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Sample records for acid volatile sulfur

  1. Mechanisms of volatile production from non-sulfur amino acids by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Wangang; Lee, Ji Hwan; Jo, Cheorun; Nam, Kichang

    2016-02-01

    Non-sulfur amino acid monomers were used to study the mechanisms of volatile production in meat by irradiation. Irradiation not only produced many volatiles but also increased the amounts of volatiles from non-sulfur amino acid monomers. The major reaction mechanisms involved in volatile production from each group of the amino acids by irradiation differ significantly. However, we speculate that the radiolysis of amino acid side chains were the major mechanism. In addition, Strecker degradation, especially the production of aldehydes from aliphatic group amino acids, and deamination, isomerization, decarboxylation, cyclic reaction and dehydrogenation of the initial radiolytic products were also contributed to the production of volatile compounds. Each amino acid monomers produced different odor characteristics, but the intensities of odor from all non-sulfur amino acid groups were very weak. This indicated that the contribution of volatiles produced from non-sulfur amino acids was minor. If the volatile compounds from non-sulfur amino acids, especially aldehydes, interact with other volatiles compounds such as sulfur compounds, however, they can contribute to the off-odor of irradiated meat significantly.

  2. Mechanisms of volatile production from sulfur-containing amino acids by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uk Ahn, Dong; Joo Lee, Eun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Wangang; Lee, Ji Hwan; Jo, Cheorun; Nam, Kichang

    2016-02-01

    Sulfur-containing amino acids were used to study the mechanisms of off-odor production in meat by irradiation. Irradiation not only increased the amounts of volatiles but also produced many new volatiles from sulfur-containing amino acid monomers. We speculate that the majority of the volatiles were the direct radiolytic products of the side chains, but Strecker degradation as well as deamination and decarboxylation of radiolytic products were also involved in the production of volatile compounds from sulfur amino acids. The volatile compounds produced in amino acids were not only the primary products of irradiation, but also the products of secondary chemical reactions after the primary compounds were produced. Cysteine and methionine produced odor characteristics similar to that of the irradiated meat, but the amounts of sulfur volatiles from methionine were far greater than that of cysteine. Although the present study was carried out using an amino acid model system, the information can be applied to the quality indexes of irradiated meats as well as other food products.

  3. On-line pervaporation-capillary electrophoresis for the determination of volatile acidity and free sulfur dioxide in wines.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Jiménez, Jose; Luque de Castro, Maria D

    2005-06-01

    Pervaporation has been coupled on-line to capillary electrophoresis (CE) by a simple interface consisting of a modified CE vial. The approach allows volatile analytes to be removed and injected into the capillary meanwhile the sample matrix remains in the pervaporator. By this approach volatile acidity and free sulfur dioxide have been simultaneously determined in wines. The detection limits (LODs) are 1.25 and 5.00 microg/mL, the quantification limits 4.12 and 16.50 microg/mL, and the linear dynamic ranges between LOD and 50 microg/mL and between 0.1 and 0.9 g/L for free sulfur dioxide and volatile acidity, respectively. The repeatability and within laboratory reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), are 1.61% and 3.00% for free sulfur, and 3.35% and 4.58% for volatile acidity, respectively. The optimal pervaporation time and the time necessary for the individual separation-detection of the target analytes are 6 and 5 min, respectively. The analysis frequency is 7 h(-1) and the sample amount necessary is less than 7 mL. The proposed method and official methods for the analytes were applied to 32 wine samples. A two-tailed t-test was used to compare the methods, which yielded similar results. The errors, expressed as RSD for the two parameters, ranged between 1.3 and 4.1%.

  4. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds and Gaseous Sulfuric Acid During the 2008 CAREBEIJING Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Zheng, J.; Hu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2009-05-01

    Air quality in Beijing has been a hot topic recently, because Beijing hosted the 2008 summer Olympics. To combat the problem, China ordered numerous factories shut down or used only sporadically during the games to limit air pollution in the area. Another major step involved ordering about one-half of the city's 3.3 million vehicles off the road during the games, allowing only cars on roads with odd or even-numbered license plates on alternate days until the games were over. In addition, China has implemented new auto emission standards since March 2009 with regulations that are similar to those used throughout Europe. Our team at the Texas A&M participated in the 2008 CAREBEIJING campaign, with the objectives of studying the complex chemistry of the air in Beijing, looking at emission controls and their effectiveness, studying the surrounding air from other regions and how it can affect Beijing's air, and comparing all of our findings with air quality in other cities we have examined, such as Mexico City and Houston. In this talk, preliminary results of measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and gaseous sulfuric acid will be presented to discuss the trends of VOCs and new particle formation associated with the traffic control.

  5. Short-term endproducts of sulfate reduction in a salt marsh: Formation of acid volatile sulfides, elemental sulfur, and pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gary M.; Howes, B. L.; Dacey, J. W. H.

    1985-07-01

    Rates of sulfate reduction, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production in sediments from a short Spartina alterniflora zone of Great Sippewissett Marsh were measured simultaneously during late summer. Surface sediments (0-2 cm) were dominated by aerobic metabolism which accounted for about 45% of the total carbon dioxide production over 0-15 cm. Rates of sulfate reduction agreed well with rates of total carbon dioxide production below 2 cm depth indicating that sulfate reduction was the primary pathway for sub-surface carbon metabolism. Sulfate reduction rates were determined using a radiotracer technique coupled with a chromous chloride digestion and carbon disulfide extraction of the sediment to determine the extent of formation of radiolabelled elemental sulfur and pyrite during shortterm (48 hr) incubations. In the surface 10 cm of the marsh sediments investigated, about 50% of the reduced radiosulfur was recovered as dissolved or acid volatile sulfides, 37% as carbon disulfide extractable sulfur, and only about 13% was recovered in a fraction operationally defined as pyrite. Correlations between the extent of sulfate depletion in the marsh sediments and the concentrations of dissolved and acid volatile sulfides supported the results of the radiotracer work. Our data suggest that sulfides and elemental sulfur may be major short-term end-products of sulfate reduction in salt marshes.

  6. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-30

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer. Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02500

  7. The contribution of sulfuric acid and non-volatile compounds on the growth of freshly formed particles at Melpitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, A.; Wang, Z.; Birmili, W.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-05-01

    A field campaign was conducted at atmospheric research station Melpitz, near Leipzig, Germany from May 1st to May 30th 2008 in the frame of the EUCAARI (European integrated project on aerosol, cloud, climate, and air interactions) project. During this experiment, the gas-phase sulfuric acid concentrations were measured for the first time in Melpitz, which presents an opportunity to examine the contribution of sulfuric acid as well as other compounds to the growth of newly formed particles. In addition, a Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) in conjunction with and without a thermodenuder (TD) have been used to measure continuously the particle number size distribution from 3-800 nm at Melpitz since July 2003 along with meteorological parameters and trace gases concentrations. Aerosol particles typically grew from 3 nm to 60-70 nm during a day, while their nonvolatile cores grew by 10-20 nm as well. The total particle growth rate was 3-6 nm/h, while the nonvolatile core material can explain 16-28%. According to our results, sulfuric acid can explain 9-49% of the growth while the remainder of the growth can be explained due to possibly secondary organic compounds.

  8. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  9. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOEpatents

    Norman, John H.

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  10. Are the clouds of Venus sulfuric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that strong aqueous sulfuric acid solutions have the right refractive index and freeze at Venusian cloud temperature, explain the dryness of the Venusian stratosphere, are consistent with some features of the Venusian IR spectrum, and do not absorb in highly reflecting areas of Venus. It is also indicated that such solutions should be produced by reactions between known atmospheric constituents and most sulfur-bearing rock at the Venusian surface temperature, and require only small amounts of sulfur consistent with its cosmic abundance and with the amounts of other volatile elements present in the atmosphere. It is believed therefore that the clouds of Venus consist of sulfuric acid solutions.

  11. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  12. Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R W; Johnson, R E; Anderson, M S

    1999-10-01

    A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

  13. Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

  14. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  15. Sulfuric acid as autocatalyst in the formation of sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Francisco, Joseph S; Anglada, Josep M

    2012-12-26

    Sulfuric acid can act as a catalyst of its own formation. We have carried out a computational investigation on the gas-phase formation of H(2)SO(4) by hydrolysis of SO(3) involving one and two water molecules, and also in the presence of sulfuric acid and its complexes with one and two water molecules. The hydrolysis of SO(3) requires the concurrence of two water molecules, one of them acting as a catalyzer, and our results predict an important catalytic effect, ranging between 3 and 11 kcal·mol(-1) when the catalytic water molecule is substituted by a sulfuric acid molecule or one of its hydrates. In these cases, the reaction products are either bare sulfuric acid dimer or sulfuric acid dimer complexed with a water molecule. There are broad implications from these new findings. The results of the present investigation show that the catalytic effect of sulfuric acid in the SO(3) hydrolysis can be important in the Earth's stratosphere, in the heterogeneous formation of sulfuric acid and in the formation of aerosols, in H(2)SO(4) formation by aircraft engines, and also in understanding the formation of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere of Venus.

  16. Volatile organic sulfur compounds in a stratified lake.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haiying; Mylon, Steven E; Benoit, Gaboury

    2007-03-01

    Three volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide (CS(2)), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), were detected in the stratified water column of a lake (Linsley Pond) in Connecticut. The compounds DMS and DMDS appeared in both the oxic and the anoxic portions of the water column, CS(2) was primarily found in anoxic hypolimnion. Algal metabolism and/or bacterial degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids or other organic materials are potential sources of VOSCs in the oxic lake water. Reactions of hydrogen sulfide with organic compounds and microbial degradation of organic matter may be responsible for the production of VOSCs in the anoxic lake water. The vertical distribution patterns of these three VOSCs varied from month to month in the summer, but the daily profiles obtained in one 5-day period in the summer displayed consistency. No clear diurnal pattern for any of the three VOSCs was observed. Based on observation that these VOSCs were not present in surface and near surface waters of Linsley Pond, freshwater inputs of reduced sulfur compounds to the atmosphere may be insignificant.

  17. Sulfuric Acid in the Venus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine, produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

  18. Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

  19. Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

  20. Carbon, Halogens and Sulfur: Key Volatiles in the Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezzotti, M. L.; Ferrando, S.; Oglialoro, E.; Peverelli, V.; Villa, I. M.

    2016-12-01

    The role of volatiles in the lithosphere, especially in the C-O-H-S-halogens system, is crucial to upper mantle geodynamic evolution, metasomatism, and melting. Although it is clear that halogen (± sulfur)-rich aqueous fluids exert a key influence on the geochemical signature of the lithosphere in subduction zones, the composition and the distribution of fluids and/or volatile-rich melts in the oceanic and continental lithospheric mantle in intraplate and extensional tectonic settings have been taken into account only in recent times. Potential tracers of the nature of volatiles include fluid and melt inclusions in peridotite xenoliths, which represent proxies for mantle volatiles at lithospheric depths. Here, we present petrological and fluid/melt inclusion studies in peridotite xenoliths in intraplate and extensional tectonic regions of active magmatism, that include Ethiopia, Hawaii, and the Canary Islands. Mantle fluids are CO2-rich, but contain significant, although variable, amounts of H2O, halogens, and sulfur species. Chlorine represents the most abundant halogen (mole fraction up to 0.04), and sulfur is present either as H2S, SO2, or sulfates. Such compositions are unknown from intraplate and extensional settings and show unexpected similarities to fluids preserved in kimberlitic diamonds. Data delineate changes in volatile speciation and redox conditions in the lithosphere, and yield improved insights on how ascending hydrous carbonate-rich melts exsolve aqueous-carbonic fluids enriched in halogens and sulfur, which may be locally immiscible. Carbon, halogens and sulfur in lithospheric mantle fluids support an origin that includes incorporation of recycled crustal sediments and basaltic oceanic crust, away from subduction zones. The composition and the distribution of lithospheric fluids suggest a possible role of recycling in transporting predominantly CO2, H2O, and some fluid mobile elements via paleo-subduction events in the convective mantle.

  1. Microbial cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds in anoxic environments.

    PubMed

    Lomans, B P; Pol, A; Op den Camp, H J M

    2002-01-01

    Microbial cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSC) is investigated due to the impact these compounds are thought to have on environmental processes like global temperature control, acid precipitation and the global sulfur cycle. Moreover, in several kinds of industries like composting plants and the paper industry VOSC are released causing odor problems. Waste streams containing these compounds must be treated in order to avoid the release of these compounds to the atmosphere. This paper describes the general mechanisms for the production and degradation of methanethiol (MT) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), two ubiquitous VOSC in anaerobic environments. Slurry incubations indicated that methylation of sulfide and MT resulting in MT and DMS, respectively, is one of the major mechanisms for VOSC in sulfide-rich anaerobic environments. An anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for the formation of MT and DMS through the anaerobic methylation of H2S and MT was isolated from a freshwater pond after enrichment with syringate as a methyl group donating compound and sole carbon source. In spite of the continuous formation of MT and DMS, steady state concentrations are generally very low. This is due to the microbial degradation of these compounds. Experiments with sulfate-rich and sulfate-amended sediment slurries demonstrated that besides methanogens, sulfate-reducing bacteria can also degrade MT and DMS, provided that sulfate is available. A methanogen was isolated that is able to grow on DMS as the sole carbon source. A large survey of sediments slurries of various origin demonstrated that both isolates are commonly occurring inhabitants of anaerobic environments.

  2. Production of Volatile and Sulfur Compounds by 10 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Inoculated in Trebbiano Must

    PubMed Central

    Patrignani, Francesca; Chinnici, Fabio; Serrazanetti, Diana I.; Vernocchi, Pamela; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Riponi, Claudio; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    In wines, the presence of sulfur compounds is the resulting of several contributions among which yeast metabolism. The characterization of the starter Saccharomyces cerevisiae needs to be performed also taking into account this ability even if evaluated together with the overall metabolic profile. In this perspective, principal aim of this experimental research was the evaluation of the volatile profiles, throughout GC/MS technique coupled with solid phase micro extraction, of wines obtained throughout the fermentation of 10 strains of S. cerevisiae. In addition, the production of sulfur compounds was further evaluated by using a gas-chromatograph coupled with a Flame Photometric Detector. Specifically, the 10 strains were inoculated in Trebbiano musts and the fermentations were monitored for 19 days. In the produced wines, volatile and sulfur compounds as well as amino acid concentrations were investigated. Also the physico-chemical characteristics of the wines and their electronic nose profiles were evaluated. PMID:26973621

  3. Hydrate sulfuric acid after sulfur implantation in water ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strazzulla, G.; Baratta, G. A.; Leto, G.; Gomis, O.

    2007-12-01

    For many years an ongoing research program performed at our laboratory has had the aim to investigate the implantation of reactive ions in ices relevant to planetology by using IR spectroscopy. We present new results obtained by implanting 200 keV sulfur ions into water ice at 80 K. We have looked at the formation of sulfur-bearing molecules such as sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. We find that hydrated sulfuric acid is formed with high yield ( 0.65±0.1 molecules/ion). An upper limit to the production yield of SO 2 ( Y⩽0.025 molecules/ion) has been estimated; no hydrogen sulfide has been detected. The formation of hydrogen peroxide is confirmed. Ozone is not detected. The results are discussed relevant to the inquiry on the radiolytic sulfur cycle considered responsible for the formation of sulfur-bearing molecules on the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. We demonstrate that sulfur implantation efficiently forms hydrated sulfuric acid whose observed abundance is explained as caused by an exogenic process. It is more difficult to say if the observed sulfur dioxide is quantitatively supported by only sulfur implantation; additional experimental studies are necessary along with direct observations, especially at UV wavelengths such as those that could be performed by instruments on board Hubble Space Telescope or by the forthcoming World Space Observatory (WSO/UV).

  4. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  9. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  10. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also known as oil of vitriol, is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  15. Sulfur K-edge XANES and acid volatile sulfide analyses of changes in chemical speciation of S and Fe during sequential extraction of trace metals in anoxic sludge from biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr; Gustavsson, Jenny; Svensson, Bo H; Skyllberg, Ulf

    2012-01-30

    The effect of sequential extraction of trace metals on sulfur (S) speciation in anoxic sludge samples from two lab-scale biogas reactors augmented with Fe was investigated. Analyses of sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (S XANES) spectroscopy and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) were conducted on the residues from each step of the sequential extraction. The S speciation in sludge samples after AVS analysis was also determined by S XANES. Sulfur was mainly present as FeS (≈ 60% of total S) and reduced organic S (≈ 30% of total S), such as organic sulfide and thiol groups, in the anoxic solid phase. Sulfur XANES and AVS analyses showed that during first step of the extraction procedure (the removal of exchangeable cations), a part of the FeS fraction corresponding to 20% of total S was transformed to zero-valent S, whereas Fe was not released into the solution during this transformation. After the last extraction step (organic/sulfide fraction) a secondary Fe phase was formed. The change in chemical speciation of S and Fe occurring during sequential extraction procedure suggests indirect effects on trace metals associated to the FeS fraction that may lead to incorrect results. Furthermore, by S XANES it was verified that the AVS analysis effectively removed the FeS fraction. The present results identified critical limitations for the application of sequential extraction for trace metal speciation analysis outside the framework for which the methods were developed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiolysis of Sulfuric Acid, Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate, and Sulfuric Acid Tetrahydrate and Its Relevance to Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report laboratory studies on the 0.8 MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4 H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4 4H2O) between 10 and 180 K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4(exp -), and SO4(exp 2-). At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that H2SO4 H2O is formed on subsequent warming. This hydrate is significantly more stable to radiolytic destruction than pure H2SO4, falling to an equilibrium relative abundance of 50% of its original value on prolonged irradiation. Unlike either pure H2SO4 or H2SO4 H2O, the loss of H2SO4 4H2O exhibits a strong temperature dependence, as the tetrahydrate is essentially unchanged at the highest irradiation temperatures and completely destroyed at the lowest ones, which we speculate is due to a combination of radiolytic destruction and amorphization. Furthermore, at the lower temperatures it is clear that irradiation causes the tetrahydrate spectrum to transition to one that closely resembles the monohydrate spectrum. Extrapolating our results to Europa s surface, we speculate that the variations in SO2 concentrations observed in the chaotic terrains are a result of radiation processing of lower hydration states of sulfuric acid and that the monohydrate will remain stable on the surface over geological times, while the tetrahydrate will remain stable in the warmer regions but be destroyed in the colder regions, unless it can be reformed by other processes, such as thermal reactions induced by diurnal cycling.

  17. Radiolysis of Sulfuric Acid, Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate, and Sulfuric Acid Tetrahydrate and Its Relevance to Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report laboratory studies on the 0.8 MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4 H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4 4H2O) between 10 and 180 K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4(exp -), and SO4(exp 2-). At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that H2SO4 H2O is formed on subsequent warming. This hydrate is significantly more stable to radiolytic destruction than pure H2SO4, falling to an equilibrium relative abundance of 50% of its original value on prolonged irradiation. Unlike either pure H2SO4 or H2SO4 H2O, the loss of H2SO4 4H2O exhibits a strong temperature dependence, as the tetrahydrate is essentially unchanged at the highest irradiation temperatures and completely destroyed at the lowest ones, which we speculate is due to a combination of radiolytic destruction and amorphization. Furthermore, at the lower temperatures it is clear that irradiation causes the tetrahydrate spectrum to transition to one that closely resembles the monohydrate spectrum. Extrapolating our results to Europa s surface, we speculate that the variations in SO2 concentrations observed in the chaotic terrains are a result of radiation processing of lower hydration states of sulfuric acid and that the monohydrate will remain stable on the surface over geological times, while the tetrahydrate will remain stable in the warmer regions but be destroyed in the colder regions, unless it can be reformed by other processes, such as thermal reactions induced by diurnal cycling.

  18. Effects of inorganic sulfur addition on fluxes of volatile sulfur compounds in Sphagnum peatlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Short and long-term impacts of increased S deposition on fluxes of volatile S compounds (VSC's) from Sphagnum peatlands were investigated in an artificially acidified (sulfuric and nitric acids) poor fen (Mire 239) at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario, Canada. Additional experiments were conducted in a poor fen (Sallie's Fen) in Barrington, NH, USA. At Mire 239, emissions of VSC's were monitored, before and after acidification, at control (unacidified) and experimental sections within two major physiographic zones of the mire (oligotrophic and minerotrophic). The experimental segments of the mire received S amendments since 1983, in amounts equivalent to the annual S deposition in the highest polluted areas of Canada and U.S. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was the predominant VSC released from the mire and varied largely with time and space (i.e., from 2.5 to 127 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1)). Sulfur addition did not affect DMS emissions in a period of hours to a few days, although it stimulated production of DMS and MSH in the anoxic surficial regions of the peat. DMS emissions in the experimental oligotrophic segment of the mire was approximately 3-fold greater than in the control oligotrophic segment, and approximately 10-fold greater than in the minerotrophic zones. These differences could be due to a combination of differences in types of vegetation, nutritional status, and S input. At Sallie's Fen, DMS fluxes were approximately 8 times higher from a Sphagnum site than from a bare peat site. Fluxes of VSC's were not significantly affected by sulfate amendments at both sites, while DMS and MSH concentrations increases greatly with time in the top 10 cm of the peat column. Our data indicated that although Sphagnum is not the direct source of DMS released from Sphagnum peatlands, it might play a role in regulating DMS emissions to the atmosphere.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also...

  3. Charles H. Winston and Confederate Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reithmiller, Steven

    1995-07-01

    Sulfuric acid turned out to be one of the critical chemicals made in the South during the Civil War. It was necessary for the manufacture of mercury fulminate which was used in the production of percussion caps and sulfuric acid was used in the Daniells cell to produce electricity. Charles H. Winston, president of the Richmond Female Institute and later professor at the University of Richmond (VA) was instrumental in the establishment of a plant to manufacture sulfuric acid in Charlotte, North Carolina. His patent and method of manufacture plus the uses of sulfuric acid during the Civil War are discussed.

  4. [Emission of volatile sulfur gases from Chinese paddy soils].

    PubMed

    Qiao, W; Yang, Z; Cao, J; Li, Z

    2001-09-01

    In the paper, emission of volatile sulfur gases from paddy soil was discussed in a growth period of paddy rice by constructing a field sampling system. The result showed that COS, CS2, DMS and DMDS were mainly emitted from paddy soil. The order of emission fluxes was 81.11, 6.33 and 10.71 mg.(m2.a)-1. Sulphur emission fluxes of Chinese paddy soil was 0.013662 Tg/a, and those of world paddy soil was 0.07992 Tg/a.

  5. Scalping of light volatile sulfur compounds by wine closures.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria A; Jourdes, Michaël; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2012-11-07

    Closures have an important influence on wine quality during aging in a bottle. Closures have a direct impact on oxygen exposure and on volatiles scavenging in wine. Model wine solution soaking assays of several types of closures (i.e., natural and technical cork stoppers, synthetic closures, screw caps) with two important wine volatile sulfur compounds led to a considerable reduction in their levels. After 25 days, cork closures and synthetic closures, to a lesser extent, have significantly scavenged hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. These compounds have a determinant impact on wine aging bouquet, being largely responsible for "reduced off-flavors". Hydrogen sulfide levels are often not well correlated with the exposure of wine to oxygen or with the permeability of the closure. Its preferential sorption by some types of closures may explain that behavior. Scalping phenomenon should be taken into account when studying wine post-bottling development.

  6. Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…

  7. Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…

  8. Nitrosyl sulfuric acid and stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, H. S.

    1992-07-01

    It is proposed on the basis of information found in the atmospheric and chemical literature that nitrosyl sulfuric acid (NSA), NOHSO4 may play an important role in stratospheric chemistry. If the reaction probability of forming NSA per collision of NO with a sulfuric acid aerosol is 0.001, 1 percent of the sulfuric acid would be converted to NSA within 1 d at 20 km altitude. If NSA in the sulfate aerosols is 1 percent of the sulfuric acid and if the second order rate constant for (HCl + NOHSO4 = H2SO4 + ClNO) in sulfuric acid solution is greater than 10 exp -18 cu cm/molecule s under conditions at 20 km altitude, the rate of HCl + NSA is faster than the rate of HO + HCl. In this case, this heterogeneous catalysis is expected to affect the balance of No sub y, Cl sub y, and the ozone in the lower stratosphere.

  9. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds from spruce trees

    SciTech Connect

    Rennenberg, H.; Huber, B.; Schroeder, P.; Stahl, K.; Haunold, W.; Georgil, H.W.; Slovik, S.; Pfanz, H. )

    1990-03-01

    Spruce (Picea abies L.) trees from the same clone were supplied with different, but low, amounts of plant available sulfate in the soil (9.7-18.1 milligrams per 100 grams of soil). Branches attached to the trees were enclosed in a dynamic gas exchange cuvette and analyzed for the emission of volatile sulfur compounds. Independent of the sulfate supply in the soil, H{sub 2}S was the predominant reduced sulfur compound continuously emitted from the branches with high rates during the day and low rates in the night. In the light, as well as in the dark, the rates of H{sub 2}S emission increased exponentially with increasing water vapor flux from the needles. Approximately 1 nanomole of H{sub 2}S was found to be emitted per mole of water. When stomata were closed completely, only minute emission of H{sub 2}S was observed. Apparently, H{sub 2}S emission from the needles is highly dependent on stromatal aperture, and permeation through the cuticle is negligible. In several experiments, small amounts of dimethylsulfide and carbonylsulfide were also detected in a portion of the samples. However, SO{sub 2} was the only sulfur compound consistently emitted from branches of spruce trees in addition to H{sub 2}S. Emission of SO{sub 2} mainly proceeded via an outburst starting before the beginning of the light period. The total amount of SO{sub 2} emitted from the needles during this outburst was correlated with the plant available sulfate in the soil. The diurnal changes in sulfur metabolism that may result in an outburst of SO{sub 2} are discussed.

  10. Organic volatile sulfur compounds in inland aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The speciation, concentration, and fluxes of organic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in a wide variety of inland aquatic systems wee studied. Dissolved VSCs were sparged from water samples, trapped cryogenically, and quantified by gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Species detected and mean surface water concentrations were: carbonyl sulfide (COS), 0.091-7.6 nM; methanethiol (MSH), undetected-180 nM; dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 0.48-1290 nM; carbon disulfide (CS[sub 2]), undetected-69 nM; dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), undetected-68 nM. The range in surface water concentrations of over five orders of magnitude was influenced principally by lake depth and sulfate concentration ([SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  11. Involvement of a branched-chain aminotransferase in production of volatile sulfur compounds in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Daniela Cernat; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2005-08-01

    The enzymatic degradation of L-methionine and the subsequent formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are essential for the development of the typical flavor in cheese. In the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the degradation of L-methionine was accompanied by the formation of the transamination product 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid. A branched-chain aminotransferase gene (YlBCA1) of Y. lipolytica was amplified, and the L-methionine-degrading activity and the aminotransferase activity were measured in a genetically modified strain and compared to those of the parental strain. Our work shows that L-methionine degradation via transamination is involved in formation of VSCs in Y. lipolytica.

  12. Sulfuric acid measurements in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight: Implications for the sulfuric acid formation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, J.; Arnold, F.; Schulte, P.

    2002-04-01

    Sulfuric acid concentrations were measured in the exhaust plume of a B737-300 aircraft in flight. The measurements were made onboard of the German research aircraft Falcon using the Volatile Aerosol Component Analyzer (VACA). The VACA measures total H2SO4, which is the sum of gaseous H2SO4 and aerosol H2SO4. Measurements took place at distances of 25-200 m behind the B737 corresponding to plume ages of about 0.1-1 seconds. The fuel sulfur content (FSC) of the fuel burned by the B737 engines was alternatively 2.6 and 56 mg sulfur per kilogram fuel (ppmm). H2SO4 concentrations measured in the plume for the 56 ppmm sulfur case were up to ~600 pptv. The average concentration of H2SO4 measured in the ambient atmosphere outside the aircraft plume was 88 pptv, the maximum ambient atmospheric H2SO4 was ~300 pptv. Average efficiencies ɛΔCO2 = 3.3 +/- 1.8% and ɛΔT = 2.9 +/- 1.6% for fuel sulfur conversion to sulfuric acid were inferred when relating the H2SO4 data to measurements of the plume tracers ΔCO2 and ΔT.

  13. Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol. An Introductory Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

    2004-10-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds and their degradation products play important environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation. Two important members of this group, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and methanethiol, MT, are formed by living organisms as well as by abiotic processes. DMS is synthesized by various organisms in the marine environment and large quantities of it are released to the atmosphere. One key precursor for DMS synthesis is the sulfonium salt, dimethylsulfoniopropionate. MT, also formed in marine environments, can be further converted to DMS. The chemical reactions responsible for the biosynthesis of DMS and MT are emphasized here, as well as means for their degradation. Since sulfur compounds are often ignored in normal course work, this article provides a basic foundation for an understanding of these interesting and environmentally significant compounds.

  14. Formation of volatile sulfur compounds and metabolism of methionine and other sulfur compounds in fermented food.

    PubMed

    Landaud, Sophie; Helinck, Sandra; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in fermented food is a subject of interest. Such compounds are essential for the aroma of many food products like cheeses or fermented beverages, in which they can play an attractive or a repulsive role, depending on their identity and their concentration. VSC essentially arise from common sulfur-bearing precursors, methionine being the most commonly found. In the first section of this paper, the main VSC found in cheese, wine, and beer are reviewed. It is shown that a wide variety of VSC has been evidenced in these food products. Because of their low odor threshold and flavor notes, these compounds impart essential sensorial properties to the final product. In the second section of this review, the main (bio)chemical pathways leading to VSC synthesis are presented. Attention is focused on the microbial/enzymatic phenomena-which initiate sulfur bearing precursors degradation-leading to VSC production. Although chemical reactions could also play an important role in this process, this aspect is not fully developed in our review. The main catabolic pathways leading to VSC from the precursor methionine are presented.

  15. Linking neutral and charged sulfuric acid-ammonia and sulfuric acid-dimethylamine clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ismael K.; Kupiainen, Oona; Olenius, Tinja; Loukonen, Ville; Kurtén, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2013-05-01

    We have used a quantum chemical method to calculate the formation free energies of negatively charged sulfuric acid - ammonia and sulfuric acid - dimethylamine clusters. Using the calculated formation free energies we have estimated the evaporation rates of the clusters. We have compared the evaporation rate of the charged clusters with the corresponding neutral clusters. We found that, although small clusters of sulfuric acid with ammonia and dimethylamine are stable and should be present in the atmosphere, they can not be detected using mass spectroscopy techniques. Charging the cluster will result in the fast evaporation of the base molecules, and they will be detected as pure sulfuric acid cluster.

  16. 46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid of concentration of 77.5 percent (1.7019 specific gravity) (59.8...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid of concentration of 77.5 percent (1.7019 specific gravity) (59.8...

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid of concentration of 77.5 percent (1.7019 specific gravity) (59.8...

  19. 46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid of concentration of 77.5 percent (1.7019 specific gravity) (59.8...

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid of concentration of 77.5 percent (1.7019 specific gravity) (59.8...

  1. Sulfuric acid spills in marine accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, I N; Wong, W T; Munkelwitz, H R; Flessner, M F

    1980-07-01

    Concentrated sulfuric acid and oleum are among the most potentially hazardous chemicals routinely transported in bulk quantities on US and international waterways. Conceivably, during a marine mishap, tons of sulfuric acid could be abruptly released into the water, and the consequences of such a spill could be detrimental to man and the environment. Several acid spill scenarios are briefly described, and the results from laboratory experiments designed to simulate two different types of acid spill accidents are reported. It is shown that the convective mixing of concentrated sulfuric acid with water can adequately be described by a mathematical model which takes into account the variation of the buoyancy force arising from changes in acid concentration and released heat of dilution. A value of 0.21 is determined to be the entrainment parameter for the mixing of sulfuric acid with water. For oleum spills in which acid aerosol formation is a potential safety hazard, a conservative estimate of less than one-tenth of a percent is obtained for the amount of airborne acid under most accident conditions. The fraction of airborne acid, however, decreases very rapidly with increasing release depth below water surfaces. The acid aerosols exhibit a well-defined log-normal particle-size distribution with peak diameter varying from 0.1 to 0.6 ..mu..m (at 70% R.H.) depending upon release depth. This is well within the respirable particle size range.

  2. Methane activation and oxidation in sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Goeppert, Alain; Dinér, Peter; Ahlberg, Per; Sommer, Jean

    2002-07-15

    The H/D exchange observed when methane is contacted with D(2)SO(4) at 270-330 degrees C shows that the alkane behaves as a sigma base and undergoes rapid and reversible protonation at this temperature. DFT studies of the hydrogen exchange between a monomer and a dimer of sulfuric acid and methane show that the transition states involved in the exchange are bifunctional, that is one hydrogen atom is transferred from a hydroxy group in sulfuric acid to methane, while one hydrogen atom is abstracted from methane by a non-hydroxy oxygen atom in sulfuric acid. All the transition states include a CH(5) moiety, which shows similarities to the methanium ion CH(5) (+). The calculated potential activation energy of the hydrogen exchange for the monomer is 174 kJ mol(-1), which is close to the experimental value (176 kJ mol(-1)). Solvation of the monomer and the transition state of the monomer with an extra sulfuric acid molecule, decrease the potential activation energy by 6 kJ mol(-1). The acid-base process is in competition, however, with an oxidative process involving methane and sulfuric acid which leads to CO(2), SO(2), and water, and thus to a decrease of acidity and loss of reactivity of the medium.

  3. Evolution of Volatile Sulfur Compounds during Wine Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kinzurik, Matias I; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Gardner, Richard C; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2015-09-16

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) play a significant role in the aroma of foods and beverages. With very low sensory thresholds and strong unpleasant aromas, most VSCs are considered to have a negative impact on wine quality. In this study, headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was used to analyze the time course of the biosynthesis of 12 VSCs formed during wine fermentation. Two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the laboratory strain BY4743 and a commercial strain, F15, were assessed using two media: synthetic grape media and Sauvignon Blanc juice. Seven VSCs were detected above background, with three rising above their sensory thresholds. The data revealed remarkable differences in the timing and evolution of production during fermentation, with a transient spike in methanethiol production early during anaerobic growth. Heavier VSCs such as benzothiazole and S-ethyl thioacetate were produced at a steady rate throughout grape juice fermentation, whereas others, such as diethyl sulfide, appear toward the very end of the winemaking process. The results also demonstrate significant differences between yeast strains and fermentation media.

  4. Sulfuric acid in the Venus clouds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The extremely dry nature of the Venus upper atmosphere appears to demand the presence of an efficient desiccating agent as the chief constituent of the clouds of Venus. On the basis of polarization measures it is to be expected that this substance is present as spherical droplets, 1 to 2 microns in diameter, with a refractive index n of 1.46 plus or minus 0.02 at 3500A in the observed region of the atmosphere, with T about equal to 235 K. This substance must have ultraviolet, visible, and infrared reflection properties not inconsistent with the observed spectrum of Venus. Sulfuric acid, of about 86% by weight composition, roughly fulfills the first of these properties. The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

  5. Sulfuric acid in the Venus clouds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The extremely dry nature of the Venus upper atmosphere appears to demand the presence of an efficient desiccating agent as the chief constituent of the clouds of Venus. On the basis of polarization measures it is to be expected that this substance is present as spherical droplets, 1 to 2 microns in diameter, with a refractive index n of 1.46 plus or minus 0.02 at 3500A in the observed region of the atmosphere, with T about equal to 235 K. This substance must have ultraviolet, visible, and infrared reflection properties not inconsistent with the observed spectrum of Venus. Sulfuric acid, of about 86% by weight composition, roughly fulfills the first of these properties. The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

  6. Quadruple sulfur isotope constraints on the origin and cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds in a stratified sulfidic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduro, Harry; Kamyshny, Alexey; Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Li, Yue; Farquhar, James

    2013-11-01

    We have quantified the major forms of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) distributed in the water column of stratified freshwater Fayetteville Green Lake (FGL), to evaluate the biogeochemical pathways involved in their production. The lake's anoxic deep waters contain high concentrations of sulfate (12-16 mmol L-1) and sulfide (0.12 μmol L-1 to 1.5 mmol L-1) with relatively low VOSC concentrations, ranging from 0.1 nmol L-1 to 2.8 μmol L-1. Sulfur isotope measurements of combined volatile organic sulfur compounds demonstrate that VOSC species are formed primarily from reduced sulfur (H2S/HS-) and zero-valent sulfur (ZVS), with little input from sulfate. Thedata support a role of a combination of biological and abiotic processes in formation of carbon-sulfur bonds between reactive sulfur species and methyl groups of lignin components. These processes are responsible for very fast turnover of VOSC species, maintaining their low levels in FGL. No dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was detected by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) in the lake water column or in planktonic extracts. These observations indicate a pathway distinct from oceanic and coastal marine environments, where dimethylsulfide (DMS) and other VOSC species are principally produced via the breakdown of DMSP by plankton species.

  7. First direct sulfuric acid detection in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, J.; Sierau, B.; Arnold, F.; Baumann, R.; Busen, R.; Schulte, P.; Schumann, U.

    Sulfuric acid (SA) was for the first time directly detected in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight. The measurements were made by a novel aircraft-based VACA (Volatile Aerosol Component Analyzer) instrument of MPI-K Heidelberg while the research aircraft Falcon was chasing another research aircraft ATTAS. The VACA measures the total SA in the gas and in volatile submicron aerosol particles. During the chase the engines of the ATTAS alternatively burned sulfur-poor and sulfur-rich fuel. In the sulfur-rich plume very marked enhancements of total SA were observed of up to 1300 pptv which were closely correlated with ΔCO2 and ΔT and were far above the local ambient atmospheric background-level of typically 15-50 pptv. Our observations indicate a lower limit for the efficiency ɛ for fuel-sulfur conversion to SA of 0.34 %.

  8. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  9. Measurement and biological significance of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Tangerman, Albert

    2009-10-15

    This review deals with the measurement of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices of rats and humans (blood, serum, tissues, urine, breath, feces and flatus). Hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol both contain the active thiol (-SH) group and appear in the free gaseous form, in the acid-labile form and in the dithiothreitol-labile form. Dimethyl sulfide is a neutral molecule and exists only in the free form. The foul odor of these sulfur volatiles is a striking characteristic and plays a major role in bad breath, feces and flatus. Because sulfur is a biologically active element, the biological significance of the sulfur volatiles are also highlighted. Despite its highly toxic properties, hydrogen sulfide has been lately recommended to become the third gasotransmitter, next to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, based on high concentration found in healthy tissues, such as blood and brain. However, there is much doubt about the reliability of the assay methods used. Many artifacts in the sulfide assays exist. The methods to detect the various forms of hydrogen sulfide are critically reviewed and compared with findings of our group. Recent findings that free gaseous hydrogen sulfide is absent in whole blood urged the need to revisit its role as a blood-borne signaling molecule.

  10. [Influence of exogenous sulfur-containing compounds on the exchange fluxes of volatile organic sulfur compounds].

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Xin-Ming

    2011-08-01

    The influences of cysteine, sodium sulfide (Na2S) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) on the soil-air exchange fluxes of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs), including carbonyl sulfide (COS), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide (CS2) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), were studied employing static chamber enclosure followed by laboratory determination using an Entech 7100 preconcentrator coupled with an Agilent 5973 GC-MSD. The results showed that after the addition of cysteine, the soil for the exchange fluxes of COS and CS2 shifted to be the source from sink and the emissions of DMS and DMDS increased significant. The emission amount of DMS and CS2 accounted for 89.2% to the total VOSCs after the addition of cysteine, implying that cysteine is an important precursor for DMS and CS2 in the soil. The amount of DMDS accounted for 93.2% to the total sulfur from the soil after addition of Na2S, indicating that Na2S is a key precursor for DMDS. No significant difference of VOSCs fluxes was found between the controlled soil and the soil with addition of Na2SO4, suggesting Na2SO4 was not the direct precursor for VOSCs in soil. VOSCs exchange rates reached the maximum at 6 to 8 days after addition of cysteine. As for addition of Na2S, the maximal emission rates of different VOSCs appeared at different dates, and the dates differed significantly from those after addition of cysteine, implying that the formation process of VOSCs from the soil with addition of Na2S was more complex and different from the soil with addition of cysteine.

  11. Sulfur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, elemental sulfur and the byproduct sulfuric acid were produced at 109 operations in 29 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Total shipments were valued at about $1.6 billion. Elemental sulfur production was 8.2 Mt (9 million st); Louisiana and Texas accounted for about 53 percent of domestic production.

  12. Comparative uptake of sulfur in sulfur dioxide and acid rain by corn (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    This study has compared and evaluated the absorption and accumulation of sulfur from the two major forms of sulfur pollution (sulfur dioxide and sulfur containing acid rain), by seedlings of corn (Zea mays L.). Plants were exposed to matched treatments containing equivalent ..mu..moles S/treatment in sulfur dioxide or simulated acid rain containing sulfuric acid. Pollution levels were chosen to represent low, medium and high ambient pollutant concentrations (0.13, 1.3 and 130.0 ..mu..moles S/treatment). The uptake and distribution of sulfur by plants was followed by using radioactively labelled sulfur (35-S) in both pollutants. Plants were exposed to the pollutants via a single injection of sulfur dioxide or by rainfall simulators with acid rain treatments. From the sulfur dioxide concentrations evaluated (0.67; 1.00; 2.60; 6.70; and 16 ppm), maximum absorption occurred at the highest concentration while sulfur was more efficiently absorbed at lower concentrations. Absorption of sulfur by plants exposed to acid rain (pH 5.4; 4.4; 3.4; and 2.6) was higher with high sulfur/low pH treatments. pH per se, was not responsible for increased sulfur absorption at low pH treatments. Of the total sulfur associated with the plant following exposure to sulfur dioxide and acid rain, 55% and 97%, respectively was not absorbed, and could be released after one minute of a foliar wash. At each equivalent concentration of sulfur, corn seedlings absorbed significantly greater amounts of sulfur from sulfur dioxide than from acid rain.

  13. Acid-catalyzed reactions of hexanal on sulfuric acid particles: Identification of reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Rebecca M.; Elrod, Matthew J.; Kincaid, Kristi; Beaver, Melinda R.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    While it is well established that organics compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass, the mechanisms through which organics are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols are not well understood. Acid-catalyzed reactions of compounds with carbonyl groups have recently been suggested as important pathways for transfer of volatile organics into acidic aerosols. In the present study, we use the aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to probe the uptake of gas-phase hexanal into ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosols. While both deliquesced and dry non-acidic ammonium sulfate aerosols showed no organic uptake, the acidic aerosols took up substantial amounts of organic material when exposed to hexanal vapor. Further, we used 1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and GC-MS to identify the products of the acid-catalyzed reaction of hexanal in acidic aerosols. Both aldol condensation and hemiacetal products were identified, with the dominant reaction products dependent upon the initial acid concentration of the aerosol. The aldol condensation product was formed only at initial concentrations of 75-96 wt% sulfuric acid in water. The hemiacetal was produced at all sulfuric acid concentrations studied, 30-96 wt% sulfuric acid in water. Aerosols up to 88.4 wt% organic/11.1 wt% H 2SO 4/0.5 wt% water were produced via these two dimerization reaction pathways. The UV-VIS spectrum of the isolated aldol condensation product, 2-butyl 2-octenal, extends into the visible region, suggesting these reactions may impact aerosol optical properties as well as aerosol composition. In contrast to previous suggestions, no polymerization of hexanal or its products was observed at any sulfuric acid concentration studied, from 30 to 96 wt% in water.

  14. Sulfur Reduction in Acid Rock Drainage Environments.

    PubMed

    Florentino, Anna P; Weijma, Jan; Stams, Alfons J M; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene

    2015-10-06

    Microbiological suitability of acidophilic sulfur reduction for metal recovery was explored by enriching sulfur reducers from acidic sediments at low pH (from 2 to 5) with hydrogen, glycerol, methanol and acetate as electron donors at 30 °C. The highest levels of sulfide in the enrichments were detected at pH 3 with hydrogen and pH 4 with acetate. Cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed dominance of the deltaproteobacterial sulfur-reducing genus Desulfurella in all the enrichments and subsequently an acidophilic strain (TR1) was isolated. Strain TR1 grew at a broad range of pH (3-7) and temperature (20-50 °C) and showed good metal tolerance (Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+)), especially for Ni(2+) and Pb(2+), with maximal tolerated concentrations of 0.09 and 0.03 mM, respectively. Different sources of sulfur were tested in the enrichments, from which biosulfur showed fastest growth (doubling time of 1.9 days), followed by colloidal, chemical and sublimated sulfur (doubling times of 2.2, 2.5, and 3.6 days, respectively). Strain TR1's physiological traits make it a good candidate to cope with low pH and high metal concentration in biotechnological processes for treatment of metal-laden acidic streams at low and moderately high temperature.

  15. Intestinal metabolism of sulfur amino acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a metabolically significant site of sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism in the body and metabolizes approx. 20% of the dietary methionine intake that is mainly transmethylated to homocysteine and transsulfurated to cysteine. The GIT accounts for approx. 25% of the ...

  16. Charles H. Winston and Confederate Sulfuric Acid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riethmiller, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Describes the invention and use of a sulfuric acid chamber by Charles Henry Winston during the Civil War. This invention helped supply munitions for the South. Winston, who was President of the Richmond Female Institute in Virginia, constructed the chamber at his farm and was granted a patent by the Confederate Patent Office in 1863. (PVD)

  17. Charles H. Winston and Confederate Sulfuric Acid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riethmiller, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Describes the invention and use of a sulfuric acid chamber by Charles Henry Winston during the Civil War. This invention helped supply munitions for the South. Winston, who was President of the Richmond Female Institute in Virginia, constructed the chamber at his farm and was granted a patent by the Confederate Patent Office in 1863. (PVD)

  18. Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOEpatents

    Ludwig, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

  19. Involvement of a Branched-Chain Aminotransferase in Production of Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Cernat Bondar, Daniela; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of l-methionine and the subsequent formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are essential for the development of the typical flavor in cheese. In the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the degradation of l-methionine was accompanied by the formation of the transamination product 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid. A branched-chain aminotransferase gene (YlBCA1) of Y. lipolytica was amplified, and the l-methionine-degrading activity and the aminotransferase activity were measured in a genetically modified strain and compared to those of the parental strain. Our work shows that l-methionine degradation via transamination is involved in formation of VSCs in Y. lipolytica. PMID:16085852

  20. Heterogeneous Interaction of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate on Liquid Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1996-01-01

    The uptake of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on liquid sulfuric acid surfaces has been investigated using a fast-flow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. PAN was observed to be reversibly adsorbed on sulfuric acid.

  1. Boric/sulfuric acid anodize - Alternative to chromic acid anodize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop, Rodney; Moji, Yukimori

    1992-04-01

    The suitability of boric acid/sulfuric acid anodizing (BSAA) solution as a more environmentally acceptable replacement of the chromic acid anodizing (CAA) solution was investigated. Results include data on the BSAA process optimization, the corrosion protection performance, and the compatibility with aircraft finishing. It is shown that the BSSA implementation as a substitude for CAA was successful.

  2. Pt/TiO2 (Rutile) Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Decomposition in Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Petkovic; D. M. Ginosar; H. W. Rollins; K. C. Burch; P. J. Pinhero; H. H. Farrell

    2008-04-01

    Thermochemical cycles consist of a series of chemical reactions to produce hydrogen from water at lower temperatures than by direct thermal decomposition. All the sulfur-based cycles for water splitting employ the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. This work reports the studies performed on platinum supported on titania (rutile) catalysts to investigate the causes of catalyst deactivation under sulfuric acid decomposition reaction conditions. Samples of 1 wt% Pt/TiO2 (rutile) catalysts were submitted to flowing concentrated sulfuric acid at 1123 K and atmospheric pressure for different times on stream (TOS) between 0 and 548 h. Post-operation analyses of the spent catalyst samples showed that Pt oxidation and sintering occurred under reaction conditions and some Pt was lost by volatilization. Pt loss rate was higher at initial times but total loss appeared to be independent of the gaseous environment. Catalyst activity showed an initial decrease that lasted for about 66 h, followed by a slight recovery of activity between 66 and 102 h TOS, and a period of slower deactivation after 102 h TOS. Catalyst sulfation did not seem to be detrimental to catalyst activity and the activity profile suggested that a complex dynamical situation involving platinum sintering, volatilization, and oxidation, along with TiO2 morphological changes affected catalyst activity in a non-monotonic way.

  3. Aldol Condensation of Volatile Carbonyl Compounds in Acidic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noziere, B.; Esteve, W.

    2003-12-01

    Reactions of volatile organic compounds in acidic aerosols have been shown recently to be potentially important for organic aerosol formation and growth. Aldol condensation, the acid-catalyzed polymerization of carbonyl compounds, is a likely candidate to enhance the flux of organic matter from the gas phase to the condensed phase in the atmosphere. Until now these reactions have only been characterized for conditions relevant to synthesis (high acidities and liquid phase systems) and remote from atmospheric ones. In this work, the uptake of gas-phase acetone and 2,4\\-pentanedione by sulfuric acid solutions has been measured at room temperature using a Rotated Wetted Wall Reactor coupled to a Mass Spectrometer. The aldol condensation rate constants for 2,4\\-pentanedione measured so far for sulfuric acid solutions between 96 and 70 % wt. display a variation with acidity in agreement with what predicted in the organic chemical literature. The values of these constants, however, are much lower than expected for this compound, and comparable to the ones of acetone. Experiments are underway to complete this study to lower acidities and understand the discrepancies with the predicted reactivity.

  4. Identification of muscadine wine sulfur volatiles: pectinase versus skin-contact maceration.

    PubMed

    Gürbüz, Ozan; Rouseff, June; Talcott, Stephen T; Rouseff, Russell

    2013-01-23

    Muscadine grapes ( Vitis rotundifolia ) are widely grown in the southern United States, as the more common Vitis vinifera cannot be cultivated due to Pierce's disease. There is interest to determine if certain cultivars can be used for good-quality wine production. This study compared the effect of pectolytic enzyme pretreatment with conventional skin-contact fermentation on Muscadine (Noble, Vitis rotundifolia ) wine major volatiles, aroma active volatiles, and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). Volatile composition, aroma activity, and VSCs in the initial juice and wine samples after 3 years were determined by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), olfactory detection (GC-O), and pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD). Forty-three nonethanol MS volatiles were common to all samples. Total ion chromatogram (TIC) MS peak area increased 91% in the skin-contact wines from the initial juice but only 24% in the enzyme-treated wine. Thirty-one VSCs were detected. Twenty-four sulfur volatiles were identified by matching their retention characteristics on polar and nonpolar columns with those of standards or MS spectrum matches. Six of these (sulfur dioxide, 1-propanethiol, 3-mercapto-2-pentanone, 3-mercapto-2-butanone, 2,8-epithio-cis-p-menthane, and 1-p-menthene-8-thiol) were reported for the first time in muscadine wine. Five additional VSCs were tentatively identified by matching standardized retention values with literature values, and two remain unidentified. Total sulfur peak areas increased 400% in the skin-contact wine and 560% in the enzyme-treated wine compared to the initial juice. There were 42 aroma-active volatiles in the initial juice, 48 in the skin-contact wine, and 66 in the enzyme-treated wine. Eleven aroma-active volatiles in the skin-contact wine and 16 aroma volatiles in the enzyme-treated wine appear to be due to sulfur volatiles. Pectolytic enzyme-treated wines contained less total volatiles but more sulfur and aroma

  5. A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

  6. Exposure to sulfuric acid in zinc production.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Haaland, Inger Margrethe; Moen, Bente E; Målsnes, Agnar

    2004-03-01

    This study characterized workers' exposure to sulfuric acid in two cell houses of a zinc production plant. We also aimed at estimating previous exposure to sulfuric acid by simulating the process conditions from before 1975 to produce exposure data for an epidemiological study on cancer in this industry. Further, we compared different sampling methods for aerosols in the cell houses. Personal sampling with a 37 mm Millipore cassette showed that the geometric means of the exposure levels for the workers in the two cell houses were 0.07 mg/m3 (range 0.01-0.48 mg/m3) and 0.04 mg/m3 (range 0.01-0.15 mg/m3). Norway's newly revised limit value of 0.1 mg/m3 was exceeded in 39.0 and 12.9% of the samples in the two cell houses. After the foam layer was removed from the electrolyte surface to simulate the production process from before 1975, the concentration of sulfuric acid increased from 0.11 to 6.04 mg/m3 in stationary measurement by the Millipore sampler. Stationary sampling showed that the Millipore sampler and the inhalable fraction of the Respicon impactor underestimated the sulfuric acid concentration by factors of 1.5 and 2.1 compared with the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler. Sampling with the Respicon impactor showed that the respirable, tracheobronchial and extrathoracic fractions constituted 3.0, 18.7 and 71.7% of the inhalable sulfuric acid aerosol, respectively. Today's exposure levels are lower than those reported to be associated with an increased prevalence of laryngeal cancer in other industries, but the levels prior to 1975 seem to have been much higher. By mass, most of the inhalable aerosol was in the size fractions considered to be highly relevant for the effects of sulfuric acid on the respiratory system. The risk of cancer among the cell house workers should be investigated in an epidemiological study.

  7. Volatile sulfur compounds responsible for an offensive odor of the flat-head, Calliurichthys doryssus.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, K; Noguchi, A; Yamanaka, H; Kikuchi, T; Iida, H

    1982-01-01

    1. The volatiles of a flat-head, Calliurichthys doryssus, which gives out a characteristic offensive odor in living time, were analyzed by gas chromatography. 2. A large quantity of volatile sulfur compounds was detected in the flat-head; of which methyl mercaptan and/or dimethyl disulfide were judged to be responsible for the offensive odor. 3. The contents of methyl mercaptan and dimethyl disulfide were much higher in skin than in muscle and viscera.

  8. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Sulfurous Acid in an Aqueous Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Alicia; Hernandez, Willie; Suarez, Marco F.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of some parameters on sulfurous acid and sulfur oxidation kinetics such as initial concentration of sulfurous acid, oxygen, TiO[2] crystalline concentration, the power of black light, and quantity of TiO[2] is investigated. The experiments can be performed in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory with an inexpensive…

  9. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Sulfurous Acid in an Aqueous Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Alicia; Hernandez, Willie; Suarez, Marco F.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of some parameters on sulfurous acid and sulfur oxidation kinetics such as initial concentration of sulfurous acid, oxygen, TiO[2] crystalline concentration, the power of black light, and quantity of TiO[2] is investigated. The experiments can be performed in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory with an inexpensive…

  10. Sulfur volatiles from Allium spp. affect Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), response to citrus volatiles.

    PubMed

    Mann, R S; Rouseff, R L; Smoot, J M; Castle, W S; Stelinski, L L

    2011-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. D. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. Plant volatiles from Allium spp. (Alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. We examined the effect of garlic chive (A. tuberosum Rottl.) and wild onion (A. canadense L.) volatiles on D. citri behaviour in a two-port divided T-olfactometer. Citrus leaf volatiles attracted significantly more D. citri adults than clean air. Volatiles from crushed garlic chive leaves, garlic chive essential oil, garlic chive plants, wild onion plants and crushed wild onion leaves all repelled D. citri adults when compared with clean air, with the first two being significantly more repellent than the others. However, when tested with citrus volatiles, only crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil were repellent, and crushed wild onions leaves were not. Analysis of the headspace components of crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides were the primary sulfur volatiles present. In general, trisulfides (dimethyl trisulfide) inhibited the response of D. citri to citrus volatiles more than disulfides (dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, allyl disulfide). Monosulfides did not affect the behaviour of D. citri adults. A blend of dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide in 1:1 ratio showed an additive effect on inhibition of D. citri response to citrus volatiles. The plant volatiles from Allium spp. did not affect the behaviour of the D. citri ecto-parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). Thus, Allium spp. or the tri- and di-sulphides could be integrated into management programmes for D. citri without affecting natural enemies.

  11. [Research on determination of total volatile organic sulfur compounds in the atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Ling; He, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Bao-Dong

    2011-12-01

    A detection technology was established comprising trap, desorption, oxidation and UV fluorescence determination process, and used for the test of total concentration of trace volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the atmosphere. A cryogenic trap-thermal desorption device was developed, integrating the advantages of solid retention method and cryogenic condensation method, which was applied to capture and enrich trace volatile organic sulfur compounds. Under high temperature and combustion-supporting gas, the VSCs were completely oxidized into sulfur dioxide. By analyzing the content of sulfur dioxide through ultraviolet fluorescence method indirectly calculated to gain the total concentration of volatile organic sulfur compounds. The trapping temperature, desorption temperature and the oxidation temperature were 5 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 1 000 degrees C, and the precision and recovery of the method were 5.46% and 99.6%-109.2%, respectively. The content of trace amounts of atmospheric VSCs determined from February to April at Qingdao was 42-195 ng x m(-3).

  12. Infrared titration of aqueous sulfuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Max, J.J.; Menichelli, C.; Chapados, C.

    2000-03-30

    This paper presents the infrared (IR) titration of aqueous sulfuric acid solutions (0.50 M) obtained by the attenuated total reflection (ATR) sampling technique. After subtracting the water spectra, the spectra of the ionic species of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the 0--14 pH range were separated by factor analysis (FA) which also gave their abundance. The results were in agreement with the theoretical calculation of the distribution of the species. Three sulfate species were found: HSO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, and HSO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}/HCl. The latter stands for the bisulfate--hydronium complex formed by the addition of HCl to obtain measurements in the 0--0.47 pH range. For 0.50 M sulfuric acid, the comparison between the experimentally IR-determined quantities and the theoretical values gave a mean activity coefficient of 0.12 {+-} 0.04, a value comparable to that from electrochemical measurements. Three types of water were quantitatively determined in the solutions: acidic water, basic water, and neutral water. The latter is always present while the two others are present in the low and high pH range, respectively. Another type of water strongly associated with the sulfates is also present. Moreover, knowledge of the behavior of the different types of water as the titration proceeded permitted us to give the details of the neutralization reactions of aqueous sulfuric acid by sodium hydroxide.

  13. Nucleation modeling of the Antarctic stratospheric CN layer and derivation of sulfuric acid profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Steffen; Curtius, Joachim

    2017-06-01

    Recent analysis of long-term balloon-borne measurements of Antarctic stratospheric condensation nuclei (CN) between July and October showed the formation of a volatile CN layer at 21-27 km altitude in a background of existing particles. We use the nucleation model SAWNUC to simulate these CN in subsiding air parcels and study their nucleation and coagulation characteristics. Our simulations confirm recent analysis that the development of the CN layer can be explained with neutral sulfuric acid-water nucleation and we show that outside the CN layer the measured CN concentrations are well reproduced just considering coagulation and the subsidence of the air parcels. While ion-induced nucleation is expected as the dominating formation process at higher temperatures, it does not play a significant role during the CN layer formation as the charged clusters recombine too fast. Further, we derive sulfuric acid concentrations for the CN layer formation. Our concentrations are about 1 order of magnitude higher than previously presented concentrations as our simulations consider that nucleated clusters have to grow to CN size and can coagulate with preexisting particles. Finally, we calculate threshold sulfuric acid profiles that show which concentration of sulfuric acid is necessary for nucleation and growth to observable size. These threshold profiles should represent upper limits of the actual sulfuric acid outside the CN layer. According to our profiles, sulfuric acid concentrations seem to be below midlatitude average during Antarctic winter but above midlatitude average for the CN layer formation.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on Volatile Sulfur Compound Production by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takuya; Nakajima, Masato; Fujimoto, Akie; Hanioka, Takashi; Hirofuji, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced by oral anaerobes are the major compounds responsible for oral malodor. Enterococcus faecium WB2000 is recognized as an antiplaque probiotic bacterium. In this study, the effect of E. faecium WB2000 on VSC production by Porphyromonas gingivalis was evaluated, and the mechanism of inhibition of oral malodor was investigated. P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 was cultured in the presence of four lactic acid bacteria, including E. faecium WB2000. Subsequently, P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, W50, W83, and two clinical isolates were cultured in the presence or absence of E. faecium WB2000, and the emission of VSCs from spent culture medium was measured by gas chromatography. The number of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 in mixed culture with E. faecium WB2000 decreased at 6 h, and the rate of decrease was higher than that in mixed cultures with the other lactic acid bacteria. The numbers of five P. gingivalis strains decreased at similar rates in mixed culture with E. faecium WB2000. The concentration of methyl mercaptan was lower in spent culture medium from P. gingivalis and E. faecium WB2000 cultures compared with that from P. gingivalis alone. Therefore, E. faecium WB2000 may reduce oral malodor by inhibiting the growth of P. gingivalis and neutralizing methyl mercaptan. PMID:27799940

  15. Sulfur volatiles in guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves: possible defense mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rouseff, Russell L; Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Smoot, John M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2008-10-08

    Volatiles from crushed and intact guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) were collected using static headspace SPME and determined using GC-PFPD, pulsed flame photometric detection, and GC-MS. Leaf volatiles from four common citrus culitvars were examined similarly to determine the potential component(s) responsible for guava's protective effect against the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), which is the insect vector of Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease. Seven sulfur volatiles were detected: hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), methional, and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). Identifications were based on matching linear retention index values on ZB-5, DB-Wax, and PLOT columns and MS spectra in the case of DMDS and DMS. DMDS is an insect toxic, defensive volatile produced only by wounded guava but not citrus leaves and, thus, may be the component responsible for the protective effect of guava against the HLB vector. DMDS is formed immediately after crushing, becoming the major headspace volatile within 10 min. Forty-seven additional leaf volatiles were identified from LRI and MS data in the crushed guava leaf headspace.

  16. Electrochemical behavior of silver in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, T.V.; Krasikov, B.S.

    1985-04-20

    The authors use stationary and rotating silver disk electrodes for studying the electrochemical behavior of silver in sulfuric acid solutions. Charts present data gathered on potential of the silver electrode in absence of current in sulfate solutions; on calculated curves and experimental points for anodic dissolution of a rotating silver disk electrode in sulfuric acid solution; and on influence of the average activity of sulfuric acid on the equilibrium potential of the silver electrode. The authors conclude that the rates of electrodeposition and dissolution of silver in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions, whether containing silver ions or not, are determined only by the rates of diffusion of silver ions and their sulfate complexes.

  17. Flash pyrolysis of coal, coal maceral, and coal-derived pyrite with on-line characterization of volatile sulfur compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lake, M.A.; Griffin, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    A Pyroprobe flash pyrolysis-gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector was used to study volatile sulfur compounds produced during the thermal decomposition of Illinois coal, coal macerals and coal-derived pyrite. Maximum evolution of volatile organic sulfur compounds from all coal samples occurred at a temperature of approximately 700??C. At this temperature, the evolution of thiophene, its alkyl isomers, and short-chain dialkyl sulfide compounds relative to the evolution of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene compounds was greater from coal high in organic sulfur than from coal low in organic sulfur. The variation in the evolution of sulfur compounds observed for three separate coal macerals (exinite, vitrinite, and inertinite) was similar to that observed for whole coal samples. However, the variation trend for the macerals was much more pronounced. Decomposition of coal-derived pyrite with the evolution of elemental sulfur was detected at a temperature greater than 700??C. The results of this study indicated that the gas chromotographic profile of the volatile sulfur compounds produced during flash pyrolysis of coals and coal macerals varied as a function of the amount of organic sulfur that occurred in the samples. Characterization of these volatile sulfur compounds provides a better understanding of the behavior of sulfur in coal during the thermolysis process, which could be incorporated in the design for coal cleaning using flash pyrolysis techniques. ?? 1988.

  18. Sulfur isotopic evidence for sources of volatiles in Siberian Traps magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Hauri, Erik H.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Brown, Stephanie M.

    2014-05-01

    The Siberian Traps flood basalts transferred a large mass of volatiles from the Earth's mantle and crust to the atmosphere. The eruption of the large igneous province temporally overlapped with the end-Permian mass extinction. Constraints on the sources of Siberian Traps volatiles are critical for determining the overall volatile budget, the role of crustal assimilation, the genesis of Noril'sk ore deposits, and the environmental effects of magmatism. We measure sulfur isotopic ratios ranging from -10.8‰ to +25.3‰ Vienna Cañon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) in melt inclusions from Siberian Traps basaltic rocks. Our measurements, which offer a snapshot of sulfur cycling far from mid-ocean ridge and arc settings, suggest the δ34S of the Siberian Traps mantle melt source was close to that of mid-ocean ridge basalts. In conjunction with previously published whole rock measurements from Noril'sk, our sulfur isotopic data indicate that crustal contamination was widespread and heterogeneous—though not universal—during the emplacement of the Siberian Traps. Incorporation of crustal materials likely increased the total volatile budget of the large igneous province, thereby contributing to Permian-Triassic environmental deterioration.

  19. Heterogeneous Interactions of Acetaldehyde and Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Iraci, L. T.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of acetaldehyde [CH3CHO] by aqueous sulfuric acid has been studied via Knudsen cell experiments over ranges of temperature (210-250 K) and acid concentration (40-80 wt. %) representative of the upper troposphere. The Henry's law constants for acetaldehyde calculated from these data range from 6 x 10(exp 2) M/atm for 40 wt. % H2SO4 at 228 K to 2 x 10(exp 5) M/atm for 80 wt. % H2SO4 at 212 K. In some instances, acetaldehyde uptake exhibits apparent steady-state loss. The possible sources of this behavior, including polymerization, will be explored. Furthermore, the implications for heterogeneous reactions of aldehydes in sulfate aerosols in the upper troposphere will be discussed.

  20. Uptake of Small Organic Compounds by Sulfuric Acid Aerosols: Dissolution and Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Staton, S. J. R.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the role of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, the interactions of a series of small organic compounds with low-temperature aqueous sulfuric acid will be evaluated. The total amount of organic material which may be taken up from the gas phase by dissolution, surface layer formation, and reaction during the particle lifetime will be quantified. Our current results for acetaldehyde uptake on 40 - 80 wt% sulfuric acid solutions will be compared to those of methanol, formaldehyde, and acetone to investigate the relationships between chemical functionality and heterogeneous activity. Where possible, equilibrium uptake will be ascribed to component pathways (hydration, protonation, etc.) to facilitate evaluation of other species not yet studied in low temperature aqueous sulfuric acid.

  1. Uptake of Small Organic Compounds by Sulfuric Acid Aerosols: Dissolution and Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Staton, S. J. R.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the role of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, the interactions of a series of small organic compounds with low-temperature aqueous sulfuric acid will be evaluated. The total amount of organic material which may be taken up from the gas phase by dissolution, surface layer formation, and reaction during the particle lifetime will be quantified. Our current results for acetaldehyde uptake on 40 - 80 wt% sulfuric acid solutions will be compared to those of methanol, formaldehyde, and acetone to investigate the relationships between chemical functionality and heterogeneous activity. Where possible, equilibrium uptake will be ascribed to component pathways (hydration, protonation, etc.) to facilitate evaluation of other species not yet studied in low temperature aqueous sulfuric acid.

  2. Solubility of HCL in sulfuric acid at stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Leah R.; Golden, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid was measured using a Knudsen cell technique. Effective Henry's law constants are reported for sulfuric acid concentrations between 50 and 60 weight percent and for temperatures between 220 and 230 K. The measured values indicate that very little HCl will be dissolved in the stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles.

  3. Solubility of HCL in sulfuric acid at stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Leah R.; Golden, David M.

    1993-10-01

    The solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid was measured using a Knudsen cell technique. Effective Henry's law constants are reported for sulfuric acid concentrations between 50 and 60 weight percent and for temperatures between 220 and 230 K. The measured values indicate that very little HCl will be dissolved in the stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles.

  4. Stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines by volatile sulfur compounds in endodontically treated teeth

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Johann; von Baehr, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Persistent microorganisms in endodontically treated teeth produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) such as methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, and thioether. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the ex vivo immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to sulfur compounds in 354 patients with systemic diseases. These systemic findings are correlated with semiquantitative values of a VSC indicator applied directly on endodontically treated teeth. Data elucidate the role of VSC in patients with immunologic diseases and the role of a semiquantitative chairside test, like the VSC indicator presented here, in correlation to IFNg and IL-10 sensitization in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The association between ex vivo-stimulated cytokines and endodontically derived sulfur components is supported by the fact that the number of interferon gamma- and/or interleukin-10-positive sensitized patients declined significantly 3–8 months after extraction of the corresponding teeth. PMID:25792853

  5. Catabolism of L-methionine in the formation of sulfur and other volatiles in melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Itay; Lev, Shery; Bar, Einat; Sikron, Noga; Portnoy, Vitaly; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Giovannonni, James J; Huang, Mingyun; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Fait, Aaron; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2013-05-01

    Sulfur-containing aroma volatiles are important contributors to the distinctive aroma of melon and other fruits. Melon cultivars and accessions differ in the content of sulfur-containing and other volatiles. L-methionine has been postulated to serve as a precursor of these volatiles. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with ¹³C- and ²H-labeled L-methionine revealed two distinct catabolic routes into volatiles. One route apparently involves the action of an L-methionine aminotransferase and preserves the main carbon skeleton of L-methionine. The second route apparently involves the action of an L-methionine-γ-lyase activity, releasing methanethiol, a backbone for formation of thiol-derived aroma volatiles. Exogenous L-methionine also generated non-sulfur volatiles by further metabolism of α-ketobutyrate, a product of L-methionine-γ-lyase activity. α-Ketobutyrate was further metabolized into L-isoleucine and other important melon volatiles, including non-sulfur branched and straight-chain esters. Cell-free extracts derived from ripe melon fruit exhibited L-methionine-γ-lyase enzymatic activity. A melon gene (CmMGL) ectopically expressed in Escherichia coli, was shown to encode a protein possessing L-methionine-γ-lyase enzymatic activity. Expression of CmMGL was relatively low in early stages of melon fruit development, but increased in the flesh of ripe fruits, depending on the cultivar tested. Moreover, the levels of expression of CmMGL in recombinant inbred lines co-segregated with the levels of sulfur-containing aroma volatiles enriched with +1 m/z unit and postulated to be produced via this route. Our results indicate that L-methionine is a precursor of both sulfur and non-sulfur aroma volatiles in melon fruit.

  6. Atmospheric sulfur as related to acid precipitation and soil fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, E.L.; Jones, U.S.

    1982-09-01

    Conductivity, pH, and ionic components were determined in the rainfall and particulate matter at Clemson, S.C., Experiment, Ga., and Franklin, N.C., using a wet/dry collector. Sulfur in the air was collected at Clemson on a 30-d interval in a standard lead peroxide sampler. Soil samples were taken from 15 locations in South Carolina and analyzed for sulfur. It was observed that the average loading concentration of anions in rainwater increased during the spring-summer months and decreased during the fall-winter months. Sulfuric and nitric acids were found to be the major components of acid rainfall. Rainfall and air deposition contributed approximately 10.7 and 1.8 kg/ha of sulfur per year, respectively, at Clemson. Atmospheric deposition from the particulate matter contributed an estimated 3.0 kg/ha of sulfur during the year. Increases in corn grain and silage yields were obtained with the application of 18 kg/ha of sulfur at Darlington, S.C. A relationship between applied sulfur and crop response for the other crops considered could not be established. A need for reevaluating the findings and recommendations for sulfur fertilizers was apparent because of the contribution of atmospheric-deposited sulfur to the soil and plant sulfur supply.

  7. Biological sulfuric acid transformation: Reactor design and process optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Stucki, G.; Huerzeler, R.A. ); Hanselmann, K.W. )

    1993-02-05

    As an alternative to the current disposal technologies for waste sulfuric acid, a new combination of recycling processes was developed. The strong acid (H[sub 2]SO[sub 4]) is biologically converted with the weak acid (CH[sub 3]COOH) into two volatile weak acids (H[sub 2]S, H[sub 2]CO[sub 3]) by sulfate-reducing bacteria. The transformation is possible without prior neutralization of the sulfuric acid. The microbially mediated transformation can be followed by physiocochemical processes for the further conversion of the H[sub 2]S. The reduction of sulfate to H[sub 2]S is carried out under carbon-limited conditions at pH 7.5 to 8.5. A fixed-bed biofilm column reactor is used in conjunction with a separate gas-stripping column which was installed in the recycle stream. Sulfate, total sulfide, and the carbon substrate (in most cases acetate) were determined quantitatively. H[sub 2]S and CO[sub 2] are continually removed by stripping with N[sub 2]. Optimal removal is achieved under pH conditions which are adjusted to values below the pK[sup a]-values of the acids. The H[sub 2]S concentrations in the stripped gas was 2% to 8% (v/v) if H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and CH[sub 3]COOH are fed to the recycle stream just before the stripping column. Microbial conversion rates of 65 g of sulfate reduced per liter of bioreactor volume per day are achieved and bacterial conversion efficiencies for sulfate of more than 95% can be maintained if the concentration of undissociated dH[sub 2]S is kept below 40 to 50 mg/L. Porous glass spheres, lava beads, and polyurethane pellets are useful matrices for the attachment of the bacterial biomass. Theoretical aspects and the dependence of the overall conversion performance on selected process parameters are illustrated in the Appendix.

  8. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  9. Formation of volatile chemicals from thermal degradation of less volatile coffee components: quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2010-05-12

    The less volatile constituents of coffee beans (quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid) were roasted under a stream of nitrogen, air, or helium. The volatile degradation compounds formed were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Caffeic acid produced the greatest amount of total volatiles. Quinic acid and chlorogenic acid produced a greater number of volatiles under the nitrogen stream than under the air stream. These results suggest that the presence of oxygen does not play an important role in the formation of volatile compounds by the heat degradation of these chemicals. 2,5-Dimethylfuran formed in relatively large amounts (59.8-2231.0 microg/g) in the samples obtained from quinic acid and chlorogenic acid but was not found in the samples from caffeic acid. Furfuryl alcohol was found in the quinic acid (259.9 microg/g) and caffeic acid (174.4 microg/g) samples roasted under a nitrogen stream but not in the chlorogenic sample. The three acids used in the present study do not contain a nitrogen atom, yet nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, pyridine, pyrrole, and pyrazines, were recovered. Phenol and its derivatives were identified in the largest quantities. The amounts of total phenols ranged from 60.6 microg/g (quinic acid under helium) to 89893.7 microg/g (caffeic acid under helium). It was proposed that phenol was formed mainly from quinic acid and that catechols were formed from caffeic acid. Formation of catechol from caffeic acid under anaerobic condition indicates that the reaction participating in catechol formation was not oxidative degradation.

  10. Profiling and characterization of volatile components from non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Flos Lonicerae Japonicae using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with chemical group separation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Li, Li; Liu, Xiao; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Tu, Si-Cong; Lou, Ya-Jing; Qin, Kun-Ming; Li, Song-Lin; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-01-24

    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) is a popular herb used for many centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine as a treatment of fever and inflammation. Non-fumigated processing of FLJ has been the traditional approach used in post-harvest preparation of the commodity for commercial use. However, in recent years, natural drying processing of FLJ has been replaced by sulfur-fumigation for efficiency and pest control. Sulfur-fumigation can induce changes in the volatile compounds of the herb, altering its medicinal properties. A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF/MS) method was established for the resolution and determination of volatile components in non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated FLJ. In this paper, analysis of the volatile oils in non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated (including lab-prepared sulfur-fumigated and industrial sulfur-fumigated) FLJ was performed using GC×GC-TOF/MS. Seventy-three representative volatile components were identified, including furans, alkalies, acids, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, terpenes, esters, and others, as the main components of FLJ volatile oils. The proposed method was successfully applied for rapid and accurate quality evaluation of FLJ and its related medicinal materials and preparations.

  11. Hydrolysis of Sulfur Dioxide in Small Clusters of Sulfuric Acid: Mechanistic and Kinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Fang, Sheng; Wang, Zhixiu; Yi, Wencai; Tao, Fu-Ming; Liu, Jing-Yao

    2015-11-17

    The deposition and hydrolysis reaction of SO2 + H2O in small clusters of sulfuric acid and water are studied by theoretical calculations of the molecular clusters SO2-(H2SO4)n-(H2O)m (m = 1,2; n = 1,2). Sulfuric acid exhibits a dramatic catalytic effect on the hydrolysis reaction of SO2 as it lowers the energy barrier by over 20 kcal/mol. The reaction with monohydrated sulfuric acid (SO2 + H2O + H2SO4 - H2O) has the lowest energy barrier of 3.83 kcal/mol, in which the cluster H2SO4-(H2O)2 forms initially at the entrance channel. The energy barriers for the three hydrolysis reactions are in the order SO2 + (H2SO4)-H2O > SO2 + (H2SO4)2-H2O > SO2 + H2SO4-H2O. Furthermore, sulfurous acid is more strongly bonded to the hydrated sulfuric acid (or dimer) clusters than the corresponding reactant (monohydrated SO2). Consequently, sulfuric acid promotes the hydrolysis of SO2 both kinetically and thermodynamically. Kinetics simulations have been performed to study the importance of these reactions in the reduction of atmospheric SO2. The results will give a new insight on how the pre-existing aerosols catalyze the hydrolysis of SO2, leading to the formation and growth of new particles.

  12. Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Meteorite Sulfonic Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Thiemens, Mark H.; Jackson, Teresa L.; Chang, Sherwood

    1997-01-01

    Intramolecular carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios were measured on a homologous series of organic sulfonic acids discovered in the Murchison meteorite. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionations were observed along with high deuterium/hydrogen ratios. The deuterium enrichments indicate formation of the hydrocarbon portion of these compounds in a low-temperature environment that is consistent with that of interstellar clouds. Sulfur-33 enrichments observed in methanesulfonic acid could have resulted from gas-phase ultraviolet irradiation of a precursor, carbon disulfide. The source of the sulfonic acid precursors may have been the reactive interstellar molecule carbon monosulfide.

  13. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  14. Temperature dependency of single-bubble sonoluminescence in sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshaii, A.; Tajik-Nezhad, S.; Faraji, M.

    2011-10-01

    Using a hydrochemical simulation, temperature dependency of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SL) in a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid has theoretically been studied. With calculating the phase diagrams of an SL bubble in the solution of 85% acid, maximum acquirable SL emissions at different ambient temperatures were calculated. The results show that the SL emission in sulfuric acid increases with increment in the ambient temperature. This temperature dependency is in opposition to that observed in experiments for SL in water. The difference originates from different instability mechanisms determining the ultimate phase parameters of SL in water and sulfuric acid. In water, due to the smallness of viscosity, the ultimate phase parameters are determined by the shape instability. However, in sulfuric acid the phase parameters are restricted by positional instability due to the largeness of the liquid viscosity.

  15. Sulfuric acid aerosols in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin; Toon, Owen B.; Grinspoon, David H.

    2011-08-01

    Clouds and hazes composed of sulfuric acid are observed to exist or postulated to have once existed on each of the terrestrial planets with atmospheres in our solar system. Venus today maintains a global cover of clouds composed of a sulfuric acid/water solution that extends in altitude from roughly 50 km to roughly 80 km. Terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form on stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols, and both PSCs and stratospheric aerosols play a critical role in the formation of the ozone hole. Stratospheric aerosols can modify the climate when they are enhanced following volcanic eruptions, and are a current focus for geoengineering studies. Rain is made more acidic by sulfuric acid originating from sulfur dioxide generated by industry on Earth. Analysis of the sulfur content of Martian rocks has led to the hypothesis that an early Martian atmosphere, rich in SO 2 and H 2O, could support a sulfur-infused hydrological cycle. Here we consider the plausibility of frozen sulfuric acid in the upper clouds of Venus, which could lead to lightning generation, with implications for observations by the European Space Agency's Venus Express and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Venus Climate Orbiter (also known as Akatsuki). We also present simulations of a sulfur-rich early Martian atmosphere. We find that about 40 cm/yr of precipitation having a pH of about 2.0 could fall in an early Martian atmosphere, assuming a surface temperature of 273 K, and SO 2 generation rates consistent with the formation of Tharsis. This modeled acid rain is a powerful sink for SO 2, quickly removing it and preventing it from having a significant greenhouse effect.

  16. Investigation of the thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid containing inorganic impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Kogtev, S.E.; Nikandrov, I.S.; Borisenko, A.S.; Peretrutov, A.A.

    1986-09-20

    Oleum is recovered by thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid wastes to sulfur dioxide with conversion of the sulfur dioxide to oleum. The organic substances in sulfuric acid wastes can affect the thermal-decomposition indexes of sulfuric acid wastes. They studied the effect of toluene, nitrotoluene, benzoic acid, and carbon on the yield of sulfur dioxide and also the possibility of reduction of acid vapors by products of pyrolysis and incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. It is shown that the yield of sulfur dioxide in thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon-containing sulfuric acid wastes can be increased if the process assumes the nature of reductive decomposition.

  17. Emission of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) during aerobic decomposition of food wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Xinming; Li, Dejun; Yi, Zhigang

    2010-12-01

    Food wastes collected from typical urban residential communities were investigated for the emission of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) during laboratory-controlled aerobic decomposition in an incubator for a period of 41 days. Emission of VOSCs from the food wastes totaled 409.9 mg kg -1 (dry weight), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), methyl 2-propenyl disulfide, carbonyl sulfide and methyl 1-propenyl sulfide were the five most abundant VOSCs, with shares of 75.5%, 13.5%, 4.8%, 2.2% and 1.3% in total 15 VOSCs released, respectively. The emission fluxes of major VOSCs were very low at the beginning (day 0). They peaked at days 2-4 and then decreased sharply until they leveled off after 10 days of incubation. For most VOSCs, over 95% of their emission occurred in the first 10 days. The time series of VOSC emission fluxes, as well as their significant correlation with internal food waste temperature ( p < 0.05) during incubation, suggested that production of VOSC species was induced mainly by microbial activities during the aerobic decomposition instead of as inherited. Released VOSCs accounted for 5.3% of sulfur content in the food wastes, implying that during aerobic decomposition considerable portion of sulfur in food wastes would be released into the atmosphere as VOSCs, primarily as DMDS, which is very short-lived in the atmosphere and thus usually less considered in the sources and sinks of reduced sulfur gases.

  18. Methionine metabolism: major pathways and enzymes involved and strategies for control and diversification of volatile sulfur compounds in cheese.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cuesta, María Del Carmen; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    For economical reasons and to accommodate current market trends, cheese manufacturers and product developers are increasingly interested in controlling cheese flavor formation and developing new flavors. Due to their low detection threshold and diversity, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are of prime importance in the overall flavor of cheese and make a significant contribution to their typical flavors. Thus, the control of VSCs formation offers considerable potential for industrial applications. This paper gives an overview of the main VSCs found in cheese, along with the major pathways and key enzymes leading to the formation of methanethiol from methionine, which is subsequently converted into other sulfur-bearing compounds. As these compounds arise primarily from methionine, the metabolism of this amino acid and its regulation is presented. Attention is focused in the enzymatic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are widely used as starter and adjunct cultures in cheese-making. In view of industrial applications, different strategies such as the enhancement of the abilities of LAB to produce high amounts and diversity of VSCs are highlighted as the principal future research trend.

  19. Solubility of uranous sulfate in aqueous sulfuric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Hirono, Shuichiro; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Majima, Hiroshi

    1990-10-01

    To provide important thermodynamic data for use in uranium hydrometallurgy, solubilities of uranous sulfate were determined as a function of free acid concentration and temperature. Two sets of experiments were performed in this study. One set was the precipitation experiments of uranous sulfate crystals, in which concentrated uranous sulfate solution was mixed with sulfuric acid solution of suitable concentration. The other set was the dissolution experiments of uranous sulfate crystals in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions. It is noteworthy that good agreement exists between the solubilities determined by the two methods. At elevated temperatures, say, 363 K, the presence of free sulfuric acid is required to avoid precipitation of uranous hydroxide resulting from the hydrolysis of uranous sulfate. Generally speaking, however, an increase in free sulfuric acid concentration results in a slight decrease in uranous sulfate solubility. The elevation of solution temperature causes a decrease in solubility of uranous sulfate. It should be noted that the solid uranous sulfates equilibrated with saturated solutions at 298 K were U(SO4)2 2H2O in dilute sulfuric acid solution and U(SO4)2 4H2O in concentrated sulfuric acid solution, while those at 333 K and 363 K were mainly U(SO4)2 4H2O.

  20. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573...

  1. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573...

  2. Epidemic parenteral exposure to volatile sulfur-containing compounds at a hemodialysis center.

    PubMed

    Selenic, Dejana; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Arduino, Mathew; Holt, Stacey; Cardinali, Fred; Blount, Benjamin; Jarrett, Jeff; Smith, Forrest; Altman, Neil; Stahl, Charlotte; Panlilio, Adelisa; Pearson, Michele; Tokars, Jerome

    2004-03-01

    To determine the cause of acute illness on August 30, 2000, among patients at an outpatient dialysis center (center A). We performed a cohort study of all patients receiving dialysis on August 30, 2000; reviewed dialysis procedures; and analyzed dialysis water samples using microbiologic and chemical assays. Dialysis center (center A). A case-patient was defined as a patient who developed chills within 5 hours after starting hemodialysis at center A on August 30, 2000. Sixteen (36%) of 44 patients at center A met the case definition. All case-patients were hospitalized; 2 died. Besides chills, 15 (94%) of the case-patients experienced nausea; 12 (75%), vomiting; and 4 (25%), fever. Illness was more frequent on the second than the first dialysis shift (16 of 20 vs 0 of 24, P < .001); no other risk factors were identified. The center's water treatment system had received inadequate maintenance and disinfection and a sulfurous odor was noted during sampling of the water from the reverse osmosis (RO) unit. The water had elevated bacterial counts. Volatile sulfur-containing compounds (ie, methanethiol, carbon disulfide, dimethyldisulfide, and sulfur dioxide) were detected by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in 8 of 12 water samples from the RO unit and in 0 of 28 samples from other areas (P < .001). Results of tests for heavy metals and chloramines were within normal limits. Parenteral exposure to volatile sulfur-containing compounds, produced under anaerobic conditions in the RO unit, could have caused the outbreak. This investigation demonstrates the importance of appropriate disinfection and maintenance of water treatment systems in hemodialysis centers.

  3. Protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Harms, R H; Wilson, H R

    1980-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted with Cobb color-sexed broiler breeder hens to determine their protein and sulfur amino acid requirement. A daily intake between 400 and 478 mg of methionine and between 722 and 839 mg of total sulfur amino acids was necessary for maximum egg production, the latter in a diet of 13.07% protein. Slightly lower levels supported maximum body weights. Hens laying at the highest rate consumed 23.4 g of protein per day.

  4. The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

  5. Influence of chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus on the volatilization behavior of heavy metals during sewage sludge thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jingde; Li, Rundong; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Yanlong; Zhao, Yun

    2013-10-01

    Chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus were selected as element donators to investigate their effect on the volatilization behavior of heavy metals in sludge sewage incineration. Principal component analysis indicated that the promotive effect on the volatilization of heavy metals was followed by chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus. This result was proved to be correct by total release of heavy metals in sewage sludge incineration using different element donators. The release of heavy metals was very chlorine dependent, especially cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni). When chlorine content was in the range of 0.1-0.5wt%, the increase of the volatilization rate was 44.9% for Cd, 6.8% for Pb and 4.6% for Ni, respectively. Although sulfur contributed to the promotion of the volatilization of heavy metals, excess oxygen impaired the promotive effect of sulfur on the release of heavy metals from the condensed phase. For phosphorus, solidifying heavy metals was dominant. Energy analysis showed that metal chlorides and sulfides were prone to volatilize or to be decomposed at elevated temperature compared with sulfates and phosphates owing to low binding energy in absolute value (VLFA). It was the difference of binding energy that led to the different volatilization behavior of metal compounds in a high temperature, oxygen-enriched atmosphere.

  6. Sulfuric Acid All Over Early Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wänke, H.; Boynton, W. V.; Brückner, J.; Dreibus, G.; Taylor, G. J.; Evans, L.; James, B.; Keller, J.; Kerry, K.; Starr, R.; GRS Team

    2005-03-01

    The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission yielded concentration maps for several elements in the mid-latitude regions of Mars. The role of sulfur and other elements on the surface are discussed.

  7. Characterization of sulfur oxidizing bacteria related to biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Huber, Bettina; Herzog, Bastian; Drewes, Jörg E; Koch, Konrad; Müller, Elisabeth

    2016-07-18

    Biogenic sulfuric acid (BSA) corrosion damages sewerage and wastewater treatment facilities but is not well investigated in sludge digesters. Sulfur/sulfide oxidizing bacteria (SOB) oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid, inducing BSA corrosion. To obtain more information on BSA corrosion in sludge digesters, microbial communities from six different, BSA-damaged, digesters were analyzed using culture dependent methods and subsequent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). BSA production was determined in laboratory scale systems with mixed and pure cultures, and in-situ with concrete specimens from the digester headspace and sludge zones. The SOB Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia, and Thiomonas perometabolis were cultivated and compared to PCR-DGGE results, revealing the presence of additional acidophilic and neutrophilic SOB. Sulfate concentrations of 10-87 mmol/L after 6-21 days of incubation (final pH 1.0-2.0) in mixed cultures, and up to 433 mmol/L after 42 days (final pH <1.0) in pure A. thiooxidans cultures showed huge sulfuric acid production potentials. Additionally, elevated sulfate concentrations in the corroded concrete of the digester headspace in contrast to the concrete of the sludge zone indicated biological sulfur/sulfide oxidation. The presence of SOB and confirmation of their sulfuric acid production under laboratory conditions reveal that these organisms might contribute to BSA corrosion within sludge digesters. Elevated sulfate concentrations on the corroded concrete wall in the digester headspace (compared to the sludge zone) further indicate biological sulfur/sulfide oxidation in-situ. For the first time, SOB presence and activity is directly relatable to BSA corrosion in sludge digesters.

  8. Sulfur amino acids in methionine-restricted rats: hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Amany K; Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David; Mattocks, Dwight A L; Perrone, Carmen E

    2010-01-01

    Dietary methionine restriction in Fischer-344 rats favorably influences visceral fat mass, insulin sensitivity, metabolic parameters, and longevity. However, little is known about the effects of methionine restriction on serum methionine and its downstream sulfur amino acids. We investigated the serum sulfur amino acid profile of male Fischer-344 rats fed a methionine-restricted diet for 3 mo. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we observed marked reduction in serum concentrations of methionine, cystathionine, cysteine, and taurine in methionine-restricted rats compared with control (P<0.001) and a 2.5-fold elevation of homocysteine (P<0.001). This suggests that homocysteine trans-sulfuration may be inhibited by methionine restriction, and that some of the effects of methionine restriction may be mediated by changes in sulfur amino acids downstream of methionine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Geometrical isomerization of fatty acids with sulfur as a catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Grompone, M.A.; Tancredi, N.A. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the kinetics of the geometrical isomerization of oleic and palmitoleic acids, both contained in U.S.P. oleic acid that were studied. Sulfur powder was used as a catalyst. The methyl esters of fatty acids were analyzed by GLC with 15% OV-275 columns. The sulfur-catalyzed isomerization at 180 and 225{degrees} C proceeds via two consecutive mechanisms. The position of equilibrium is reached by the second mechanism. For this, at any particular initial concentration of sulfur, the pseudo- first-order rate dependence on substrate for a reversible reaction holds. The full rate has been shown to be proportional to the initial sulfur concentration taken to the 1.2 power. The rate constants at both temperatures and the activation energies were calculated.

  10. Determination of non-volatile and volatile organic acids in Korean traditional fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Choi, Tae Bong; Park, Hae-Kyong; Kim, Myunghee; Lee, In Koo; Kim, Jong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Organic acids are formed in food as a result of metabolism of large molecular mass compounds. These organic acids play an important role in the taste and aroma of fermented food products. Doenjang is a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste product that provides a major source of protein. The quantitative data for volatile and non-volatile organic acid contents of 18 samples of Doenjang were determined by comparing the abundances of each peak by gas (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean values of volatile organic acids (acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid), determined in 18 Doenjang samples, were found to be 91.73, 29.54, 70.07 and 19.80 mg%, respectively, whereas the mean values of non-volatile organic acids, such as oxalic acid, citric acid, lactic acid and succinic acid, were noted to be 14.69, 5.56, 9.95 and 0.21 mg%, respectively. Malonic and glutaric acids were absent in all the tested samples of Doenjang. The findings of this study suggest that determination of organic acid contents by GC and HPLC can be considered as an affective approach to evaluate the quality characteristics of fermented food products.

  11. Chewing gum containing allyl isothiocyanate from mustard seed extract is effective in reducing volatile sulfur compounds responsible for oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Minmin; Hanley, Anthony Bryan; Dodds, Michael W J; Yaegaki, Ken

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the in vivo effect of chewing gum containing allyl isothiocyanate alone, and in combination with zinc salts on reduction of the level of volatile sulfur compounds responsible for oral malodor. 15 healthy volunteers between the ages of 20-50 chewed either an experimental gum or a placebo gum for 12 minutes. Their mouth air was analyzed for volatile sulfur compounds by a gas chromatograph at baseline, immediately after chewing, and at 60, 120 and 180 minutes after treatment. The study revealed that allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of mustard seed extract, can effectively reduce the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air. Chewing gum containing 0.1% zinc lactate and 0.01% of allyl isothiocyanate eliminated 89%, 55.5%, 48% and 24% of the total VSC concentration immediately after chewing and at 1, 2, and 3 hours after chewing, respectively.

  12. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  13. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  14. Heterologous production of methionine-gamma-lyase from Brevibacterium linens in Lactococcus lactis and formation of volatile sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Hanniffy, Sean B; Philo, Mark; Peláez, Carmen; Gasson, Michael J; Requena, Teresa; Martínez-Cuesta, M C

    2009-04-01

    The conversion of methionine to volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) is of great importance in flavor formation during cheese ripening and is the focus of biotechnological approaches toward flavor improvement. A synthetic mgl gene encoding methionine-gamma-lyase (MGL) from Brevibacterium linens BL2 was cloned into a Lactococcus lactis expression plasmid under the control of the nisin-inducible promoter PnisA. When expressed in L. lactis and purified as a recombinant protein, MGL was shown to degrade L-methionine as well as other sulfur-containing compounds such as L-cysteine, L-cystathionine, and L-cystine. Overproduction of MGL in recombinant L. lactis also resulted in an increase in the degradation of these compounds compared to the wild-type strain. Importantly, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified considerably higher formation of methanethiol (and its oxidized derivatives dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide) in reactions containing either purified protein, whole cells, or cell extracts from the heterologous L. lactis strain. This is the first report of production of MGL from B. linens in L. lactis. Given their significance in cheese flavor development, the use of lactic acid bacteria with enhanced VSC-producing abilities could be an efficient way to enhance cheese flavor development.

  15. Co-oxidation of the sulfur-containing amino acids in an autoxidizing lipid system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Dollar, A.M.

    1963-01-01

    Oxidation of the sulfur amino acids by autoxidizing lipids was studied in a model system consisting of an amino acid dispersed in cold-pressed, molecularly distilled menhaden oil (20–80% w/w). Under all conditions investigated, cysteine was oxidized completely to cystine. Preliminary results suggest that at 110°C the oxidation follows first-order kinetics for at least the first 8 hr. A specific reaction rate constant of 0.25 per hour was calculated. When fatty acids were added to the system, cystine was oxidized to its thiosulfinate ester. When the fatty acid-cystine ratio was 1:2, oxidation of cystine was a maximum. No oxidation of cystine occurred unless either a fatty acid, volatile organic acid, or ethanol was added. Under the conditions investigated, methionine was not oxidized to either its sulfoxide or its sulfone.

  16. Field sampling method for quantifying volatile sulfur compounds from animal feeding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; Mitloehner, Frank; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are a major class of chemicals associated with odor from animal feeding operations (AFOs). Identifying and quantifying VSCs in air is challenging due to their volatility, reactivity, and low concentrations. In the present study, a canister-based method collected whole air in fused silica-lined (FSL) mini-canister (1.4 L) following passage through a calcium chloride drying tube. Sampled air from the canisters was removed (10-600 mL), dried, pre-concentrated, and cryofocused into a GC system with parallel detectors (mass spectrometer (MS) and pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD)). The column effluent was split 20:1 between the MS and PFPD. The PFPD equimolar sulfur response enhanced quantitation and the location of sulfur peaks for mass spectral identity and quantitation. Limit of quantitation for the PFPD and MSD was set at the least sensitive VSC (hydrogen sulfide) and determined to be 177 and 28 pg S, respectively, or 0.300 and 0.048 μg m -3 air, respectively. Storage stability of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol was problematic in warm humid air (25 °C, 96% relative humidity (RH)) without being dried first, however, stability in canisters dried was still only 65% after 24 h of storage. Storage stability of hydrogen sulfide sampled in the field at a swine facility was over 2 days. The greater stability of field samples compared to laboratory samples was due to the lower temperature and RH of field samples compared to laboratory generated samples. Hydrogen sulfide was the dominant odorous VSCs detected at all swine facilities with methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide detected notably above their odor threshold values. The main odorous VSC detected in aged poultry litter was dimethyl trisulfide. Other VSCs above odor threshold values for poultry facilities were methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide.

  17. Production of methanethiol and volatile sulfur compounds by the archaeon "Ferroplasma acidarmanus".

    PubMed

    Baumler, David J; Hung, Kai-Foong; Jeong, Kwang Cheol; Kaspar, Charles W

    2007-11-01

    Acidophiles are typically isolated from sulfate-rich ecological niches yet the role of sulfur metabolism in their growth and survival is poorly defined. Studies of heterotrophically grown "Ferroplasma acidarmanus" showed that its growth requires a minimum of 100 mM of a sulfate-containing salt. Headspace gas analyses by GC/MS determined that the volatile sulfur compound emitted by active "F. acidarmanus" cultures is methanethiol. In "F. acidarmanus" cultures grown either heterotrophically or chemolithotrophically, methanethiol was produced constitutively. Radiotracer studies with (35)S-labeled methionine, cysteine, and sulfate showed that all three were used in methanethiol production. Additionally, (3)H-labeled methionine was incorporated into methanethiol and was probably used as a methyl-group donor. Methanethiol production in whole cell lysates supplied with SO (3) (2-) indicated that NADPH-dependant sulfite reductase and methyltransferase activities were present. Cell lysates also contained enzymatic activity for methionine-gamma-lyase that cleaved the side chain of either methionine to form methanethiol or cysteine to produce H(2)S. Since methanethiol was detected from the degradation of cysteine, it is likely that sulfide was methylated by a thiol methyltransferase. Collectively, these data demonstrate that "F. acidarmanus" produces methanethiol through the metabolism of methionine, cysteine, or sulfate. This is the first report of a methanethiol-producing acidophile, thus identifying a new contributor to the global sulfur cycle.

  18. Delayed production of sulfuric acid condensation nuclei in the polar stratosphere from El Chichon volcanic vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Gringel, W.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that measurements of the vertical profiles of atmospheric condensation nuclei (CN) have been conducted since 1973. Studies with a new instrument revealed that the CN concentration undergoes a remarkable annual variation in the 30-km region characterized by a large increase in the late winter/early spring period with a subsequent decay during the remainder of the year. The event particles are observed to be volatile at 150 C, suggesting a sulfuric acid-water composition similar to that found in the normal 20 km aerosol layer. The development of about 10 to the 7th metric tons of sulfuric acid aerosol following the injection of sulfurous gases by El Chichon in April 1982, prompted Hofmann and Rosen (1983) to predict a very large CN event for 1983. The present investigation is concerned with the actual observation of the predicted event. Attention is given to the observation of a very large increase of what appear to be small sulfuric acid droplets at 30-km altitude in January 1983 over Laramie, WY, in January 1983.

  19. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  20. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  1. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  2. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  3. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  4. Commercial Alloys for Sulfuric Acid Vaporization in Thermochemical Hydrogen Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas M. Lillo; Karen M. Delezene-Briggs

    2005-10-01

    Most thermochemical cycles being considered for producing hydrogen include a processing stream in which dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated, vaporized and then decomposed over a catalyst. The sulfuric acid vaporizer is exposed to highly aggressive conditions. Liquid sulfuric acid will be present at a concentration of >96 wt% (>90 mol %) H2SO4 and temperatures exceeding 400oC [Brown, et. al, 2003]. The system will also be pressurized, 0.7-3.5 MPa, to keep the sulfuric acid in the liquid state at this temperature and acid concentration. These conditions far exceed those found in the commercial sulfuric acid generation, regeneration and handling industries. Exotic materials, e.g. ceramics, precious metals, clad materials, etc., have been proposed for this application [Wong, et. al., 2005]. However, development time, costs, reliability, safety concerns and/or certification issues plague such solutions and should be considered as relatively long-term, optimum solutions. A more cost-effective (and relatively near-term) solution would be to use commercially-available metallic alloys to demonstrate the cycle and study process variables. However, the corrosion behavior of commercial alloys in sulfuric acid is rarely characterized above the natural boiling point of concentrated sulfuric acid (~250oC at 1 atm). Therefore a screening study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of various commercial alloys for concentration and vaporization of high-temperature sulfuric acid. Initially alloys were subjected to static corrosion tests in concentrated sulfuric acid (~95-97% H2SO4) at temperatures and exposure times up to 200oC and 480 hours, respectively. Alloys with a corrosion rate of less than 5 mm/year were then subjected to static corrosion tests at a pressure of 1.4 MPa and temperatures up to 375oC. Exposure times were shorter due to safety concerns and ranged from as short as 5 hours up to 144 hours. The materials evaluated included nickel-, iron- and cobalt

  5. Intrajejunal volatile fatty acids in the stagnant loop syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chernov, A J; Doe, W F; Gompertz, D

    1972-02-01

    In the stagnant loop syndrome an abnormal anaerobic flora colonizes the small bowel. Anaerobic organisms are characterized by fermentation reactions leading to the production of volatile fatty acids. This paper describes the measurement of intrajejunal volatile fatty acid concentrations in 11 patients with the stagnant loop syndrome. Nine normal persons and 18 patients with gastrointestinal disease without intestinal stasis acted as controls. Acetate and propionate concentrations were greatly increased in the patients with the stagnant loop syndrome and returned to normal in those patients treated with antibiotics. The measurement of intrajejunal volatile fatty acid concentrations as an index of overgrowth of anaerobic organisms is discussed.

  6. Connection of sulfuric acid to atmospheric nucleation in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, T; Manninen, H E; Sihto, S L; Yli-Juuti, T; Mauldin, R L; Petäjä, T; Riipinen, I; Kerminen, V M; Kulmala, M

    2009-07-01

    Gas to particle conversion in the boundary layer occurs worldwide. Sulfuric acid is considered to be one of the key components in these new particle formation events. In this study we explore the connection between measured sulfuric acid and observed formation rate of both charged 2 nm as well as neutral clusters in a boreal forest environment A very short time delay of the order of ten minutes between these two parameters was detected. On average the event days were clearly associated with higher sulfuric acid concentrations and lower condensation sink (CS) values than the nonevent days. Although there was not a clear sharp boundary between the nucleation and no-nucleation days in sulfuric acid-CS plane, at our measurement site a typical threshold concentration of 3.10(5) molecules cm(-3) of sulfuric acid was needed to initiate the new particle formation. Two proposed nucleation mechanisms were tested. Our results are somewhat more in favor of activation type nucleation than of kinetic type nucleation, even though our data set is too limited to omit either of these two mechanisms. In line with earlier studies, the atmospheric nucleation seems to start from sizes very close to 2 nm.

  7. Potential heat exchange fluids for use in sulfuric acid vaporizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Petersen, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    A series of perhalocarbons are proposed as candidate heat exchange fluids for service in thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production that involve direct contact of the fluid with sulfuric acid and vaporization of the acid. The required chemical and physical criteria of the liquids are described and the results of some preliminary high temperature test data are presented.

  8. An evaluation of possible mechanisms for conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid and sulfate aerosols in the troposphere

    Treesearch

    Jack G. Calvert

    1976-01-01

    The mechanisms and rates of conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide, sulfuric acid, and other "sulfate" aerosol precursors are considered in view of current knowledge related to atmospheric reactions and chemical kinetics. Several heterogeneous pathways exist for SO2 oxidation promoted on solid catalyst particles and in aqueous...

  9. Molecular interaction of pinic acid with sulfuric acid: exploring the thermodynamic landscape of cluster growth.

    PubMed

    Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Bilde, Merete; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2014-09-11

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures without the further possibility for attachment of either sulfuric acid or pinic acid. This suggests that pinic acid cannot be a key species in the first steps in nucleation, but the favorable interactions between sulfuric acid and pinic acid imply that pinic acid can contribute to the subsequent growth of an existing nucleus by condensation.

  10. Catabolism of volatile sulfur compounds precursors by Brevibacterium linens and Geotrichum candidum, two microorganisms of the cheese ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Arfi, Kenza; Amárita, Felix; Spinnler, Henry-Eric; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2003-11-06

    Two Brevibacterium linens strains and the cheese-ripening yeast Geotrichum candidum were compared with regard to their ability to produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) from three different precursors namely L-methionine, 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (KMBA) and 4-methylthio-2-hydroxybutyric acid (HMBA). All microorganisms were able to convert these precursors to VSCs. However, although all were able to produce VSCs from L-methionine, only G. candidum accumulated KMBA when cultivated on this amino acid, contrary to B. linens suggesting that the transamination pathway is not active in this microorganism. Conversely, a L-methionine gamma-lyase activity--which catalyses the one step L-methionine to methanethiol (MTL) degradation route--was only found in B. linens strains. Several other enzymatic activities involved in the catabolism of the precursors tested were investigated. KMBA transiently accumulated in G. candidum cultures, and was then reduced to HMBA by a KMBA dehydrogenase (KDH) activity. This activity was not detected in B. linens. Despite no HMBA dehydrogenase (HDH) was found in G. candidum, a strong HMBA oxidase (HOX) activity was measured in this microorganism. This latter activity was weakly active in B. linens. KMBA and HMBA demethiolating activities were found in all the microorganisms. Our results illustrate the metabolic diversity between cheese-ripening microorganisms of the cheese ecosystem.

  11. High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

    2005-09-01

    A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

  12. The effect of melt composition on the partitioning of oxidized sulfur between silicate melts and magmatic volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajacz, Zoltán

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted at 500 MPa and 1240 °C in a piston cylinder apparatus to assess the effect of melt composition on the melt/volatile partition coefficient of sulfur (DSmelt/volatile) , which was used as a measure of the silicate melt's capacity to dissolve oxidized sulfur species. Iron-free, three- and four-component silicate melts were equilibrated with H2O-S fluids with sulfur concentrations ⩽2 mol% at an oxygen fugacity imposed by the Re-ReO2 buffer (1.4 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer). At these conditions, SO2 (S4+) is predicted to be the dominant sulfur species in the volatile phase and sulfate (S6+) is the dominant sulfur species in the silicate melt. The values of DSmelt /volatile were calculated by mass balance. The results show that DSmelt /volatile values increase exponentially with decreasing the degree of polymerization of the silicate melt structure. For example, in calcium-aluminosilicate melts, DSmelt /volatile changes from 0.005 to 0.3 as the degree of melt polymerization changes from the equivalent of a rhyolite to the equivalent of a basalt. At a constant degree of melt polymerization, DSmelt /volatile in equilibrium with sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) melts is more than an order of magnitude higher than in equilibrium with calcium-aluminosilicate (CAS) melts, and more than two orders of magnitude higher than in equilibrium with magnesium-aluminosilicate (MAS) melts. The value of DSmelt /volatile changes from 0.014 in MAS glasses to 3.4 in NAS glasses for the most depolymerized compositions in each series. Potassium has a similar effect on sulfate dissolution to that of Na. The variation of DSmelt /volatile in equilibrium with various calcium-sodium aluminosilicate (CNAS), magnesium-sodium aluminosilicate (MNAS) and magnesium-potassium aluminosilicate (MKAS) melts indicates that alkalis are only available for sulfate complexation when they are present in excess compared to the required amount to charge balance for the Si4+ to Al3

  13. Adsorption of ammonia by sulfuric acid treated zirconium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Glover, T Grant; Peterson, Gregory W; DeCoste, Jared B; Browe, Matthew A

    2012-07-17

    The adsorption of ammonia on Zr(OH)(4), as well as Zr(OH)(4) treated with sulfuric acid, were examined. The results show that treating Zr(OH)(4) with sulfuric acid leads to the formation of a sulfate on the surface of the material, and that the sulfate contributes to the ammonia adsorption capacity through the formation of an ammonium sulfates species. Calcination of Zr(OH)(4) decreases the ammonia adsorption capacity of the material and limits the formation of sulfate species. NMR and FTIR spectroscopy results are presented that show the presence of two distinct ammonium species on the surface of the material. The adsorption capacity of the materials is shown to be a complex phenomenon that is impacted by the surface area, the sulfur content, and the pH of the material. The results illustrate that Zr(OH)(4), which is known to adsorb acidic gases, can be modified and used to adsorb basic gases.

  14. Investigation of the storage stability of selected volatile sulfur compounds in different sampling containers.

    PubMed

    Sulyok, M; Haberhauer-Troyer, C; Rosenberg, E; Grasserbauer, M

    2001-05-11

    The suitability of various sample containers (i.e. standard Tedlar sample bags, black/clear layered Tedlar sample bags and Silcosteel sample cylinders) was examined for a gaseous multicomponent standard containing methylmercaptan, ethylmercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, ethylmethyl sulfide, 2-propylmercaptan, 1-propylmercaptan, 2-butylmercaptan, diethyl sulfide and 1-butylmercaptan (1 mg/m3 each in nitrogen). In the black/clear layered Tedlar sample bags, significant losses (up to 10% for methylmercaptan as the most critical component) were observed after 2 days, whereas in the standard Tedlar sample bags the recovery of methylmercaptan was approximately 90% even after 1 week. The Silcosteel sample cylinders were suitable for sampling of volatile sulfur compounds with respect to the stability of the analytes, but the recoveries exceeded 100% especially for the higher boiling compounds, which was attributed to enrichment effects on parts of the sampling system.

  15. Air pollution and asthma: clinical studies with sulfuric acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Utell, M.J.; Frampton, M.W.; Morrow, P.E. )

    1991-11-01

    Until recently, acid deposition has been widely considered a serious ecological problem but not a threat to human health. The controlled clinical study is an important approach in linking acidic aerosol inhalation with respiratory effects. Asthmatic patients represent a subpopulation most responsive to sulfuric acid aerosols. In a series of studies with asthmatic volunteers, several factors have been identified that may modulate the intensity of the bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled acidic aerosols. We found (1) enhancement of the bronchoconstrictor response during exercise, (2) the more acidic aerosols provoke the greatest changes in lung function, and (3) mitigation of airway responses during sulfuric acid aerosol inhalation caused by high respiratory ammonia concentrations. Additional factors influencing responsiveness await identification.

  16. Protonation Dynamics and Hydrogen Bonding in Aqueous Sulfuric Acid.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Johannes; Sahle, Christoph J; Juurinen, Iina; Koskelo, Jaakko; Lehtola, Susi; Verbeni, Roberto; Müller, Harald; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo

    2015-09-03

    Hydration of sulfuric acid plays a key role in new-particle formation in the atmosphere. It has been recently proposed that proton dynamics is crucial in the stabilization of these clusters. One key question is how water molecules mediate proton transfer from sulfuric acid, and hence how the deprotonation state of the acid molecule behaves as a function concentration. We address the proton transfer in aqueous sulfuric acid with O K edge and S L edge core-excitation spectra recorded using inelastic X-ray scattering and with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in the concentration range of 0-18.0 M. Throughout this range, we quantify the acid-water interaction with atomic resolution. Our simulations show that the number of donated hydrogen bonds per Owater increases from 1.9 to 2.5 when concentration increases from 0 to 18.0 M, in agreement with a rapid disappearance of the pre-edge feature in the O K edge spectrum. The simulations also suggest that for 1.5 M sulfuric acid SO4(2-) is most abundant and that its concentration falls monotonously with increasing concentration. Moreover, the fraction of HSO4(-) peaks at ∼12 M.

  17. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  18. Evolutions of volatile sulfur compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during aging in different oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dong-Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yan-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines from seven regions of China during maturation in oak barrels was investigated. The barrels were made of different wood grains (fine and medium) and toasting levels (light and medium). Twelve VSCs were quantified by GC/FPD, with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methionol exceeding their sensory thresholds. Most VSCs tended to decline during the aging, while DMS was found to increase. After one year aging, the levels of DMS, 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one and sulfur-containing esters were lower in the wines aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks. The wood grain and toasting level of oak barrels significantly influenced the concentration of S-methyl thioacetate and 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one. This study reported the evolution of VSCs in wines during oak barrel aging for the first time and evaluated the influence of barrel types, which would provide wine-makers with references in making proposals about wine aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Sampling Bags.

    PubMed

    Le, Hung V; Sivret, Eric C; Parcsi, Gavin; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Odorous emissions from agricultural and waste management operations can cause annoyance to local populations. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are dominant odorants that are often lost during collection using sample bags. The degree of VSC losses depends on factors such as storage time, bag materials, temperature, sample relative humidity (RH), light exposure, and the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To assess the impact of those factors on the stability of 10 VSCs (hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, ethanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, tert-butanethiol, ethyl methyl sulfide, 1-butanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide), laboratory-based experiments were conducted according to a factorial experimental design. Linear mixed-effects models were constructed for loss predictions. The estimated recovery of HS in Tedlar bag was 8 to 10% higher than in Mylar and Nalophan between 6 and 30 h. At ≤20°C and without being exposed to light, at least 75% relative recovery of the 10 VSCs in Tedlar bags can be achieved after 18 h, whereas, a maximum of 12 h of storage should not be exceeded to ensure a minimum of 74% relative recovery of the VSCs in Mylar and Nalophan bags. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Sulfur volatiles of microbial origin are key contributors to human-sensed truffle aroma.

    PubMed

    Splivallo, Richard; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    Truffles are symbiotic fungi in high demand for the aroma of their fruiting bodies which are colonized by a diverse microbial flora. Specific sulfur containing volatiles (thiophene derivatives) characteristic of the white truffle Tuber borchii were recently shown to be derived from the bacterial community inhabiting truffle fruiting bodies. Our aim here was to investigate whether thiophene derivatives contributed to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. Furthermore, we questioned whether the concentration of thiophene volatiles was affected by freezing or whether it differed in truffles from distinct geographical origins. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis revealed that thiophene derivatives were major contributors to the aroma of T. borchii. Of four thiophene derivatives detected in this study, 3-methyl-4,5-dihydrothiophene was the most important one in terms of its contribution to the overall aroma. The relative concentration of thiophene derivatives was unaffected by freezing; however, it differed in samples collected in distinct geographical locations (Italy versus New Zealand). The causes of this variability might be differences in storage conditions and/or in bacterial community composition of the fruiting bodies; however, further work is needed to confirm these hypotheses. Overall, our results demonstrate that thiophene derivatives are major contributors to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii.

  1. 46 CFR 153.556 - Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. 153... and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.556 Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. (a... acid, oleum, or contaminated sulfuric acid are approved by the Commandant (CG-522) on a case by case...

  2. 46 CFR 153.556 - Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. 153... and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.556 Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. (a... acid, oleum, or contaminated sulfuric acid are approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG) on a case by case...

  3. 46 CFR 153.556 - Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. 153... and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.556 Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. (a... acid, oleum, or contaminated sulfuric acid are approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG) on a case by case...

  4. 46 CFR 153.556 - Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. 153... and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.556 Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum. (a... acid, oleum, or contaminated sulfuric acid are approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG) on a case by case...

  5. A chamber study of the influence of boreal BVOC emissions and sulfuric acid on nanoparticle formation rates at ambient concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Maso, M.; Liao, L.; Wildt, J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Tillmann, R.; Sipilä, M.; Hakala, J.; Lehtipalo, K.; Ehn, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D.; Mentel, T.

    2016-02-01

    Aerosol formation from biogenic and anthropogenic precursor trace gases in continental background areas affects climate via altering the amount of available cloud condensation nuclei. Significant uncertainty still exists regarding the agents controlling the formation of aerosol nanoparticles. We have performed experiments in the Jülich plant-atmosphere simulation chamber with instrumentation for the detection of sulfuric acid and nanoparticles, and present the first simultaneous chamber observations of nanoparticles, sulfuric acid, and realistic levels and mixtures of biogenic volatile compounds (BVOCs). We present direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapour mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We directly measured particle formation rates separately from particle growth rates. From this, we established that in our experiments, the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulfuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength. The formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulfuric acid. The growth rate of nanoparticles immediately after birth was best correlated with estimated products resulting from BVOC ozonolysis.

  6. Sulfur and Sulfuric Acid Microphysics in the Venus Atmosphere: Implications for the Unknown UV Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P.; Carlson, R. W.; Robinson, T. D.; Crisp, D.; Lyons, J. R.; Yung, Y. L.

    2016-12-01

    A mystery that has continued to plague our sister planet, Venus, for nearly a century is the nature of the brightness contrasts observed crisscrossing its disk in near-ultraviolet wavelength images. These contrasts - specifically the dark regions - have been attributed to the actions of an unknown UV absorber, knowing the identity of which is integral to understanding the Venus atmosphere due to the high rates of mesospheric heating attributed to the absorption of solar UV. One possible candidate for the UV absorber is polysulfur, which form from polymerization of elemental sulfur arising from SO2 photolysis at the Venus cloud tops under low O2 conditions. In this work we investigate the microphysics of condensed polysulfur and its interaction with the sulfuric acid clouds. We consider the "gumdrop model", where sulfur is allowed to condense onto sulfuric acid cloud particles. We explore the possibility that S2 vapor may condense faster than its loss to gas phase reactions that produce higher allotropes, leading to solid state polymerization to S8. This process may explain the ephemeral and variable nature of the UV absorption.

  7. Methanol Uptake By Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Essin, Andrew M.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the role of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols in the global budget of methanol, the solubility and reactivity of CH3OH in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions are under investigation. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H(*), for methanol dissolution into 45 to 70 percent by weight H2SO4. We find that methanol solubility ranges from 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 8) M/atm and increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and all rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Our data indicate that simple uptake by aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These results differ from those recently reported in the literature, and an explanation of this disparity will be presented. In addition to solvation, reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H may proceed in the atmosphere but is not significant under our experimental conditions. Results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique confirm this directly. In addition, the extent of methanol sequestration via formation of mono- and dimethylsulfate will be evaluated under several atmospheric conditions.

  8. Methanol Uptake by Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Essin, A. M.; Golden, D. M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The global methanol budget is currently unbalanced, with source terms significantly larger than the sinks terms. To evaluate possible losses of gaseous methanol to sulfate aerosols, the solubility and reactivity of methanol in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols is under investigation. Methanol will partition into sulfate aerosols according to its Henry's law solubility. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H*, for cold (196 - 220 K) solutions ranging between 45 and 70 wt % H2SO4. We have found that methanol solubility ranges from approx. 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) M/atm for UT/LS conditions. Solubility increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. Although methanol is slightly more soluble than are acetone and formaldehyde, current data indicate that uptake by clean aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and any rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H is not significant over our experimental time scale for solutions below 80 wt % H2SO4. To confirm this directly, results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique will also be presented.

  9. ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON TREATED WITH SULFURIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the adsorption of elemental mercury at 125 C by a sulfuric-acid (H2S04, 50% w/w/ solution)-treated carbon for the removal of mercury from flue gas. The pore structure of the sample was characterized by nitrogen (N2) at -196 C and the t-plot m...

  10. Heat-Exchange Fluids for Sulfuric Acid Vaporizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Some fluorine-substituted organic materials meet criteria for heat-exchange fluids in contact with sulfuric acid. Most promising of these are perfluoropropylene oxide polymers with degree of polymerization (DP) between 10 and 50. It is desirable to have DP in high range because vapor pressure of material decreases as DP increases, and high-DP liquids have lower loss due to vaporization.

  11. Potential heat exchange fluids for use in sulfuric acid vaporizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Petersen, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of liquids have been screened as candidate heat exchange fluids for service in thermochemical cycles that involve the vaporization of sulfuric acid. The required chemical and physical criteria of the liquids is described with the results of some preliminary high temperature test data presented.

  12. ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON TREATED WITH SULFURIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the adsorption of elemental mercury at 125 C by a sulfuric-acid (H2S04, 50% w/w/ solution)-treated carbon for the removal of mercury from flue gas. The pore structure of the sample was characterized by nitrogen (N2) at -196 C and the t-plot m...

  13. Microbial Sulfur Cycling in an Acid Mine Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, L.; Warren, L. A.

    2004-12-01

    Geochemical dynamics of a tailings impacted lake in Northern Ontario were investigated over a three-year period, in which active pyrrhotite slurry disposal was initiated in year two. A strong seasonal trend of decreasing epilimnetic pH with significant diurnal acid production, pre-, during and post slurry deposition was observed with high rates observed compared to pre-slurry. Slurry deposition occurred at the surface of the lake and acted as a reaction stimulant for acid generation. Over the diurnal timescale investigated, the highest rates of acid production occurred not at the lake surface but within the metaliminetic region of the lake. This region was exemplified by strong decreasing oxygen gradients, and thus observed high rates of acid generation are more consistent with microbial pathways of sulfur oxidation than with abiotic, oxygen catalyzed pathways. Consistent with microbial catalysis, metalimnetic rates of acid generation were highest during June and July when microbial populations and metabolic rates were maximal. These results indicate that microbial oxidation of sulfur species play a major role in acid generation in this system. Further, observed rates of acid generation exceed those predicted by published abiotic rates of pyrrhotite oxidation, but are consistent with literature estimates of acid generation catalyzed by microbial activity. Acidithiobacilli accounted for up to 50% of the microbial community pre slurry, but were absent post slurry deposition. These results are the first to demonstrate quantitatively that microbial sulfur oxidation can play a predominant role in acid generation within mine tailings impacted systems. They further highlight the need to evaluate the more complex pathways by which microorganisms process sulfur as the conditions, controls and process rates differ from those observed for abiotic reactions.

  14. Dissolution, speciation, and reaction of acetaldehyde in cold sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Ashbourn, Samantha F. M.; Iraci, Laura T.

    2004-12-01

    The uptake of gas-phase acetaldehyde [CH3CHO, ethanal] by aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was studied under upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UT/LS) conditions. The solubility of acetaldehyde was found to be low, between 2 × 102 M atm-1 and 1.5 × 105 M atm-1 under the ranges of temperature (211-241 K) and acid composition (39-76 weight percent, wt%, H2SO4) studied. Under most conditions, acetaldehyde showed simple solubility behavior when exposed to sulfuric acid. Under moderately acidic conditions (usually 47 wt% H2SO4), evidence of reaction was observed. Enhancement of uptake at long times was occasionally detected in conjunction with reaction. The source of these behaviors and the effect of acetaldehyde speciation on solubility are discussed. Implications for the uptake of oxygenated organic compounds by tropospheric aerosols are considered.

  15. The Reaction of CIONO_2 with Submicrometer Sulfuric Acid Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, D. R.; Lovejoy, E. R.

    1995-03-01

    The measured reaction probability, γ, for the reaction of chlorine nitrate (CIONO_2) with 60 percent (by weight) sulfuric acid aerosol increases monotonically with particle size at 250 kelvin. The reacto-diffusive length (l, the effective liquid depth over which reaction occurs) derived from these experiments is 0.037 ± 0.007 micrometer (95 percent confidence level for precision). The reaction probability for the reaction of CIONO_2 with 60 percent sulfuric acid aerosol doped with ~7 x 10-4 M hydrochloric acid at 250 kelvin is larger by about a factor of 4 than in the absence of hydrochloric acid and varies less with particle size (l = 0.009 ± 0.005 micrometer). These results provide a test of the theory for gas-particle reactions and further insight into the reactivity of atmospheric aerosol.

  16. The Reaction of CIONO2 with Submicrometer Sulfuric Acid Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Hanson, D R; Lovejoy, E R

    1995-03-03

    The measured reaction probability, gamma for the reaction of chlorine nitrate (CIONa(2)) with 60 percent (by weight) sulfuric acid aerosol increases monotonically with particle size at 250 kelvin. The reacto-diffusive length (l, the effective liquid depth over which reaction occurs) derived from these experiments is 0.037 +/- 0.007 micrometer (95 percent confidence level for precision). The reaction probability for the reaction of CIONO(2) with 60 percent sulfuric acid aerosol doped with approximately 7 x 10(-4) M hydrochloric acid at 250 kelvin is larger by about a factor of 4 than in the absence of hydrochloric acid and varies less with particle size (l = 0.009 +/- 0.005 micrometer). These results provide a test of the theory for gas-particle reactions and further insight into the reactivity of atmospheric aerosol.

  17. Color Change of Sudan III against Concentrated Sulfuric Acid in Acetonitrile and Quantification for a Small Amount of Concentrated Sulfuric Acid.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takao; Kurata, Shoji; Ogino, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The color-changing phenomenon of hydrophobic bisazo dye, Sudan III in an acetonitrile solution against the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid has been discovered and the chromic properties investigated. Based on observations, a novel quantification method of concentrated sulfuric acid has been developed. Sudan III changes its color from orange to blue against a small volume of sulfuric acid, and the acetonitrile solution of Sudan III is the most suitable for observing the color-change phenomenon. (1)H-NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopic studies showed that the color-change mechanism of Sudan III against sulfuric acid is due to the protonation of the dye by sulfuric acid. This phenomenon is applicable to the quantification of concentrated sulfuric acid by introducing the Hammett acidity function. The proposed method requires only a small amount of the sample, 0.04 mL, and enables rapid quantification.

  18. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section) 48 to 54 percent. Ammonium salt of isobutyric acid 22 to 26 percent. Water 28... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  19. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section) 48 to 54 percent. Ammonium salt of isobutyric acid 22 to 26 percent. Water 28... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  20. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section) 48 to 54 percent. Ammonium salt of isobutyric acid 22 to 26 percent. Water 28... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  1. Recovery of high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid in toluene nitration process by rectification.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Meng, Qingqiang; Shu, Fan; Ye, Zhengfang

    2013-01-01

    Waste sulfuric acid is a byproduct generated from numerous industrial chemical processes. It is essential to remove the impurities and recover the sulfuric acid from the waste acid. In this study the rectification method was introduced to recover high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid generated in toluene nitration process by using rectification column. The waste acid quality before and after rectification were evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, GC/MS, HPLC and other physical and chemical analysis. It was shown that five nitro aromatic compounds in the waste acid were substantially removed and high purity sulfuric acid was also recovered in the rectification process at the same time. The COD was removed by 94% and the chrominance was reduced from 1000° to 1°. The recovered sulfuric acid with the concentration reaching 98.2 wt% had a comparable quality with commercial sulfuric acid and could be recycled back into the toluene nitration process, which could avoid waste of resources and reduce the environmental impact and pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reactive uptake of organic compounds by liquid sulfuric acid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J.; Michelsen, R.

    2003-04-01

    The uptake of several organic compounds by laboratory surrogates for tropospheric sulfuric acid particles were investigated by mass spectrometry and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. Among the compounds studied were acetone [(CH_3)_2CO], 2,4-hexanedione [CH_3CO(CH_2)_2COCH_3, MBO], and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol [CH_2CHC(CH_3)_2OH]. Experiments were carried out on ultrathin sulfuric acid films (ca. 10-100 monolayer equivalents thick) as functions of organic partial pressure, temperature, and acid composition. Acetone uptake is irreversible for acids that contain >70 weight percent (wt. %) H_2SO4, with kinetics that are second-order in concentration of dissolved acetone. Hexanedione and MBO are irreversibly taken for all acid compositions investigated (60-96 wt. %), with first-order uptake kinetics. In all cases, the irreversible uptake is a consequence of sulfuric acid catalyzed reactions that lead to the formation of new C-C bonds. Implications of these results for heterogeneous tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1019 - Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfuric acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1019 Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used in accordance with...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1019 - Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1019 Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used in accordance with...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1019 - Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1019 Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used in accordance with...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1019 - Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1019 Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used in accordance with...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1019 - Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1019 Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Residues of sulfuric acid are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used in accordance with...

  8. 46 CFR 153.556 - Special requirements for sulfuric acid and oleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Except as prescribed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, containment systems carrying sulfuric acid, oleum, or contaminated sulfuric acid are approved by the Commandant (CG-522) on a case by case basis. (b) A containment system carrying sulfuric acid may be: (1) Made of unlined steel if the cargo...

  9. Sulfur amino acids and severe childhood undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Jahoor, Farook

    2011-01-01

    In studies of glutathione (GSH) metabolism in children with severe childhood undernutrition (SCU), we found that slower erythrocyte GSH synthesis in those with edema was associated with lower concentrations of cysteine, the rate-limiting precursor of GSH synthesis. This finding suggested a shortage in cysteine availability for GSH synthesis in children with edematous SCU. The plasma concentration of methionine, the sulfur donor for cysteine synthesis, was also lower in children with edematous SCU, suggesting decreased methionine availability for cysteine synthesis. It is also possible that reduced methionine availability will result in decreased formation of S-adenosylmethionine, which could lead to an overall defect in methylation reactions. This review focuses on (i) the relationship between cysteine availability and GSH synthesis in children SCU (ii) whether there is an inadequate supply of cysteine in those with edematous SCU and, if so, (ii) whether this is due to a shortage of methionine or to decreased release from a protein breakdown. Finally, (iii) if there is a shortage of methionine, does this result in decreased synthesis of the universal methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine? PMID:22364160

  10. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  11. Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Surdin-Kerjan, Y

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a large number of enzymes required for the de novo biosynthesis of methionine and cysteine and the recycling of organic sulfur metabolites. This review summarizes the details of these processes and analyzes the molecular data which have been acquired in this metabolic area. Sulfur biochemistry appears not to be unique through terrestrial life, and S. cerevisiae is one of the species of sulfate-assimilatory organisms possessing a larger set of enzymes for sulfur metabolism. The review also deals with several enzyme deficiencies that lead to a nutritional requirement for organic sulfur, although they do not correspond to defects within the biosynthetic pathway. In S. cerevisiae, the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway is tightly controlled: in response to an increase in the amount of intracellular S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), transcription of the coregulated genes is turned off. The second part of the review is devoted to the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. The coordinated response to AdoMet requires two cis-acting promoter elements. One centers on the sequence TCACGTG, which also constitutes a component of all S. cerevisiae centromeres. Situated upstream of the sulfur genes, this element is the binding site of a transcription activation complex consisting of a basic helix-loop-helix factor, Cbf1p, and two basic leucine zipper factors, Met4p and Met28p. Molecular studies have unraveled the specific functions for each subunit of the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex as well as the modalities of its assembly on the DNA. The Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex contains only one transcription activation module, the Met4p subunit. Detailed mutational analysis of Met4p has elucidated its functional organization. In addition to its activation and bZIP domains, Met4p contains two regulatory domains, called the inhibitory region and the auxiliary domain. When the level of intracellular AdoMet increases

  12. Sulfur dynamics in an impoundment receiving acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    To quantify the importance of bacterial sulfate reduction (SR) in an acidified system, a sulfate influx-efflux budget was constructed for Lake Anna, an impoundment receiving acid mine drainage. Forty eight percent of the entering sulfate was removed from the water column within the 2 km arm of the lake that receives the pollution. Directly measured SR equaled 200% of the sulfate removal calculated in the budget. Thus, sulfide oxidation must be an important process in these sediments. The calculated alkalinity generated by sulfate removal was more than twice that necessary to account for the observed pH increase in the impoundment. Inorganic sulfur concentrations in the sediments of the impacted arm of Lake Anna were significantly greater than those in unpolluted sections of the lake. Label experiments showed that FeS and elemental sulfur (S{degree}) were the major products of SR in the impacted sediments. Inorganic sulfur (FeS, S{degree}, and pyrite) made up to 60% to 100% of the total sediment sulfur concentration. Pyrite concentrations were high and decreased exponentially with distance from the AMD source, indicating that the pyrite is stream detrius. FeS and S{degree} concentrations were highest at a station 1 km away from the AMD inflow, indicating in situ formation. There was no evidence for the formation of organic sulfur species.

  13. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup −1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  14. Recovery and separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent and waste sulfuric acid by solvent extraction and stripping.

    PubMed

    Qifeng, Wei; Xiulian, Ren; Jingjing, Guo; Yongxing, Chen

    2016-03-05

    The recovery and simultaneous separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent (DASE) and waste sulfuric acid (WSA) have been an earnest wish for researchers and the entire sulfate process-based titanium pigment industry. To reduce the pollution of the waste acid and make a comprehensive use of the iron and sulfuric acid in it, a new environmentally friendly recovery and separation process for the DASE and the WSA is proposed. This process is based on the reactive extraction of sulfuric acid and Fe(III) from the DASE. Simultaneously, stripping of Fe(III) is carried out in the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Compared to the conventional ways, this innovative method allows the effective extraction of sulfuric acid and iron from the DASE, and the stripping of Fe(III) from the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Trioctylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene (10-50%) were used as organic phases for solvent extraction. Under the optimal conditions, about 98% of Fe(III) and sulfuric acid were removed from the DASE, and about 99.9% of Fe(III) in the organic phase was stripped with the WSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlorine and Sulfur Volatiles from in Situ Measurements of Martian Surface Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    A sentinel discovery by the first in situ measurements on Mars was the high sulfur and chlorine content of global-wide soils. A variety of circumstantial evidence led to the conclusion that soil S is in the form of sulfate, and the Cl is probably chloride. An early hypothesis states that these volatiles are emitted as gases from magmas, and quickly react with dust, soil, and exposed rocks. Subsequent determination that SNC meteorites are also samples of the martian crust revealed a significantly higher S content, as sulfide, than terrestrial igneous rocks but substantially less than in soils. The ensuing wet chemical analyses by the high-latitude Phoenix mission discovered not only chloride but also perchlorate and possibly chlorate. MSL data now also implicate perchlorate at low latitudes. Gaseous interactions may have produced amorphous material on grain surfaces without forming stoichiometric salts. Yet, when exposed to liquid water, Phoenix samples released electrolytes, indicating that the soils have not been leached by rain or fresh groundwater. Sulfate occurrences at many locations on Mars, as well as some chloride enrichments, have now been discovered by remote sensing, Landed missions have discovered Cl-enrichments and ferric, Mg, Ca and more complex sulfates as duricrust, subsurface soil horizons, sandstone evaporites, and rock coatings - most of which cannot be detected from orbit. Salt-forming volatiles affect habitability wherever they are in physical contact: physicochemical parameters (ionic strength, freezing point, water activity); S is an essential element for terrestrial organisms; perchlorate is an oxidant which can degrade some organics but also can be utilized as an energy source; the entire valence range of S-compounds has been exploited by diverse microbiota on Earth. Whether such salt-induced conditions are "extremes" of habitability depends on the relative abundance of liquid H2O.

  16. Interaction of sulfuric acid corrosion and mechanical wear of iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Friction and wear experiment were conducted with elemental iron sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid at concentrations ranging from very dilute (0.00007 N; i.e., 4 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent acid). Load and reciprocating sliding speed were kept constant. With the most dilute acid concentration of 0.00007 to 0.0002 N, a complex corrosion product formed that was friable and often increased friction and wear. At slightly higher concentrations of 0.001 N, metal losses were essentially by wear alone. Because no buildup of corrosion products occurred, this acid concentration became the standard from which to separate metal loss from direct corrosion and mechanical wear losses. When the acid concentration was increased to 5 percent (1 N), the well-established high corrosion rate of iron in sulfuric acid strongly dominated the total wear loss. This strong corrosion increased to 30 percent acid and decreased somewhat to 50 percent acid in accordance with expectations. However, the low corrosion of iron expected at acid concentrations of 65 to 96 percent was not observed in the wear area. It was apparent that the normal passivating film was being worn away and a galvanic cell established that rapidly attacked the wear area. Under the conditions where direct corrosion losses were highest, the coefficient of friction was the lowest.

  17. Interaction of sulfuric acid corrosion and mechanical wear of iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with elemental iron sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid at concentrations ranging from very dilute (0.00007 N; i.e., 4 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent acid). Load and reciprocating sliding speed were kept constant. With the most dilute acid concentration of 0.00007 to 0.0002 N, a complex corrosion product formed that was friable and often increased friction and wear. At slightly higher concentrations of 0.001 N, metal losses were essentially by wear alone. Because no buildup of corrosion products occurred, this acid concentration became the standard from which to separate metal loss from direct corrosion and mechanical wear losses. When the acid concentration was increased to 5 percent (1 N), the well-established high corrosion rate of iron in sulfuric acid strongly dominated the total wear loss. This strong corrosion increased to 30 percent acid and decreased somewhat to 50 percent acid in accordance with expectations. However, the low corrosion of iron expected at acid concentrations of 65 to 96 percent was not observed in the wear area. It was apparent that the normal passivating film was being worn away and a galvanic cell established that rapidly attacked the wear area. Under the conditions where direct corrosion losses were highest, the coefficient of friction was the lowest.

  18. Free energy barrier in the growth of sulfuric acid-ammonia and sulfuric acid-dimethylamine clusters.

    PubMed

    Olenius, T; Kupiainen-Määttä, O; Ortega, I K; Kurtén, T; Vehkamäki, H

    2013-08-28

    The first step in atmospheric new particle formation involves the aggregation of gas phase molecules into small molecular clusters that can grow by colliding with gas molecules and each other. In this work we used first principles quantum chemistry combined with a dynamic model to study the steady-state kinetics of sets of small clusters consisting of sulfuric acid and ammonia or sulfuric acid and dimethylamine molecules. Both sets were studied with and without electrically charged clusters. We show the main clustering pathways in the simulated systems together with the quantum chemical Gibbs free energies of formation of the growing clusters. In the sulfuric acid-ammonia system, the major growth pathways exhibit free energy barriers, whereas in the acid-dimethylamine system the growth occurs mainly via barrierless condensation. When ions are present, charged clusters contribute significantly to the growth in the acid-ammonia system. For dimethylamine the role of ions is minor, except at very low acid concentration, and the growing clusters are electrically neutral.

  19. Free energy barrier in the growth of sulfuric acid-ammonia and sulfuric acid-dimethylamine clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenius, T.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Ortega, I. K.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2013-08-01

    The first step in atmospheric new particle formation involves the aggregation of gas phase molecules into small molecular clusters that can grow by colliding with gas molecules and each other. In this work we used first principles quantum chemistry combined with a dynamic model to study the steady-state kinetics of sets of small clusters consisting of sulfuric acid and ammonia or sulfuric acid and dimethylamine molecules. Both sets were studied with and without electrically charged clusters. We show the main clustering pathways in the simulated systems together with the quantum chemical Gibbs free energies of formation of the growing clusters. In the sulfuric acid-ammonia system, the major growth pathways exhibit free energy barriers, whereas in the acid-dimethylamine system the growth occurs mainly via barrierless condensation. When ions are present, charged clusters contribute significantly to the growth in the acid-ammonia system. For dimethylamine the role of ions is minor, except at very low acid concentration, and the growing clusters are electrically neutral.

  20. The influence of hydroxyl volatile organic compounds on the oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide by oxygen.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Yogpal; Chandel, C P S; Gupta, K S

    2014-01-01

    Although the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide by oxygen has been the subject of many investigations, this is the first study which examines the effect of a large number of precisely 16 hydroxy compounds. The kinetics both in the absence and the presence of VOCs was defined by rate laws (A and B): -d[S(IV)]dt = R₀ = k₀[S(IV)] (A) -d[S(IV)]dt = R(i) = k(i)[S(IV)] (B) where R₀ and k₀ are the initial rate and first-order rate constant, respectively, in the absence of VOCs, R(i), and k(i) are the initial rate and the first-order rate constant, respectively, in the presence of VOCs, and [S(IV)] is the concentration of dissolved sulfur dioxide, sulfur(IV). The nature of the dependence of k(i) on the concentration of inhibitor, [Inh], was defined by Eq. (C). [k(i) = k₀/(1 + B[Inh]) (C) where B is an empirical inhibition parameter. The values of B have been determined from the plots of 1/k(i) versus [Inh]. Among aliphatic and aromatic hydroxy compounds studied, t-butyl alcohol and pinacol were without any inhibition effect due to the absence of secondary or tertiary hydrogen. The values of inhibition parameter, B, were related to k(inh), the rate constant for the reaction of SO₄(-) radical with the inhibitor, by Eq. (D). B = (9 ± 2) x 10⁻⁴ x k(inh) (D) Equation (D) may be used to calculate the values of either of B or k(inh) provided that the other is known. The extent of inhibition depends on the value of the composite term, B[Inh]. However, in accordance with Eq. (C), the extent of inhibition would be sizeable and measurable when B[Inh] > 0.1 and oxidation of S(IV) would be almost completely stopped when B[Inh] ≥ 10. B[Inh] value can be used as a guide whether the reaction step: SO4 (-) + organics → SO₄(2-) + non-chain products: should be included in the multiphase models or not.

  1. Reduction of volatile acidity of acidic wines by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Vilela, A; Schuller, D; Mendes-Faia, A; Côrte-Real, M

    2013-06-01

    Excessive volatile acidity in wines is a major problem and is still prevalent because available solutions are nevertheless unsatisfactory, namely, blending the filter-sterilized acidic wine with other wines of lower volatile acidity or using reverse osmosis. We have previously explored the use of an empirical biological deacidification procedure to lower the acetic acid content of wines. This winemaker's enological practice, which consists in refermentation associated with acetic acid consumption by yeasts, is performed by mixing the acidic wine with freshly crushed grapes, musts, or marc from a finished wine fermentation. We have shown that the commercial strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae S26 is able to decrease the volatile acidity of acidic wines with a volatile acidity higher than 1.44 g L(-1) acetic acid, with no detrimental impact on wine aroma. In this study, we aimed to optimize the immobilization of S26 cells in alginate beads for the bioreduction of volatile acidity of acidic wines. We found that S26 cells immobilized in double-layer alginate-chitosan beads could reduce the volatile acidity of an acidic wine (1.1 g L(-1) acetic acid, 12.5 % (v/v) ethanol, pH 3.12) by 28 and 62 % within 72 and 168 h, respectively, associated with a slight decrease in ethanol concentration (0.7 %). Similar volatile acidity removal efficiencies were obtained in medium with high glucose concentration (20 % w/v), indicating that this process may also be useful in the deacidification of grape musts. We, therefore, show that immobilized S. cerevisiae S26 cells in double-layer beads are an efficient alternative to improve the quality of wines with excessive volatile acidity.

  2. Friction and wear of iron in sulfuric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Elemental iron sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from very dilute (0.000007 N; i.e., 4 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent acid) was studied. Load and reciprocating sliding speeds were kept constant. With the most dilute acid of 0.7 to 0.0002 N, a complex corrosion product formed that was friable and often increased friction and wear. At concentrations of 0.001 N, metal losses were essentially by wear alone. Because no buildup of corrosion products occurred, this acid concentration became the standard from which to separate metal loss from direct corrosion and mechanical wear losses. When the acid concentration was increased to 5 percent, the high corrosion rate of iron in sulfuric acid strongly dominated the total wear loss. This strong corrosion increased to 30 percent acid, and decreased somewhat at 50 percent in accordance with expectations. However, the low corrosion of iron expected at acid concentrations of 65 to 96 percent was not observed in the wear area. It is apparent that the normal passivating film was being worn away and a galvanic cell established which rapidly attached to the wear area.

  3. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of cattails for cellulose conversion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Lijun; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Diallo, Oumou; Whitmore, Allante

    2011-10-01

    The use of aquatic plant cattails to produce biofuel will add value to land and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by replacing petroleum products. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of cattails was studied using a Dionex accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) varying acid concentration (0.1-1%), treatment temperature (140-180 °C), and residence time (5-10 min). The highest total glucose yield for both the pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis stages (97.1% of the cellulose) was reached at a temperature of 180 °C, a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.5%, and a time of 5 min. Cattails pretreated with 0.5% sulfuric acid are digestible with similar results at enzyme loadings above 15 FPU/g glucan. Glucose from cattails cellulose can be efficiently fermented to ethanol with an approximately 90% of the theoretical yield. The results in this study indicate that cattails are a promising source of feedstock for advanced renewable fuel production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sulfuric acid-induced corrosion of aluminum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Q.; Freedman, A.; Robinson, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The sulfuric acid-induced corrosion of smooth (2 nm average roughness) aluminum surfaces has been studied in real times using an in situ Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectrometer and a quartz crystal microbalance. Submicron thick, 35 to 55 weight percent (5 to 12 molal), sulfuric acid films were formed on room temperature metal surfaces by the reaction of gas-phase SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O vapor in a flowing gas system at a total pressure of {approximately}200 Torr. The deposition of the acid films and subsequent changes in their chemical composition resulting from corrosion of the aluminum substrate could be monitored using characteristic infrared absorption features. The corrosion process always significantly perturbed the spectral signature of the films from that which was observed on inert gold surfaces. Using changes in spectral features that are linked to the production of Al{sup 3+} as indicators of corrosion, the authors conclude the rate of corrosion of the metal is strongly enhanced by both higher relative humidities and increased rates of sulfuric acid deposition.

  5. PTR-MS measurement of partition coefficients of reduced volatile sulfur compounds in liquids from biotrickling filters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Anders Michael; Adamsen, Anders Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Biological air filtration for reduction of emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide) from livestock production facilities is challenged by poor partitioning of these compounds into the aqueous biofilm or filter trickling water. In this study, Henry's law constants of reduced volatile sulfur compounds were measured for deionized water, biotrickling filter liquids (from the first and second stages of a two-stage biotrickling filter), and NaCl solutions by a dynamic method using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) at a temperature range of 3-45°C. NaCl solutions were used to estimate salting-out constants up to an ionic strength of 0.7 M in order to evaluate the effect of ionic strength on partitioning between air and biofilter liquids. Thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy and entropy of phase exchange) were obtained from the measured partition coefficients as a function of temperature. The results show that the partition coefficients of organic sulfur compounds in the biotrickling filter liquids were generally very close to the corresponding partition coefficients in deionized water. Based on the estimated ionic strength of biofilter liquids, it is assessed that salting-out effects are of no importance for these compounds. For H(2)S, a higher enthalpy of air-liquid partitioning was observed for 2nd stage filter liquid, but not for 1st stage filter liquid. In general, the results show that co-solute effects for sulfur compounds can be neglected in numerical biofilter models and that the uptake of volatile sulfur compounds in biotrickling filter liquids cannot be increased by decreasing ionic strength. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Waste Disposal Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    overflow. Newport AAP Newport, IN Storage lagoon; Combined with other lagoon overflow wastewaters; dis - to river, charged to river. Radford AAP Radford...VA Vacuvim filtered; Combined with other $ landfilled. wastewaters; dis - charged to river. Volunteer AAP Chattanooga, TN Vacuum filtered; Double ion...Volpicelli, G., Caprio , V. and Santoro, L. (1982), "Development of a Process for Neutralizing Acid Wastewaters by Powdered Limestone," Enviro Technology

  7. Malodorous volatile organic sulfur compounds: Sources, sinks and significance in inland waters.

    PubMed

    Watson, Susan B; Jüttner, Friedrich

    2017-03-01

    Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds (VOSCs) are instrumental in global S-cycling and greenhouse gas production. VOSCs occur across a diversity of inland waters, and with widespread eutrophication and climate change, are increasingly linked with malodours in organic-rich waterbodies and drinking-water supplies. Compared with marine systems, the role of VOSCs in biogeochemical processes is far less well characterized for inland waters, and often involves different physicochemical and biological processes. This review provides an updated synthesis of VOSCs in inland waters, focusing on compounds known to cause malodours. We examine the major limnological and biochemical processes involved in the formation and degradation of alkylthiols, dialkylsulfides, dialkylpolysulfides, and other organosulfur compounds under different oxygen, salinity and mixing regimes, and key phototropic and heterotrophic microbial producers and degraders (bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae) in these environs. The data show VOSC levels which vary significantly, sometimes far exceeding human odor thresholds, generated by a diversity of biota, biochemical pathways, enzymes and precursors. We also draw attention to major issues in sampling and analytical artifacts which bias and preclude comparisons among studies, and highlight significant knowledge gaps that need addressing with careful, appropriate methods to provide a more robust understanding of the potential effects of continued global development.

  8. Influence of gender and stress on the volatile sulfur compounds and stress biomarkers production.

    PubMed

    Lima, P O; Calil, C M; Marcondes, F K

    2013-05-01

    Stress and menstrual cycle have been described as factors influencing bad breath, as they can alter oral homeostasis and contribute to the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). Considering that the experimenter's and volunteer's gender may influence the volunteer's responses to stress, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of stress and gender on the production of VSC and salivary biomarkers. The experimental acute stress was induced by the Video-Recorded Stroop Color-Word Test (VRSCWT). The VSC, salivary proteins, and cardiovascular parameters were measured before and after VRSCWT. The VRSCWT induced significant increase in total VSC, hydrogen sulfide, and blood pressure values in men and women. Women presented higher values of both these compounds than men. The increase in systolic blood pressure was more pronounced when subjects were evaluated by an experimenter of the opposite gender. When women were evaluated by a member of the opposite gender, they showed significant increases in salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol compared with baseline values. Thus, the results showed that VRSCWT induced acute stress, which increased VSC production, and these effects were shown to be influenced by the gender. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Direct effect of chlorine dioxide, zinc chloride and chlorhexidine solution on the gaseous volatile sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Sik; Park, Ji-Woon; Kim, Dae-Jung; Kim, Young-Ku; Lee, Jeong-Yun

    2014-11-01

    This study focused on the ability of aqueous anti-volatile-sulfur-compound (VSC) solutions to eliminate gaseous VSCs by direct contact in a sealed space to describe possible mode of action of anti-VSC agents. Twenty milliliters of each experimental solution, 0.16% sodium chlorite, 0.25% zinc chloride, 0.1% chlorhexidine and distilled water, was injected into a Teflon bag containing mixed VSCs, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide and mixed vigorously for 30 s. The VSC concentration was measured by gas chromatography before, immediately after, 30 min and 60 min after mixing. The sodium chlorite solution reduced the VSC concentration remarkably. After mixing, nearly all VSCs were eliminated immediately and no VSCs were detected at 30 and 60 min post-mixing. However, in the other solutions, the VSC concentration decreased by ∼30% immediately after mixing and there was no further decrease. The results suggest that sodium chlorite solution has the effect of eliminating gaseous VSCs directly. This must be because it can release chlorine dioxide gas which can react directly with gaseous VSCs. In the case of other solutions that have been proved to be effective to reduce halitosis clinically, it can be proposed that their anti-VSC effect is less likely due to the direct chemical elimination of gaseous VSCs in the mouth.

  10. Volatile organic sulfur compounds in anaerobic sludge and sediments: biodegradation and toxicity.

    PubMed

    van Leerdam, Robin C; de Bok, Frank A M; Lomans, Bart P; Stams, Alfons J M; Lens, Piet N L; Janssen, Albert J H

    2006-12-01

    A variety of environmental samples was screened for anaerobic degradation of methanethiol, ethanethiol, propanethiol, dimethylsulfide, and dimethyldisulfide. All sludge and sediment samples degraded methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, and dimethyldisulfide anaerobically. In contrast, ethanethiol and propanethiol were not degraded by the samples investigated under any of the conditions tested. Methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, and dimethyldisulfide were mainly degraded by methanogenic archaea. In the presence of sulfate and the methanogenic inhibitor bromoethane sulfonate, degradation of these compounds coupled to sulfate reduction occurred as well, but at much lower rates. Besides their biodegradability, also the toxicity of methanethiol, ethanethiol, and propanethiol to methanogenesis with methanol, acetate, and H2/CO2 as the substrates was assessed. The 50% inhibition concentration of methanethiol on the methane production from these substrates ranged between 7 and 10 mM. The 50% inhibition concentration values of ethanethiol and propanethiol for the degradation of methanol and acetate were between 6 and 8 mM, whereas hydrogen consumers were less affected by ethanethiol and propanethiol, as indicated by their higher 50% inhibition concentration (14 mM). Sulfide inhibited methanethiol degradation already at relatively low concentrations: methanethiol degradation was almost completely inhibited at an initial sulfide concentration of 8 mM. These results define the operational limits of anaerobic technologies for the treatment of volatile organic sulfur compounds in sulfide-containing wastewater streams.

  11. Emissions of sulfur-containing odorants, ammonia, and methane from pig slurry: effects of dietary methionine and benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Nørgaard, Jan V; Poulsen, Hanne D; Jensen, Bent Borg; Petersen, Søren O

    2010-01-01

    Supplementation of benzoic acid to pig diets reduces the pH of urine and may thereby affect emissions of ammonia and other gases from slurry, including sulfur-containing compounds that are expected to play a role in odor emission. Over a period of 112 d, we investigated hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as well as ammonia and methane emissions from stored pig slurry. The slurry was derived from a feeding experiment with four pig diets in a factorial design with 2% (w/w) benzoic acid and 1% (w/w) methionine supplementation as treatments. Benzoic acid reduced slurry pH by 1 to 1.5 units and ammonia emissions by 60 to 70% for up to 2 mo of storage, and a considerable, but transitory reduction of methane emissions was also observed after 4 to 5 wk. All five volatile sulfur (S) compounds were identified in gas emitted from the slurry of the control treatment, which came from pigs fed according to Danish recommendations for amino acids and minerals. The emission patterns of volatile S compounds suggested an intense cycling between pools of organic S in the slurries, with urinary sulfate as the main source. Diet supplementation with methionine significantly increased all S emissions. Diet supplementation with benzoic acid reduced emissions of H(2)S and DMTS compared with the control slurry and moderately increased the concentrations of MT. Sulfur gas emissions were influenced by a strong interaction between methionine and benzoic acid treatments, which caused a significant increase in emissions of especially MT, but also of DMDS. In conclusion, addition of 2% benzoic acid to pig diets effectively reduced ammonia volatilization, but interactions with dietary S may increase odor problems.

  12. Computational study of the hydration of sulfuric acid dimers: implications for acid dissociation and aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Temelso, Berhane; Phan, Thuong Ngoc; Shields, George C

    2012-10-04

    We have investigated the thermodynamics of sulfuric acid dimer hydration using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. For (H(2)SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(n) where n = 0-6, we employed high-level ab initio calculations to locate the most stable minima for each cluster size. The results presented herein yield a detailed understanding of the first deprotonation of sulfuric acid as a function of temperature for a system consisting of two sulfuric acid molecules and up to six waters. At 0 K, a cluster of two sulfuric acid molecules and one water remains undissociated. Addition of a second water begins the deprotonation of the first sulfuric acid leading to the di-ionic species (the bisulfate anion HSO(4)(-), the hydronium cation H(3)O(+), an undissociated sulfuric acid molecule, and a water). Upon the addition of a third water molecule, the second sulfuric acid molecule begins to dissociate. For the (H(2)SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(3) cluster, the di-ionic cluster is a few kcal mol(-1) more stable than the neutral cluster, which is just slightly more stable than the tetra-ionic cluster (two bisulfate anions, two hydronium cations, and one water). With four water molecules, the tetra-ionic cluster, (HSO(4)(-))(2)(H(3)O(+))(2)(H(2)O)(2), becomes as favorable as the di-ionic cluster H(2)SO(4)(HSO(4)(-))(H(3)O(+))(H(2)O)(3) at 0 K. Increasing the temperature favors the undissociated clusters, and at room temperature we predict that the di-ionic species is slightly more favorable than the neutral cluster once three waters have been added to the cluster. The tetra-ionic species competes with the di-ionic species once five waters have been added to the cluster. The thermodynamics of stepwise hydration of sulfuric acid dimer is similar to that of the monomer; it is favorable up to n = 4-5 at 298 K. A much more thermodynamically favorable pathway forming sulfuric acid dimer hydrates is through the combination of sulfuric acid monomer hydrates, but the low concentration of sulfuric acid relative to

  13. Thermal Regeneration of Sulfuric Acid Hydrates after Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to more completely understand the surface chemistry of the jovian icy satellites, we have investigated the effect of heating on two irradiated crystalline sulfuric acid hydrates, H2SO4 4H2O and H2SO4 H2O. At temperatures relevant to Europa and the warmer jovian satellites, post-irradiation heating recrystallized the amorphized samples and increased the intensities of the remaining hydrate's infrared absorptions. This thermal regeneration of the original hydrates was nearly 100% efficient, indicating that over geological times, thermally-induced phase transitions enhanced by temperature fluctuations will reform a large fraction of crystalline hydrated sulfuric acid that is destroyed by radiation processing. The work described is the first demonstration of the competition between radiation-induced amorphization and thermally-induced recrystallization in icy ionic solids relevant to the outer Solar System.

  14. Infrared spectroscopy of sulfuric acid/water aerosols: Freezing characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, M. L.; Niedziela, R. F.; Richwine, L. J.; Dransfield, T.; Miller, R. E.; Worsnop, D. R.

    1997-04-01

    A low-temperature flow cell has been used in conjunction with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer to study sulfuric acid/water aerosols. The aerosols were generated with a wide range of composition (28 to 85 wt%), including those characteristic of stratospheric sulfate aerosols, and studied over the temperature range from 240 K to 160 K. The particles exhibited deep supercooling, by as much as 100 K below the freezing point in some cases. Freezing of water ice was observed in the more dilute (<40 wt% sulfuric acid) particles, in agreement with the predictions of Jensen et al. and recent observations by Bertram et al. In contrast with theoretical predictions, however, the entire particle often does not immediately freeze, at least on the timescale of the present experiments (seconds to minutes). Freezing of the entire particle is observed at lower temperatures, well below that characteristic of the polar stratosphere.

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x

  16. Uptake and Dissolution of Gaseous Ethanol in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Staton, Sarah J. R.; Iraci, Laura T.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of gas-phase ethanol (ethyl alcohol, CH3CH2OH, EtOH) in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was measured in a Knudsen cell reactor over ranges of temperature (209-237 K) and acid composition (39-76 wt % H2SO4). Ethanol is very soluble under these conditions: effective Henry's law coefficients, H*, range from 4 x 10(exp 4) M/atm in the 227 K, 39 wt % acid to greater than 10(exp 7) M/atm in the 76 wt % acid. In 76 wt % sulfuric acid, ethanol solubility exceeds that which can be precisely determined using the Knudsen cell technique but falls in the range of 10(exp 7)-10(exp 10) M/atm. The equilibrium concentration of ethanol in upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UT/LS) sulfate particles is calculated from these measurements and compared to other small oxygenated organic compounds. Even if ethanol is a minor component in the gas phase, it may be a major constituent of the organic fraction in the particle phase. No evidence for the formation of ethyl hydrogen sulfate was found under our experimental conditions. While the protonation of ethanol does augment solubility at higher acidity, the primary reason H* increases with acidity is an increase in the solubility of molecular (i.e., neutral) ethanol.

  17. Uptake and Dissolution of Gaseous Ethanol in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Staton, Sarah J. R.; Iraci, Laura T.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of gas-phase ethanol (ethyl alcohol, CH3CH2OH, EtOH) in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was measured in a Knudsen cell reactor over ranges of temperature (209-237 K) and acid composition (39-76 wt % H2SO4). Ethanol is very soluble under these conditions: effective Henry's law coefficients, H*, range from 4 x 10(exp 4) M/atm in the 227 K, 39 wt % acid to greater than 10(exp 7) M/atm in the 76 wt % acid. In 76 wt % sulfuric acid, ethanol solubility exceeds that which can be precisely determined using the Knudsen cell technique but falls in the range of 10(exp 7)-10(exp 10) M/atm. The equilibrium concentration of ethanol in upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UT/LS) sulfate particles is calculated from these measurements and compared to other small oxygenated organic compounds. Even if ethanol is a minor component in the gas phase, it may be a major constituent of the organic fraction in the particle phase. No evidence for the formation of ethyl hydrogen sulfate was found under our experimental conditions. While the protonation of ethanol does augment solubility at higher acidity, the primary reason H* increases with acidity is an increase in the solubility of molecular (i.e., neutral) ethanol.

  18. Uptake of isoprene, methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze; Ge, Maofa; Wang, Weigang

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation by hydrogen peroxide has been suggested to be a potential route to secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene and its gas-phase oxidation products, but the lack of kinetics data significantly limited the evaluation of this process in the atmosphere. Here we report the first measurement of the uptake of isoprene, methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Isoprene cannot readily partition into the solution because of its high volatility and low solubility, which hinders its further liquid-phase oxidation. Both methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate can enter the solutions and be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide, and steady-state uptake was observed with the acidity of solution above 30 wt.% and 70 wt.%, respectively. The steady-state uptake coefficient of methacrylic acid is much larger than that of methyl methacrylate for a solution with same acidity. These observations can be explained by the different reactivity of these two compounds caused by the different electron-withdrawing conjugation between carboxyl and ester groups. The atmospheric lifetimes were estimated based on the calculated steady-state uptake coefficients. These results demonstrate that the multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation of methacrylic acid plays a role in secondary organic aerosol formation, but for isoprene and methyl methacrylate, this process is not important in the troposphere.

  19. A critique of homogeneous freezing measurements of aqueous sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alofs, Darryl J.; Vandike, John L.

    2000-08-01

    Two laboratory measurements of homogeneous freezing of aqueous sulfuric acid particles are critiqued: The first by Bertram et al., 1996, J. Phys. Chem., vol. 100, pp. 2376-2383: the second by Koop et al., 1998, J. Phys. Chem. A, vol. 102, pp. 8924-8931. Calculations for a proposed experimental artifact are inconclusive for Bertram et al. A proposed artifact for Koop et al. is shown to be insignificant.

  20. Recovery of rhenium from sulfuric acid solutions with activated coals

    SciTech Connect

    Troshkina, I.D.; Naing, K.Z.; Ushanova, O.N.; P'o, V.; Abdusalomov, A.A.

    2006-09-15

    Equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of rhenium sorption from sulfuric acid solutions (pH 2) by activated coals produced from coal raw materials (China) were studied. Constants of the Henry equation describing isotherms of rhenium sorption by activated coals were calculated. The effective diffusion coefficients of rhenium in the coals were determined. The dynamic characteristics of rhenium sorption and desorption were determined for the activated coal with the best capacity and kinetic characteristics.

  1. COS in the stratosphere. [sulfuric acid aerosol precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inn, E. C. Y.; Vedder, J. F.; Tyson, B. J.; Ohara, D.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been detected in the stratosphere, and mixing ratio measurements are reported for altitudes of 15.2 to 31.2 km. A large volume, cryogenic sampling system mounted on board a U-2 aircraft has been used for lower stratosphere measurements and a balloon platform for measurement at 31.2 km. These observations and measurements strongly support the concept that stratospheric COS is an important precursor in the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols.

  2. Sulfuric Acid Intercalated Graphite Oxide for Graphene Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yanzhong; Wang, Zhiyong; Jin, Xianbo

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has shown enormous potential for innovation in various research fields. The current chemical approaches based on exfoliation of graphite via graphite oxide (GO) are potential for large-scale synthesis of graphene but suffer from high cost, great operation difficulties, and serious waste discharge. We report a facile preparation of graphene by rapid reduction and expansion exfoliation of sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide (SIGO) at temperature just above 100°C in ambient atmosphere, noting that SIGO is easily available as the immediate oxidation descendent of graphite in sulfuric acid. The oxygenic and hydric groups in SIGO are mainly removed through dehydration as catalyzed by the intercalated sulfuric acid (ISA). The resultant consists of mostly single layer graphene sheets with a mean diameter of 1.07 μm after dispersion in DMF. This SIGO process is reductant free, easy operation, low-energy, environmental friendly and generates graphene with low oxygen content, less defect and high conductivity. The provided synthesis route from graphite to graphene via SIGO is compact and readily scalable. PMID:24310650

  3. Laryngeal cancer and occupational exposure to sulfuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Soskolne, C.L.; Zeighami, E.A.; Hanis, N.M.; Kupper, L.L.; Herrmann, N.; Amsel, J.; Mausner, J.S.; Stellman, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Workers on an ethanol unit which used sulfuric acid in strong concentrations at a large refinery and chemical plant in Baton Rouge, Louisiana were reported in 1979, at excess risk for upper respiratory cancer. The carcinogen implicated by indirect evidence was diethyl sulfate. However, with the continued use of sulfuric acid in the same plant, and with additional cases not attributable to the ethanol process, the hypothesis of an association between sulfuric acid exposure and upper respiratory cancer was tested. Each of 50 confirmed cases of upper respiratory cancer diagnosed between 1944 and 1980, was matched to at least three controls on sex, race, age, date of initial employment, and duration of employment. Thrity-four of the 50 cases were laryngeal cancers. Data were obtained from existing plant records. Retrospective estimates of exposure were made without regard to case or control status. Findings from conditional logistic regression techniques were supported by other statistical methods. Among workers classified as potentially highly exposed, four-fold relative risks for all upper respiratory cancer sites combined were exceeded by the relative risk for laryngeal cancer specifically. Exposure-response and consistency across various comparisons after controlling statistically for tobacco-use, alcoholism and other previously implicated risk factors, suggest increased cancer risk with higher exposure.

  4. Sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide for graphene preparation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanzhong; Wang, Zhiyong; Jin, Xianbo

    2013-12-06

    Graphene has shown enormous potential for innovation in various research fields. The current chemical approaches based on exfoliation of graphite via graphite oxide (GO) are potential for large-scale synthesis of graphene but suffer from high cost, great operation difficulties, and serious waste discharge. We report a facile preparation of graphene by rapid reduction and expansion exfoliation of sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide (SIGO) at temperature just above 100°C in ambient atmosphere, noting that SIGO is easily available as the immediate oxidation descendent of graphite in sulfuric acid. The oxygenic and hydric groups in SIGO are mainly removed through dehydration as catalyzed by the intercalated sulfuric acid (ISA). The resultant consists of mostly single layer graphene sheets with a mean diameter of 1.07 μm after dispersion in DMF. This SIGO process is reductant free, easy operation, low-energy, environmental friendly and generates graphene with low oxygen content, less defect and high conductivity. The provided synthesis route from graphite to graphene via SIGO is compact and readily scalable.

  5. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric...

  9. Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis: Microbial Karst and Microbial Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A. S.; Bennett, P. C.; Stern, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Sulfuric acid speleogenesis is a fundamental mechanism of karst formation, and is potentially responsible for the formation of some of the most extensive cave systems yet discovered. Speleogenesis occurs from the rapid dissolution of the host limestone by sulfuric acid produced from biotic and abiotic sulfide oxidation, and with the release of carbon dioxide, secondary gypsum crusts form. This crust develops predominately on the cave walls, often preserving original bedding indicators, until it finally collapses under its own weight to expose fresh limestone for dissolution. While this general speleogenetic process can be inferred from secondary residues in some caves, directly observing this process is difficult, and involves entry into an extreme environment with toxic atmospheres and low pH solutions. Kane Cave, Big Horn County, WY, offers the unique opportunity to study microbe-rock interactions directly. Kane Cave presently contains 3 springs that discharge hydrogen sulfide-rich waters, supporting thick subaqueous mats of diverse microbial communities in the stream passage. Condensation droplets and elemental sulfur form on subaerially exposed gypsum surfaces. Droplets have an average pH of 1.7, and are dominated by dissolved sulfate, Ca, Mg, Al, and Si, with minor Sr and Fe, and trace Mn and U. SEM and EDS examination of the crusts reveal the presence of C, O, and S, as well as authigenic, doubly-terminated quartz crystals. An average δ 13C value of -36 ‰ suggests that the crusts are biogenic and are composed of chemoautotrophic microorganisms. Enrichment cultures of biofilms and acid droplets rapidly produce sulfuric acid, demonstrating the dominance of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Colonization of gypsum surfaces by acidophilic microorganisms enhances acid dissolution of the limestone, and hence the growth of the cave itself. Limestone dissolution also results in mineralized crusts and biofilms that accumulate insoluble residues, which serve as sources of

  10. Rapid determination of organic matter in spent sulfuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Petrenko, V.G.; Takhtaeva, A.Ya.; Frolova, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Ammonium sulfate is produced with the aid of spent sulfuric acid which averages 0.3 to 0.7% (and sometimes up to 2.5%) of carbon in the form of organic impurities. In the saturator, the latter upset the processing conditions and lower the quality (size analysis, etc.) of the ammonium sulfate. A rapid quality control procedure is essential to obtain timely warning of increased organic matter contents in the acid. On the other hand, the standard procedure in current use (TU38-2-3-1-68), based on the oxidation of organic substances with potassium bichromate in an acid medium, takes 3 hr to complete. Observations have revealed a correlation between the color of the acid and its organic impurity contents. On this basis, we have developed a rapid photocolorimetric procedure for determining the organic impurity contents of sulfuric acid, based on the known proportionality between optical density (light absorption) and solute (dye) content. A calibration curve is used to convert optical density readings to organic impurity contents. It should be pointed out that in contrast to the standard procedure, our procedure only determines the concentration of organic matter in solution in the acid. However, the amounts of insoluble organic matter are negligible compared with the amounts in solution and therefore do not affect the final results.

  11. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  12. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M. ); Sherwood, S.I. )

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO[sub 2] gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  13. Coulometric determination of berkelium in sulfuric acid and nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, G.A.; Chistyakov, V.M.; Erin, E.A.

    1987-03-01

    Results are reported on the study and quantitative determination of berkelium by the coulometric method in 1 M sulfuric acid, in solutions of nitric acid, and in mixtures of these acids. The best results in the determination of berkelium were obtained in solutions of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. In 1 M HNO/sub 3/ + 0.1 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions, berkelium can be determined with an accuracy within approx. +/- 2%, when its content is 10 ..mu..g/ml.

  14. Effect of Inorganic Salts on the Volatility of Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance. PMID:25369247

  15. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  16. Sulfuric Acid and Soot Particle Formation in Aircraft Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Verma, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Howard, S. D.; Vay, S.; Kinne, S. A.; Baumgardner, D.; Dermott, P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Goodman, J.; Gore, Waren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A combination of CN counts, Ames wire impactor size analyses and optical particle counter data in aircraft exhaust results in a continuous particle size distribution between 0.01 micrometer and 1 micrometer particle radius sampled in the exhaust of a Boeing 757 research aircraft. The two orders of magnitude size range covered by the measurements correspond to 6-7 orders of magnitude particle concentration. CN counts and small particle wire impactor data determine a nucleation mode, composed of aircraft-emitted sulfuric acid aerosol, that contributes between 62% and 85% to the total aerosol surface area and between 31% and 34% to its volume. Soot aerosol comprises 0.5% of the surface area of the sulfuric acid aerosol. Emission indices are: EIH2SO4 = 0.05 g/kgFUEL and (0.2-0.5) g/kgFUEL (for 75 ppmm and 675 ppmm fuel-S, respectively), 2.5E4sulfur (gas) to H2SO4 (particle) conversion efficiency is between 10% and 25%.

  17. Sulfuric Acid and Soot Particle Formation in Aircraft Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Verma, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Howard, S. D.; Vay, S.; Kinne, S. A.; Baumgardner, D.; Dermott, P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Goodman, J.; hide

    1997-01-01

    A combination of CN counts, Ames wire impactor size analyses and optical particle counter data in aircraft exhaust results in a continuous particle size distribution between 0.01 micrometer and 1 micrometer particle radius sampled in the exhaust of a Boeing 757 research aircraft. The two orders of magnitude size range covered by the measurements correspond to 6-7 orders of magnitude particle concentration. CN counts and small particle wire impactor data determine a nucleation mode, composed of aircraft-emitted sulfuric acid aerosol, that contributes between 62% and 85% to the total aerosol surface area and between 31% and 34% to its volume. Soot aerosol comprises 0.5% of the surface area of the sulfuric acid aerosol. Emission indices are: EIH2SO4 = 0.05 g/kgFUEL and (0.2-0.5) g/kgFUEL (for 75 ppmm and 675 ppmm fuel-S, respectively), 2.5E4sulfur (gas) to H2SO4 (particle) conversion efficiency is between 10% and 25%.

  18. Emissions of volatile fatty acids from feed at dairy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Phillip; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Campbell, Sean; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that dairy operations may be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compounds in dairy-intensive regions such as Central California, with short chain carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids or VFAs) as the major components. Emissions of four VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid) were measured from two feed sources (silage and total mixed rations (TMR)) at six Central California Dairies over a fifteen-month period. Measurements were made using a combination of flux chambers, solid phase micro-extraction fibers coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and infra-red photoaccoustic detection (IR-PAD for acetic acid only). The relationship between acetic acid emissions, source surface temperature and four sample composition factors (acetic acid content, ammonia-nitrogen content, water content and pH) was also investigated. As observed previously, acetic acid dominates the VFA emissions. Fluxes measured by IR-PAD were systematically lower than SPME/GC-MS measurements by a factor of two. High signals in field blanks prevented emissions from animal waste sources (flush lane, bedding, open lot) from being quantified. Acetic acid emissions from feed sources are positively correlated with surface temperature and acetic acid content. The measurements were used to derive a relationship between surface temperature, acetic acid content and the acetic acid flux. The equation derived from SPME/GC-MS measurements predicts estimated annual average acetic acid emissions of (0.7 + 1/-0.4) g m -2 h -1 from silage and (0.2 + 0.3/-0.1) g m -2 h -1 from TMR using annually averaged acetic acid content and meteorological data. However, during the summer months, fluxes may be several times higher than these values.

  19. A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minatsuki, Isao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Ishino, Kazuo

    The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is very corrosive due to a sulfuric acid atmosphere with high temperature and high pressure. In the IS process, a sulfuric acid decomposer is the key component which performs evaporating of sulfuric acid from liquid to gas and disassembling to SO2 gas. SiC was selected as ceramic material to apply for the sulfuric acid decomposer and a new type of binding material was also developed for SiC junction. This technology is expected to wide application not only for a sulfuric acid decomposer but also for various type components in this process. Process parameters were provided as design condition for the decomposer. The configuration of the sulfuric acid decomposer was studied, and a cylindrical tubes assembling type was selected. The advantage of this type is applicable for various type of components in the IS process due to manufacturing with using only simple shape part. A sulfuric acid decomposer was divided into two regions of the liquid and the gaseous phase of sulfuric acid. The thermal structural integrity analysis was studied for the liquid phase part. From the result of this analysis, it was investigated that the stress was below the strength of the breakdown probability 1/100,000 at any position, base material or junction part. The prototype model was manufactured, which was a ceramic portion in the liquid phase part, comparatively complicated configuration, of a sulfuric acid decomposer. The size of model was about 1.9m in height, 1.0m in width. Thirty-six cylinders including inlet and outlet nozzles were combined and each part article was joined using the new binder (slurry

  20. A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Fukui; Isao Minatsuki; Kazuo Ishino

    2006-07-01

    The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is very corrosive due to a sulfuric acid atmosphere with high temperature and high pressure. In the IS process, a sulfuric acid decomposer is the key component which performs evaporating of sulfuric acid from liquid to gas and disassembling to SO{sub 2} gas. SiC was selected as ceramic material to apply for the sulfuric acid decomposer and a new type of binding material was also developed for SiC junction. This technology is expected to wide application not only for a sulfuric acid decomposer but also for various type components in this process. Process parameters were provided as design condition for the decomposer. The configuration of the sulfuric acid decomposer was studied, and a cylindrical tubes assembling type was selected. The advantage of this type is applicable for various type of components in the IS process due to manufacturing with using only simple shape part. A sulfuric acid decomposer was divided into two regions of the liquid and the gaseous phase of sulfuric acid. The thermal structural integrity analysis was studied for the liquid phase part. From the result of this analysis, it was investigated that the stress was below the strength of the breakdown probability 1/100,000 at any position, base material or junction part. The prototype model was manufactured, which was a ceramic portion in the liquid phase part, comparatively complicated configuration, of a sulfuric acid decomposer. The size of model was about 1.9 m in height, 1.0 m in width. Thirty-six cylinders including inlet and outlet nozzles were combined and each part article was joined using the new binder

  1. Effects of stress hormones on the production of volatile sulfur compounds by periodontopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Calil, Caroline Morini; Oliveira, Gisele Mattos; Cogo, Karina; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of stress hormones on the etiologic agents of halitosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effects of adrenaline (ADR), noradrenaline (NA) and cortisol (CORT) on bacteria that produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), the major gases responsible for bad breath. Cultures of Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Porphyromonas endodontalis (Pe), Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) were exposed to 50 µM ADR, NA and CORT or equivalent volumes of sterile water as controls for 12 and 24 h. Growth was evaluated based on absorbance at 660 nm. Portable gas chromatography was used to measure VSC concentrations. Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn post-hoc test were used to compare the groups. For Fn, ADR, NA and CORT significantly reduced bacterial growth after 12 h and 24 h (p<0.05). All the substances tested increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production (p<0.05). For Pe, all the substances tested reduced bacterial development after 24 h (p<0.05), and NA significantly increased the H2S concentration after 12 h (p<0.05). In the Pg and Pi cultures, no effects on bacterial growth were observed (p>0.05). In the Pi cultures, ADR, NA and CORT increased H2S (p<0.05). Catecholamines and cortisol can interfere with growth and H2S production of sub-gingival species in vitro. This process appears to be complex and supports the association between stress and the production of VSC.

  2. Removal characteristics of sulfuric acid aerosols from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Danping; Yang, Linjun; Wu, Hao; Huang, Rongting

    2017-03-01

    With increasing attention on sulfuric acid emission, investigations on the removal characteristics of sulfuric acid aerosols by the limestone gypsum wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system and the wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) were carried out in two coal-fired power plants, and the effects of the WFGD scrubber type and the flue gas characteristics were discussed. The results showed that it was necessary to install the WESP device after desulfurization, as the WFGD system was inefficient to remove sulfuric acid aerosols from the flue gas. The removal efficiency of sulfuric acid aerosols in the WFGD system with double scrubbers ranged from 50% to 65%, which was higher than that with a single scrubber, ranging from 30% to 40%. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of WESP on the sulfuric acid aerosols was from 47.9% to 52.4%. With increased concentrations of SO3 and particles in the flue gas, the removal efficiencies of the WFGD and the WESP on the sulfuric acid aerosols were increased. Investigations on removal of sulfuric acid aerosols by the WFGD and the WESP in the power plants were aimed at the control of sulfuric acid emission. The results showed that the improvement of the WFGD system was beneficial for the reduction of sulfuric acid emission, while the WESP system was essential to control the final sulfuric acid aerosol concentration.

  3. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi

  4. Effects of acetic acid, ethanol, and SO(2) on the removal of volatile acidity from acidic wines by two Saccharomyces cerevisiae commercial strains.

    PubMed

    Vilela-Moura, Alice; Schuller, Dorit; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2010-07-01

    Herein, we report the influence of different combinations of initial concentration of acetic acid and ethanol on the removal of acetic acid from acidic wines by two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains S26 and S29. Both strains reduced the volatile acidity of an acidic wine (1.0 gl(-1) acetic acid and 11% (v/v) ethanol) by 78% and 48%, respectively. Acetic acid removal by strains S26 and S29 was associated with a decrease in ethanol concentration of 0.7 and 1.2% (v/v), respectively. Strain S26 revealed better removal efficiency due to its higher tolerance to stress factors imposed by acidic wines. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in the concentration range 95-170 mg l(-1)inhibits the ability of both strains to reduce the volatile acidity of the acidic wine used under our experimental conditions. Therefore, deacidification should be carried out either in wines stabilized by filtration or in wines with SO(2)concentrations up to 70 mg l(-1). Deacidification of wines with the better performing strain S26 was associated with changes in the concentration of volatile compounds. The most pronounced increase was observed for isoamyl acetate (banana) and ethyl hexanoate (apple, pineapple), with an 18- and 25-fold increment, respectively, to values above the detection threshold. The acetaldehyde concentration of the deacidified wine was 2.3 times higher, and may have a detrimental effect on the wine aroma. Moreover, deacidification led to increased fatty acids concentration, but still within the range of values described for spontaneous fermentations, and with apparently no negative impact on the organoleptical properties.

  5. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of sunflower stalks for sugar production.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel; Cara, Cristóbal; Vidal, Juan D; Castro, Eulogio

    2013-07-01

    In this work the pretreatment of sunflower stalks by dilute sulfuric acid is studied. Pretreatment temperature and the concentration of acid solution were selected as operation variables and modified according to a central rotatable composite experimental design. Based on previous studies pretreatment time was kept constant (5 min) while the variation range for temperature and acid concentration was centered at 175°C and 1.25% (w/v) respectively. Following pretreatment the insoluble solids were separated by filtration and further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis, while liquid fractions were analyzed for sugars and inhibitors. Response surface methodology was applied to analyze results based on the combined severity of pretreatment experiments. Optimized results show that up to 33 g of glucose and xylose per 100g raw material (65% of the glucose and xylose present in the raw material) may be available for fermentation after pretreatment at 167°C and 1.3% sulfuric acid concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Materials study supporting thermochemical hydrogen cycle sulfuric acid decomposer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Michael S.

    Increasing global climate change has been driven by greenhouse gases emissions originating from the combustion of fossil fuels. Clean burning hydrogen has the potential to replace much of the fossil fuels used today reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. The sulfur iodine and hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles coupled with high temperature heat from advanced nuclear reactors have shown promise for economical large-scale hydrogen fuel stock production. Both of these cycles employ a step to decompose sulfuric acid to sulfur dioxide. This decomposition step occurs at high temperatures in the range of 825°C to 926°C dependent on the catalysis used. Successful commercial implementation of these technologies is dependent upon the development of suitable materials for use in the highly corrosive environments created by the decomposition products. Boron treated diamond film was a potential candidate for use in decomposer process equipment based on earlier studies concluding good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. However, little information was available relating the interactions of diamond and diamond films with sulfuric acid at temperatures greater than 350°C. A laboratory scale sulfuric acid decomposer simulator was constructed at the Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The simulator was capable of producing the temperatures and corrosive environments that process equipment would be exposed to for industrialization of the sulfur iodide or hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles. A series of boron treated synthetic diamonds were tested in the simulator to determine corrosion resistances and suitability for use in thermochemical process equipment. These studies were performed at twenty four hour durations at temperatures between 600°C to 926°C. Other materials, including natural diamond, synthetic diamond treated with titanium, silicon carbide, quartz, aluminum nitride, and Inconel

  7. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the

  8. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents

  9. Why sulfuric acid forms particles so extremely well, and how organics might still compete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurten, T.; Ehn, M.; Kupiainen, O.; Olenius, T.; Rissanen, M.; Thornton, J. A.; Nielsen, L.; Jørgensen, S.; Ortega Colomer, I. K.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2013-12-01

    It is a well-known result in aerosol science that the single most important molecule for the first steps of new-particle formation in our atmosphere is sulfuric acid, H2SO4. From a chemical perspective, this seems somewhat counterintuitive: the atmosphere contains thousands of different organic compounds, many of which can potentially form oxidation products with even lower volatility than H2SO4. The unique role of sulfuric acid is due to its formation kinetics. The conversion of sulfur dioxide, SO2 to H2SO4 requires only a single oxidant molecule (e.g. OH), as subsequent steps are extremely rapid. Still, the saturation vapor pressure of H2SO4 is over 108 times lower than that of SO2. In contrast, the oxidation reactions of organic molecules typically lower their saturation vapor pressure by only a factor of 10-1000 per oxidation step. Therefore, organic compounds are usually lost to pre-existing aerosol surfaces before they have undergone sufficiently many oxidation reactions to nucleate on their own. The presence of strong nitrogen-containing base molecules such as amines enhances the particle-forming advantages of sulfuric acid even further. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the evaporation rate of sulfuric acid from key clusters containing two acid molecules may decrease by a factor of 108 in the presence of ppt-level concentrations of amines, implying a total decrease of up to 1016 in the effective vapor pressure going from SO2 to H2SO4. In some circumstances, this decrease causes the energy barrier for new-particle formation to disappear: the process is no longer nucleation, and some common applications of e.g. the nucleation theorem cease to apply. Cluster kinetic models combined with first-principles evaporation rates appear to describe this sulfuric acid - base clustering reasonably well, and result in cluster formation rates close to those measured at the CLOUD experiment in CERN. There may nevertheless exist exceptions to the general rule that

  10. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). 721.9220 Section 721... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (PMNs P-89-703, P-89-755, and P-89-756) are subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). 721.9220 Section 721... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (PMNs P-89-703, P-89-755, and P-89-756) are subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). 721.9220 Section 721... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (PMNs P-89-703, P-89-755, and P-89-756) are subject to reporting under this...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). 721.9220 Section 721... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (PMNs P-89-703, P-89-755, and P-89-756) are subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). 721.9220 Section 721... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (PMNs P-89-703, P-89-755, and P-89-756) are subject to reporting under this...

  15. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for

  16. Trace element transformations and partitioning during the roasting of pyrite ores in the sulfuric acid industry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yongheng; Peng, Ping'an; Li, Chao; Chang, Xiangyang; Wu, Yingjuan

    2009-08-15

    Total concentrations combined with chemical partitioning of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn) in raw pyrite ore and solid roasting wastes were investigated in order to elucidate their transformations and partitioning during the roasting of raw pyrite ores in sulfuric acid production. In order to better understand the behavior of these elements during roasting, mineral transformations accompanying roasting were also investigated by using microscopy. Results indicated that the mode of occurrence of trace elements in raw pyrite ore and the thermostability of trace element-bearing species formed during roasting played major roles in the transformations of the selected trace elements. Silicate- and amorphous iron (hydr)oxide-bound elements (Cr and Pb) were stable and mainly retained in their original phases. However, acid-exchangeable and sulfide-bound elements tended to transform into other forms via different pathways: elements that tend to form low thermostable species (Cd, Pb and Tl) were significantly vaporized, whereas elements that tend to form high thermostable species (Co, Mn and Ni) mainly reacted with iron oxides or silicates, which then remained in the solid residues. The volatility of trace elements during the roasting has a significant effect on their subsequent partitioning in roasting wastes. Nonvolatile element (Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) partitioning was determined by settling of the particulate in which they are bound, whereas the partitioning of (semi)volatile elements (Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn) was controlled by the adsorption of their gaseous species on the particulate.

  17. Comparison between the single-bubble sonoluminescences in sulfuric acid and in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Weizhong; Gao, Xianxian; Liang, Yue

    2009-02-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) is achieved with strong stability in sulfuric acid solutions. Bubble dynamics and the SBSL spectroscopy in the sulfuric acid solutions with different concentrations are studied with phase-locked integral stroboscopic photography method and a spectrograph, respectively. The experimental results are compared with those in water. The SBSL in sulfuric acid is brighter than that in water. One of the most important reasons for that is the larger viscosity of sulfuric acid, which results in the larger ambient radius and thus the more contents of luminous material inside the bubble. However, sonoluminescence bubble’s collapse in sulfuric acid is less violent than that in water, and the corresponding blackbody radiation temperature of the SBSL in sulfuric acid is lower than that in water.

  18. A rotamer energy level study of sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Lauri; Pesonen, Janne; Sjöholm, Elina; Halonen, Lauri

    2013-10-01

    It is a common approach in quantum chemical calculations for polyatomic molecules to rigidly constrain some of the degrees of freedom in order to make the calculations computationally feasible. However, the presence of the rigid constraints also affects the kinetic energy operator resulting in the frozen mode correction, originally derived by Pesonen [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 144310 (2013)]. In this study, we compare the effects of this correction to several different approximations to the kinetic energy operator used in the literature, in the specific case of the rotamer energy levels of sulfuric acid. The two stable conformers of sulfuric acid are connected by the rotations of the O-S-O-H dihedral angles and possess C2 and Cs symmetry in the order of increasing energy. Our results show that of the models tested, the largest differences with the frozen mode corrected values were obtained by simply omitting the passive degrees of freedom. For the lowest 17 excited states, this inappropriate treatment introduces an increase of 9.6 cm-1 on average, with an increase of 8.7 cm-1 in the zero-point energies. With our two-dimensional potential energy surface calculated at the CCSD(T)-F12a/VDZ-F12 level, we observe a radical shift in the density of states compared to the harmonic picture, combined with an increase in zero point energy. Thus, we conclude that the quantum mechanical inclusion of the different conformers of sulfuric acid have a significant effect on its vibrational partition function, suggesting that it will also have an impact on the computational values of the thermodynamic properties of any reactions where sulfuric acid plays a role. Finally, we also considered the effect of the anharmonicities for the other vibrational degrees of freedom with a VSCF-calculation at the DF-MP2-F12/VTZ-F12 level of theory but found that the inclusion of the other conformer had the more important effect on the vibrational partition function.

  19. Sulfuric acid cloud interpretation of the infrared spectrum of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martonchik, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfuric acid single-cloud models are compared with the Venus spectrum in the 8-14 micron region. The results indicate that a cloud composed of a 75 percent H2SO4 solution and with a particle density of 100 per cu cm is in good agreement with observations. In addition to explaining the 11.2 micron absorption, this model also predicts an absorption feature at 16.7 microns which should be detectable if the observation is made from an aircraft.

  20. A rotamer energy level study of sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Lauri; Pesonen, Janne; Sjöholm, Elina; Halonen, Lauri

    2013-10-14

    It is a common approach in quantum chemical calculations for polyatomic molecules to rigidly constrain some of the degrees of freedom in order to make the calculations computationally feasible. However, the presence of the rigid constraints also affects the kinetic energy operator resulting in the frozen mode correction, originally derived by Pesonen [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 144310 (2013)]. In this study, we compare the effects of this correction to several different approximations to the kinetic energy operator used in the literature, in the specific case of the rotamer energy levels of sulfuric acid. The two stable conformers of sulfuric acid are connected by the rotations of the O-S-O-H dihedral angles and possess C2 and Cs symmetry in the order of increasing energy. Our results show that of the models tested, the largest differences with the frozen mode corrected values were obtained by simply omitting the passive degrees of freedom. For the lowest 17 excited states, this inappropriate treatment introduces an increase of 9.6 cm(-1) on average, with an increase of 8.7 cm(-1) in the zero-point energies. With our two-dimensional potential energy surface calculated at the CCSD(T)-F12a/VDZ-F12 level, we observe a radical shift in the density of states compared to the harmonic picture, combined with an increase in zero point energy. Thus, we conclude that the quantum mechanical inclusion of the different conformers of sulfuric acid have a significant effect on its vibrational partition function, suggesting that it will also have an impact on the computational values of the thermodynamic properties of any reactions where sulfuric acid plays a role. Finally, we also considered the effect of the anharmonicities for the other vibrational degrees of freedom with a VSCF-calculation at the DF-MP2-F12/VTZ-F12 level of theory but found that the inclusion of the other conformer had the more important effect on the vibrational partition function.

  1. Allyl isothiocyanate from mustard seed is effective in reducing the levels of volatile sulfur compounds responsible for intrinsic oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Minmin; Hanley, A Bryan; Dodds, Michael W J

    2013-06-01

    Oral malodor is a major social and psychological issue that affects general populations. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), particularly hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) and methyl mercaptan (CH₃SH), are responsible for most oral malodor. The objectives for this study were to determine whether allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) at an organoleptically acceptable level can eliminate VSCs containing a free thiol moiety and further to elucidate the mechanism of action and reaction kinetics. The study revealed that gas chromatograph with a sulfur detector demonstrated a good linearity, high accuracy and sensitivity on analysis of VSCs. Zinc salts eliminate the headspace level of H₂S but not CH₃SH. AITC eliminates both H₂S and CH₃SH via a nucleophilic addition reaction. In addition, a chemical structure-activity relationship study revealed that the presence of unsaturated group on the side chain of the isothiocyanate accelerates the elimination of VSCs.

  2. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi

  3. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted...

  4. What Is Required for Highly Oxidized Molecules To Form Clusters with Sulfuric Acid?

    PubMed

    Elm, Jonas; Myllys, Nanna; Kurtén, Theo

    2017-06-15

    We have studied the specific requirements of a given neutral organic molecule to act as a stabilizer in sulfuric acid induced new particle formation. Based on an analysis of the reaction Gibbs free energies between simple functional groups and sulfuric acid, carboxylic acid groups are identified to show the strongest hydrogen bonding interaction with sulfuric acid. The free energy associated with the hydrogen bonding between sulfuric acid and 14 different carboxylic acids of atmospheric relevance reveal that the binding strength is very dependent on the ability of sulfuric acid to form an additional hydrogen bond via its vacant S-OH group to a γ-carbonyl group in the organic molecule. Extending the analysis to monoterpene oxidation products and further to large dimer esters, we identify the following necessary criteria for a given organic oxidation product to efficiently stabilize sulfuric acid clustering: (1) weak or no intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the isolated monomer; (2) more than two carboxylic acid groups. As a proof of concept we show that these requirements correspond to the docking of a sulfuric acid molecule between two non-interacting carboxylic acid groups in the organic molecule. These findings suggests that, for a given organic oxidation product to participate in the initial steps in new particle formation involving sulfuric acid, very distinct molecular features are required.

  5. Factors controlling fluxes of volatile sulfur compounds in Sphagnum peatlands. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni

    1992-01-01

    Exchange of DMS and OCS between the surface of Sphagnum peatlands and the atmosphere were measured with dynamic (S-free sweep air) and static enclosures. DMS emission rates determined by both methods were comparable. The dynamic method provided positive OCS flux rates (emission) for measurements performed at sites containing Sphagnum. Conversely, data from the static method indicated that OCS was consumed from the atmosphere. Short and long-term impacts of increased S deposition on fluxes of volatile S compounds (VSC's) from Sphagnum peatlands were investigated in a poor fen (Mire 239) at the Experimental Lakes Area, Ontario, Canada. Additional experiments were conducted in a poor fen (Sallie's Fen in Barrington, NH, USA). At Mire 239, emissions of VSC's were monitored, before and after acidification, at control and experimental sections within two major physiographic areas of the mire (oligotrophic and minerotrophic). DMS was the predominant VSC released from Mire 239 and varied largely with time and space. Sulfur addition did not affect DMS emissions in a period of hours to a few days. DMS emissions in the experimental oligotrophic area of the mire was approximately 3-fold greater than in the control oligotrophic area, and approximately 10-fold greater than in the minerotrophic zones. These differences could be due to a combination of differences in types of vegetation, nutritional status, and S input. At Sallie's Fen, DMS fluxes were not significantly affected by sulfate amendments, while DMS and MSH concentrations increased greatly with time in the top 10 cm of the peat column. The major environmental factors controlling fluxes of DMS in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland were investigated in Sallie's Fen, NH. DMS emissions from the surface of the peatland varied greatly over 24 hours and seasonally. Temperature seemed to be the major environmental factor controlling these variabilities. Concentrations of dissolved VSC's varied with time and space throughout the fen

  6. Stability of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in sampling bags - impact of temperature.

    PubMed

    Le, H; Sivret, E C; Parcsi, G; Stuetz, R M

    2013-01-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are a major component of odorous emissions that can cause annoyance to local populations surrounding wastewater, waste management and agricultural practices. Odour collection and storage using sample bags can result in VSC losses due to sorption and leakage. Stability within 72 hour storage of VSC samples in three sampling bag materials (Tedlar, Mylar, Nalophan) was studied at three temperatures: 5, 20, and 30 °C. The VSC samples consisted of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH), ethanethiol (EtSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), tert-butanethiol (t-BuSH), ethylmethyl sulfide (EMS), 1-butanethiol (1-BuSH), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), diethyl disulfide (DEDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). The results for H2S showed that higher loss trend was clearly observed (46-50% at 24 hours) at 30 °C compared to the loss at 5 °C or 20 °C (of up to 27% at 24 hours) in all three bag materials. The same phenomenon was obtained for other thiols with the relative recoveries after a 24 hour period of 76-78% at 30 °C and 80-93% at 5 and 20 °C for MeSH; 77-80% at 30 °C and 79-95% at 5 and 20 °C for EtSH; 87-89% at 30 °C and 82-98% at 5 and 20 °C for t-BuSH; 61-73% at 30 °C and 76-98% at 5 and 20 °C for 1-BuSH. Results for other sulfides and disulfides (DMS, EMS, DMDS, DEDS) indicated stable relative recoveries with little dependency on temperature (83-103% after 24 hours). DMTS had clear loss trends (with relative recoveries of 74-87% in the three bag types after 24 hours) but showed minor differences in relative recoveries at 5, 20, and 30 °C.

  7. Acid-base accounting assessment of mine wastes using the chromium reducible sulfur method.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Russell; Stewart, Warwick; Miller, Stuart; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger

    2012-05-01

    The acid base account (ABA), commonly used in assessment of mine waste materials, relies in part on calculation of potential acidity from total sulfur measurements. However, potential acidity is overestimated where organic sulfur, sulfate sulfur and some sulfide compounds make up a substantial portion of the sulfur content. The chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) method has been widely applied to assess reduced inorganic sulfur forms in sediments and acid sulfate soils, but not in ABA assessment of mine wastes. This paper reports the application of the CRS method to measuring forms of sulfur commonly found in mine waste materials. A number of individual sulfur containing minerals and real waste materials were analyzed using both CRS and total S and the potential acidity estimates were compared with actual acidity measured from net acid generation tests and column leach tests. The results of the CRS analysis made on individual minerals demonstrate good assessment of sulfur from a range of sulfides. No sulfur was measured using the CRS method in a number of sulfate salts, including jarosite and melanterite typically found in weathered waste rocks, or from dibenzothiophene characteristic of organic sulfur compounds common to coal wastes. Comparison of ABA values for a number of coal waste samples demonstrated much better agreement of acidity predicted from CRS analysis than total S analysis with actual acidity. It also resulted in reclassification of most samples tested from PAF to NAF. Similar comparisons on base metal sulfide wastes generally resulted in overestimation of the acid potential by total S and underestimation of the acid potential by CRS in comparison to acidity measured during NAG tests, but did not generally result in reclassification. In all the cases examined, the best estimate of potential acidity included acidity calculated from both CRS and jarositic S. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydration of pure and base-Containing sulfuric acid clusters studied by computational chemistry methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henschel, Henning; Ortega, Ismael K.; Kupiainen, Oona; Olenius, Tinja; Kurtén, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2013-05-01

    The formation of hydrates of small molecular sulfuric acid clusters and cluster containing both sulfuric acid and base (ammonia or dimethylamine) has been studied by means of computational chemistry. Using a combined ab initio/density functional approach, formation energies of clusters with up to four sulfuric acid molecules, and up to two base molecules, have been calculated. Consequences for the hydration level of the corresponding clusters have been modelled. While the majority of pure sulfuric acid cluster are comparatively strongly hydrated, base containing cluster were found to be less hydrophilic. Dimethylamine is particularly effective in lowering the hydrophilicity of the cluster. Implications of the hydration profiles on atmospheric processes are discussed.

  9. Post-harvest control of gray mold in table grapes using volatile sulfur compounds from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Gándara-Ledezma, Azucena; Corrales-Maldonado, Consuelo; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel Ángel; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of volatile sulfur compounds derived from garlic (Allium sativum) extracts applied via gas for the control of Botrytis cinerea, which causes post-harvest disease in table grapes. The effects of the volatile compounds emitted by garlic extract and sodium metabisulfite on conidia germination of B. cinerea were evaluated in vitro to assess their effectiveness at controlling grey mold on grapes stored at different temperatures. Diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide and allicin were identified and quantified in a garlic extract using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The volatile compounds emitted by the garlic extract in the form of allicin and diallyl trisulfide inhibited conidia germination of B. cinerea in vitro and significantly reduced the lesion diameters on stored grapes, which were similar to the effects of sodium metabisulfite, while the diallyl disulfide did not have any effect. The sulfhydryl groups of cysteine or reduced glutathione completely reversed the antifungal effect of these compounds. The antifungal activity that allicin and diallyl trisulfide, which are the volatile compounds emitted by a garlic extract, exerted on conidia germination of B. cinerea may be considered as an alternative for the control of gray mold in table grapes after harvest. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Gas phase measurements of pyruvic acid and its volatile metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Kolby J; Sommer, Evan D; Saleska, Scott R; Huxman, Travis E; Harley, Peter C; Abrell, Leif

    2010-04-01

    Pyruvic acid, central to leaf carbon metabolism, is a precursor of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that impact air quality and climate. Although the pathways involved in the production of isoprenoids are well-known, those of several oxygenated VOCs remain uncertain. We present concentration and flux measurements of pyruvic acid and other VOCs within the tropical rainforest (TRF) biome at Biosphere 2. Pyruvic acid concentrations varied diurnally with midday maxima up to 15 ppbv, perhaps due to enhanced production rates and suppression of mitochondrial respiration in the light. Branch fluxes and ambient concentrations of pyruvic acid correlated with those of acetone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetic acid, isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. While pyruvic acid is a known substrate for isoprenoid synthesis, this correlation suggests that the oxygenated VOCs may also derive from pyruvic acid, an idea supported by leaf feeding experiments with sodium pyruvate which resulted in large enhancements in emissions of both isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs. While feeding with sodium pyruvate-2-(13)C resulted in large emissions of both (13)C-labeled isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs, feeding with sodium pyruvate-1-(13)C resulted in only (13)C-labeled isoprenoids. This suggests that acetaldehyde, ethanol, and acetic acid are produced from pyruvic acid via the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) bypass system (in which the 1-C carbon of pyruvic acid is lost as CO(2)) and that acetone is also derived from the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid.

  11. Laboratory measurements of heterogeneous reactions on sulfuric acid surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Leah R.; Manion, Jeffrey A.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Increasing evidence from field, modeling, and laboratory studies suggests that heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles may contribute to global ozone depletion. Using a Knudsen cell reactor technique, the authors have studied the uptake, reactivity, and solubility of several trace atmospheric species on cold sulfuric acid surfaces representative of stratospheric aerosol particles. The results suggest that the heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 is fast enough to significantly affect the partitioning of nitrogen species in the global stratosphere and thus contribute to global ozone depletion. The hydrolysis of ClONO2 is slower and unlikely to be important under normal conditions at midlatitudes. The solubilities of HCl and HNO3 in sulfuric acid down to 200 K were found to be quite low. For HCl, this means that little HCl is available for reaction on the surfaces of stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles. The low solubility of HNO3 means that this product of heterogeneous reactions will enter the gas phase, and the denitrification observed in polar regions is unlikely to occur in the global stratosphere.

  12. Heterogeneous atmospheric reactions - Sulfuric acid aerosols as tropospheric sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, A. C.; Golden, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction probabilities of various atmospheric species incident on a bulk sulfuric acid surface are measured in order to determine the role of sulfuric acid aerosols as pollutant sinks. Reaction products and unreacted starting materials leaving a Knudsen cell flow reactor after collision at 300 K with a H2SO4 surface or a soot surface were detected by mass spectrometry. Significant collision reaction probabilities are observed on a H2SO4 surface for H2O2, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, N2O5, H2O and NH3, and on soot for NH3. Estimates of the contribution of heterogeneous reactions to pollutant removal under atmospheric conditions indicate that while aerosol removal in the stratosphere is insignificant (loss rate constants approximately 10 to the -10th/sec), heterogeneous reactions may be the dominant loss process for several tropospheric species (loss rate constant approximately 10 to the -5th/sec, comparable to photolysis rate constants).

  13. Laboratory measurements of heterogeneous reactions on sulfuric acid surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Leah R.; Manion, Jeffrey A.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Increasing evidence from field, modeling, and laboratory studies suggests that heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles may contribute to global ozone depletion. Using a Knudsen cell reactor technique, the authors have studied the uptake, reactivity, and solubility of several trace atmospheric species on cold sulfuric acid surfaces representative of stratospheric aerosol particles. The results suggest that the heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 is fast enough to significantly affect the partitioning of nitrogen species in the global stratosphere and thus contribute to global ozone depletion. The hydrolysis of ClONO2 is slower and unlikely to be important under normal conditions at midlatitudes. The solubilities of HCl and HNO3 in sulfuric acid down to 200 K were found to be quite low. For HCl, this means that little HCl is available for reaction on the surfaces of stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles. The low solubility of HNO3 means that this product of heterogeneous reactions will enter the gas phase, and the denitrification observed in polar regions is unlikely to occur in the global stratosphere.

  14. Solubility of HBr in sulfuric acid at stratospheric temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.R.; Golden, D.M.; Huestis, D.L.

    1995-04-20

    The solubility of HBr in 54 to 72 wt % sulfuric acid at low temperatures (200 to 240 K) was measured using two different experimental techniques. In the first, the time dependence of the uptake coefficient of HBr was measured in a Knudsen cell reactor and analyzed to give the effective Henry`s law coefficient. In the second, equilibrium vapor pressures of HBr (gas) over solutions containing known concentrations of HBr (dissolved) were measured. The two techniques were in good agreement. Typical values of the effective Henry`s law coefficient at 220 K were 1.5 x 10{sup 7} M/atm for 54 wt %, 2.2 x 10{sup 6} M/atm for 60 wt %, 1.5 x 10{sup 5} M/atm for 66 wt %, and 8.5 x 10{sup 3} M/atm for 72 wt % sulfuric acid. The measured solubilities combined with the stratospheric gas phase concentration of HBr indicate that very little HBr will be dissolved in stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Involvement of Intermediate Sulfur Species in Biological Reduction of Elemental Sulfur under Acidic, Hydrothermal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Druschel, Gregory K.

    2013-01-01

    The thermoacidophile and obligate elemental sulfur (S80)-reducing anaerobe Acidilobus sulfurireducens 18D70 does not associate with bulk solid-phase sulfur during S80-dependent batch culture growth. Cyclic voltammetry indicated the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as well as polysulfides after 1 day of batch growth of the organism at pH 3.0 and 81°C. The production of polysulfide is likely due to the abiotic reaction between S80 and the biologically produced H2S, as evinced by a rapid cessation of polysulfide formation when the growth temperature was decreased, inhibiting the biological production of sulfide. After an additional 5 days of growth, nanoparticulate S80 was detected in the cultivation medium, a result of the hydrolysis of polysulfides in acidic medium. To examine whether soluble polysulfides and/or nanoparticulate S80 can serve as terminal electron acceptors (TEA) supporting the growth of A. sulfurireducens, total sulfide concentration and cell density were monitored in batch cultures with S80 provided as a solid phase in the medium or with S80 sequestered in dialysis tubing. The rates of sulfide production in 7-day-old cultures with S80 sequestered in dialysis tubing with pore sizes of 12 to 14 kDa and 6 to 8 kDa were 55% and 22%, respectively, of that of cultures with S80 provided as a solid phase in the medium. These results indicate that the TEA existed in a range of particle sizes that affected its ability to diffuse through dialysis tubing of different pore sizes. Dynamic light scattering revealed that S80 particles generated through polysulfide rapidly grew in size, a rate which was influenced by the pH of the medium and the presence of organic carbon. Thus, S80 particles formed through abiological hydrolysis of polysulfide under acidic conditions appeared to serve as a growth-promoting TEA for A. sulfurireducens. PMID:23335768

  16. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  17. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  18. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  19. Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate: Formation and Heterogeneous Chemistry in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated some thermodynamic properties (i.e., freezing/melting points) and heterogeneous chemistry of sulfuric acid monohydrate (SAM, H2SO4.H2O), using a fast flow reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The freezing point observations of thin liquid sulfuric acid films show that for acid contents between 75 and 85 wt % the monohydrate crystallizes readily at temperatures between 220 and 240 K on a glass substrate. Once formed, SAM can be thermodynamically stable in the H2O partial pressure range of (1-4) x 10(exp -4) torr and in the temperature range of 220-240 K. For a constant H2O partial pressure, lowering the temperature causes SAM to melt when the temperature and water partial pressure conditions are out of its stability regime. The reaction probability measurements indicate that the hydrolysis of N2O5 is significantly suppressed owing to the formation of crystalline SAM: The reaction probability on water-rich SAM (with higher relative humidity, or RH) is of the order of 10(exp -3) at 210 K and decreases by more than an order of magnitude for the acid-rich form (with lower RH). The hydrolysis rate of ClONO2 on water-rich SAM is even smaller, of the order of 10(exp -4) at 195 K. These reported values on crystalline SAM are much smaller than those on liquid solutions. No enhancement of these reactions is observed in the presence of HCl vapor at the stratospheric concentrations. In addition, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller analysis of gas adsorption isotherms and photomicrography have been performed to characterize the surface roughness and porosities of the SAM substrate. The results suggest the possible formation of SAM in some regions of the middle- or low-latitude stratosphere and, consequently, much slower heterogeneous reactions on the frozen aerosols.

  20. Sulfuric acid monohydrate: Formation and heterogeneous chemistry in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

    1995-09-01

    We have investigated some thermodynamic properties (i.e., freezing/melting points) and heterogeneous chemistry of sulfuric acid monohydrate (SAM, H2SO4 · H2O), using a fast flow reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The freezing point observations of thin liquid sulfuric acid films show that for acid contents between 75 and 85 wt % the monohydrate crystallizes readily at temperatures between 220 and 240 K on a glass substrate. Once formed, SAM can be thermodynamically stable in the H2O partial pressure range of (1-4)×10-4 torr and in the temperature range of 220-240 K. For a constant H2O partial pressure, lowering the temperature causes SAM to melt when the temperature and water partial pressure conditions are out of its stability regime. The reaction probability measurements indicate that the hydrolysis of N2O5 is significantly suppressed owing to the formation of crystalline SAM: The reaction probability on water-rich SAM (with higher relative humidity, or RH) is of the order of 10-3 at 210 K and decreases by more than an order of magnitude for the acid-rich form (with lower RH). The hydrolysis rate of ClONO2 on water-rich SAM is even smaller, of the order of 10-4 at 195 K. These reported values on crystalline SAM are much smaller than those on liquid solutions. No enhancement of these reactions is observed in the presence of HCl vapor at the stratospheric concentrations. In addition, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller analysis of gas adsorption isotherms and photomicrography have been performed to characterize the surface roughness and porosities of the SAM substrate. The results suggest the possible formation of SAM in some regions of the middle- or low-latitude stratosphere and, consequently, much slower heterogeneous reactions on the frozen aerosols.

  1. Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate: Formation and Heterogeneous Chemistry in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated some thermodynamic properties (i.e., freezing/melting points) and heterogeneous chemistry of sulfuric acid monohydrate (SAM, H2SO4.H2O), using a fast flow reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The freezing point observations of thin liquid sulfuric acid films show that for acid contents between 75 and 85 wt % the monohydrate crystallizes readily at temperatures between 220 and 240 K on a glass substrate. Once formed, SAM can be thermodynamically stable in the H2O partial pressure range of (1-4) x 10(exp -4) torr and in the temperature range of 220-240 K. For a constant H2O partial pressure, lowering the temperature causes SAM to melt when the temperature and water partial pressure conditions are out of its stability regime. The reaction probability measurements indicate that the hydrolysis of N2O5 is significantly suppressed owing to the formation of crystalline SAM: The reaction probability on water-rich SAM (with higher relative humidity, or RH) is of the order of 10(exp -3) at 210 K and decreases by more than an order of magnitude for the acid-rich form (with lower RH). The hydrolysis rate of ClONO2 on water-rich SAM is even smaller, of the order of 10(exp -4) at 195 K. These reported values on crystalline SAM are much smaller than those on liquid solutions. No enhancement of these reactions is observed in the presence of HCl vapor at the stratospheric concentrations. In addition, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller analysis of gas adsorption isotherms and photomicrography have been performed to characterize the surface roughness and porosities of the SAM substrate. The results suggest the possible formation of SAM in some regions of the middle- or low-latitude stratosphere and, consequently, much slower heterogeneous reactions on the frozen aerosols.

  2. Augmenting Sulfur Metabolism and Herbivore Defense in Arabidopsis by Bacterial Volatile Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Mina; Nadipalli, Ranjith K.; Xie, Xitao; Sun, Yan; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Paré, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is an element necessary for the life cycle of higher plants. Its assimilation and reduction into essential biomolecules are pivotal factors determining a plant’s growth and vigor as well as resistance to environmental stress. While certain soil microbes can enhance ion solubility via chelating agents or oxidation, microbial regulation of plant-sulfur assimilation has not been reported. With an increasing understanding that soil microbes can activate growth and stress tolerance in plants via chemical signaling, the question arises as to whether such beneficial bacteria also regulate sulfur assimilation. Here we report a previously unidentified mechanism by which the growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03) transcriptionally activates genes responsible for sulfur assimilation, increasing sulfur uptake and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Transcripts encoding for sulfur-rich aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates are also GB03 induced. As a result, GB03-exposed plants with elevated glucosinolates exhibit greater protection against the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm, BAW). In contrast, a previously characterized glucosinolate mutant compromised in the production of both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates is also compromised in terms of GB03-induced protection against insect herbivory. As with in vitro studies, soil-grown plants show enhanced glucosinolate accumulation and protection against BAW feeding with GB03 exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to enhance plant sulfur assimilation and emphasize the sophisticated integration of microbial signaling in plant defense. PMID:27092166

  3. Friction and wear of nickel in sulfuric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with elemental nickel sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid in concentrations ranging from very dilute (10 -4 N, i.e., 5 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent) acid. Load and reciprocating sliding speeds were kept constant. With the most dilute concentration (10 -4 N) no observable corrosion occurred in or outside the wear area. This was used as the base condition to determine the high contribution of corrosion to total wear loss at acid concentrations between 0.5 percent (0.1 N) and 75 percent. Corrosion reached a maximum rate of 100 millimeters per year at 30 percent acid. At the same time, general corrosion outside the wear area was very low, in agreement with published information. It is clear that friction and wear greatly accelerated corrosion in the wear area. At dilute concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 N, corrosion in the wear area was low, and general corrosion outside was also low, but local outside regions in the direction of the wear motion experienced some enhanced corrosion, apparently due to fluid motion of the acid.

  4. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  5. Sulfur redox reactions: Hydrocarbons, native sulfur, Mississippi Valley-type deposits, and sulfuric acid karst in the Delaware Basin, New Mexico and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.A.

    1995-02-01

    Hydrocarbons, native sulfur, Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits, and sulfuric acid karst in the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico, and west Texas, USA, are all genetically related through a series of sulfur redox reactions. The relationship began with hydrocarbons in the basin that reacted with sulfate ions from evaporite rock to produce isotopically light ({delta}{sup 34}S = -22 to -12) H{sub 2}S and bioepigenetic limestone (castiles). This light H{sub 2}S was then oxidized at the redox interface to produce economic native sulfur deposits ({delta}{sup 34}S = -15 to +9) in the castiles, paleokarst, and along graben-boundary faults. This isotopically light H{sub 2}S also migrated from the basin into its margins to accumulate in structural (anticlinal) and stratigraphic (Yates siltstone) traps, where it formed MVT deposits within the zone of reduction ({delta}{sup 34}S = -15 to +7). Later in time, in the zone of oxidation, this H{sub 2}S reacted with oxygenated water to produce sulfuric acid, which dissolved the caves (e.g., Carlsbad Cavern and Lechuguilla Cave, Guadalupe Mountains). Massive gypsum blocks on the floors of the caves ({delta}{sup 34}S = -25 to +4) were formed as a result of this reaction. The H{sub 2}S also produced isotopically light cave sulfur ({delta}{sup 34}S = -24 to -15), which is now slowly oxidizing to gypsum in the presence of vadose drip water. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Effect of Bisulfate, Ammonia, and Ammonium on the Clustering of Organic Acids and Sulfuric Acid.

    PubMed

    Myllys, Nanna; Olenius, Tinja; Kurtén, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Riipinen, Ilona; Elm, Jonas

    2017-06-29

    We investigate the effect of the bisulfate anion HSO4(-), ammonium cation NH4(+), and ammonia NH3 on the clustering of sulfuric acid and pinic acid or 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA). The systems were chosen based on their expected relevance in atmospheric new particle formation. Using quantum chemical methods together with kinetic calculations, we study the ability of these compounds to enhance cluster formation and growth. The cluster structures are obtained and frequencies are calculated using three different DFT functionals (M06-2X, PW91, and ωB97X-D) with the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The electronic energies are corrected using an accurate DLPNO-CCSD(T)/def2-QZVPP level of theory. The evaporation rates are evaluated based on the calculated Gibbs free energies. The interaction between the ions and sulfuric acid or carboxylic acid group is strong, and thereby small two-component ionic clusters are found to be very stable against evaporation. The presence of bisulfate stimulates the cluster formation through addition of the sulfuric acid, whereas the presence of ammonium favors the addition of organic acids. Bisulfate and ammonium enhance the first steps of cluster formation; however, at atmospheric conditions further cluster growth is limited due to the weak interaction and fast evaporation of the larger three-component clusters. On the basis of our results it is therefore unlikely that the studied organic acids and sulfuric acid, even together with bisulfate, ammonia, or ammonium can drive new-particle formation via clustering mechanisms. Other mechanisms such as chemical reactions are needed to explain observed new-particle formation events in the presence of oxidized organic compounds resembling the acids studied here.

  7. A new test procedure for biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete

    PubMed

    Vincke; Verstichel; Monteny; Verstraete

    1999-01-01

    A new test method is described for biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete, more specifically in sewer conditions. The aim of the new test method is the development of an accelerated and reproducible procedure for monitoring the resistance of different types of concrete with regard to biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion. This experimental procedure reflects worst case conditions by providing besides H2S, also an enrichment of thiobacilli and biologically produced sulfur. By simulating the cyclic processes occurring in sewer pipes, significant differences between concrete mixtures could be detected after 51 days. Concrete modified by a styrene-acrylic ester polymer demonstrated a higher resistance against biogenic sulfuric acid attack.

  8. Aerosol volatility and enthalpy of sublimation of carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Salo, Kent; Jonsson, Asa M; Andersson, Patrik U; Hallquist, Mattias

    2010-04-08

    The enthalpy of sublimation has been determined for nine carboxylic acids, two cyclic (pinonic and pinic acid) and seven straight-chain dicarboxylic acids (C(4) to C(10)). The enthalpy of sublimation was determined from volatility measurements of nano aerosol particles using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) set-up. Compared to the previous use of a VTDMA, this novel method gives enthalpy of sublimation determined over an extended temperature range (DeltaT approximately 40 K). The determined enthalpy of sublimation for the straight-chain dicarboxylic acids ranged from 96 to 161 kJ mol(-1), and the calculated vapor pressures at 298 K are in the range of 10(-6)-10(-3) Pa. These values indicate that dicarboxylic acids can take part in gas-to-particle partitioning at ambient conditions and may contribute to atmospheric nucleation, even though homogeneous nucleation is unlikely. To obtain consistent results, some experimental complications in producing nanosized crystalline aerosol particles were addressed. It was demonstrated that pinonic acid "used as received" needed a further purification step before being suspended as a nanoparticle aerosol. Furthermore, it was noted from distinct differences in thermal properties that aerosols generated from pimelic acid solutions gave two types of particles. These two types were attributed to crystalline and amorphous configurations, and based on measured thermal properties, the enthalpy of vaporization was 127 kJ mol(-1) and that of sublimation was 161 kJ mol(-1). This paper describes a new method that is complementary to other similar methods and provides an extension of existing experimental data on physical properties of atmospherically relevant compounds.

  9. Thin-film sulfuric acid anodizing as a replacement for chromic acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallenborn, K. J.; Emmons, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Chromic acid has long been used to produce a thin, corrosion resistant (Type I) coating on aluminum. Following anodizing, the hardware was sealed using a sodium dichromate solution. Sealing closes up pores inherent in the anodized coating, thus improving corrosion resistance. The thinness of the brittle coating is desirable from a fatigue standpoint, and chromium was absorbed by the coating during the sealing process, further improving corrosion resistance. Unfortunately, both chromic acid and sodium dichromate contain carcinogenic hexavalent chromium. Sulfuric acid is being considered as a replacement for chromic acid. Sulfuric acid of 10-20 percent concentration has traditionally been used to produce relatively thick (Types II and III) or abrasion resistant (Type III) coatings. A more dilute, that is five weight percent, sulfuric acid anodizing process, which produces a thinner coating than Type II or III, with nickel acetate as the sealant has been developed. The process was evaluated in regard to corrosion resistance, throwing power, fatigue life, and processing variable sensitivity, and shows promise as a replacement for the chromic acid process.

  10. Unexpectedly acidic nanoparticles formed in dimethylamine-ammonia-sulfuric-acid nucleation experiments at CLOUD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, Michael J.; Winkler, Paul M.; Kim, Jaeseok; Ahlm, Lars; Tröstl, Jasmin; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kürten, Andreas; Kirkby, Jasper; Bianchi, Federico; Duplissy, Jonathan; Hansel, Armin; Jokinen, Tuija; Keskinen, Helmi; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Petäjä, Tuukka; Rissanen, Matti; Rondo, Linda; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Riipinen, Ilona; Virtanen, Annele; Smith, James N.

    2016-11-01

    New particle formation driven by acid-base chemistry was initiated in the CLOUD chamber at CERN by introducing atmospherically relevant levels of gas-phase sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). Ammonia was also present in the chamber as a gas-phase contaminant from earlier experiments. The composition of particles with volume median diameters (VMDs) as small as 10 nm was measured by the Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS). Particulate ammonium-to-dimethylaminium ratios were higher than the gas-phase ammonia-to-DMA ratios, suggesting preferential uptake of ammonia over DMA for the collected 10-30 nm VMD particles. This behavior is not consistent with present nanoparticle physicochemical models, which predict a higher dimethylaminium fraction when NH3 and DMA are present at similar gas-phase concentrations. Despite the presence in the gas phase of at least 100 times higher base concentrations than sulfuric acid, the recently formed particles always had measured base : acid ratios lower than 1 : 1. The lowest base fractions were found in particles below 15 nm VMD, with a strong size-dependent composition gradient. The reasons for the very acidic composition remain uncertain, but a plausible explanation is that the particles did not reach thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to the bases due to rapid heterogeneous conversion of SO2 to sulfate. These results indicate that sulfuric acid does not require stabilization by ammonium or dimethylaminium as acid-base pairs in particles as small as 10 nm.

  11. Uptake of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor in Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, M.

    2002-12-01

    The uptake of ethyl alcohol vapor in liquid sulfuric acid has been investigated over the composition range of 40 - 80 wt % H2SO4 and between the temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies were performed using a flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and possible reaction products, ethyl hydrogen sulfate and diethyl sulfate. The uptake coefficients (gamma) have been measured and found to vary from 0.018 to 0.065, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. For example, at concentrated acids greater than 70 wt % and dilute solutions (<70 wt %) colder than 210 K, the gamma values are approaching ~ 0.06. Under other conditions, the gamma values are smaller. The adsorption and thermal desorption measurements have been used to distinguish the possible uptake mechanisms, either solubility or reactive uptake. The results suggest that reactive uptakes are greater than 50 % under all conditions. For dilute acids, we also determine the effective Henry's law constants (H*). We will compare the results with the uptake of gaseous methyl alcohol and acetone in H2SO4 determined previously in our laboratory. The potential implications to the budget of ethyl alcohol in the global troposphere will also be discussed.

  12. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of transgenic switchgrass for sugar production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Xu, Jiele; Wang, Ziyu; Cheng, Jay J; Li, Ruyu; Qu, Rongda

    2012-01-01

    Conventional Alamo switchgrass and its transgenic counterparts with reduced/modified lignin were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment for improved sugar production. At 150 °C, the effects of acid concentration (0.75%, 1%, 1.25%) and residence time (5, 10, 20, 30 min) on sugar productions in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated, with the optimal pretreatment conditions determined for each switchgrass genotype based on total sugar yield and the amounts of sugar degradation products generated during the pretreatment. The results show that genetic engineering, although did not cause an appreciable lignin reduction, resulted in a substantial increase in the ratio of acid soluble lignin:acid insoluble lignin, which led to considerably increased sugar productions in both pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. At an elevated threshold concentration of combined 5-hydroxyfuranmethal and furfural (2.0 g/L), the overall carbohydrate conversions of conventional switchgrass and its transgenic counterparts, 10/9-40 and 11/5-47, reached 75.9%, 82.6%, and 82.2%, respectively.

  13. Tetrathionate and Elemental Sulfur Shape the Isotope Composition of Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage.

    PubMed

    Balci, Nurgul; Brunner, Benjamin; Turchyn, Alexandra V

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur compounds in intermediate valence states, for example elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate, are important players in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. However, key understanding about the pathways of oxidation involving mixed-valance state sulfur species is still missing. Here we report the sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation effects during the oxidation of tetrathionate (S4O6(2-)) and elemental sulfur (S°) to sulfate in bacterial cultures in acidic conditions. Oxidation of tetrathionate by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produced thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Up to 34% of the tetrathionate consumed by the bacteria could not be accounted for in sulfate or other intermediate-valence state sulfur species over the experiments. The oxidation of tetrathionate yielded sulfate that was initially enriched in (34)S (ε(34)SSO4-S4O6) by +7.9‰, followed by a decrease to +1.4‰ over the experiment duration, with an average ε(34)SSO4-S4O6 of +3.5 ± 0.2‰ after a month of incubation. We attribute this significant sulfur isotope fractionation to enzymatic disproportionation reactions occurring during tetrathionate decomposition, and to the incomplete transformation of tetrathionate into sulfate. The oxygen isotope composition of sulfate (δ(18)OSO4) from the tetrathionate oxidation experiments indicate that 62% of the oxygen in the formed sulfate was derived from water. The remaining 38% of the oxygen was either inherited from the supplied tetrathionate, or supplied from dissolved atmospheric oxygen (O2). During the oxidation of elemental sulfur, the product sulfate became depleted in (34)S between -1.8 and 0‰ relative to the elemental sulfur with an average for ε(34)SSO4-S0 of -0.9 ± 0.2‰ and all the oxygen atoms in the sulfate derived from water with an average normal oxygen isotope fractionation (ε(18)OSO4-H2O) of -4.4‰. The differences observed in δ(18)OSO4 and the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ(34)SSO4), acid

  14. Tetrathionate and Elemental Sulfur Shape the Isotope Composition of Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Nurgul; Brunner, Benjamin; Turchyn, Alexandra V.

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur compounds in intermediate valence states, for example elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate, are important players in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. However, key understanding about the pathways of oxidation involving mixed-valance state sulfur species is still missing. Here we report the sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation effects during the oxidation of tetrathionate (S4O62−) and elemental sulfur (S°) to sulfate in bacterial cultures in acidic conditions. Oxidation of tetrathionate by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produced thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Up to 34% of the tetrathionate consumed by the bacteria could not be accounted for in sulfate or other intermediate-valence state sulfur species over the experiments. The oxidation of tetrathionate yielded sulfate that was initially enriched in 34S (ε34SSO4−S4O6) by +7.9‰, followed by a decrease to +1.4‰ over the experiment duration, with an average ε34SSO4−S4O6 of +3.5 ± 0.2‰ after a month of incubation. We attribute this significant sulfur isotope fractionation to enzymatic disproportionation reactions occurring during tetrathionate decomposition, and to the incomplete transformation of tetrathionate into sulfate. The oxygen isotope composition of sulfate (δ18OSO4) from the tetrathionate oxidation experiments indicate that 62% of the oxygen in the formed sulfate was derived from water. The remaining 38% of the oxygen was either inherited from the supplied tetrathionate, or supplied from dissolved atmospheric oxygen (O2). During the oxidation of elemental sulfur, the product sulfate became depleted in 34S between −1.8 and 0‰ relative to the elemental sulfur with an average for ε34SSO4−S0 of −0.9 ± 0.2‰ and all the oxygen atoms in the sulfate derived from water with an average normal oxygen isotope fractionation (ε18OSO4−H2O) of −4.4‰. The differences observed in δ18OSO4 and the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), acid

  15. What Is the Boiling Point and Heat of Vaporization of Sulfuric Acid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, R. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the values presented in various handbooks for the boiling point and heat of vaporization of sulfuric acid, noting discrepencies. Analyzes various approaches to data presentation, discussing the data on sulfuric acid in light of the Trouton constant. Points out the need for a more critical use of tables. (JM)

  16. What Is the Boiling Point and Heat of Vaporization of Sulfuric Acid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, R. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the values presented in various handbooks for the boiling point and heat of vaporization of sulfuric acid, noting discrepencies. Analyzes various approaches to data presentation, discussing the data on sulfuric acid in light of the Trouton constant. Points out the need for a more critical use of tables. (JM)

  17. [Gene mining of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolic enzymes in soybean].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hongmei; Hao, Wenyuan; Gao, Shuqin; Ma, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yuhong; Meng, Fanfan; Fan, Xuhong; Wang, Yang; Wang, Yueqiang; Wang, Shuming

    2014-09-01

    The genes of sulfur-containing amino acid synthetases in soybean are essential for the synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids. Gene mining of these enzymes is the basis for the molecular assistant breeding of high sulfur-containing amino acids in soybean. In this study, using software BioMercator2.1, 113 genes of sulfur-containing amino acid enzymes and 33 QTLs controlling the sulfur-containing amino acids content were mapped onto Consensus Map 4.0, which was integrated by genetic and physical maps of soybean. Sixteen candidate genes associated to the synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids were screened based on the synteny between gene loci and QTLs, and the effect values of QTLs. Through a bioinformatic analysis of the copy number, SNP information, and expression profile of candidate genes, 12 related enzyme genes were identified and mapped on 8 linkage groups, such as D1a, M, A2, K, and G. The genes corresponding to QTL regions can explain 6%?38.5% genetic variation of sulfur-containing amino acids, and among them, the indirect effect values of 9 genes were more than 10%. These 12 genes were involved in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism and were highly expressed in the cotyledons and flowers, showing an abundance of SNPs. These genes can be used as candidate genes for the development of functional markers, and it will lay a foundation for molecular design breeding in soybean.

  18. Correlation of Sulfuric Acid Hydrate Abundance with Charged Particle Flux at the Surface of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, James B.; Paranicas, C. P.; Cassidy, T. A.; Shirley, J. H.

    2010-10-01

    The trailing hemisphere of Jupiter's moon Europa is bombarded by charged particles trapped within Jupiter's magnetosphere. Sulfur ion implantation and impacting energetic electrons strongly affect the surface chemistry of Europa. Understanding these processes is important for disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic components of Europa's surface chemistry. In the sulfur cycle model of Carlson et al. (Science 286, 97, 1999), hydrated sulfuric acid represents the dominant reaction product of radiolytic surface modification processes on Europa. In recent compositional investigations employing linear mixture modeling, Dalton et al. (LPSC XV, #2511, 2009) and Shirley et al. (Icarus, in press, 2010) document a well-defined gradient of hydrated sulfuric acid abundance for a study area spanning the leading side - trailing side boundary in Argadnel Regio. Sulfuric acid hydrate abundance in this region increases toward the trailing side apex. Here we compare the derived sulfuric acid hydrate abundances at 41 locations on Europa's surface with independent model results describing 1) the sulfur ion flux (Hendrix et al., 2010, in preparation), and 2) the energetic electron flux, at the same locations. We improve upon the prior calculation of electron energy into the surface of Paranicas et al. (2009, in Europa, U. Arizona, p529; Pappalardo, McKinnon, & Khurana eds.) by incorporating a realistic pitch angle dependence of the distribution. While the sulfur ion implantation and electron energy deposition model distributions differ in important details, both show trailing side gradients similar to that found for the sulfuric acid hydrate. Correlation coefficients exceed 0.9 in comparisons of each of these models with the sulfuric acid hydrate distribution. Our results support models in which the electron energy flux drives reactions that utilize implanted sulfur to produce sulfuric acid hydrate. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion

  19. FTIR studies of low temperature sulfuric acid aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, S. E.; Tisdale, R. T.; Disselkamp, R. S.; Tolbert, M. A.; Wilson, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Sub-micrometer sized sulfuric acid H2SO4 particles were generated using a constant output atomizer source. The particles were then exposed to water vapor before being injected into a low temperature cell. Multipass transmission Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the phase and composition of the aerosols as a function of time for periods of up to five hours. Binary H2SO4H2O aerosols with compositions from 35 to 95 wt % H2SO4 remained liquid for over 3 hours at room temperatures ranging from 189-240 K. These results suggest that it is very difficut to freeze SSAs via homogeneous nucleation. Attempts to form aerosols more dilute than 35 wt % H2SO4 resulted in ice formation.

  20. Sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing; Liu, Cheng-jun; Shi, Pei-yang; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Mao-fa; Zhang, Qing-song; Zevenhoven, Ron; Saxén, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    The sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite was investigated. The negative influence of a solid product layer constituted of a silicon-rich phase and chromium-rich sulfate was eliminated by crushing the chromite and by selecting proper leaching conditions. The dimensionless change in specific surface area and the conversion rate of the chromite were observed to exhibit a proportional relationship. A modified shrinking particle model was developed to account for the change in reactive surface area, and the model was fitted to experimental data. The resulting model was observed to describe experimental findings very well. Kinetics analysis revealed that the leaching process is controlled by a chemical reaction under the employed experimental conditions and the activation energy of the reaction is 48 kJ·mol-1.

  1. Sulfur isotope effects associated with protonation of HS- and volatilization of H2S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The isotope effects associated with: (1) formation of H2S from HS- by protonation in aqueous solution; and (2) volatilization of H2S have been experimentally determined. Both isotopic distributions in closed systems at equilibrium and differential rates of volatilization of isotopic species in open systems were measured at 22 +/- 1 degrees C. It was found that, at equilibrium aqueous H2S is enriched in 34S by 2.0 - 2.7% relative to HS- and that H2S volatilized from solution is depleted in 34S by 0.5% relative to dissolved H2S. A small kinetic isotope effect accompanying volatilization of H2S was observed in the open-system experiments.

  2. Health effects of air pollutants: Sulfuric acid, the old and the new

    SciTech Connect

    Amdur, M.O. )

    1989-05-01

    Data from exposure of experimental animals and human subjects to sulfuric acid presents a consistent picture of its toxicology. Effects on airway resistance in asthmatic subjects were well predicted by data obtained on guinea pigs. Sulfuric acid increases the irritant response to ozone in both rats and man. In donkeys, rabbits, and human subjects, sulfuric acid alters clearance of particles from the lung in a similar manner. These changes resemble those produced by cigarette smoke and could well lead to chronic bronchitis. Data obtained on guinea pigs indicate that very small amounts of sulfuric acid on the surface of ultrafine metal oxide aerosols produce functional, morphological, and biochemical pulmonary effects. Such particles are typical of those emitted from coal combustion and smelting operations. Sulfate is an unsatisfactory surrogate in existing epidemiology studies. Sulfuric acid measurement is a critical need in such studies. 31 references.

  3. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  4. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  5. Infrared studies of sulfuric acid and its impact on polar and global ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, Laura Tracy

    Sulfuric acid aerosols are present throughout the lower stratosphere and play an important role in both polar and global ozone depletion. In the polar regions, stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs) act as nuclei for the growth of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Heterogeneous reactions can occur on these PSCs, leading to chlorine activation and catalytic ozone destruction. This thesis addresses the issue of polar ozone depletion through laboratory studies which examine the nucleation of PSCs on sulfuric acid. In addition, chemistry which occurs directly on sulfate aerosols may impact ozone at midlatitudes, and studies describing one such reaction are presented as well. To study the growth of type I PSCs on sulfuric acid, thin H2SO4 films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors at stratospheric temperatures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films which condensed. Supercooled liquid sulfuric acid films showed uptake of HNO3 to form ternary solutions, followed by crystallization of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). When crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films were exposed to nitric acid and water, condensation of a supercooled HNO3/H2O layer was often observed. As predicted by theory, some of the SAT crystal then dissolved, creating a ternary H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solution. From this solution, NAT nearly always crystallized, halting the phase change of sulfuric acid. If a supercooled nitric acid layer did not condense on frozen sulfuric acid, crystalline NAT was not deposited from the gas phase when SNAT/leq41. At significantly higher supersaturations, NAT could be forced to condense on sulfuric acid, regardless of its phase. Calculations of the contact parameter from experimental data indicate that m<0.79 for NAT on SAT, predicting a significant barrier to nucleation of NAT from the gas phase. While PSCs can form only in the cold polar regions of the stratosphere, sulfuric

  6. Involvement of intermediate sulfur species in biological reduction of elemental sulfur under acidic, hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; Druschel, Gregory K

    2013-03-01

    The thermoacidophile and obligate elemental sulfur (S(8)(0))-reducing anaerobe Acidilobus sulfurireducens 18D70 does not associate with bulk solid-phase sulfur during S(8)(0)-dependent batch culture growth. Cyclic voltammetry indicated the production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) as well as polysulfides after 1 day of batch growth of the organism at pH 3.0 and 81°C. The production of polysulfide is likely due to the abiotic reaction between S(8)(0) and the biologically produced H(2)S, as evinced by a rapid cessation of polysulfide formation when the growth temperature was decreased, inhibiting the biological production of sulfide. After an additional 5 days of growth, nanoparticulate S(8)(0) was detected in the cultivation medium, a result of the hydrolysis of polysulfides in acidic medium. To examine whether soluble polysulfides and/or nanoparticulate S(8)(0) can serve as terminal electron acceptors (TEA) supporting the growth of A. sulfurireducens, total sulfide concentration and cell density were monitored in batch cultures with S(8)(0) provided as a solid phase in the medium or with S(8)(0) sequestered in dialysis tubing. The rates of sulfide production in 7-day-old cultures with S(8)(0) sequestered in dialysis tubing with pore sizes of 12 to 14 kDa and 6 to 8 kDa were 55% and 22%, respectively, of that of cultures with S(8)(0) provided as a solid phase in the medium. These results indicate that the TEA existed in a range of particle sizes that affected its ability to diffuse through dialysis tubing of different pore sizes. Dynamic light scattering revealed that S(8)(0) particles generated through polysulfide rapidly grew in size, a rate which was influenced by the pH of the medium and the presence of organic carbon. Thus, S(8)(0) particles formed through abiological hydrolysis of polysulfide under acidic conditions appeared to serve as a growth-promoting TEA for A. sulfurireducens.

  7. Enhancement of volatile aglycone recovery facilitated by acid hydrolysis of glucosides from Nicotiana flower species.

    PubMed

    Coleman, William M; Dube, Michael F; Gerardi, Anthony R; Ashraf-Khorassani, Mehdi; Taylor, Larry T

    2012-11-21

    Four different Nicotiana flowers (Nicotiana alata (alata), Nicotiana sylvestris (Sy), Nicotiana suaveolens (Su), and Nicotiana tabacum cv. Flue-Cured (FC)) from farms in Virginia and North Carolina were harvested and promptly quenched with liquid nitrogen and hand-ground prior to analysis. Each Nicotiana flower was pre-extracted with hexane to remove unbound volatiles. Fifteen standard compounds that were thought to be in the pre-extract were employed to aid in GC-MS identification and quantification. Glucosides were then chromatographically isolated and next hydrolyzed via 2 M sulfuric acid for 24 h at 75 °C. For each flower, the products of hydrolysis were extracted in tandem with hexane and dichloromethane (DCM) prior to analysis by GC-MS. The mixture of hexane and DCM extracts of the flowers after hydrolysis were then analyzed for each of 15 external standards via GC-MS to determine the concentration of any isolated flower-derived aglycone. Quantitative results for each of the possible 15 free volatile compounds extracted before and after hydrolysis were compared. Benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, and cis-3-hexenol were found in all Nicotiana both before and after acid hydrolysis. Enormous increases in the mass of benzyl alcohol and phenethyl alcohol were obtained with all flowers as a result of acid hydrolysis. With selected Nicotiana flowers, significant increases were observed for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. The significant increases observed in cinnamaldehyde and eugenol upon mild acid hydrolysis strongly indicate that this approach could be a viable alternative process for the production scale isolation of these important natural flavor compounds.

  8. Heterogeneous Chemistry of HO2NO2 on Liquid Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    1995-01-01

    The interaction of HO2NO2 (peroxynitric acid, PNA) vapor with liquid sulfuric acid surfaces was investigated for the acid contents ranging from 50 to 70 wt % and over a temperature range from 205 to 230 K, using a fast flow-reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. PNA was observed to be physically taken up by liquid sulfuric acid, without undergoing irreversible aqueous phase reactions.

  9. Tungstate sulfuric acid (TSA)/KMnO4 as a novel heterogeneous system for rapid deoximation.

    PubMed

    Karami, Bahador; Montazerozohori, Morteza

    2006-09-28

    Neat chlorosulfonic acid reacts with anhydrous sodium tungstate to give tungstate sulfuric acid (TSA), a new dibasic inorganic solid acid in which two sulfuric acid molecules connect to a tungstate moiety via a covalent bond. A variety of oximes were oxidized to their parent carbonyl compounds under mild conditions with excellent yields in short times by a heterogeneous wet TSA/KMnO4 in dichloromethane system.

  10. Properties of nanocellulose isolated from corncob residue using sulfuric acid, formic acid, oxidative and mechanical methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Li, Bin; Du, Haishun; Lv, Dong; Zhang, Yuedong; Yu, Guang; Mu, Xindong; Peng, Hui

    2016-10-20

    In this work, nanocellulose was extracted from bleached corncob residue (CCR), an underutilized lignocellulose waste from furfural industry, using four different methods (i.e. sulfuric acid hydrolysis, formic acid (FA) hydrolysis, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, and pulp refining, respectively). The self-assembled structure, morphology, dimension, crystallinity, chemical structure and thermal stability of prepared nanocellulose were investigated. FA hydrolysis produced longer cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) than the one obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and resulted in high crystallinity and thermal stability due to its preferential degradation of amorphous cellulose and lignin. The cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with fine and individualized structure could be isolated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation. In comparison with other nanocellulose products, the intensive pulp refining led to the CNFs with the longest length and the thickest diameter. This comparative study can help to provide an insight into the utilization of CCR as a potential source for nanocellulose production.

  11. Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning by combining formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter T; Dunn, William A

    2014-01-01

    Suicide by inhalation of carbon monoxide produced by mixing formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space is a rare method of suicide. This method is similar to the so-called "detergent suicide" method where an acid-based detergent is mixed with a sulfur source to produce hydrogen sulfide. Both methods produce a toxic gas that poses significant hazards for death investigators, first responders and bystanders. Carbon monoxide is an odorless gas, while hydrogen sulfide has a characteristic rotten eggs odor, so the risks associated with carbon monoxide are potentially greater due to lack of an important warning signal. While detergent suicides have become increasingly common in the USA, suicide with formic acid and sulfuric acid is rare with only three prior cases being reported. Greater awareness of this method among death investigators is warranted because of the special risks of accidental intoxication by toxic gas and the possibility that this method of suicide will become more common in the future. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. [Investigation on formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ai-Li; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Liang-Mian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2014-05-01

    To investigate formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica, secologanic acid was enriched and purified from the sun-dried buds of L. japonica by various column chromatography on macroporus resin HPD-100, silica gel and ODS. The stimulation experiments of sulfur-fumigation process were carried out using secologanic acid reacted with SO2 in the aqueous solution. The reaction mechanism could be involved in the esterification or addition reaction. The present investigation provides substantial evidences for interpreting formation pathway of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of L. japonica.

  13. Maximization of volatile fatty acids production from alginate in acidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong Duc; Seon, Jiyun; Lee, Seong Chan; Song, Minkyung; Woo, Hee-Chul

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the optimum fermentative condition of alginate with the respect to the simultaneous effects of alginate concentration and initial pH to maximize the production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) and alcohols. The results showed that the alginate fermentation was significantly affected by initial pH than by alginate concentration and there was no interaction between the two variables. The optimum condition was 6.2g alginate/L and initial pH 7.6 with a maximum TVFAs yield of 37.1%. Acetic acids were the main constituents of the TVFAs mixtures (i.e., 71.9-95.5%), while alcohols (i.e., ethanol, butanol, and propanol) were not detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Volatile fatty acids production from marine macroalgae by anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Nhan; Nam, Woo Joong; Jeon, Young Joong; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2012-11-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced from the marine macroalgae, Laminaria japonica, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, and Enteromorpha crinite by anaerobic fermentation using a microbial community derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Methanogen inhibitor (iodoform), pH control, substrate concentration, and alkaline and thermal pretreatments affected VFA productivity. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids were the main products. A maximum VFA concentration of 15.2g/L was obtained from 50 g/L of L. japonica in three days at 35°C and pH 6.5-7.0. Pretreatment with 0.5 N NaOH improved VFA productivity by 56% compared to control. The result shows the applicability of marine macroalgae as biomass feedstock for the production of VFAs which can be converted to mixed alcohol fuels.

  15. Ice nucleation in sulfuric acid/organic aerosols: implications for cirrus cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaver, M. R.; Elrod, M. J.; Garland, R. M.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2006-08-01

    Using an aerosol flow tube apparatus, we have studied the effects of aliphatic aldehydes (C3 to C10) and ketones (C3 and C9) on ice nucleation in sulfuric acid aerosols. Mixed aerosols were prepared by combining an organic vapor flow with a flow of sulfuric acid aerosols over a small mixing time (~60 s) at room temperature. No acid-catalyzed reactions were observed under these conditions, and physical uptake was responsible for the organic content of the sulfuric acid aerosols. In these experiments, aerosol organic content, determined by a Mie scattering analysis, was found to vary with the partial pressure of organic, the flow tube temperature, and the identity of the organic compound. The physical properties of the organic compounds (primarily the solubility and melting point) were found to play a dominant role in determining the inferred mode of nucleation (homogenous or heterogeneous) and the specific freezing temperatures observed. Overall, very soluble, low-melting organics, such as acetone and propanal, caused a decrease in aerosol ice nucleation temperatures when compared with aqueous sulfuric acid aerosol. In contrast, sulfuric acid particles exposed to organic compounds of eight carbons and greater, of much lower solubility and higher melting temperatures, nucleate ice at temperatures above aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Organic compounds of intermediate carbon chain length, C4-C7, (of intermediate solubility and melting temperatures) nucleated ice at the same temperature as aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Interpretations and implications of these results for cirrus cloud formation are discussed.

  16. Ice nucleation in sulfuric acid/organic aerosols: implications for cirrus cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaver, M. R.; Elrod, M. J.; Garland, R. M.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2006-03-01

    Using an aerosol flow tube apparatus, we have studied the effects of aliphatic aldehydes (C3 to C10) and ketones (C3 and C9) on ice nucleation in sulfuric acid aerosols. Mixed aerosols were prepared by combining an organic vapor flow with a flow of sulfuric acid aerosols over a small mixing time (~60 s) at room temperature. No acid-catalyzed reactions were observed under these conditions, and physical uptake was responsible for the organic content of the sulfuric acid aerosols. In these experiments, aerosol organic content, determined by a Mie scattering analysis, was found to vary with the partial pressure of organic, the flow tube temperature, and the identity of the organic compound. The physical properties of the organic compounds (primarily the solubility and melting point) were found to play a dominant role in determining the mode of nucleation (homogenous or heterogeneous) and the specific freezing temperatures observed. Overall, very soluble, low-melting organics, such as acetone and propanal, caused a decrease in aerosol ice nucleation temperatures when compared with aqueous sulfuric acid aerosol. In contrast, sulfuric acid particles exposed to organic compounds of eight carbons and greater, of much lower solubility and higher melting temperatures, nucleate ice at temperatures above aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Organic compounds of intermediate carbon chain length, C4-C7, (of intermediate solubility and melting temperatures) nucleated ice at the same temperature as aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Interpretations and implications of these results for cirrus cloud formation are discussed.

  17. Sediment biogeochemistry of iron and sulfur in an acidic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jeffrey R.; Gubala, Chad P.; Fry, Brian; Owen, Jeffrey; Mitchell, Myron J.

    1989-10-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of Fe and S in the sediments of acidic Big Moose Lake, Adirondack Park, NY, U.S.A., was investigated. Sediment cores and porewater samples were collected along a depth transect from the hypolimnion (24 m water depth), metalimnion (17 m), and epilimion (8, 12 m). Four vertically distinguishable zones in the sediment environment were observed at each site: 1) NO3- disappearance near the sediment/water interface; 2) accumulation of solid-phase Fe in the top 5 cm; 3) coincident accumulation of chromium reducible sulfur (CRS), disappearance of SO4- and minima in C:S and δ34S at or slightly below maxima in oxide-bound Fe; and 4) homogenous background concentrations in S and Fe below 30 and 10 cm, respectively. Iron and sulfur accumulations in the upper 10 cm occurred at the same depths in cores of different ages, indicating that diagenetic rather than depositional processes played a dominant role in determining near-surface Fe and S profiles. Although sediment accumulation rates varied along the transect, the four zones were located at similar depths in the sediment column at all sites. Diagenetic processes play a major role in the development of these features in Big Moose Lake. The extent of Fe enrichment was considerably greater in the metalimnetic and epilimnetic sediments. In contrast, concentrations of Fe were lower in hypolimnetic sediments, which appeared to be losing Fe to the water column. At all sites, increases in total S from a background concentration of 60-80 μmol g-1 of dry mass occurred in sediments dated approximately 1850. More recent increases to 560 μmol Sg-1 occurred asynchronously in the cores, indicating an important role of sulfate reduction in adding S to sediments. However, organic sulfur accumulation accounted for 22-56% of the recent increase in sediment S. Concentrations of iron and organic carbon were high in lake sediments and probably do not limit S storage in this lake.

  18. Sulfur amino acids in diet-induced fatty liver: a new perspective based on recent findings.

    PubMed

    Toohey, John I

    2014-06-19

    The relationship of sulfur amino acids to diet-induced fatty liver was established 80 years ago, with cystine promoting the condition and methionine preventing it. This relationship has renewed importance today because diet-induced fatty liver is relevant to the current epidemics of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Two recent papers provide the first evidence linking sulfane sulfur to diet-induced fatty liver opening a new perspective on the problem. This review summarizes the early data on sulfur amino acids in fatty liver and correlates that data with current knowledge of sulfur metabolism. Evidence is reviewed showing that the lipotropic effect of methionine may be mediated by sulfane sulfur and that the hepatosteatogenic effect of cystine may be related to the removal of sulfane sulfur by cysteine catabolites. Possible preventive and therapeutic strategies are discussed.

  19. Benefits of the stirred, autorefrigerated reactor in sulfuric acid alkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, S.; Lerner, H.; Zaczepinski, S.

    1996-12-01

    Alkylation is a process which combines propylenes, butylenes, and pentylenes with isobutane in the presence of an acid catalyst (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or HF) to produce a premium quality gasoline blendstock. The alkylation process was developed in the late 1930`s and processing capacity grew tremendously during World War II in response to demand for aviation gasoline. Since that time, alkylation capacity has steadily grown to supply an important motor gasoline component. Now, more than 50 years later, alkylation is in the spotlight again for reformulated gasoline. Alkylate is a high octane, low sensitivity, low RVP, totally paraffinic material which represents the ideal blendstock for modern gasoline manufacture. Two types of modern reactor systems are currently offered for license to the refining industry for sulfuric acid alkylation. These are the stirred, autorefrigerated system offered by Exxon Research and Engineering (ERE) and the indirect, or effluent refrigerated system offered by others. By means of a case study example, this paper discusses the autorefrigerated reaction system and its benefits.

  20. Effect of volatile fatty acids mixtures on the simultaneous photofermentative production of hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Cardeña, René; Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Buitrón, Germán

    2017-02-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria generate hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as a mechanism for disposing of reducing equivalents generated during substrate consumption. However, both pathways compete for the reducing equivalents released from bacteria growing under certain substrates, thus the formation of hydrogen or PHB is detrimental to the formation of each other. The effect of mixtures of acetic, propionic and butyric acids on the formation of H2 and PHB was evaluated using Box-Behnken design. A bacterial community mainly constituted by Rhodopseudomonas palustris was used as inoculum. It was observed that the three volatile fatty acids had a significant effect on the specific PHB production. However, only the propionic acid had a significant effect on the specific H2 production activity and the highest value was observed when acetate was the main component in the mixture. The maximum values for the specific PHB and hydrogen production rates were 16.4 mg-PHB/g-TSS/day and 391 mL-H2/g-TSS/day, respectively.

  1. [Determination of thoracic and inhalable fraction of sulfuric acid(VI) in workplace air].

    PubMed

    Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pośniak, Małgorzata; Pągowska, Emilia

    The article presents the results of the determination of the inhalable and thoracic fraction of sulfuric acid(VI) in 3 workplaces producing or processing this chemical. To collect thoracic fractions of sulfuric acid(VI) Parallel Particle Impactor (PPI) was used. To isolate inhalable fraction of sulfuric acid(VI) from the air we used a sampler developed at the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), United Kingdom. Parallel Particle Impactor and IOM samplers worked with pumps at a flow of 2 l/min. For the chromatographic determination of the inhalable and thoracic fraction of sulfuric acid(VI) in workplace the ion chromatography with conductometric detection was used. Depending on the sampling place the concentration of thoracic fraction of sulfuric acid(VI) was: 0.0015-0.01 mg/m3 in workplace A, 0.0019-0.25 mg/m3 in workplace B, and 0.002-0.01 mg/m3 in workplace C. Of 22 tested workstations in workplace B only 7 exceeded the threshold limit value (TLV) for the concentration of thoracic fraction of sulfuric acid(VI). The results confirmed the utility of PPI for sampling the thoracic fraction of sulfuric acid(VI). The studies show that at 22 workstations in the establishments producing or processing sulfuric acid(VI) thoracic fraction of acid is emitted to the work environment. The collected data showed that the thoracic fraction of sulfuric acid(VI) represents on average 64% of the inhalable fraction. Med Pr 2016;67(4):509-515. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Strong Hydrogen Bonded Molecular Interactions between Atmospheric Diamines and Sulfuric Acid.

    PubMed

    Elm, Jonas; Jen, Coty N; Kurtén, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2016-05-26

    We investigate the molecular interaction between methyl-substituted N,N,N',N'-ethylenediamines, propane-1,3-diamine, butane-1,4-diamine, and sulfuric acid using computational methods. Molecular structure of the diamines and their dimer clusters with sulfuric acid is studied using three density functional theory methods (PW91, M06-2X, and ωB97X-D) with the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. A high level explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12a/VDZ-F12 method is used to obtain accurate binding energies. The reaction Gibbs free energies are evaluated and compared with values for reactions involving ammonia and atmospherically relevant monoamines (methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine). We find that the complex formation between sulfuric acid and the studied diamines provides similar or more favorable reaction free energies than dimethylamine. Diamines that contain one or more secondary amino groups are found to stabilize sulfuric acid complexes more efficiently. Elongating the carbon backbone from ethylenediamine to propane-1,3-diamine or butane-1,4-diamine further stabilizes the complex formation with sulfuric acid by up to 4.3 kcal/mol. Dimethyl-substituted butane-1,4-diamine yields a staggering formation free energy of -19.1 kcal/mol for the clustering with sulfuric acid, indicating that such diamines could potentially be a key species in the initial step in the formation of new particles. For studying larger clusters consisting of a diamine molecule with up to four sulfuric acid molecules, we benchmark and utilize a domain local pair natural orbital coupled cluster (DLPNO-CCSD(T)) method. We find that a single diamine is capable of efficiently stabilizing sulfuric acid clusters with up to four acid molecules, whereas monoamines such as dimethylamine are capable of stabilizing at most 2-3 sulfuric acid molecules.

  3. Sulfuric acid karst and its relationship to hydrocarbon reservoir porosity, native sulfur deposits, and the origin of Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.A. , Albuquerque, NM )

    1993-03-01

    The Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico and West Texas contains hydrocarbons and native sulfur in the basin and sulfuric acid-formed caves and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore deposits around the margins of the basin. Hydrocarbons reacting with sulfate evaporite rock produced hydrogen sulfide gas, which gas oxidized to native sulfur in the basin and which gas also migrated from basin to reef and accumulated there in structural and stratigraphic traps. In the reduced zone of the carbonate reef margin the H[sub 2]S combined with metal-chloride complexes to form MVTs, and in the oxidized zone later in time the H[sub 2]S formed sulfuric acid which dissolved out the famous caves of the region (e.g., Carlsbad Cavern, Lechuguilla Cave). Sulfuric acid karst can be recognized by the discontinuity, large size, and spongework nature of its cave passages, and by the presence of native sulfur, endellite, and large gypsum deposits within these caves. Sulfuric acid oilfield karst refers to cavernous porosity filled with hydrocarbons and can be produced by the mixing of waters of different H[sub 2]S content or by the oxidation of H[sub 2]S to sulfuric acid. Sulfur and carbon-oxygen isotopes have been used to establish and trace the sequence of related hydrocarbon, sulfur, MVT, and karst events in the Delaware Basin.

  4. Aboveground and Belowground Herbivores Synergistically Induce Volatile Organic Sulfur Compound Emissions from Shoots but Not from Roots.

    PubMed

    Danner, Holger; Brown, Phil; Cator, Eric A; Harren, Frans J M; van Dam, Nicole M; Cristescu, Simona M

    2015-07-01

    Studies on aboveground (AG) plant organs have shown that volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions differ between simultaneous attack by herbivores and single herbivore attack. There is growing evidence that interactive effects of simultaneous herbivory also occur across the root-shoot interface. In our study, Brassica rapa roots were infested with root fly larvae (Delia radicum) and the shoots infested with Pieris brassicae, either singly or simultaneously, to study these root-shoot interactions. As an analytical platform, we used Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) to investigate VOCs over a 3 day time period. Our set-up allowed us to monitor root and shoot emissions concurrently on the same plant. Focus was placed on the sulfur-containing compounds; methanethiol, dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), because these compounds previously have been shown to be biologically active in the interactions of Brassica plants, herbivores, parasitoids, and predators, yet have received relatively little attention. The shoots of plants simultaneously infested with AG and belowground (BG) herbivores emitted higher levels of sulfur-containing compounds than plants with a single herbivore species present. In contrast, the emission of sulfur VOCs from the plant roots increased as a consequence of root herbivory, independent of the presence of an AG herbivore. The onset of root emissions was more rapid after damage than the onset of shoot emissions. The shoots of double infested plants also emitted higher levels of methanol. Thus, interactive effects of root and shoot herbivores exhibit more strongly in the VOC emissions from the shoots than from the roots, implying the involvement of specific signaling interactions.

  5. Uptake kinetics of three epoxides into sulfuric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianhe; Liu, Ze; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa

    2012-09-01

    This work presents a study of the uptake of isoprene epoxide, butadiene epoxide (BMO) and butadiene diepoxide (BDO) into sulfuric acid solutions which helps to understand the reactivity of epoxides existing in the atmosphere toward acidic aerosols. The uptake of these three compounds into 0-30 wt % H2SO4 solutions were measured using a rotated wetted-wall reactor (RWW) coupled to a single-photon ionization time of flight mass spectrometer (SPI-TOFMS). The epoxides were found to be very easily taken up by H2SO4 solutions even in dilute concentrations of pH levels. Isoprene epoxide was found to partition reversibly into solution at pH = 4, whereas irreversible uptake was observed when pH ≤ 3. We reported the reactive uptake coefficients from 1.87 × 10-5 to 2.67 × 10-3 for pH = 3-20 wt % H2SO4 solutions. A chemical reaction for isoprene epoxide was responsible for the reactive uptake. By means of mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy, a gas product was identified to be 2-methyl-3-butenal. The uptake behavior of butadiene epoxide was similar with that of isoprene epoxide, while butadiene diepoxide partitioned irreversibly over the whole acidity range of 0-30 wt %, and the reactive uptake coefficients increased slightly (0.849 × 10-4-1.36 × 10-4) from pure water to pH = 1. The reactivity that displayed close dependence on the hydrolysis rates of the three epoxides was analyzed and compared according to their molecular structural differences. The atmospheric lifetimes were calculated and atmospheric implication was discussed based on the corresponding reactive uptake coefficients.

  6. Amine Reactivity with Nanoclusters of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. V.; Bzdek, B. R.; DePalma, J.

    2011-12-01

    Alkyl amines have emerged as key species in new particle formation and growth. This interest is reinforced by ambient measurements of amines (e.g. Smith et al., 2010) and enhanced levels of nitrogen (e.g. Bzdek et al., 2011) during growth of newly formed particles. An important mechanism of amine uptake is aminium salt formation, either by substituting for ammonium ions that already exist in the particle or by opening new channels for salt formation that are not favorable with ammonia. This presentation will focus on recent experimental and computational work in our group to study amine uptake into charged nanoclusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia. In the experimental work, clusters are produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution and then drawn into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer where a specific cluster is isolated and exposed to amine vapor. We find that amine reactivity is dependent on the size, composition and charge of the isolated cluster. For small clusters of either polarity, all ammonium ions reside on the surface and amine substitution occurs with near unit reaction probability. As the cluster size increases, an ammonium ion can be encapsulated in the center of the cluster, which provides a steric hindrance to amine substitution. Negatively charged clusters are more likely to be acidic than positively charged clusters. For acidic clusters, incoming amine molecules first substitute for preexisting ammonium ions and then add to the cluster until a "neutralized" aminium bisulfate composition is reached. Computational studies of these clusters provide fundamental insight into the thermodynamics and kinetics of amine uptake.

  7. Combinatorial synthesis by nature: volatile organic sulfur-containing constituents of Ruta chalepensis L.

    PubMed

    Escher, Sina; Niclass, Yvan; van de Waal, Matthijs; Starkenmann, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Ongoing interest in discovering new natural fragrance and flavor ingredients prompted us to examine a solvent extract of sulfurous-sweaty smelling Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) plant material more closely. Twenty-one sulfur-containing constituents of similar structures were identified by GC/MS techniques. Amongst them, 14 have never been described to occur in nature. The compounds 1-18 belong to a family of natural flavor and fragrance molecules having a 1,3-positioned O,S moiety in common. The identities of the natural constituents were confirmed by comparison with synthetic reference samples, and the organoleptic properties of the latter were studied. The relative and absolute configurations of the four stereoisomers of 4-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (5) were established by stereoselective synthesis. The natural isomers consisted of a 65 : 35 mixture of (3R,4S)-5 and (3S,4S)-5.

  8. Reaction kinetics of waste sulfuric acid using H2O2 catalytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiade; Hong, Binxun; Tong, Xinyang; Qiu, Shufeng

    2016-12-01

    The process of recovering waste sulfuric acids using H2O2 catalytic oxidation is studied in this paper. Activated carbon was used as catalyst. Main operating parameters, such as temperature, feed rate of H2O2, and catalyst dosage, have effects on the removal of impurities from waste sulfuric acids. The reaction kinetics of H2O2 catalytic oxidation on impurities are discussed. At a temperature of 90°C, H2O2 feeding rate of 50 g (kg waste acid)(-1) per hour, and catalyst dosage of 0.2 wt% (waste acid weight), the removal efficiencies of COD and chrominance were both more than 99%, the recovery ratio of sulfuric acid was more than 95%, and the utilization ratio of H2O2 was 88.57%. Waste sulfuric acid is a big environmental problem in China. The amount of waste sulfuric acid is huge every year. Many small and medium-sized businesses produced lots of waste acids, but they don't have an appropriate method to treat and recover them. H2O2 catalytic oxidation has been used to treat and recover waste sulfuric acid and activated carbon is the catalyst here. Main parameters, such as temperature, feed rate of H2O2, and catalyst dosage, have been investigated. The reaction kinetics are discussed. This method can be economical and feasible for most small and medium-sized businesses.

  9. Effects of ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol on gas trapping in the guinea pig lung

    SciTech Connect

    Silbaugh, S.A.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Four groups of 20 guinea pigs were sequentially exposed by inhalation to either air followed by sulfuric acid aerosol, ozone followed by sulfuric acid aerosol, ozone followed by air, or air followed by air to determine whether ozone preexposure sensitizes guinea pigs to the airway constrictive effects of sulfuric acid aerosol. All first exposures to ozone or air were 2 h in duration; all second exposures to sulfuric acid or air were for 1 h. All ozone and sulfuric acid exposures were 0.8 ppm and 12 mg/m3, respectively. Animals were observed for respiratory distress during exposure, and excised lungs were quantitated for trapped gas and wet/dry ratios. None of the guinea pigs developed dyspnea, and wet/dry ratios were not altered. Ozone significantly (p less than 0.05) increased trapped gas volumes, which were 44% (ozone-acid) to 68% (ozone-air) greater than in the air-air group. Trapped gas volume was 23% greater in the ozone-acid group than in the air-acid group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p less than 0.20). Thus, ozone increased gas trapping but did not significantly sensitize guinea pigs to the bronchoconstrictive action of sulfuric acid.

  10. Ion Irradiation of Sulfuric Acid: Implications for its Stability on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) detected regions on Europa's surface containing distorted H2O bands. This distortion likely indicates that there are other molecules mixed with the water ice. Based on spectral comparison, some of the leading possibilities are sulfuric acid, salts. or possibly H3O(+). Previous laboratory studies have shown that sulfuric acid can be created by irradiation of H2OSO2 mixtures, and both molecules are present on Europa. In this project, we were interested in investigating the radiation stability of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and determining its lifetime on the surface of Europa.

  11. Sulfuric acid-methanol electrolytes as an alternative to sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid mixtures for electropolishing of niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Corcoran, Sean G.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2011-06-01

    Attainment of the greatest possible interior surface smoothness is critical to meeting the performance demands placed upon niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities by next generation projects. Electropolishing with HF-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolytes yields cavities that meet SRF performance goals, but a less-hazardous, more environmentally-friendly process is desirable. Reported studies of EP on chemically-similar tantalum describe the use of sulfuric acid-methanol electrolytes as an HF-free alternative. Reported here are the results of experiments on niobium samples with this electrolyte. Voltammetry experiments indicate a current plateau whose voltage range expands with increasing acid concentration and decreasing temperature. Impedance spectroscopy indicates that a compact salt film is responsible for the current plateau. Equivalent findings in electropolishing chemically-similar tantalum with this electrolyte were interpreted due to as mass transfer limitation by diffusion of Ta ions away from the anode surface. We infer that a similar mechanism is at work here. Conditions were found that yield leveling and brightening comparable to that obtained with HF-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} mixtures.

  12. Thermodynamic Properties of the Aqueous Sulfuric Acid System to 350 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.

    1991-11-01

    Experimental measurements for aqueous sulfuric acid and its related pure, solid phases have been thermodynamically analyzed and correlated as a function of temperature and composition from pure water to pure acid. The pure phases included anhydrous sulfuric acid, five of its hydrates and ice. Experimental data which were used in the correlation included measurements of the enthalpy of dilution, both solution and pure phase heat capacities, electromotive force and solution freezing points. The correlation yielded mutually consistent expressions for the Gibbs energy of each phase and these functions generally reproduce the experimental data to ±0.75 percent. The Gibbs energy functions of the pure solid phases were used to generate tables of their thermodynamic properties from 0 K to the melting points. The Gibbs energy function for aqueous sulfuric acid was used to produce tables of both integral and partial molar solution properties as a function of sulfuric acid mole fraction every 50° from 200 to 350 K.

  13. A purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate the effect of sulfur-fumigation on Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-fumigation is known to reduce volatile compounds that are the main active components in herbs used in herbal medicine. We investigated changes in chemical composition between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae using a purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds, and two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification. Using sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples as a reference, the results showed that 73 volatile compounds, including 12 sulfide compounds, were found to be present only in sulfur-fumigated samples. Furthermore, 32 volatile compounds that were found in sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples disappeared after sulfur-fumigation. The proposed method can be applied to accurately discriminate sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae from different commercial sources.

  14. Preparation of levoglucosenone through sulfuric acid promoted pyrolysis of bagasse at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xian-wei; Wang, Zhi; Liao, Bing; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Qing-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of bagasse pretreated by sulfuric acid was conducted in a fixed bed reactor to prepare levoglucosenone (LGO), a very important anhydrosugar for organic synthesis. The liquid yield and LGO yield were studied at temperatures from 240 to 350 °C and sulfuric acid loadings from 0.92 to 7.10 wt.%. An optimal LGO yield of 7.58 wt.% was obtained at 270 °C with a sulfuric acid pretreatment concentration of 0.05 M (corresponding to 4.28 wt.% sulfuric acid loading). For comparison, microcrystalline cellulose pretreated by 0.05 M sulfuric acid solution was pyrolyzed at temperature from 270 °C to 320 °C, and bagasse loaded with 3-5 wt.% phosphoric acid was pyrolyzed at temperature from 270 °C to 350 °C. The highest yield of LGO from bagasse was 30% higher than that from microcrystalline cellulose, and treatment with sulfuric acid allowed a 21% higher yield than treatment with phosphoric acid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unusual refinery boiler tube failures due to corrosion by sulfuric acid induced by steam leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Lopez, D.; Wong-Moreno, A.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion by sulfuric acid in boilers is a low probability event because gas temperature and metal temperature of boiler tubes are high enough to avoid the condensation of sulfuric acid from flue gases. This degradation mechanism is frequently considered as an important cause of air preheaters materials degradation, where flue gases are cooled by heat transfer to the combustion air. Corrosion is associated to the presence of sulfuric acid, which condensates if metal temperature (or gas temperature) is below of the acid dew point. In economizer tubes, sulfuric acid corrosion is an unlikely event because flue gas and tube temperatures are normally over the acid dewpoint. In this paper, the failure analysis of generator tubes (similar to the economizer of bigger boilers) of two small oil-fired subcritical boilers is reported. It is concluded that sulfuric acid corrosion was the cause of the failure. The sulfuric acid condensation was due to the contact of flue gases containing SO{sub 3} with water-steam spray coming from leaks at the interface of rolled tube to the drum. Considering the information gathered from these two cases studied, an analysis of this failure mechanism is presented including a description of the thermodynamics condition of water leaking from the drum, and an analysis of the factors favoring it.

  16. Mechanochemical leaching of chalcopyrite concentrate by sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadabad, Farhad Khorramshahi; Hejazi, Sina; khaki, Jalil Vahdati; Babakhani, Abolfazl

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to introduce a new cost-effective methodology for increasing the leaching efficiency of chalcopyrite concentrates at ambient temperature and pressure. Mechanical activation was employed during the leaching (mechanochemical leaching) of chalcopyrite concentrates in a sulfuric acid medium at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. High energy ball milling process was used during the leaching to provide the mechanochemical leaching condition, and atomic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to determine the leaching behavior of chalcopyrite. Moreover, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the chalcopyrite powder before and after leaching. The results demonstrated that mechanochemical leaching was effective; the extraction of copper increased significantly and continuously. Although the leaching efficiency of chalcopyrite was very low at ambient temperature, the percentages of copper dissolved in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3) after 20 h of mechanochemical leaching reached 28% and 33%, respectively. Given the efficiency of the developed method and the facts that it does not require the use of an autoclave and can be conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, it represents an economical and easy-to-use method for the leaching industry.

  17. Sulfur amino acid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hui Chan; Kim, Young-Mi; Oh, Soo Jin; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the metabolomics of sulfur amino acids in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Plasma levels of total cysteine, homocysteine and methionine, but not glutathione (GSH) were markedly decreased in ZDF rats. Hepatic methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, betaine, taurine, spermidine and spermine were also decreased. There are no significant difference in hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, GSH, GSH disulfide, hypotaurine and putrescine between control and ZDF rats. Hepatic SAH hydrolase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase were up-regulated while activities of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase and methionine synthase were decreased. The area under the curve (AUC) of methionine and methionine-d4 was not significantly different in control and ZDF rats treated with a mixture of methionine (60mg/kg) and methionine-d4 (20mg/kg). Moreover, the AUC of the increase in plasma total homocysteine was comparable between two groups, although the homocysteine concentration curve was shifted leftward in ZDF rats, suggesting that the plasma total homocysteine after the methionine loading was rapidly increased and normalized in ZDF rats. These results show that the AUC of plasma homocysteine is not responsive to the up-regulation of hepatic BHMT in ZDF rats. The present study suggests that the decrease in hepatic methionine may be responsible for the decreases in its metabolites, such as homocysteine, cysteine, and taurine in liver and consequently decreased plasma homocysteine levels.

  18. Theoretical study of ultraviolet induced photodissociation dynamics of sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tatsuhiro; Ohta, Ayumi; Suzuki, Tomoya; Ikeda, Kumiko; Danielache, Sebastian O.; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2015-05-01

    Photodissociation dynamics of sulfuric acid after excitation to the first and second excited states (S1 and S2) were studied by an on-the-fly ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on the Zhu-Nakamura version of the trajectory surface hopping (ZN-TSH). Forces acting on the nuclear motion were computed on-the-fly by CASSCF method with Dunning's augmented cc-pVDZ basis set. It was newly found that the parent molecule dissociated into two reaction-channels (i) HSO4(12A″) + H(2S) by S1-excitation, and (ii) HSO4(22A″) + H(2S) by S2-excitation. The direct dissociation dynamics yield products different from the SO2 + 2OH fragments often presented in the literature. Both channels result in the same product and differs only in the electronic state of the HSO4 fragment. The trajectories running on S2 do not hop with S0 and a nonadiabatic transition happens at the S2-S1 conical intersection located at a longer OH bond-length than the S1-S0 intersection producing an electronic excited state (22A″) of HSO4 product.

  19. Temperature and intensity of sonoluminescence radiation in sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Moshaii, A; Hoseini, M A; Gharibzadeh, S; Tavakoli-Anaraki, A

    2012-07-01

    The spectral radiation of sonoluminescence (SL) from sulfuric acid doped with various Xe concentrations has been studied in a hydrochemical simulation, including radiation effects of both continuum and line emissions. The simulation considers the same temperature for both continuum and line parts of the SL spectrum and gives results in agreement with the experiment. Also, it can properly show period-doubling dynamics for a 50 torr bubble. For most of the allowable driving pressures, it is shown that both the temperature and the intensity of SL for a 4 torr bubble are greater than those of a 50 torr bubble. However, for the range of pressures near the maximum driving conditions of the 50 torr bubble, the SL intensity of this bubble can be up to three orders of magnitude greater than the 4 torr bubble. This case, which is in agreement with the experiment, is obtained when the light-emitting region of the 50 torr bubble is about three orders of magnitude greater than the 4 torr bubble.

  20. Size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentrations at phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lundgren, Dale A; Birky, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a 'known human carcinogen' in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) report where phosphate fertilizer manufacture was listed as one of many occupational exposures to strong acids. To properly assess the occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mists in modern facilities, approved National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7903 and a cascade impactor were used for measuring the total sulfuric acid mist concentration and size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentration, respectively. Sampling was conducted at eight phosphate fertilizer plants and two background sites in Florida and there were 24 sampling sites in these plants. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) to quantify the water-soluble ion species. The highest sulfuric acid concentrations by the cascade impactor were obtained at the sulfuric acid pump tank area. When high aerosol mass concentrations (100 micro g m(-3)) were observed at this area, the sulfuric acid mists were in the coarse mode. The geometric mean sulfuric acid concentrations (+/-geometric standard deviation) of PM(23) (aerodynamic cut size smaller than 23 micro m), PM(10) and PM(2.5) from the cascade impactor were 41.7 (+/-5.5), 37.9 (+/-5.8) and 22.1 (+/-4.5) micro g m(-3), respectively. The geometric mean (+/-geometric standard deviation) for total sulfuric acid concentration from the NIOSH method samples was 143 (+/-5.08) micro g m(-3). Sulfuric acid mist concentrations varied significantly among the plants and even at the same location. The measurements by the NIOSH method were 1.5-229 times higher than those by the cascade impactor. Moreover, using the NIOSH method, the sulfuric acid concentrations measured at the lower flow rate (0.30 Lpm) were higher than those at the higher flow rate (0.45 Lpm). One possible reason for the significant differences between the results from the cascade impactor and the NIOSH method is the potential

  1. Abundances of sodium, sulfur, and potassium in lunar volcanic glasses: Evidence for volatile loss during eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.; Mcguire, J.

    1992-01-01

    Six varieties of lunar volcanic glass are known to occur within the Apollo 17 sample collection. Investigations have shown that 25 volatile elements are known to be concentrated on the exterior surfaces of individual volcanic glass spheres. Since bulk analyses of volcanic glass provide an integrated abundance of an element on and with the glass spherules, other methods must be relied on to determine the interior abundance of an element. The interior abundance of an element with a volcanic glass sphere establishes the abundance of that element in the melt at the time of quench. The current study is part of a comprehensive attempt to measure the abundance of three volatile elements (Na, S, and K) within representative spheres of the 25 varieties of lunar volcanic glass currently known to exist at the Apollo landing sites. Comparison of the measured abundances of these elements within the interiors of individual glasses with bulk analyses and crystalline mare basalts will furnish new constraints on the geochemical behavior of volatile elements during lunar mare volcanism.

  2. Volatile sulfur compounds from a redox-controlled-cattle-manure slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, W.E.; Guenzi, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Volatile S compounds have been implicated as contributors to the odor problem from cattle-feedlots. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of oxidation-reduction potentials (E/sub h/) on the type and amount of volatile S compounds released from cattle manure. The laboratory experiment utilized a manure slurry controlled at pH 7, 30/sup 0/C, and a preselected E/sub h/ levels. The E/sub h/ of the slurry was initially controlled at +300 mV, and subsequently decreased in increments of 100 mV/week through -200 mV. Effluent gases from the incubation flask were trapped, and the S gases analyzed by gas chromatography. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) production was low (less than or equal to 0.07 ..mu..g/g manure/d) at all redox levels. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were highest at 0 mV, while hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) and methanethiol (MeSH) were greatest at -100 mV. The total amount of S volatilized from the manure slurry as each compound was: H/sub 2/O, 155 ..mu..g; MeSH, 135 ..mu..g; DMS, 83..mu..g; DMDS, 27 ..mu..g; COS, 8 ..mu..g; and CS/sub 2/, 3 ..mu..g; representing about 1.7% of the total manure S.

  3. Np(V) reduction by humic acid: contribution of reduced sulfur functionalities to the redox behavior of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Schmeide, K; Sachs, S; Bernhard, G

    2012-03-01

    The role of sulfur-containing functional groups in humic acids for the Np(V) reduction in aqueous solution has been studied with the objective to specify individual processes contributing to the overall redox activity of humic substances. For this, humic acid model substances type M1-S containing different amounts of sulfur (1.9, 3.9, 6.9 wt.%) were applied. The sulfur functionalities in these humic acids are dominated by reduced-sulfur species, such as thiols, dialkylsulfides and/or disulfides. The Np(V) reduction behavior of these humic acids has been studied in comparison to that of the sulfur-free humic acid type M1 at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 under anaerobic conditions by means of batch experiments. For Np redox speciation in solution, solvent extraction and ultrafiltration were applied. In addition, redox potentials of the sample solutions were monitored. At pH 5.0, both rate and extent of Np(V) to Np(IV) reduction were found to increase with increasing sulfur content of the humic acids. At pH 7.0 and 9.0, sulfur functional groups had only a slight influence on the reduction behavior of humic acid toward Np(V). Thus, in addition to quinoid moieties and non-quinoid phenolic OH groups, generally acknowledged as main redox-active sites in humic substances, sulfur functional groups have been identified as further redox-active moieties of humic substances being active especially in the slightly acidic pH range as shown for Np(V). Due to the low sulfur content of up to 2 wt.% in natural humic substances, their contribution to the total reducing capacity is smaller than that of the other redox-active functional groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the stability and dynamics of (sulfuric acid) (ammonia) and (sulfuric acid) (dimethylamine) clusters: A first-principles molecular dynamics investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukonen, V.; Kuo, I.-F. W.; McGrath, M. J.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2014-01-01

    The main pathway of new-particle formation in the atmosphere is likely to begin from small sulfuric acid clusters stabilized by other compounds, such as ammonia or amines. Here, we present the results of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations probing the stability and dynamics of (sulfuric acid) (ammonia/dimethylamine) clusters with two, three and four sulfuric acid molecules and a varying number of the bases. In each of the eight simulated clusters, an energetic equilibrium was reached and 35 ps of equilibrium data was collected in the NVT(T=300 K) ensemble. The clusters exhibited pronounced thermal motion including rotations of the molecules within the clusters. Regardless of the continuous movement, the clusters stayed bound together. The calculated electric dipole moments were found to be sensitive to the thermal motion and consequently, large fluctuations were observed. In addition, the vibrational spectra for all the clusters were determined, indicating that the thermal motion differs from purely harmonic motion.

  5. Volatile Evolution and Anhydrite-Bearing Dacite, Yanacocha Gold Deposit, Cajamarca, Peru: Relevance for the Sulfur Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambefort, I. S.; Dilles, J. H.

    2006-12-01

    Magmatic water, sulfur and chlorine evolved during volcanic eruptions have important climactic effects, but during passive degassing these volatiles may transport metals and produce hydrothermal ore deposits. At the Yanacocha Mine, we are examining the volatile evolution of the Miocene andesitic to dacitic volcanic rocks (ca 20 to 8 Ma). High sulfidation epithermal deposits contain >50 Moz of gold in oxides with additional deeper sulfide resources containing >5 Mt of copper. Large volumes (>10 km3) of rock are hydrothermally altered by sulfate-rich and low pH fluid to quartz, quartz-alunite, quartz-pyrophyllite, illite. Pyrite (1-5 vol.%), native sulfur, covellite, enargite and chalcopyrite constitute reduced S-species. In total, at least 500 M tonnes of sulfur were added during alteration. The San Jose ignimbrite (SJI) erupted 30 km3 magma in two cooling units at 11.50 and 11.28 Ma, and immediately predates the bulk of gold mineralization at about 10.80 Ma (Longo, 2005). This hornblende- plagioclase dacitic magma is highly oxidized with fO2 ≍ 2 NNO. Low-Al2O3 (~7 wt.%), and high- Al2O3 (~12 wt.%) amphiboles coexist in most of the samples. Plag-hbl thermobarometry on low-Al content amphibole yields ca. 1.5-2 kb and 800°C. High-Al pargasitic hornblende forms sparse crystals up to 1 cm long that often show resorption or oxide rims associated with oxyhornblende breakdown. Apatite is an inclusion but generally not plagioclase or oxide. These petrographic relations suggest that the high-Al hornblende is the liquidus phase (at 950 to 1000°C, PH2O > 3 kb) in an andesitic or basaltic magma. The high-Al amphibole in two samples contains anhydrite inclusions, one with >5 vol.% anhydrite associated with apatite having up to 1.2 wt.% SO3. Comparison of these data with experimental sulfate solubilities at NNO+2 suggests the andesitic or basaltic melt dissolved at least 1000 ppm S. One low-Al amphibole contains anhydrite, demonstrating that the cooler dacite magma was also

  6. Sulfur dioxide effects on plants exhibiting Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, D M; Bytnerowicz, A; Fox, C A

    1987-01-01

    The effects of SO(2) on species exhibiting Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) were determined with short term-high concentration 'acute' greenhouse exposures (0.6 to 3.0 microl liter(-1) (ppm) SO(2) for 2 and 8 h), and long term-low concentration 'chronic' field exposures (0.35 to 0.90 microl liter(-1) SO(2) for 32 to 79 h periodically over 7 to 13 days). In the acute greenhouse exposures, visible injury was observed on Opuntia basilaris Engelm. & Bigel., exposed to 2.0 microl liter(-1) SO(2), but no injury was observed on Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Bryophyllum blossfeldiana Poelln., Bryophyllum pinnata (Lam.) Pers., or Bryophyllum tubiflora (Harv.) Hamet, exposed to up to 2.8 microl liter(-1) SO(2) for 8 h. Stomatal conductance during the exposures averaged 0.067+/-0.021mol(-2)s(-1) for Opuntia basilaris, 0.029+/-0.008mol(-2)s(-1) for Ananas comosus, and 0.029+/-0.008mol m(-2)s(-1) for Bryophyllum pinnata. Opuntia basilaris was injured early during the day, but not at night; with the injury appearing as a white necrotic banding across just fully expanded pads. Moderately injured pads would regreen beginning 1 to 2 weeks after exposure. In chronic field exposures, no visible injury from SO(2) was observed on Opuntia basilaris, Dudleya arizonica Rose or Agave deserti Engelm. plants, grown either with supplemental irrigation or natural rainfall. In addition, in the field SO(2) had no effect on CO(2) uptake, total sulfur content, transpiration, or tissue acidity in either the light or the dark, or in irrigated vs natural rainfall plots.

  7. Sulfur, halogens and helium in vesicles and glass of MORB; global fluxes of volatiles from ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagoshima, T.; Sano, Y.; Takahata, N.; Hattori, K. H.; Marty, B.

    2013-12-01

    We determined the compositions of vesicles and glasses of MORB to estimate fluxes of S and halogens from ridges to the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Samples were collected at 3 sites of the East Pacific Rise, 3 sites between 15-40 N of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and 2 sites near 25 S on the Central Indian Ridge. Volatiles were extracted from vesicles by crushing samples in dilute NaOH solution at liq. nitrogen temp. Helium isotope compositions were measured with a VG-5400 MS; S, F and Cl contents with ICS-2100 ion chromatography; and the contents of Br, I and metals with Agilent 7700x ICP-MS. For glass, the concentrations of S, F, Cl and Br were determined with a NanoSIMS. Vesicles contain similar concentrations of 3He (6.3E-16-5.1E-15 mol/g of sample) and F/Cl molar ratios (0.03-0.15) at all sites. Cl/S ratios are higher at shallower sites, suggesting the start of S degassing at deep levels, > 3000 m. Averages of vesicle data are (4.4×1.3)E7 for S/3He, (1.4×0.7)E6 for F/3He, (2.8×1.3)E7 for Cl/3He, and <2.7E5 for Br/3He and I/3He. The values are much smaller than those for glass probably because of the retention of volatiles in melt at great depths, suggesting that vesicles' contribution of volatiles is minor except for He. Bulk (vesicles+glass) shows S/3He (3.1E9-1.2E10), F/3He (1.6E9-6.5E9), Cl/3He (7.5E8-3.0E9) and Br/3He (5.1E5-2.1E6). Using the global flux of 3He, 527 mol/yr, fluxes of volatiles are calculated to be 2.3E10-6.6E12 mol/yr for S, 7.1E8-3.4E12 mol/yr for F, 1.5E10-1.6E12 mol/yr for Cl and <1.1E9 mol/yr for Br. The values are comparable with those from arc volcanoes reported by Wallace (2005) and Fisher (2008). The combined contributions from MORB and arcs give the total annual fluxes of volatiles to the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Comparison of the annual fluxes and their amounts in the atmosphere and hydrosphere reservoir yield the residence times of volatiles; 4.9E7-1.0E9 yr for S, 2.2E7-5.8E9 yr for F, 1.3E9-1.4E10 yr for Cl, and 1.0E9-8.0E9 yr

  8. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  13. Reaction of isoprene on thin sulfuric acid films: kinetics, uptake, and product analysis.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Brandon M; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2010-06-15

    A high vacuum Knudsen flow reactor was used to determine the reactive uptake coefficient, gamma, of isoprene on sulfuric acid films as a function of sulfuric acid weight percent, temperature, and relative humidity. No discernible dependence was observed for gamma over the range of temperatures (220 - 265 K) and pressures (10(-7) Torr -10(-4) Torr) studied. However, the uptake coefficient increased with increased sulfuric acid concentration between the range of 78 wt % (gamma(i) approximately 10(-4)) and 93 wt % (gamma(i) approximately 10(-3)). In addition to the Knudsen Cell, a bulk study was conducted between 60 and 85 wt % H(2)SO(4) to quantify uptake at lower acid concentrations and to determine reaction products. After exposing sulfuric acid to gaseous isoprene the condensed phase products were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Isoprene was observed to polymerize in the sulfuric acid and form yellow/red colored monoterpenes and cyclic sesquiterpenes. Finally, addition of water to the 85 wt % sulfuric acid/isoprene product mixture released these terpenes from the condensed phase into the gas phase. Together these experiments imply that direct isoprene uptake will not produce significant SOA; however, terpene production from the small uptake may be relevant for ultrafine particles and could affect growth and nucleation.

  14. Cytotoxicity of sulfurous acid on cell membrane and bioactivity of Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruiyu; Wang, Mingqing; Xue, Jianliang; Xu, Ning; Hou, Guihua; Zhang, Wubing

    2015-01-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea, an ammonia oxidizing bacterium, was chosen as a research model to study the alteration of cell membrane in the presence of sulfurous acid and biodegradation of acetochlor. Significant changes of the outer cell membrane were observed in the presence of sulfurous acid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The fluorescence polarization has shown a significant decrease in membrane fluidity and the increase of permeability of cell membrane. Lysozyme experiment show the cell becomes easily influenced by substance in medium. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements show considerable amount of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the supernatant from the sulfurous acid exposed cells. Sulfurous acid treatment enhanced the ability of N. europaea to degrade acetochlor. On this basis, it can be concluded that the increased cell permeability is favor for the absorbability of nutrition. As a result, N. europaea grows faster and the biodegradation efficiency was improved.

  15. First-principles molecular dynamics simulations of (sulfuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1 cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2013-05-01

    The clustering process (sulfuric acid) + (base)→(sulfuric acid)1(base)1 is of fundamental importance in the atmospheric new-particle formation. Especially interesting are the collisions where a proton transfer reaction can happen, as the reaction often leads to relatively strongly bound clusters. Here, we studied the clustering process of (sulfuric acid) + (dimethylamine) → (sulfuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1 using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. The collision of the two molecules was simulated starting with various spatial orientations and the evolution of the cluster was followed in the NVE ensemble. The simulations suggest that the proton transfer reaction takes place regardless of the intial collision orientation. However, due to the energy released in the process, the newly-formed cluster is not able to reach the minimun energy configuration, which might affect the following growth processes.

  16. Measurement of neutral sulfuric acid-dimethylamine clusters using CI-APi-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Mario; Kürten, Andreas; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Sipilä, Mikko; Rondo, Linda; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Junninen, Heikki; Hutterli, Manuel; Kirkby, Jasper; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Curtius, Joachim; Cloud Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that dimethylamine could be a key ternary species in the formation and early growth of atmospheric aerosol particles. We report on nucleation studies for the ternary system of sulfuric acid, water and dimethylamine which have been performed at the CERN CLOUD chamber. These studies were conducted at atmospherically relevant concentrations of sulfuric acid and dimethylamine at 278 K and 38% RH. Two newly developed Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometers (CIAPi-TOF-MS) were used to measure the time-resolved concentration of neutral clusters containing sulfuric acid and dimethylamine. Results from other instrumental techniques are included in the analysis as well to obtain a deeper insight into the occurring mechanisms. It is the first time that the neutral nucleation pathway has been studied in such detail from the early generation of sulfuric acid monomers up to particle sizes reaching several nanometers.

  17. Freezing behavior of single sulfuric acid aerosols suspended in a quadrupole trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, K. L.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.; Rawlins, W. T.; Wyslouzil, B. E.; Arnold, S.

    1997-03-01

    The freezing properties of sulfuric acid droplets were studied by suspending single 20- to 30-μm-diameter particles in a quadrupole trap and cooling them to stratospheric temperatures (≥191.5 K). Each particle's dc balance voltage was measured to determine the particle composition as a function of temperature and map out the particle's trajectory relative to the sulfuric acid phase diagram. Angularly resolved optical scattering patterns were monitored to detect freezing events. Particles cooled through the sulfuric acid tetrahydrate region (35-70 wt % H2SO4) did not freeze and remained spherical liquid droplets for several hours. Only particles cooled through the ice-liquid equilibrium region (<35 wt% H2SO4) showed evidence of freezing. This supports previous experimental and field observations that stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols are likely to remain liquid to within a few degrees of the ice frost point.

  18. Effect of amino acid intake on brush-border membrane uptake of sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Padilla, M; Lippincott, S

    1986-07-01

    Alterations in the intake of sulfur amino acids (SAA) changes the rat renal brush-border membrane uptake of the beta-amino acid, taurine. A low-SAA diet enhances and a high-taurine diet reduces uptake (Chesney et al., Kidney Int. 24: 588-594, 1983). Neither the low-SAA diet nor the high-taurine diet alters the time course or concentration-dependent accumulation of the sulfur amino acids methionine and cystine or of inorganic sulfate. By contrast the uptake of beta-alanine, another beta-amino acid that competes with taurine, is greater in animals on the low-SAA diet. The high-taurine diet does not change beta-alanine uptake. The plasma levels of taurine are altered by dietary change, but not the values for methionine and cystine. This study indicates that renal adaptation is expressed for beta-alanine, a nonsulfur-containing beta-amino acid. By contrast, methionine, cystine, and sulfate, which participate in a variety of synthetic and conjugative processes, are not conserved by the renal brush-border surface following ingestion of either a low-methionine and -cystine diet or high-taurine diet.

  19. Dental erosion and sulfuric ion exposure levels in individuals working with sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing plant measured with mouth-rinse index.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate dental erosion in employees working with sulfuric acid at a lead storage battery manufacturing plant and level of personal exposure to sulfuric ions, we measured sulfuric ion concentrations in the mouth rinse of those employees. We also measured exposure levels from air samples obtained from 2 employees from the same plant who did not work with sulfuric acid using a portable air sampler. At the same time, we collected and compared their mouth rinses with those from other employees. More specifically, we measured and compared sulfuric ion, calcium, and magnesium concentrations, along with pH levels from the mouth rinse of these two groups. Positive correlations were found between sulfuric ion and calcium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), calcium and magnesium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), Ca/Mg and calcium concentrations (r=0.64, p<0.005), and sulfuric ion and magnesium concentrations (r=0.55, p<0.005). Negative correlations were found between sulfuric ion concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.31, p<0.01), and magnesium concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.32, p<0.01). This suggests that mouth rinse from employees working with sulfuric acid could function as an indicator of sulfuric ion concentration in the work environment. Furthermore, this could lead to the development of a more accurate indicator of individual exposure.

  20. Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass for the 1982 volcanic eruptions of El Chichon are investigated using data from balloon soundings at Laramie (41 deg N) and in southern Texas (27-29 deg N). The total stratospheric mass of these eruptions is estimated to be approximately 8 Tg about 6.5 months after the eruption with possibly as much as 20 Tg in the stratosphere about 45 days after the eruption. Observations of the aerosol in Texas revealed two primary layers, both highly volatile at 150 C. Aerosol in the upper layer at about 25 km was composed of an approximately 80 percent H2SO4 solution while the lower layer at approximately 18 km was composed of a 60-65 percent H2SO4 solution aerosol. It is calculated that an H2SO4 vapor concentration of at least 3 x 10 to the 7th molecules/cu cm is needed to sustain the large droplets in the upper layer. An early bi-modal nature in the size distribution indicates droplet nucleation from the gas phase during the first 3 months, while the similarity of the large particle profiles 2 months apart shows continued particle growth 6.5 months after the explosion.

  1. Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass for the 1982 volcanic eruptions of El Chichon are investigated using data from balloon soundings at Laramie (41 deg N) and in southern Texas (27-29 deg N). The total stratospheric mass of these eruptions is estimated to be approximately 8 Tg about 6.5 months after the eruption with possibly as much as 20 Tg in the stratosphere about 45 days after the eruption. Observations of the aerosol in Texas revealed two primary layers, both highly volatile at 150 C. Aerosol in the upper layer at about 25 km was composed of an approximately 80 percent H2SO4 solution while the lower layer at approximately 18 km was composed of a 60-65 percent H2SO4 solution aerosol. It is calculated that an H2SO4 vapor concentration of at least 3 x 10 to the 7th molecules/cu cm is needed to sustain the large droplets in the upper layer. An early bi-modal nature in the size distribution indicates droplet nucleation from the gas phase during the first 3 months, while the similarity of the large particle profiles 2 months apart shows continued particle growth 6.5 months after the explosion.

  2. Unexpectedly acidic nanoparticles formed in dimethylamine-ammonia-sulfuric-acid nucleation experiments at CLOUD

    DOE PAGES

    Lawler, Michael J.; Winkler, Paul M.; Kim, Jaeseok; ...

    2016-11-03

    New particle formation driven by acid–base chemistry was initiated in the CLOUD chamber at CERN by introducing atmospherically relevant levels of gas-phase sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). Ammonia was also present in the chamber as a gas-phase contaminant from earlier experiments. The composition of particles with volume median diameters (VMDs) as small as 10 nm was measured by the Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS). Particulate ammonium-to-dimethylaminium ratios were higher than the gas-phase ammonia-to-DMA ratios, suggesting preferential uptake of ammonia over DMA for the collected 10–30 nm VMD particles. This behavior is not consistent with present nanoparticle physicochemical models,more » which predict a higher dimethylaminium fraction when NH3 and DMA are present at similar gas-phase concentrations. Despite the presence in the gas phase of at least 100 times higher base concentrations than sulfuric acid, the recently formed particles always had measured base : acid ratios lower than 1 : 1. The lowest base fractions were found in particles below 15 nm VMD, with a strong size-dependent composition gradient. The reasons for the very acidic composition remain uncertain, but a plausible explanation is that the particles did not reach thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to the bases due to rapid heterogeneous conversion of SO2 to sulfate. Furthermore, these results indicate that sulfuric acid does not require stabilization by ammonium or dimethylaminium as acid–base pairs in particles as small as 10 nm.« less

  3. Unexpectedly acidic nanoparticles formed in dimethylamine-ammonia-sulfuric-acid nucleation experiments at CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, Michael J.; Winkler, Paul M.; Kim, Jaeseok; Ahlm, Lars; Trostl, Jasmin; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kurten, Andreas; Kirkby, Jasper; Bianchi, Federico; Duplissy, Jonathan; Hansel, Armin; Jokinen, Tuija; Keskinen, Helmi; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Petaja, Tuukka; Rissanen, Matti; Rondo, Linda; Simon, Mario; Sipila, Mikko; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Riipinen, Ilona; Virtanen, Annele; Smith, James N.

    2016-11-03

    New particle formation driven by acid–base chemistry was initiated in the CLOUD chamber at CERN by introducing atmospherically relevant levels of gas-phase sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). Ammonia was also present in the chamber as a gas-phase contaminant from earlier experiments. The composition of particles with volume median diameters (VMDs) as small as 10 nm was measured by the Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS). Particulate ammonium-to-dimethylaminium ratios were higher than the gas-phase ammonia-to-DMA ratios, suggesting preferential uptake of ammonia over DMA for the collected 10–30 nm VMD particles. This behavior is not consistent with present nanoparticle physicochemical models, which predict a higher dimethylaminium fraction when NH3 and DMA are present at similar gas-phase concentrations. Despite the presence in the gas phase of at least 100 times higher base concentrations than sulfuric acid, the recently formed particles always had measured base : acid ratios lower than 1 : 1. The lowest base fractions were found in particles below 15 nm VMD, with a strong size-dependent composition gradient. The reasons for the very acidic composition remain uncertain, but a plausible explanation is that the particles did not reach thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to the bases due to rapid heterogeneous conversion of SO2 to sulfate. Furthermore, these results indicate that sulfuric acid does not require stabilization by ammonium or dimethylaminium as acid–base pairs in particles as small as 10 nm.

  4. Changes in the levels of major sulfur metabolites and free amino acids in pea cotyledons recovering from sulfur deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Macnicol, P.K.; Randall, P.J.

    1987-02-01

    Changes in levels of sulfur metabolites and free amino acids were followed in cotyledons of sulfur-deficient, developing pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) for 24 hours after resupply of sulfate, during which time the legumin mRNA levels returned almost to normal. Two recovery situations were studied: cultured seeds, with sulfate added to the medium, and seeds attached to the intact plant, with sulfate added to the roots. In both situations the levels of cysteine, glutathione, and methionine rose rapidly, glutathione exhibiting an initial lag. In attached but not cultured seeds methionine markedly overshot the level normally found in sulfur-sufficient seeds. In the cultured seed S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), but not S-methylmethionine, showed a sustained rise; in the attached seed the changes were slight. The composition of the free amino acid pool did not change substantially in either recovery situation. In the cultured seed the large rise in AdoMet level occurred equally in nonrecovering seeds. It was accompanied by 6-fold and 10-fold increases in ..gamma..-aminobutyrate and alanine, respectively. These effects are attributed to wounding resulting from excision of the seed. /sup 35/S-labeling experiments showed that there was no significant accumulation of label in unidentified sulfur-containing amino compounds in either recovery situation. It was concluded from these results and those of other workers that, at the present level of knowledge, the most probable candidate for a signal compound, eliciting recovery of legumin mRNA level in response to sulfur-feeding, is cysteine.

  5. Sulfuric Acid droplet formation and growth in the stratosphere after the 1982 eruption of el chichon.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, D J; Rosen, J M

    1983-10-21

    The eruption of El Chichón Volcano in March and April 1982 resulted in the nucleation of large numbers of new sulfuric acid droplets and an increase by nearly an order of magnitude in the size of the preexisting particles in the stratosphere. Nearly 10(7) metric tons of sulfuric acid remained in the stratosphere by the end of 1982, about 40 times as much as was deposited by Mount St. Helens in 1980.

  6. Optical constants of sulfuric acid - Application to the clouds of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, K. F.; Williams, D.

    1975-01-01

    Young (1973) and Sill (1972) have independently suggested that the clouds of Venus may well consist of particles composed of sulfuric acid molecules with attached water molecules. For a further study of this hypothesis an investigation has been conducted with the objective to supply the needed laboratory data for a wide range of sulfuric acid concentrations. Optical constants have been determined for the visible, near infrared, and intermediate infrared wavelength regions.

  7. Therapeutic paracetamol treatment in older persons induces dietary and metabolic modifications related to sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Pickering, Gisèle; Lyan, Bernard; Ducheix, Gilles; Brandolini-Bunlon, Marion; Glomot, Françoise; Dardevet, Dominique; Dubray, Claude; Papet, Isabelle

    2012-02-01

    Sulfur amino acids are determinant for the detoxification of paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) through sulfate and glutathione conjugations. Long-term paracetamol treatment is common in the elderly, despite a potential cysteine/glutathione deficiency. Detoxification could occur at the expense of anti-oxidative defenses and whole body protein stores in elderly. We tested how older persons satisfy the extra demand in sulfur amino acids induced by long-term paracetamol treatment, focusing on metabolic and nutritional aspects. Effects of 3 g/day paracetamol for 14 days on fasting blood glutathione, plasma amino acids and sulfate, urinary paracetamol metabolites, and urinary metabolomic were studied in independently living older persons (five women, five men, mean (±SEM) age 74 ± 1 years). Dietary intakes were recorded before and at the end of the treatment and ingested sulfur amino acids were evaluated. Fasting blood glutathione, plasma amino acids, and sulfate were unchanged. Urinary nitrogen excretion supported a preservation of whole body proteins, but large-scale urinary metabolomic analysis revealed an oxidation of some sulfur-containing compounds. Dietary protein intake was 13% higher at the end than before paracetamol treatment. Final sulfur amino acid intake reached 37 mg/kg/day. The increase in sulfur amino acid intake corresponded to half of the sulfur excreted in urinary paracetamol conjugates. In conclusion, older persons accommodated to long-term paracetamol treatment by increasing dietary protein intake without any mobilization of body proteins, but with decreased anti-oxidative defenses. The extra demand in sulfur amino acids led to a consumption far above the corresponding population-safe recommendation.

  8. Photon and Water Mediated Sulfur Oxide and Acid Chemistry in the Atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Jay A.; Vaida, Veronica

    2014-06-01

    Sulfur compounds have been observed in the atmospheres of a number of planetary bodies in our solar system including Venus, Earth, Mars, Io, Europa, and Callisto. The global cloud cover on Venus located at an altitude between 50 and 80 kilometers is composed primarily of sulfuric acid (H_2SO_4) and water. Planetary photochemical models have attempted to explain observations of sulfuric acid and sulfur oxides with significant discrepancies remaining between models and observation. In particular, high SO_2 mixing ratios are observed above 90 km which exceed model predictions by orders of magnitude. Work recently done in the Vaida lab has shown red light can drive photochemistry through overtone pumping for acids like H_2SO_4 and has been successful in explaining much of the sulfur chemistry in Earth's atmosphere. Water can have a number of interesting effects such as catalysis, suppression, and anti-catalysis of thermal and photochemical processes. We investigate the role of water complexes in the hydration of sulfur oxides and dehydration of sulfur acids and present spectroscopic studies to document such effects. We investigate these reactions using FTIR and UV/Vis spectroscopy and will report on our findings.

  9. Volatile fatty acids as an added value from biowaste.

    PubMed

    den Boer, Emilia; Łukaszewska, Agnieszka; Kluczkiewicz, Władysław; Lewandowska, Daria; King, Kevin; Reijonen, Tero; Kuhmonen, Tero; Suhonen, Anssi; Jääskeläinen, Ari; Heitto, Anneli; Laatikainen, Reino; Hakalehto, Elias

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to provide proof of concept of employing a co-culture of K. mobilis and E. coli for producing short and medium chain volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from kitchen biowaste and potato peels. To this aim, experiments were carried out at pilot-scale installation with a bioreactor of 250L. Different feeding strategies were tested under microaerobic conditions, at pH 6.0-6.5 in order to enhance chain elongation. Acetic acid and ethanol were dominating products in the initial stages of the bioprocess, but in a relatively short time of approx. 20-22h from the process start accumulation of propionic acid took place followed by a chain elongation to butyric and valeric acids. The highest final products yield of 325mg/g TS was achieved for the substrate load of 99.1g TS/L (VS of 91.1g/L) and pH 6.5, with the productivity of 448mg/L/h. However, the highest average VFAs chain length (3.77C) was observed in the process run with the loading of 63.2g TS/L and pH 6.0. In this study, we demonstrated that the existing symbiosis of the co-culture of K. mobilis and E. coli favours formation and chain elongation of VFA, induced most likely by the enhanced ethanol formation. Our finding differs from the previous research which focus mostly on anaerobic conditions of VFAs production. The results provide good basis for further optimisation of VFAs production process.

  10. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  11. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  12. Uptake of Hypobromous Acid (HOBr) by Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions: Low-Temperature Solubility and Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Ashbourn, Samatha F. M.; Rammer, Thomas A.; Golden, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Hypobromous acid (HOBr) is a key species linking inorganic bromine to the chlorine and odd hydrogen chemical families. We have measured the solubility of HOBr in 45 - 70 wt% sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol composition. Over the temperature range 201 - 252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, with an effective Henry's law coefficient, H* = 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 7) mol/L/atm. H* is inversely dependent on temperature, with Delta H = -46.2 kJ/mol and Delta S = -106.2 J/mol/K for 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4 solutions. Our study includes temperatures which overlap both previous measurements of HOBr solubility. For uptake into aqueous 45 wt% H2SO4, the solubility can be described by log H* = 3665/T - 10.63. For 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4, log H* = 2412/T - 5.55. At temperatures colder than approx. 213 K, the solubility of HOBr in 45 wt% H2SO4 is noticeably larger than in 70 wt% H2SO4. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols should contain equilibrium concentrations of HOBr which equal or exceed those of HBr. Our measurements indicate chemical reaction of HOBr upon uptake into aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases followed by evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2, particularly at 70 wt% H2SO4.

  13. The effects of pH and copper on the formation of volatile sulfur compounds in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines post-bottling.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Marlize Z; Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A; Wilkes, Eric N

    2016-09-15

    The effects of pH and Cu(2+) treatment on the formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) were investigated in Chardonnay and Shiraz wine samples. Four VSCs were significantly affected by pH, with lower wine pH associated with decreased hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide concentrations. The effects of pH and Cu(2+) on H2S formation from known precursor compounds were subsequently studied in a model wine system. In samples treated with cysteine and glutathione lower pH produced less H2S. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to study the effects of variable pH concentrations in a model system containing Cu(2+), tartaric acid, and H2S. Differences in Cu(2)(+)-tartrate complexes particle size and concentration were measured as a function of pH and H2S addition, suggesting the type of complexes formed may affect the binding sites of Cu(2+) available to catalyse the formation of VSCs such as H2S.

  14. Backscatter laser depolarization studies of simulated stratospheric aerosols - Crystallized sulfuric acid droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie; Yu, Bing-Kun

    1989-01-01

    The optical depolarizing properties of simulated stratospheric aerosols were studied in laboratory laser (0.633 micrometer) backscattering experiments for application to polarization lidar observations. Clouds composed of sulfuric acid solution droplets, some treated with ammonia gas, were observed during evaporation. The results indicate that the formation of minute ammonium sulfate particles from the evaporation of acid droplets produces linear depolarization ratios of beta equivalent to 0.02, but beta equivalent to 0.10 to 0.15 are generated from aged acid cloud aerosols and acid droplet crystalization effects following the introduction of ammonia gas into the chamber. It is concluded that partially crystallized sulfuric acid droplets are a likely candidate for explaining the lidar beta equivalent to 0.10 values that have been observed in the lower stratosphere in the absence of the relatively strong backscattering from homogeneous sulfuric acid droplet (beta equivalent to 0) or ice crystal (beta equivalent to 0.5) clouds.

  15. Backscatter laser depolarization studies of simulated stratospheric aerosols: Crystallized sulfuric acid droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie; Yu, Bing-Kun

    1988-01-01

    The optical depolarizing properties of simulated stratospheric aerosols were studied in laboratory laser (0.633 micrometer) backscattering experiments for application to polarization lidar observations. Clouds composed of sulfuric acid solution droplets, some treated with ammonia gas, were observed during evaporation. The results indicate that the formation of minute ammonium sulfate particles from the evaporation of acid droplets produces linear depolarization ratios of beta equivalent to 0.02, but beta equivalent to 0.10 to 0.15 are generated from aged acid cloud aerosols and acid droplet crystallization effects following the introduction of ammonia gas into the chamber. It is concluded that partially crystallized sulfuric acid droplets are a likely candidate for explaining the lidar beta equivalent to 0.10 values that have been observed in the lower stratosphere in the absence of the relatively strong backscattering from homogeneous sulfuric acid droplet (beta equivalent to 0) or ice crystal (beta equivalent to 0.5) clouds.

  16. The enhancement mechanism of glycolic acid on the formation of atmospheric sulfuric acid-ammonia molecular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haijie; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Zhang, Xiuhui; Molinero, Valeria; Zhang, Yunhong; Li, Zesheng

    2017-05-01

    Highly oxidized multifunctional organic molecules, which span a wide range of low volatilities, are capable of driving particle formation as well as the initial growth of particles in the atmosphere. However, their participant mechanism in new particle formation still remains largely ambiguous. Here we present an investigation of the potentially participant mechanism of the simplest hydroxyl acid, glycolic acid (GA) on clusters formation by sulfuric acid (SA) and ammonia (A). Density functional theory calculations at the M062X/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory combining with atmospheric cluster dynamics code simulations of (𝐒𝐀)xṡ𝐀yṡ(𝐆𝐀)z cluster (y≤x + z ≤ 3) systems at different temperatures (298, 278, 258, 238, and 218 K) give direct evidence of the enhancement effect of GA on the formation rates of SA-A-based clusters at high concentration of GA and T = 238 K and 218 K. Moreover, within GA's enhancement concentrations, the enhancement strength R of GA presents a positive dependence on its atmospheric concentrations and a negative dependence on temperature. A competitive relationship between SA and GA has been identified through the negative dependence of R on the concentrations of SA. The influence of A on R is more complex that R first increases, reaching a maximum value, and then decreases with the increasing concentration of A. Finally, the combination of the traced growth paths of the system with the enhancement strength of GA suggests a "catalytic" enhancement mechanism of GA where GA acts as a mediate bridge for the formation of pure SA-A-based clusters.

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  18. Reduction in environmental impact of sulfuric acid hydrolysis of bamboo for production of fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Fuel ethanol can be produced from bamboo by concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis followed by continuous ethanol fermentation. To reduce the environmental impact of this process, treatment of the stillage, reuse of the sulfuric acid and reduction of the process water used were studied. The total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of stillage decreased from 29,688 to 269 mg/l by thermophilic methane fermentation followed by aerobic treatment. Washing the solid residue from acid hydrolysis with effluent from the biological treatment increased the sugar recovery from 69.3% to 79.3%. Sulfuric acid recovered during the acid-sugar separation process was condensed and reused for hydrolysis, resulting in a sugar recovery efficiency of 76.8%, compared to 80.1% when fresh sulfuric acid was used. After acetate removal, the condensate could be reused as elution water in the acid-sugar separation process. As much as 86.3% of the process water and 77.6% of the sulfuric acid could be recycled. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of sulfuric and oxalic acid anodizing for preparation of thermal control coatings for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Huong G.; Watcher, John M.; Smith, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of thermal control surfaces, which maintain stable solar absorptivity and infrared emissivity over long periods, is challenging due to severe conditions in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Some candidate coatings are second-surface silver-coated Teflon; second-surface, silvered optical solar reflectors made of glass or quartz; and anodized aluminum. Sulfuric acid anodized and oxalic acid anodized aluminum was evaluated under simulated LEO conditions. Oxalic acid anodizing shows promise of greater stability in LEO over long missions, such as the 30 years planned for the Space Station. However, sulfuric acid anodizing shows lower solar absorptivity.

  20. Is there an energy barrier in the growth of sulfuric acid clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenius, Tinja; Kupiainen, Oona; Ortega, Ismael K.; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2013-05-01

    We have used a kinetic model and quantum chemical formation free energy data to study the growth of molecular clusters consisting of sulfuric acid and ammonia or sulfuric acid and dimethylamine in atmospherically relevant conditions. All simulations were performed both with and without charged clusters. We show that the cluster growth in the acid-ammonia system involves energy barriers in both electrically neutral and ionic systems, while in the acid-DMA system the growth along the major pathways is barrierless and occurs via electrically neutral clusters also when ions are present.

  1. [Volatile oil of Anethum Graveolens L. as an inhibitor of yeast and lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Shcherbanovsky, L R; Kapelev, I G

    1975-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 25 volatile oils from aerial parts and seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) of different geographical origin towards yeast Saccharomyces vini and lactic acid bacteria Lactobacterium buchneri was measured by serial dilutions. Volatile oils from mature seeds and green parts of the plants harvested at late vegetation phases showed the highest activity. The geographical origin of plants influenced insignificantly the antimicrobial activity of volatile oil.

  2. Dissolution of sulfuric acid tetrahydrate at low temperatures and subsequent growth of nitric acid trihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Fortin, Tara J.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1998-04-01

    Crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) has been observed to change phase at temperatures below its melting point, in agreement with recent theoretical predictions of deliquescence. Dissolution of SAT was observed in 63% of experiments expected to show a phase change, leading to formation of a ternary HNO3/H2SO4/H2O solution. This solution, which still contained a portion of the original solid SAT, crystallized to form nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). NAT then continued to grow by condensation of additional nitric acid and water at temperatures several degrees above the ice frost point. This process of SAT dissolution followed by NAT crystallization and growth may offer a mechanism for the formation of type Ia polar stratospheric clouds on frozen sulfate aerosols when SNAT>15.

  3. Lactic acid fermentation drives the optimal volatile flavor-aroma profile of pomegranate juice.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-02-21

    Pomegranate juice (PJ) fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum C2, POM1, and LP09, unstarted-PJ, and raw-PJ were characterized for the profile of the volatile components (VOC) by PT-GC-MS. Lactic acid fermentation through selected strains enhanced the flavor profile of PJ. Concentrations of desired compounds (e.g., alcohols, ketones, and terpenes) were positively affected, whereas those of non-desired aldehydes decreased. Unstarted-PJ mainly differentiated from fermented PJs for the highest levels of aldehydes and sulfur compounds, and in lesser extent of furans, whereas alcohols, ketones, and alkenes followed by terpenes and benzene derivatives mainly differentiated fermented PJs. As expected, the lowest level of VOC was found in raw-PJ. VOC profile reflected on the sensory features of fermented PJs, unstarted-PJ, and raw-PJ, which were evaluated using a consensus modified flavor profile based on 13 attributes. Fermented PJs were mainly discriminated by the higher intensity of floral, fruity and anise notes than the controls.

  4. Efficient hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis using silica sulfuric acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Joydev; Roy, Binayak; Sharma, Pratibha

    2015-02-01

    A heterogeneous acid catalyst, silica sulfuric acid, was prepared from silica gel (SiO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Addition of SO3H functional group to SiO2 has been confirmed through various characterization techniques. The effect of this heterogeneous acid catalyst on hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction was studied for different ratios of catalyst to NaBH4 and at different temperatures. The catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity towards sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction. The activation energy of the NaBH4 hydrolysis reaction in the presence of silica sulfuric acid was calculated to be the lowest (17 kJ mol-1) among reported heterogeneous catalysts till date.

  5. Observation of neutral sulfuric acid-amine containing clusters in laboratory and ambient measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang C.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J. N.; Eisele, F. L.; Chen, M.; McMurry, P. H.

    2011-11-02

    Recent ab initio calculations showed that amines can enhance atmospheric sulfuric acid-water nucleation more effectively than ammonia, and this prediction has been substantiated in laboratory measurements. Laboratory studies have also shown that amines can effectively displace ammonia in several types of ammonium clusters. However, the roles of amines in cluster formation and growth at a microscopic molecular scale (from molecular sizes up to 2 nm) have not yet been well understood. Processes that must be understood include the incorporation of amines into sulfuric acid clusters and the formation of organic salts in freshly nucleated particles, which contributes significantly to particle growth rates. We report the first laboratory and ambient measurements of neutral sulfuric acid-amine clusters using the Cluster CIMS, a recently-developed mass spectrometer designed for measuring neutral clusters formed in the atmosphere during nucleation. An experimental technique, which we refer to as Semi-Ambient Signal Amplification (SASA), was employed. Sulfuric acid was added to ambient air, and the concentrations and composition of clusters in this mixture were analyzed by the Cluster CIMS. This experimental approach led to significantly higher cluster concentrations than are normally found in ambient air, thereby increasing signal-to-noise levels and allowing us to study reactions between gas phase species in ambient air and sulfuric acid containing clusters. Mass peaks corresponding to clusters containing four H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} molecules and one amine molecule were clearly observed, with the most abundant sulfuric acid-amine clusters being those containing a C2- or C4-amine (i.e. amines with masses of 45 and 73 amu). Evidence for C3- and C5-amines (i.e. amines with masses of 59 and 87 amu) was also found, but their correlation with sulfuric acid tetramer was not as strong as was observed for the C2- and C4-amines. The formation mechanisms for those sulfuric acid

  6. Influence of aeration on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and NH3 emissions during aerobic composting of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyu; Li, Guoxue; Gu, Jun; Wang, Guiqin; Li, Yangyang; Zhang, Difang

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the influence of aeration on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and ammonia (NH3) emissions during kitchen waste composting. Aerobic composting of kitchen waste and cornstalks was conducted at a ratio of 85:15 (wet weight basis) in 60L reactors for 30days. The gas emissions were analyzed with force aeration at rates of 0.1 (A1), 0.2 (A2) and 0.3 (A3) L (kgDMmin)(-1), respectively. Results showed that VSCs emission at the low aeration rate (A1) was more significant than that at other two rates (i.e., A2 and A3 treatment), where no considerable emission difference was observed. On the other hand, NH3 emission reduced as the aeration rate decreased. It is noteworthy that the aeration rate did not significantly affect the compost quality. These results suggest that the aeration rate of 0.2L (kgDMmin)(-1) may be applied to control VSCs and NH3 emissions during kitchen waste composting.

  7. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Nani, Bruno Dias; Lima, Patricia Oliveira de; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Rolim, Gustavo Sattolo; Moraes, Antonio Bento Alves de; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Franz-Montan, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects. Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument. The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney test). There were moderate positive correlations between the following pairs of variables: Fusobacterium nucleatum and S. moorei; F. nucleatum and hydrogen sulfide; Tannerella forsythia and F. nucleatum; T. forsythia and S. moorei. These correlations only occurred for the stressed group (p < 0.05, Spearman correlation). The in vitro experiment demonstrated that S. moorei increased H2S production by F. nucleatum (p < 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey's test). The increased amount of S. moorei in saliva, and its coexistence with F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, seemed to be responsible for increased oral hydrogen sulfide in the healthy male stressed subjects.

  8. Acid volatile sulphide as an indicator for sediment toxicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Goyvaerts, M.P.; Brucker, N. De; Geuzens, P.

    1995-12-31

    The ratio SEM (Simultaneously Extracted Metals) to AVS (Acid Volatile Sulfide) is considered to be a measure for heavy metal bioavailability for benthic species. When the SEM/AVS ratio exceeds 1 heavy metal toxicity for the benthic organisms is expected. The correlation between the SEM/AVS and the toxicity for the bioluminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum is investigated. Freshwater sediments originating from different locations with high and low heavy metal contamination are tested. The toxicity test is performed according to the Solid Phase Microtox test (SPT). Unexpectedly, negative correlation between SEM/AVS and SPT toxicity was found (r = {minus}0.82, n = 44). However, sediments with a high sulphide content show a correlation between AVS and toxicity determined by SPT (r = 0.90, n = 18). Comparison with literature data and possible hypothesis for the discrepancies with the data will be presented. Additionally, a validation study concerning the AVS determination has been performed. Some of the aspects involved are: the sampling technique preserving the anoxic conditions of the sediment, the influence of the storage time and storage conditions on the AVS content of the standard conditions and the recovery of the metal sulphides used for the SEM calculation.

  9. Acid deposition critical loads modeling for the simulation of sulfur exceedance and reduction in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Rongliang; Wang, Shizhong; Qiu, Hao; Wang, Xuemei; Liao, Jin; Zhang, Zhentian

    2009-01-01

    The current acid deposition critical loads in Guangdong, China were calculated using the PROFILE model with a 3 km x 3 km resolution. Calculations were carried out for critical loads of potential acidity, actual acidity, sulfur and nitrogen, with values in extents of 0-3.5, 0-14.0, 0-26.0 and 0-3.5 kmol/(hm2 x year), respectively. These values were comparable to previously reported results and reflected the influences of vegetation and soil characteristics on the soil acid buffering capacity. Simulations of SO2 emission and sulfur deposition in this study showed that sulfur deposition core areas mirrored SO2 emission centers. The prediction of sulfur deposition after 20% and 40% reduction of SO2 emission suggested that the reduction of area sources contributed greatly to the decrease of sulfur deposition. Thus, abatement of area source emissions could be the primary way to mitigate sulfur deposition in Guangdong to meet both the provincial and national regulations of air pollution control.

  10. A new monitor with a zinc-oxide thin film semiconductor sensor for the measurement of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air.

    PubMed

    Shimura, M; Yasuno, Y; Iwakura, M; Shimada, Y; Sakai, S; Suzuki, K; Sakamoto, S

    1996-04-01

    Halitosis, defined as unpleasant oral odor, is a concern among the general public. Halitosis is generally diagnosed by organoleptic examination and by gas chromatographic analysis of the main source of halitosis, volatile sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide. Gas chromatography requires a large-scale system and a long running time. We investigated the use of a zinc-oxide thin film semiconductor sensor for measuring trace volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air. Mouth air samples collected in teflon bags from 21 volunteers were analyzed by 3 methods: the monitor analysis, gas chromatography, and organoleptic examination by 3 judges. The readings of the monitor were correlated with the values of the total volatile sulfur compounds measured by gas chromatography (r = 0.75, P < 0.01) and also with the organoleptic scores given by the judges (r = 0.76, P < 0.01). The organoleptic scores were correlated with the gas chromatographic values (r = 0.71, P < 0.01). These results suggest that this new monitor with a zinc-oxide thin film semiconductor sensor may be used for the diagnosis of halitosis. Its small size and simplicity of handling may enable its use for routine chair-side study and field surveys of halitosis.

  11. Roles of sulfuric acid in elemental mercury removal by activated carbon and sulfur-impregnated activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Morris, Eric A; Kirk, Donald W; Jia, Charles Q; Morita, Kazuki

    2012-07-17

    This work addresses the discrepancy in the literature regarding the effects of sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) on elemental Hg uptake by activated carbon (AC). H(2)SO(4) in AC substantially increased Hg uptake by absorption particularly in the presence of oxygen. Hg uptake increased with acid amount and temperature exceeding 500 mg-Hg/g-AC after 3 days at 200 °C with AC treated with 20% H(2)SO(4). In the absence of other strong oxidizers, oxygen was able to oxidize Hg. Upon oxidation, Hg was more readily soluble in the acid, greatly enhancing its uptake by acid-treated AC. Without O(2), S(VI) in H(2)SO(4) was able to oxidize Hg, thus making it soluble in H(2)SO(4). Consequently, the presence of a bulk H(2)SO(4) phase within AC pores resulted in an orders of magnitude increase in Hg uptake capacity. However, the bulk H(2)SO(4) phase lowered the AC pore volume and could block the access to the active surface sites and potentially hinder Hg uptake kinetics. AC treated with SO(2) at 700 °C exhibited a much faster rate of Hg uptake attributed to sulfur functional groups enhancing adsorption kinetics. SO(2)-treated carbon maintained its fast uptake kinetics even after impregnation by 20% H(2)SO(4).

  12. Using electromagnetic induction technology to predict volatile fatty acid, source area differences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subsurface sampling techniques have been adapted to measure manure accumulation on feedlot surface. Objectives of this study were to determine if sensor data could be used to predict differences in volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other volatiles produced on the feedlot surface three days following a...

  13. Dynamics and mass accommodation of HCl molecules on sulfuric acid-water surfaces.

    PubMed

    Behr, P; Scharfenort, U; Ataya, K; Zellner, R

    2009-09-28

    A molecular beam technique has been used to study the dynamics and mass accommodation of HCl molecules in collision with sulfuric acid-water surfaces. The experiments were performed by directing a nearly mono-energetic beam of HCl molecules onto a continuously renewed liquid film of 54-76 wt% sulfuric acid at temperatures between 213 K and 243 K. Deuterated sulfuric acid was used to separate sticking but non-reactive collisions from those that involved penetration through the phase boundary followed by dissociation and recombination with D+. The results indicate that the mass accommodation of HCl on sulfuric acid-water surfaces decreases sharply with increasing acidity over the concentration range 54-76 wt%. Using the capillary wave theory of mass accommodation this effect is explained by a change of the surface dynamics. Regarding the temperature dependence it is found that the mass accommodation of HCl increases with increasing temperature and is limited by the bulk phase viscosity and driven by the restoring forces of the surface tension. These findings imply that under atmospheric conditions the uptake of HCl from the gas phase depends crucially on the bulk phase parameters of the sulfuric acid aerosol.

  14. A sulfuric-lactic acid process for efficient purification of fungal chitosan with intact molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Mitra; Zamani, Akram; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2014-02-01

    The most recent method of fungal chitosan purification, i.e., two steps of dilute sulfuric acid treatment, pretreatment of cell wall at room temperature for phosphate removal and extraction of chitosan from the phosphate free cell wall at high temperature, significantly reduces the chitosan molecular weight. This study was aimed at improvement of this method. In the pretreatment step, to choose the best conditions, cell wall of Rhizopus oryzae, containing 9% phosphate, 10% glucosamine, and 21% N-acetyl glucosamine, was treated with sulfuric, lactic, acetic, nitric, or hydrochloric acid, at room temperature. Sulfuric acid showed the best performance in phosphate removal (90%) and cell wall recovery (89%). To avoid depolymerisation of chitosan, hot sulfuric acid extraction was replaced with lactic acid treatment at room temperature, and a pure fungal chitosan was obtained (0.12 g/g cell wall). Similar pretreatment and extraction processes were conducted on pure shrimp chitosan and resulted in a chitosan recovery of higher than 87% while the reduction of chitosan viscosity was less than 15%. Therefore, the sulfuric-lactic acid method purified the fungal chitosan without significant molecular weight manipulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cluster Formation of Sulfuric Acid with Dimethylamine or Diamines and Detection with Chemical Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, C. N.; McMurry, P. H.; Hanson, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometers are used to study atmospheric nucleation by detecting clusters produced by reactions of sulfuric acid and various basic gases. These instruments typically use nitrate to chemically ionize clusters for detection. In this study, we compare measured cluster concentrations formed by reacting sulfuric acid vapor with dimethylamine, ethylene diamine, tetramethylethylene diamine, or butanediamine (also known as putrescine) using nitrate and acetate ions. We show from flow reactor measurements that nitrate is unable to chemically ionize clusters with weak acidities. In addition, we vary the ion-molecule reaction time to probe the chemical ionization processes and lifetimes of ions composed of sulfuric acid and base molecules. We then model the neutral and ion cluster formation pathways, including chemical ionization, ion-induced clustering, and ion decomposition, to better identify which cluster types cannot be chemically ionized by nitrate. Our results show that sulfuric acid dimer with two diamines and sulfuric acid trimer with 2 or more base molecules cannot be chemical ionized by nitrate. We conclude that cluster concentrations measured with acetate CI gives a better representation of both cluster abundancies and their base content than nitrate CI.

  16. Stabilization of sulfuric acid dimers by ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Coty N.; McMurry, Peter H.; Hanson, David R.

    2014-06-01

    This study experimentally explores how ammonia (NH3), methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) affect the chemical formation mechanisms of electrically neutral clusters that contain two sulfuric acid molecules (dimers). Dimers may also contain undetectable compounds, such as water or bases, that evaporate upon ionization and sampling. Measurements were conducted using a glass flow reactor which contained a steady flow of humidified nitrogen with sulfuric acid concentrations of 107 to 109 cm-3. A known molar flow rate of a basic gas was injected into the flow reactor. The University of Minnesota Cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer was used to measure the resulting sulfuric acid vapor and cluster concentrations. It was found that, for a given concentration of sulfuric acid vapor, the dimer concentration increases with increasing concentration of the basic gas, eventually reaching a plateau. The base concentrations at which the dimer concentrations saturate suggest NH3 < MA < TMA ≲ DMA in forming stabilized sulfuric acid dimers. Two heuristic models for cluster formation by acid-base reactions are developed to interpret the data. The models provide ranges of evaporation rate constants that are consistent with observations and leads to an analytic expression for nucleation rates that is consistent with atmospheric observations.

  17. Lipoic Acid as a Possible Pharmacological Source of Hydrogen Sulfide/Sulfane Sulfur.

    PubMed

    Bilska-Wilkosz, Anna; Iciek, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk-Pachel, Danuta; Górny, Magdalena; Sokołowska-Jeżewicz, Maria; Włodek, Lidia

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether lipoic acid (LA) itself is a source of H₂S and sulfane sulfur. It was investigated in vitro non-enzymatically and enzymatically (in the presence of rat tissue homogenate). The results indicate that both H₂S and sulfane sulfur are formed from LA non-enzymatically in the presence of environmental light. These results suggest that H₂S is the first product of non-enzymatic light-dependent decomposition of LA that is, probably, next oxidized to sulfane sulfur-containing compound(s). The study performed in the presence of rat liver and kidney homogenate revealed an increase of H₂S level in samples containing LA and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA). It was accompanied by a decrease in sulfane sulfur level. It seems that, in these conditions, DHLA acts as a reducing agent that releases H₂S from an endogenous pool of sulfane sulfur compounds present in tissues. Simultaneously, it means that exogenous LA cannot be a direct donor of H₂S/sulfane sulfur in animal tissues. The present study is an initial approach to the question whether LA itself is a donor of H₂S/sulfane sulfur.

  18. Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfuric Acid in Europa's Icy Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) detected hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide and a hydrated material on Europa's surface, the latter interpreted as hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4*nH2O) or hydrated salts. Related compounds are molecular oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and two chromophores, one that is dark in the ultraviolet(UV) and concentrated on the trailing side, the other brighter in the UV and preferentially distributed in the leading hemisphere. The UV-dark material has been suggested to be sulfur.

  19. Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfuric Acid in Europa's Icy Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) detected hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide and a hydrated material on Europa's surface, the latter interpreted as hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4*nH2O) or hydrated salts. Related compounds are molecular oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and two chromophores, one that is dark in the ultraviolet(UV) and concentrated on the trailing side, the other brighter in the UV and preferentially distributed in the leading hemisphere. The UV-dark material has been suggested to be sulfur.

  20. First determination of dissolved volatiles in magmas of Mt Garet (Vanuatu arc). Origin of sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floury, P.; Metrich, N.; Bertagnini, A.; Garaebiti, E.; Hidalgo, S.; Beaumais, A.; Neuville, D.

    2012-12-01

    Mt Garet, on Gaua island, is one of the active volcanoes of the Vanuatu arc in the Southwest Pacific. This 360 m high cone emerges from the lake Letas in the summit caldera of a composite volcano. Since 1962, Mt Garet produced ash and gas plumes recurrently, the last explosive events being documented in 2009 - 2010. Airborne measurements of SO2 emission rates, the only data set presently available for this volcano, were realized in 2009 and revealed a high SO2 flux of, on average, 2955 tons per day [1]. We report here the very first data on the geochemistry of the scoriae emitted in January 2010, together with analyses of major elements and volatiles (H2O, Cl, S) in crystal-hosted melt inclusions and a detailed mineralogy of the samples. The 2010 scoriae are basaltic-andesites and are more evolved that the pre-1962 basaltic lava flows of Mt Garet. Their major and trace element evolution cannot be reconciled with a single process of fractional crystallization, but suggest mixing between a pre-1962 like basalt and an evolved trachydacitic end-member. This observation strongly suggests the recent development of a small reservoir beneath Mt Garet. The plagioclases (An89-73) and clinopyroxenes (Fs5-16) display a significant chemical range but do not clearly evidence reverse zoning. The paragenesis is complemented by Fe-Ti oxides (USP39-40) and scarce olivines (Fo72.7). Some crystals are obviously inherited (e.g., An-poor plagioclase). The melt inclusions are ubiquitous but of small size in each mineral phase. Their H2O content was specifically determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy (IPGP), with a series of basaltic glass standards previously developed for Raman calibration [2]. Data and spectrum are treated following [3]. As a whole melt inclusion compositions cover the whole chemical spectrum from basalt to trachydacite. Their contents in H2O (2.7-0.8 wt%), S (1570 - <100 ppm), and Cl (2800-950 ppm) widely vary. Volatile-rich basaltic inclusions are found in

  1. Effect of a variety of Chinese herbs and an herb-containing dentifrice on volatile sulfur compounds associated with halitosis: An in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-yu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Zhu-ting

    2010-01-01

    Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro. Methods: Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of bacterial activity and VSC inhibition. Extracted substances from Chinese herbs were identified by VSC inhibition tests with a Halimeter and microbial sensitivity testing. The effectiveness on halitosis was compared between a dentifrice containing one of the effective Chinese herbs (ie, chrysanthemum flower [Chrysanthemum morifolium flos]), 4 commercially available antihalitosis dentifrices, and a positive control that received no treatment. Results: Ten volunteers provided saliva samples for VSC testing. Of the 40 herbs tested, 14 extracts had percent inhibition rates of VSCs >50%. Ten herbs showed greatest effect against all culturable microorganisms with bacterial inhibition >70%. There was a weak positive correlation between bacteriostasis and the anti-VSC activity of the herbs with a correlation coefficient of 0.2579 (Pearson). The mean (SD) values of the VSC testing were as follows: dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower, 55.91 (8.16) ppb; Crest Tea Refreshing Dentifrice®, 48.39 (7.48) ppb (P = NS); Cortex Phellodendri Dentifrice®, 139.90 (14.70) ppb (P < 0.01); Colgate Total Plus Whitening®, 120.94 (15.58) ppb (P < 0.01); Zhong Hua Chinese Herbs Dentifrice®, 136.96 (13.06) ppb (P < 0.01); and positive control, 312.38 (28.58) ppb (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Of 40 herbs tested, 14 Chinese herbs were found to be effective for VSC inhibition. A dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower reduced the formation of VSC in vitro, showing a significantly greater effect than the control group and 3 of 4 dentifrices already on the market. PMID:24683259

  2. The sulfuric acid leaching of Bayer electrofilter fines: A practical kinetical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho Martínez, J. P.; Ayala, Espina J.; García Coque, M. P.; Fernández, Pérez B.; Costales, Alonso D.

    2006-08-01

    Electrofilter fines, which are by-products of the Bayer process for the production of alumina from bauxite, were characterized to evaluate the alumina that was potentially extractable with sulfuric acid. Acid leaching is carried out at different concentrations of sulfuric acid, at different temperatures, pulp densities, and times, to dissolve gibbsite and transition aluminas. The result is an aluminum sulfate solution. This article reports on a study of the kinetics of the leaching reaction at 90°C with two pulp densities: 10% and 30%.

  3. Lung-cancer mortality in workers exposed to sulfuric acid mist and other acid mists in steel-pickling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, J.J.; Leveton, J.; Knox, K.; Bloom, T.; McQuiston, T.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1165 steel workers who had been exposed to sulfuric acid and other acid mists during steel-pickling operations were studied to determine whether there was any evidence of respiratory cancer which could be linked to these exposures. These workers had been employed at three large midwestern steel-manufacturing operations where acid was used to remove oxides from newly produced steel. Cancer of the trachea, bronchus, and lung showed increased mortality in this study. Deaths from buccal cavity, pharynx, and larynx cancers were at normal levels. Deaths from nonmalignant respiratory diseases were lower than normal rates. The excess lung-cancer cases occurred both in workers who had been exposed only to sulfuric-acid mists and in those exposed only to other acids. The authors conclude that there was an increased risk of lung cancer in workers exposed to sulfuric acid and in workers exposed to other acids. Continued monitoring of lung-cancer rates is recommended by the authors, since other acids have replaced sulfuric acid to a great degree.

  4. Ice core sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from southern Greenland document North American and European air pollution and suggest a decline in regional biogenic sulfur emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, D. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Burkhart, J. F.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfate aerosols have an important cooling effect on the Earth because they scatter sunlight back to space and form cloud condensation nuclei. However, understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle is incomplete, leading to uncertainty in the assessment of past, present and future climate forcing. Here we use annually resolved observations of sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration in an array of precisely dated Southern Greenland ice cores to assess the history of sulfur pollution emitted from North America and Europe and the history of biogenic sulfate aerosol derived from the North Atlantic Ocean over the last 250 years. The ice core sulfur time series is found to closely track sulfur concentrations in North American and European precipitation since records began in 1965, and also closely tracks estimated sulfur emissions since 1850 within the air mass source region as determined by back trajectory analysis. However, a decline to near-preindustrial sulfur concentrations in the ice cores after 1995 that is not so extensive in the source region emissions indicates that there has been a change in sulfur cycling over the last 150 years. The ice core MSA time series shows a decline of 60% since the 1860s, and is well correlated with declining sea ice concentrations around Greenland, suggesting that the phytoplankton source of biogenic sulfur has declined due to a loss of marginal sea ice zone habitat. Incorporating the implied decrease in biogenic sulfur in our analysis improves the match between the ice core sulfur record and the source region emissions throughout the last 150 years, and solves the problem of the recent return to near-preindustrial levels in the Greenland ice. These findings indicate that the transport efficiency of sulfur air pollution has been relatively stable through the industrial era and that biogenic sulfur emissions in the region have declined.

  5. Sulfuric acid nucleation: An experimental study of the effect of seven bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasoe, W. A.; Volz, K.; Panta, B.; Freshour, N.; Bachman, R.; Hanson, D. R.; McMurry, P. H.; Jen, C.

    2015-03-01

    Nucleation of particles with sulfuric acid, water, and nitrogeneous bases was studied in a flow reactor. Sulfuric acid and water levels were set by flows over sulfuric acid and water reservoirs, respectively, and the base concentrations were determined from measured permeation rates and flow dilution ratios. Particle number distributions were measured with a nano-differential-mobility-analyzer system. Results indicate that the nucleation capability of NH3, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine with sulfuric acid increases from NH3 as the weakest, methylamine next, and dimethylamine and trimethylamine the strongest. Three other bases were studied, and experiments with triethylamine showed that it is less effective than methylamine, and experiments with urea and acetamide showed that their capabilities are much lower than the amines with acetamide having basically no effect. When both NH3 and an amine were present, nucleation was more strongly enhanced than with just the amine present. Comparisons of nucleation rates to predictions and previous experimental work are discussed, and the sulfuric acid-base nucleation rates measured here are extrapolated to atmospheric conditions. The measurements suggest that atmospheric nucleation rates are significantly affected by synergistic interactions between ammonia and amines.

  6. Pretreatment of Sugar Beet Pulp with Dilute Sulfurous Acid is Effective for Multipurpose Usage of Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Kharina, M; Emelyanov, V; Mokshina, N; Ibragimova, N; Gorshkova, T

    2016-05-01

    Sulfurous acid was used for pretreatment of sugar beet pulp (SBP) in order to achieve high efficiency of both extraction of carbohydrates and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids. The main advantage of sulfurous acid usage as pretreatment agent is the possibility of its regeneration. Application of sulfurous acid as hydrolyzing agent in relatively low concentrations (0.6-1.0 %) during a short period of time (10-20 min) and low solid to liquid ratio (1:3, 1:6) allowed effective extraction of carbohydrates from SBP and provided positive effect on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest obtained concentration of reducing substances (RS) in hydrolysates was 8.5 %; up to 33.6 % of all carbohydrates present in SBP could be extracted. The major obtained monosaccharides were arabinose and glucose (9.4 and 7.3 g/l, respectively). Pretreatment of SBP with sulfurous acid increased 4.6 times the yield of glucose during subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of remaining solids with cellulase cocktail, as compared to the untreated SBP. Total yield of glucose during SBP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis amounted to 89.4 % of the theoretical yield. The approach can be applied directly to the wet SBP. Hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp with sulfurous acid is recommended for obtaining of individual monosaccharides, as well as nutritional media.

  7. Homogenous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water at close to atmospherically relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brus, D.; Neitola, K.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Petäjä, T.; Vanhanen, J.; Sipilä, M.; Paasonen, P.; Kulmala, M.; Lihavainen, H.

    2011-06-01

    In this study the homogeneous nucleation rates in the system of sulfuric acid and water were measured by using a flow tube technique. The goal was to directly compare particle formation rates obtained from atmospheric measurements with nucleation rates of freshly nucleated particles measured with particle size magnifier (PSM) which has detection efficiency of unity for particles having mobility diameter of 1.5 nm. The gas phase sulfuric acid concentration in this study was measured with the chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS), commonly used in field measurements. The wall losses of sulfuric acid were estimated from measured concentration profiles along the flow tube. The initial concentrations of sulfuric acid estimated from loss measurements ranged from 108 to 3 × 109 molecules cm-3. The nucleation rates obtained in this study cover about three orders of magnitude from 10-1 to 102 cm-3 s-1 for commercial ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC) TSI model 3025A and from 101 to 104 cm-3 s-1 for PSM. The nucleation rates and the slopes (dlnJ/dln [H2SO4]) show satisfactory agreement when compared to empirical kinetic and activation models and the latest atmospheric nucleation data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental work providing temperature dependent nucleation rate measurements using a high efficiency particle counter with a cut-off-size of 1.5 nm together with direct measurements of gas phase sulfuric acid concentration.

  8. Sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) close to the water table: Examples from southern France, Austria, and Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Audra, Philippe; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; Plan, Lukas; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Anoux, Catherine; Nobécourt, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Caves formed by rising sulfuric waters have been described from all over the world in a wide variety of climate settings, from arid regions to mid-latitude and alpine areas. H2S is generally formed at depth by reduction of sulfates in the presence of hydrocarbons and is transported in solution through the deep aquifers. In tectonically disturbed areas major fractures eventually allow these H2S-bearing fluids to rise to the surface where oxidation processes can become active producing sulfuric acid. This extremely strong acid reacts with the carbonate bedrock creating caves, some of which are among the largest and most spectacular in the world. Production of sulfuric acid mostly occurs at or close to the water table but also in subaerial conditions in moisture films and droplets in the cave environment. These caves are generated at or immediately above the water table, where condensation-corrosion processes are dominant, creating a set of characteristic meso- and micromorphologies. Due to their close connection to the base level, these caves can also precisely record past hydrological and geomorphological settings. Certain authigenic cave minerals, produced during the sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) phase, allow determination of the exact timing of speleogenesis. This paper deals with the morphological, geochemical and mineralogical description of four very typical sulfuric acid water table caves in Europe: the Grotte du Chat in the southern French Alps, the Acqua Fitusa Cave in Sicily (Italy), and the Bad Deutsch Altenburg and Kraushöhle caves in Austria.

  9. Prehydrolysis of aspen wood with water and with dilute aqueous sulfuric acid

    Treesearch

    Edward L. Springer; John F. Harris

    1982-01-01

    Water prehydrolysis of aspen wood was compared with 0.40% sulfuric acid prehydrolysis at a reaction temperature of 170°C. Acid prehydrolysis gave much higher yields of total anhydroxylose units in the prehydrolyzate and removed significantly less anhydroglucose from the wood than did the water treatment. At maximum yields of total anhydroxylose units in the...

  10. New insights into sulfur amino acids function in gut health and disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a metabolically significant site of sulfur amino acids (SAAs) metabolism in the body. Aside from their role in protein synthesis, methionine and cysteine are involved in many biological functions and diseases. Methionine (MET) is an indispensable amino acid and is...

  11. Quantitative gas chromatographic analysis of volatile fatty acids in spent culture media and body fluids.

    PubMed Central

    van den Bogaard, A E; Hazen, M J; Van Boven, C P

    1986-01-01

    Gas chromatographic analysis of volatile fatty acids for identification of obligately anaerobic bacteria and for presumptive diagnosis of anaerobic infections is now widely practiced. However, it is difficult to compare data because only a qualitative analysis is done or only chromatograms are presented instead of quantitative data on volatile fatty acid production. We compared three stationary phases for volatile fatty acid analysis of aqueous solutions and four methods of pretreating samples for gas chromatography. Quantitative analysis could be done accurately by using Carbowax as the stationary phase after pretreatment of spent culture media with Dowex columns. If only qualitative analysis is required (e.g., for presumptive diagnosis of anaerobic infections), ether extraction and headspace analysis are equally suitable. The overall variation coefficient for volatile fatty acid production by four reference strains of obligately anaerobic bacteria after 24 h of incubation was approximately 10%. PMID:3958144

  12. Treatment of odorous volatile fatty acids using a biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y F; Chua, H; Sin, S N; Chan, S Y

    2008-02-01

    In this study, a novel fibrous bioreactor was developed for treating odorous compounds present in contaminated air. The first stage of this work was a preliminary study which aimed at investigating the feasibility of using the fibrous bioreactor for the removal of malodorous volatile fatty acids (VFA) that is a common odorous contaminant generated from anaerobic degradation of organic compounds. The kinetics of microbial growth and VFA degradation in the selected culture, and the performance of the submerged bioreactor at different VFA mass loadings were studied. Above 95% of VFA removal efficiencies were achieved at mass loadings up to 22.4 g/m(3)/h. In the second stage, the odour treatment process was scaled up with system design and operational considerations. A trickling biofilter with synthetic fibrous packing medium was employed. The effects of inlet VFA concentration and empty bed retention time (EBRT) on the process performance were investigated. The bioreactor was effective in removing VFA at mass loadings up to 32 g/m(3)/h, beyond which VFA started to accumulate in the recirculation liquid, indicating the biofilm was unable to degrade all of the VFA introduced. Although VFA accumulated in the liquid phase, the removal efficiency remained above 99%. This suggested that the biochemical reaction rather than gas-liquid mass transfer was the limiting step of the treatment process. In addition, the biotrickling filter was stable for long-term operation with relatively low and steady pressure drop, no clogging and degeneration of the packing material occurred during the four-month study.

  13. A laboratory formulated sediment incorporating synthetic acid volatile sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    The usefulness of laboratory formulated sediment (LFS) for sediment research applications might be expanded if sediment characteristics other than particle size distribution, organic carbon and pH could be artificially manipulated. This report describes the development of a LFS containing synthetic acid volatile sulfide (AVS). Several formulations were evaluated with respect to their toxicological effects on Hyalella azteca, and their chemical stability and oxidation dynamics in the H. azteca toxicity test system. Optimal amphipod survival was obtained in prepared LFS formulations where the molar cation-to-sulfide ratio was near unity. The synthetic AVS at the surface of the test system oxidized quickly, but was fairly stable for up to 28 days when isolated from air or oxygenated water. AVS analysis of core slices show a clear, dissolved oxygen-diffusion limited oxidation profile. A selected synthetic AVS formulation, as determined by (maximum) H. azteca survival, was evaluated with respect to complexation of copper and nickel, and the corresponding reduction in metal bioavailability. The toxicity of whole sediment and pore water from metal-spiked LFS containing synthetic AVS was evaluated by the 10-d H. azteca toxicity test and the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay, respectively. As expected, test responses to amended LFS with metal-to-AVS molar ratios less than one were not significantly different than the unspiked, amended LFS. In contrast, amended LFS with metal-to AVS molar ratios greater than one had significant effects on the response of the two test species. Complexation of the metals was confirmed by sediment and pore water chemical analyses. This formulation may provide consistent and controlled substrates with which to investigate metal/sediment chemistry and toxicity, and to develop sediment quality criteria for metals.

  14. Death of a toddler due to ingestion of sulfuric acid at a clandestine home methamphetamine laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burge, Meredith; Hunsaker, John C; Davis, Gregory J

    2009-12-01

    Exposure to strong acids such as sulfuric acid to either the skin or the gastrointestinal or respiratory mucosa will result respectively in significant-occasionally fatal-cutaneous chemical burns as well as devastating corrosive damage to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Most injuries are accidental, but there are reports of using acids as weapons or as a means of suicide. The primary mechanism of acid injury is coagulative necrosis of the tissues. Sulfuric acid is a chemical often used in industrial and chemical laboratories, and it is an ingredient in household products like drain cleaner. Easily accessible, over-the-counter, household drain cleaner is one of several common materials used to manufacture methamphetamine. With increasing clandestine methamphetamine laboratories in the United States, exposure to methamphetamine and the toxic chemicals used for its production is a growing problem. In many instances, children living in these laboratories qua homes are at risk for injury and death. We report the death of an unattended toddler, who ingested sulfuric acid drain cleaner in his home. The gross and histopathological autopsy findings in this case are similar to those of previously described cases of sulfuric acid injury.

  15. Potential role of stabilized Criegee radicals in sulfuric acid production in a high biogenic VOC environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex; Lefer, Barry; Flynn, James; Griffin, Robert; Rutter, Andrew P; Gong, Longwen; Cevik, Basak Karakurt

    2015-03-17

    We present field observations made in June 2011 downwind of Dallas-Fort Worth, TX, and evaluate the role of stabilized Criegee radicals (sCIs) in gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) production. Zero-dimensional model calculations show that sCI from biogenic volatile organic compounds composed the majority of the sCIs. The main uncertainty associated with an evaluation of H2SO4 production from the sCI reaction channel is the lack of experimentally determined reaction rates for sCIs formed from isoprene ozonolysis with SO2 along with systematic discrepancies in experimentally derived reaction rates between other sCIs and SO2 and water vapor. In general, the maximum of H2SO4 production from the sCI channel is found in the late afternoon as ozone increases toward the late afternoon. The sCI channel, however, contributes minor H2SO4 production compared with the conventional OH channel in the mid-day. Finally, the production and the loss rates of H2SO4 are compared. The application of the recommended mass accommodation coefficient causes significant overestimation of H2SO4 loss rates compared with H2SO4 production rates. However, the application of a lower experimental value for the mass accommodation coefficient provides good agreement between the loss and production rates of H2SO4. The results suggest that the recommended coefficient for the H2O surface may not be suitable for this relatively dry environment.

  16. Role of Criegee Intermediates in Formation of Sulfuric Acid at BVOCs-rich Cape Corsica Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukui, A.; Dusanter, S.; Sauvage, S.; Gros, V.; Bourrianne, T.; Sellegri, K.; Wang, J.; Colomb, A.; Pichon, J. M.; Chen, H.; Kalogridis, C.; Zannoni, N.; Bonsang, B.; Michoud, V.; Locoge, N.; Leonardis, T.

    2015-12-01

    Oxidation of SO2 in reactions with stabilised Criegee Intermediates (sCI) was suggested as an additional source of gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the atmosphere, complementary to the conventional H2SO4 formation in reaction of SO2 with OH radicals. Evaluation of the importance of this additional source is complicated due to large uncertainty in the mechanism and rate constants for the reactions of different sCI with SO2, water vapor and other atmospheric species. Here we present an evaluation of the role of sCI in H2SO4 production at remote site on Cape Corsica near the North tip of Corsica Island (Ersa station, Western Mediterranean). In July 2013 comprehensive field observations including gas phase (OH and RO2 radicals, H2SO4, VOCs, NOx, SO2, others) and aerosol measurements were conducted at this site in the frame of ChArMEx project. During the field campaign the site was strongly influenced by local emissions of biogenic volatile compounds (BVOCs), including isoprene and terpenes, forming different sCI in reactions with ozone and, hence, presenting additional source of H2SO4 via sCI+SO2. However, this additional source of H2SO4 at the Ersa site was found to be insignificant. The observed concentrations of H2SO4 were found to be in good agreement with those estimated from the H2SO4 condensation sink and the production of H2SO4 only in the reaction of OH with SO2, without accounting for any additional H2SO4 source. Using the BVOCs observations we present estimation of the upper limit for the rate constants of H2SO4 production via reactions of different sCI with SO2.

  17. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOEpatents

    Towler, Gavin P.; Lynn, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  18. Heavy metal extraction from PCB wastewater treatment sludge by sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yu-Chung; Lee, I-Hsien; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2010-05-15

    Heavy metals contaminated wastewater sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and needs to be properly treated to prevent releasing heavy metals to the environment. In this study, the wastewater treatment sludge from a printed circuit board manufacturing plant was treated in a batch reactor by sulfuric acid to remove the contained heavy metals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration and solid to liquid ratio on the heavy metal removal efficiencies were investigated. The experimental results showed that the total and individual heavy metal removal efficiencies increased with increasing sulfuric acid concentration, but decreased with increasing solid to liquid ratio. A mathematical model was developed to predict the residual sludge weights at varying sulfuric concentrations and solid to liquid ratios. The trivalent heavy metal ions, iron and chromium were more difficult to be removed than the divalent ions, copper, zinc, nickel, and cadmium. For 5 g/L solid to liquid ratio, more than 99.9% of heavy metals can be removed from the sludge by treating with 0.5M sulfuric acid in 2h. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

  20. Effect of various alkaline metal ions on electrochemical behavior of lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Nobumitsu; Yamamoto, Yui

    2015-10-01

    The effect of various alkaline metal ions on electrochemical behavior of lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution has been investigated. It was found that ;the specific anodic oxidation peak; appears at the cathodic scan in cyclic voltammogram of lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution containing Li2SO4, K2SO4, Na2SO4, Rb2SO4, or Cs2SO4. The height of the specific anodic oxidation peak varies with the alkaline sulfate in the solution; K2SO4 >> Na2SO4 > Cs2SO4 > Rb2SO4 > Li2SO4. It should be note that alkaline ions exist in lead sulfate formed on lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution containing potassium sulfate when the electrode was immersed in the solution at the rest potential for more than 1 h.

  1. Diamine-sulfuric acid reactions are a potent source of new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Coty N.; Bachman, Ryan; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H.; Hanson, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nucleation from sulfuric acid depends on the concentrations and the stabilizing effect of other trace gases, such as ammonia and amines. Diamines are an understudied class of atmospherically relevant compounds, and we examine how they affect sulfuric acid nucleation in both flow reactor experiments and the atmosphere. The number of particles produced from sulfuric acid and diamines in the flow reactor was equal to or greater than the number formed from monoamines, implying that diamines are more effective nucleating agents. Upper limits of diamine abundance were also monitored during three field campaigns: Lamont, OK (2013); Lewes, DE (2012); and Atlanta, GA (2009). Mixing ratios were measured as high as tens of parts per trillion by volume (GA and OK). Laboratory results suggest that diamines at these levels are important for atmospheric nucleation. Diamines likely participate in atmospheric nucleation and should be considered in nucleation measurements and models.

  2. Reevaluating the contribution of sulfuric acid and the origin of organic compounds in atmospheric nanoparticle growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakkari, Ville; Tiitta, Petri; Jaars, Kerneels; Croteau, Philip; Beukes, Johan Paul; Josipovic, Miroslav; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Venter, Andrew D.; Zyl, Pieter G.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Laakso, Lauri

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol particles formed in the atmosphere are important to the Earth's climate system due to their ability to affect cloud properties. At present, little is known about the atmospheric chemistry responsible for the growth of newly formed aerosol particles to climate-relevant sizes. Here combining detailed aerosol measurements with a theoretical framework we found that depending on the gaseous precursors and size of the newly formed particles, the growth was dominated by either sulfuric acid accompanied by ammonium or organic compounds originating in either biogenic emissions or savannah fires. The contribution of sulfuric acid was larger during the early phases of the growth, but in clean conditions organic compounds dominated the growth from 1.5 nm up to climatically relevant sizes. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that in polluted environments the contribution of sulfuric acid to the growth may have been underestimated by up to a factor of 10.

  3. Determination of sulfur and nitrogen compounds during the processing of dry fermented sausages and their relation to amino acid generation.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sara; Leitner, Erich; Siegmund, Barbara; Flores, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The identification of odor-active sulfur and nitrogen compounds formed during the processing of dry fermented sausages was the objective of this study. In order to elucidate their possible origin, free amino acids (FAAs) were also determined. The volatile compounds present in the dry sausages were extracted using solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and monitored by one and two-dimensional gas chromatography with different detectors: mass spectrometry (MS), nitrogen phosphorous (NPD), flame photometric (FPD) detectors, as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry. A total of seventeen sulfur and nitrogen compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline was the most potent odor active compound, followed by methional, ethylpyrazine and 2,3-dihydrothiophene characterized by toasted, cooked potato, and nutty notes. The degradation of FAAs, generated during processing, was related to the production of aroma compounds, such as methionine forming methional and benzothiazole while ornithine was the precursor compound for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and glycine for ethylpyrazine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Marcondes, Fernanda Klein; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Rolim, Gustavo Sattolo; de Moraes, Antonio Bento Alves; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Franz-Montan, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects. Materials and methods Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory—Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument. Results The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney test). There were moderate positive correlations between the following pairs of variables: Fusobacterium nucleatum and S. moorei; F. nucleatum and hydrogen sulfide; Tannerella forsythia and F. nucleatum; T. forsythia and S. moorei. These correlations only occurred for the stressed group (p < 0.05, Spearman correlation). The in vitro experiment demonstrated that S. moorei increased H2S production by F. nucleatum (p < 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey’s test). Conclusion The increased amount of S. moorei in saliva, and its coexistence with F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, seemed to be responsible for increased oral hydrogen sulfide in the healthy male stressed subjects. PMID:28319129

  5. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate and Sulfur in a Faintly Acidic Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Peng, X.; Qiao, H.

    2014-12-01

    A faintly acidic hot spring named "female Tower" (T=73.5 ℃, pH=6.64 ) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field,Yunnan province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite and sulfur, as reveals by XRD analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis show the microbial mats are formed of various coccoid, rod and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis show that intracellular sulfur granules are commonly associated with these microbes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis shows that the surface of microbes are mainly composed of Ca, C, O and S. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the majority of bacteria in the spring are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We suggest that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the formation of sulfur granules intracellularly and extracellularly. In the meantime, this reaction increases the pH in ambient environments, which fosters the precipitation of calcium carbonate precipitation in the microbial mats. This study suggests that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in faintly acidic hot spring environments.

  6. Relative contributions of sulfuric and nitric acids in acid rain to the acidification of the ecosystem: implications for control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.A.N.

    1981-11-01

    Much of northeastern North America has been receiving precipitation of pH 4.6 or less, i.e. more than ten times more acid than normal rain (pH = 5.6) for at least the past 20 to 30 years. Originally, this acidity was almost totally due to sulfuric acid. These inputs of sulfuric acid in the very acid sensitive Adirondacks may have removed much of the neutralizing and nitrate-utilizing ability of the soils and water. Thus, this area may now be more sensitive to atmospheric inputs of nitric acid. Further work is required on the impact of acid nitrate deposition on the ecosystem but with equal certainty it can be stated that sulfur deposition remains the princpial long term threat to acid sensitive ecosystems. It can be concluded that: much of the nitric acid in acid rain is decomposed in the soils and waterway, and is not a significant contributor to long-term acidification of soils and waters; although in the long term, nitric acid in atmospheric deposition is not likely to be contributing to the overall acidification of the environment, during the spring thaw, in areas which have been heavily impacted by acid rain for a number of years, nitric acid which has concentrated in the snow pack over the winter may cause ecological damage, especially to fish populations; though there is little doubt that tighter control strategies are necessary to diminish the effects of acid rain on remote ecosystems the existing control strategies, which have put more emphasis on the control of emissions of sulfur oxides than nitrogen oxides, have a reasonable scientific basis given our present limited knowledge of their effects on the ecosystem.

  7. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  8. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondo, L.; Ehrhart, S.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-03-01

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4-H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self-contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  9. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rondo, L; Ehrhart, S; Kürten, A; Adamov, A; Bianchi, F; Breitenlechner, M; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Dunne, E M; Flagan, R C; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Keskinen, H; Kim, J; Jokinen, T; Lehtipalo, K; Leiminger, M; Praplan, A; Riccobono, F; Rissanen, M P; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Simon, M; Sipilä, M; Smith, J N; Tomé, A; Tröstl, J; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Vaattovaara, P; Winkler, P M; Williamson, C; Wimmer, D; Baltensperger, U; Kirkby, J; Kulmala, M; Petäjä, T; Worsnop, D R; Curtius, J

    2016-03-27

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4-H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self-contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  10. Sulfur amino acid metabolism in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Chang Seon; Kwak, Hui Chan; Lee, Kye Sook; Kang, Keon Wook; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Ki Ho; Kim, Hwan Mook; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2011-08-15

    Although methionine dependency is a phenotypic characteristic of tumor cells, it remains to be determined whether changes in sulfur amino acid metabolism occur in cancer cells resistant to chemotherapeutic medications. We compared expression/activity of sulfur amino acid metabolizing enzymes and cellular levels of sulfur amino acids and their metabolites between normal MCF-7 cells and doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/Adr) cells. The S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, an index of transmethylation potential, in MCF-7/Adr cells decreased to ~10% relative to that in MCF-7 cells, which may have resulted from down-regulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase. Expression of homocysteine-clearing enzymes, such as cystathionine beta-synthase, methionine synthase/methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, was up-regulated in MCF-7/Adr cells, suggesting that acquiring doxorubicin resistance attenuated methionine-dependence and activated transsulfuration from methionine to cysteine. Homocysteine was similar, which is associated with a balance between the increased expressions of homocysteine-clearing enzymes and decreased extracellular homocysteine. Despite an elevation in cysteine, cellular GSH decreased in MCF-7/Adr cells, which was attributed to over-efflux of GSH into the medium and down-regulation of the GSH synthesis enzyme. Consequently, MCF-7/Adr cells were more sensitive to the oxidative stress induced by bleomycin and menadione than MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that regulating sulfur amino acid metabolism may be a possible therapeutic target for chemoresistant cancer cells. These results warrant further investigations to determine the role of sulfur amino acid metabolism in acquiring anticancer drug resistance in cancer cells using chemical and biological regulators involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhart, S.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI‐APi‐TOF (Chemical Ionization‐Atmospheric Pressure interface‐Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI‐APi‐TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4‐H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self‐contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit. PMID:27610289

  12. Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobono, F.; Rondo, L.; Sipilä, M.; Barmet, P.; Curtius, J.; Dommen, J.; Ehn, M.; Ehrhart, S.; Kulmala, M.; Kürten, A.; Mikkilä, J.; Petäjä, T.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-05-01

    Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to formation and to the early growth of nucleated particles, respectively. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene) showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a Condensation Particle Counter battery and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (Γ), defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of α-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed Γ values indicate that the growth is dominated by organic compounds already at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and Γ showed a strong dependence on particle size supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particles growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. The size resolved growth analysis finally indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to particle growth.

  13. Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobono, F.; Rondo, L.; Sipilä, M.; Barmet, P.; Curtius, J.; Dommen, J.; Ehn, M.; Ehrhart, S.; Kulmala, M.; Kürten, A.; Mikkilä, J.; Paasonen, P.; Petäjä, T.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-10-01

    Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to the formation and early growth of nucleated particles. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene) showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two chemical ionization mass spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a condensation particle counter battery and a scanning mobility particle sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (Γ), defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of α-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed Γ values indicate that the growth is already dominated by organic compounds at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and Γ showed a strong dependence on particle size, supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particle growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. Finally, the size resolved growth analysis indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to particle growth.

  14. Age-Related Changes in Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism in Male C57bl/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jang Su; Oh, Jeong-Ja; Kwak, Hui Chan; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Kim, Hyoung Chin; Kim, Young-Mi; Oh, Soo Jin; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2017-06-14

    Alterations in sulfur amino acid metabolism are associated with an increased risk of a number of common late-life diseases, which raises the possibility that metabolism of sulfur amino acids may change with age. The present study was conducted to understand the age-related changes in hepatic metabolism of sulfur amino acids in 2-, 6-, 18- and 30-month-old male C57BL/6 mice. For this purpose, metabolite profiling of sulfur amino acids from methionine to taurine or glutathione (GSH) was performed. The levels of sulfur amino acids and their metabolites were not significantly different among 2-, 6- and 18-month-old mice, except for plasma GSH and hepatic homocysteine. Plasma total GSH and hepatic total homocysteine levels were significantly higher in 2-month-old mice than those in the other age groups. In contrast, 30-month-old mice exhibited increased hepatic methionine and cysteine, compared with all other groups, but decreased hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine and homocysteine, relative to 2-month-old mice. No differences in hepatic reduced GSH, GSH disulfide, or taurine were observed. The hepatic changes in homocysteine and cysteine may be attributed to upregulation of cystathionine β-synthase and down-regulation of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase in the aged mice. The elevation of hepatic cysteine levels may be involved in the maintenance of hepatic GSH levels. The opposite changes of methionine and SAM suggest that the regulatory role of SAM in hepatic sulfur amino acid metabolism may be impaired in 30-month-old mice.

  15. Dynamic behavior of the bray-liebhafsky oscillatory reaction controlled by sulfuric acid and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejić, N.; Vujković, M.; Maksimović, J.; Ivanović, A.; Anić, S.; Čupić, Ž.; Kolar-Anić, Lj.

    2011-12-01

    The non-periodic, periodic and chaotic regimes in the Bray-Liebhafsky (BL) oscillatory reaction observed in a continuously fed well stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under isothermal conditions at various inflow concentrations of the sulfuric acid were experimentally studied. In each series (at any fixed temperature), termination of oscillatory behavior via saddle loop infinite period bifurcation (SNIPER) as well as some kind of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation is presented. In addition, it was found that an increase of temperature, in different series of experiments resulted in the shift of bifurcation point towards higher values of sulfuric acid concentration.

  16. Molecular steps of neutral sulfuric acid and dimethylamine nucleation in CLOUD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Sipilä, Mikko; Junninen, Heikki; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Duplissy, Jonathan; Cloud Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    We have run a set of experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN, Switzerland, studying the effect of dimethylamine (DMA) on sulfuric acid (SA)-water nucleation using a nitrate based Chemical Ionization Atmospheric Pressure ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF). Experiment was designed to produce neutral high m/z SA-DMA clusters in close to atmospherically relevant conditions to be detected and characterized by the CI-APi-TOF. We aimed in filling up the gap in measurement techniques from molecular level up to climatically relevant aerosol particles and thus improve our understanding of the role of sulfuric acid and DMA in atmospheric nucleation.

  17. On the prolonged lifetime of the El Chichon sulfuric acid aerosol cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    The observed decay of the aerosol mixing ratio following the eruption of El Chichon appears to have been 20-30 percent slower than that following the eruption of Fuego in 1974, even though the sulfuric acid droplets were observed to grow to considerably larger sizes after El Chichon. This suggests the possible presence of a condensation nuclei and sulfuric acid vapor source and continued growth phenomena occurring well after the El Chichon eruption. It is proposed that the source of these nuclei and the associated vapor may be derived from annual evaporation and condensation of aerosol in the high polar regions during stratospheric warming events, with subsequent spreading to lower latitudes.

  18. Identification, synthesis, and characterization of novel sulfur-containing volatile compounds from the in-depth analysis of Lisbon lemon peels (Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cv. Lisbon).

    PubMed

    Cannon, Robert J; Kazimierski, Arkadiusz; Curto, Nicole L; Li, Jing; Trinnaman, Laurence; Jańczuk, Adam J; Agyemang, David; Da Costa, Neil C; Chen, Michael Z

    2015-02-25

    Lemons (Citrus limon) are a desirable citrus fruit grown and used globally in a wide range of applications. The main constituents of this sour-tasting fruit have been well quantitated and characterized. However, additional research is still necessary to better understand the trace volatile compounds that may contribute to the overall aroma of the fruit. In this study, Lisbon lemons (C. limon L. Burm. f. cv. Lisbon) were purchased from a grove in California, USA, and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Fractionation and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were utilized to separate, focus, and enhance unidentified compounds. In addition, these methods were employed to more accurately assign flavor dilution factors by aroma extract dilution analysis. Numerous compounds were identified for the first time in lemons, including a series of branched aliphatic aldehydes and several novel sulfur-containing structures. Rarely reported in citrus peels, sulfur compounds are known to contribute significantly to the aroma profile of the fruit and were found to be aroma-active in this particular study on lemons. This paper discusses the identification, synthesis, and organoleptic properties of these novel volatile sulfur compounds.

  19. Ammonia Catalyzed Formation of Sulfuric Acid in Troposphere: The Curious Case of a Base Promoting Acid Rain.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Biman; Kumar, Pradeep; Biswas, Partha

    2017-04-27

    Electronic structure calculations have been performed to investigate the role of ammonia in catalyzing the formation of sulfuric acid through hydrolysis of SO3 in Earth's atmosphere. The uncatalyzed process involves a high activation barrier and, until date, is mainly known to occur in Earth's atmosphere only when catalyzed by water and acids. Here we show that hydrolysis of SO3 can be very efficiently catalyzed by ammonia, the most abundant basic component in Earth's atmosphere. It was found, based on magnitude of relative potential energies as well as rate coefficients, that ammonia is the best among all the catalysts studied until now (water and acids) and could be a considerable factor in formation of sulfuric acid in troposphere. The calculated rate coefficient (at 298 K) of ammonia catalyzed reaction has been found to be ∼10(5)-10(7) times greater than that for water catalyzed ones. It was found, based on relative rates of ammonia and water catalyzed processes, that in troposphere ammonia, together with water, could be the key factor in determining the rate of formation of sulfuric acid. In fact, ammonia could surpass water in catalyzing sulfuric acid formation via hydrolysis of SO3 at various altitudes in troposphere depending upon their relative concentrations.

  20. Electrical charging changes the composition of sulfuric acid-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, I. K.; Olenius, T.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Loukonen, V.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfuric acid clusters stabilized by base molecules are likely to have a significant role in atmospheric new particle formation. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have permitted the detection of electrically charged clusters. However, direct measurement of electrically neutral clusters is not possible. Mass spectrometry instruments can be combined with a charger, but the possible effect of charging on the composition of neutral clusters must be addressed before the measured data can be linked to properties of neutral clusters. In the present work we have used formation free energies from quantum chemical methods to calculate the evaporation rates of electrically charged (both positive and negative) sulfuric acid-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters. To understand how charging will affect the composition of these clusters, we have compared the evaporation rates of charged clusters with those of the corresponding neutral clusters. We found that the only cluster studied in this paper which will retain its composition is H2SO4 · NH3 when charged positively; all other clusters will be altered by both positive and negative charging. In the case of charging clusters negatively, base molecules will completely evaporate from clusters with 1 to 3 sulfuric acid molecules in the case of ammonia, and from clusters with 1 or 2 sulfuric acid molecules in the case of dimethylamine. Larger clusters will maintain some base molecules, but the H2SO4 : base ratio will increase. In the case of positive charging, some of the acid molecules will evaporate, decreasing the H2SO4 : base ratio.

  1. Autotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing actinobacteria in acidic environments.

    PubMed

    Norris, Paul R; Davis-Belmar, Carol S; Brown, Carly F; Calvo-Bado, Leonides A

    2011-03-01

    Some novel actinobacteria from geothermal environments were shown to grow autotrophically with sulfur as an energy source. These bacteria have not been formally named and are referred to here as "Acidithiomicrobium" species, as the first of the acidophilic actinobacteria observed to grow on sulfur. They are related to Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans with which they share a capacity for ferrous iron oxidation. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is active in CO(2) fixation by Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans, which appears to have acquired its RuBisCO-encoding genes from the proteobacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans or its ancestor. This lateral transfer of RuBisCO genes between a proteobacterium and an actinobacterium would add to those noted previously among proteobacteria, between proteobacteria and cyanobacteria and between proteobacteria and plastids. "Acidithiomicrobium" has RuBisCO-encoding genes which are most closely related to those of Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and has additional RuBisCO genes of a different lineage. 16S rRNA gene sequences from "Acidithiomicrobium" species dominated clone banks of the genes extracted from mixed cultures of moderate thermophiles growing on copper sulfide and polymetallic sulfide ores in ore leaching columns.

  2. Photosynthetic and growth responses of Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric and nitric acid depositions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fang-Fang; Ding, Hui-Ming; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Jing-Jing; Yang, Song-Yu; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-05-01

    A continuing rise in acid deposition can cause forest degradation. In China, acid deposition has converted gradually from sulfuric acid deposition (SAD) to nitric acid deposition (NAD). However, the differing responses of photosynthesis and growth to depositions of sulfuric vs. nitric acid have not been well studied. In this study, 1-year-old seedlings of Schima superba, a dominant species in subtropical forests, were treated with two types of acid deposition SO4 (2-)/NO3 (-) ratios (8:1 and 0.7:1) with two applications (foliar spraying and soil drenching) at two pH levels (pH 3.5 and pH 2.5) over a period of 18 months. The results showed that the intensity, acid deposition type, and spraying method had significant effects on the physiological characteristics and growth performance of seedlings. Acid deposition at pH 2.5 via foliar application reduced photosynthesis and growth of S. superba, especially in the first year. Unlike SAD, NAD with high acidity potentially alleviated the negative effects of acidity on physiological properties and growth, probably due to a fertilization effect that improved foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll contents. Our results suggest that trees were damaged mainly by direct acid stress in the short term, whereas in the long term, soil acidification was also likely to be a major risk to forest ecosystems. Our data suggest that the shift in acid deposition type may complicate the ongoing challenge of anthropogenic acid deposition to ecosystem stability.

  3. Effect of added caffeic acid and tyrosol on the fatty acid and volatile profiles of camellia oil following heating.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Zhong; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2006-12-13

    Camellia oil is widely used in some parts of the world partly because of its high oxidative stability. The effect of heating a refined camellia oil for 1 h at 120 degrees C or 2 h at 170 degrees C with exogenous antioxidant, namely, caffeic acid and tyrosol, was studied. Parameters used to assess the effect of heating were peroxide and K values, volatile formation, and fatty acid profile. Of these, volatile formation was the most sensitive index of change as seen in the number of volatiles and the total area count of volatiles in gas chromatograms. Hexanal was generally the dominant volatile in treated and untreated samples with a concentration of 2.13 and 5.34 mg kg(-1) in untreated oils heated at 120 and 170 degrees C, respectively. The hexanal content was significantly reduced in heated oils to which tyrosol and/or caffeic acid had been added. Using volatile formation as an index of oxidation, tyrosol was the more effective antioxidant of these compounds. This is contradictory to generally accepted antioxidant structure-activity relationships. Changes in fatty acid profiles after heating for up to 24 h at 180 degrees C were not significant.

  4. Revealing biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters: detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within full-scale digesters.

    PubMed

    Huber, B; Drewes, J E; Lin, K C; König, R; Müller, E

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion (BSA) is a costly problem affecting both sewerage infrastructure and sludge handling facilities such as digesters. The aim of this study was to verify BSA in full-scale digesters by identifying the microorganisms involved in the concrete corrosion process, that is, sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). To investigate the SRB and SOB communities, digester sludge and biofilm samples were collected. SRB diversity within digester sludge was studied by applying polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the dsrB-gene (dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit). To reveal SOB diversity, cultivation dependent and independent techniques were applied. The SRB diversity studies revealed different uncultured SRB, confirming SRB activity and H2S production. Comparable DGGE profiles were obtained from the different sludges, demonstrating the presence of similar SRB species. By cultivation, three pure SOB strains from the digester headspace were obtained including Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia and Thiomonas perometabolis. These organisms were also detected with PCR-DGGE in addition to two new SOB: Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus solventivorans. The SRB and SOB responsible for BSA were identified within five different digesters, demonstrating that BSA is a problem occurring not only in sewer systems but also in sludge digesters. In addition, the presence of different SOB species was successfully associated with the progression of microbial corrosion.

  5. Free sulfurous acid (FSA) inhibition of biological thiosulfate reduction (BTR) in the sulfur cycle-driven wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin; Wang, Lianlian; Wu, Yaoguo; Bond, Philip L; Zhang, Yuhan; Chang, Xing; Deng, Baixue; Wei, Li; Li, Qin; Wang, Qilin

    2017-06-01

    A sulfur cycle-based bioprocess for co-treatment of wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) wastes with freshwater sewage has been developed. In this process the removal of organic carbon is mainly associated with biological sulfate or sulfite reduction. Thiosulfate is a major intermediate during biological sulfate/sulfite reduction, and its reduction to sulfide is the rate-limiting step. In this study, the impacts of saline sulfite (the ionized form: HSO3(-) + SO3(2-)) and free sulfurous acid (FSA, the unionized form: H2SO3) sourced from WGFD wastes on the biological thiosulfate reduction (BTR) activities were thoroughly investigated. The BTR activity and sulfate/sulfite-reducing bacteria (SRB) populations in the thiosulfate-reducing up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor decreased when the FSA was added to the UASB influent. Batch experiment results confirmed that FSA, instead of saline sulfite, was the true inhibitor of BTR. And BTR activities dropped by 50% as the FSA concentrations were increased from 8.0 × 10(-8) to 2.0 × 10(-4) mg H2SO3-S/L. From an engineering perspective, the findings of this study provide some hints on how to ensure effective thiosulfate accumulation in biological sulfate/sulfite reduction for the subsequent denitrification/denitritation. Such manipulation would result in higher nitrogen removal rates in this co-treatment process of WFGD wastes with municipal sewage.

  6. Assessment of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis potentialities to recover metals, sulfuric acid, and recycled water from acid gold mining effluent.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Bárbara C; Ferreira, Carolina D; Marques, Larissa S; Martins, Sofia S; Amaral, Míriam C S

    This work assessed the potential of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to treat acid streams contaminated with metals, such as effluent from the pressure oxidation process (POX) used in refractory gold ore processing. NF and RO were evaluated in terms of rejections of sulfuric acid and metals. Regarding NF, high sulfuric acid permeation (∼100%), was observed, while metals were retained with high efficiencies (∼90%), whereas RO led to high acid rejections (<88%) when conducted in pH values higher than 1. Thus, sequential use of NF and RO was proved to be a promising treatment for sulfuric acid solutions contaminated by metals, such as POX effluent. In this context, a purified acid stream could be recovered in NF permeate, which could be further concentrated in RO. Recovered acid stream could be reused in the gold ore processing or commercialized. A metal-enriched stream could be also recovered in NF retentate and transferred to a subsequent metal recovery stage. In addition, considering the high acid rejection obtained through the proposed system, RO permeate could be used as recycling water.

  7. Impact of Sulfuric Acid Treatment of Halloysite on Physico-Chemic Property Modification.

    PubMed

    Gaaz, Tayser Sumer; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Nassir, Mohamed H; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A

    2016-07-26

    Halloysite (HNT) is treated with sulfuric acid and the physico-chemical properties of its morphology, surface activity, physical and chemical properties have been investigated when HNT is exposed to sulfuric acid with treatment periods of 1 h (H1), 3 h (H3), 8 h (H8), and 21 h (H21). The significance of this and similar work lies in the importance of using HNT as a functional material in nanocomposites. The chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectrum demonstrates that the hydroxyl groups were active for grafting modification using sulfuric acid, promoting a promising potential use for halloysite in ceramic applications as filler for novel clay-polymer nanocomposites. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum, it can be seen that the sulfuric acid breaks down the HNT crystal structure and alters it into amorphous silica. In addition, the FESEM images reveal that the sulfuric acid treatment dissolves the AlO₆ octahedral layers and induces the disintegration of SiO₄ tetrahedral layers, resulting in porous nanorods. The Bruncher-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and total pore volume of HNTs showed an increase. The reaction of the acid with both the outer and inner surfaces of the nanotubes causes the AlO₆ octahedral layers to dissolve, which leads to the breakdown and collapse of the tetrahedral layers of SiO₄. The multi-fold results presented in this paper serve as a guide for further HNT functional treatment for producing new and advanced nanocomposites.

  8. Impact of Sulfuric Acid Treatment of Halloysite on Physico-Chemic Property Modification

    PubMed Central

    Gaaz, Tayser Sumer; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Nassir, Mohamed H.; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Halloysite (HNT) is treated with sulfuric acid and the physico-chemical properties of its morphology, surface activity, physical and chemical properties have been investigated when HNT is exposed to sulfuric acid with treatment periods of 1 h (H1), 3 h (H3), 8 h (H8), and 21 h (H21). The significance of this and similar work lies in the importance of using HNT as a functional material in nanocomposites. The chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectrum demonstrates that the hydroxyl groups were active for grafting modification using sulfuric acid, promoting a promising potential use for halloysite in ceramic applications as filler for novel clay-polymer nanocomposites. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum, it can be seen that the sulfuric acid breaks down the HNT crystal structure and alters it into amorphous silica. In addition, the FESEM images reveal that the sulfuric acid treatment dissolves the AlO6 octahedral layers and induces the disintegration of SiO4 tetrahedral layers, resulting in porous nanorods. The Bruncher-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and total pore volume of HNTs showed an increase. The reaction of the acid with both the outer and inner surfaces of the nanotubes causes the AlO6 octahedral layers to dissolve, which leads to the breakdown and collapse of the tetrahedral layers of SiO4. The multi-fold results presented in this paper serve as a guide for further HNT functional treatment for producing new and advanced nanocomposites. PMID:28773741

  9. Levulinic acid production by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica using dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hanseob; Jang, Soo-Kyeong; Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Soo Min; Choi, Joon Weon; Choi, In-Gyu

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to produce a levulinic acid by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica and to investigate the effect of treatment parameter (reaction temperature range: 100-230°C; sulfuric acid (SA) concentration range: 0-2%) on the levulinic acid yield. After 1(st) step acid-catalyzed treatment, most of the hemicellulosic C5 sugars (15.6gg/100gbiomass) were released into the liquid hydrolysate at the reaction temperature of 150°C in 1% SA; the solid fraction, which contained 53.5% of the C6 sugars, was resistant to further loss of C6 sugars. Subsequently, 2(nd) step acid-catalyzed treatment of the solid fractions was performed under more severe conditions. Finally, 16.5g/100g biomass of levulinic acid was produced at the reaction temperature of 200°C in 2% SA, corresponding to a higher conversion rate than during single-step treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seed storage protein deficiency improves sulfur amino acid content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): redirection of sulfur from gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Meghan; Chapman, Ralph; Beyaert, Ronald; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2008-07-23

    The contents of sulfur amino acids in seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are suboptimal for nutrition. They accumulate large amounts of a gamma-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methyl-cysteine, a nonprotein amino acid that cannot substitute for methionine or cysteine in the diet. Protein accumulation and amino acid composition were characterized in three genetically related lines integrating a progressive deficiency in major seed storage proteins, phaseolin, phytohemagglutinin, and arcelin. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur contents were comparable among the three lines. The contents of S-methyl-cysteine and gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine were progressively reduced in the mutants. Sulfur was shifted predominantly to the protein cysteine pool, while total methionine was only slightly elevated. Methionine and cystine contents (mg per g protein) were increased by up to ca. 40%, to levels slightly above FAO guidelines on amino acid requirements for human nutrition. These findings may be useful to improve the nutritional quality of common bean.

  11. Sulfur amino acid deficiency upregulates intestinal methionine cycle activity and suppresses epithelial growth in neonatal pigs.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We recently showed that the developing gut is a significant site of methionine transmethylation to homocysteine and transsulfuration to cysteine. We hypothesized that sulfur amino acid (SAA) deficiency would preferentially reduce mucosal growth and antioxidant function in neonatal pigs. Neonatal pi...

  12. Improved process for the production of cellulose sulfate using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Hongwen

    2013-06-05

    An improved process for production of cellulose sulfate (CS) was developed by using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution as sulfonating agent and Na2SO4 as water absorbent. The FTIR, SEM and TG analysis were used to characterize the CS prepared. The total degree of substitution and viscosity of the product solution (2%, w/v) were ranging from 0.28 to 0.77 and from 115 to 907 mPa s, respectively, by changing the process parameters such as the amount of Na2SO4, the reaction time, the temperature, the sulfuric acid/alcohol ratio and liquid/solid ratio. The results indicated that the product with DS (0.28-0.77) and η2% (115-907) mPa s could be produced by using this improved process and more cellulose sulfate could be produced when cellulose was sulfonated for 3-4 h at -2 °C in sulfuric acid/ethanol (1.4-1.6) solution with addition of 0.8 g Na2SO4. The (13)C NMR indicated that the sulfate group of CS produced using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution was at C6 position. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of cluster energy nonaccommodation in atmospheric sulfuric acid nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurten, T.; Kuang, C.; Gomez, P.; McMurry, P. H.; Vehkamaki, H.; Ortega, I.; Noppel, M.; Kulmala, M.

    2010-01-11

    We discuss the possible role of energy nonaccommodation (monomer-cluster collisions that do not result in stable product formation due to liberated excess energy) in atmospheric nucleation processes involving sulfuric acid. Qualitative estimates of the role of nonaccommodation are computed using quantum Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel theory together with quantum chemically calculated vibrational frequencies and anharmonic coupling constants for small sulfuric acid-containing clusters. We find that energy nonaccommodation effects may, at most, decrease the net formation rate of sulfuric acid dimers by up to a factor of 10 with respect to the hard-sphere collision rate. A decrease in energy nonaccommodation due to an increasing number of internal degrees of freedom may kinetically slightly favor the participation of amines rather than ammonia as stabilizing agents in sulfuric acid nucleation, though the kinetic enhancement factor is likely to be less than three. However, hydration of the clusters (which always occurs in ambient conditions) is likely to increase the energy accommodation factor, reducing the role that energy nonaccommodation plays in atmospheric nucleation.

  14. New insights into sulfur amino acid function in gut health and disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a metabolically significant site of sulfur amino acids (SAA) metabolism in the body. Aside from their role in protein synthesis, methionine and cysteine are involved in many biological functions and diseases. Methionine (MET) is an indispensable AA and is transmet...

  15. Sulfur amino acids are necessary for normal intestinal mucosal growth in neonatal piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sulfur amino acids (SAAs) methionine and cysteine play important metabolic and functional role in human health and disease. Gastrointestinal tract is an important site of transmethylation and transsulfuration of methionine and metabolizes approx. 20% of the dietary methionine intake (Riedijk et al. ...

  16. Kinetics of sulfuric acid leaching of cadmium from Cd-Ni zinc plant residues.

    PubMed

    Safarzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Moradkhani, Davood; Ojaghi-Ilkhchi, Mehdi

    2009-04-30

    Cd-Ni filtercakes are produced continuously at the third purification step in the electrolytic production of zinc in the National Iranian Lead and Zinc Company (NILZ) in northwestern Iran. In this research, the dissolution kinetics of cadmium from Cd-Ni residues produced in NILZ plant has been investigated. Hence, the effects of temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, particle size and stirring speed on the kinetics of cadmium dissolution in sulfuric acid were studied. The dissolution kinetics at 25-55 degrees C and tsulfuric acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio and particle size were also achieved. The rate of reaction at first 5 min based on diffusion-controlled process can be expressed by a semi-empirical equation as:It was determined that the dissolution rate increased with increasing sulfuric acid concentration and decreasing particle size.

  17. Chemical ionization of clusters formed from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine or diamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Coty N.; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H.; Hanson, David R.

    2016-10-01

    Chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometers are used to study atmospheric nucleation by detecting clusters produced by reactions of sulfuric acid and various basic gases. These instruments typically use nitrate to deprotonate and thus chemically ionize the clusters. In this study, we compare cluster concentrations measured using either nitrate or acetate. Clusters were formed in a flow reactor from vapors of sulfuric acid and dimethylamine, ethylene diamine, tetramethylethylene diamine, or butanediamine (also known as putrescine). These comparisons show that nitrate is unable to chemically ionize clusters with high base content. In addition, we vary the ion-molecule reaction time to probe ion processes which include proton-transfer, ion-molecule clustering, and decomposition of ions. Ion decomposition upon deprotonation by acetate/nitrate was observed. More studies are needed to quantify to what extent ion decomposition affects observed cluster content and concentrations, especially those chemically ionized with acetate since it deprotonates more types of clusters than nitrate.Model calculations of the neutral and ion cluster formation pathways are also presented to better identify the cluster types that are not efficiently deprotonated by nitrate. Comparison of model and measured clusters indicate that sulfuric acid dimers with two diamines and sulfuric acid trimers with two or more base molecules are not efficiently chemical ionized by nitrate. We conclude that acetate CI provides better information on cluster abundancies and their base content than nitrate CI.

  18. Homogenous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water at atmospherically relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brus, D.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Vanhanen, J.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Sipilä, M.; Paasonen, P.; Lihavainen, H.; Kulmala, M.

    2010-11-01

    In this study the homogeneous nucleation rates of sulfuric acid and water were measured by using a flow tube technique. The goal was to directly compare particle formation rates obtained from atmospheric measurements with nucleation rates of freshly nucleated particles measured with particle size magnifier (PSM) which has detection efficiency of unity for particles having mobility diameter of 1.5 nm. The gas phase sulfuric acid concentration in this study was measured with the chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS), commonly used in field measurements. The wall losses of sulfuric acid were estimated from measured concentration profiles along the flow tube. The initial concentrations of sulfuric acid estimated from loss measurements ranged from 108 to 3×109 molecules cm-3. The nucleation rates obtained in this study cover about three orders of magnitude from 10-1 to 102 cm3 s-1 for commercial ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC) TSI model 3025A and from 101 to 104 cm3 s-1 for PSM. The nucleation rates and the slopes (dlnJ/dln[H2SO4]) show satisfactory agreement when compared to empirical kinetic and activation models and the latest atmospheric nucleation data.

  19. Uptake of HCl and HOCl onto sulfuric acid. Solubilities, diffusivities, and reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.R.; Ravishankara, A.R. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO )

    1993-11-25

    The interaction of HOCl and HCl vapors with liquid sulfuric acid surfaces was studied in a flow tube equipped with chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection. Time-dependent uptake of HCl and HOCl was measured. A methodology for deriving the value of the quantity H[radical]D[sub 1], (the product of the Henry's law coefficient and the square root of the liquid-phase diffusion coefficient) is discussed. The partial pressures of HCl over HCl-doped sulfuric acid solutions were also measured to directly determine H for HCl (H[sub HCl]*). Using the measured values of H[sub HCl]* and H[sub HCl]*[radical]D[sub 1], the value of D[sub 1] for HCl in 50 wt % sulfuric acid was extracted. Values for H[sub HOCl] and for the second-order rate coefficient for the reaction between dissolved HOCl and HCl were also obtained. The application of these results to modeling stratospheric heterogeneous processes in sulfuric acid aerosols is discussed. 31 refs., 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Response of DOC in acid-sensitive Maine lakes to decreasing sulfur deposition (1993 - 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, sulfur deposition has decreased across the northeastern United States. As a result, sulfate concentrations in lakes and streams have also decreased and many surface waters have become less acidic. Over the same time period, th...

  1. Response of DOC in acid-sensitive Maine lakes to decreasing sulfur deposition (1993 - 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, sulfur deposition has decreased across the northeastern United States. As a result, sulfate concentrations in lakes and streams have also decreased and many surface waters have become less acidic. Over the same time period, th...

  2. Pressure leaching of metals from waste printed circuit boards using sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Manis K.; Lee, Jae-Chun; Kumari, Archana; Choubey, Pankaj K.; Kumar, Vinay; Jeong, Jinki

    2011-08-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are essential components of electronic equipments which contain various metallic values. This paper reports a hydrometallurgical recycling process for waste PCBs, which consists of the novel pretreatment consisting of organic swelling of PCBs followed by sulfuric acid leaching of metals from waste PCBs. To recycle the waste PCBs, experiments were carried out for the recovery of copper from the crushed and organic swelled materials of waste PCBs using sulfuric acid leaching in presence of hydrogen peroxide under atmospheric and pressure condition. The leaching of PCBs at 90°C, pulp density 100 g/L under atmospheric condition, using 6M sulfuric acid resulted in the dissolution of a minor amount of copper due to the presence of plastic coating on the surface of metallic layers. On the other hand, when the liberated metal sheets from organic swelled PCBs were treated with dilute sulfuric acid of concentration 2M along with hydrogen peroxide in an autoclave under oxygen atmosphere, the percentage recovery of copper was found to increase from 59.63% to 97.01% with an increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration from 5 to 15% (v/v) keeping constant pulp density 30 g/L.

  3. Two-stage, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of wood : an investigation of fundamentals

    Treesearch

    John F. Harris; Andrew J. Baker; Anthony H. Conner; Thomas W. Jeffries; James L. Minor; Roger C. Pettersen; Ralph W. Scott; Edward L Springer; Theodore H. Wegner; John I. Zerbe

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental analysis of the processing steps in the production of methanol from southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.) by two-stage dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Data for hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis are correlated using models. This information is used to develop and evaluate a process design.

  4. Competitive Oxidation Kinetics and Microbial Ecology: Intermediate Sulfur Transformations in Acid Mine Drainage Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druschel, G. K.; Hamers, R. J.; Banfield, J. F.

    2001-12-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that oxidation of pyrite proceeds through several intermediate sulfur species, notably elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and polythionates (Schippers et al., 1996). However, detailed sampling and analysis of flowing waters and pore waters failed to detect intermediate sulfur species in the 5-way area of the Richmond metal sulfide deposit at the Iron Mountain Mine in northern California. Potential energy available from the oxidation of intermediate sulfur species is considerable, so microbial activity may explain absence of intermediate sulfur compounds at the site. However, the abundance of sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms in areas of active pyrite oxidation at the 5-way is generally low (Bond et al. 2000). Rapid inorganic oxidation rates may prevent microorganisms from utilizing these intermediate sulfur species, thus shaping the structure of microbial communities in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments. Rates and mechanisms of oxidation for tetrathionate and elemental sulfur have been experimentally determined. Batch and flow-through experiments have indicated very slow oxidation of elemental sulfur in inorganic solutions analogous to AMD environments. Results for tetrathionate indicate the importance of non-metabolic and inorganic processes, including surface catalysis and the generation of hydroxyl radicals. Surface catalysis occurs through trithionate on iron oxide surfaces. Hydroxyl radicals may be formed directly by microbes living in proximity to pyrite surfaces, or at pyrite surfaces undergoing wetting and drying cycles. Further experiments investigating the importance of organic compounds associated with iron-oxidizing microorganisms acting as electron transport shuttles and/or wetting agents and ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of potential reactants and intermediates are currently being performed. It is suggested that inorganic processes involved with seasonal wetting and drying of pyritic sediment

  5. Acetic Acid Acts as a Volatile Signal To Stimulate Bacterial Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Gozzi, Kevin; Yan, Fang; Chai, Yunrong

    2015-06-09

    Volatiles are small air-transmittable chemicals with diverse biological activities. In this study, we showed that volatiles produced by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis had a profound effect on biofilm formation of neighboring B. subtilis cells that grew in proximity but were physically separated. We further demonstrated that one such volatile, acetic acid, is particularly potent in stimulating biofilm formation. Multiple lines of genetic evidence based on B. subtilis mutants that are defective in either acetic acid production or transportation suggest that B. subtilis uses acetic acid as a metabolic signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation. Lastly, we investigated how B. subtilis cells sense and respond to acetic acid in regulating biofilm formation. We showed the possible involvement of three sets of genes (ywbHG, ysbAB, and yxaKC), all encoding putative holin-antiholin-like proteins, in cells responding to acetic acid and stimulating biofilm formation. All three sets of genes were induced by acetate. A mutant with a triple mutation of those genes showed a severe delay in biofilm formation, whereas a strain overexpressing ywbHG showed early and robust biofilm formation. Results of our studies suggest that B. subtilis and possibly other bacteria use acetic acid as a metabolic signal to regulate biofilm formation as well as a quorum-sensing-like airborne signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation by physically separated cells in the community. Volatiles are small, air-transmittable molecules produced by all kingdoms of organisms including bacteria. Volatiles possess diverse biological activities and play important roles in bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Although volatiles can be used as a novel and important way of cell-cell communication due to their air-transmittable nature, little is known about how the volatile-mediated signaling mechanism works. In this study, we demonstrate that the bacterium Bacillus subtilis uses one

  6. Effects of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract on volatile fatty acid production by rumen bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aims: To determine the effects of hops extract, on in vitro volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by bovine rumen microorganisms. Methods and Results: When mixed rumen microbes were suspended in media containing carbohydrates, the initial rates of VFA production were suppressed by beta-acid rich hops...

  7. Prediction of periodontopathic bacteria in dental plaque of periodontal healthy subjects by measurement of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Mitsuo; Ohara-Nemoto, Yuko; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kishi, Kayo; Kimura, Shigenobu; Aizawa, Fumie; Yonemitsu, Masami

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether measurements of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are useful to predict colonization of periodontopathic bacteria. For this purpose, we assessed the relationships among distributions of 4 species of periodontopathic bacteria in tongue coating and dental plaque, oral conditions including VSC concentration in mouth air, and smoking habit of periodontal healthy young subjects. The subjects were 108 young adults (mean age, 23.5±2.56 years) without clinical periodontal pockets. Information regarding smoking habit was obtained by interview. After VSC concentration in mouth, air was measured with a portable sulfide monitor (Halimeter(®)), non-stimulated saliva flow and dental caries status were assessed, and tongue coating and dental plaque samples were collected from the subjects. The tongue coating samples were weighed to determine the amount. The colonization of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, and Treponema denticola in both tongue coating and plaque samples was investigated using species-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Significant relationships were observed between the colonization of periodontopathic bacteria in tongue coating and plaque samples, especially that of P. gingivalis. VSC concentration showed the most significant association with colonization of P. gingivalis in both tongue coating and dental plaque. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the adjusted partial correlation coefficient [Exp(B)] values for VSC concentration with the colonization of P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and T. denticola in dental plaque were 135, 35.4 and 10.4, respectively. In addition, smoking habit was also shown to be a significant variable in regression models [Exp(B)=6.19, 8.92 and 2.53, respectively]. Therefore, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to predict the colonization of periodontal bacteria in dental plaque in the subjects divided by smoking

  8. Effect of Green Tea-Added Tablets on Volatile Sulfur-Containing Compounds in the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Porciani, Pier Francesco; Grandini, Simone

    2016-12-01

    A controlled, clinical, double-blind, cross-over study was conducted to assess the efficacy of sugar-free tablets containing green tea extract on oral volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC) versus placebo tablets for 30 minutes. To join the study, subjects had to have at least 24 teeth, no report of oral and systemic diseases, and no removable dentures. All eligible participants had to avoid professional oral hygiene and drugs for two weeks, to not be menstruating, to avoid brushing their teeth and tongue, to not smoke, to not consume alcohol, coffee or tea, nor onion, garlic, or licorice for six hours before the test. Moreover, they had to score a level of VSC ≥ 75 ppb at the basal measurement. Subjects were entered into their respective groups after a minimum 48-hour wash-out period. The test tablet (0.7 g) contained 0.05% green tea extract (equivalent of 1 mg polyphenols for three tablets); the control tablet was identical but without the active agent. The OralChroma2™ device was utilized to evaluate VSC in the oral air. The levels were recorded at baseline, after sucking three tablets in succession, and after 30 minutes. Data were analyzed with SPSS software and significance was set at α = 0.05. 54 subjects completed the trial (23 men, 31 women). None reported problems linked to green tea. The mean reductions in VSC level from baseline at the end of tablet sucking were 34% (p < 0.001) in the control and 55% (p < 0.001) in the test group; after 30 minutes, reductions were 7% in the control (p = NS) and 26% (p < 0.005) in the test group. The comparisons between the two groups after baseline adjustment showed a statistically significant difference in reductions both at the end of the sucking period (p < 0.01) and after 30 minutes (p < 0.01). Tablets containing green tea extract can statistically significantly reduce the oral VSC levels immediately, and after 30 minutes. Moreover, the test tablets reduced oral VSC significantly more than the control

  9. Volatile Solubilities in Mt. Somma-Vesuvius Phonolite Melt and New Insights on Degassing of Sulfur, Chlorine, and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, J. D.; Sintoni, M. F.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.

    2007-05-01

    To better understand volatile exsolution, degassing, and eruptive processes in subduction-related magmas, we have conducted thirty H2O plus S plus Cl solubility experiments with phonolite melt at 905 to 1000 deg. C, 200 MPa, and relatively oxidizing conditions. The experiments include an 8000-year old Mt. Somma-Vesuvius phonolite, distilled H2O, NaCl, KCl, and CaSO4, and they involve a new method of constraining the concentration of S in the run-product fluids. Unlike prior S-solubility experiments, the S concentration in fluid is determined as proportional to the mass loss of the anhydrite crystals in the starting charges of the experiments. This method provides accurate S contents of fluids. The H2O, Cl, and S concentrations of the phonolitic glasses of our experiments range from 4 to 8, 0.38 to 0.84, and 0.01 to 0.19 wt.%, respectively. Sulfur solubility increases with increasing CaO and FeO (total iron) in melt, decreasing Cl and K2O in melt, decreasing Cl in fluid(s), and with increasing oxygen fugacity values greater than NNO. Chlorine solubility in melt increases with decreasing S content of melt and decreasing S and H2O in the coexisting fluid(s). Water solubility in melt shows no systematic variation with melt composition, but varies strongly with the composition of fluids. The partition coefficients (wt.% of X in fluid[s]/wt.% of X in phonolitic melt) range from 40 to > 200 for S and from 12 to 87 for Cl. At pressure-temperature-oxygen fugacity conditions similar to those of this study, these partition coefficients are equivalent to those determined previously for natural equilibria involving andesite melt plus Cl-free, S-bearing aqueous fluid (Scaillet and Pichavant, 2003) and experimental equilibria with andesite melt plus S-free, Cl-bearing aqueous fluid (Webster et al., 1999), respectively. Our research also shows that these partition coefficients for S and Cl are inversely proportional to one another. Silicate melt inclusions in pyroxene phenocrysts

  10. Sulfur amino acid metabolism in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Chang Seon; Kwak, Hui Chan; Lee, Kye Sook; Kang, Keon Wook; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Ki Ho; Kim, Hwan Mook; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2011-08-15

    Although methionine dependency is a phenotypic characteristic of tumor cells, it remains to be determined whether changes in sulfur amino acid metabolism occur in cancer cells resistant to chemotherapeutic medications. We compared expression/activity of sulfur amino acid metabolizing enzymes and cellular levels of sulfur amino acids and their metabolites between normal MCF-7 cells and doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/Adr) cells. The S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, an index of transmethylation potential, in MCF-7/Adr cells decreased to {approx} 10% relative to that in MCF-7 cells, which may have resulted from down-regulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase. Expression of homocysteine-clearing enzymes, such as cystathionine beta-synthase, methionine synthase/methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, was up-regulated in MCF-7/Adr cells, suggesting that acquiring doxorubicin resistance attenuated methionine-dependence and activated transsulfuration from methionine to cysteine. Homocysteine was similar, which is associated with a balance between the increased expressions of homocysteine-clearing enzymes and decreased extracellular homocysteine. Despite an elevation in cysteine, cellular GSH decreased in MCF-7/Adr cells, which was attributed to over-efflux of GSH into the medium and down-regulation of the GSH synthesis enzyme. Consequently, MCF-7/Adr cells were more sensitive to the oxidative stress induced by bleomycin and menadione than MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that regulating sulfur amino acid metabolism may be a possible therapeutic target for chemoresistant cancer cells. These results warrant further investigations to determine the role of sulfur amino acid metabolism in acquiring anticancer drug resistance in cancer cells using chemical and biological regulators involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism. - Research Highlights: > MCF-7/Adr cells showed decreases in cellular GSH

  11. THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.

    2010-03-24

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50% (HHV basis

  12. Binary nucleation in acid-water systems. II. Sulfuric acid-water and a comparison with methanesulfonic acid-water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyslouzil, B. E.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Flagan, R. C.; Okuyama, K.

    1991-05-01

    This work presents a systematic investigation of binary nucleation rates for sulfuric acid and water and the effect of temperature on these rates at isothermal, subsaturated conditions. The results from nucleation rate measurements for the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) -water system are discussed and compared to those previously presented for methanesulfonic acid (MSA)-water [B. E. Wyslouzil, J. H. Seinfeld, R. C. Flagan, and K. Okuyama, J. Chem. Phys. (submitted)]. Experiments were conducted at relative humidities (Rh) ranging from 0.006acidities (Ra) in the range of 0.04acid molecules in the critical nucleus for both the H2SO4 -water and MSA-water systems.

  13. Modeling Sucrose Hydrolysis in Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solutions at Pretreatment Conditions for Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, S.; Wickramasinghe, R.; Nagle, N. J.; Schell, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and herbaceous feedstocks may contain appreciable levels of sucrose. The goal of this study was to evaluate the survivability of sucrose and its hydrolysis products, fructose and glucose, during dilute sulfuric acid processing at conditions typically used to pretreat lignocellulose biomass. Solutions containing 25 g/l sucrose with 0.1-2.0% (w/w) sulfuric acid concentrations were treated at temperatures of 160-200 C for 3-12 min. Sucrose was observed to completely hydrolyze at all treatment conditions. However, appreciable concentrations of fructose and glucose were detected and glucose was found to be significantly more stable than fructose. Different mathematical approaches were used to fit the kinetic parameters for acid-catalyzed thermal degradation of these sugars. Since both sugars may survive dilute acid pretreatment, they could provide an additional carbon source for production of ethanol and other bio-based products.

  14. Comparing the performance of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in sulfuric acid based pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the suitability of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in dilute acid catalyzed pretreatment. Miscanthus and wheat straw were treated in a dilute sulfuric acid/steam explosion pretreatment. As a result of combining dilute sulfuric acid- and steam explosion pretreatment the hemicellulose hydrolysis yields (96% in wheat straw and 90% in miscanthus) in both substrates were higher than reported in literature. The combined severity factor (=CSF) for optimal hemicellulose hydrolysis was 1.9 and 1.5 in for miscanthus and wheat straw respectively. Because of the higher CSF value more furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid was formed in miscanthus than in wheat straw pretreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of insoluble crystals derived from solutions of Kevlar 49 in sulfuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, N.L.

    1984-05-21

    The object of the study was to isolate and obtain x-ray diffraction analysis of the insoluble crystals which have been observed in Kevlar 49/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ dope. These insoluble crystals had previously been reported to be Kevlar single crystals after analysis by optical microscopy. A more detailed analysis does not support this conclusion. Additional optical microscopy coupled with FTIR and elemental analysis for C, H and N, has shown that these insoluble crystals are in fact terephthalic acid which is a decomposition product of the acid hydrolysis of Kevlar. A model compound study of sulfuric-acid hydrolysis of aromatic amide was carried out in order to better understand the sulfuric-acid-hydrolysis of Kevlar.

  16. Extraction of uranium from tailings by sulfuric acid leaching with oxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jing; Li, Mi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Huang, Chunmei; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2017-06-01

    Recovery of uranium have been performed by leaching uranium-containing tailings in sulfuric acid system with the assistance of HF, HClO4, H2O2 and MnO2. The effect of reagent dosage, sulfuric acid concentration, Liquid/solid ratio, reaction temperature and particle size on the leaching of uranium were investigated. The results show that addiction of HF, HClO4, H2O2 and MnO2 significantly increased the extraction of uranium under 1M sulphuric acid condition and under the optimum reaction conditions a dissolution fraction of 85% by HClO4, 90% by HF, 95% by H2O2 can be reached respectively. The variation of technological mineralogy properites of tailings during leaching process show that the assistants can break gangue effectively. These observations suggest that optimum oxidants could potentially influence the extraction of uranium from tailings even under dilute acid condition.

  17. The reaction of CIONO{sub 2} with submicrometer sulfuric acid aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.R.; Lovejoy, E.R.

    1995-03-03

    The measured reaction probability, {gamma}, for the reaction of chlorine nitrate CIONO{sub 2} with 60 percent (by weight) sulfuric acid aerosol increases monotonically with particle size at 250 kelvin. The reactor-diffusive length (l, the effective liquid depth over which reaction occurs) derived from these experiments is 0.037{+-}0.007 micrometer (95 percent confidence level for precision). The reaction probability for the reaction of CIONO{sub 2} with 60 percent sulfuric acid aerosol doped with {approximately}7 x 10{sup -4} M hydrochloric acid at 250 kelvin is larger by about a factor of 4 than in the absence of hydrochloric acid and varies less with particle size (l = 0.009{+-}0.005 micrometer). These results provide a test of the theory for gas-particle reactions and further insight into the reactivity of atmospheric aerosol. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  18. [Health aspects of sodium salts of sulfurous and sulfuric acids as environmental pollutants].

    PubMed

    Denisov, Iu N; Tkachev, P G

    1990-09-01

    For the first time hygienic characteristics of long-term inhalation exposure effects of sodium salts of sulphurous and sulphuric acids in low concentrations on animals is given. The most sensitive organs and organism systems have been identified. MACs of the substances under study for the ambient air are proposed. The degree of contamination and the distance of spreading of sodium sulfate from the source have been determined in field studies. The size of the sanitary-protective zone has been substantiated.

  19. Effect of ions on the measurement of sulfuric acid in the CLOUD experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondo, L.; Kürten, A.; Ehrhart, S.; Schobesberger, S.; Franchin, A.; Junninen, H.; Petäjä, T.; Sipilä, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2014-11-01

    Ternary aerosol nucleation experiments were conducted in the CLOUD chamber at CERN in order to investigate the influence of ions on new particle formation. Neutral and ion-induced nucleation experiments, i.e. without and with the presence of ions, respectively, were carried out under precisely controlled conditions. The sulfuric acid concentration was measured with a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) during the new particle formation experiments. The added ternary trace gases were ammonia (NH3), dimethylamine (DMA, C2H7N) or oxidised products of pinanediol (PD, C10H18O2). When pinanediol was introduced into the chamber, an increase in the mass spectrometric signal used to determine the sulfuric acid concentration (m/z 97, i.e. HSO4-) was observed due to ions from the CLOUD chamber. The enhancement was only observed during ion-induced nucleation measurements by using either galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) or the proton synchrotron (PS) pion beam for the ion generation, respectively. The ion effect typically involved an increase in the apparent sulfuric acid concentration by a factor of ~ 2 to 3 and was qualitatively verified by the ion measurements with an atmospheric-pressure interface-time of flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. By applying a high-voltage (HV) clearing field inside the CLOUD chamber, the ion effect on the CIMS measurement was completely eliminated since, under these conditions, small ions are swept from the chamber in about 1 s. In order to exclude the ion effect and to provide corrected sulfuric acid concentrations during the GCR and PS beam nucleation experiments, a parameterisation was derived that utilises the trace gas concentrations and the UV light intensity as input parameters. Atmospheric sulfuric acid measurements with a CIMS showed an insignificant ion effect.

  20. On the growth of nitric and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under stratospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.

    1988-01-01

    A theory for the formation of frozen aerosol particles in the Antarctic stratosphere was developed and applied to the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. The theory suggests that the condensed ice particles are composed primarily of nitric acid and water, with small admixtures of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids in solid solution. The proposed particle formation mechanism is in agreement with the magnitude and seasonal behavior of the optical extinction observed in the winter polar stratosphere.

  1. Smectite Formation From Basaltic Glass in the Presence of Sulfuric Acid on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretyazhko, T.; Niles, P. B.; Sutter, B.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Phyllosilicates of the smectite group detected in Noachian and early Hesperian terrains on Mars were hypothesized to form under neutral to alkaline conditions. These pH conditions and the presence of a CO2-rich atmosphere during the Noachian and early Hesperian should have been favorable for the formation of large carbonate deposits. However, large-scale carbonate deposits have not been detected on Mars. Recent orbital and landed missions have detected phyllosilicates co-existing with minerals that usually form under acidic conditions including jarosite and alunite. The occurrence of sulfates co-existing with phyllosilicates minerals on Mars and absences of large-scale carbonate in Noachian terrains indicate that phyllosilicate formation under sulfuric acid conditions was at least locally important. The pH effect and the nature of phyllosilicate minerals forming during acid-sulfate weathering of basalt remain unknown. We investigated formation of smectite minerals in the presence of sulfuric acid from Mars-analogue, glass-rich, basalt simulant. Hydrothermal (200º C) 14 d experiments were performed with addition of sulfuric acid of variable concentration at a pH range from 1.8 to 8.4. Sulfuric acid did not suppress smectite formation and gradual acid neutralization during basalt weathering led to montmorillonite formation at pH 3 followed by saponite at pH 4 and higher. Smectite formed through glass phase alteration and was accompanied by precipitation of calcium sulfate (anhydrite). Similar smectite and sulfate formation under acid sulfate conditions may have occurred in near-surface hydrothermal areas near magma bodies on Mars.

  2. Parenteral sulfur amino acid requirements in septic infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To investigate parenteral methionine requirements of critically ill, septic infants, we conducted an investigation involving 12 infants (age 2+/-1 years; weight 13+/-2kg) using the intravenous indicator amino acid oxidation and balance technique. They received a balanced parenteral amino acid formul...

  3. Acid volatile sulfides oxidation and metals (Mn, Zn) release upon sediment resuspension: laboratory experiment and model development.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yong Seok; Kinney, Kerry A; Reible, Danny D

    2011-03-01

    Sediment from the Anacostia River (Washington, DC, USA) was suspended in aerobic artificial river water for 14 d to investigate the dynamics of dissolved metals release and related parameters including pH, acid volatile sulfides (AVS), and dissolved/solid phase Fe(2+). To better understand and predict the underlying processes, a mathematical model is developed considering oxidation of reduced species, dissolution of minerals, pH changes, and pH-dependent metals' sorption to sediment. Oxidation rate constants of elemental sulfur and zinc sulfide, and a dissolution rate constant of carbonate minerals, were adjusted to fit observations. The proposed model and parameters were then applied, without further calibration, to literature-reported experimental observations of resuspension in an acid sulfate soil collected in a coastal flood plain. The model provided a good description of the dynamics of AVS, Fe(2+), S(0)((s)), pH, dissolved carbonates concentrations, and the release of Ca((aq)), Mg((aq)), and Zn((aq)) in both sediments. Accurate predictions of Mn((aq)) release required adjustment of sorption partitioning coefficient, presumably due to the presence of Mn scavenging by phases not accounted for in the model. The oxidation of AVS (and the resulting release of sulfide-bound metals) was consistent with a two-step process, a relatively rapid AVS oxidation to elemental sulfur (S(0)((s))) and a slow oxidation of S(0)((s)) to SO(4)(2-)((aq)), with an associated decrease in pH from neutral to acidic conditions. This acidification was the dominant factor for the release of metals into the aqueous phase.

  4. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  5. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

    2008-06-09

    The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon.

  6. Decoupling the Impacts of Heterotrophy and Autotrophy on Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

    2013-12-01

    Within caves such as Movile Caves (Romania), the Frasassi Caves (Italy), and Lower Kane Cave (LKC, Wyoming, USA) the combination of abiotic autoxidation and microbiological oxidation of H2S produces SO42- and H+ that promotes limestone dissolution through sulfuric-acid speleogenesis (SAS). Microbial sulfide oxidation by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) has been shown recently to be the dominant process leading to speleogenesis in these caves. However, due to the inherently large diversity of microbial communities within these environments, there are a variety of metabolic pathways that can impact limestone dissolution and carbon cycling to varying degrees. In order to investigate these variations we outfitted a continuous flow bioreactor with a Picarro Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS) that continuously monitored and logged 12CO2 and 13CO2 at ppmv sensitivity and isotope ratios at <0.3‰ precision in simulated cave atmospheres. Bioreactors containing Madison Limestone were inoculated with either a monoculture of the mixotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Thiothrix unzii or a mixed environmental (LKC) sulfur-metabolizing community. Ca2+ and pH were also continuously logged in order to quantify the impact of microbial metabolism on limestone dissolution rate. We found an order of magnitude of variability in limestone dissolution rates that were closely tied to microbial metabolism. In monocultures, limestone dissolution was inhibited by excessive reduced sulfur as T. unzii prefers to store sulfur internally as So under these conditions, generating no acidity. The headspace was depleted in 13C when sulfur was being stored as So and enriched in 13C when sulfur was being converted to SO42-. This suggests a preference for a heterotrophy during periods of high sulfur input and autotrophy when sulfur input is low. This was corroborated by an increase in SO42- during low sulfide input and microscope images showed loss of internal sulfur within the filaments

  7. Quantitative assessment of the sulfuric acid contribution to new particle growth.

    PubMed

    Bzdek, Bryan R; Zordan, Christopher A; Pennington, M Ross; Luther, George W; Johnston, Murray V

    2012-04-17

    The Nano Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (NAMS) was deployed to rural/coastal and urban sites to measure the composition of 20-25 nm diameter nanoparticles during new particle formation (NPF). NAMS provides a quantitative measure of the elemental composition of individual, size-selected nanoparticles. In both environments, particles analyzed during NPF were found to be enhanced in elements associated with inorganic species (nitrogen, sulfur) relative to that associated with organic species (carbon). A molecular apportionment algorithm was applied to the elemental data in order to place the elemental composition into a molecular context. These measurements show that sulfate constitutes a substantial fraction of total particle mass in both environments. The contribution of sulfuric acid to new particle growth was quantitatively determined and the gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration required to incorporate the measured sulfate fraction was calculated. The calculated values were compared to those calculated by a sulfuric acid proxy that considers solar radiation and SO(2) levels. The two values agree within experimental uncertainty. Sulfate accounts for 29-46% of the total mass growth of particles. Other species contributing to growth include ammonium, nitrate, and organics. For each location, the relative amounts of these species do not change significantly with growth rate. However, for the coastal location, sulfate contribution increases with increasing temperature whereas nitrate contribution decreases with increasing temperature.

  8. Development of Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical IS Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroki, Noguchi; Hiroyuki, Ota; Atsuhiko, Terada; Shinji, Kubo; Kaoru, Onuki; Ryutaro, Hino

    2006-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting R and D on thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process, which is one of most attractive water-splitting hydrogen production methods using nuclear heat of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In the IS process, sulfuric acid is evaporated and decomposed into H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 3} in a sulfuric acid decomposer operated under high temperature condition up to 500 deg C. Necessary heat is supplied by high temperature helium gas from the HTGR. Since the sulfuric acid decomposer will be exposed to severe corrosion condition, we have proposed a new decomposer concept of a block type heat exchanger made of SiC ceramic which has excellent corrosion and mechanical strength performance. To verify the concept, integrity of new type gaskets applied for boundary seal of the decomposer was examined as a first step. Pure gold gaskets coupled with absorption mechanism against thermal expansion showed good seal performance under 500 deg C. Based on this result, a mock-up model for a IS pilot-plant with 30 m{sup 3}/h-hydrogen production rate was test-fabricated as the next step. Through the fabrication and gas-tight tests, fabricability and structural integrity were confirmed. Also, the decomposer showed good mechanical strength and seal performances against horizontal loading simulating earthquake motion. (authors)

  9. HPLC Determination of Bioactive Sulfur Compounds, Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines in Biological Specimens.

    PubMed

    Francioso, Antonio; Fanelli, Sergio; Vigli, Daniele; Ricceri, Laura; Cavallaro, Rosaria A; Conrado, Alessia Baseggio; Fontana, Mario; D'Erme, Maria; Mosca, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest for analytical methods aimed to detect biological sulfur-containing amines, because of their involvement in human diseases and metabolic disorders. This work describes an improved HPLC method for the determination of sulfur containing amino acids and amines from different biological matrices. We optimized a pre-column derivatization procedure using dabsyl chloride, in which dabsylated products can be monitored spectrophotometrically at 460 nm. This method allows the simultaneous analysis of biogenic amines, amino acids and sulfo-amino compounds including carnosine, dopamine, epinephrine, glutathione, cysteine, taurine, lanthionine, and cystathionine in brain specimens, urines, plasma, and cell lysates. Moreover, the method is suitable for the study of physiological and non-physiological derivatives of taurine and glutathione such as hypotaurine, homotaurine, homocysteic acid and S-acetylglutathione. The present method displays good efficiency of derivatization, having the advantage to give rise to stable products compared to other derivatizing agents such as o-phthalaldehyde and dansyl chloride.With this method, we provide a tool to study sulfur cycle from a metabolic point of view in relation to the pattern of biological amino-compounds, allowing researchers to get a complete scenario of organic sulfur and amino metabolism in tissues and cells.

  10. Chemolithotrophic Bacteria in Copper Ores Leached at High Sulfuric Acid Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, M.; Espejo, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive bacterial growth was observed when copper sulfide ores were leached with 0.6 N sulfuric acid. The bacterial population developed in this condition was examined by characterization of the spacer regions between the 16S and 23S rRNA genetic loci obtained after PCR amplification of the DNA extracted from the leached ore. The spacers observed had the sizes found in strains of "Leptospirillum ferrooxidans" and Thiobacillus thiooxidans, except for a larger one, approximately 560 bp long, that was not observed in any of the strains examined, including those of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The bacteria with this last spacer were selected after culturing in mineral and elemental sulfur media containing 0.7 N sulfuric acid. The spacer and the 16S ribosomal DNA of this isolate were sequenced and compared with those in species commonly found in bioleaching processes. Though the nucleotide sequence of the spacer showed an extensive heterologous region with T. thiooxidans, the sequence of its 16S rDNA gene indicated a close relationship (99.85%) with this species. These results indicate that a population comprised of bacterial strains closely related to T. thiooxidans and of another strain, possibly related to "L. ferrooxidans," can develop during leaching at high sulfuric acid concentration. Iron oxidation in this condition is attributable to "L. ferrooxidans" and not T. ferrooxidans, based on the presence of spacers with the "L. ferrooxidans" size range and the absence of spacers characteristic of T. ferrooxidans. PMID:16535497

  11. A Combined Proteomic and Transcriptomic Analysis on Sulfur Metabolism Pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana under Simulated Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenhua; Simon, Martin; Wu, Feihua; Hu, Wenjun; Chen, Juan B.; Zheng, Hailei

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic development, most regions in southern China have suffered acid rain (AR) pollution. In our study, we analyzed the changes in sulfur metabolism in Arabidopsis under simulated AR stress which provide one of the first case studies, in which the systematic responses in sulfur metabolism were characterized by high-throughput methods at different levels including proteomic, genomic and physiological approaches. Generally, we found that all of the processes related to sulfur metabolism responded to AR stress, including sulfur uptake, activation and also synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acid and other secondary metabolites. Finally, we provided a catalogue of the detected sulfur metabolic changes and reconstructed the coordinating network of their mutual influences. This study can help us to understand the mechanisms of plants to adapt to AR stress. PMID:24595051

  12. A combined proteomic and transcriptomic analysis on sulfur metabolism pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana under simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingwu; Chen, Juan A; Wang, Wenhua; Simon, Martin; Wu, Feihua; Hu, Wenjun; Chen, Juan B; Zheng, Hailei

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic development, most regions in southern China have suffered acid rain (AR) pollution. In our study, we analyzed the changes in sulfur metabolism in Arabidopsis under simulated AR stress which provide one of the first case studies, in which the systematic responses in sulfur metabolism were characterized by high-throughput methods at different levels including proteomic, genomic and physiological approaches. Generally, we found that all of the processes related to sulfur metabolism responded to AR stress, including sulfur uptake, activation and also synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acid and other secondary metabolites. Finally, we provided a catalogue of the detected sulfur metabolic changes and reconstructed the coordinating network of their mutual influences. This study can help us to understand the mechanisms of plants to adapt to AR stress.

  13. Inhibition of reticulo-ruminal motility by volatile fatty acids and lactic acid in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, P C

    1987-01-01

    1. A study was made of the influence on reticulo-ruminal motility, recorded by electromyography, of ruminal infusions of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and lactic acid in twenty-four sheep maintained by intragastric infusion of a complete liquid diet, in three sheep fed grass pellets, and in nine chronically vagotomized sheep; abomasal and duodenal infusions of VFA and lactic acid were tested in five sheep fed grass pellets. 2. Ruminal infusions of VFAs and lactic acid progressively inhibited the amplitude of the reticulo-ruminal contractions. In many experiments there was no effect on contraction frequency until the cessation of all reticulo-ruminal contractions at which point the maximal concentration of VFA recorded in the abomasum was 28 mM, and that of lactic acid was 20 mM. 3. The concentrations of undissociated VFAs causing cessation of reticulo-ruminal contractions in the vagus-intact sheep were very similar to the concentrations causing abolition of the organized intrinsic motility of the chronically vagotomized sheep. 4. The inhibition of reticulo-ruminal motility with ruminal infusions of mixtures of VFAs and of lactic acid together with VFAs could largely be explained by the sum of the effects of the individual acids present. 5. Abomasal infusion of VFA or lactic acid inhibited the amplitude of ruminal, especially primary ruminal, contractions at concentrations of undissociated acid of 60 mM and above and increased the frequency of reticulum and primary ruminal contractions at about 80 mM. 6. Duodenal infusion of VFAs and lactic acid (100 mM, 5 ml/min) strongly inhibited abomasal motility without affecting reticulo-ruminal motility, and at a higher rate (100 mM, 10 ml/min) abolished motility and inhibited both the amplitude and frequency of reticulo-ruminal contractions. 7. It is concluded that the initial inhibition of reticulo-ruminal motility in ruminal acidosis is unlikely to involve any significant influence from duodenal, or abomasal receptors. The

  14. Temperature shifts for extraction and purification of zygomycetes chitosan with dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Akram; Edebo, Lars; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2010-08-13

    The temperature-dependent hydrolysis and solubility of chitosan in sulfuric acid solutions offer the possibility for chitosan extraction from zygomycetes mycelia and separation from other cellular ingredients with high purity and high recovery. In this study, Rhizomucor pusillus biomass was initially extracted with 0.5 M NaOH at 120 °C for 20 min, leaving an alkali insoluble material (AIM) rich in chitosan. Then, the AIM was subjected to two steps treatment with 72 mM sulfuric acid at (i) room temperature for 10 min followed by (ii) 120 °C for 45 min. During the first step, phosphate of the AIM was released into the acid solution and separated from the chitosan-rich residue by centrifugation. In the second step, the residual AIM was re-suspended in fresh 72 mM sulfuric acid, heated at 120 °C and hot filtered, whereby chitosan was extracted and separated from the hot alkali and acid insoluble material (HAAIM). The chitosan was recovered from the acid solution by precipitation at lowered temperature and raised pH to 8-10. The treatment resulted in 0.34 g chitosan and 0.16 g HAAIM from each gram AIM. At the start, the AIM contained at least 17% phosphate, whereas after the purification, the corresponding phosphate content of the obtained chitosan was just 1%. The purity of this chitosan was higher than 83%. The AIM subjected directly to the treatment with hot sulfuric acid (at 120 °C for 45 min) resulted in a chitosan with a phosphate impurity of 18.5%.