Layrisse, M; Leets, I; Vizcaíno, G; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, M

    1997-12-01

    The hematological status of 406 Bari indians from two communities was studied. One hundred and seventy nine individuals were from Campo Rosario a village located in a low arid plain south to the Perijá mountain range and 287 were from Saimadoyi, a fertile valley in the heart of the mountain. Anemia was found in 54% and 31% of the people from Campo Rosario and Saimadoyi respectively. Low serum iron was present in 28% of the population in both communities while low serum ferritin levels were encountered in 20% of the population from Campo Rosario and 5% of the people from Saimadoyi. A high prevalence of serum folate and vitamin B12 deficiency (91% and 64% respectively) was found in Campo Rosario, in contrast only 5% of the population from Saimadoyi had low folate and none were vitamin B12 deficient. While there was a positive significant correlation between hemoglobin and serum iron concentrations (r = 0.517, p < 0.001), no significative correlation was found between the other parameters studied. The high prevalence of anemia and nutrient deficiency among the Bari indians, can be attributed to inadequate diets and the varied diseases encountered in the population.

  13. Clinical chemistry of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Davis, R E

    1985-01-01

    This monograph on the clinical chemistry of vitamin B12 reviews the literature on daily requirements, methods for measurement, the effects of drugs on vitamin B12 metabolism absorption, pregnancy, clinical conditions associated with vitamin B12 deficiency, errors of metabolism, and reactions to vitamin therapy. Although only very small quantities of vitamin B12 are required to satisfy the daily requirement, a sufficient supply is stored in the liver to meet normal requirements for at least a 3-year period. A number of drugs are known to affect the absorption of vitamin B12, including neomycin, potassium chloride, p-aminosalicylic acid, and colchicine. Significantly reduced serum concentrations of vitamin B12 have been noted in users of oral contraceptives (OCs), although concentrations still remain within the limits of normal. It appears that the vitamin B12 level in OC users reestablishes itself at a different and somewhat lower level. Vitamin B12 binding protein appears to remain unchanged. A vitamin B12 deficiency is unusual in pregnant women who consume a normal, varied diet. On the other hand, lactating women whose diets are low in animal protein and dairy products may have problems providing enough vitamin B12 to meet their own and their infant's needs; supplementary oral vitamins should be considered.

  14. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin A and E composition in eggs from hens housed in conventional cage and range production facilities.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K E

    2011-07-01

    The public perceives that the nutritional quality of eggs produced as free range is superior to that of eggs produced in cages. Therefore, this study compared the nutrient content of free-range vs. cage-produced shell eggs by examining the effects of the laboratory, production environment, and hen age. A flock of 500 Hy-Line Brown layers were hatched simultaneously and received the same care (i.e., vaccination, lighting, and feeding regimen), with the only difference being access to the range. The nutrient content of the eggs was analyzed for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E. The same egg pool was divided and sent to 4 different laboratories for analysis. The laboratory was found to have a significant effect on the content of all nutrients in the analysis except for cholesterol. Total fat content in the samples varied (P < 0.001) from a high of 8.88% to a low of 6.76% in laboratories D and C, respectively. Eggs from the range production environment had more total fat (P < 0.05), monounsaturated fat (P < 0.05), and polyunsaturated fat (P < 0.001) than eggs produced by caged hens. Levels of n-3 fatty acids were also higher (P < 0.05), at 0.17% in range eggs vs. 0.14% in cage eggs. The range environment had no effect on cholesterol (163.42 and 165.38 mg/50 g in eggs from caged and range hens, respectively). Vitamin A and E levels were not affected by the husbandry to which the hens were exposed but were lowest at 62 wk of age. The age of the hens did not influence the fat levels in the egg, but cholesterol levels were highest (P < 0.001) at 62 wk of age (172.54 mg/50 g). Although range production did not influence the cholesterol level in the egg, there was an increase in fat levels in eggs produced on the range. PMID:21673178

  15. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin A and E composition in eggs from hens housed in conventional cage and range production facilities.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K E

    2011-07-01

    The public perceives that the nutritional quality of eggs produced as free range is superior to that of eggs produced in cages. Therefore, this study compared the nutrient content of free-range vs. cage-produced shell eggs by examining the effects of the laboratory, production environment, and hen age. A flock of 500 Hy-Line Brown layers were hatched simultaneously and received the same care (i.e., vaccination, lighting, and feeding regimen), with the only difference being access to the range. The nutrient content of the eggs was analyzed for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E. The same egg pool was divided and sent to 4 different laboratories for analysis. The laboratory was found to have a significant effect on the content of all nutrients in the analysis except for cholesterol. Total fat content in the samples varied (P < 0.001) from a high of 8.88% to a low of 6.76% in laboratories D and C, respectively. Eggs from the range production environment had more total fat (P < 0.05), monounsaturated fat (P < 0.05), and polyunsaturated fat (P < 0.001) than eggs produced by caged hens. Levels of n-3 fatty acids were also higher (P < 0.05), at 0.17% in range eggs vs. 0.14% in cage eggs. The range environment had no effect on cholesterol (163.42 and 165.38 mg/50 g in eggs from caged and range hens, respectively). Vitamin A and E levels were not affected by the husbandry to which the hens were exposed but were lowest at 62 wk of age. The age of the hens did not influence the fat levels in the egg, but cholesterol levels were highest (P < 0.001) at 62 wk of age (172.54 mg/50 g). Although range production did not influence the cholesterol level in the egg, there was an increase in fat levels in eggs produced on the range.

  16. Major neutralizing sites on vaccinia virus glycoprotein B5 are exposed differently on variola virus ortholog B6.

    PubMed

    Aldaz-Carroll, Lydia; Xiao, Yuhong; Whitbeck, J Charles; de Leon, Manuel Ponce; Lou, Huan; Kim, Mikyung; Yu, Jessica; Reinherz, Ellis L; Isaacs, Stuart N; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H

    2007-08-01

    Immunization against smallpox (variola virus) with Dryvax, a live vaccinia virus (VV), was effective, but now safety is a major concern. To overcome this issue, subunit vaccines composed of VV envelope proteins from both forms of infectious virions, including the extracellular enveloped virion (EV) protein B5, are being developed. However, since B5 has 23 amino acid differences compared with its B6 variola virus homologue, B6 might be a better choice for such a strategy. Therefore, we compared the properties of both proteins using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to B5 that we had previously characterized and grouped according to structural and functional properties. The B6 gene was obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the ectodomain was cloned and expressed in baculovirus as previously done with B5, allowing us to compare the antigenic properties of the proteins. Polyclonal antibodies to B5 or B6 cross-reacted with the heterologous protein, and 16 of 26 anti-B5 MAbs cross-reacted with B6. Importantly, 10 anti-B5 MAbs did not cross-react with B6. Of these, three have important anti-VV biologic properties, including their ability to neutralize EV infectivity and block comet formation. Here, we found that one of these three MAbs protected mice from a lethal VV challenge by passive immunization. Thus, epitopes that are present on B5 but not on B6 would generate an antibody response that would not recognize B6. Assuming that B6 contains similar variola virus-specific epitopes, our data suggest that a subunit vaccine using the variola virus homologues might exhibit improved protective efficacy against smallpox.

  17. Facts about Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can We Get Enough Vitamin A? We get vitamin A by eating a variety of fruits and vegetables that contain carotenoids and from dairy products fortified with vitamin A. Vitamin A also is found in liver ...

  18. Vitamin A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... dietary sources of vitamin A. Meat sources provide vitamin A (as retinol), while vegetable and fruit sources provide carotene (a substance that can be converted into vitamin A by the liver). Deficiencies in vitamin A ...

  19. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamins and Minerals Print A ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  20. Recessive congenital methaemoglobinaemia: cytochrome b(5) reductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Percy, Melanie J; Lappin, Terry R

    2008-05-01

    Some 60 years ago, Quentin Gibson reported the first hereditary disorder involving an enzyme when he deduced that familial methaemoglobinaemia was caused by an enzymatic lesion associated with the glycolysis pathway in red blood cells. This disorder, now known as recessive congenital methaemoglobinaemia (RCM), is caused by NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cb(5)r) deficiency. Two distinct clinical forms, types I and II, have been recognized, both characterized by cyanosis from birth. In type II, the cyanosis is accompanied by neurological impairment and reduced life expectancy. Cytochrome b(5) reductase is composed of one FAD and one NADH binding domain linked by a hinge region. It is encoded by the CYB5R3 (previously known as DIA1) gene and more than 40 mutations have been described, some of which are common to both types of RCM. Mutations associated with type II tend to cause incorrect splicing, disruption of the active site or truncation of the protein. At present the description of the sequence variants of cb(5)r in the literature is confusing, due to the use of two conventions which differ by one codon position. Herein we propose a new system for nomenclature of cb(5)r based on recommendations of the Human Genome Variation Society. The development of a heterologous expression system has allowed the impact of naturally occurring variants of cb(5)r to be assessed and has provided insight into the function of cb(5)r. PMID:18318771

  1. Cytochrome b5 gene and protein of Candida tropicalis and methods relating thereto

    DOEpatents

    Craft, David L.; Madduri, Krishna M.; Loper, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A novel gene has been isolated which encodes cytochrome b5 (CYTb5) protein of the .omega.-hydroxylase complex of C. tropicalis 20336. Vectors including this gene, and transformed host cells are provided. Methods of increasing the production of a CYTb5 protein are also provided which involve transforming a host cell with a gene encoding this protein and culturing the cells. Methods of increasing the production of a dicarboxylic acid are also provided which involve increasing in the host cell the number of genes encoding this protein.

  2. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  3. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  4. Vitamins and cancer prevention: issues and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Young, V R; Newberne, P M

    1981-03-01

    Vitamins are a class of organic compounds that are components of an adequate diet. They or their derivatives function as coenzymes, cellular antioxidants, and/or regulators of gene expression. Fourteen vitamins are recognized in human nutrition (Vitamins A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline), with deficiencies or excesses in intake leading to changes in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, fat and/or mineral metabolism. Thus, the integrity of physiological systems, including those associated with detoxification, cellular repair, immune processes, and neural and endocrine function, depends upon the nutritional and vitamin status of the host. For these reasons, it may be anticipated that the adequacy of the vitamin supply to cells and tissues would affect the development, progress, and outcome of cancers. In this review, the definition and functions of and requirements and recommended allowance for vitamins are discussed briefly before exploring the evidence, largely from studies in experimental animals, that indicates the nature of the link between vitamins and cancer. Although evidence based on studies in animal systems reveals that vitamin intake and status can modulate the outcome of experimental carcinogenesis, the findings are often conflicting and difficult to interpret. Furthermore, it is not yet possible to develop a suitable prediction of the role of the individual vitamins in tumor development. The significance of these observations for human nutrition and cancer prevention, particularly in reference to ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins is considered. Vitamin A and retinoid compounds are discussed elsewhere in the symposium. The many popular misconceptions and unsound advice concerning vitamins and health, including "fake" vitamins-pangamic acid ("vitamin B15") and laetrile ("vitamin B17")-are also discussed. On the basis of current evidence, it would be inappropriate to recommend

  5. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  6. SALDI-TOF-MS analyses of small molecules (citric acid, dexasone, vitamins E and A) using TiO2 nanocrystals as substrates.

    PubMed

    Popović, Iva A; Nešić, Maja; Vranješ, Mila; Šaponjić, Zoran; Petković, Marijana

    2016-10-01

    Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS) might be the method of choice for the analysis of low mass molecules (less than m/z 500). Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystals as a substrate for SALDI-TOF-MS improve the reproducibility of the signal intensities and prevent the fragmentation of some molecules upon laser irradiation, as we have previously shown. In addition, variously shaped and sized TiO2 nanocrystals/substrates for SALDI-MS could be used for quantification of small molecules, which are otherwise difficult to detect with the assistance of organic matrices. TiO2-assisted LDI-MS spectra could be acquired with excellent reproducibility and repeatability and with low detection limit. In the current study, we analysed the spectra of dexasone, citric acid, vitamin E and vitamin A acquired with TiO2 nanocrystals of various shapes and dimensions, i.e. the colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), TiO2 prolate nanospheroids (TiO2 PNSs) and TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs). Various shapes and dimensions of substrates were used since these factors determine desorption and ionisation processes. The homogeneity on the target plate was compared based on signal-to-noise values of peaks of interest of analysed molecules as well as the within-day and day-to-day repeatability. In summary, the obtained results show that the applicability of individual TiO2 nanocrystals depends on the analyte. Signals which are acquired with the assistance of TiO2 PNSs have the highest sensitivity and reproducibility (the smallest standard deviation), even compared with those in the LDI mode. This implies that TiO2 PNSs could also be suitable for quantitative analyses of small molecules. PMID:27510281

  7. Developing an Invisible Message about Relative Acidities of Alcohols in the Natural Products Henna, Turmeric, Rose Petals, and Vitamin A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Hadir, Latifa

    2010-01-01

    An engaging and colorful demonstration was developed that illustrates the utility of resonance theory in predicting the relative acidities of alcohols. The demonstration can be used as an introduction to exercises that provide students with practice in writing resonance structures and in predicting relative acidities. The demonstration exploits…

  8. Role of cytochrome B5 in modulating peroxide-supported cyp3a4 activity: evidence for a conformational transition and cytochrome P450 heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Davydov, Dmitri R; Halpert, James R

    2005-08-01

    The role of cytochrome b(5) (b(5)) in the alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha-NF)-mediated inhibition of H(2)O(2)-supported 7-benzyloxyquinoline (7-BQ) debenzylation by heterologously expressed and purified cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) was studied. Although alpha-NF showed negligible effect in an NADPH-dependent reconstituted system, inhibition of 7-BQ oxidation was observed in the H(2)O(2) system. Analysis of the effect of various constituents of a standard reconstituted system on H(2)O(2)-supported activity showed that b(5) alone resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in the k(cat) value and reversed the inhibitory effect of alpha-NF. In addition, titration with b(5) suggested that only 65% of the CYP3A4 participated in the interaction with b(5), consistent with cytochrome P450 (P450) heterogeneity. Study of the influence of b(5) on the kinetics of H(2)O(2)-dependent destruction of the P450 heme moiety suggested two distinct conformers of CYP3A4 with different sensitivity to heme loss. In the absence of b(5), 66% of the wild-type enzyme was bleached in the fast phase, whereas the addition of b(5) decreased the fraction of the fast phase to 16%. Finally, to locate amino acid residues that might influence b(5) action, several active site mutants were tested. Substitution of Ser-119, Ile-301, Ala-305, Ile-369, or Ala-370 with the larger Phe or Trp decreased or even abolished the activation by b(5). Ser-119 is in the B'-C loop, a predicted b(5)-P450 interaction site, and Ile-301 and Ala-305 are closest to the heme. In conclusion, the interaction of b(5) with P450 apparently leads to a conformational transition, which results in redistribution of the CYP3A4 pool. PMID:15870379

  9. Effect of vitamin C and lipoic acid on streptozotocin-induced diabetes gene expression: mRNA and protein expressions of Cu-Zn SOD and catalase.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Gökhan; Yilmaz, Okkes; Güray, Tülin

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus has been confirmed by numerous studies. In this study, the expression of two antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase which are involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species was studied in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat liver tissues. The enzyme assays showed a significant decrease in both enzymes activities compared to control animals. The RT-PCR and Western-blot analysis results demonstrated that this decrease in activity is regulated at the level of gene expression, as both catalase and Cu-Zn SOD mRNA and protein expressions were also suppressed. Supplementing the animals with vitamin C, a powerful antioxidant increased both SOD and catalase activities with no change in both mRNA and protein expressions suggesting a role of post-translational modification. However, even though mRNA expressions of both catalase and Cu-Zn SOD were not changed, the protein levels increased in parallel to activities in the case of another antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid. An increase in the rate of translation, without changing the rate of transcription indicates a translational effect of lipoic acid in changing the activities of antioxidant enzymes to prevent the oxidative damage in diabetes.

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of dietary supplementation with rosemary diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) vs vitamin E on lamb meat packed under protective atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Jordi; Serrano, Rafael; Bañón, Sancho

    2015-12-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects on lamb meat of the dietary use of rosemary diterpenes and vitamin E were compared. Thirty fattening lambs were assigned to three diets: (C) control; (R) C plus 600 mg kg(-1) carnosic acid and carnosol at 1:1 w:w; or (E) C plus 600 mg kg(-1) α-tocopherol. The deposition of the dietary supplements in the muscle was determined. Microbial quality (total viable counts, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp), oxidative stability (CIELab color, malondialdehyde and total carbonyls) and sensory attributes (appearance and odor) were determined in loin stored at 2°C under 70% O2/30% CO2 atmosphere. Microbial quality was ensured by packaging and chilling. The E-diet was more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than the R-diet in preventing meat oxidation, although the latter had antimicrobial effects on meat. The shelf life of lamb (assessed as the loss of freshness) could be increased by 5 (R-diet) or 10 (E-diet) days.

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of dietary supplementation with rosemary diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) vs vitamin E on lamb meat packed under protective atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Jordi; Serrano, Rafael; Bañón, Sancho

    2015-12-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects on lamb meat of the dietary use of rosemary diterpenes and vitamin E were compared. Thirty fattening lambs were assigned to three diets: (C) control; (R) C plus 600 mg kg(-1) carnosic acid and carnosol at 1:1 w:w; or (E) C plus 600 mg kg(-1) α-tocopherol. The deposition of the dietary supplements in the muscle was determined. Microbial quality (total viable counts, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp), oxidative stability (CIELab color, malondialdehyde and total carbonyls) and sensory attributes (appearance and odor) were determined in loin stored at 2°C under 70% O2/30% CO2 atmosphere. Microbial quality was ensured by packaging and chilling. The E-diet was more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than the R-diet in preventing meat oxidation, although the latter had antimicrobial effects on meat. The shelf life of lamb (assessed as the loss of freshness) could be increased by 5 (R-diet) or 10 (E-diet) days. PMID:26186399

  12. Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a large, simple, randomized trial of combined folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 in high-risk patients: The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE)-2 trial

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies suggest that mild to moderate elevation in plasma homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of atherothrombotic cardiovascular (CV) disease. Simple, inexpensive and nontoxic therapy with folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 reduces plasma homocysteine levels by approximately 25% to 30% and may reduce CV events. Therefore, a large, randomized clinical trial – the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE)-2 study – is being conducted to evaluate this therapy in patients at high risk for CV events. OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether long-term therapy with folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 reduces the risk of major CV events in a high-risk population. The primary study outcome is the composite of death from CV causes, myocardial infarction and stroke. METHODS A total of 5522 patients aged 55 years or older with pre-existing CV disease or with diabetes and additional risk factor(s) at 145 centres in 13 countries were randomly assigned to daily therapy with combined folic acid 2.5 mg, vitamin B6 50 mg and vitamin B12 1 mg, or to placebo. Follow-up will average five years, to be completed by the end of 2005. RESULTS The patients’ baseline characteristics confirmed their high-risk status. Baseline homocysteine levels varied between countries and regions. HOPE-2 is one of the largest trials of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 and is expected to significantly contribute to the evaluation of the role of homocysteine lowering in CV prevention. PMID:16450017

  13. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. Research done in adults suggests that getting enough vitamin D may help lower the chances of developing heart disease, certain cancers, and other serious diseases like diabetes. Why Don't People Get Enough? There are ...

  14. Production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from dairy cows fed alfalfa protein concentrate or supplemental vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Fauteux, M-C; Gervais, R; Rico, D E; Lebeuf, Y; Chouinard, P Y

    2016-06-01

    Given its elevated content of carotenoids, alfalfa protein concentrates (APC) have the potential to prevent oxidation of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The effects of feeding APC or supplemental vitamin E on production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated using 6 lactating Holstein cows (224±18d in milk) in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (21-d periods, 14d for adaptation). Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) (1) 9% soybean meal (control, CTL); (2) 9% soybean meal + 300 IU of vitamin E/kg (VitE treatment); or (3) 9% APC (APC treatment). Cows received a continuous abomasal infusion of 450g/d of linseed oil. As a result, milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 increased from 1.08±0.13 to 3.9±0.40% (mean ± SD), whereas cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased from 0.40±0.04 to 14.27±1.81% during the experimental period compared with the pretrial period. Milk yield tended to be higher for APC (14.7kg/d) compared with CTL (13.4kg/d), and was greater than that for VitE (13.0kg/d). Protein yield was higher in cows fed APC (518g/d) compared with VitE (445g/d) but was not different from that in cows fed CTL (483g/d). These effects resulted in improved milk N efficiency in cows fed APC (26.1% of N intake secreted in milk) compared with CTL (23.0%) and VitE (22.9%). Feeding APC increased milk fat content of lutein (252μg/g) compared with CTL (204μg/g) and VitE (190μg/g). Milk fat content of vitamin E was higher for APC (34.5μg/g) compared with CTL (19.0μg/g) and tended to be lower than that with VitE (44.9μg/g). Redox potential of fresh milk from cows fed APC (152mV) was similar to that of VitE (144mV), but lower than that of CTL (189mV). Treatments had no effect on fresh milk contents of dissolved oxygen (8.1±1.5mg/L), and conjugated diene hydroperoxides (2.7±0.5mmol/L). The concentrations of volatile lipid oxidation products (propanal, hexanal, hept-cis-4-enal, 1-octen-3-one) tended

  15. Production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from dairy cows fed alfalfa protein concentrate or supplemental vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Fauteux, M-C; Gervais, R; Rico, D E; Lebeuf, Y; Chouinard, P Y

    2016-06-01

    Given its elevated content of carotenoids, alfalfa protein concentrates (APC) have the potential to prevent oxidation of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The effects of feeding APC or supplemental vitamin E on production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated using 6 lactating Holstein cows (224±18d in milk) in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (21-d periods, 14d for adaptation). Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) (1) 9% soybean meal (control, CTL); (2) 9% soybean meal + 300 IU of vitamin E/kg (VitE treatment); or (3) 9% APC (APC treatment). Cows received a continuous abomasal infusion of 450g/d of linseed oil. As a result, milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 increased from 1.08±0.13 to 3.9±0.40% (mean ± SD), whereas cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased from 0.40±0.04 to 14.27±1.81% during the experimental period compared with the pretrial period. Milk yield tended to be higher for APC (14.7kg/d) compared with CTL (13.4kg/d), and was greater than that for VitE (13.0kg/d). Protein yield was higher in cows fed APC (518g/d) compared with VitE (445g/d) but was not different from that in cows fed CTL (483g/d). These effects resulted in improved milk N efficiency in cows fed APC (26.1% of N intake secreted in milk) compared with CTL (23.0%) and VitE (22.9%). Feeding APC increased milk fat content of lutein (252μg/g) compared with CTL (204μg/g) and VitE (190μg/g). Milk fat content of vitamin E was higher for APC (34.5μg/g) compared with CTL (19.0μg/g) and tended to be lower than that with VitE (44.9μg/g). Redox potential of fresh milk from cows fed APC (152mV) was similar to that of VitE (144mV), but lower than that of CTL (189mV). Treatments had no effect on fresh milk contents of dissolved oxygen (8.1±1.5mg/L), and conjugated diene hydroperoxides (2.7±0.5mmol/L). The concentrations of volatile lipid oxidation products (propanal, hexanal, hept-cis-4-enal, 1-octen-3-one) tended

  16. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  17. Vitamin B-12

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient that is found naturally ... shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, and fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and ...

  18. Giardia intestinalis Incorporates Heme into Cytosolic Cytochrome b5

    PubMed Central

    Pyrih, Jan; Harant, Karel; Martincová, Eva; Sutak, Robert; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Hrdý, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic intestinal pathogen Giardia intestinalis does not possess enzymes for heme synthesis, and it also lacks the typical set of hemoproteins that are involved in mitochondrial respiration and cellular oxygen stress management. Nevertheless, G. intestinalis may require heme for the function of particular hemoproteins, such as cytochrome b5 (cytb5). We have analyzed the sequences of eukaryotic cytb5 proteins and identified three distinct cytb5 groups: group I, which consists of C-tail membrane-anchored cytb5 proteins; group II, which includes soluble cytb5 proteins; and group III, which comprises the fungal cytb5 proteins. The majority of eukaryotes possess both group I and II cytb5 proteins, whereas three Giardia paralogs belong to group II. We have identified a fourth Giardia cytb5 paralog (gCYTb5-IV) that is rather divergent and possesses an unusual 134-residue N-terminal extension. Recombinant Giardia cytb5 proteins, including gCYTb5-IV, were expressed in Escherichia coli and exhibited characteristic UV-visible spectra that corresponded to heme-loaded cytb5 proteins. The expression of the recombinant gCYTb5-IV in G. intestinalis resulted in the increased import of extracellular heme and its incorporation into the protein, whereas this effect was not observed when gCYTb5-IV containing a mutated heme-binding site was expressed. The electrons for Giardia cytb5 proteins may be provided by the NADPH-dependent Tah18-like oxidoreductase GiOR-1. Therefore, GiOR-1 and cytb5 may constitute a novel redox system in G. intestinalis. To our knowledge, G. intestinalis is the first anaerobic eukaryote in which the presence of heme has been directly demonstrated. PMID:24297440

  19. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongli; Pi, Fuhua; Ding, Zan; Chen, Wei; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Wenya; Zhang, Qingying

    2015-01-01

    Background Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke. Methods A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients) comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions. Results B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12. Conclusions B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied. PMID:26355679

  20. Vitamin E analog, alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid analog, alone and in combination with celecoxib, reduces multiplicity of ultraviolet-induced skin cancers in mice.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Shelley B; Fischer, Susan M; Sanders, Bob G; Kline, Kimberly

    2008-02-01

    The goals of this study were to determine whether alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid analog (alpha-TEA), a novel vitamin E analog, and celecoxib, alone or in combination, when administered as a late intervention can reduce the ultraviolet-induced nonmelanoma skin-tumor burden of established tumors, prevent additional tumors from developing, and prevent tumor recurrence once treatments are stopped. Hairless SKH-1 female mice were ultraviolet-irradiated for 24 weeks, divided into treatment groups so that each group had approximately 5.8 tumors/mouse, and then treated with 72 mug of liposome-formulated alpha-TEA by aerosol inhalation, 500 p.p.m. celecoxib in AIN-76 A diet, or a combination of alpha-TEA and celecoxib for 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks of treatment, each treatment group was subdivided, with one subgroup continuing to receive treatment and with treatment being stopped in the other. Skin-tumor development was monitored visually throughout the study and by histologic evaluation at the end. After 4 weeks of treatment, all treatments showed statistically significant reductions in tumor number when compared with controls. After termination of treatment, only alpha-TEA prevented a significant increase in tumor recurrence; however, continuous combination treatment resulted in the lowest total number of tumors. In conclusion alpha-TEA is an effective late-stage chemopreventive agent for nonmelanoma skin cancer that exhibits lasting benefits.

  1. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid and vitamin E on glycemic control, body composition, and inflammatory markers in overweight type2 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The healthy properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) such as weight loss, reducing cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation have been reported. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer is related to increasing insulin resistance, but the effects of cis-9, trans-11 isomer is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CLA with and without Vitamin E on body weight, body composition, glycemic index, inflammatory and coagulation factors, lipid profile, serum leptin and adiponectin, malondialdehyde (MDA), and blood pressure in type2 diabetes. Methods 56 patients with type2 diabetes were included in 8 week double-blind control trial that used metformin. They randomly divided into three groups: CLA + VitE, CLA + VitE placebo, CLA placebo + VitE placebo. All variables, anthropometric measurements, and body composition were evaluated at the beginning and the end of study. Statistical analysis and analysis of dietary data were performed using SPSS and nutritionist IV software, respectively. Results There were not any significant differences in variable changes among three groups. However, there was a trend to increase in MDA and decrease in apoB100 among CLA consumers. Conclusion The results of this study showed that administration of CLA supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect any indicators of metabolic control in overweight type2 diabetic patients. PMID:23870044

  2. An alpha-lipoic acid-vitamin E mixture reduces post-embolism lipid peroxidation, cerebral infarction, and neurological deficit in rats.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Estrada, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Gonzalez-Castaneda, Rocio Elizabeth; Martinez-Contreras, Alicia; Luquin, Sonia; de la Mora, Pedro Garzon; Navarro-Ruiz, Alicia

    2003-10-01

    Oxidative stress increases delayed neuronal death in the brain following ischemia. As a consequence, many attempts to reduce the damage resulting from cerebral ischemia under more highly oxidized conditions have focused on treatments aimed at maintaining the redox equilibrium of the local environment. This study demonstrates the synergistic effects of combining treatments with alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and vitamin E (VE) as an efficient measure to reduce the damage caused by cerebral ischemia. Two oral therapeutic protocols were examined: intensive treatment (100 mg/kg LA and 140 mg/kg VE for 7 days after ischemia) and prophylactic treatment (20 mg/kg LA and 50 mg/kg VE from 30 days before infarction up to the day of sacrifice). The prophylactic treatment reduced serum lipid peroxidation, and diminished brain infarct volume by approximately 50%. Furthermore, prophylactically treated rats showed a reduction in post-ischemia neurological scores. No significant differences were found in the intensively treated group. Our data indicate that pre-ischemia administration of the LA-VE antioxidant mixture reduced the volume of brain damaged and the functional consequences of embolic infarction. These findings suggest that prophylaxis with an LA-VE mixture may be valuable in reducing cerebral damage levels in patients with a high risk of stroke.

  3. Oral retinyl palmitate or retinoic acid corrects mucosal IgA responses toward an intranasal influenza virus vaccine in vitamin A deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Surman, S L; Jones, B G; Sealy, R E; Rudraraju, R; Hurwitz, J L

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Recent pre-clinical studies have revealed that VAD impairs mucosal IgA-producing antibody forming cell (AFC) responses toward a paramyxovirus vaccine in the upper respiratory tract (URT), thus impeding a first line of defense at the pathogen's point-of-entry. The studies described here tested the hypothesis that VAD may also impair immune responses after FluMist vaccinations. Results show that (i) IgA-producing antibody forming cells (AFCs) are significantly reduced following FluMist vaccination in VAD mice, and (ii) oral doses of either retinyl palmitate or retinoic acid administered on days 0, 3, and 7 relative to vaccination rescue the response. Data encourage the conduct of clinical studies to determine if there are FluMist vaccine weaknesses in human VAD populations and to test corrective supplementation strategies. Improvements in vaccine efficacy may ultimately reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by influenza virus worldwide. PMID:24657715

  4. Cholic acid-functionalized nanoparticles of star-shaped PLGA-vitamin E TPGS copolymer for docetaxel delivery to cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaowei; Tao, Wei; Mei, Lin; Huang, Laiqiang; Tan, Chunyan; Feng, Si-Shen

    2013-08-01

    We developed a system of nanoparticles (NPs) of cholic acid functionalized, star-shaped block copolymer consisting of PLGA and vitamin E TPGS for sustained and controlled delivery of docetaxel for treatment of cervical cancer, which demonstrated superior in vitro and in vivo performance in comparison with the drug-loaded PLGA NPs and the linear PLGA-b-TPGS copolymer NPs. The star-shaped block copolymer CA-PLGA-b-TPGS of three branch arms was synthesized through the core-first approach and characterized by (1)H NMR, GPC and TGA. The drug- or coumarin 6-loaded NPs were prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation technique and then characterized in terms of size and size distribution, surface morphology and surface charge, drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release profile and physical state of the encapsulated drug. The CA-PLGA-b-TPGS NPs were found to have the highest cellular uptake efficiency, the highest antitumor efficacy compared with PLGA-b-TPGS NPs and PLGA NPs. The results suggest that such a star-shaped copolymer CA-PLGA-b-TPGS could be used as a new molecular biomaterial for drug delivery of high efficiency.

  5. The Vitamin A Derivative All-Trans Retinoic Acid Repairs Amyloid-β-Induced Double-Strand Breaks in Neural Cells and in the Murine Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Gruz-Gibelli, Emmanuelle; Chessel, Natacha; Allioux, Clélia; Marin, Pascale; Piotton, Françoise; Leuba, Geneviève; Herrmann, François R.; Savioz, Armand

    2016-01-01

    The amyloid-β peptide or Aβ is the key player in the amyloid-cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ appears to trigger cell death but also production of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in aging and Alzheimer's disease. All-trans retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, was already known for its neuroprotective effects against the amyloid cascade. It diminishes, for instance, the production of Aβ peptides and their oligomerisation. In the present work we investigated the possible implication of RA receptor (RAR) in repair of Aβ-induced DSBs. We demonstrated that RA, as well as RAR agonist Am80, but not AGN 193109 antagonist, repair Aβ-induced DSBs in SH-SY5Y cells and an astrocytic cell line as well as in the murine cortical tissue of young and aged mice. The nonhomologous end joining pathway and the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated kinase were shown to be involved in RA-mediated DSBs repair in the SH-SY5Y cells. Our data suggest that RA, besides increasing cell viability in the cortex of young and even of aged mice, might also result in targeted DNA repair of genes important for cell or synaptic maintenance. This phenomenon would remain functional up to a point when Aβ increase and RA decrease probably lead to a pathological state. PMID:26881107

  6. Supplementation with α-Lipoic Acid, CoQ10, and Vitamin E Augments Running Performance and Mitochondrial Function in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Arkan; Crane, Justin D.; Ogborn, Daniel; Hettinga, Bart; Akhtar, Mahmood; Stokl, Andrew; MacNeil, Lauren; Safdar, Adeel; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant supplements are widely consumed by the general public; however, their effects of on exercise performance are controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an antioxidant cocktail (α-lipoic acid, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10) on exercise performance, muscle function and training adaptations in mice. C57Bl/J6 mice were placed on antioxidant supplement or placebo-control diets (n = 36/group) and divided into trained (8 wks treadmill running) (n = 12/group) and untrained groups (n = 24/group). Antioxidant supplementation had no effect on the running performance of trained mice nor did it affect training adaptations; however, untrained female mice that received antioxidants performed significantly better than placebo-control mice (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, antioxidant-supplemented females (untrained) showed elevated respiratory capacity in freshly excised muscle fibers (quadriceps femoris) (p ≤ 0.05), reduced oxidative damage to muscle proteins (p ≤ 0.05), and increased expression of mitochondrial proteins (p ≤ 0.05) compared to placebo-controls. These changes were attributed to increased expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) (p ≤ 0.05) via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (p ≤ 0.05) by antioxidant supplementation. Overall, these results indicate that this antioxidant supplement exerts gender specific effects; augmenting performance and mitochondrial function in untrained females, but does not attenuate training adaptations. PMID:23565271

  7. Routine sample preparation and HPLC analysis for ascorbic acid (vitamin C) determination in wheat plants and Arabidopsis leaf tissues.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Gabriella; Janda, T; Pál, Magda

    2014-06-01

    Plants have developed various mechanisms to protect themselves against oxidative stress. One of the most important non-enzymatic antioxidants is ascorbic acid. There is thus a need for a rapid, sensitive method for the analysis of the reduced and oxidised forms of ascorbic acid in crop plants. In this paper a simple, economic, selective, precise and stable HPLC method is presented for the detection of ascorbate in plant tissue. The sensitivity, the short retention time and the simple isocratic elution mean that the method is suitable for the routine quantification of ascorbate in a high daily sample number. The method has been found to be better than previously reported methods, because of the use of an economical, readily available mobile phase, UV detection and the lack of complicated extraction procedures. The method has been tested on Arabidopsis plants with different ascorbate levels and on wheat plants during Cd stress.

  8. L-ascorbic acid quenching of singlet delta molecular oxygen in aqueous media: generalized antioxidant property of vitamin C

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P.T.; Khan, A.U.

    1983-09-30

    L-ascorbic acid quenches singlet (/sup 1/..delta../sub g/) molecular oxygen in aqueous media (pH 6.8 for (/sup 1/H)H/sub 2/O and pD 7.2 for (/sup 2/H)D/sub 2/O) as measured directly by monitoring (0,0) /sup 1/..delta../sub g/ ..-->.. /sup 3/..sigma../sub g//sup -/ emission at 1.28 micron. Singlet oxygen was generated at room temperature in the solutions via photosensitization of sodium chrysene sulfonate; this sulfonated polycyclic hydrocarbon was synthesized to provide a water soluble chromophore inert to usual dye-ascorbate photobleaching. A marked isotope effect is found; k/sub Q//sup H/sub 2/O/ is 3.3 times faster than k/sub Q//sup D/sub 2/O/, suggesting ascorbic acid is chemically quenching singlet oxygen.

  9. Vitamin A and arachidonic acid altered the skeletal mineralization in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae without any interactions on the transcriptional level.

    PubMed

    Lie, Kai Kristoffer; Kvalheim, Karen; Rasinger, Josef Daniel; Harboe, Torstein; Nordgreen, Andreas; Moren, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The main object of this study was to evaluate the impact of different levels of vitamin A (VA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) in relation to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on mineralization and gene expression in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua). First-feeding larvae were fed enriched rotifers from start-feeding until 29 days post hatch (dph). Larvae in four tanks were fed one of the following diets: control (EPA/ARA ratio: 15.8, 0.9μg VA g(-1)), control+VA (EPA/ARA ratio: 15.8, 7.8μg VA g(-1)), High ARA (EPA/ARA ratio: 0.9, 1.5μg VA g(-1)) or High ARA+VA (EPA/ARA ratio: 0.9, 12.0μg VA g(-1)). Larvae fed High ARA+VA were shorter at 29dph compared to the other groups and had significantly less mineralized bones when comparing larvae of similar size, showing interaction effects between VA and ARA. Although transcriptomic analysis did not reveal any interaction effects, a higher number of genes were differentially expressed in the high ARA fed larvae compared to control+VA fed larvae. Furthermore, bglap1, bglap2 and col10a1 were all down-regulated in larvae fed High ARA-diets and to a greater extent than larvae fed VA supplemented diet, indicating an additive effect on mineralization. In conclusion, this study showed that the dietary increase in ARA and VA altered the skeletal metabolism during larval development, most likely through signaling pathways specific for each nutrient rather than an interaction. The present study also demonstrates that VA could affect the larval response to ARA, even within the accepted non-toxic/non-deficient range.

  10. The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Sandhya; MacDonald, Shannon; Roth, Jennifer; Caunt, Maresa; Akalu, Abebe; Morais, Danielle; Buckley, Michael T.; Liebes, Leonard; Formenti, Silvia C.; Brooks, Peter C. . E-mail: peter.brooks@med.nyu.edu

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21{sup CIP1} and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21{sup CIP1}. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest.

  11. Effect of combination therapy of fatty acids, calcium, vitamin D and boron with regular physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in rat.

    PubMed

    Naghii, M R; Darvishi, P; Ebrahimpour, Y; Ghanizadeh, G; Mofid, M; Hedayati, M; Asgari, A R

    2012-01-01

    The effect of consumption of fatty acids and selected nutrients, along with regular physical activity, on cardiovascular risk factors in rats was investigated.Male rats were divided into the seven groups: Group 1: regular food and drinking water, Group 2: same as Group. 1 + physical activity (whole body vibration; WBV), Group 3: same as Group. 2 + calcium, vitamin D, boron, Group 4: same as Group. 3 + canola oil, Group 5: same as Group. 3 + sunflower oil, Group 6: same as Group. 3 + mix of sunflower oil and canola oil, Group 7: same as Group. 3 + coconut oil. Rats were treated for 8 weeks, and analysis of the frozen plasmas was performed. A- Analysis between the treatment groups and control revealed that vibration training in Group 2 increased body weight (P = 0.04), plasma creatin kinase (CK), (P = 0.02), and estradiol (E2), (P = 0.03). Rats in Group 5 consumed less food and plasma levels of cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased significantly (P = 0.02) in Group 6 and in Group 7 (p<0.05). B- Analysis of data among Group 4 - 7 (the oil consuming groups) and Group 3 revealed significant differences in cholesterol (Chol), LDL-C, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), estradiol (E2), atherogenic index (AI), and risk factor (RF), (p<0.05). In addition, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and free testosterone (FT) in Group 7 had a remarkable but non-significant increase. As a result of vibration training, a similar trend was observed for vitamin D in Group 2-7. The findings show that WBV is effective in improving health status by influencing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Moreover, canola oil and sunflower oil, separately, showed beneficial impacts on CVD risk factors; whereas their combination had negative impacts on lipid profile. Coconut oil revealed to be efficient to provide health benefits in terms of CVD treatments. PMID:22277894

  12. Dietary Vitamin E Is More Effective than Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid for Improving The Kinematic Characteristics of Rat Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, AliReza; Taleb, Zeinab; Ebrahimi, Bita; Esmaeili, Vahid; Shaverdi, Abdolhossein; Nasr, Javad; Kheimeh, Abolfazl; Yazdi, Reza Salman

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although key roles for dietary vitamin E (VITE) and fatty acid (FA) in fertility have been confirmed, limited data are available on the effects of VITE alone, or a constant level of VITE supplemented by dietary omega-6 and omega-3 FAs in combination on male reproduction. Consequently in this paper, the effects of VITE, sunflower oil, fish oil and their combination on rat sperm were investigated. Materials and Methods We divided 50 mature male Wistar rats into 5 groups (n=10) in a experimental completely randomized design for eight weeks: i. Control (CTR): standard diet; ii. Vitamin E diet (VITE): 2 times greater than recommendations; iii. Sunflower oil group (n-6) [gavaged with 0.5 ml/day/rat sunflower oil+VITE diet]; iv. Fish oil group (n-3): [gavaged with 0.5 ml/day/rat fish oil+VITE diet] and v. n-3+n-6 group [gavaged with 0.3 ml fish oil/day/rat+0.2 ml sunflower oil/day/rat+VITE diet]. The sperm parameters were measured by computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). All data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results Feed intake decreased in groups which were administered sunflower oil compared with the other groups (P<0.05). The groups which received only VITE or fish oil+VITE had a significantly higher concentration of sperm compared with the n-6+n-3 and CTR group (P<0.05). VITE and n-3 showed significant improved progressive motility compared to the CTR group, whereas the n-6 and n-6+n-3 groups were in the middle (P<0.05). The highest sperm kinematic parameters were observed in the VITE only group. There was no strong correlation between sperm parameters and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion Dietary VITE and fish oil+VITE can improve sperm quality. Our findings can be a focus for improvements in sperm quantity and motility in fertile animals using only dietary VITE. PMID:27540532

  13. Effect of combination therapy of fatty acids, calcium, vitamin D and boron with regular physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in rat.

    PubMed

    Naghii, M R; Darvishi, P; Ebrahimpour, Y; Ghanizadeh, G; Mofid, M; Hedayati, M; Asgari, A R

    2012-01-01

    The effect of consumption of fatty acids and selected nutrients, along with regular physical activity, on cardiovascular risk factors in rats was investigated.Male rats were divided into the seven groups: Group 1: regular food and drinking water, Group 2: same as Group. 1 + physical activity (whole body vibration; WBV), Group 3: same as Group. 2 + calcium, vitamin D, boron, Group 4: same as Group. 3 + canola oil, Group 5: same as Group. 3 + sunflower oil, Group 6: same as Group. 3 + mix of sunflower oil and canola oil, Group 7: same as Group. 3 + coconut oil. Rats were treated for 8 weeks, and analysis of the frozen plasmas was performed. A- Analysis between the treatment groups and control revealed that vibration training in Group 2 increased body weight (P = 0.04), plasma creatin kinase (CK), (P = 0.02), and estradiol (E2), (P = 0.03). Rats in Group 5 consumed less food and plasma levels of cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased significantly (P = 0.02) in Group 6 and in Group 7 (p<0.05). B- Analysis of data among Group 4 - 7 (the oil consuming groups) and Group 3 revealed significant differences in cholesterol (Chol), LDL-C, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), estradiol (E2), atherogenic index (AI), and risk factor (RF), (p<0.05). In addition, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and free testosterone (FT) in Group 7 had a remarkable but non-significant increase. As a result of vibration training, a similar trend was observed for vitamin D in Group 2-7. The findings show that WBV is effective in improving health status by influencing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Moreover, canola oil and sunflower oil, separately, showed beneficial impacts on CVD risk factors; whereas their combination had negative impacts on lipid profile. Coconut oil revealed to be efficient to provide health benefits in terms of CVD treatments.

  14. Multiple vitamin overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Irritability SKIN AND HAIR Flushing (reddened skin) from niacin (vitamin B3) Dry, cracking skin Itching , burning skin, ... Niacin flush (vitamin B3) is uncomfortable, but lasts only 2 to 8 hours. Vitamins A and D ...

  15. Facts about Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... vitamin D from three sources—food, supplements, and sunlight. Sunlight When exposed to sunlight, the skin makes vitamin D, which is then ... body. Most people get some vitamin D from sunlight. However, several factors affect how well the body ...

  16. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    MedlinePlus

    Pyridoxine is a vitamin. It can be found in certain foods such as cereals, beans, vegetables, liver, meat, and eggs. It can also ... is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. You may remember ...

  17. Vitamin A blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  18. Vitamin D Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin D Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D 2 ); Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D 3 ); Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin ...

  19. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    Colds and vitamin C ... is that vitamin C can cure the common cold . However, research about this claim is conflicting. Although ... vitamin C may help reduce how long a cold lasts. They do not protect against getting a ...

  20. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly. PMID:27278776

  1. Protonated Dipeptide Losses from b 5 and b 4 Ions of Side Chain Hydroxyl Group Containing Pentapeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atik, A. Emin; Yalcin, Talat

    2013-10-01

    In this study, C-terminal protonated dipeptide eliminations were reported for both b 5 and b 4 ions of side chain hydroxyl group (-OH) containing pentapeptides. The study utilized the model C-terminal amidated pentapeptides having sequences of XGGFL and AXVYI, where X represents serine (S), threonine (T), glutamic acid (E), aspartic acid (D), or tyrosine (Y) residue. Upon low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) of XGGFL (where X = S, T, E, D, and Y) model peptide series, the ions at m/z 279 and 223 were observed as common fragments in all b 5 and b 4 ion (except b 4 ion of YGGFL) mass spectra, respectively. By contrast, peptides, namely SMeGGFL-NH2 and EOMeGGFL-NH2, did not show either the ion at m/z 279 or the ion at m/z 223. It is shown that the side chain hydroxyl group is required for the possible mechanism to take place that furnishes the protonated dipeptide loss from b 5 and b 4 ions. In addition, the ions at m/z 295 and 281 were detected as common fragments in all b 5 and b 4 ion (except b 4 ion of AYVYI) mass spectra, respectively, for AXVYI model peptide series. The MS4 experiments exhibited that the fragment ions at m/z 279, 223, 295, and 281 entirely reflect the same fragmentation behavior of [M + H]+ ion generated from commercial dipeptides FL-OH, GF-OH, YI-OH, and VY-OH. These novel eliminations reported here for b 5 and b 4 ions can be useful in assigning the correct and reliable peptide sequences for high-throughput proteomic studies.

  2. The discovery of vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    The term 'scurvy' for the disease resulting from prolonged vitamin C deficiency had origins in 'scorbutus' (Latin), 'scorbut' (French), and 'Skorbut' (German). Scurvy was a common problem in the world's navies and is estimated to have affected 2 million sailors. In 1747, James Lind conducted a trial of six different treatments for 12 sailors with scurvy: only oranges and lemons were effective in treating scurvy. Scurvy also occurred on land, as many cases occurred with the 'great potato famine' in Ireland in 1845. Many animals, unlike humans, can synthesize their own vitamin C. Axel Holst and Theodor Frölich fortuitously produced scurvy in the guinea pig, which like humans requires vitamin C in the diet. In 1928, Albert Szent-Györgyi isolated a substance from adrenal glands that he called 'hexuronic acid'. Four years later, Charles Glen King isolated vitamin C in his laboratory and concluded that it was the same as 'hexuronic acid'. Norman Haworth deduced the chemical structure of vitamin C in 1933. PMID:23183299

  3. The Vitamin C Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an iodine clock reaction that produces an effect similar to the Landolt clock reaction. This reaction uses supermarket chemicals and avoids iodate, bisulfite, and mercury compounds. Ascorbic acid and tincture of iodine are the main reactants with alternate procedures provided for vitamin C tablets and orange juice. (DDR)

  4. 22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A...

  5. 17 CFR 240.12b-5 - Determination of affiliates of banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... banks. 240.12b-5 Section 240.12b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General § 240.12b-5 Determination of affiliates of banks. In determining whether a person is an “affiliate” or “parent” of a bank or whether a bank is a “subsidiary” or...

  6. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-5 - Coordination with section 877.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination with section 877. 301.7701(b)-5 Section 301.7701(b)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-5 Coordination...

  7. Vitamin B₁₂ and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Zeuschner, Carol L; Hokin, Bevan D; Marsh, Kate A; Saunders, Angela V; Reid, Michelle A; Ramsay, Melinda R

    2013-08-19

    Vitamin B₁₂ is found almost exclusively in animal-based foods and is therefore a nutrient of potential concern for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet. Vegans, and anyone who significantly limits intake of animal-based foods, require vitamin B₁₂-fortified foods or supplements. Vitamin B₁₂ deficiency has several stages and may be present even if a person does not have anaemia. Anyone following a vegan or vegetarian diet should have their vitamin B₁₂ status regularly assessed to identify a potential problem. A useful process for assessing vitamin B₁₂ status in clinical practice is the combination of taking a diet history, testing serum vitamin B₁₂ level and testing homocysteine, holotranscobalamin II or methylmalonic acid serum levels. Pregnant and lactating vegan or vegetarian women should ensure an adequate intake of vitamin B₁₂ to provide for their developing baby. In people who can absorb vitamin B₁₂, small amounts (in line with the recommended dietary intake) and frequent (daily) doses appear to be more effective than infrequent large doses, including intramuscular injections. Fortification of a wider range of foods products with vitamin B₁₂, particularly foods commonly consumed by vegetarians, is likely to be beneficial, and the feasibility of this should be explored by relevant food authorities.

  8. [Approaches to vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Russcher, Henk; Heil, Sandra G; Slobbe, Lennert; Lindemans, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old female vegetarian was referred to a specialist in internal medicine with persistent iron deficiency. Laboratory analysis revealed microcytic anaemia with low ferritin levels but normal total vitamin B12 levels. The red blood cell distribution width, however, showed a very wide variation in red blood cell sizes, indicating a coexisting vitamin B12 deficiency, which was confirmed by the low concentration of active vitamin B12. Another patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of previous gastric surgery and renal insufficiency as a complication of diabetes mellitus, was suspected to be deficient in vitamin B12, as she had low total vitamin B12 levels and an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in her blood. Testing the total concentration of vitamin B12 alone has insufficient diagnostic accuracy and no accepted gold standard is available for diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. With the development of newer tests, such as measuring holotranscobalamin II (concentration of active vitamin B12), atypical and subclinical deficiency states can be recognized. A new approach to diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency is presented, based upon these 2 case descriptions.

  9. Vitamin B₁₂ and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Zeuschner, Carol L; Hokin, Bevan D; Marsh, Kate A; Saunders, Angela V; Reid, Michelle A; Ramsay, Melinda R

    2013-08-19

    Vitamin B₁₂ is found almost exclusively in animal-based foods and is therefore a nutrient of potential concern for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet. Vegans, and anyone who significantly limits intake of animal-based foods, require vitamin B₁₂-fortified foods or supplements. Vitamin B₁₂ deficiency has several stages and may be present even if a person does not have anaemia. Anyone following a vegan or vegetarian diet should have their vitamin B₁₂ status regularly assessed to identify a potential problem. A useful process for assessing vitamin B₁₂ status in clinical practice is the combination of taking a diet history, testing serum vitamin B₁₂ level and testing homocysteine, holotranscobalamin II or methylmalonic acid serum levels. Pregnant and lactating vegan or vegetarian women should ensure an adequate intake of vitamin B₁₂ to provide for their developing baby. In people who can absorb vitamin B₁₂, small amounts (in line with the recommended dietary intake) and frequent (daily) doses appear to be more effective than infrequent large doses, including intramuscular injections. Fortification of a wider range of foods products with vitamin B₁₂, particularly foods commonly consumed by vegetarians, is likely to be beneficial, and the feasibility of this should be explored by relevant food authorities. PMID:25369926

  10. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... a regular supply of the vitamin in the foods you eat. ... vitamins have been added to the food. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid. Some of these are enriched breads, cereals, flours, ...

  11. Vitamins and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Guadarrama-López, Ana Laura; Martínez-Carrillo, Beatriz Elina; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra Donají

    2015-01-01

    The present review evaluates the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and individual or combined vitamins. Antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are found decreased in diabetic subjects, possibly due to an increased need to control the excessive oxidative stress produced by abnormalities in glucose metabolism. On the other hand, retinol binding protein exerts a modulating effect, as it has adipokine functions. With respect to the B group vitamins, thiamin, pyridoxine and biotin have been found decreased but the mechanisms are not clear, however supplementation has shown some improvement of the metabolic control in diabetic patients. The absorption of folic acid and vitamin B12 is importantly decreased by the prolongued use of metformin, which is the first choice drug in uncomplicated diabetes, thus these two nutrients have been found deficient in the disease and most probably need to be supplemented regularly. On the other hand, vitamin D is considered a risk factor for the development of diabetes as well as its complications, particularly cardiovascular ones. Although some studies have found an association of vitamin K intake with glucose metabolism further research is needed. Studies on the use of multivitamin supplements have shown unconclusive results. After reviewing the evidence, no real recommendation on the use of vitamin supplements in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be issued, however patients using metformin during prolongued periods may need folic acid and vitamin B12.

  12. Vitamins and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Ana Laura, Guadarrama-López; Elina, Martínez-Carrillo Beatriz; Donají, Benítez-Arciniega Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The present review evaluates the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and individual or combined vitamins. Antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are found decreased in diabetic subjects, possibly due to an increased need to control the excessive oxidative stress produced by abnormalities in glucose metabolism. On the other hand, retinol binding protein exerts a modulating effect, as it has adipokine functions. With respect to the B group vitamins, thiamin, pyridoxine and biotin have been found decreased but the mechanisms are not clear, however supplementation has shown some improvement of the metabolic control in diabetic patients. The absorption of folic acid and vitamin B12 is importantly decreased by the prolongued use of metformin, which is the first choice drug in uncomplicated diabetes, thus these two nutrients have been found deficient in the disease and most probably need to be supplemented regularly. On the other hand, vitamin D is considered a risk factor for the development of diabetes as well as its complications, particularly cardiovascular ones. Although some studies have found an association of vitamin K intake with glucose metabolism further research is needed. Studies on the use of multivitamin supplements have shown unconclusive results. After reviewing the evidence, no real recommendation on the use of vitamin supplements in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be issued, however patients using metformin during prolongued periods may need folic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25388747

  13. Does the nutrition profile of vitamins, fatty acids and microelements counteract the negative impact from organohalogen pollutants on bone mineral density in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris)?

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik; Hyldstrup, Lars; Teilmann, Jenni; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Andersen, Steen; Letcher, Robert J; Jakobsen, Jette

    2008-08-01

    There is a great need for understanding the impact from dietary OHCs (organohalogen compounds) on bone mineral composition - and thereby osteoporosis - in especially arctic wildlife such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as well as humans. For that purpose, we measured BMD (bone mineral density) by DXA scanning (g/cm(-2)) in 15 age and weight normalized sledge dog (Canis familiaris) bitches and their 26 pups divided into a control group (n=26) given 50-200 g/day clean pork (Suis scrofa) fat and a treated group (n=15) given 50-200 g/day OHC polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber as main lipid sources. The results showed that BMD increased significantly with age (linear regression: p<0.0001, r(2)=0.83, n=41) while no sex difference was found in the F-generation (two-way ANOVA: all p>0.3). No differences in BMD(femur) or BMD(vertebrae) between exposed and control individuals in the bitch generation were found (linear mixed effect model: both p>0.38). Likewise, no difference between exposed and control subadults and juveniles in the F-generation was found (two-way ANOVA: all p>0.33). Correlation analyses between BMD(femur), BMD(vertebrae) and groups of OHCs, respectively, did not show any statistically significant relationships nor a clear or decreasing trend (Pearson's: p: 0.07-0.78; r: -0.2-0.59; n: 10-18). As the groups were similar regarding genetics, age and sex are the only factors that can explain this observation. Either the pollutants did not have an impact on BMD using the present time frame and OHC concentrations (threshold levels not reached), or the difference in food composition (mainly vitamins and n3 fatty acids) conceal the potential OHC impact on BMD. Such information is important when evaluating the positive and negative health consequences from eating polluted marine species. PMID:18342937

  14. Effect of Vitamin E and Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Protecting Ambient PM2.5-Induced Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Liang; Jiang, Shuo; Xie, Yuquan; Kan, Haidong; Song, Weimin; Zhao, Jinzhuo

    2016-01-01

    Although the mechanisms linking cardiopulmonary diseases to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) are still unclear, inflammation and oxidative stress play important roles in PM2.5-induced injury. It is well known that inflammation and oxidative stress could be restricted by vitamin E (Ve) or omega-3 fatty acids (Ω-3 FA) consumption. This study investigated the effects of Ve and Ω-3 FA on PM2.5-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells. The underlying mechanisms linking PM2.5 to vascular endothelial injury were also explored. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with 50 μg/mL PM2.5 in the presence or absence of different concentrations of Ve and Ω-3 FA. The inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers were determined. The results showed that Ve induced a significant decrease in PM2.5-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in supernatant and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cytoplasm decreased by Ve, while the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity elevated. The inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) also reduced by Ve. Moreover, Ω-3 FA played the same role on decreasing the inflammation and oxidative stress. IL-6 and TNF-α expressions were significantly lower in combined Ve with Ω-3 FA than treatment with Ve or Ω-3 FA alone. The Ve and Ω-3 FA intervention might abolish the PM2.5-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in vascular endothelial cells. There might be an additive effect of these two nutrients in mediating the PM2.5-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells. The results suggested that inflammation and oxidative stress might be parts of the mechanisms linking PM2.5 to vascular endothelial injury. PMID:27007186

  15. Effect of a combined therapeutic approach of intensive lipid management, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, and increased serum 25 (OH) vitamin D on coronary calcium scores in asymptomatic adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, William; Rockway, Susie; Kwasny, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The impact of intensive lipid management, omega-3 fatty acid, and vitamin D3 supplementation on atherosclerotic plaque was assessed through serial computed tomography coronary calcium scoring (CCS). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction with statin therapy has not been shown to reduce or slow progression of serial CCS in several recent studies, casting doubt on the usefulness of this approach for tracking atherosclerotic progression. In an open-label study, 45 male and female subjects with CCS of > or = 50 without symptoms of heart disease were treated with statin therapy, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides < or = 60 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein > or = 60 mg/dL; and vitamin D3 supplementation to achieve serum levels of > or = 50 ng/mL 25(OH) vitamin D, in addition to diet advice. Lipid profiles of subjects were significantly changed as follows: total cholesterol -24%, low-density lipoprotein -41%; triglycerides -42%, high-density lipoprotein +19%, and mean serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels +83%. After a mean of 18 months, 20 subjects experienced decrease in CCS with mean change of -14.5% (range 0% to -64%); 22 subjects experienced no change or slow annual rate of CCS increase of +12% (range 1%-29%). Only 3 subjects experienced annual CCS progression exceeding 29% (44%-71%). Despite wide variation in response, substantial reduction of CCS was achieved in 44% of subjects and slowed plaque growth in 49% of the subjects applying a broad treatment program. PMID:19092644

  16. Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, copper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham.

    PubMed

    Bosi, P; Cacciavillani, J A; Casini, L; Lo Fiego, D P; Marchetti, M; Mattuzzi, S

    2000-02-01

    The effects of seven isoenergetic dietary treatments: (1) no sunflower oil, 35 mg/kg Cu, without α-tocopheryl-acetate added; (2) to (7) 6% high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO), 35 or 175 mg/kg Cu crossed with a 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg α-tocopherol addition, were tested on quality characteristics of dry cured Parma hams from a total 84 Large White gilts. No statistically significant effect was detected on parameters of early evaluation of seasoning loss of hams. The seasoning loss and intramuscular fat content of seasoned hams averaged 28.1 and 3.3%, respectively, with no effect of the diet composition. The CIE L*a*b* colour values taken on the surface of the lean from Parma ham were not affected by dietary oil inclusion, nor by copper levels and by α-tocopherol addition in the feed mixture, except for the 'a' value that increased in HOSO groups (P<0.01) and in groups with α-tocopherol addition (P<0.01). The TBARS values in lean were reduced by the inclusion of HOSO (P<0.05) and α-tocopherol supplementation (P<0.10). Compared to the no oil group, the Parma hams in the HOSO groups showed a higher oleic acid content in the covering fat, but not different in neutral and polar fractions from semimenbranosus muscle. The oil inclusion reduced the saturated fatty acid content in subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids fraction from muscle to 30-34% No effect of α-tocopherol and copper levels were observed on fatty acids profiles. From the subjects fed the HOSO diet softer Parma hams were produced than those fed the control diet (χ(2)<0.05), while α-tocopherol and Cu levels did not influence the sensorial evaluation of hams. The inclusion of an oleic acid rich source in heavy pig diet brought about an improved nutritional value, but also the possible need of a prolonged ageing time to achieve an ideal firmness of Parma ham. Dietary α-tocopherol supplementation improved the red colour slightly and the lipid stability in Parma ham, while the supplementation of Cu in the diet

  17. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  18. [Biological function of vitamin A].

    PubMed

    Dusheiko, A A

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with the generalized results of complex studies in the biological function of vitamin A conducted on the chicken glandular stomach. It is found out that at a certain diet the glandular stomach of chickens manifests a specific response to vitamin A deficiency: the amount of cells in the organ increases, their differentiation changes, the tissues relation is disturbed, hyperfunction is observed. The content of acid glycosaminglycanes varies, their biosynthesis is inhibited, the concentration of cations in the intercellular space increases. On the basis of these facts a conclusion is drawn that disturbances in the structure and function of glycocalyx are decisive in development of A-avitaminosis. It is established that the stomach intermediate zone mucosa secretion contains vitamin A which is strongly bound with a specific water-insoluble glycolipoprotein. The absence of vitamin A causes a disturbance in lipidation, glycosylation sulphatation and hydration of the secretion. A hypothesis is put forward according to which, vitamin A, joining the specific protein synthetized on ribosomes, initiates organization of the lipid phase. The latter might determine the direction and rate of protein transport in the system of smooth membranes where it is glycosidated. Formation of the lipid phase is disturbed when vitamin A is absent. This leads to changes in the protein migration pathways in the Golgi apparatus, which results in glycosidation disturbance as well. According to the same principle vitamin A may articipate in formation of glycolipoproteins not only of secretion but also of the intercellular substance, plasmatic membranes nuclei, lysosomes and other organelles.

  19. Multicomponent analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins and auxiliary substances in multivitamin preparations by qNMR.

    PubMed

    Eiff, Julia; Monakhova, Yulia B; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2015-04-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method was tested to control 12 vitamins and accompanying substances in multivitamin preparations. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) varied in the 9.0-77.0 mg/kg and in the 34.5-93.5 mg/kg range, respectively. The coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged between 0.9% and 12%. The (1)H NMR spectra showed linearity for the 140-260 mg sample weight (R(2) > 0.918). The NMR spectra of multivitamin preparations showed the presence of different degradation products of ascorbic acid. The NMR method was applied to 13 different multivitamin preparations including tablets, capsules, and effervescent tablets with average recovery rates between 85% and 132%. A number of accompanying substances (citric acid, mannitol, saccharin, cyclamate, sum of steviol glycosides, and butylhydroxytoluene) were additionally identified and quantified. NMR was found to be suitable for the simultaneous qualitative measurement of water- and fat-soluble vitamins and accompanying substances and shows some promise for quantitative determination of at least 5 vitamins (B1, B3, B5, B6, and E) in multivitamin preparations.

  20. Associations of blood pressure and hypertension with lead dose measures and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, B K; Lee, G S; Stewart, W F; Ahn, K D; Simon, D; Kelsey, K T; Todd, A C; Schwartz, B S

    2001-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lead and selected genes known to modify the toxicokinetics of lead--namely, those for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD)--may independently influence blood pressure and hypertension risk. We report the relations among ALAD and VDR genotypes, three lead dose measures, and blood pressure and hypertension status in 798 Korean lead workers and 135 controls without occupational exposure to lead. Lead dose was assessed by blood lead, tibia lead measured by X-ray fluorescence, and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead. Among lead workers, 9.9% (n = 79) were heterozygous for the ALAD(2) allele, and there were no ALAD(2) homozygotes; 11.2% (n = 89) had at least one copy of the VDR B allele, and 0.5% (n = 4) had the BB genotype. In linear regression models to control for covariates, VDR genotype (BB and Bb vs. bb), blood lead, tibia lead, and DMSA-chelatable lead were all positive predictors of systolic blood pressure. On average, lead workers with the VDR B allele, mainly heterozygotes, had systolic blood pressures that were 2.7-3.7 mm Hg higher than did workers with the bb genotype. VDR genotype was also associated with diastolic blood pressure; on average, lead workers with the VDR B allele had diastolic blood pressures that were 1.9-2.5 mm Hg higher than did lead workers with the VDR bb genotype (p = 0.04). VDR genotype modified the relation of age with systolic blood pressure; compared to lead workers with the VDR bb genotype, workers with the VDR B allele had larger elevations in blood pressure with increasing age. Lead workers with the VDR B allele also had a higher prevalence of hypertension compared to lead workers with the bb genotype [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 2.1 (1.0, 4.4), p = 0.05]. None of the lead biomarkers was associated with diastolic blood pressure, and tibia lead was the only lead dose measure that was a significant predictor of hypertension status. In

  1. An LC-MS/MS method for serum methylmalonic acid suitable for monitoring vitamin B12 status in population surveys1

    PubMed Central

    Mineva, Ekaterina M.; Zhang, Mindy; Rabinowitz, Daniel J.; Phinney, Karen W.; Pfeiffer, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA), a functional indicator of vitamin B12 insufficiency, was measured in the U.S. population in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004 using a GC/MS procedure that required 275 µL of sample and had a low throughput (36 samples/run). Our objective was to introduce a more efficient, yet highly accurate LC-MS/MS method for NHANES 2011–2014. We adapted the sample preparation with some modifications from a published isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS procedure. The procedure utilized liquid-liquid extraction and generation of MMA di-butyl ester. Reversed-phase chromatography with isocratic elution allowed baseline resolution of MMA from its naturally occurring structural isomer succinic acid within 4.5 min. Our new method afforded an increased throughput (≤160 samples/run) and measured serum MMA with high sensitivity (LOD = 22.1 nmol/L) in only 75 µL of sample. Mean (±SD) recovery of MMA spiked into serum (2 days, 4 levels, 2 replicates each) was 94±5.5%. Total imprecision (41 days, 2 replicates each) for three serum quality control pools was 4.9–7.9% (97.1–548 nmol/L). The LC-MS/MS method showed excellent correlation (n=326, r=0.99) and no bias (Deming regression, Bland-Altman analysis) compared to the previous GC/MS method. Both methods produced virtually identical mean (±SD) MMA concentrations [LC-MS/MS: 18.47±0.71 ng/mL (n=17), GC/MS: 18.18±0.67 ng/mL (n=11)] on a future plasma reference material compared to a GC/MS method procedure from the National Institute of Standards and Technology [18.41±0.70 ng/mL (n=15)]. No adjustment will be necessary to compare previous (1999–2004) to future (2011–2014) NHANES MMA data. PMID:25258283

  2. B-Group Vitamins: Chemoprevention?

    PubMed

    Gruber, Beata M

    2016-01-01

    The importance of vitamins in the prevention of cancer has attracted the attention of consumers, nutritionists and scientists for decades. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, extended in the context of the function of vitamins, i.e. regulation of and participation in metabolic processes in the cell, suggest a substantial impact of these compounds on the initial stages of carcinogenesis. One-carbon metabolism involving folic acid, vitamins B2, B6 and B12, and folate metabolism doesn't only generate methyl groups, thus determining epigenetic processes, modifications of the genome and carcinogenesis. It also provides the compounds involved in the DNA synthesis and repair processes, especially the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines and the conversion of dUMP (2-deoxyuridine monophosphate) to dTMP (2-deoxythymidine monophosphate). In light of these pathways, folate, together with vitamins B2, B6 and B12, became a subject of interest as compounds whose deficit or surplus can potentially have an impact on the processes of carcinogenesis. Literature reports, however, do not fully confirm that the influence on the synthesis of nucleotides is connected with the inhibition of carcinogenesis. The impact of individual vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism on carcinogenesis and their role in the prevention of these conditions depend on the type of cancer and the dose administered. Nevertheless, the research conducted makes it possible to conclude a considerable and probably long-underestimated role of these compounds in the prevention of serious, difficult to treat or incurable diseases. PMID:27629746

  3. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase by vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Reddanna, P; Rao, M K; Reddy, C C

    1985-11-25

    Purified 5-lipoxygenase from potato tubers was inhibited strongly by vitamin E and its analogs. The inhibition by d-alpha-tocopherol was found to be irreversible and non-competitive with respect to arachidonic acid. An IC50 of 5 microM was calculated for d-alpha-tocopherol. The inhibition appears to be unrelated to its antioxidant function. Binding studies with 14C-labelled d-alpha-tocopherol revealed that there is a strong interaction between vitamin E and 5-lipoxygenase. Tryptic digestion and peptide mapping of 5-lipoxygenase-vitamin E complex indicate that vitamin E binds strongly to a single peptide. These studies suggest that cellular vitamin E levels may have profound influence on the formation of leukotrienes. PMID:3934003

  4. Niacin: vitamin and antidyslipidemic drug.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elaine L; Kim, H; Kim, M; Jacobson, M K

    2012-01-01

    Niacin is defined collectively as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, both of which fulfill the vitamin functions of niacin carried out by the bioactive forms NAD(P). In the last few decades numerous new enzymes that consume NAD(P) as substrates have been identified. The functions of these enzymes are emerging as exciting paradigm shifts, even though they are in early stages of discovery. The recent identification of the nicotinic acid receptor has allowed distinction of the drug-like roles of nicotinic acid from its vitamin functions, specifically in modulating blood lipid levels and undesirable side effects such as skin vasodilation and the more rare hepatic toxicities. This information has led to a new strategy for drug delivery for niacin, which, if successful, could have a major impact on human health through decreasing risk for cardiovascular disease. Understanding the many other effects of niacin has much broader potential for disease intervention and treatment in numerous diseases including cancer.

  5. Vitamin transport and homeostasis in mammalian brain: focus on Vitamins B and E.

    PubMed

    Spector, Reynold; Johanson, Conrad E

    2007-10-01

    With the application of genetic and molecular biology techniques, there has been substantial progress in understanding how vitamins are transferred across the mammalian blood-brain barrier and choroid plexus into brain and CSF and how vitamin homeostasis in brain is achieved. In most cases (with the exception of the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter for biotin, pantothenic acid, and lipoic acid), the vitamins are transported by separate carriers through the blood-brain barrier or choroid plexus. Then the vitamins are accumulated by brain cells by separate, specialized systems. This review focuses on six vitamins (B(1), B(3), B(6), pantothenic acid, biotin, and E) and the newer genetic information including relevant 'knockdown' or 'knockout' models in mice and humans. The overall objective is to integrate this newer information with previous physiological and biochemical observations to achieve a better understanding of vitamin transport and homeostasis in brain. This is especially important in view of the newly described non-cofactor vitamin roles in brain (e.g. of B(1), B(3), B(6), and E) and the potential roles of vitamins in the therapy of brain disorders.

  6. Vitamin B1 Deficiency Does not Affect the Liver Concentrations of the Other Seven Kinds of B-Group Vitamins in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of vitamin B1 deficiency on vitamin contents of urine, liver, and blood. In the current study, rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 5, each group): the first was freely fed a complete diet (ad lib-fed control group); the second freely fed a vitamin B1-free diet (vitamin B1 deficient group); and the third pair-fed a complete diet with the same amounts of the vitamin B1 deficient group (pair-fed control group). The experimental period was for 15 days. The blood concentrations of vitamin B2, PLP, vitamin B12, folic acid, and biotin were lower in the pair-fed control than in the ad lib-fed control and those of nicotinamide and pantothenic acid were the same. We conclude that Vitamin B1 deficiency did not affect concentrations of the other B-group vitamins.

  7. [Effect of vitamin B3-active compounds on the content of free and combined gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid in the brain of mice].

    PubMed

    Rozanov, V A; Reĭtarova, T E

    1983-01-01

    The bound and free GABA and glutamic acid content in the brain of F1 (CBA X C57B1/6) hybrid mice was investigated by the Eliott method. A tendency to a decrease of GABA and glutamate content in the brain with their practically constant bound/free ratio was observed 24 h after calcium-D-pantothenate injections (150 mumole/kg, 9 injections for 3 days). Calcium-D-homopantothenate injected in the same way caused a significant decrease in the GABA content, and a sharp drop of the bound/free GABA ratio. The effect is not associated with the influence of calcium ions in the composition of the injected compounds. PMID:6140785

  8. 296-B-5 Stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Ridge, T.M.

    1995-02-01

    The B Plant Administration Manual requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-5 at B Plant. The sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-5 is functional and performing satisfactorily. This document is an annual assessment report of the systems associated with the 296-B-5 stack.

  9. Phototherapy and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Juzeniene, Asta; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Juraleviciute, Marina; Grant, William B

    2016-01-01

    The skin is the site for the photosynthesis of vitamin D and is a target tissue for the active metabolite of vitamin D. An increasing body of evidence indicates that vitamin D produced during phototherapy may be responsible for the positive effects observed during treatment of some skin diseases. Topical or oral application of vitamin D derivatives are used alone or with phototherapy. This paper reviews what is known about the use of phototherapy to enhance vitamin D levels, the use of vitamin D analogues with phototherapy, the efficacy of combination therapies, and controversies regarding some of the outcomes. Vitamin D can play a beneficial role in treating psoriasis, even though the exact role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and severity of psoriasis remains unclear. The role of vitamin D in vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, polymorphic light eruption, and mycosis fungoides must be further investigated. PMID:27638432

  10. Seaweed vitamins as nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Škrovánková, Soňa

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are a good source of some water- (B(1), B(2), B(12), C) and fat-soluble (β-carotene with vitamin A activity, vitamin E) vitamins. To ensure that the adequate intake of all vitamins is received in the diet, people (especially people on special diet, strict vegetarians, and vegans) can consume foods enriched with vitamins, for example, in the form of functional foods with vitamins as nutraceuticals, extracted from natural sources such as seaweeds. Seaweed vitamins are important not only due to their biochemical functions and antioxidant activity but also due to other health benefits such as decreasing of blood pressure (vitamin C), prevention of cardiovascular diseases (β-carotene), or reducing the risk of cancer (vitamins E and C, carotenoids). PMID:22054961

  11. Retinoid Homeostatic Gene Expression in Liver, Lung and Kidney: Ontogeny and Response to Vitamin A-Retinoic Acid (VARA) Supplementation from Birth to Adult Age

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Sarah A.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA, retinol) metabolism is homeostatically controlled, but little is known of its regulation in the postnatal period. Here, we determined the postnatal trajectory of VA storage and metabolism in major compartments of VA metabolism–plasma, liver, lung, and kidney from postnatal (P) day 1 to adulthood. We also investigated the response to supplementation with VARA, a combination of VA and 10% all-trans-retinoic acid that previously was shown to synergistically increase retinol uptake and storage in lung. Nursling pups of dams fed a VA-marginal diet received an oral dose of oil (placebo) or VARA on each of four neonatal days: P1, P4, P7, and P10; and again as adults. Tissues were collected 6 h after the final dosing on P1, P4, P10, and at adult age. Gene transcripts for Lrat and Rbp4 in liver and Raldh-1 and Raldh-3 in lung, did not differ in the neonatal period but were higher, P<0.05, in adults, while Cyp26B1, Stra6, megalin, and Raldh-2 in lung did not differ from perinatal to adult ages. VARA supplementation increased total retinol in plasma, liver and lung, with a dose-by-dose accumulation in neonatal liver and lung, while transcripts for Lrat in liver, megalin in kidney, Cyp26A1/B1 in liver and lung, respectively, and Stra6 in lung, were all increased, suggesting pathways of VA uptake, storage and RA oxidation were each augmented after VARA. VARA decreased hepatic expression of Rbp4, responsible for VA trafficking from liver to plasma, and, in lung, of Raldh-1 and Raldh-2, which function in RA production. Our results define retinoid homeostatic gene expression from neonatal and adult age and show that while supplementation with VARA acutely alters retinol content and retinoid homeostatic gene expression in neonatal and adult lung, liver and kidney, VARA supplementation of neonates increased adult-age VA content only in the liver. PMID:26731668

  12. Synthesis of the vitamin E amino acid esters with an enhanced anticancer activity and in silico screening for new antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Gagic, Zarko; Ivkovic, Branka; Srdic-Rajic, Tatjana; Vucicevic, Jelica; Nikolic, Katarina; Agbaba, Danica

    2016-06-10

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols belong to the family of vitamin E (VE) with the well-known antioxidant properties. For certain α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol derivatives used as the lead compounds in this study, antitumor activities against various cancer cell types have been reported. In the course of the last decade, structural analogs of VE (esters, ethers and amides) with an enhanced antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity against various cancer cells were synthesized. Within the framework of this study, seven amino acid esters of α-tocopherol (4a-d) and γ-tocotrienol (6a-c) were prepared using the EDC/DMAP reaction conditions and their ability to inhibit proliferation of the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and the A549 lung cancer cells was evaluated. Compound 6a showed an activity against all three cell lines (IC50: 20.6μM, 28.6μM and 19μM for the MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells, respectively), while compound 4a inhibited proliferation of the MCF-7 (IC50=8.6μM) and A549 cells (IC50=8.6μM). Ester 4d exerted strong antiproliferative activity against the estrogen-unresponsive, multi-drug resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line, with IC50 value of 9.2μM. Compared with the strong activity of compounds 4a, 4d and 6a, commercial α-tocopheryl succinate and γ-tocotrienol showed only a limited activity against all three cell lines, with IC50 values >50μM. Investigation of the cell cycle phase distribution and the cell death induction confirmed an apoptosis of the MDA-MB-231 cells treated with 4d, as well as a synergistic effect of 4d with the known anticancer drug doxorubicin. This result suggests a possibility of a combined therapy of breast cancer in order to improve the therapeutic response and to lower the toxicity associated with a high dose of doxorubicin. The stability study of 4d in human plasma showed that ca. 83% initial concentration of this compound remains in plasma in the course of six hours incubation. The ligand based

  13. Vitamins and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Irene; Caroppo, Francesca; Alaibac, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamins in chemoprevention and therapy of melanoma could be encouraged if supported by pre-clinical and clinical evidence. PMID:26213971

  14. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamin D and Disease Prevention Why is vitamin D important for health? Vitamin D is a hot topic in the news, thanks ... is controversy, though, over the effects of vitamin D on health other than the bones. Doctors have ...

  15. EGFR Signaling Regulates Maspin/SerpinB5 Phosphorylation and Nuclear Localization in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reina, Jeffrey; Morais Freitas, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Maspin (SerpinB5) is a non-inhibitory serpin (serine protease inhibitor) with very diverse biological activities including regulation of cell adhesion, migration, death, control of gene expression and oxidative stress response. Initially described as a tumor and metastasis suppressor, clinical data brought controversies to the field, as some studies reported no correlation between SerpinB5 expression and prognosis value. These data underscore the importance of understanding SerpinB5 function in a normal physiological context and the molecular mechanism involved. Several SerpinB5 phosphoforms have been detected in different cell lines, but the signaling pathways involved and the biological significance of this post-translational modification in vivo remains to be explored. In this study we investigated SerpinB5 expression, subcellular localization and phosphorylation in different stages of the mouse mammary gland development and the signaling pathway involved. Here we show that SerpinB5 is first detected in late pregnancy, reaches its highest levels in lactation and remains at constant levels during post-lactational regression (involution). Using high resolution isoelectric focusing followed but immunoblot, we found at least 8 different phosphoforms of SerpinB5 during lactation, which decreases steadily at the onset of involution. In order to investigate the signaling pathway involved in SerpinB5 phosphorylation, we took advantage of the non-transformed MCF-10A model system, as we have previously observed SerpinB5 phosphorylation in these cells. We detected basal levels of SerpinB5 phosphorylation in serum- and growth factor-starved cells, which is due to amphiregulin autocrine activity on MCF-10A cells. EGF and TGF alpha, two other EGFR ligands, promote important SerpinB5 phosphorylation. Interestingly, EGF treatment is followed by SerpinB5 nuclear accumulation. Altogether, these data indicate that SerpinB5 expression and phosphorylation are developmentally

  16. EGFR Signaling Regulates Maspin/SerpinB5 Phosphorylation and Nuclear Localization in Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Tamazato Longhi, Mariana; Magalhães, Magna; Reina, Jeffrey; Morais Freitas, Vanessa; Cella, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Maspin (SerpinB5) is a non-inhibitory serpin (serine protease inhibitor) with very diverse biological activities including regulation of cell adhesion, migration, death, control of gene expression and oxidative stress response. Initially described as a tumor and metastasis suppressor, clinical data brought controversies to the field, as some studies reported no correlation between SerpinB5 expression and prognosis value. These data underscore the importance of understanding SerpinB5 function in a normal physiological context and the molecular mechanism involved. Several SerpinB5 phosphoforms have been detected in different cell lines, but the signaling pathways involved and the biological significance of this post-translational modification in vivo remains to be explored. In this study we investigated SerpinB5 expression, subcellular localization and phosphorylation in different stages of the mouse mammary gland development and the signaling pathway involved. Here we show that SerpinB5 is first detected in late pregnancy, reaches its highest levels in lactation and remains at constant levels during post-lactational regression (involution). Using high resolution isoelectric focusing followed but immunoblot, we found at least 8 different phosphoforms of SerpinB5 during lactation, which decreases steadily at the onset of involution. In order to investigate the signaling pathway involved in SerpinB5 phosphorylation, we took advantage of the non-transformed MCF-10A model system, as we have previously observed SerpinB5 phosphorylation in these cells. We detected basal levels of SerpinB5 phosphorylation in serum- and growth factor-starved cells, which is due to amphiregulin autocrine activity on MCF-10A cells. EGF and TGF alpha, two other EGFR ligands, promote important SerpinB5 phosphorylation. Interestingly, EGF treatment is followed by SerpinB5 nuclear accumulation. Altogether, these data indicate that SerpinB5 expression and phosphorylation are developmentally

  17. Extracellular VirB5 enhances T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium to the host plant.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Benoît; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2011-01-01

    VirB5 is a type 4 secretion system protein of Agrobacterium located on the surface of the bacterial cell. This localization pattern suggests a function for VirB5 which is beyond its known role in biogenesis and/or stabilization of the T-pilus and which may involve early interactions between Agrobacterium and the host cell. Here, we identify VirB5 as the first Agrobacterium virulence protein that can enhance infectivity extracellularly. Specifically, we show that elevating the amounts of the extracellular VirB5--by exogenous addition of the purified protein, its overexpression in the bacterium, or transgenic expression in and secretion out of the host cell--enhances the efficiency the Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer, as measured by transient expression of genes contained on the transferred T-DNA molecule. Importantly, the exogenous VirB5 enhanced transient T-DNA expression in sugar beet, a major crop recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. Increasing the pool of the extracellular VirB5 did not complement an Agrobacterium virB5 mutant, suggesting a dual function for VirB5: in the bacterium and at the bacterium-host cell interface. Consistent with this idea, VirB5 expressed in the host cell, but not secreted, had no effect on the transformation efficiency. That the increase in T-DNA expression promoted by the exogenous VirB5 was not due to its effects on bacterial growth, virulence gene induction, bacterial attachment to plant tissue, or host cell defense response suggests that VirB5 participates in the early steps of the T-DNA transfer to the plant cell. PMID:22028781

  18. TAS2R38 bitter taste genetics, dietary vitamin C, and both natural and synthetic dietary folic acid predict folate status, a key micronutrient in the pathoaetiology of adenomatous polyps.

    PubMed

    Lucock, Mark; Ng, Xiaowei; Boyd, Lyndell; Skinner, Virginia; Wai, Ron; Tang, Sa; Naylor, Charlotte; Yates, Zoë; Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Roach, Paul; Veysey, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Taste perception may influence dietary preferences and nutrient intakes contributing to diet-related disease susceptibility. This study examined bitter taste genetics and whether variation in the TAS2R38 gene at three polymorphic loci (A49P, V262A and I296V) could alter dietary and systemic folate levels and dietary vitamin C intake, and whether a nutrigenetic circuit existed that might link bitter taste, folate/antioxidant status and risk for a colonic adenomatous polyp. TAS2R38 diplotype predicted bitter taste (PROP) phenotype (p value <0.00001) and red cell folate status (p=0.0179) consistent with the diplotype that has the broadest range of bitter perception (AVI/PAV) also possessing the highest average red cell folate value. However, TAS2R38 diplotype did not predict dietary intake of methylfolic acid, pteroylmonoglutamic acid or total folic acid. Neither did it predict dietary intake of vitamin C. Despite this, intake of dietary folate predicts red cell folate with analysis pointing to a key nutrient-nutrient interaction between vitamin C intake and systemic folate status. Analysis of 38 patients with an adenomatous polyp and 164 controls showed that individually, dietary nutrient intake, nutrient status and taste diplotype did not influence polyp risk. However, red cell folate status (in individuals below the population median value) did interact with bitter taste diplotype (AVI/PAV) to predict polyp risk (p=0.0145). Furthermore, synthetic folic acid (below median intake) was statistically associated with adenoma occurrence (p=0.0215); individuals with adenomatous polyps had a 1.77× higher intake than controls. Additionally, stepwise regression taking account of all dietary nutrients showed a tight relationship between methylfolic acid (but not pteroylmonoglutamic acid) intake and red cell folate level in those with a low folate status and occurrence of an adenomatous polyp (p=0.0039). These findings point to a role for folate in the pathoaetiology of

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LBB.B5

    PubMed Central

    Hajo, Karima; Lenoci, Leonardo; Bron, Peter A.; Dijkstra, Annereinou; Alkema, Wynand; Wels, Michiel; Siezen, Roland J.; Minkova, Svetlana; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LBB.B5 originates from homemade Bulgarian yogurt and was selected for its ability to form a strong association with Streptococcus thermophilus. The genome sequence will facilitate elucidating the genetic background behind the contribution of LBB.B5 to the taste and aroma of yogurt and its exceptional protocooperation with S. thermophilus. PMID:27795256

  20. 17 CFR 240.16b-5 - Bona fide gifts and inheritance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... inheritance. 240.16b-5 Section 240.16b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... gifts and inheritance. Both the acquisition and the disposition of equity securities shall be exempt... securities by will or the laws of descent and distribution....

  1. 17 CFR 240.16b-5 - Bona fide gifts and inheritance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... inheritance. 240.16b-5 Section 240.16b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... gifts and inheritance. Both the acquisition and the disposition of equity securities shall be exempt... securities by will or the laws of descent and distribution....

  2. 17 CFR 240.16b-5 - Bona fide gifts and inheritance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... inheritance. 240.16b-5 Section 240.16b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... gifts and inheritance. Both the acquisition and the disposition of equity securities shall be exempt... securities by will or the laws of descent and distribution....

  3. 17 CFR 240.16b-5 - Bona fide gifts and inheritance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... inheritance. 240.16b-5 Section 240.16b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... gifts and inheritance. Both the acquisition and the disposition of equity securities shall be exempt... securities by will or the laws of descent and distribution....

  4. 17 CFR 240.16b-5 - Bona fide gifts and inheritance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... inheritance. 240.16b-5 Section 240.16b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... gifts and inheritance. Both the acquisition and the disposition of equity securities shall be exempt... securities by will or the laws of descent and distribution....

  5. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-5 - Average benefit percentage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average benefit percentage test. 1.410(b)-5...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(b)-5 Average benefit percentage test. (a) General rule. A plan satisfies the average benefit percentage test of...

  6. Cytochrome b5 augments 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Goosen, Pierre; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz; Swart, Amanda C; Conradie, Riaan; Swart, Pieter

    2011-11-01

    During adrenal steroidogenesis the competition between 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3βHSD) and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (CYP17A1) for Δ(5) steroid intermediates greatly influences steroidogenic output. Cytochrome-b(5) (Cyt-b(5)), a small electron transfer hemoprotein, known to augment the lyase activity of CYP17A1, has been shown to alter the steroidogenic outcome of this competition. In this study, the influence of Cyt-b(5) on 3βHSD activity was investigated. In COS-1 cells, Cyt-b(5) was shown to significantly increase the activity of both caprine and ovine 3βHSD towards pregnenolone, 17-OH pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone in a substrate and species specific manner. Furthermore, kinetic studies revealed Cyt-b(5) to have no influence on the K(m) values while significantly increasing the V(max) values of ovine 3βHSD for all its respective substrates. In addition, the activity of ovine 3βHSD in microsomal preparations was significantly influenced by the addition of either purified Cyt-b(5) or anti-Cyt-b(5) IgG. The results presented in this study indicate that Cyt-b(5) augments 3βHSD activity and represents the first documentation of such augmentation in any species. PMID:21930205

  7. 40 CFR Table B-5 to Subpart B of... - Symbols and Abbreviations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols and Abbreviations B Table B-5 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Performance Characteristics of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Table B-5 Table...

  8. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  9. [Vitamin D and neurology].

    PubMed

    Thouvenot, Éric; Camu, William

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk of multiple sclerosis and also with a higher relapse rate as well as a higher number of MRI lesions. Elders with vitamin D deficiency have worse cognitive performance. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease. Ischemic stroke are more frequent and more severe in patients with low vitamin D levels. Carotid atherosclerosis is more frequent and more severe in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk and worse prognosis of Parkinson's disease. In the different neurological disorders discussed herein, gene polymorphisms that could alter vitamin D metabolism are also associated with a higher incidence or a worse disease prognosis. Despite the links between vitamin D deficiency and the risks of developing neurological disorders, there is, to date, no proof that supplementation could alter the course of these diseases.

  10. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While ... provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize additional ...

  11. NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase in a Turkish family with recessive congenital methaemoglobinaemia type I.

    PubMed

    Percy, M J; Aslan, D

    2008-10-01

    The development of cyanosis at birth, the so-called blue baby syndrome, alerts paediatricians to the presence of congenital heart disease. In rare cases where the arterial blood gas analysis is normal the cyanosis is a consequence of methaemoglobinaemia. There are three distinct origins of methaemoglobinaemia; the presence of a haemoglobin variant, environmental toxicity and deficiency of cytochrome b5 reductase (cb(5)r). Two children born to two sets of first-degree related parents were cyanotic from birth. Differential diagnosis eliminated cardiac and pulmonary abnormalities. Measurement of methaemoglobin levels confirmed recessive congenital methaemoglobinaemia (RCM) and treatment with ascorbic acid was commenced. In the absence of neurological defects, type I disease was diagnosed. Sequence analysis of CYB5R3 revealed two different missense mutations (one which is novel, Ile85Ser) in the two families. Neither of the mutations was located in the FAD or the NADH binding sites of cb(5)r, thus supporting a diagnosis of type I disease. PMID:18820099

  12. A spectroscopic study of uranyl-cytochrome b5/cytochrome c interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei-Hui; Liu, Shuang-Quan; Du, Ke-Jie; Nie, Chang-Ming; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is harmful to human health due to its radiation damage and the ability of uranyl ion (UO22+) to interact with various proteins and disturb their biological functions. Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is a highly negatively charged heme protein and plays a key role in mediating cytochrome c (cyt c) signaling in apoptosis by forming a dynamic cyt b5-cyt c complex. In previous molecular modeling study in combination with UV-Vis studies, we found that UO22+ is capable of binding to cyt b5 at surface residues, Glu37 and Glu43. In this study, we further investigated the structural consequences of cyt b5 and cyt c, as well as cyt b5-cyt c complex, upon uranyl binding, by fluorescence spectroscopic and circular dichroism techniques. Moreover, we proposed a uranyl binding site for cyt c at surface residues, Glu66 and Glu69, by performing a molecular modeling study. It was shown that uranyl binds to cyt b5 (KD = 10 μM), cyt c (KD = 87 μM), and cyt b5-cyt c complex (KD = 30 μM) with a different affinity, which slightly alters the protein conformation and disturbs the interaction of cyt b5-cyt c complex. Additionally, we investigated the functional consequences of uranyl binding to the protein surface, which decreases the inherent peroxidase activity of cyt c. The information of uranyl-cyt b5/cyt c interactions gained in this study likely provides a clue for the mechanism of uranyl toxicity.

  13. Effect of pH(24h), curing salts and muscle types on the oxidative stability, free amino acids profile and vitamin B2, B3 and B6 content of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Sárraga, C; Castellari, M; Valero, A; García Regueiro, J A; Arnau, J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of a curing salt composition (with and without nitrifying salts), and the pH at 24h postmortem (pH24>6.0, 5.5acid profile (FAA) was not influenced by nitrifying salts. The pH24 was the factor which had the greatest consequences on the dry-cured ham characteristics analysed. The increase in nicotinamide and decrease in pyridoxine by curing salts and the decrease in both vitamins by pH24, had no major effect on the nutritional value of the dry-cured ham because the remaining amounts were within the intervals found in the nutritional data base for dry-cured ham. The results obtained suggested a cooperative action of vitamins B3 and B6 and the antioxidant enzyme system against oxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were reduced by the addition of curing salts but were low in all cases, suggesting high antioxidant stability in dry-cured ham which was corroborated by the low volatile aldehyde contents.

  14. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  15. Comparative vitamin E requirements and metabolism in livestock.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglou, N; Cave, N; Atwall, A S; Farnworth, E R; McDowell, L R

    1992-01-01

    It has been over 50 years since vitamin E was originally described as a lipid-soluble dietary constituent required for normal reproduction in rats. Vitamin E is recognized as an essential vitamin required for all classes of animals functioning predominantly as an intracellular antioxidant in maintaining the integrity of biological cell membranes. Although a wealth of information has been gathered on clinical signs of vitamin E deficiency, establishing its requirements for animals has been exceedingly difficult because of interrelationships with other dietary constituents. Vitamin E requirements for animals cannot be defined in isolation. Requirements are influenced by the amount and type of fat (particularly with monogastrics) and degree of fat oxidation in the diet; the presence of antioxidants; dietary selenium (closely interrelated with vitamin E), iron, copper, and sulphur amino acids, as well as the physiological status of the animal. Other factors to be considered in assessing vitamin E needs of animals under commercial production conditions include: a) variability of vitamin E content in feedstuffs; b) poor stability of vitamin E during processing and storage of feeds; and c) management practices resulting in overstressed animals. Information on the function of or requirements for vitamin E in animals is very incomplete. Estimated dietary vitamin E requirements for most animal species are in the range of 10-40 IU/kg of diet. Of particular concern is the lack of vitamin E requirement information regarding young dairy and beef calves. Although good experimental evidence indicates a beneficial role of supplemental vitamin E above physiological levels on overall performance, enhanced immunocompetence and preservation of meat and milk products, levels of vitamin E required to produce these desired effects needs to be firmly established. Present estimated dietary requirements for vitamin E across species may need to be redefined as new information becomes

  16. Comparison of the B vitamin composition of milk from mothers of preterm and term babies.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, J E; Zechalko, A; Murphy, J; Brooke, O G

    1983-01-01

    Samples of milk were taken at intervals during lactation from 35 mothers of term and 26 mothers of preterm infants and assayed for 8 B complex vitamins. Both term and preterm milks varied widely in vitamin content between mothers. Mean concentrations of thiamin, vitamin B6, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin, and folic acid increased progressively over several weeks after parturition but vitamin B12 concentrations declined generally and riboflavin values showed little change. Preterm milk was not richer in vitamins than term milk of the corresponding stage of lactation and it appeared that intake of B vitamins differed widely among preterm infants given their own mothers' milk. These infants may have meagre body reserves and an increased need for vitamins, and breast milk whether from their own mother or from the milk bank may not meet their needs. There is a strong case for supplementing breast milk given to preterm babies with the B complex vitamins. PMID:6859917

  17. Vitamin B12 deficiency after irradiation for bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kinn, A.C.; Lantz, B.

    1984-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 10 of 41 patients who underwent radiotherapy before cystectomy with Bricker urinary diversion for carcinoma of the bladder. Of 13 patients given full irradiation because of inoperable bladder cancer 5 had malabsorption of vitamin B12. Serum folic acid was normal in these patients, indicating predominantly ileal irradiation sequelae. Routine evaluation of serum vitamin B12 after radiotherapy is recommended so that appropriate medication can be given, if possible before neurological symptoms appear.

  18. Vitamin Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Henjum, Sigrun; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Shrestha, Prakash S; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Graybill, Lauren; Strand, Tor A

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B₆, B12 and folate) in breastfed infants. We measured the plasma concentrations of trans retinol, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, α-tocopherol, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein from 467 randomly selected infants. One in five (22%) was deficient in at least one vitamin. Mean (SD) plasma folate concentration was 73 (35) nmol/L, and no infant in the sample was folate deficient. Vitamin B₆ deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 22% and 17% of the infants, respectively. Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid or total homocysteine concentration was found in 82% and 62% of infants, respectively. Fifteen percent of infants were vitamin A deficient and 65% were marginally deficient in vitamin A. Fewer than 5% of infants had low plasma vitamin D concentration or vitamin E concentration (α-tocopherol <9.3 µmol/L). Our results illustrate the importance of continued supplementation campaigns and support the expansion of food fortification and dietary diversification programs that target children and women in Nepal. PMID:27005657

  19. Vitamin Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Henjum, Sigrun; Ueland, Per M.; Midttun, Øivind; Shrestha, Prakash S.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Graybill, Lauren; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B6, B12 and folate) in breastfed infants. We measured the plasma concentrations of trans retinol, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, α-tocopherol, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein from 467 randomly selected infants. One in five (22%) was deficient in at least one vitamin. Mean (SD) plasma folate concentration was 73 (35) nmol/L, and no infant in the sample was folate deficient. Vitamin B6 deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 22% and 17% of the infants, respectively. Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid or total homocysteine concentration was found in 82% and 62% of infants, respectively. Fifteen percent of infants were vitamin A deficient and 65% were marginally deficient in vitamin A. Fewer than 5% of infants had low plasma vitamin D concentration or vitamin E concentration (α-tocopherol <9.3 µmol/L). Our results illustrate the importance of continued supplementation campaigns and support the expansion of food fortification and dietary diversification programs that target children and women in Nepal. PMID:27005657

  20. Regulation of human adipogenesis by miR125b-5p.

    PubMed

    Rockstroh, Denise; Löffler, Dennis; Kiess, Wieland; Landgraf, Kathrin; Körner, Antje

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are supposed to be implicated in the control of adipogenesis. We aimed to identify miRNAs which are involved in the regulation of human adipogenesis and searched for their molecular targets. Applying microarray-analysis we identified miR125b-5p as upregulated during human adipocyte differentiation, although its role during adipogenesis is unknown. We identified and characterized the matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11) as a direct target of miR125b-5p by showing that miR125b-5p overexpression significantly reduces MMP11 luciferase activity and mutation of any single binding site was sufficient to abolish the miR125b-5p mediated inhibition of luciferase activity. MMP11 overexpression decreased fat accumulation, indicating that MMP11 acts as an anti-adipogenic regulator. In contrast, overexpression of miR125b-5p itself reduced adipogenesis. In summary, we identified miR125b-5p as upregulated during human adipogenesis indicating that miR125b-5p may serve as a regulator of human adipocyte differentiation. We further show that miR125b-5p downregulates the anti-adipogenic MMP11, but directly inhibits adipogenesis itself. Taken together, these data implicate that miR125b-5p can affect human adipogenesis via MMP11 and probably additional targets. PMID:27617174