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Sample records for acid washing perma-pressing

  1. 19 CFR 10.223 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., enzyme-washing, acid washing, perma-pressing, oven-baking, bleaching, garment-dyeing, screen printing, or..., perma-pressing, oven-baking, bleaching, garment-dyeing or screen printing, provided that the...

  2. 19 CFR 10.243 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... embroidering, stone-washing, enzyme-washing, acid washing, perma-pressing, oven-baking, bleaching, garment... not subjected to operations other than loading or unloading, and other activities necessary...

  3. 19 CFR 10.243 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... embroidering, stone-washing, enzyme-washing, acid washing, perma-pressing, oven-baking, bleaching, garment... not subjected to operations other than loading or unloading, and other activities necessary...

  4. 19 CFR 10.243 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... embroidering, stone-washing, enzyme-washing, acid washing, perma-pressing, oven-baking, bleaching, garment... not subjected to operations other than loading or unloading, and other activities necessary...

  5. Validation of acid washes as critical control points in hazard analysis and critical control point systems.

    PubMed

    Dormedy, E S; Brashears, M M; Cutter, C N; Burson, D E

    2000-12-01

    A 2% lactic acid wash used in a large meat-processing facility was validated as an effective critical control point (CCP) in a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan. We examined the microbial profiles of beef carcasses before the acid wash, beef carcasses immediately after the acid wash, beef carcasses 24 h after the acid wash, beef subprimal cuts from the acid-washed carcasses, and on ground beef made from acid-washed carcasses. Total mesophilic, psychrotrophic, coliforms, generic Escherichia coli, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, and acid-tolerant microorganisms were enumerated on all samples. The presence of Salmonella spp. was also determined. Acid washing significantly reduced all counts except for pseudomonads that were present at very low numbers before acid washing. All other counts continued to stay significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those on pre-acid-washed carcasses throughout all processing steps. Total bacteria, coliforms, and generic E. coli enumerated on ground beef samples were more than 1 log cycle lower than those reported in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Baseline data. This study suggests that acid washes may be effective CCPs in HACCP plans and can significantly reduce the total number of microorganisms present on the carcass and during further processing. PMID:11131890

  6. 19 CFR 10.223 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., enzyme-washing, acid washing, perma-pressing, oven-baking, bleaching, garment-dyeing, screen printing, or... having undergone one or more operations such as embroidering, stone-washing, enzyme-washing, acid washing... than loading or unloading, and other activities necessary to preserve the articles in good condition....

  7. 19 CFR 10.223 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., enzyme-washing, acid washing, perma-pressing, oven-baking, bleaching, garment-dyeing, screen printing, or... having undergone one or more operations such as embroidering, stone-washing, enzyme-washing, acid washing... than loading or unloading, and other activities necessary to preserve the articles in good condition....

  8. 19 CFR 10.223 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., enzyme-washing, acid washing, perma-pressing, oven-baking, bleaching, garment-dyeing, screen printing, or... having undergone one or more operations such as embroidering, stone-washing, enzyme-washing, acid washing... than loading or unloading, and other activities necessary to preserve the articles in good condition....

  9. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  10. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted. PMID:26292206

  11. Using acid-washed waste tire rubber in soilless media for tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Cerasiforne’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown in soilless potting media contained different substrate formulas including 25:25:50 volume ratio of acid-washed (AWR) or non-washed shredded rubber (NAWR): vermiculite or zeolite: perlite. Additionally, plants were grown in a peat: perli...

  12. Improving ethanol production from alfalfa stems via ambient-temperature acid pretreatment and washing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengfei; Weimer, Paul J; Hatfield, Ronald D; Runge, Troy M; Digman, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The concept of co-production of liquid fuel (ethanol) along with animal feed on farm was proposed, and the strategy of using ambient-temperature acid pretreatment, ensiling and washing to improve ethanol production from alfalfa stems was investigated. Alfalfa stems were separated and pretreated with sulfuric acid at ambient-temperature after harvest, and following ensiling, after which the ensiled stems were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production. Ethanol yield was improved by ambient-temperature sulfuric acid pretreatment before ensiling, and by washing before SSF. It was theorized that the acid pretreatment at ambient temperature partially degraded hemicellulose, and altered cell wall structure, resulted in improved cellulose accessibility, whereas washing removed soluble ash in substrates which could inhibit the SSF. The pH of stored alfalfa stems can be used to predict the ethanol yield, with a correlation coefficient of +0.83 for washed alfalfa stems.

  13. Effects of surfactants on low-molecular-weight organic acids to wash soil zinc.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Yao, Ping; Li, Ting; Wang, Guiyin; Gong, Guoshu; Li, Yun; Deng, Ouping

    2016-03-01

    Soil washing is an effective approach to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and non-ionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) on oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid used to remove zinc from contaminated soils were investigated. The Zn removal efficiencies of all washing solutions showed a logarithmic increase with acid concentrations from 0.5 to 10.0 g/L, while they decreased as pH increased from 4 to 9. Increasing the reaction time enhanced the effects of surfactants on Zn removal efficiencies by the acids during washing and significantly (P < 0.05) improved the removal under some mixed cases. Oxalic acid suffered antagonistic effects from the three surfactants and seriously damaged soil nutrients during the removal of soil Zn. Notably, the three surfactants caused synergistic effects on tartaric and citric acid during washing, with NPAM leading to an increase in Zn removal by 5.0 g/L citric acid of 10.60 % (P < 0.05) within 2 h. NPAM also alleviated the loss of cation exchange capacity of washed soils and obviously improved soil nitrogen concentrations. Overall, combining citric acid with NPAM offers a promising approach to the removal of zinc from contaminated soil.

  14. Application of edible coating and acidic washing for extending the storage life of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Naser; Zahedi, Younes

    2012-12-01

    Hydrocolloid-based materials have been extensively used to coat fruit and vegetables to prolong shelf-life. The effects of different concentrations of acidic washing (acetic, ascorbic, citric and malic acids) followed by coating with gum arabic (GA), carboxymethyl cellulose and emulsified gum arabic (EGA) were evaluated on the weight loss (WL), firmness and color of mushroom. The WL of the uncoated mushrooms was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that of the coated ones, and the minimum WL was obtained with EGA coating. The mushrooms washed with malic and ascorbic acids showed minimum and maximum of WL, respectively. Loss in firmness of the EGA-coated mushrooms was by 21% (the minimum of loss), while loss value of the uncoated ones was by 39% (the maximum of loss). Firmness of mushrooms was not influenced by the acid type. Concentration of the acid significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the firmness of mushrooms, and at the lowest concentration of acid (1%), the mushrooms tissue was firmest. The L* value of the mushrooms coated with GA was higher than that of others. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in L* value and a significant (p < 0.05) increase in a* and b* values occurred in the mushrooms washed with acetic acid. Overall, washing with 1% citric or malic acid followed by coating with EGA resulted in minimum decrease in WL and firmness of the mushrooms.

  15. Role of lauric acid-potassium hydroxide concentration on bacterial contamination of spray washed broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with various concentrations of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions. Fifty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing line of...

  16. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) (w/v) solution. Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing l...

  17. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution (w/v). Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing li...

  18. Spray washing carcasses with alkaline solutions of lauric acid to reduce bacterial contamination.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  19. Effects of four types of dilute acid washing on moso bamboo pyrolysis using Py-GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Zhang, Shuping; Zhang, Li; Ding, Kuan; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2015-06-01

    The influences of four types of dilute acid washing (H2SO4, HCl, HF, HNO3) on moso bamboo pyrolysis were investigated via pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The effects of acid washings on the inorganics contents and the chemical structure were also analyzed. The results indicated that all the acid washings could effectively remove a large portion of inorganics and disrupt the chemical structure to a certain extent. HCl-washing behaved the best in removing inorganics and had the most marked disruption effect on bamboo structure. Acid washings promoted the bamboo pyrolysis and increased the contents of both phenols and sugars. HCl-washing had the most significant promotion effect on the levoglucosan formation with the absolute peak area increasing from 8.12×10(8) to 1.92×10(9). The absolute peak areas of 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran decreased more or less after acid washings. All the acid washings except H2SO4-washing could significantly increase the absolute peak area of methoxyeugenol. PMID:25755014

  20. Sequential Washing with Electrolyzed Alkaline and Acidic Water Effectively Removes Pathogens from Metal Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yuichiro; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Kazunori; Satoh, Katsuya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Yoshiaki; Sugio, Tomomi; Sakai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Eiji; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Fujita, Yuhzo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Removal of pathogenic organisms from reprocessed surgical instruments is essential to prevent iatrogenic infections. Some bacteria can make persistent biofilms on medical devices. Contamination of non-disposable equipment with prions also represents a serious risk to surgical patients. Efficient disinfection of prions from endoscopes and other instruments such as high-resolution cameras remains problematic because these instruments do not tolerate aggressive chemical or heat treatments. Herein, we develop a new washing system that uses both the alkaline and acidic water produced by electrolysis. Electrolyzed acidic water, containing HCl and HOCl as active substances, has been reported to be an effective disinfectant. A 0.15% NaCl solution was electrolyzed and used immediately to wash bio-contaminated stainless steel model systems with alkaline water (pH 11.9) with sonication, and then with acidic water (pH 2.7) without sonication. Two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a fungus (Candida albicans) were effectively removed or inactivated by the washing process. In addition, this process effectively removed or inactivated prions from the stainless steel surfaces. This washing system will be potentially useful for the disinfection of clinical devices such as neuroendoscopes because electrolyzed water is gentle to both patients and equipment and is environmentally sound.

  1. Sequential Washing with Electrolyzed Alkaline and Acidic Water Effectively Removes Pathogens from Metal Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yuichiro; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Kazunori; Satoh, Katsuya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Yoshiaki; Sugio, Tomomi; Sakai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Eiji; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Fujita, Yuhzo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Removal of pathogenic organisms from reprocessed surgical instruments is essential to prevent iatrogenic infections. Some bacteria can make persistent biofilms on medical devices. Contamination of non-disposable equipment with prions also represents a serious risk to surgical patients. Efficient disinfection of prions from endoscopes and other instruments such as high-resolution cameras remains problematic because these instruments do not tolerate aggressive chemical or heat treatments. Herein, we develop a new washing system that uses both the alkaline and acidic water produced by electrolysis. Electrolyzed acidic water, containing HCl and HOCl as active substances, has been reported to be an effective disinfectant. A 0.15% NaCl solution was electrolyzed and used immediately to wash bio-contaminated stainless steel model systems with alkaline water (pH 11.9) with sonication, and then with acidic water (pH 2.7) without sonication. Two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a fungus (Candida albicans) were effectively removed or inactivated by the washing process. In addition, this process effectively removed or inactivated prions from the stainless steel surfaces. This washing system will be potentially useful for the disinfection of clinical devices such as neuroendoscopes because electrolyzed water is gentle to both patients and equipment and is environmentally sound. PMID:27223116

  2. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples.

  3. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples. PMID:26599728

  4. The estimation of deoxyribonucleic acid in the presence of sialic acid: application to analysis of human gastric washings

    PubMed Central

    Croft, D. N.; Lubran, M.

    1965-01-01

    1. Sialic acid has been found to interfere with three colorimetric reactions used for the estimation of DNA: a modified diphenylamine reaction at 100° (Dische, 1930), the nitrophenylhydrazine method (Webb & Levy, 1955) and the diphenylamine reaction at 30° (Burton, 1956). 2. Evidence is presented that sialic acid is present in hydrolysates obtained from gastric wash-out material. 3. A mathematical method for correcting for interference from sialic acid in the diphenylamine reaction at 30° is described. 4. The diphenylamine reaction has been modified to make it suitable for the estimation of DNA in the presence of sialic acid. The modifications are to increase the concentration of diphenylamine to 2% and to perform the reaction at 6–13° for 48hr. These modifications increase the sensitivity 25% above Burton's (1956) modification of the diphenylamine reaction. 5. The precipitation, extraction and recovery of DNA from gastric wash-out material have been investigated. PMID:14342494

  5. Hydrothermal hexagonal SrFe12O19 ferrite powders: Phase composition, microstructure and acid washing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ailin; Hu, Xuzhao; Li, Diankai; Chen, Lu; Jin, Chuangui; Zuo, Conghua; Su, Shubing

    2014-03-01

    A series of hexagonal m-type SrFe12O19 ferrite powders were hydrothermally synthesized, and their phase composition, microstructure and magnetic properties before/after acid washing were studied. In the synthesis of these specimens, the atomic ratio of Fe/Sr ( R F/S ) in starting materials was set to 4, 5 and 12, respectively. When R F/S = 12, the specimen has morphology of round flat cakes, not typical hexagonal plate-like structure. The results of SEM images and XRD patterns indicate that the specimen with R F/S = 12 was mostly composed of Fe2O3. When R F/S = 4 or 5, the hexagonal plate-like SrFe12O19 ferrite powders were successfully synthesized with only a small quantity of Fe2O3 and SrCO3 impurities. It is also found that acid washing can eliminate the impurities in as-synthesized specimens effectively, and also change their topography, which enhances the saturation magnetization. However, the coercivity changed irregularly after acid washing, which is ascribed to the combination of the changed morphology, introduced stress and lattice defects.

  6. Enhanced antimicrobial effect of organic acid washing against foodborne pathogens on broccoli by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-18

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of vacuum impregnation applied to the washing process for removal of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes from broccoli surfaces. Broccoli was inoculated with the two foodborne pathogens and treated with simple dipping washing or with vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 5, 10, 20, or 30 min. There were two methods of vacuum impregnation: continuous and intermittent. After 30 min of 101.3 kPa (=14.7 psi, simple dipping), 61.3 kPa (=8.9 psi), and 21.3 kPa (=3.1 psi) of continuous vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.5, 1.7, and 2.3 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. After 30 min of 101.3, 61.3, and 21.3 kPa of intermittent vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.5, 2.3, and 3.7 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.6, 2.1, and 3.2 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. Scanning electron photomicrographs showed that bacteria tend to attach to or become entrapped in protective sites after simple wash processing (dipping). However, most bacteria were washed out of protective sites after intermittent treatment. Direct treatment of cell suspensions with vacuum impregnation showed that it had no inactivation capacity in itself since there were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) between the reduction rates of non- and vacuum impregnation treatment. These results demonstrate that the increased antimicrobial effect of vacuum impregnation can be attributed to increased accessibility of sanitizer and an enhanced washing effect in protected sites on produce. Color, texture and titratable acidity values of broccoli treated with intermittent vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 30 min were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from those of untreated samples even though a storage interval was needed for titratable acidity values to be reduced to levels comparable to those of

  7. Enhanced antimicrobial effect of organic acid washing against foodborne pathogens on broccoli by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-18

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of vacuum impregnation applied to the washing process for removal of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes from broccoli surfaces. Broccoli was inoculated with the two foodborne pathogens and treated with simple dipping washing or with vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 5, 10, 20, or 30 min. There were two methods of vacuum impregnation: continuous and intermittent. After 30 min of 101.3 kPa (=14.7 psi, simple dipping), 61.3 kPa (=8.9 psi), and 21.3 kPa (=3.1 psi) of continuous vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.5, 1.7, and 2.3 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. After 30 min of 101.3, 61.3, and 21.3 kPa of intermittent vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.5, 2.3, and 3.7 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.6, 2.1, and 3.2 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. Scanning electron photomicrographs showed that bacteria tend to attach to or become entrapped in protective sites after simple wash processing (dipping). However, most bacteria were washed out of protective sites after intermittent treatment. Direct treatment of cell suspensions with vacuum impregnation showed that it had no inactivation capacity in itself since there were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) between the reduction rates of non- and vacuum impregnation treatment. These results demonstrate that the increased antimicrobial effect of vacuum impregnation can be attributed to increased accessibility of sanitizer and an enhanced washing effect in protected sites on produce. Color, texture and titratable acidity values of broccoli treated with intermittent vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 30 min were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from those of untreated samples even though a storage interval was needed for titratable acidity values to be reduced to levels comparable to those of

  8. Effects of acid-washing filter treatment on quantification of aerosol organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liming; Lim, Jaehyun; Yu, Liya E.

    The tests of standard mixtures and four sets of atmospheric particulate samples showed that an acid-wash (AW) pretreatment of fluorocarbon-coated glass fiber filters prior to aerosol sampling enhanced the quantifiable organic compounds for more than 29% (or 66 ng m -3); in particular, 47-273 ng m -3 (21-366%) more water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) were measured. When the acid-pretreated filters were employed, up to nine more organic species were measured in the individual daily samples. Because the acid pretreatment reduced the metal contaminants in the glass fiber filters, using the AW filters for aerosol sampling allows higher extraction recoveries of organic compounds. Since the fingerprinting compounds were more accurately determined when the aerosol samples were collected on the AW filters, better assessment of emission sources and toxicity of air pollutants can be obtained.

  9. Bacterial flora of skin of processed broiler chickens after successive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the size of the populations of different groups of bacteria in the normal flora of the skin of processed broilers were examined after each of five consecutive washings with mixtures of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and lauric acid (LA). Skin from commercially processed broiler carcasses was ...

  10. Effect of the chlorinated washing of minimally processed vegetables on the generation of haloacetic acids.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2012-07-25

    Chlorine solutions are usually used to sanitize fruit and vegetables in the fresh-cut industry due to their efficacy, low cost, and simple use. However, disinfection byproducts such as haloacetic acids (HAAs) can be formed during this process, which can remain on minimally processed vegetables (MPVs). These compounds are toxic and/or carcinogenic and have been associated with human health risks; therefore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has set a maximum contaminant level for five HAAs at 60 μg/L in drinking water. This paper describes the first method to determine the nine HAAs that can be present in MPV samples, with static headspace coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry where the leaching and derivatization of the HAAs are carried out in a single step. The proposed method is sensitive, with limits of detection between 0.1 and 2.4 μg/kg and an average relative standard deviation of ∼8%. From the samples analyzed, we can conclude that about 23% of them contain at least two HAAs (<0.4-24 μg/kg), which showed that these compounds are formed during washing and then remain on the final product.

  11. Recovery of microorganisms on fabric materials after low water temperature washing with non-oxidizing acidic bleaching formulation by culture method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaesung; Lopes, John A; Pascall, Melvin A

    2014-09-01

    The recovery of microorganisms to different fabrics was evaluated after a washing process combined with a food-grade non-oxidizing acidic formulation and low washing water temperature. Cotton, polyester and a polyester/cotton blend fabric samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, then dried for 1 day. They were separately placed in a simulated fabric washer and decontaminated for 1 and 10 min with the acidic formulation at 23 °C water washing temperature. The combination of direct detecting and dilution methods was used to detect survivors on fabrics. The use of ≥ 0.1% acidic formulation in the washing process significantly increased the efficacy of the washing for all fabric samples. Microorganisms on the cotton and mixed fabric appeared to bind more strongly and were more resistant to the washing process. No viability was observed on the fabric swatches at 1 cfu/sample detection limit when the washing process was combined with 0.5% acidic formulation in the 10 min washing cycle. These findings can be used to increase the efficiency of sanitizing fabrics in an environmentally friendly way, for remove harmful microorganisms from them and reduce cross-contamination.

  12. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing.

  13. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing. PMID:26900684

  14. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing. PMID:26900684

  15. Methodology for modeling the disinfection efficiency of fresh-cut leafy vegetables wash water applied on peracetic acid combined with lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Van Haute, S; López-Gálvez, F; Gómez-López, V M; Eriksson, Markus; Devlieghere, F; Allende, Ana; Sampers, I

    2015-09-01

    A methodology to i) assess the feasibility of water disinfection in fresh-cut leafy greens wash water and ii) to compare the disinfectant efficiency of water disinfectants was defined and applied for a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) and lactic acid (LA) and comparison with free chlorine was made. Standardized process water, a watery suspension of iceberg lettuce, was used for the experiments. First, the combination of PAA+LA was evaluated for water recycling. In this case disinfectant was added to standardized process water inoculated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 (6logCFU/mL). Regression models were constructed based on the batch inactivation data and validated in industrial process water obtained from fresh-cut leafy green processing plants. The UV254(F) was the best indicator for PAA decay and as such for the E. coli O157 inactivation with PAA+LA. The disinfection efficiency of PAA+LA increased with decreasing pH. Furthermore, PAA+LA efficacy was assessed as a process water disinfectant to be used within the washing tank, using a dynamic washing process with continuous influx of E. coli O157 and organic matter in the washing tank. The process water contamination in the dynamic process was adequately estimated by the developed model that assumed that knowledge of the disinfectant residual was sufficient to estimate the microbial contamination, regardless the physicochemical load. Based on the obtained results, PAA+LA seems to be better suited than chlorine for disinfecting process wash water with a high organic load but a higher disinfectant residual is necessary due to the slower E. coli O157 inactivation kinetics when compared to chlorine.

  16. Methodology for modeling the disinfection efficiency of fresh-cut leafy vegetables wash water applied on peracetic acid combined with lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Van Haute, S; López-Gálvez, F; Gómez-López, V M; Eriksson, Markus; Devlieghere, F; Allende, Ana; Sampers, I

    2015-09-01

    A methodology to i) assess the feasibility of water disinfection in fresh-cut leafy greens wash water and ii) to compare the disinfectant efficiency of water disinfectants was defined and applied for a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) and lactic acid (LA) and comparison with free chlorine was made. Standardized process water, a watery suspension of iceberg lettuce, was used for the experiments. First, the combination of PAA+LA was evaluated for water recycling. In this case disinfectant was added to standardized process water inoculated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 (6logCFU/mL). Regression models were constructed based on the batch inactivation data and validated in industrial process water obtained from fresh-cut leafy green processing plants. The UV254(F) was the best indicator for PAA decay and as such for the E. coli O157 inactivation with PAA+LA. The disinfection efficiency of PAA+LA increased with decreasing pH. Furthermore, PAA+LA efficacy was assessed as a process water disinfectant to be used within the washing tank, using a dynamic washing process with continuous influx of E. coli O157 and organic matter in the washing tank. The process water contamination in the dynamic process was adequately estimated by the developed model that assumed that knowledge of the disinfectant residual was sufficient to estimate the microbial contamination, regardless the physicochemical load. Based on the obtained results, PAA+LA seems to be better suited than chlorine for disinfecting process wash water with a high organic load but a higher disinfectant residual is necessary due to the slower E. coli O157 inactivation kinetics when compared to chlorine. PMID:26065727

  17. Hand Washing

    MedlinePlus

    ... dirty little secrets: Students don't wash their hands often or well. In one study, only 58% of female and 48% of male middle- and high-school students washed their hands after using the bathroom. Yuck! previous continue How ...

  18. Effects of acid washing on stable isotope ratios of C and N in penaeid shrimp and seagrass: Implications for food-web studies using multiple stable isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, S.E.; Kempster, M.A.; Loneragan, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the effects of acid washing on the carbon and nitrogen composition and stable isotope ratios of C and N in shrimp (Metapenaeus spp.) and seagrass (Enhalus acoroides). Acid washing did not affect the mean {delta}{sup 13}C ratios for juvenile Metapenaeus moyebi and resulted in only an ecologically insignificant change (0.3%) in mean {delta}{sup 13}C ratios for larger metapenaeus bennettae. In contrast, acid washing increased the mean {delta}{sup 15}N signatures of shrimp tissue ({approximately}3%) and decreased that of seagrass ({approximately}1.8%) to a degree that may confound the interpretation of food webs. The increase in %C and %N in both shrimp and seagrass after acid washing suggests that the changes in isotope ratios are due to loss of molecules comparatively low in C and N. Treating samples by acid washing also resulted in an increase in the variation among individuals for both {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C, which would lead to a loss of statistical power for testing differences between species, sites, or seasons. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Soil washing of fluorine contaminated soil using various washing solutions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Jo, Raehyun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-03-01

    Bench-scale soil washing experiments were conducted to remove fluoride from contaminated soils. Five washing solutions including hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and tartaric acid (C4H6O6) were tested. The concentration of the washing solutions used ranged from 0.1 to 3 M with a liquid to solid ratio of 10. The soil washing results showed that the most effective washing solution for the removal of fluoride from contaminated soils was HCl. The highest fluoride removal results of approximately 97 % from the contaminated soil were obtained using 3 M HCl. The fluoride removal efficiency of the washing solution increases in the following order: C4H6O6 < NaOH < H2SO4 < HNO3 < HCl.

  20. Removal of arsenic and cadmium with sequential soil washing techniques using Na2EDTA, oxalic and phosphoric acid: Optimization conditions, removal effectiveness and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meng; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-08-01

    Testing of sequential soil washing in triplicate using typical chelating agent (Na2EDTA), organic acid (oxalic acid) and inorganic weak acid (phosphoric acid) was conducted to remediate soil contaminated by heavy metals close to a mining area. The aim of the testing was to improve removal efficiency and reduce mobility of heavy metals. The sequential extraction procedure and further speciation analysis of heavy metals demonstrated that the primary components of arsenic and cadmium in the soil were residual As (O-As) and exchangeable fraction, which accounted for 60% and 70% of total arsenic and cadmium, respectively. It was determined that soil washing agents and their washing order were critical to removal efficiencies of metal fractions, metal bioavailability and potential mobility due to different levels of dissolution of residual fractions and inter-transformation of metal fractions. The optimal soil washing option for arsenic and cadmium was identified as phosphoric-oxalic acid-Na2EDTA sequence (POE) based on the high removal efficiency (41.9% for arsenic and 89.6% for cadmium) and the minimal harmful effects of the mobility and bioavailability of the remaining heavy metals.

  1. Removal of arsenic and cadmium with sequential soil washing techniques using Na2EDTA, oxalic and phosphoric acid: Optimization conditions, removal effectiveness and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meng; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-08-01

    Testing of sequential soil washing in triplicate using typical chelating agent (Na2EDTA), organic acid (oxalic acid) and inorganic weak acid (phosphoric acid) was conducted to remediate soil contaminated by heavy metals close to a mining area. The aim of the testing was to improve removal efficiency and reduce mobility of heavy metals. The sequential extraction procedure and further speciation analysis of heavy metals demonstrated that the primary components of arsenic and cadmium in the soil were residual As (O-As) and exchangeable fraction, which accounted for 60% and 70% of total arsenic and cadmium, respectively. It was determined that soil washing agents and their washing order were critical to removal efficiencies of metal fractions, metal bioavailability and potential mobility due to different levels of dissolution of residual fractions and inter-transformation of metal fractions. The optimal soil washing option for arsenic and cadmium was identified as phosphoric-oxalic acid-Na2EDTA sequence (POE) based on the high removal efficiency (41.9% for arsenic and 89.6% for cadmium) and the minimal harmful effects of the mobility and bioavailability of the remaining heavy metals. PMID:27179243

  2. Spray washing carcasses with alkaline solutions of lauric acid to reduce bacterial contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions to reduce carcass bacterial contamination was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Campylobacter coli. In one trial, in...

  3. Bacteria recovered from whole-carcass rinsates of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  4. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby.

  5. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby. PMID:27380706

  6. Reductions of Salmonella enterica on chicken breast by thymol, acetic acid, sodium dodecyl sulfate or hydrogen peroxide combinations as compared to chlorine wash.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Wu, C

    2012-01-01

    Poultry products are important vehicles for Salmonella transmission to humans and have been incriminated in several Salmonella outbreaks. Thymol (THY) from thyme oil has wide inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens including Salmonella, and has shown great potential as a natural alternative to chlorine. In order to improve the cost-effectiveness of thymol-based washing solutions, formulas of THY with combination of organic acid or surfactant were developed and their efficacies to reduce Salmonella on chicken breast were investigated in the current study. Surface-inoculated chicken breasts were washed with the two thymol-based washing solutions: 0.2 mg/mL THY+5% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)+2 mg/mL acetic acid (AA) or 0.2 mg/mL THY+2 mg/mL AA for 2 min. Both solutions achieved around 2.2 log reductions of Salmonella on chicken breast and their efficacy was comparable to log reduction obtained by 200 ppm chlorine washing. Addition of SDS did not result in more log reduction of Salmonella on chicken meat samples. More than 3.3 log reduction in the used THY washing solutions was determined and it was similar to log reduction from the spent chlorine solution. None of these antimicrobial agents changed the pH and texture values of chicken breasts. Therefore, 0.2 mg/mL THY+2 mg/mL AA has great potential to be a natural alternative to chlorine-based washing solution for reducing Salmonella contamination on chicken breast meat. PMID:22030209

  7. Removal of arsenic in coal fly ash by acid washing process using dilute H2SO4 solvent.

    PubMed

    Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Ohno, Hajime; Matsubae-Yokoyama, Kazuyo; Kumagai, Yuichi; Kubo, Hiroshi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2010-09-15

    Coal fly ash emitted from coal thermal power plants generally contains tens ppm of arsenic, one of the hazardous elements in coal, during combustion and their elution to soil or water has become a public concern. In this study, the acid washing process developed by the authors was applied to the removal of arsenic from coal fly ash. Laboratory- and bench-scale investigations on the dissolution behavior of arsenic from various coal fly ash samples into dilute H(2)SO(4) were conducted. Arsenic in the coal fly ash samples were dissolved into H(2)SO(4) solutions rapidly. However, its concentrations decreased with an increase in the pH of H(2)SO(4) solution in some cases. The species of arsenic in the dilute H(2)SO(4) was estimated as H(3)AsO(4), and its anionic species was considered to adsorb with the elevation of pH under the presence of ash particle. Such adsorption behavior was enhanced under the presence of Fe ion in the solution. The sufficient removal of arsenic was achieved by controlling pH and avoiding the adsorption of arsenic on the surface of coal fly ash particles, and the elution of arsenic from coal fly ash sample was successfully below the regulation limit.

  8. Removal of chromium (VI) by acid-washed zero-valent iron under various groundwater geochemistry conditions.

    PubMed

    Lai, Keith C K; Lo, Irene M C

    2008-02-15

    The hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal capacity of acid-washed zerovalent iron (AW-Fe0) was evaluated under different groundwater geochemistry conditions through column experiments. It was found that each gram of the AW-Fe0 could remove 0.65-1.76 mg of Cr(VI) from synthetic groundwater in the absence of bicarbonate (HCO3-), magnesium and/or calcium ions. Groundwater geochemistry was found to exert various degrees of impact on Cr(VI) removal by the AW-Fe0, in which HCO3- alone gave the mildest impact whereas the copresence of calcium and HCO3- exerted the greatest impact In comparison with the unwashed Fe0, the AW-Fe0 showed a poorer Cr(VI) removal capacity and was also more susceptible to the influence of the dissolved groundwater constituents on Cr(VI) removal,thereby indicating the unsuitability of using AW-Fe0 in permeable reactive barriers for remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater. On the AW-Fe0 surface, where the indigenous iron precipitates were almost erased, trivalent chromium including chromium (III) oxides, hydroxides, and oxyhydroxides in irregular strip, chick footmark-liked or boulder-liked forms as well as Cr(III)-Cr(VI) mixed oxides were detected.

  9. Acid fog Deposition of Crusts on Basaltic Tephra Deposits in the Sand Wash Region of Kilauea Volcano: A Possible Mechanism for Siliceous-Sulfatic Crusts on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.; Marks, N.; Bishop, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Although the presence of sulfate minerals in martian outcrops may imply the prior existence of standing bodies of surface water, in terrestrial volcanic settings, sulfatic alteration may also occur above the water table within the vadose zone. On the summit of Kilauea volcano, sulfur dioxide, which is continuously emitted from Halemaumau crater and rapidly sequestered into sulfuric acid-rich aerosol entrained in the prevailing trade winds, is subsequently precipitated as acid-fog immediately downwind from the caldera in the Kau Desert. The characteristic pH of surface tephra deposits is < 4.0 in Sand Wash, a region of continuous, acidic aerosol fall-out immediately SW of the caldera. The upper portion of the Keanakakoi Ash tephra in Sand Wash, deposited in the late 18th century, has a ubiquitous, 0.1-0.2 mm-thick coating of amorphous silica. Conversely, vertical walls of unconsolidated tephra, exposed within small, dry gullies eroded into the ca. 3-4 m-thick Keanakakoi section at Sand Wash, are coated with ca. 0.5-1.0 mm-thick, mixed amorphous silica and jarosite-bearing crusts. Since these crusts are denuded from their outcrops during ephemeral, but probably annual flooding events in Sand Wash, we believe that they must accumulate rapidly. These crusts are apparently formed via an evaporative mechanism whereby acidic pore fluids, circulating in the upper few m's within the highly porous tephra, are wicked towards the walls of the gullies. Geochemical modeling of the crust-forming process implies that the sulfate formation via evaporation occurs subsequent to minimal interaction of acidic pore fluids with the basaltic tephra. This also suggests that the cycle from acid-fog fall-out to precipitation of the siliceous-sulfatic crusts must occur quite rapidly. Production of siliceous-sulfatic crusts via acid-fog alteration may also be occurring on Mars. The occurrence of evaporitic sulfate and silica at Sand Wash in Kilauea may serve as an example of how the jarosite

  10. Citric acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as effective washing agents to treat sewage sludge for agricultural reuse.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianghao; Yan, Rui; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Kou, Ying-Ying; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S; Park, Yong-Jin; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effects of different concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) when used as additive reagents for the treatment of sewage sludge for agricultural use. Herein, both the retention of nutrients and removal of metals from the sewage sludge are examined. The average removal rate for the metals after treatment by CA decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn, while the rates after treatment by EDTA decreased in the order of Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Zn. After treatment with CA and EDTA, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the sludge decreased, while the content of available nitrogen and Olsen-P increased. In addition, a multi-criteria analysis model-fuzzy analytic network process method (with 3 main factors and 12 assessment sub-factors) was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment methods. The results showed that the optimal CA and EDTA concentrations for sewage sludge treatment were 0.60 and 0.125 mol/L, respectively.

  11. Citric acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as effective washing agents to treat sewage sludge for agricultural reuse.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianghao; Yan, Rui; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Kou, Ying-Ying; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S; Park, Yong-Jin; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effects of different concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) when used as additive reagents for the treatment of sewage sludge for agricultural use. Herein, both the retention of nutrients and removal of metals from the sewage sludge are examined. The average removal rate for the metals after treatment by CA decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn, while the rates after treatment by EDTA decreased in the order of Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Zn. After treatment with CA and EDTA, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the sludge decreased, while the content of available nitrogen and Olsen-P increased. In addition, a multi-criteria analysis model-fuzzy analytic network process method (with 3 main factors and 12 assessment sub-factors) was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment methods. The results showed that the optimal CA and EDTA concentrations for sewage sludge treatment were 0.60 and 0.125 mol/L, respectively. PMID:26235448

  12. Part 2. Comparison of emergency washing solutions in 70% hydrofluoric acid-burned human skin in an established ex vivo explants model

    PubMed Central

    Burgher, François; Mathieu, Laurence; Lati, Elian; Gasser, Philippe; Peno-Mazzarino, Laurent; Blomet, Joël; Hall, Alan H; Maibach, Howard I

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a small and partially dissociated acid (pKa 3.2), able to deeply penetrate into human skin in addition to the corrosiveness of the hydrogen ion (H+) and the toxicity of the fluoride ion (F-). However, there has been a lack of experimental studies to objectively characterize the results of human HF skin exposure decontamination. Methodology/principal findings: A previously established experimental method using a human skin explants ex vivo model (Part 1. Experimental 70% hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns: Histological observations in an established human skin explants ex vivo model) described the lesions that appeared following 70% HF penetration. Within 5min, 70% HF penetrates to the dermis. Using the same experimental conditions, a comparison study of two different washing protocols was performed: water + topical calcium gluconate (CaG) versus Hexafluorine®. In these conditions, washing for 15min with running tap water followed by topical CaG ointment only delayed burn onset, while severe tissue damage appeared later. In contrast, after washing with Hexafluorine® over 10 min, no histological lesions developed. These results are in accordance with the results of accidental human industrial case reports. Conclusion/significance: Amphoteric and hypertonic Hexafluorine® can deactivate H+ and chelate F- ions. Based on these results, it should be considered as a promising first-aid decontamination solution to prevent or minimize significant local and systemic consequences of concentrated HF skin exposures. PMID:21083510

  13. Comparison of water wash, trimming, and combined hot water and lactic acid treatments for reducing bacteria of fecal origin on beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A; Lucia, L M; Goodson, K J; Savell, J W; Acuff, G R

    1998-07-01

    Cleaning treatments, such as high-pressure water wash at 35 degrees C or trim, alone and combined with sanitizing treatments, such as hot water (95 degrees C at the source), warm (55 degrees C) 2% lactic acid spray, and combinations of these two sanitizing methods, were compared for their effectiveness in reducing inoculated numbers (5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/cm2) of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, aerobic plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and generic E. coli on hot beef carcass surface areas in a model carcass spray cabinet. Log reductions in numbers of all tested organisms by water wash or trim alone were significantly smaller than the log reductions obtained by the different combined treatments. Regardless of the cleaning treatment (water wash or trim) or surface area, the range for mean log reductions by hot water was from 4.0 to > 4.8 log CFU/cm2, by lactic acid spray was from 4.6 to > 4.9 log CFU/cm2, by hot water followed by lactic acid spray was from 4.5 to > 4.9 log CFU/cm2, and by lactic acid spray followed by hot water was from 4.4 to > 4.6 log CFU/cm2, for S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7. Identical reductions were obtained for thermotolerant coliforms and generic E. coli. No differences in bacterial reductions were observed for different carcass surface regions. Water wash and trim treatments caused spreading of the contamination to other areas of the carcass surface while providing an overall reduction in fecal or pathogenic contamination on carcass surface areas. This relocated contamination after either water wash or trim was most effectively reduced by following with hot water and then lactic acid spray. This combined treatment yielded 0% positive samples for S. typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, thermotolerant coliforms, and generic E. coli on areas outside the inoculated areas, whereas percent positive samples after applying other combined treatments ranged from 22 to 44% for S. typhimurium, 0 to

  14. Development and assessment of an innovative soil-washing process based on the use of cholic acid-derivatives as pollutant-mobilizing agents.

    PubMed

    Berselli, Sara; Benitez, Emilio; Fedi, Stefano; Zannoni, Davide; Medici, Alessandro; Marchetti, Leonardo; Fava, Fabio

    2006-03-01

    Surfactant-aided soil washing is often proposed for the restoration of aged organic pollutant-contaminated soils. As many of commercial surfactants have been found to be toxic and recalcitrant, the opportunity to use in this process cheap, non-toxic, and biodegradable pollutant-mobilizing agents, such as deoxycholic acid (DA), bovine bile (BB), and the residue resulting from DA extraction from BB (BBR), was studied in this work. A soil historically contaminated by chlorinated anilines and benzenes, thiophenes, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was suspended at 15% w/v and washed in water or water amended at 1.0% (w/v) with DA, BB, BBR, or Triton X-100 (TX). The resulting effluents were supplemented with nutrients and subjected to aerobic bioremediation. The biogenic agents enhanced the water pollutant elution potential by 230/440%. TX enhanced the same parameter by about 540%; however, it mediated a lower depletion of the initial soil ecotoxicity and a more extensive mobilization of soil constituents with respect to the biogenic agents. Furthermore, TX adversely affected the biotreatability of resulting effluents, by adversely affecting the growth of cultivable bacterial biomass and the structure of eubacterial community of the effluent. On the contrary, the biogenic agents, and in particular DA and BB, enhanced the effluents bioremediation, by sustaining the growth and increasing the complexity of the effluent eubacterial communities. Thus, DA and BB are very promising additives for an effective and environmental friendly soil washing treatment of aged (chloro)organics contaminated soils.

  15. Thermoluminescence survey of 12 meteorites collected by the European 1988 Antarctic meteorite expedition to Allan Hills and the importance of acid washing for thermoluminescence sensitivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1991-01-01

    Natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) data are reported for 12 meteorites recovered from the Allan Hills region of Antarctica by the European field party during the 1988/1989 field season. The samples include one with extremely high natural TL, ALH88035, suggestive of exposure to unusually high radiation doses (i.e., low degrees of shielding), and one, ALH88034, whose low natural TL suggests reheating within the last 100,000 years. The remainder have natural TL values suggestive of terrestrial ages similar to those of other meteorites from Allan Hills. ALH88015 (L6) has induced TL data suggestive of intense shock. TL sensitivities of these meteorites are generally lower than observed falls of their petrologic types, as is also observed for Antarctic meteorites in general. Acid-washing experiments indicate that this is solely the result of terrestrial weathering rather than a nonterrestrial Antarctic-non-Antarctic difference. However, other TL parameters, such as natural TL and induced peak temperature-width, are unchanged by acid washing and are sensitive indicators of a meteorite's metamorphic and recent radiation history.

  16. Thermoluminescence survey of 12 meteorites collected by the European 1988 Antarctic meteorite expedition to Allan Hills and the importance of acid washing for thermoluminescence sensitivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, P.H.; Sears, H.; Sears, D.W.G. )

    1991-06-01

    Natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) data are reported for 12 meteorites recovered from the Allan Hills region of Antarctica by the European field party during the 1988/1989 field season. The samples include one with extremely high natural TL, ALH88035, suggestive of exposure to unusually high radiation doses (i.e., low degrees of shielding), and one, ALH88034, whose low natural TL suggests reheating within the last 100,000 years. The remainder have natural TL values suggestive of terrestrial ages similar to those of other meteorites from Allan Hills. ALH88015 (L6) has induced TL data suggestive of intense shock. TL sensitivities of these meteorites are generally lower than observed falls of their petrologic types, as is also observed for Antarctic meteorites in general. Acid-washing experiments indicate that this is solely the result of terrestrial weathering rather than a nonterrestrial Antarctic-non-Antarctic difference. However, other TL parameters, such as natural TL and induced peak temperature-width, are unchanged by acid washing and are sensitive indicators of a meteorite's metamorphic and recent radiation history. 16 refs.

  17. Effect of Nitric Acid ``Washing'' Procedure on Electrochemical Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes and Glassy Carbon μ-Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anik, Ülkü; Çevik, Serdar; Pumera, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The electroanalytic performances of glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-GCPE and double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT)-GCPE, which include HNO3 washed/unwashed materials, were compared by monitoring cyclic voltammograms of potassium ferricyanide and catechol. Electrodes were prepared by introducing proper amount of DWCNT and MWCNT into GCPE. First untreated materials (DWCNT, MWCNT, GC μ-particles) were used in the electrodes and then HNO3-treated materials were utilized for comparing difference in electrochemical performances. The effect of treatment procedure was also examined by applying Raman spectroscopy to treated and untreated materials. Moreover, TEM images were obtained for further investigation of MWCNT and DWCNT.

  18. Laboratory scale Clean-In-Place (CIP) studies on the effectiveness of different caustic and acid wash steps on the removal of dairy biofilms.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Philip J; Fillery, Suzanne; McQuillan, A James

    2006-02-15

    A laboratory scale, bench top flow system was used to partially reproduce dairy plant conditions under which biofilms form and to quantify the effectiveness of caustic and acid wash steps in reducing the number of viable bacteria attached to stainless steel (SS) surfaces. Once bacteria attached to surfaces, a standard clean-in-place (CIP) regime (water rinse, 1% sodium hydroxide at 65 degrees C for 10 min, water rinse, 1.0% nitric acid at 65 degrees C for 10 min, water rinse) did not reproducibly ensure their removal. Standard CIP effectiveness was compared to alternative cleaning chemicals such as: caustic blends (Alkazolv 48, Ultrazolv 700, Concept C20, and Reflex B165); a caustic additive (Eliminator); acid blends (Nitroplus and Nitrobrite); and sanitizer (Perform). The addition of a caustic additive, Eliminator, enhanced biofilm removal compared to the standard CIP regime and further increases in cleaning efficiency occurred when nitric acid was substituted with Nitroplus. The combination of NaOH plus Eliminator and Nitroplus achieved a 3.8 log reduction in the number of cells recovered from the stainless steel surface. The incorporation of a sanitizer step into the CIP did not appear to enhance biofilm removal. This study has shown that the effectiveness of a "standard" CIP can possibly be enhanced through the testing and use of caustic and acid blends. There are many implications of these findings, including: the development of improved cleaning regimes and improved product quality, plant performance, and economic returns.

  19. Difference analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysis performance of acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover before and after washing with water.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Shi, Linli; Zhang, Lingling; Xu, Yong; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-10-01

    The difference in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) before and after washing with water reached approximately 15 % under the same conditions. The reasons for the difference in the yield between ASC and washed ASC (wASC) were determined through the analysis of the composition of ASC prehydrolyzate and sugar concentration of enzymatic hydrolyzate. Salts produced by neutralization (CaSO4, Na2SO4, K2SO4, and (NH4)2SO4), sugars (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and monosaccharides), sugar-degradation products (weak acids and furans), and lignin-degradation products (ethyl acetate extracts and nine main lignin-degradation products) were back-added to wASC. Results showed that these products, except furans, exerted negative effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. According to the characteristics of acid-catalyzed steam explosion pretreatment, the five sugar-degradation products' mixture and salts [Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4] showed minimal negative inhibition effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. By contrast, furans demonstrated a promotion effect. Moreover, soluble sugars, such as 13 g/L xylose (decreased by 6.38 %), 5 g/L cellobiose (5.36 %), 10 g/L glucose (3.67 %), as well as lignin-degradation products, and ethyl acetate extracts (4.87 %), exhibited evident inhibition effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore, removal of soluble sugars and lignin-degradation products could effectively promote the enzymatic hydrolysis performance. PMID:27277746

  20. Difference analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysis performance of acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover before and after washing with water.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Shi, Linli; Zhang, Lingling; Xu, Yong; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-10-01

    The difference in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) before and after washing with water reached approximately 15 % under the same conditions. The reasons for the difference in the yield between ASC and washed ASC (wASC) were determined through the analysis of the composition of ASC prehydrolyzate and sugar concentration of enzymatic hydrolyzate. Salts produced by neutralization (CaSO4, Na2SO4, K2SO4, and (NH4)2SO4), sugars (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and monosaccharides), sugar-degradation products (weak acids and furans), and lignin-degradation products (ethyl acetate extracts and nine main lignin-degradation products) were back-added to wASC. Results showed that these products, except furans, exerted negative effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. According to the characteristics of acid-catalyzed steam explosion pretreatment, the five sugar-degradation products' mixture and salts [Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4] showed minimal negative inhibition effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. By contrast, furans demonstrated a promotion effect. Moreover, soluble sugars, such as 13 g/L xylose (decreased by 6.38 %), 5 g/L cellobiose (5.36 %), 10 g/L glucose (3.67 %), as well as lignin-degradation products, and ethyl acetate extracts (4.87 %), exhibited evident inhibition effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore, removal of soluble sugars and lignin-degradation products could effectively promote the enzymatic hydrolysis performance.

  1. Proper hand washing (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ...

  2. Nasal Wash Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Make the nasal wash solution. Do not use tap water for the nasal wash (unless boiled or filtered ... water. You may use: Distilled water Sterilized water Tap water that has been boiled for 1 minute (at ...

  3. Effect of pH on acid production from sorbitol in washed cell suspensions of oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalfas, S; Maki, Y; Birkhed, D; Edwardsson, S

    1990-01-01

    The acid production from sorbitol and glucose was studied under anaerobic conditions in resting cell suspensions of bacteria from the predominant sorbitol-fermenting human dental plaque flora, belonging to the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Actinomyces. The acid production activity of the bacterial cells was followed by titration with alkali, at environmental pH 7.0, 6.0 and 5.0 after addition of carbohydrate solution. The metabolic end products formed in the suspensions were analyzed thereafter by isotachophoretic and enzymatic methods. The results showed that sorbitol was fermented at a slower rate than glucose. Lowering the environmental pH decreased the acid production activity from the two carbohydrates. Compared with glucose, the catabolism of sorbitol was affected to greater extent by the pH conditions. The total amount of acids formed from sorbitol was considerably less than from glucose. Lactic acid, which was the major end product in glucose-challenged suspensions, was produced only in low concentrations from sorbitol by all strains tested. The ratio strong (formic + lactic)/weak acids was moreover lower for sorbitol than for glucose. The present results further illustrate some of the mechanisms behind the low cariogenic potential of this sugar substitute.

  4. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  5. Effects of ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations on reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics under washed reticulorumen conditions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Storm, A C; Hanigan, M D; Kristensen, N B

    2011-08-01

    The effect of reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow on the absorption of propionate as a volatile fatty acid (VFA) marker in 8 lactating Holstein cows was studied under washed rumen conditions. The cows were surgically prepared with ruminal cannulas and permanent catheters in an artery and mesenteric, right ruminal, and hepatic portal veins. The experiment was designed with 2 groups of cows: 4 cows adapted to high crude protein (CP) and 4 to low CP. All cows were subjected to 3 buffers: butyric, ammonia, and control in a randomized replicated 3 × 3 incomplete Latin square design. The buffers (30 kg) were maintained in a temporarily emptied and washed rumen for 40 min. The initial concentration of VFA was 84.2 mmol/L. Butyrate was increased from 4 to 36 mmol/L in butyric buffer by replacement of acetate, and ammonia (NH(3)) was increased from 2.5 to 22.5 mmol/L in ammonia buffer by replacement of NaCl. Increasing amounts of deuterium oxide (D(2)O) were added to the buffers as the order of buffer sequence increased (6, 12, and 18 g of D(2)O). Ruminal clearance of D(2)O was used to estimate epithelial blood flow. To increase accuracy of the epithelial blood flow estimates, data of ruminal liquid marker (Cr-EDTA), and initial and final buffer volumes were fitted to a dynamic simulation model. The model was used to estimate ruminal liquid passages, residual liquid, and water influx (saliva and epithelia water) for each combination of cow and buffer (n=24). Epithelial blood flow increased 49±11% for butyric buffer compared with control. The ruminal disappearance of propionate (marker VFA) was affected by buffer and followed the same pattern as for epithelial blood flow. The correlation between ruminal disappearance of propionate and epithelial blood flow (r=0.56) indicates that the removal of propionate can be limited by epithelial blood flow. The ruminal disappearance of propionate increased 30±12% for the butyric compared with ammonia buffer and 12.5±8% when

  6. Effects of ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations on reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics under washed reticulorumen conditions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Storm, A C; Hanigan, M D; Kristensen, N B

    2011-08-01

    The effect of reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow on the absorption of propionate as a volatile fatty acid (VFA) marker in 8 lactating Holstein cows was studied under washed rumen conditions. The cows were surgically prepared with ruminal cannulas and permanent catheters in an artery and mesenteric, right ruminal, and hepatic portal veins. The experiment was designed with 2 groups of cows: 4 cows adapted to high crude protein (CP) and 4 to low CP. All cows were subjected to 3 buffers: butyric, ammonia, and control in a randomized replicated 3 × 3 incomplete Latin square design. The buffers (30 kg) were maintained in a temporarily emptied and washed rumen for 40 min. The initial concentration of VFA was 84.2 mmol/L. Butyrate was increased from 4 to 36 mmol/L in butyric buffer by replacement of acetate, and ammonia (NH(3)) was increased from 2.5 to 22.5 mmol/L in ammonia buffer by replacement of NaCl. Increasing amounts of deuterium oxide (D(2)O) were added to the buffers as the order of buffer sequence increased (6, 12, and 18 g of D(2)O). Ruminal clearance of D(2)O was used to estimate epithelial blood flow. To increase accuracy of the epithelial blood flow estimates, data of ruminal liquid marker (Cr-EDTA), and initial and final buffer volumes were fitted to a dynamic simulation model. The model was used to estimate ruminal liquid passages, residual liquid, and water influx (saliva and epithelia water) for each combination of cow and buffer (n=24). Epithelial blood flow increased 49±11% for butyric buffer compared with control. The ruminal disappearance of propionate (marker VFA) was affected by buffer and followed the same pattern as for epithelial blood flow. The correlation between ruminal disappearance of propionate and epithelial blood flow (r=0.56) indicates that the removal of propionate can be limited by epithelial blood flow. The ruminal disappearance of propionate increased 30±12% for the butyric compared with ammonia buffer and 12.5±8% when

  7. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  8. Studies on the optimum conditions using acid-washed zero-valent iron/aluminum mixtures in permeable reactive barriers for the removal of different heavy metal ions from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Weijiang; Fu, Fenglian; Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing; Wu, Shijiao

    2016-01-25

    The method of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) is considered as one of the most practicable approaches in treating heavy metals contaminated surface and groundwater. The mixture of acid-washed zero-valent iron (ZVI) and zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) as reactive medium in PRBs to treat heavy metal wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) was investigated. The performance of column filled with the mixture of acid-washed ZVI and ZVAl was much better than the column filled with ZVI or ZVAl alone. At initial pH 5.4 and flow rates of 1.0 mL/min, the time that the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) were all above 99.5% can keep about 300 h using 80 g/40 g acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl when treating wastewater containing each heavy metal ions (Cr(VI), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+)) concentration of 20.0 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize ZVI/ZVAl before and after reaction and the reaction mechanism of the heavy metal ions with ZVI/ZVAl was discussed.

  9. TANK 7 CHARACTERIZATION AND WASHING STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2010-02-04

    A 3-L PUREX sludge sample from Tank 7 was characterized and then processed through a series of inhibited water washes to remove oxalate, sodium, and other soluble ions. Current plans use Tank 7 as one of the feed sources for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7). Tank 7 is high in oxalate due to the oxalic acid cleaning of the sludge heels from Tanks 5 and 6 and subsequent transfer to Tank 7. Ten decant and nine wash cycles were performed over a 47 day period at ambient temperature. Initially, seven decants and seven washes were completed based on preliminary estimates of the number of wash cycles required to remove the oxalate in the sludge. After reviewing the composition data, SRNL recommended the completion of 2 or 3 more decant/wash cycles to ensure all of the sodium oxalate had redissolved. In the first 7 washes, the slurry oxalate concentration was 12,300 mg/kg (69.6% oxalate removal compared to 96.1% removal of the other soluble ions). After all ten decants were complete, the slurry oxalate concentration was 3,080 mg/kg (89.2% oxalate removal compared to 99.0% of the other soluble ions). The rate of dissolution of oxalate increased significantly with subsequent washes until all of the sodium oxalate had been redissolved after seven decant/wash cycles. The measured oxalate concentrations agreed very well with LWO predictions for washing of the Tank 7 sample. Highlights of the analysis and washing of the Tank 7 sample include: (1) Sodium oxalate was detected in the as-received filtered solids. 95% of the oxalate was insoluble (undissolved) in the as-received slurry. (2) No sodium oxalate was detected in the post-wash filtered solids. (3) Sodium oxalate is the last soluble species that redissolves during washing with inhibited water. In order to significantly reduce the sodium oxalate concentration, the sludge must be highly washed, leaving the other soluble anions and cations (including sodium) very low in concentration. (4) The post-wash slurry had 1% of the soluble anions

  10. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P < 0.05) more than the reduction observed for the 20°C alkaline treatment and 20°C control water treatments. Ambient temperature acidic washes reduced Salmonella contamination to the same degree as the standard pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs. PMID:27357042

  11. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P < 0.05) more than the reduction observed for the 20°C alkaline treatment and 20°C control water treatments. Ambient temperature acidic washes reduced Salmonella contamination to the same degree as the standard pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs.

  12. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  13. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  14. Soil washing treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  15. Wash Your Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... do if you don't have soap and clean, running water? Washing hands with soap and water is the ... specific questions. More Information CDC's Handwashing Work Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Water-related Hygiene Hand Hygiene to Help Prevent Flu ...

  16. Domestic wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

  17. Washing Out the Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    AJT Associates, Inc. (AJT) worked with NASA to develop a revolutionary ozone-based laundry system. AJT's TecH2Ozone(R) wash system presents its customers with an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe way to perform commercial laundering. TecH2Ozone significantly reduces the amount of water and chemical used as compared to traditional commercial laundry systems. This reduction has resulted in lower cost and shorter wash cycles. And due to the reduced use of chemicals, a significant portion of the rinse water is recycled back into the system for reuse. TecH2Ozone customers, such as hotels and other large commercial laundry facilities, have felt the benefits of this equipment. Because of the reduced cycle times, fewer washers are needed and there is a notable increase in the cleanliness of the laundry. The reduction in chemical residues is a boon to customers with allergies and those prone to skin irritation from chemicals retained in regular laundry. AJT Associates, Inc. (AJT) worked with NASA to develop a revolutionary ozone-based laundry system. AJT's TecH2Ozone(R) wash system presents its customers with an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe way to perform commercial laundering.

  18. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peroxyacetic acid to reduce murine norovirus 1, B40-8, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on shredded iceberg lettuce and in residual wash water.

    PubMed

    Baert, Leen; Vandekinderen, Isabelle; Devlieghere, Frank; Van Coillie, Els; Debevere, Johan; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2009-05-01

    The efficiency of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA) to reduce murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, and Bacteroides fragilis HSP40-infecting phage B40-8 on shredded iceberg lettuce was investigated. The levels of removal of viruses MNV-1 and B40-8 were compared with the reductions observed for bacterial pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Two inoculation levels, one with a high organic load and the other containing a 10-fold lower number of pathogens and organic matter, showed that the effectiveness of NaOCl was greatly influenced by the presence of organic material, which was not observed for PAA. Moreover, the present study showed that 200 mg/liter NaOCl or 250 mg/liter PAA is needed to obtain an additional reduction of 1 log (compared with tap water) of MNV-1 on shredded iceberg lettuce, whereas only 250 mg/liter PAA achieved this for bacterial pathogens. None of the treatments resulted in a supplementary 1-log PFU/g reduction of B40-8 compared with tap water. B40-8 could therefore be useful as an indicator of decontamination processes of shredded iceberg lettuce based on NaOCl or PAA. Neither MNV-1, B40-8, nor bacterial pathogens could be detected in residual wash water after shredded iceberg lettuce was treated with NaOCl and PAA, whereas considerable numbers of all these microorganisms were found in residual wash water consisting solely of tap water. This study illustrates the usefulness of PAA and NaOCl in preventing cross-contamination during the washing process rather than in causing a reduction of the number of pathogens present on lettuce.

  19. Behavior of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli relevant to lettuce washing processes and consideration of factors for evaluating washing process surrogates.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kaiping; Wang, Xue; Yen, Li-Han; Ding, Hongliu; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2014-11-01

    Postharvest processes for fresh produce commonly include washing in water containing antimicrobial chemicals, such as chlorine; however, if the antimicrobials are not present in sufficient levels, washing can promote the spread of contamination that might be present. To understand cross-contamination risk during washing, we tested a collection of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), including O157:H7 and other non-O157 strains, for certain traits during washing of fresh-cut lettuce, i.e., sensitivity to sublethal chlorine levels and ability to cross-contaminate (detach from and attach to) lettuce in the presence of sublethal chlorine levels. Nonpathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and Pediococcus pentosaceus lactic acid bacterial species (LAB) were included as potential washing process validation surrogates. As measured by extension of the lag phase of growth in media containing 0.15 ppm of chlorine, chlorine sensitivity varied among the STECs. Cross-contamination was assessed by evaluating transfer of bacteria from inoculated to uninoculated leaves during washing. Without chlorine, similar transfer to wash water and uninoculated leaves was shown. In 1 ppm of chlorine, cross-contamination was not detected with most strains, except for the substantial transfer by a STEC O111 strain and EcN in some replicates. Strain O111 and EcN showed less inactivation in 0.25 ppm of chlorine water compared with O157 (P < 0.05). LAB showed similar transfer and similar chlorine inactivation to O157. Considering together the sublethal chlorine sensitivity and detachment/attachment traits, neither EcN nor LAB displayed optimal characteristics as washing process surrogates for the STEC strains, although further evaluation is needed. This work demonstrated a range of behaviors of STEC strains during lettuce washing and may be helpful in hazard characterization, identifying factors to consider for evaluating washing process efficacy, and identifying phenotypic traits to select

  20. Can washing-pretreatment eliminate the health risk of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash reuse?

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Pan, Yun; Zhang, Lingen; Yue, Yang; Zhou, Jizhi; Xu, Yunfeng; Qian, Guangren

    2015-01-01

    Although the reuse of washing-pretreated MSWI fly ash bas been a hot topic, the associated risk is still an issue of great concern. The present study investigated the influence of washing-pretreatment on the total contents and bioaccessibility of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash. Furthermore, the study incorporated bioaccessibility adjustment into probabilistic risk assessment, to quantify the health risk from multi-pathway exposure to the concerned chemicals as a result of reusing washed MSWI fly ash. The results revealed that both water-washing and acid-washing process have resulted in the concentrated heavy metal content, and have reduced the bioaccessibility of heavy metals. Besides, the acid-washing process increased the cancer risk in most cases, while the effect of water-washing process was uncertain. However, both water-washing and acid-washing pretreatment could decrease the hazard index based on bioaccesilbility. Despite the uncertainties accompanying these procedures, the results indicated that, in this application scenario, only water-washing or acid-washing process cannot reduce the actual risk from all samples to acceptable level, especially for cancer risk.

  1. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  2. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  3. Efficacy of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and UV-Ozonated Water Combination for Inactivating Escherichia Coli O157:H7 on Romaine and Iceberg Lettuce during Spray Washing Process.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu-Hsin; Hung, Yen-Con

    2016-07-01

    Spray washing is a common sanitizing method for the fresh produce industry. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and a combination of ozonated water with ultraviolet (UV) in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on romaine and iceberg lettuces. Both romaine and iceberg lettuces were spot inoculated with 100 μL of a 3 strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 to achieve an inoculum of 6 log CFU/g on lettuce. A strong antimicrobial effect was observed for the UV-ozonated water combination, which reduced the population of E. coli by 5 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 on both lettuces. SAEW achieved about 5 log CFU/g reductions in the bacterial counts on romaine lettuce. However, less than 2.5 log CFU/g in the population of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced on iceberg lettuce. The difference may be due to bacteria aggregation near and within stomata for iceberg lettuce but not for romaine lettuce. The UV light treatment may stimulate the opening of the stomata for the UV-ozonated water treatment and hence achieve better bacterial inactivation than the SAEW treatment for iceberg lettuce. Our results demonstrated that the combined treatment of SAEW and UV-ozonated water in the spray washing process could more effectively reduce E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce, which in turn may help reduce incidences of E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks. PMID:27305593

  4. Does bottle type and acid-washing influence trace element analyses by ICP-MS on water samples? A test covering 62 elements and four bottle types: high density polyethene (HDPE), polypropene (PP), fluorinated ethene propene copolymer (FEP) and perfluoroalkoxy polymer (PFA).

    PubMed

    Reimann, C; Siewers, U; Skarphagen, H; Banks, D

    1999-10-01

    Groundwater samples from 15 boreholes in crystalline bedrock aquifers in South Norway (Oslo area) have been collected in parallel in five different clear plastic bottle types (high density polyethene [HDPE], polypropene [PP, two manufacturers], fluorinated ethene propene copolymer [FEP] and perfluoroalkoxy polymer [PFA]. In the cases of polyethene and polypropene, parallel samples have been collected in factory-new (unwashed) bottles and acid-washed factory-new bottles. Samples have been analysed by ICP-MS techniques for a wide range of inorganic elements down to the ppt (ng/l) range. It was found that acid-washing of factory-new flasks had no clear systematic beneficial effect on analytical result. On the contrary, for the PP-bottles concentrations of Pb and Sn were clearly elevated in the acid-washed bottles. Likewise, for the vast majority of elements, bottle type was of no importance for analytical result. For six elements (Al, Cr, Hf, Hg, Pb and Sn) some systematic differences for one or more bottle types could be tentatively discerned, but in no case was the discrepancy of major cause for concern. The most pronounced effect was for Cr, with clearly elevated concentrations returned from the samples collected in HDPE bottles, regardless of acid-washing or not. For the above six elements, FEP or PFA bottles seemed to be marginally preferable to PP and HDPE. In general, cheap HDPE, factory new, unwashed flasks are suitable for sampling waters for ICP-MS ultra-trace analysis of the elements tested.

  5. Hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1994-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, Alice D.; Angeroth, Cory E.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1984, hydrologic data have been collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek drainage basin near Globe, Arizona. Ground-water data from that study are presented for water years 1994, 1995, and 1996 and include location, construction information, site plans, water levels, chemical and physical field measurements, and selected chemical analyses of water samples for nine monitoring well groups. Monthly precipitation data and long-term precipitation statistics are presented for two sites.

  6. Chemical, geologic, and hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1984-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eychaner, J.H.; Rehmann, M.R.; Brown, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek basin near Globe, Arizona, is the focus of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey. Groundwater data from that study for water years 1984 to 1987 include location, construction information, and site plans for six groups of monitoring wells, mineralogic and particle-size analyses of drill cuttings, water level measurements, and chemical analyses of water samples from 39 wells. Surface water data for 13 sites in this study include discharge measurements and chemical analysis of water and streambed sediment samples. Monthly discharge data are presented for one site. Monthly precipitation amounts and statistics of long-term precipitation are presented for two sites. (USGS)

  7. Hydrologic Data from the Study of Acidic Contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek Area, Arizona, Water Years 1997-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, A.D.; Brown, J.G.; Parker, J.T.C.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1984, hydrologic data have been collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek drainage basin near Globe, Arizona. Ground-water data from that study are presented for water years 1997 through 2004 and include location, construction information, site plans, water levels, chemical and physical field measurements, and selected chemical analyses of water samples for 31 project wells. Hydrographs of depth to ground water are also included. Surface-water data for four sites are also presented and include selected chemical analyses of water samples. Monthly precipitation data and long-term precipitation statistics are presented for two sites. Chemical analyses of samples collected from the stream and shallow ground water in the perennial reach of Pinal Creek are also included.

  8. Hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, D.J.; Hunter, Yvonne R.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1984, hydrologic data have been collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the occurrence and movement of acidic contamination in the aquifer and streams of the Pinal Creek drainage basin near Globe, Arizona. Ground-water data from that study are presented for water years 1992 and 1993 and include location, construction information, site plans, water levels, chemical and physical field measurements, and selected chemical analyses of water samples for 10 monitoring well groups. During January 1993, a flood occurred in Pinal Creek that resulted in a record peak discharge of 5,700 cubic feet per second. During this flood, well group 450 was destroyed. Surface-water data are presented for 13 sites and include discharge measurements, chemical and physical field measure- ments, and chemical analyses of water. Data from a solute-transport study that was conducted in November 1992 are presented for shallow ground-water and surface-water sites along Pinal Creek. During this study, variations in metal chemistry with distance along Pinal Creek and depth below the streambed were determined and two filter sizes were used to quantify the partitioning of metals between dissolved and particulate phases. Monthly precipi- tation data and long-term precipitation statistics are presented for two sites.

  9. 21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Limitations Hydrogen peroxide Used in combination with acetic acid to form peroxyacetic acid. Not to exceed 59.... Not to exceed 4.8 ppm in wash water. Peroxyacetic acid Prepared by reacting acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide. Not to exceed 80 ppm in wash water. (b) The chemicals are used in amounts not in excess of...

  10. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  11. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  12. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  13. 27 CFR 19.328 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 19.328 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.328 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits therefrom may be run into a wash tank or a...

  14. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  15. Ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption from the washed reticulorumen.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Kristensen, N B; Klotz, J L; Kim, D H; Koontz, A F; McLeod, K R; Bush, L P; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

    2013-11-01

    fatty acid flux was reduced during the 1×EXT and 3×EXT treatments (P<0.01). An additional experiment was conducted to determine the effect of time on blood flow and VFA flux because buffer sequence could not be randomized. Time either increased (P=0.05) or did not affect blood flow (P=0.18) or VFA flux (P>0.80), indicating that observed differences are due to the presence of ergot alkaloids in the rumen. A decrease in VFA absorption could contribute to the signs of fescue toxicosis including depressed growth and performance.

  16. Whole-head washing, prior to cutting, provides sanitization advantages for fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce (Latuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Palma-Salgado, Sindy; Pearlstein, Arne J; Luo, Yaguang; Park, Hee Kyung; Feng, Hao

    2014-06-01

    The efficacy of two leafy produce wash methods, the traditional cutting-before-washing process and a new washing-before-cutting method, on reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on Iceberg lettuce was compared. The washing tests were conducted in a pilot-scale washer using combinations of water, chlorine, peroxyacetic acid, and ultrasound. The washing-before-cutting process recorded an E. coli O157:H7 count reduction 0.79-0.80 log₁₀ CFU/g higher than that achieved with the cutting-before-washing process in treatments involving only a sanitizer. When ultrasound was applied to the washing-before-cutting process, a further improvement of 0.37-0.68 log₁₀ CFU/g in microbial count reduction was obtained, reaching total reductions of 2.43 and 2.24 log₁₀ CFU/g for chlorine and peroxyacetic acid washes, respectively. PMID:24704862

  17. Removal, redistribution, and potential risks of soil Cd, Pb, and Zn after washing with various extractants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunle; Chen, Yanhui; Xie, Tuanhui; Wang, Ming Kuang; Wang, Guo

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of four different washing extractants--HCl, FeCl3, citric acid, and EDTA--in removing Cd, Pb, and Zn from polluted soil was studied. The removal of these metals, their redistribution between fractions, and the potential risks posed by them, in soils washed with the tested extractants, were examined. Although all the rounds of washing removed Cd, Pb, and Zn from soil, the first round removed more metals than subsequent rounds. Each of the four extractants had different effects on the removal of the metals. At the end of the first round of washing, HCl, EDTA, and FeCl3 were the most effective in removing Zn, Pb, and Cd, respectively. Both the single round and five successive rounds of washing with various extractants resulted in significant increases in Pb in the exchangeable/acid extractable fraction. Washing with HCl, EDTA, and FeCl3 significantly reduced potential risks (calculated as the Potential Risk Index, PRI) posed by Cd in washed soil. The first round of washing, using all extractants, increased the risks posed by Pb and Zn. However, five successive rounds of washing with FeCl3 and EDTA reduced the risk posed by Pb, and washing with citric acid and FeCl3 increased the risks posed by Zn. EDTA and HCl were better for reducing Zn risks, and successive washing with EDTA and FeCl3 were more effective in reducing Pb risks than the other extractants. Finally, five successive rounds of washing, with all the extractants, effectively reduced the potential risks posed by Cd. Among the four reagents, EDTA was advised to be the alternative of the washing reagent by significantly reducing the PRI values of Cd, Pb, and Zn.

  18. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. PMID:26086811

  19. A Window-Washing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  20. The potential impact of washing machines on laundry malodour generation.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, K; Hill, K; Day, K; Perry, J D; Dean, J R

    2013-04-01

    A multidisciplinary approach has been adopted to investigate and identify the source of malodour in washing machines and the potential for cross-contamination of laundry. Four washing machines were olfactively graded, and the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) bacteria was determined in four specific locations. Then, samples of terry-towel and fleece were washed, without the use of detergent, in the machines, and the occurrence of malodour over a 52-h period was assessed. Analysis of the scrapings from the four locations in the two malodorous machines identified a plethora of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by either olfactory detection or mass spectral identification post-gas chromatographic separation. In addition, microbiological analysis from the swabs from the four locations within all four washing machines was carried out. Quantitative analysis of VOCs from 66 microbiological isolates from either the washing machines or fabrics was carried out. In total, 10 VOCs were identified: dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,4-dithiapentane, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-tridecanone, indole, 2-phenylethanol, isovaleric acid, isobutyric acid and 1-undecene.

  1. A basket for washing benthological samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1971-01-01

    Since benthological samples collected with dredges are usually too large to be preserved in toto, a washing method must be employed to reduce the sample volume without losing or damaging the organisms. Traditionally, the sample is washed in a sieve until the volume is small enough for convenient handling or preservation. Most washing procedures are time-consuming and laborious. To save time in washing samples, a washing 'basket' was designed which accomadates a Ponar dredge. The only additional equipment needed to employ the washing basket effectively is a pump that delivers about 8 gallons of water per minute.

  2. Cadmium Removal from Rice by Separating and Washing Protein Isolate.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yinqiang; Du, Hongying; Xue, Bingying; Niu, Meng; Zhao, Siming

    2016-06-01

    In this study detoxification of 3 Chinese Cd-contaminated cultivars (Jinyou463, Yuchi, and Xiangzaoxian 32) of rice was explored. By separation with an alkaline method, Cd concentrations of the starch isolates were decreased from 0.2769, 0.4037, and 0.5156 mg/kg in starting milled rice to 0.1056, 0.1585, and 0.1923 mg/kg, respectively. However, the Cd concentrations reached up to 2.5905, 3.1628, and 4.8593 mg/kg in the protein isolates, respectively. Therefore, 10 common acids in food industry were investigated to remove Cd from protein isolate by washing process. The optimal washing conditions were 0.5 M citric acid, acid to rice protein isolate ratio of 6:1 v/w, shaking time of 1 h at room temperature. The rice protein isolate showed a significant decrease in Cd concentration and the removal efficiency was more than 95% after 2 washings at optimized conditions. Rice proteins were not degraded at all and had very little loss during citric acid washing process. The study presents a promising way of depurating Cd-contaminated rice, and meanwhile it reduces the risk of heavy metal causing food safety issues effectively. PMID:27159878

  3. 1. GENERAL VIEW FROM BONY PILE LOOKING SOUTH. WASH HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW FROM BONY PILE LOOKING SOUTH. WASH HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. TIPPLE AND CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT. IN CENTER IS A TANK USED FOR TREATING MINE REFUSE AND ACID RUNOFF. - Eureka No. 40, Tipple & Cleaning Plant, East of State Route 56, north of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA

  4. Bacterial flora of skin of processed broilers after consecutive washings in potassium hydroxide and lauric aid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria on skin of processed broilers were enumerated after each of five consecutive washes in mixtures of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Breast skin was taken from carcasses obtained from a commercial processing facility, and skin was cut into 5 g samples. Portions of skin were washed using ...

  5. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  6. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  7. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  8. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  9. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  10. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  11. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  12. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  13. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  14. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  15. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures ...

  16. Electrical Switchability and Dry-Wash Durability of Conductive Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bangting; Zhang, Bowu; Wu, Jingxia; Wang, Ziqiang; Ma, Hongjuan; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in the area of conductive textiles in the scientific and industrial community. Herein, we successfully prepared a conductive textile via covalently grafting polyaniline (PANI) onto cotton by a multi-step treatment process. The conductivity of the resultant fabric could be tuned by immersing in water having different pH values. The conductive and insulating properties of the textile could be conveniently switched by alternately immersing in acidic and alkaline bath solutions. Most importantly, the resultant conductive fabrics were able to withstand 40 simulated dry-wash cycles, with almost no decay in the electrical conductivity, indicating their excellent dry-wash durability. The present strategy for fabricating conductive fabrics with excellent switchability of electrical properties and dry-wash durability is expected to provide inspiration for the production of multifunctional conductive textiles for use in hash or sensitive conditions.

  17. Electrical Switchability and Dry-Wash Durability of Conductive Textiles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangting; Zhang, Bowu; Wu, Jingxia; Wang, Ziqiang; Ma, Hongjuan; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the area of conductive textiles in the scientific and industrial community. Herein, we successfully prepared a conductive textile via covalently grafting polyaniline (PANI) onto cotton by a multi-step treatment process. The conductivity of the resultant fabric could be tuned by immersing in water having different pH values. The conductive and insulating properties of the textile could be conveniently switched by alternately immersing in acidic and alkaline bath solutions. Most importantly, the resultant conductive fabrics were able to withstand 40 simulated dry-wash cycles, with almost no decay in the electrical conductivity, indicating their excellent dry-wash durability. The present strategy for fabricating conductive fabrics with excellent switchability of electrical properties and dry-wash durability is expected to provide inspiration for the production of multifunctional conductive textiles for use in hash or sensitive conditions. PMID:26066704

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF THE WASH-OFF METHOD FOR MEASURING AEROSOL CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using the fluorescence-washing technique, oleic acid particles tagged with uranine were extracted and analyzed fluorometrically. The possible sources of errors in the technique were evaluated in this study. First, the sensitivity of uranine fluorescence in different solutions ...

  19. [Strengthening Effects of Sodium Salts on Washing Kerosene Contaminated Soil with Surfactants].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhao-lu; Chen, Quan-yuan; Zhou, Juan; Xie, Mo-han

    2015-05-01

    The impact of sodium salt on kerosene contaminated soil washing with surfactants was investigated. The results indicated that sodium silicate greatly enhanced the washing efficiency of SDS. Sodium tartrate can largely enhance the washing efficiency of SDBS and Brij35. Sodium salts can enhance the washing efficiency on kerosene contaminated with TX-100. No significant differences were observed between different sodium salts. Sodium salt of humic acid and sodium silicate had similar enhancement on kerosene contaminated soil washing with saponin. Sodium humate can be a better choice since its application can also improve soil quality. The enhancement of sodium silicate on kerosene contaminated soil washing with Tw-80 increased with the increase of Tw-80 dosage. However, the impact of sodium chloride and sodium tartrate was opposite to sodium silicate. Sodium salts can reduce surface tension and critical micelle concentration of ionic surfactants to enhance the washing. Sodium salts can also reduce re-adsorption of oil to soil with nonionic surfactants to enhance the washing. Kerosene contamination can increase the contact angle of soil, which indicated the increase of hydrophilicity of soil. Washing with surfactants can reduce the hydrophilicitiy of soil according to contact angle measurement, which indicated that kerosene contaminated soil remediation with surfactant can also benefit nutrient and water transportation in the contaminated soil.

  20. 21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... commodities and subject to the limitations provided: Substances Limitations Hydrogen peroxide Used in.... Peroxyacetic acid Prepared by reacting acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide. Not to exceed 80 ppm in wash...

  1. 21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... commodities and subject to the limitations provided: Substances Limitations Hydrogen peroxide Used in.... Peroxyacetic acid Prepared by reacting acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide. Not to exceed 80 ppm in wash...

  2. 21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... commodities and subject to the limitations provided: Substances Limitations Hydrogen peroxide Used in.... Peroxyacetic acid Prepared by reacting acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide. Not to exceed 80 ppm in wash...

  3. 21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... commodities and subject to the limitations provided: Substances Limitations Hydrogen peroxide Used in.... Peroxyacetic acid Prepared by reacting acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide. Not to exceed 80 ppm in wash...

  4. Postoperative washing of sutured wounds.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Conrad; Wade, Cian; Gore, Sinclair

    2016-11-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to the structured protocol. The three part question addressed was: [In patients undergoing closure of surgical wounds with sutures] does [keeping the wound dry for the first 48 h after closure] [reduce the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs)]? 4 relevant papers were culled from the literature and appraised. The authors, date, country, population, study type, main outcomes, key results and study weaknesses were tabulated. Current NICE guidelines recommend cleaning surgical wounds with sterile saline only for the first 48 h following skin closure. We found no evidence that washing wounds with tap water during this period increases the incidence of SSIs compared to keeping them dry. Further randomised controlled trials will enable the construction of conclusive systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PMID:27668079

  5. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  6. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

    One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

  7. Pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection in oral-throat wash specimens of male patients with urethritis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Kurimura, Yuichiro; Hashimoto, Jiro; Takeyama, Koh; Koroku, Mikio; Tanda, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Masahiro; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2008-12-01

    Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in the pharynx has been highlighted in the prevention of the unexpected spread of sexually transmitted diseases. We tried to clarify the detection rate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx and the clinical relevance of oral-throat wash specimens to detect the organism in heterosexual men with gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis. In our cohort of 79 male patients with urethritis, oral throat wash specimens were collected after they had gargled with normal saline for approximately 30 to 60 s. Positive pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae was defined as a positive result on the strand displacement amplification test for the specimen from the oral-throat wash. N. gonorrhoeae was detected in the oral-throat wash specimens of 13 (31.7%) of the 41 male patients with gonococcal urethritis. Oral-throat wash with a nucleic acid amplification test can detect pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae easily and efficiently.

  8. Closed circuit rebreathing to achieve inert gas wash-in for multiple breath wash-out

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Katherine; Downey, Damian G.; Elborn, J. Stuart; Bell, Nicholas J.; Smith, Jaclyn; Owers-Bradley, John

    2016-01-01

    Multiple breath wash-out (MBW) testing requires prior wash-in of inert tracer gas. Wash-in efficiency can be enhanced by a rebreathing tracer in a closed circuit. Previous attempts to deploy this did not account for the impact of CO2 accumulation on patients and were unsuccessful. We hypothesised that an effective rebreathe wash-in could be delivered and it would not alter wash-out parameters. Computer modelling was used to assess the impact of the rebreathe method on wash-in efficiency. Clinical testing of open and closed circuit wash-in–wash-out was performed in healthy controls and adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using a circuit with an effective CO2 scrubber and a refined wash-in protocol. Wash-in efficiency was enhanced by rebreathing. There was no difference in mean lung clearance index between the two wash-in methods for controls (6.5 versus 6.4; p=0.2, n=12) or patients with CF (10.9 versus 10.8; p=0.2, n=19). Test time was reduced by rebreathe wash-in (156 versus 230 s for CF patients, p<0.001) and both methods were well tolerated. End wash-in CO2 was maintained below 2% in most cases. Rebreathe–wash-in is a promising development that, when correctly deployed, reduces wash-in time and facilitates portable MBW testing. For mild CF, wash-out outcomes are equivalent to an open circuit. PMID:27730167

  9. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. Two operating scenarios were evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-VSL-T01A/B ultrafiltration feed vessels, identified as Integrated Test A. The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-VSL-T02A ultrafiltration feed preparation vessel, identified as Integrated Test B. Washing operations in PEP Integrated Tests A and B were conducted successfully as per the approved run sheets. However, various minor instrumental problems occurred, and some of the process conditions specified in the run sheet were not met during the wash operations, such as filter-loop flow-rate targets not being met. Five analytes were selected based on full solubility and monitored in the post-caustic-leach wash as successful indicators of washing efficiency. These were aluminum, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, and free hydroxide. Other analytes, including sodium, oxalate, phosphate, and total dissolved solids, showed indications of changing solubility; therefore, they were unsuitable for monitoring washing efficiency. In the post-oxidative-leach wash, two analytes with full solubility were selected as suitable indicators of washing

  10. Removal of Pb and Zn from contaminated soil by different washing methods: the influence of reagents and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Dean; Li, Tianran; Li, Kaimin; Tian, Sicong

    2015-12-01

    Pb and Zn contamination in agricultural soils has become an important issue for human health and the environment. Washing is an effective method for remediating polluted soil. Here, we compare several washing materials and methods in the treatment of Pb- and Zn-polluted farmland soil. We examined four washing reagents, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, Na2EDTA, and tartaric acid, all of which independently removed Zn at rates >65 %. Combining washing reagents markedly enhanced heavy metal removal, by using Na2EDTA and either tartaric acid or lactate in sequence: Pb and Zn removal rates improved to 84.1 and 82.1 % for Na2EDTA-tartaric acid; and to 88.3 and 89.9 % for Na2EDTA-lactate, respectively. Additionally, combining ultrasound with conventional washing methods markedly improved washing efficiency, by shortening washing duration by 96 %. We achieved similar removal rates using ultrasound for 10 min, compared with traditional mechanical vibration alone for 4 h. We concluded that treating Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil with appropriate washing reagents under optimal conditions can greatly enhance the remediation of polluted farmland soils.

  11. Removal of Pb and Zn from contaminated soil by different washing methods: the influence of reagents and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Dean; Li, Tianran; Li, Kaimin; Tian, Sicong

    2015-12-01

    Pb and Zn contamination in agricultural soils has become an important issue for human health and the environment. Washing is an effective method for remediating polluted soil. Here, we compare several washing materials and methods in the treatment of Pb- and Zn-polluted farmland soil. We examined four washing reagents, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, Na2EDTA, and tartaric acid, all of which independently removed Zn at rates >65 %. Combining washing reagents markedly enhanced heavy metal removal, by using Na2EDTA and either tartaric acid or lactate in sequence: Pb and Zn removal rates improved to 84.1 and 82.1 % for Na2EDTA-tartaric acid; and to 88.3 and 89.9 % for Na2EDTA-lactate, respectively. Additionally, combining ultrasound with conventional washing methods markedly improved washing efficiency, by shortening washing duration by 96 %. We achieved similar removal rates using ultrasound for 10 min, compared with traditional mechanical vibration alone for 4 h. We concluded that treating Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil with appropriate washing reagents under optimal conditions can greatly enhance the remediation of polluted farmland soils. PMID:26300361

  12. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

  13. Hand washing: changes in the skin flora.

    PubMed

    de Almeida e Borges, Lizandra Ferreira; Silva, Bruno Leonardo; Gontijo Filho, Paulo Pinto

    2007-08-01

    Frequent hand washing may result in skin damage and increase the number of microorganisms that colonize the skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in total flora of healthy and damaged hands that were caused by the use of gloves, soap, and antiseptics. Samples were collected from the healthy and damaged hands of 30 health care professionals before and after washing with water and nonmedicated soap for the technique of sterile polyethylene bag. Fifteen additional volunteers (technicians and students) were asked to wash their hands 20 times with water and soap; those with complaints of irritation were evaluated separately. Damaged or healthy hands did not present statistically significant differences (P > .05) in terms of qualitative analysis of epidemiologically important microorganisms; however, washing with water and soap was effective only for healthy hands. In short, the water and soap washing of damaged hands was not effective in reducing their contamination.

  14. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  15. DEGRADED TBP SOLVENT REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY USING BUTYLAMINE AS A SOLVENT WASHING TO REDUCE SOLID SALT WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Asakura, T.; Itoh, Y.; Hotoku, S.; Morita, Y.; Uchiyama, G.

    2003-02-27

    Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine bicarbonate, by counter-current mode using a small size mixer-settler composed of two 4-stage wash steps. Di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), the main degradation product from TBP, was removed from real degraded solvent with decontamination factor of 2.5 {approx} 7.9. The study on electrolytic decomposition of butylamine compounds was also conducted for waste treatment.

  16. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See...

  17. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See...

  18. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See...

  19. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See...

  20. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See...

  1. Generation of chlorine by-products in simulated wash water.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cangliang; Norris, Pauline; Williams, Olivia; Hagan, Stephanie; Li, KaWang

    2016-01-01

    Free chlorine (FC) reacting with organic matter in wash water promotes the formation of chlorine by-products. This study aims to evaluate the dynamic impact of FC and organic load on the generation of haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) in simulated wash water. Lettuce juice was sequentially added into FC solution with FC periodically replenished. Water samples were collected after each lettuce juice addition to measure water qualities and determine HAAs and THMs using US-Environmental-Protection-Agency (EPA) methods. Concentrations of 88-2103 μg/l of total HAAs and 20.79-859.47 μg/l of total THMs were detected during the study. Monobromoacetic, tribromoacetic, chlorodibromoacetic and trichloroacetic acid were the major HAAs components. Chloroform (trichloromethane) was the primary THMs present. A significant correlation of HAAs with chemical oxygen demand and THMs with FC was observed. Results indicated that optimizing wash water sanitizing systems to limit organic matters and maintain minimal effective FC concentration is critical.

  2. Generation of chlorine by-products in simulated wash water.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cangliang; Norris, Pauline; Williams, Olivia; Hagan, Stephanie; Li, KaWang

    2016-01-01

    Free chlorine (FC) reacting with organic matter in wash water promotes the formation of chlorine by-products. This study aims to evaluate the dynamic impact of FC and organic load on the generation of haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) in simulated wash water. Lettuce juice was sequentially added into FC solution with FC periodically replenished. Water samples were collected after each lettuce juice addition to measure water qualities and determine HAAs and THMs using US-Environmental-Protection-Agency (EPA) methods. Concentrations of 88-2103 μg/l of total HAAs and 20.79-859.47 μg/l of total THMs were detected during the study. Monobromoacetic, tribromoacetic, chlorodibromoacetic and trichloroacetic acid were the major HAAs components. Chloroform (trichloromethane) was the primary THMs present. A significant correlation of HAAs with chemical oxygen demand and THMs with FC was observed. Results indicated that optimizing wash water sanitizing systems to limit organic matters and maintain minimal effective FC concentration is critical. PMID:26212946

  3. Wash water solids removal system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    During wash water purification, surfactants tend to precipitate and foul the RO membranes, causing water flux decline and loss of salt rejection. The use of 165 to 190 ppm ferric chloride and optionally 0.25 to 1.0 ppm polymeric flocculate precipitates 92 to 96 percent of the surfactant from an Olive Leaf Soap based wash water. Crossflow filtration and pressure filtration yield good soap rejection at high water flux rates. Post-treatment of the chemically pretreated and filtered wash water with activated charcoal removes the residual soap down to an undetectable level.

  4. Development assessment of wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical study assessment of state-of-the-art wash water reclamation technology is presented. It covers all non-phase-change unit operations, unit processes and subsystems currently under development by NASA. Each approach to wash water reclamation is described in detail. Performance data are given together with the projected weights and sizes of key components and subsystems. It is concluded that a simple multifiltration subsystem composed of surface-type cartridge filters, carbon adsorption and ion exchange resins is the most attractive approach for spacecraft wash water reclamation in earth orbital missions of up to 10 years in duration.

  5. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  6. [Biosynthesis of enniatin by washed cells of Fusarium sambucinum].

    PubMed

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskĭ, D N; Bezborodov, A M

    1979-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the depsipeptide membrane ionophore--enniatin B by the washed mycelium Fusarium sambucinum Fuck 52 377 was studied. Metabolic precursors of enniatin B, alpha-ketovaleric acid, 14C-L-valine, and 14CH3-methionine, were added to the system after starvation. The amino acid content in the metabolic pool increased 1.5 times after addition of alpha-ketovaleric acid, 2.2 times after that of valine, and 2.5 times after addition of methionine. 14C-L-valine and 14CH3-methionine were incorporated into the molecule of enniatin B. Valine methylation in the molecule occurred at the level of synthesized depsipeptide. Amino acids of the metabolic pool performed the regulatory function in the synthesis. PMID:583180

  7. Efficacy of wash solutions in recovering Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxoplasma gondii from basil.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Venessa; Torres, Maria; Ortega, Ynés R

    2014-08-01

    Parasitic diseases can be acquired by ingestion of contaminated raw or minimally processed fresh produce (herbs and fruits). The sensitivity of methods used to detect parasites on fresh produce depends in part on the efficacy of wash solutions in removing them from suspect samples. In this study, six wash solutions (sterile E-Pure water, 3% levulinic acid-3% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1 M glycine, 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline, 0.1% Alconox, and 1% HCl-pepsin) were evaluated for their effectiveness in removing Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxoplasma gondii from basil. One hundred or 1,000 oocysts of these parasites were inoculated onto the adaxial surfaces of 25 g of basil leaves, placed in stomacher bags, and stored for 1 h at 21°C or 24 h at 4°C. Leaves were hand washed in each wash solution for 1 min. DNA was extracted from the wash solutions and amplified using PCR for the detection of all parasites. Oocysts inoculated at a concentration of 1,000 oocysts per 25 g of basil were detected in all wash solutions. At an inoculum concentration of 100 oocysts per 25 g, oocysts were detected in 18.5 to 92.6% of the wash solutions. The lowest variability in recovering oocysts from basil inoculated with 100 oocysts was observed in 1% HCl-pepsin wash solution. Oocyst recovery rates were higher at 1 h than at 24 h postinoculation. Unlike most bacteria, parasites cannot be enriched; therefore, an optimal recovery process for oocysts from suspected foods is critical. The observations in this study provide guidance concerning the selection of wash solutions giving the highest retrieval of parasite oocysts. PMID:25198596

  8. [Analysis of washing efficiency and change in lead speciation in lead-contaminated soil of a battery factory].

    PubMed

    Ren, Bei; Huang, Jin-lou; Miao, Ming-sheng

    2013-09-01

    Lead-contaminated soil with different pollution load in a lead battery factory in the southwest of China was chosen as the research object, the lead content and speciation were analyzed, and different washing agents were screened. The lead washing efficiency and lead speciation were analyzed under different pH conditions, and the soil of different particle size was washed using different duration to determine the best washing time. The results showed that the soil of sites A and B in the factory was severely contaminated, the lead concentration reaching 15,703.22 mg x kg(-1) and 1747.78 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and the proportion of the active-state lead was relatively high, while the residue state accounted for only 17.32%, 11.64%, 14.6% and 10.2%. EDTA and hydrochloric acid showed the best extraction effect in the 5 washing agents tested, which included EDTA, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, rhamnolipid and SDS. Cleaning under acidic conditions could not only effectively extract the total amount of lead but also effectively reduce the environmental risk of active-state lead. pH 4-7 was suggested as the most appropriate condition. The cleaning effect of coarse sand and fine sand was good, while for washing powder clay, it is better to improve the process, with the optimal washing time determined as 240 min. PMID:24289026

  9. [Analysis of washing efficiency and change in lead speciation in lead-contaminated soil of a battery factory].

    PubMed

    Ren, Bei; Huang, Jin-lou; Miao, Ming-sheng

    2013-09-01

    Lead-contaminated soil with different pollution load in a lead battery factory in the southwest of China was chosen as the research object, the lead content and speciation were analyzed, and different washing agents were screened. The lead washing efficiency and lead speciation were analyzed under different pH conditions, and the soil of different particle size was washed using different duration to determine the best washing time. The results showed that the soil of sites A and B in the factory was severely contaminated, the lead concentration reaching 15,703.22 mg x kg(-1) and 1747.78 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and the proportion of the active-state lead was relatively high, while the residue state accounted for only 17.32%, 11.64%, 14.6% and 10.2%. EDTA and hydrochloric acid showed the best extraction effect in the 5 washing agents tested, which included EDTA, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, rhamnolipid and SDS. Cleaning under acidic conditions could not only effectively extract the total amount of lead but also effectively reduce the environmental risk of active-state lead. pH 4-7 was suggested as the most appropriate condition. The cleaning effect of coarse sand and fine sand was good, while for washing powder clay, it is better to improve the process, with the optimal washing time determined as 240 min.

  10. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  11. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  12. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  13. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  14. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  15. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  16. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  17. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  18. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  19. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  20. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  1. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  2. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  3. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  5. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  6. Soil washing enhancement with solid sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    El-Shoubary, Y.M.; Woodmansee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Soil washing is a dynamic, physical process that remediates contaminated soil through two mechanisms: particle size separation and transfer of the contaminant into the (mostly) liquid stream. The performance of different sorbents and additives to remove motor oil from sea sand was tested. Hydrocyclone, attrition scrubber, and froth flotation equipment were used for the decontamination study. Sorbents and additives were mixed with soils in the attrition scrubber prior to flotation. Sorbents used were granular activated carbon, powder activated carbon, and rubber tires. Chemical additives used were calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, Alconox{reg_sign}, Triton{reg_sign} X-100 and Triton{reg_sign} X-114. When a froth flotation run was performed using no additive, washed soils {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained 4000 ppm of total oil and grease (TOG). However, when carbon or rubber (6% by weight) was added to the contaminated soils the washed soils {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained 4000 ppm of total oil and grease (TOG). The addition of sodium carbonate or calcium hydroxide (6% by weight) had same effects as sorbents. In both cases washed soil {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained total oil and grease of less than 1000 ppm. The use of these non-hazardous additives or sorbent can enhance the soil washing process and consequently saves on time (residence time in equipment design) required to achieve the target clean up levels. 18 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Washing of waste prior to landfilling.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2012-05-01

    The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment.

  8. Washing of waste prior to landfilling.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2012-05-01

    The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment. PMID:22245736

  9. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  10. An Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presently, commercial eggs are washed with water containing an alkali detergent at approximately pH 11 followed by a chlorine rinse. At this pH, it is likely that there is little, if any, free chlorine in the final rinse to act as an antimicrobial against pathogens like Salmonella. Using a chlorine ...

  11. SOIL-WASHING TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil washing in the United States has been studied and evaluated with increasing thoroughness during the last 15 to 20 years. It is now entering a phase of actual use and acceptance as its applicability and economics become clearer. This paper reviews the principles behind soil...

  12. Washing of the AW-101 entrained solids

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta

    2000-03-31

    BNFL Inc. (BNFL) is under contract with the US Department of Energy, River Protection Project (DOE-RPP) to design, construct, and operate facilities for treating wastes stored in the single-shell and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The DOE-BNFL RPP contract identifies two feeds to the waste treatment plant: (1) primarily liquid low-activity waste (LAW) consisting of less than 2 wt% entrained solids and (2) high-level waste (HLW) consisting of 10 to 200 g/L solids slurry. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AW-101 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-9, Rev. 0, LAW Entrained Solids Water Wash and Caustic Leach Testing. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan. Based on the results of the 0.01 M NaOH washing, a decision was made by BNFL to not proceed with the caustic leaching test. The composition of the washed solids was such that caustic leaching would not result in significant reduction in the immobilized HLW volume.

  13. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL WASHING SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three component technologies of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS). Tested in the SITE demonstration were a Soil Washer (SW), and Aqueous Treatment System (ATS), and a Slurry Bio-Reactor (SBR). The Soil Washer operates on the principle that a significant fraction of the...

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY - BIOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesisSM soil washing technology was developed by BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. to remove organic compounds from soil. The technology uses a proprietary solution (BioGenesisSM cleaner) to transfer organic compounds from the soil matrix to a liquid phase. BioGenesis claims...

  15. EVALUATION OF THE BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. (BioGenesis) soil washing technology was demonstrated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in November 1992. The demonstration was conducted over three days at a petrol...

  16. Prototype wash water renovation system integration with government-furnished wash fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of a significant quantity of proposed life sciences experiments in Shuttle payloads for available wash water to support cleansing operations has provided the incentive to develop a technique for wash water renovation. A prototype wash water waste renovation system which has the capability to process the waste water and return it to a state adequate for reuse in a typical cleansing fixture designed to support life science experiments was investigated. The resulting technology is to support other developments efforts pertaining to water reclamation by serving as a pretreatment step for subsequent reclamation procedures.

  17. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  18. Biodiesel production by two-stage transesterification with ethanol by washing with neutral water and water saturated with carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Mendow, G; Veizaga, N S; Sánchez, B S; Querini, C A

    2012-08-01

    Industrial production of ethyl esters is impeded by difficulties in purifying the product due to high amounts of soap formed during transesterification. A simple biodiesel wash process was developed that allows successful purification of samples containing high amounts of soap. The key step was a first washing with neutral water, which removed the soaps without increasing the acidity or affecting the process yield. Afterward, the biodiesel was washed with water saturated with CO(2), a mild acid that neutralized the remaining soaps and extracted impurities. The acidity, free-glycerine, methanol and soaps concentrations were reduced to very low levels with high efficiency, and using non-corrosive acids. Independently of the initial acidity, it was possible to obtain biodiesel within EN14214 specifications. The process included the recovery of soaps by hydrolysis and esterification, making it possible to obtain the theoretical maximum amount of biodiesel.

  19. An Automatic Washing Machine to Remove Aluminum From Astronomical Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitelli, Valentina

    Cleaning of large astronomical mirrors, before aluminization, required in the past a large amount of manual operations on the surface. With very large mirrors, 8 meter or more, manual operations become time consuming, expensive and often dangerous, both for mirror surface and operators. A fully automated procedure is thus mandatory when handling large mirrors. To this aim we experimented on a small scale (60 cm) an automatic procedure, free from any manual contact with the mirror, capable of removing old aluminum and leaving a clean, wet surface ready for a successful new aluminization. First we manually treated small borosilicate mirrors, obtained from the LBT primary mirror glass batch, with different sequences of chemicals, commonly used to this purpose. These small mirrors were checked with a Wyko interferometer before and after treating, to trace change in roughness of the surface. Quality and stability of the new aluminum deposition after cleaning was also checked. The washing machine prototype is composed by a water proof box on rigid PVC with a moving arm, a pump and a series of tanks containing the used chemicals. All the adopted components can be used with acids and other corrosive fluids. The machine is designed to hold the mirror in vertical position. An arm with 10 cm spaced nozzles moves up and down in front of the mirror spraying the adopted chemicals in a defined sequence. A pump forces the liquid through the circuit. After the washing, the mirror is left, protected from the dust in the washing machine, for about 2 hours to drip the water, then is moved into the vacuum pump to check the final result of aluminizing the cleaned surface. A homogeneous layer of aluminum follows only after a careful cleaning, otherwise a fast oxidize process, or a inhomogeneous aluminum coating appear. Scaling times, fluxes and costs from this experiment to large size mirrors leads to realistic, affordable figures.

  20. Retardation of myoglobin and haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed bighead carp by phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Thiansilakul, Yaowapa; Benjakul, Soottawat; Grunwald, Eric W; Richards, Mark P

    2012-09-15

    Antioxidative activities of phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid; 200 ppm) in washed mince (pH 6), with added myoglobin (Mb) and haemoglobin (Hb), from bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), during 9 days of iced storage, were studied. Tannic acid exhibited the preventive effect on discolouration of washed mince containing Mb or Hb during storage (P<0.05). High peroxide value (PV) was found and large amount of, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and hexanal were formed in washed mince containing haem proteins, especially Hb. As determined by apo Streptococcal haem-associated protein, Hb had the lower haem affinity than Mb. Phenolic compounds, especially caffeic acid and gallic acid, could lower lipid oxidation induced by Mb or Hb throughout storage (P<0.05). Prevention of haem release, as well as inhibition of lipid oxidation induced by haem proteins with selected phenolic compounds, should be an alternative means in lowering discolouration and lipid oxidation in fish muscle. PMID:23107692

  1. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  2. 6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF DAM AND EARTH. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Salt Wash Field, Grand Country, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D. )

    1993-08-01

    The Salt Wash field is located 15 miles southeast of Green River, Utah, in the Paradox fold and fault belt. The field was discovered in 1961 and has produced over 1.3 million bbl of oil and 11.6 billion ft[sup 3] of gas from the Mississippian Leadville LImestone. The average surface elevation is 4389 ft above sea level, and the depth to the top of the oil production is form 8500 to 8914 ft. Salt Wash field is an anticline with over 200 ft of closure on top of the Leadville. The producing zone is in the lower Leadville with intercrystalline and vuggy porosity developed in limestone and crystalline dolomitic limestone. The produced oil is a 50 to 53 API gravity crude with a 40[degrees]F pour point. The gas, a mixture of two sources, is predominately nitrogen (>70[sup [approximately

  5. A new technique for bladder washing.

    PubMed

    Miller, D C; Fitkin, D L; Kropp, K A; Selman, S H

    1992-01-01

    We describe a simple adaptation of the Water Pik (Teledyne Water Pik, Fort Collins, Colorado) irrigating device which allows vigorous, direct-vision agitation of the bladder wall. Three groups of mongrel dogs were subjected to cystoscopy and either syringe barbotage, half-speed Water Pik irrigation, or full-speed Water Pik irrigation of the bladder wall. Transitional cell counts were then done on centrifuged aliquots of each bladder wash specimen. The average number of transitional cells per high-power field were similar between the control group and the syringe barbotage group (2.5 and 1.5 respectively). However, both the half-speed and the full-speed Water Pik groups demonstrated statistically higher cell counts (5.7 and 13.7) when compared to both the controls and syringe barbotage groups. We conclude that Water Pik irrigation is an effective method to increase cell yield in bladder wash specimens. PMID:1729530

  6. Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; FV Hoopes

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching.

  7. Continuous concentration and constant volume washing of tetraphenylborate slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, J.L.

    1999-12-08

    SRTC has completed filtration testing of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurries with and without sludge. These tests were slightly different from previous SRS tests in that they used continuous mode concentration and constant volume washing evolutions. The extent of TPB recovery during washing was measured. The resulting washed precipitate slurry, with sludge, was stored at ambient temperature and under a nitrogen-inerted atmosphere to study TPB stability. Samples of both unwashed and washed slurries were submitted for rheology measurements.

  8. Interruption of shigellosis by hand washing.

    PubMed

    Khan, M U

    1982-01-01

    High attack rates, increasing resistance to antibiotics and high mortality make shigellosis a serious problem. As Shigella is associated with poor hygiene we examined the effectiveness of a simple intervention, washing hands with soap and water, in checking the spread of the disease. The study population was comprised of confirmed cases of shigellosis. These and matched controls were followed up for 10 days. Several pieces of soap and earthenware pitchers for storing water were provided to the study families and they were advised to wash their hands with soap and water after defaecation and before meals. Compliance was monitored daily by observing the size of the soap and residual water. Rectal swabs of contacts of both the groups were obtained for culture. The secondary infection rate was 10.1% in the study group and 32.4% in the control group. The secondary case (symptomatic) rate was 2.2% in the study group and 14.2% in the control group. These results suggest that hand-washing has a positive interrupting effect, even in unsanitary environments.

  9. Electrostatic precipitator having traversing collector washing mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, J.C.; Elsbernd, C.A.

    1980-12-23

    An electrostatic precipitator air cleaner is described that includes a number of precipitator cells having spaced parallel plates for collecting dirt particles, and a vertically disposed traversing pipe-like spray header containing a number of spray nozzles for directing a spray of wash or rinse fluid onto the collecting plates in order to remove collected particles. The header is traversed horizontally across the precipitator cells by means of a trolley supported by a rail-like guide member and reciprocated between a home position and an extended position by means of a rotating elongated helical drive screw cooperating with a gear-like follower attached to the trolley, such that the rotation of the screw produces linear motion of the header. The header is connected to a source of wash or rinse fluid by means of swivel connections and a flexible conduit. An elongated flat resilient fluid impervious strip containing a longitudinal slit in sliding sealable engagement with the header is positioned between the traversing mechanism and the spray nozzles to prevent infiltration of the precipitator airstream or wash fluid into the area occupied by the traversing mechanism. The threaded follower may also be disengaged from the helical drive screw and the header moved manually to any position along its length of travel.

  10. Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2012-08-14

    A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a solid solution of alumina or alumina-based material (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-0-3 wt % La.sub.2O.sub.3) and a further oxide exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion that is lower than that exhibited by alumina. The further oxide may be silicon dioxide (2-30 wt % SiO.sub.2), zirconia silicate (2-30 wt % ZrSiO.sub.4), neodymium oxide (0-4 wt %), titania (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-3-40% TiO.sub.2) or alumina-based magnesium aluminate spinel (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-25 wt % MgO) in various embodiments. The active catalyst species may be palladium and a second metal in a concentration of 10-50% of the concentration of the palladium.

  11. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines

    PubMed Central

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S.; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering. PMID:26696989

  12. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: WARRP Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This activity demonstrated, on a practical scale, the primary unit operations for building a containment structure for radioactive wash waters, washing down a hypothetically radioactively contaminated vehicle, collecting the hypothetically radioactive slurry waste water, filtering the hypothetically radioactive wash waters, disassembling the containment, and transporting the materials for final disposition.

  13. Application of Chinese Ink Wash Drawing in Product Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Huang, Qiming; Qin, Chuan

    Based on the analysis of the art of Chinese Ink Wash Drawing style, then explains the purpose and meaning of the study for product design with Ink Wash Drawing, in the end combined with actual cases, describes the application of product design using Chinese Ink Wash Drawing.

  14. [Formaldehyde determination in shampoos, bath preparations and dish washing liquids by colorimetric methods].

    PubMed

    Kwast, M; Kiss, E

    1995-01-01

    In the years 1992-1993 in cooperation with Province Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations 2415 samples of shampoos and bath preparations for adults and children as well as of dish washing liquids, imported and produced in Poland, were analysed. The colorimetric method either with the chromotropic acid or acetylacetone was used. Among polish preparations, only in 6% samples of cosmetic products for children the level of formaldehyde exceeded permitted level of 50 mg/kg. In all cosmetic products for adults as well as in all samples of dish washing liquids the content of formaldehyde was below permitted level 500 mg/kg. Among imported products, 40% of samples of cosmetics for children, 3%--for adults and 2% of dish washing liquids revealed formaldehyde level above permitted values. It is advisable to determine periodically formaldehyde content in particular cosmetic products, such as shampoos and bath preparations, mainly used by children.

  15. Enhanced Inactivation of Salmonella and Pseudomonas Biofilms on Stainless Steel by Use of T-128, a Fresh-Produce Washing Aid, in Chlorinated Wash Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cangliang; Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Bauchan, Gary; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the washing aid T-128 (generally recognized as safe [GRAS] formulation, composed mainly of phosphoric acid and propylene glycol) on inactivation of Salmonella and Pseudomonas populations in biofilms on stainless steel was evaluated under conditions of increasing organic matter loads in chlorinated wash solutions dominated by hypochlorous acid. Biofilms were formed statically on stainless steel coupons suspended in 2% lettuce extract after inoculation with Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson or Newport or with Pseudomonas fluorescens. Coupons with biofilms were washed in chlorine solutions (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, or 20 mg/liter at pH 6.5, 5.0 and 2.9), with or without T-128, and with increasing loads of organic matter (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0% lettuce extract). Cell populations on coupons were dispersed using intermittent, pulsed ultrasonication and vortexing and enumerated by colony counts on XLT-4 or Pseudomonas agars. Cell responses to fluorescent viability staining of biofilm treatment washing solutions were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results showed that 0.1% T-128 (without chlorine) reduced P. fluorescens biofilm populations by 2.5 log10 units but did not reduce Salmonella populations. For both Salmonella and Pseudomonas, the sanitizing effect of free chlorine (1.0 to 5.0 mg/liter) was enhanced (P < 0.05) when it was combined with T-128. Application of T-128 decreased the free chlorine depletion rate caused by increasing organic matter in wash waters and significantly (P < 0.05) augmented inactivation of bacteria in biofilms compared to treatments without T-128. Image analysis of surfaces stained with SYTO and propidium iodide corroborate the cultural assay results showing that T-128 can aid in reducing pathogen viability in biofilms and thus can aid in sanitizing stainless steel contact surfaces during processing of fresh-cut produce. PMID:22752180

  16. Washing and alkaline leaching of Hanford tank sludges: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G.J.; Rapko, B.M.

    1994-09-01

    Because of the assumed high cost of high-level waste (HLW) immobilization and disposal, pretreatment methods are being developed to minimize the volume of HLW requiring vitrification. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating several options for pretreating the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The pretreatment methods under study for the tank sludges include: (1) simply washing the sludges with dilute NaOH, (2) performing caustic leaching (as well as washing) to remove certain wash components, and (3) dissolving the sludges in acid and extracting key radionuclides from the dissolved sludge solutions. The data collected in this effort will be used to support the March 1998 decision on the extent of pretreatment to be performed on the Hanford tank sludges. This document describes sludge washing and caustic leaching tests conducted in FY 1994. These tests were performed using sludges from single-shell tanks (SST) B-201 and U-110. A summary is given of all the sludge washing and caustic leaching studies conducted at PNL in the last few years.

  17. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water.

    PubMed

    Banach, Jennifer L; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine

    2015-07-23

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant's reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer's efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  18. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    PubMed Central

    Banach, Jennifer L.; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H.J. (Ine)

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer. PMID:26213953

  19. Effects of water washing and torrefaction pretreatments on rice husk pyrolysis by microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan; Liu, Xinzhi; Zhu, Shuguang

    2015-10-01

    The influences of water washing, torrefaction and combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatments on microwave pyrolysis of rice husk samples were investigated. The results indicated that the process of combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatment could effectively remove a large portion of inorganics and improve the fuel characteristics to a certain extent. The gas products were rich in combustible compositions and the syngas quality was improved by pretreatment process. The liquid products contained less moisture content, acids and furans, while more concentrated phenols and sugars from microwave pyrolysis of rice husk after pretreatments, especially after the combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatment. Biochar, produced in high yield, has the alkaline pH (pH 8.2-10.0) and high surface area (S(BET) 157.81-267.84 m(2)/g), they have the potential to be used as soil amendments. It is noteworthy that water washing increased the pore surface area of biochar, but torrefaction reduced the pore surface area.

  20. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water.

    PubMed

    Banach, Jennifer L; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine

    2015-08-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant's reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer's efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer. PMID:26213953

  1. Soil Washing Experiment for Decontamination of Contaminated NPP Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Son, J.K.; Kang, K.D.; Kim, K.D.; Ha, J.H.; Song, M.J.

    2006-07-01

    The preliminary experiment was performed to obtain the operating conditions of soil washing decontamination process such as decontamination agent, decontamination temperature, decontamination time and ratio of soil and decontamination agent. To estimate decontamination efficiency, particle size of soil was classified into three categories; {>=} 2.0 mm, 2.0 {approx} 0.21 mm and {<=} 0.21 mm. Major target of this experiment was decontamination of Cs-137. The difference of decontamination efficiency using water and neutral salts as decontamination agent is not high. It is concluded that the best temperature of decontamination agent is normal temperature and the best decontamination time was about 60 minutes. And the best ratio of soil and decontamination agent is 1:10. In case of Cs decontamination for fine soils, the decontamination results using neutral salts such as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} shows some limits while using strong acid such as sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid shows high decontamination efficiency ({>=}90%). But we conclude that decontamination using strong acid is also inappropriate because of the insufficiency of decontamination efficiency for highly radioactive fine soils and the difficulty for treatment of secondary liquid waste. It is estimated that the best decontamination process is to use water as decontamination agent for particles which can be decontaminated to clearance level, after particle size separation. (authors)

  2. Fresh produce washing aid, T-128, enhances inactivation of salmonella and pseudomonas biofilms on stainless steel in chlorinated wash solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of chlorine wash solutions, with/without the washing aid, T-128, on inactivation of Salmonella and Pseudomonas populations in biofilms on stainless steel coupons was evaluated under conditions of increasing organic matter loads in the wash water. Biofilms were formed statically on stai...

  3. Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu.

    PubMed

    Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen

    2004-11-01

    In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg(-1) soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg(-1) Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8 +/-1.3 mg kg(-1) Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg(-1) exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53 +/- 0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates.

  4. Face washing promotion for preventing active trachoma

    PubMed Central

    Ejere, Henry OD; Alhassan, Mahmoud B; Rabiu, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    Background Trachoma remains a major cause of avoidable blindness among underprivileged populations in many developing countries. It is estimated that about 146 million people have active trachoma and nearly six million people are blind due to complications associated with repeat infections. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of face washing promotion for the prevention of active trachoma in endemic communities. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to January 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2015), PubMed (January 1948 to January 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (accessed 10 January 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 26 January 2015. To identify further relevant trials we checked the reference lists of the included trials. Also, we used the Science Citation Index to search for references to publications that cited the trials included in the review. We contacted investigators and experts in the field to identify additional trials. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared face washing with no treatment or face washing combined with antibiotics against antibiotics alone. Trial participants were residents of endemic trachoma communities. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We contacted trial

  5. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  6. Standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell washing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sixing; Ding, Xiaoyun; Mao, Zhangming; Chen, Yuchao; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; Wang, Lin; Cameron, Craig E.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cell/bead washing is an indispensable sample preparation procedure used in various cell studies and analytical processes. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microfluidic device for cell and bead washing in a continuous flow. In our approach, the acoustic radiation force generated in a SSAW field is utilized to actively extract cells or beads from their original medium. A unique configuration of tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) is employed in our device, enabling us to wash beads with >98% recovery rate and >97% washing efficiency. We also demonstrate the functionality of our device by preparing high-purity (>97%) white blood cells from lysed blood samples through cell washing. Our SSAW-based cell/bead washing device has the advantages of label-free manipulation, simplicity, high biocompatibility, high recovery rate, and high washing efficiency. It can be useful for many lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:25372273

  7. Washed cell salvage in surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Meybohm, Patrick; Choorapoikayil, Suma; Wessels, Anke; Herrmann, Eva; Zacharowski, Kai; Spahn, Donat R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cell salvage is commonly used as part of a blood conservation strategy. However concerns among clinicians exist about the efficacy of transfusion of washed cell salvage. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which patients, scheduled for all types of surgery, were randomized to washed cell salvage or to a control group with no cell salvage. Data were independently extracted, risk ratio (RR), and weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data were pooled using a random effects model. The primary endpoint was the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Results: Out of 1140 search results, a total of 47 trials were included. Overall, the use of washed cell salvage reduced the rate of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion by a relative 39% (RR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.65; P < 0.001), resulting in an average saving of 0.20 units of allogeneic RBC per patient (weighted mean differences [WMD] = −0.20; 95% CI −0.22 to −0.18; P < 0.001), reduced risk of infection by 28% (RR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.97; P = 0.03), reduced length of hospital stay by 2.31 days (WMD = −2.31; 95% CI −2.50 to −2.11; P < 0.001), but did not significantly affect risk of mortality (RR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.34; P = 0.66). No statistical difference could be observed in the number of patients exposed to re-operation, plasma, platelets, or rate of myocardial infarction and stroke. Conclusions: Washed cell salvage is efficacious in reducing the need for allogeneic RBC transfusion and risk of infection in surgery. PMID:27495095

  8. TANK 4 CHARACTERIZATION, SETTLING, AND WASHING STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-09-29

    A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an

  9. Advising parents on washing babies' clothes.

    PubMed

    Scowen, P

    1996-01-01

    Detergents and other laundry products are generally effective and safe for all the family, but use carefully according to the maker's instructions and keep out of the reach of children. Rinse thoroughly to remove detergent residue from fabrics. If handwashing clothes, dissolve detergent before immersing hands. Wear rubber gloves if possible. Wash, rinse and dry hands thoroughly after contact with detergent. If a baby or parent has eczema, it may be necessary to try different products to see which one the client can tolerate. A non-perfumed, non-enzyme product may be found less irritating. PMID:9077252

  10. Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

    2010-12-01

    Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia.

  11. Bacterial resistance and topical antimicrobial wash products.

    PubMed

    Jones, R D

    1999-08-01

    Current scientific evidence has not shown that a link exists between the use of topical antimicrobial formulations and antiseptic or antibiotic resistance. As a result of the extensive history and varied use of antiseptic products and ingredients, any selective pressure for antibiotic resistance that may be occurring or may be uncovered in the future because of antiseptic use would be expected to be insignificant compared with the selective pressure because of antibiotic use. This review illustrates the effectiveness of topical antimicrobial wash products against antibiotic-resistant and antiseptic-resistant bacteria in use settings as well as the studies performed (antiseptic, deodorant, and oral care) demonstrating the lack of development of resistance in long-term clinical studies. Although these studies illustrate that the use of topical antimicrobial products have not been shown to play a role in the fluctuations of the specific composition or resistance of the skin flora, changes in skin flora have been shown to occur. Based on current knowledge, the benefit from use of topical antimicrobial wash products in combination with standard infection control and personal hygiene practices far outweighs the risk of increased antibiotic resistance.

  12. Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

    2006-08-01

    Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanford’s pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data.

  13. Effect of curd washing on the properties of reduced-calcium and standard-calcium Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jia; McSweeney, Paul L H; Beresford, Thomas P; Guinee, Timothy P

    2014-10-01

    Washed (W) and nonwashed (NW) variants of standard (SCa) and reduced-calcium (RCa) Cheddar cheeses were made in triplicate, ripened for a 270-d period, and analyzed for composition and changes during maturation. Curd washing was applied to cheeses to give a target level of lactose plus lactic acid in cheese moisture of 3.9 g/100 g in the W cheese, compared with a value of 5.3 g/100 g of lactose plus lactic acid in cheese moisture in the control NW cheeses. The 4 cheese types were denoted standard calcium nonwashed (SCaNW), standard calcium washed (SCaW), reduced-calcium nonwashed (RCaNW), and reduced-calcium washed (RCaW). The mean calcium level was 760 mg/100 g in the SCaNW and SCaW and 660 mg/100 g in the RCaNW and RCaW cheeses. Otherwise the gross composition of all cheeses was similar, each with protein, fat, and moisture levels of ~26, 32, and 36 g/100 g, respectively. Curd washing significantly reduced the mean level of lactic acid in the SCaW cheese and residual lactose in both SCaW and RCaW cheeses. The mean pH of the standard-calcium cheese over the 270-d ripening period increased significantly with curd washing and ripening time, in contrast to the reduced-calcium cheese, which was not affected by the latter parameters. Otherwise curd washing had little effect on changes in populations of starter bacteria or nonstarter lactic acid bacteria, proteolysis, rheology, or color of the cheese during ripening. Descriptive sensory analysis at 270 d indicated that the SCaW cheese had a nuttier, sweeter, less fruity, and less rancid taste than the corresponding SCaNW cheese. In contrast, curd washing was not as effective in discriminating between the RCaW and RCaNW cheeses. The RCaW cheese had a more buttery, caramel odor and flavor, and a more bitter, less sweet, and nutty taste than the SCaW cheese, whereas the RCaNW had a more pungent and less fruity flavor, a less fruity odor, a saltier, more-bitter, and less acidic taste, and a more astringent mouthfeel than

  14. Effect of curd washing on the properties of reduced-calcium and standard-calcium Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jia; McSweeney, Paul L H; Beresford, Thomas P; Guinee, Timothy P

    2014-10-01

    Washed (W) and nonwashed (NW) variants of standard (SCa) and reduced-calcium (RCa) Cheddar cheeses were made in triplicate, ripened for a 270-d period, and analyzed for composition and changes during maturation. Curd washing was applied to cheeses to give a target level of lactose plus lactic acid in cheese moisture of 3.9 g/100 g in the W cheese, compared with a value of 5.3 g/100 g of lactose plus lactic acid in cheese moisture in the control NW cheeses. The 4 cheese types were denoted standard calcium nonwashed (SCaNW), standard calcium washed (SCaW), reduced-calcium nonwashed (RCaNW), and reduced-calcium washed (RCaW). The mean calcium level was 760 mg/100 g in the SCaNW and SCaW and 660 mg/100 g in the RCaNW and RCaW cheeses. Otherwise the gross composition of all cheeses was similar, each with protein, fat, and moisture levels of ~26, 32, and 36 g/100 g, respectively. Curd washing significantly reduced the mean level of lactic acid in the SCaW cheese and residual lactose in both SCaW and RCaW cheeses. The mean pH of the standard-calcium cheese over the 270-d ripening period increased significantly with curd washing and ripening time, in contrast to the reduced-calcium cheese, which was not affected by the latter parameters. Otherwise curd washing had little effect on changes in populations of starter bacteria or nonstarter lactic acid bacteria, proteolysis, rheology, or color of the cheese during ripening. Descriptive sensory analysis at 270 d indicated that the SCaW cheese had a nuttier, sweeter, less fruity, and less rancid taste than the corresponding SCaNW cheese. In contrast, curd washing was not as effective in discriminating between the RCaW and RCaNW cheeses. The RCaW cheese had a more buttery, caramel odor and flavor, and a more bitter, less sweet, and nutty taste than the SCaW cheese, whereas the RCaNW had a more pungent and less fruity flavor, a less fruity odor, a saltier, more-bitter, and less acidic taste, and a more astringent mouthfeel than

  15. Heavy metal removal by GLDA washing: Optimization, redistribution, recycling, and changes in soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiyin; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Zhong, Qinmei; Zhang, Chuer; Jia, Yongxia; Li, Ting; Deng, Ouping; Li, Yun

    2016-11-01

    Soil washing, an emerging method for treating soils contaminated by heavy metals, requires an evaluation of its efficiency in simultaneously removing different metals, the quality of the soil following remediation, and the reusability of the recycled washing agent. In this study, we employed N,N-bis (carboxymethyl)-l-glutamic acid (GLDA), a novel and readily biodegradable chelator to remove Cd, Pb, and Zn from polluted soils. We investigated the influence of washing conditions, including GLDA concentration, pH, and contact time on their removal efficiencies. The single factor experiments showed that Cd, Pb, and Zn removal efficiencies reached 70.62, 74.45, and 34.43% in mine soil at a GLDA concentration of 75mM, a pH of 4.0, and a contact time of 60min, and in polluted farmland soil, removal efficiencies were 69.12, 78.30, and 39.50%, respectively. We then employed response surface methodology to optimize the washing parameters. The optimization process showed that the removal efficiencies were 69.50, 88.09, and 40.45% in mine soil and 71.34, 81.02, and 50.95% in polluted farmland soil for Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the overall highly effective removal of Cd and Pb was connected mainly to their highly effective removal from the water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fractions. GLDA-washing eliminated the same amount of metals as EDTA-washing, while simultaneously retaining most of the soil nutrients. Removal efficiencies of recycled GLDA were no >5% lower than those of the fresh GLDA. Therefore, GLDA could potentially be used for the rehabilitation of soil contaminated by heavy metals.

  16. Heavy metal removal by GLDA washing: Optimization, redistribution, recycling, and changes in soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiyin; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Zhong, Qinmei; Zhang, Chuer; Jia, Yongxia; Li, Ting; Deng, Ouping; Li, Yun

    2016-11-01

    Soil washing, an emerging method for treating soils contaminated by heavy metals, requires an evaluation of its efficiency in simultaneously removing different metals, the quality of the soil following remediation, and the reusability of the recycled washing agent. In this study, we employed N,N-bis (carboxymethyl)-l-glutamic acid (GLDA), a novel and readily biodegradable chelator to remove Cd, Pb, and Zn from polluted soils. We investigated the influence of washing conditions, including GLDA concentration, pH, and contact time on their removal efficiencies. The single factor experiments showed that Cd, Pb, and Zn removal efficiencies reached 70.62, 74.45, and 34.43% in mine soil at a GLDA concentration of 75mM, a pH of 4.0, and a contact time of 60min, and in polluted farmland soil, removal efficiencies were 69.12, 78.30, and 39.50%, respectively. We then employed response surface methodology to optimize the washing parameters. The optimization process showed that the removal efficiencies were 69.50, 88.09, and 40.45% in mine soil and 71.34, 81.02, and 50.95% in polluted farmland soil for Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the overall highly effective removal of Cd and Pb was connected mainly to their highly effective removal from the water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fractions. GLDA-washing eliminated the same amount of metals as EDTA-washing, while simultaneously retaining most of the soil nutrients. Removal efficiencies of recycled GLDA were no >5% lower than those of the fresh GLDA. Therefore, GLDA could potentially be used for the rehabilitation of soil contaminated by heavy metals. PMID:27371771

  17. Antibacterial perineal washing for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Cass, A S; Ireland, G W

    1985-05-01

    Antibacterial ointment applied to the urethral meatus in females with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) has been reported to decrease the incidence of UTIs. The value of perineal washing with the antibacterial lotion, hexachlorophene, in preventing urinary tract infections was determined in 56 females with recurrent UTIs. Of three groups of females one group used hexachlorophene perineal washings morning and night, another group used hexachlorophene perineal washings and an oral antibacterial daily (nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), and the third group used the oral antibacterials daily alone. The infections per patient were 3.4 with hexachlorophene washings, 0.5 with hexachlorophene washing and oral antibacterials daily, and 0.9 with oral antibacterials alone. These results suggest that hexachlorophene perineal washing was not effective in preventing UTI in females.

  18. Effectiveness of Washing Procedures in Reducing Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on a Raw Leafy Green Vegetable (Eruca vesicaria)

    PubMed Central

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Belluco, Simone; Losasso, Carmen; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Bordin, Paola; Piovesana, Alessia; Comin, Damiano; Mioni, Renzo; Ricci, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are an important source of nutrients, but they can host a large microbial population, particularly bacteria. Foodborne pathogens can contaminate raw vegetables at any stage of their production process with a potential for human infection. Appropriate washing can mitigate the risk of foodborne illness consequent to vegetable consumption by reducing pathogen levels, but few data are available to assess the efficacy of different practices. In the present work, six different washing methods, in the presence or absence of sanitisers (peracetic acid and percitric acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hypochlorite) and vinegar, were tested for their effectiveness in reducing Salmonella and Listeria counts after artificial contamination of raw rocket (Eruca vesicaria). Results showed that washing with sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/L) was the only method able to produce a significant 2 Log reduction of Salmonella counts, but only in the case of high initial contamination (7 Log CFU/g), suggesting potential harmful effects for consumers could occur. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, all the examined washing methods were effective, with 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite solution and a solution of peracetic and percitric acids displaying the best performances (2 and 1.5 Log reductions, respectively). This highlights the importance of targeting consumers on fit for purpose and safe washing practices to circumvent vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens. PMID:27812356

  19. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Pummer, Bernhard; Grothe, Hinrich; Niedermeier, Dennis; Clauss, Tina; Voigtländer, Jens; Tomsche, Laura; Wex, Heike; Stratmann, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Up to now, the importance of pollen for atmospheric ice nucleation was considered to be minor, as they are too large to stay in the atmosphere for a long time. But as recent investigations have shown, not the pollen grains themselves are responsible for freezing, but easily suspendable macromolecules on their surfaces (Pummer et al., 2012). Due to the bursting of pollen grains these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules could be numerous in the atmosphere. In the present study, the immersion freezing behavior of birch pollen, i.e. its ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, was investigated at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS, Hartmann et al., 2011). For this, washing water of two different birch pollen samples with different origin (Northern birch and Southern birch) were used. Immersion freezing of droplets generated from the pollen washing water was observed at temperatures higher than -20 °C for both samples. The main difference between the Northern and the Southern birch pollen was the temperature dependence of the immersion freezing process. Our results suggest that the ice nucleating potential of the Southern birch is controlled by a single type of INA macromolecule, while the Northern birch pollen seem to feature two distinctively different types of INA macromolecules. We determined the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types and thereby consistently describe the ice nucleation behavior of both, the Southern and the Northern birch pollen washing water. Furthermore we will suggest a theoretical framework for describing e.g. single INA macromolecule related ice nucleation in atmospheric models. References: Pummer, B. G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S. and Grothe, H.: Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2541-2550, doi:10.5194/acp-12-2541-2012, 2012. Hartmann, S., Niedermeier, D., Voigtländer, J., Clauss, T

  20. Durable titania films for solar treatment of biomethanated spent wash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Rokhsareh; S. Ghole, Vikram; Javadpour, Sirus

    2016-10-01

    The use of TiO2 films for treatment of biomethanated spent wash is reported. The films of TiO2 were formed and photocatalytic performance of the prepared films in degradation of methylene blue and biomethanated spent wash were studied. Photocatalytic use of these films was found to be effective for degradation of biomethanated spent wash. The photocatalyst was used up for 20 cycles without significant reduction in activities showing long life of the catalyst.

  1. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  2. Landscape of WASH-relevant Training for Humanitarian Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Dorea, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both employed humanitarian personnel as well as those seeking to start a career as an aid worker are often provided with or seek training on the theme of humanitarian water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The objective of this study was to conduct a landscaping exercise of the available WASH-relevant training for humanitarian emergencies. Methods: An open internet search was performed with specific terms related to humanitarian WASH. Retained search results included those training opportunities (including past ones) that were themed around or with a mentioned relevance to humanitarian WASH. Results and Discussion: A total of 42 training courses relevant to humanitarian emergency WASH were retained. In addition to the more generic/introductory trainings, some provided thematic variations such as coordination of WASH responses, project management, risk reduction, information, education and communication (IEC), and complex emergencies. Timely topics such as urban WASH, Ebola, and WASH innovations were also observed indicating the responsiveness of the training providers to the changing needs of humanitarian WASH response programmes. This survey also revealed a large variety in terms of target audience, duration, fees, location, and language of courses. There was no centralised listing of courses available on the Internet. Limitations of this exercise were also discussed. PMID:26064781

  3. Mercury distribution and lipid oxidation in fish muscle: Effects of washing and isoelectric protein precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gong, Y.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Ren, L.; Egelandsdal, B.; Richards, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all the mercury (Hg) in whole muscle from whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and walleye (Sander vitreus) was present as methyl mercury (MeHg). The Hg content in whole muscle from whitefish and walleye was 0.04-0.09 and 0.14-0.81 ppm, respectively. The myofibril fraction contained approximately three-fourths of the Hg in whitefish and walleye whole muscle. The sarcoplasmic protein fraction (e.g., press juice) was the next most abundant source of Hg. Isolated myosin, triacylglycerols, and cellular membranes contained the least Hg. Protein isolates prepared by pH shifting in the presence of citric acid did not decrease Hg levels. Addition of cysteine during washing decreased the Hg content in washed muscle probably through the interaction of the sulfhydryl group in cysteine with MeHg. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were lower during 2 ??C storage in isolates prepared by pH shifting compared to those of washed or unwashed mince from whole muscle. This was attributed to removing some of the cellular membranes by pH shifting. Washing the mince accelerated lipid peroxide formation but decreased secondary lipid oxidation products compared to that of the unwashed mince. This suggested that there was a lipid hydroperoxide generating system that was active upon dilution of aqueous antioxidants and pro-oxidants. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent.

  5. Prototype wash water renovation system integration with goverment-furnished wash fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A total renovation concept for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water to make the water reusable was developed. This concept included ferric chloride pretreatment to coagulate suspended solids such as soap and lint, pressure filtration, and carbon adsorption and ion exchange to remove trace dissolved organics and inorganic salts. A breadboard model which was developed to demonstrate the design adequacy of the various system components and the limits on system capacities and efficiencies.

  6. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  7. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. PIPING IN FOREGROUND IS NOT RELATED TO THE MACHINE. THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS SEEN AT THE LOWER LEFT. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  8. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  9. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  10. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  11. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  12. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE NONHISTORIC CHEMICAL BUILDING IS SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  13. EPA site demonstration of the Biotrol Soil Washing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.K.; Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, was demonstrated on soil that was contaminated by wood treating waste. The BioTrol Soil Washing was demonstrated in a treatment train sequence with two other pilot-scale units of BioTrol technologies for treatment of waste streams from the soil washer. The three technologies of the treatment train were: The BioTrol Soil Washer (BSW), the BioTrol Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), and the Slurry Bioreactor (SBR). The BioTrol processes were evaluated on pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which were the primary soil contaminants at the site. The sandy site soil, consisting of less than 10% of fines, was well suited for treatment by soil washing. The BSW successfully separated the feed soil (100% by weight) into 83% of washed soil, 10% of woody residues, and 7% of fines. The soil washer achieved up to 89% removal of PCP and PAHs, based on the difference between their levels in the feed soil and in the washed soil. The BATS degraded up to 94% of PCP in the process water from soil washing. The SBR achieved over 90% removals of PCP and 70-90% removals of PAHs, respectively from the soil washing. Cost of a commercial-scale soil washing, assuming use of all three technologies, was estimated to be $168 per ton of treated soil.

  14. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE BIOTROL SOIL WASHING PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, Inc., was demonstrate on soil contaminated by wood treating waste, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although soil washing was the main object of this demonstra...

  15. 30 CFR 1206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of washing allowances. 1206.458 Section 1206.458 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL... allowance for the costs of washing lease production that is not royalty bearing. (c) Reporting...

  16. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of washing allowances. 1206.259 Section 1206.259 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL... allowance for the costs of washing lease production that is not royalty bearing. (c) Reporting...

  17. 49 CFR 393.78 - Windshield wiping and washing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wiping and washing systems. (a) Vehicles manufactured on or after December 25, 1968. Each bus, truck, and truck-tractor manufactured on or after December 25, 1968, must have a windshield wiping system that... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Windshield wiping and washing systems....

  18. 49 CFR 393.78 - Windshield wiping and washing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... wiping and washing systems. (a) Vehicles manufactured on or after December 25, 1968. Each bus, truck, and truck-tractor manufactured on or after December 25, 1968, must have a windshield wiping system that... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Windshield wiping and washing systems....

  19. 2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through hatches, seen on rear wall, and washed of blood and flesh in redwood tanks, with wooden grates to hold skins down in water. Superstructure and screening on tanks are a later alteration, unrelated to this process. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  20. 30 CFR 1206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of washing allowances. 1206.458 Section 1206.458 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.458 Determination of washing allowances. (a) Arm's-length contracts. (1) For...

  1. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of washing allowances. 1206.259 Section 1206.259 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.259 Determination of washing allowances. (a) Arm's-length contracts. (1) For...

  2. 30 CFR 206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which the wash plant services, whichever is appropriate, or a unit of production method. After an... market the production for the mutual benefit of the lessee and the lessor, then MMS shall require that... lessee's payments for washing under an arm's-length contract are not based on a dollar-per-unit...

  3. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  4. 1. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN CANAL. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  5. 30 CFR 1206.258 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Washing allowances-general. 1206.258 Section 1206.258 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.258 Washing allowances—general....

  6. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts in manual or automatic cleaning systems. Such systems include, but are not limited to, soak vats and tanks... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parts wash solutions. 2902.51 Section...

  7. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts in manual or automatic cleaning systems. Such systems include, but are not limited to, soak vats and tanks... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parts wash solutions. 2902.51 Section...

  8. Wash room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. This room is a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wash room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. This room is a screened porch with the original sinks extant. Light and ventilation was borrowed from the wash room into the toilets and bathing rooms. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  9. Salmonella transfer during pilot plant scale washing and roller conveying of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella transfer during washing and roller conveying of inoculated tomatoes was quantified using a pilot scale tomato packing line equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers. Red round tomatoes (2.3 kg) were dip inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (avirulent) (4 log CFU/g), air dried for 2 h, and then washed in sanitizer-free water for 2 min. Inoculated tomatoes were then passed single file over a 1.5-m conveyor equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers followed by 25 previously washed uninoculated tomatoes. Tomato samples were collected after 2 min of both washing and roller conveying, with all 25 uninoculated tomatoes collected individually after conveying. Roller surface samples were collected before and after conveying the uninoculated tomatoes. Both tomato and surface samples were quantitatively examined for Salmonella by direct plating or membrane filtration using xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Regardless of the roller type, Salmonella populations on inoculated tomatoes did not significantly (P < 0.05) decrease during contact with the roller conveyors. After conveying uninoculated tomatoes over contaminated foam rollers, 96% of the 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at >100 CFU per tomato. With plastic rollers, 24 and 76% of tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at 10 to 100 and 1 to 10 CFU per tomato, respectively. In contrast, only 8% of 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with brush rollers with Salmonella populations of 1 to 10 CFU per tomato. Overall, cross-contamination was greatest with foam, followed by plastic and brush rollers (P < 0.05). Adding peroxyacetic acid or chlorine to the wash water significantly decreased cross-contamination during tomato conveying, with chlorine less effective in controlling Salmonella on foam compared with plastic and brush rollers. PMID:24674428

  10. Salmonella transfer during pilot plant scale washing and roller conveying of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella transfer during washing and roller conveying of inoculated tomatoes was quantified using a pilot scale tomato packing line equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers. Red round tomatoes (2.3 kg) were dip inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (avirulent) (4 log CFU/g), air dried for 2 h, and then washed in sanitizer-free water for 2 min. Inoculated tomatoes were then passed single file over a 1.5-m conveyor equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers followed by 25 previously washed uninoculated tomatoes. Tomato samples were collected after 2 min of both washing and roller conveying, with all 25 uninoculated tomatoes collected individually after conveying. Roller surface samples were collected before and after conveying the uninoculated tomatoes. Both tomato and surface samples were quantitatively examined for Salmonella by direct plating or membrane filtration using xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Regardless of the roller type, Salmonella populations on inoculated tomatoes did not significantly (P < 0.05) decrease during contact with the roller conveyors. After conveying uninoculated tomatoes over contaminated foam rollers, 96% of the 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at >100 CFU per tomato. With plastic rollers, 24 and 76% of tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at 10 to 100 and 1 to 10 CFU per tomato, respectively. In contrast, only 8% of 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with brush rollers with Salmonella populations of 1 to 10 CFU per tomato. Overall, cross-contamination was greatest with foam, followed by plastic and brush rollers (P < 0.05). Adding peroxyacetic acid or chlorine to the wash water significantly decreased cross-contamination during tomato conveying, with chlorine less effective in controlling Salmonella on foam compared with plastic and brush rollers.

  11. Harvest maturity, pre-cutting wash and post-processing dip to improve quality of fresh-cut carambola fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Arkin’ carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit harvested at color break or full yellow stage were washed with or without an alkaline solution (pH 12), cut to 10 mm slices, dipped in calcium ascorbate (Ca ASA), ascorbic acid (ASA) or water, and packaged in perforated clamshells for up to 14 days sto...

  12. Genesis Eco Systems, Inc. soil washing process

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R.J.

    1994-10-11

    The Genesis soil washing system is an integrated system of modular design allowing for maximum material handling capabilities, with optimized use of space for site mobility. The Surfactant Activated Bio-enhanced Remediation Equipment-Generation 1 (SABRE-1, Patent Applied For) modification was developed specifically for removing petroleum byproducts from contaminated soils. Scientifically formulated surfactants, introduced by high pressure spray nozzles, displace the contaminant from the surface of the soil particles into the process solution. Once the contaminant is dispersed into the liquid fraction of the process, it is either mechanically removed, chemically oxidized, or biologically oxidized. The contaminated process water is pumped through the Genesis Biosep (Patent Applied For) filtration system where the fines portion is flocculated, and the contaminant-rich liquid portion is combined with an activated mixture of nutrients and carefully selected bacteria to decompose the hydrocarbon fraction. The treated soil and dewatered fines are transferred to a bermed stockpile where bioremediation continues during drying. The process water is reclaimed, filtered, and recycled within the system.

  13. Induced phytoextraction/soil washing of lead using biodegradable chelate and permeable barriers.

    PubMed

    Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen

    2003-02-01

    Chelate-induced remediation has been proposed as an effective tool for the extraction of lead (Pb) from contaminated soils by plants. However, side-effects, mainly mobilization and leaching of Pb, raise environmental concerns. Biodegradable, synthetic organic chelate ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), and commonly used ethylenedimanetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used for induced phytoextraction with a test plant Brassica rapa and in situ washing of soil contaminated with 1350 mg/kg of Pb. Horizontal permeable barriers were placed 20 cm deep in soil columns and tested for their ability to prevent leaching of Pb. The reactive materials in the barriers were nutrient enriched vermiculite, peat or agricultural hydrogel, and apatite. EDTA and EDDS addition increased Pb concentrations in the test plant by 158 and 89 times compared to the control, to 817 and 464 mg/kg, respectively. In EDTA treatments, approximately 25% or more of total initial soil Pb was leached in single cycle of chelate addition. In EDDS treatments, 20% of the initial Pb was leached from columns with no barrier, while barriers with vermiculite or hydrogel and apatite decreased leaching by more than 60 times, to 0.35%. 11.6% of total initial Pb was washed from the soil above the barrier with vermiculite and apatite, where almost all leached Pb was accumulated. Results indicate that use of biodegradable chelate EDDS and permeable barriers may lead to environmentally safe induced Pb phytoextraction and in situ washing of Pb.

  14. Effect of different curd-washing methods on the insoluble Ca content and rheological properties of Colby cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-R; Johnson, M E; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Lucey, J A

    2011-06-01

    A curd-washing step is used in the manufacture of Colby cheese to decrease the residual lactose content and, thereby, decrease the potential formation of excessive levels of lactic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different washing methods on the Ca equilibrium and rheological properties of Colby cheese. Four different methods of curd-washing were performed. One method was batch washing (BW), where cold water (10°C) was added to the vat, with and without stirring, where curds were in contact with cold water for 5 min. The other method used was continuous washing (CW), with or without stirring, where curds were rinsed with continuously running cold water for approximately 7 min and water was allowed to drain immediately. Both methods used a similar volume of water. The manufacturing pH values were similar in all 4 treatments. The insoluble (INSOL) Ca content of cheese was measured by juice and acid-base titration methods and the rheological properties were measured by small amplitude oscillatory rheology. The levels of lactose in cheese at 1 d were significantly higher in CW cheese (0.06-0.11%) than in BW cheeses (∼0.02%). The levels of lactic acid at 2 and 12 wk were significantly higher in CW cheese than in BW cheeses. No differences in the total Ca content of cheeses were found. Cheese pH increased during ripening from approximately 5.1 to approximately 5.4. A decrease in INSOL Ca content of all cheeses during ripening occurred, although a steady increase in pH took place. The initial INSOL Ca content as a percent of total Ca in cheese ranged from 75 to 78% in all cheeses. The INSOL Ca content of cheese was significantly affected by washing method. Stirring during manufacturing did not have a significant effect on the INSOL Ca content of cheese during ripening. Batch-washed cheeses had significantly higher INSOL Ca contents than did CW cheeses during the first 4 wk of ripening. The maximum loss tangent values (meltability

  15. Improving Efficiency of Layer-By Coating on Nanosized Particles with Non-Washing Assembly Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutava, T.; Pattekari, P.; Parekh, G.; Lvov, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Non-washing layer-by-layer assembly allows to obtain concentrated (3-5 mg/mL) colloids of 150-200 nm diameter capsules encasing poorly soluble drug nanocrystals or soft gellike nanoparticles. Aggregation of the nanoparticles is prevented by using low molecular weight block-copolymers of poly(amino acids) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in a combination with heparin and bovine serum albumin at every bilayer building step. Minimal amounts of the polyelectrolytes are used to recharge the surface of nanoparticles in the non-washing LbL process. Such PEGylated shells result in drug nanocapsules with a high colloidal stability in PBS buffer and increased protein adhesion resistance.

  16. [To wash or not to wash the hands? Reasons for a nursing team].

    PubMed

    Martini, Angela Conte; Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria

    2005-04-01

    A qualitative study was performed by asking the nursing team at an emergency care hospital about the reasons that lead them to wash their hands or not, since this is an important measure to control cross infection in hospitals. The data, obtained by using the focus groups technique were submitted to enunciation analysis, resulting in emerging topics. It was found out that the supply of material and environmental resources is essential but does not solve all problems. The procedure is performed mainly because of visible dirt and it is a neglected and undervalued practice with predominant focus on protecting the professionals.

  17. Microbiological aspects of washing hands in slaughter-houses.

    PubMed

    de Wit, J C; Kampelmacher, E H

    1982-01-01

    The hand hygiene of workers in a number of chicken-, pig-, calf- and cattle slaughter-houses was investigated. The number of E. coli and salmonellae on hands was determined before and after washing hands in order to measure the washing effect on the number of these faecal bacteria. All workers examined carried E. coli on their hands during work. The average logarithmic E. coli count on hands before washing was about 5.0 in chicken-and calf-slaughter-houses, about 3.5 in pig-and 3.0 in cattle-slaughter-houses. Hand washing decreased the E. coli count per hand by about 1.5 log cycle. Salmonellae were isolated from the hands in chicken- (59 pos./145 samples), pig-(42 pos./116 samples) and calf-slaughter-houses (11 pos./68 samples). Even after washing salmonellae were found to be present. Generally 'normal' washing causes a considerable reduction in the number of transient bacteria on hands. The presence of E. coli and Salmonella after washing, however, indicates that the effectiveness of the procedure needs to be improved.

  18. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-11-01

    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  19. Hand washing frequencies and procedures used in retail food services.

    PubMed

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Sneed, Jeannie; Paez, Paola; Meyer, Janell

    2008-08-01

    Transmission of viruses, bacteria, and parasites to food by way of improperly washed hands is a major contributing factor in the spread of foodborne illnesses. Field observers have assessed compliance with hand washing regulations, yet few studies have included consideration of frequency and methods used by sectors of the food service industry or have included benchmarks for hand washing. Five 3-h observation periods of employee (n = 80) hand washing behaviors during menu production, service, and cleaning were conducted in 16 food service operations for a total of 240 h of direct observation. Four operations from each of four sectors of the retail food service industry participated in the study: assisted living for the elderly, childcare, restaurants, and schools. A validated observation form, based on 2005 Food Code guidelines, was used by two trained researchers. Researchers noted when hands should have been washed, when hands were washed, and how hands were washed. Overall compliance with Food Code recommendations for frequency during production, service, and cleaning phases ranged from 5% in restaurants to 33% in assisted living facilities. Procedural compliance rates also were low. Proposed benchmarks for the number of times hand washing should occur by each employee for each sector of food service during each phase of operation are seven times per hour for assisted living, nine times per hour for childcare, 29 times per hour for restaurants, and 11 times per hour for schools. These benchmarks are high, especially for restaurant employees. Implementation would mean lost productivity and potential for dermatitis; thus, active managerial control over work assignments is needed. These benchmarks can be used for training and to guide employee hand washing behaviors. PMID:18724759

  20. Effects of water washing on removing organic residues in bottom ashes of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Due to their potential toxicity and odourous nature, the residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerators are recently gaining attention as an important issue of resources recovery apart from their complex mixture of organic counterpart. Studies of the organic fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator residues have been limited. In this study, extended solid-phase extraction of the water-washed bottom ash and liquid-phase extraction of the washing water were carried out with regard to bottom ash samples from three mass-burning incinerators in Taipei County (Taiwan) during four consecutive seasons of year 2008-2009. Supercritical fluid extraction and Soxtec extraction techniques along with GC-MS were successfully used to characterize the residual organics in weathered and washed bottom ashes. Supercritical fluid extraction provided the quantification of aliphatics and aromatic compounds such as hexanoic acid and benzaldehyde, respectively. Soxtec extraction was useful for qualitative analysis of aromatic and aliphatic groups in the ashes and many of which were odourous and toxic compounds. By mixing one unit weight (g) bottom ash with two unit volume (mL) water for 15 min, total organic carbon in the bottom ash was greatly reduced (e.g., from 4.1 to 1.8 wt.%). Among the removed were foul odour-causing compounds such as pyridine and quinoline derivatives, while some aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and low-molecular-weight aliphatics such as hexanoic acid remained. The results here suggest that washing with water can be an effective pre-treatment step for removing odour-causing and environmental concerned organics. PMID:21112610

  1. Experimental study of the constituents of space wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.; Colombo, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents experimental data, obtained under controlled conditions, which quantify the various constituents of human origin that may be expected in space wash water. The experiments were conducted with a simulated crew of two male and two female subjects. The data show that the expected wash water contaminants originating from human secretions are substantially lower than theoretical projections indicated. The data presented are immediately useful and may have considerable impact on the tradeoff comparisons among various unit processes and systems under consideration by NASA for recycling space wash water.

  2. Endotoxins in cotton: washing effects and size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Olenchock, S.A.; Mull, J.C.; Jones, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Endotoxin contamination was measured in washed and unwashed cottons from three distinct growing areas, California, Mississippi, and Texas. The data show differences in endotoxin contamination based upon the geographic source of the cotton. It is also shown that washing bulk cotton before the carding process results in lower endotoxin in the cotton dust. Washing conditions can affect the endotoxin levels, and all size fractions of the airborne dust contain quantifiable endotoxin contamination. Endotoxin analyses provide a simple and reliable method for monitoring the cleanliness of cotton or airborne cotton dusts.

  3. Experimental study of the constituents of space wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented that quantify some of the various constituents of human origin that may be expected in space wash water. The experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with a simulated crew of two male and two female subjects. The data show that the expected wash water constituents originating from human secretions are substantially lower than theoretical projections have indicated. Average daily quantities as well as individual extremes are given for both shower and laundry water. In addition, concentrations are presented for a projected model of wash water usage in a space station.

  4. Percutaneous penetration and pharmacodynamics: Wash-in and wash-off of sunscreen and insect repellent.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jocelyn; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of skin cancer and mosquito-transmitted diseases has increased use of insect repellents and sunscreens. The challenge in setting recommendations for use and reapplication, especially when used concomitantly, lies in finding the balance between applying a durable product effective in withstanding natural and physical factors such as water, sweat, temperature and abrasion, while limiting percutaneous absorption and decreasing risk of potential dermal and systemic toxicity. Inorganic sunscreens show no or little percutaneous absorption or toxic effects in comparison to organic sunscreens, which show varying levels of dermal penetration and cutaneous adverse effects. An alternative to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the traditional gold standard compound in insect repellents, picaridin appears as efficacious, has lower risk of toxicity, and when used simultaneously with sunscreen may decrease percutaneous absorption of both compounds. Conversely, combined use of DEET and sunscreen results in significantly higher absorption of both compounds. It is important to increase consumer awareness of "washing in" of various compounds leading to increased risk of toxicity, as well as differences in reapplication need due to "washing off" caused by water, sweat and abrasion. Although much remains to be studied, to maximize efficacy and decrease toxicity, contemporary research tools, including dermatopharmokinetics, should aid these prospective advances. PMID:26811157

  5. Percutaneous penetration and pharmacodynamics: Wash-in and wash-off of sunscreen and insect repellent.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jocelyn; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of skin cancer and mosquito-transmitted diseases has increased use of insect repellents and sunscreens. The challenge in setting recommendations for use and reapplication, especially when used concomitantly, lies in finding the balance between applying a durable product effective in withstanding natural and physical factors such as water, sweat, temperature and abrasion, while limiting percutaneous absorption and decreasing risk of potential dermal and systemic toxicity. Inorganic sunscreens show no or little percutaneous absorption or toxic effects in comparison to organic sunscreens, which show varying levels of dermal penetration and cutaneous adverse effects. An alternative to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the traditional gold standard compound in insect repellents, picaridin appears as efficacious, has lower risk of toxicity, and when used simultaneously with sunscreen may decrease percutaneous absorption of both compounds. Conversely, combined use of DEET and sunscreen results in significantly higher absorption of both compounds. It is important to increase consumer awareness of "washing in" of various compounds leading to increased risk of toxicity, as well as differences in reapplication need due to "washing off" caused by water, sweat and abrasion. Although much remains to be studied, to maximize efficacy and decrease toxicity, contemporary research tools, including dermatopharmokinetics, should aid these prospective advances.

  6. Cross contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 between lettuce and wash water during home-scale washing.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼ 2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼ 1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces. PMID:25475312

  7. Cross contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 between lettuce and wash water during home-scale washing.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼ 2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼ 1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces.

  8. Optimizing the molarity of a EDTA washing solution for saturated-soil remediation of trace metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Andrade, M D; Prasher, S O; Hendershot, W H

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to optimize the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for reclaiming urban soils contaminated with trace metals. As compared to Na(2)EDTA, (NH(4))(2)EDTA extracted 60% more Zn and equivalent amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb from a sandy loam. When successively saturating and draining loamy sand columns during a washing cycle, which submerged it once with a (NH(4))(2)EDTA wash and four times with deionised water, the post-wash rinses largely contributed to the total cumulative extraction of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Both the washing solution and the deionised water rinses were added in a 2:5 liquid to soil (L:S) weight ratio. For equal amounts of EDTA, concentrating the washing solution and applying it and the ensuing rinses in a smaller 1:5 L:S weight ratio, instead of a 2:5 L:S weight ratio, increased the extraction of targeted Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn.

  9. Morphological alteration, lysosomal membrane fragility and apoptosis of the cells of Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Acharya, Avanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Sajal

    2015-12-01

    Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is a component of laundry detergent. Domestic effluent, drain water and various anthropogenic activities have been identified as major routes of sodium carbonate contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The freshwater sponge, Eunapius carteri, bears ecological and evolutionary significance and is considered as a bioresource in aquatic ecosystems. The present study involves estimation of morphological damage, lysosomal membrane integrity, activity of phosphatases and apoptosis in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Exposure to washing soda resulted in severe morphological alterations and damages in cells of E. carteri. Fragility and destabilization of lysosomal membranes of E. carteri under the sublethal exposure was indicative to toxin induced physiological stress in sponge. Prolonged exposure to sodium carbonate resulted a reduction in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the cells of E. carteri. Experimental concentration of 8 mg/l of washing soda for 192 h yielded an increase in the physiological level of cellular apoptosis among the semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, which was suggestive to possible shift in apoptosis mediated immunoprotection. The results were indicative of an undesirable shift in the immune status of sponge. Contamination of the freshwater aquifers by washing soda thus poses an alarming ecotoxicological threat to sponges.

  10. Washing off intensification of cotton and wool fabrics by ultrasounds.

    PubMed

    Peila, R; Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Rehman, S; Sicardi, S; Rovero, G

    2015-03-01

    Wet textile washing processes were set up for wool and cotton fabrics to evaluate the potential of ultrasound transducers (US) in improving dirt removal. The samples were contaminated with an emulsion of carbon soot in vegetable oil and aged for three hours in fan oven. Before washing, the fabrics were soaked for 3 min in a standard detergent solution and subsequently washed in a water bath. The dirt removal was evaluated through colorimetric measurements. The total color differences ΔE of the samples were measured with respect to an uncontaminated fabric, before and after each washing cycle. The percentage of ΔE variation obtained was calculated and correlated to the dirt removal. The results showed that the US transducers enhanced the dirt removal and temperature was the parameter most influencing the US efficiency on the cleaning process. Better results were obtained at a lower process temperature.

  11. Being washed by someone is therapeutic... and a treat.

    PubMed

    Winterflood, Florence

    2014-08-26

    When in Istanbul, I visited a hamam, a traditional Turkish bath. I'm familiar with other bathing rituals--steam room, sauna, Jacuzzi--but suspected being washed by someone in front of others was not very British.

  12. 11. VIEW LOOKING OUT UPPER LEVEL WINDOW OF WASH HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW LOOKING OUT UPPER LEVEL WINDOW OF WASH HOUSE SHOWING SLACK COAL STORAGE TANK - Kaymoor Coal Mine, South side of New River, upstream of New River Gorge Bridge, Fayetteville, Fayette County, WV

  13. 30 CFR 1206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.458 Determination of washing... bearing. (c) Reporting requirements—(1) Arm's-length contracts. (i) With the exception of those...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.259 Determination of washing... not royalty bearing. (c) Reporting requirements—(1) Arm's-length contracts. (i) The lessee must...

  15. 38. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden REAR ELEVATION OF W. C. PRATT'S COUNTRY SEAT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  16. 17. Photocopy of circa 1839 ink and wash drawing by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of circa 1839 ink and wash drawing by Richard Upjohn in Avery Library, Columbia University, New York, New York FRONT ELEVATION (below) AND REAR ELEVATION (above) - Kingscote, Bellevue Avenue & Bowery Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  17. 20. Photocopy of ink and wash drawing by Richard Upjohn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of ink and wash drawing by Richard Upjohn, circa 1839, in Avery Library, Columbia University FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS - Kingscote, Bellevue Avenue & Bowery Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  18. 19. Photocopy of circa 1839 ink and wash drawing by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of circa 1839 ink and wash drawing by Richard Upjohn in Avery Library, Columbia University EAST ELEVATION (above) AND SECOND-FLOOR PLAN (below) - Kingscote, Bellevue Avenue & Bowery Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. [The effectiveness of ozonated water for hand washing before surgery].

    PubMed

    Isosu, T; Kan, K; Hayashi, T; Fujii, M

    2001-06-01

    Using an ozonated water-dispensing machine for sterilization of hands (Mediaqua MA-III; Core Medical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), we investigated the effectiveness of ozonated water as a disinfectant for hand washing before surgery. The effectiveness of this new hand-washing method, using 4 ppm of ozonated water, which is expected to have a short-term bactericidal effect, and 0.2% benzalkonium chloride/83% ethanol solution (Welpas), which is expected to have a long-term bactericidal effect, was compared with that of the conventional hand-washing method (Fürbringer's method using a scrubbing agent containing povidone-iodine). The results showed no significant differences in the numbers of live bacteria and exponential reduction rates in live bacteria. Thus, this new method for hand washing using ozonated water is an effective method for sterilization of the hands before surgery.

  20. 37. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden SIDE ELEVATION OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR W. C. PRATT, ESQr - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  1. Documentation of a decision framework to support enhanced sludge washing

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    This document describes a proposed decision model that, if developed to its fullest, can provide a wide range of analysis options and insights to pretreatment/sludge washing alternatives. A recent decision has been made to terminate this work

  2. Appraisal of guidelines for pre-operative body wash.

    PubMed

    Edström, Elisabet; Westerberg, Lisa; Henricson, Maria

    The pre-operative body wash is a strategy for reducing post-operative infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge about its importance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of guidelines for the pre-operative body wash using the AGREE instrument--35 guidelines containing instructions for the pre-operative body wash or preparation were included. The AGREE instrument was employed to establish a quality assessment framework that facilitated a comparison of the guidelines. The results were based on the six domains of the AGREE instrument, all of which were found to have low adherence. Descriptive statistics were used to present the assessment score. The AGREE instrument is useful for evaluating the quality of clinical guidelines. The development of evidence-based guidelines must include clinical activities. Further research is required to clarify the pre-operative body wash process and how it should be performed to reduce post-operative infection. PMID:25426523

  3. Control of helminth contamination of raw vegetables by washing.

    PubMed

    Avcioğlu, Hamza; Soykan, Emel; Tarakci, Umit

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the control of helminth egg contamination of raw vegetables by washing. A total of 199 unwashed and 199 washed lettuce, parsley, carrots, dill, rocket, and green-peppers, provided by a catering service in Bursa, Turkey, between March and June 2009, were subjected to helminth egg count under light microscopy. Helminth eggs were detected in six (3.0%) unwashed samples and not in any washed samples (p<0.01). Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara spp. were detected in four (2.0%) and two (1.0%) unwashed vegetables, respectively, mostly among leafy vegetables such as lettuce and parsley. Our data confirm that washing procedures before consumption of raw vegetables regardless of the providers' sanitation should be performed to avoid transmission of helminths. PMID:20569015

  4. PARTS WASHING ALTERNATIVES STUDY - UNITED STATES COAST GUARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report has been written to assist the United States Coast Guard (USCG) industrial managers in determining the most cost effective and environmentally acceptable parts washing alternatives for their specific applications. An; evaluation was conducted on four different cleane...

  5. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

  6. 7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM SUPPORT TIMBERS, THREE BEARS LAKE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF LAKE - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  7. 6. VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING WASHED UP 12' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM SUPPORT TIMBERS, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF LAKE - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  8. Why Is Hand Washing So Important? (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Campylobacter Infections Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease MRSA Food Poisoning Diarrhea Tips From School Nurses on ... Hands Without Spreading Germs? Hand Washing Staph Infections MRSA Flu Facts Why Should I Care About Germs? ...

  9. View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking downstream, southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  10. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE OUTSIDE FACE OF THE NORTH WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS SEEN AT THE RIGHT. THE SETTLING RESERVOIR IS ELEVATED ABOVE THE FILTERING RESERVOIR TO ACHIEVE GRAVITY WATER FLOW FROM THE SETTLING RESERVOIR INTO THE FILTERING RESERVOIR. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  11. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-03-01

    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat.

  12. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry.

    PubMed

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-04-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween(®) 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween(®) 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R(2) > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween(®) 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween(®) 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  13. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry.

    PubMed

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-04-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween(®) 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween(®) 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R(2) > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween(®) 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween(®) 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  14. Effect of four pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of wheat straw. Influence of inhibitors and washing.

    PubMed

    Toquero, Cristina; Bolado, Silvia

    2014-04-01

    Pretreatment is essential in the production of alcohol from lignocellulosic material. In order to increase enzymatic sugar release and bioethanol production, thermal, dilute acid, dilute basic and alkaline peroxide pretreatments were applied to wheat straw. Compositional changes in pretreated solid fractions and sugars and possible inhibitory compounds released in liquid fractions were analysed. SEM analysis showed structural changes after pretreatments. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Pichia stipitis of unwashed and washed samples from each pretreatment were performed so as to compare sugar and ethanol yields. The effect of the main inhibitors found in hydrolysates (formic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was first studied through ethanol fermentations of model media and then compared to real hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of washed alkaline peroxide pretreated biomass provided the highest sugar concentrations, 31.82g/L glucose, and 13.75g/L xylose, their fermentation yielding promising results, with ethanol concentrations reaching 17.37g/L.

  15. Conformational changes in proteins recovered from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle through pH shift washing treatments.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Ruiz, Juan A; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Ramírez-Suárez, Juan C; Lugo-Sánchez, Maria E; García-Orozco, Karina D; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Peña-Ramos, Aida

    2016-04-01

    Conformational and thermal-rheological properties of acidic (APC) and neutral (NPC) protein concentrates were evaluated and compared to those of squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle proteins (SM). Surface hydrophobicity, sulfhydryl status, secondary structure profile, differential scanning calorimetry and oscillatory dynamic rheology were used to evaluate the effect of treatments on protein properties. Acidic condition during the washing process (APC) promoted structural and conformational changes in the protein present in the concentrate produced. These changes were enhanced during the heat setting of the corresponding sol. Results demonstrate that washing squid muscle under the proposed acidic conditions is a feasible technological alternative for squid-based surimi production improving its yield and gel-forming ability.

  16. A Comparative Study of Induced Sputum and Bronchial Washings in Diagnosing Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mandava, Venu; Namballa, Usha Rani; Makala, Sravani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis is one of the most important public health problem worldwide. Detecting patients with active pulmonary Koch’s disease is an important component of tuberculosis control programs. However, at times in patients even with a compatible clinical picture, sputum smears do not reveal acid-fast bacilli and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis remains a common problem. Aim The present study is aimed to compare the results of induced sputum and bronchial washings smear in patients suspected to have sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods A prospective study conducted from August 2014 to July 2015, comprising 120 patients fulfilling study criteria. Patients with respiratory symptoms and chest roentgenogram suspicious of pulmonary tuberculosis with no previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment and two spontaneous sputum smear samples negative for acid fast bacilli were included. Patients with active haemoptysis and sputum positive were excluded from the study. Sputum induction was done by using 5-10 ml of 3% hypertonic saline through ultrasonic nebulizer taking safety precautions. All the patient underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy after six hours fasting on the same day. About 20 ml of normal saline instilled into the suspected pathology area and washings were taken with gentle suction. The sample processing and fluorescent staining for acid fast bacilli was done in a designated microscopy lab. Results Out of 120 sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients, induced sputum smear examination detected acid fast bacilli in 76 patients (63.3%) and acid fast bacilli detected from bronchial washings in 94 patients (78.3%). Smear positivity was higher in cavitary and infiltrative lesions as compared to consolidation and infrahilar pattern disease. Conclusion Even though both induced sputum and bronchial washings procedures were valuable for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative, sputum induction with hypertonic

  17. Tolerability and cosmetic acceptability of a body wash in atopic dermatitis-prone subjects.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Staci; Meckfessel, Matthew H; Lio, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease characterized by eczematous eruptions and impaired skin barrier function. Patients, as well as their families, frequently report reductions in quality of life. Pruritus, lack of sleep, and impaired social functioning all contribute to this reduction. A skincare regimen of gentle cleansing and daily moisturization is integral to managing atopic dermatitis. While there are a multitude of reports supporting the use of moisturizers, there is a paucity regarding the use of cleansers, especially cleansers formulated with ingredients known to improve skin hydration. A clinical study was conducted to assess the tolerability and cosmetic acceptability of a body wash formulated with the filaggrin break-down products arginine and pyrrolidone carboxylic acid in subjects with atopic dermatitis-prone skin (Cetaphil® RestoraDerm® Body Wash). The results of this study indicate that Cetaphil RestoraDerm Body Wash was well tolerated, reduced itch, improved quality of life, and was well-liked by subjects with atopic dermatitis-prone skin.

  18. Effect of washing on the post-thaw quality of cryopreserved ram epididymal spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Touqeer; Islam, Rafiqul; Lone, Farooz Ahmad; Malik, Asloob Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of washing on the post-thaw quality of ram cauda epididymal spermatozoa (P1: Unwashed, P2: Washed). Materials and Methods: Fresh testicles of adult healthy slaughtered rams were collected and transported to the laboratory in an ice chest, where they were weighed, and cauda epididymides were separated. These cauda epididymides were used for recovery of spermatozoa in tris-citric acid fructose buffer by incision method. Spermatozoa samples showing ≥70% progressive motility were pooled and processed further. The mean values (±standard error) of various parameters such as the percentage of sperm motility, live sperm, intact acrosome, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) reacted spermatozoa were recorded. Results: In this experiment, the percent sperm motility, live spermatozoa, and intact acrosome both at pre-freeze and post-thaw were higher (p>0.05) in P1 than P2. However, the post-thaw percent HOST reacted spermatozoa was slightly higher (p>0.05) for P2 than P1. Conclusion: Washing of cauda epididymal spermatozoa has no significant adverse effect on the quality during cryopreservation. Therefore, this processing method can be applied wherever necessary before the extension of the recovered spermatozoa sample in different ram extenders. PMID:27284230

  19. Comparison of quality and freezability of water buffalo semen after washing or Sephadex filtration.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R L; Tuli, R K; Georgie, G C; Chand, D

    1996-09-01

    Split aliquots of pooled buffalo semen samples were processed before freezing 1) by washing twice with Tris-citric acid buffer by centrifugation and re-suspension to the original volume in the same buffer, or 2) or by passage through a G-15 Sephadex column. The effect of these procedures on progressive motility, percentages of live spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and intact acrosomes and release of glutamate oxatoacetate transaminase (GOT) into the medium were assessed after extension, after equilibration and after 18 to 24 h or 15 d of frozen storage. Prior to extension, gel filtration reduced sperm concentration and enhanced progressive motility, whereas washing produced little effect on these attributes. Except in the case of GOT release, which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower after the washing of semen (34.3 +/- 16.40) than the filtering of semen (45.7 +/- 12.35), the 2 procedures did not cause significant effects (P > 0.05). Damage to spermatozoa due to freeze-processing was also similar in the 2 treatments, and the extent of beneficial effect in improved motility and live spermatozoan numbers after thawing was also similar.

  20. Heavy metal contents in Egyptian meat and the role of detergent washing on their levels.

    PubMed

    Abou-Arab, A A

    2001-06-01

    Pollution of the environment with heavy metals is a serious problem, which is recognized in most countries of the world. Metals accumulate in the liver, and particularly in the kidneys. The present study provides information about the concentrations of metals in animal organs from both rural and industrial areas. It was surprising that the Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe contents in muscle, liver, kidney, heart and spleen in industrial areas were higher than in the same organs of rural areas. Lead concentrations in bovine liver and kidney, in buffalo, elk, sheep and goat kidneys as well as Cd in elk liver and kidneys were higher in the present study than the recommended values. The effect of washing for bovine muscle, liver and kidney using tap water and other detergent solutions on the metals was studied. Washing by only tap water was less effective than the other detergent. The results indicate the efficient role of washing by acidic detergent in the reduction of Pb, Cd and Zn from naturally contaminated meat compared with neutral and alkaline detergent.

  1. Effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk through TGA and Py-GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk were investigated through TGA and Py-GC/MS in this study. Two iso-conversional methods, i.e. Starink and FWO methods were applied for determination of the activation energy of original and pretreated rice husk samples at three different heating rates. It was found that activation energy of water washed rice husk was lower than that of original rice husk. Whereas, the activation energy increased with the increase of torrefaction temperature. The result of Py-GC/MS analysis indicated that both water washing and torrefaction pretreatments decreased the contents of acids, ketones, aldehydes and furans, while significantly increased the contents of sugars, especially levoglucosan. The relative content of released levoglucosan from pyrolysis of rice husk sample with combined water washing and 280°C torrefaction pretreatment is almost 9 times of that from original rice husk, which is about 3%. PMID:26343572

  2. Effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk through TGA and Py-GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk were investigated through TGA and Py-GC/MS in this study. Two iso-conversional methods, i.e. Starink and FWO methods were applied for determination of the activation energy of original and pretreated rice husk samples at three different heating rates. It was found that activation energy of water washed rice husk was lower than that of original rice husk. Whereas, the activation energy increased with the increase of torrefaction temperature. The result of Py-GC/MS analysis indicated that both water washing and torrefaction pretreatments decreased the contents of acids, ketones, aldehydes and furans, while significantly increased the contents of sugars, especially levoglucosan. The relative content of released levoglucosan from pyrolysis of rice husk sample with combined water washing and 280°C torrefaction pretreatment is almost 9 times of that from original rice husk, which is about 3%.

  3. Treatment of tunnel wash water and implications for its disposal.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, M; Renman, G; Byman, L; Svenstam, G; Norling, M

    2014-01-01

    The use of road tunnels in urban areas creates water pollution problems, since the tunnels must be frequently cleaned for traffic safety reasons. The washing generates extensive volumes of highly polluted water, for example, more than fivefold higher concentrations of suspended solids compared to highway runoff. The pollutants in the wash water have an affinity for particulate material, so sedimentation should be a viable treatment option. In this study, 12 in situ sedimentation trials were carried out on tunnel wash water, with and without addition of chemical flocculent. Initial suspended solids concentration ranged from 804 to 9,690 mg/L. With sedimentation times of less than 24 hours and use of a chemical flocculent, it was possible to reach low concentrations of suspended solids (<15 mg/L), PAH (<0.1 μg/L), As (<1.0 μg/L), Cd (<0.05 μg/L), Hg (<0.02 μg/L), Fe (<200 μg/L), Ni (<8 μg/L), Pb (<0.5 μg/L), Zn (<60 μg/L) and Cr (<8 μg/L). Acute Microtox(®) toxicity, mainly attributed to detergents used for the tunnel wash, decreased significantly at low suspended solids concentrations after sedimentation using a flocculent. The tunnel wash water did not inhibit nitrification. The treated water should be suitable for discharge into recipient waters or a wastewater treatment plant.

  4. Treatment of car wash wastewater by UF membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istirokhatun, Titik; Destianti, Puti; Hargianintya, Adenira; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    The existence of car wash service facilitates car owners to remove dirt and grime from their vehicles. However, the dirt washed off vehicles as well as the cleaning materials themselves may be harmful to the environment if they are not properly managed and discharged. Many technologies have been proposed to treat car wash wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, tricking filter and flocculation-flotation. Nevertheless, these technologies have low efficiency to eliminate oil and small organic compounds. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were used in this study to treat car wash wastewater. This study investigated the performance of UF membranes under various pressures to remove COD, oil and grease, and also turbidity from car wash waste water. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of permeate flux and membrane rejection. The results meet the standard of environmental regulation and it is possible to be reused. The highest rejection was shown by PES10 (polyethersulfone 10 kDa) in 1 bar operation with complete rejection for both turbidity and oil and grace and 95% rejection for COD.

  5. WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING POST ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION TANK 51 SLUDGE SLURRY

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M

    2008-04-28

    The remaining contents of Tank 51 from Sludge Batch 4 will be blended with Purex sludge from Tank 7 to constitute Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) has completed caustic addition to Tank 51 to perform low temperature Al dissolution on the H-Modified (HM) sludge material to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and Al being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) has also completed aluminum dissolution tests using a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry through funding by DOE EM-21. This report documents assessment of downstream impacts of the aluminum dissolved sludge, which were investigated so technical issues could be identified before the start of SB5 processing. This assessment included washing the aluminum dissolved sludge to a Tank Farm projected sodium concentration and weight percent insoluble solids content and DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing using the washed sludge. Based on the limited testing, the impact of aluminum dissolution on sludge settling is not clear. Settling was not predictable for the 3-L sample. Compared to the post aluminum dissolution sample, settling after the first wash was slower, but settling after the second wash was faster. For example, post aluminum dissolution sludge took six days to settle to 60% of the original sludge slurry height, while Wash 1 took nearly eight days, and Wash 2 only took two days. Aluminum dissolution did impact sludge rheology. A comparison between the as-received, post aluminum dissolution and washed samples indicate that the downstream materials were more viscous and the concentration of insoluble solids less than that of the starting material. This increase in viscosity may impact Tank 51 transfers to Tank 40. The impact of aluminum dissolution on DWPF CPC processing cannot be determined because acid addition for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle was under-calculated and thus

  6. Monitoring receptor trafficking following retromer and WASH deregulation.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Douglas G; Phillips-Krawczak, Christine A; Billadeau, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface receptors that have been internalized and enter the endocytic pathway have multiple fates including entrance into the multivesicular body pathway on their way to lysosomal degradation, recycling back to the cell surface, or retrograde trafficking out of the endolysosomal system back to the Golgi apparatus. Two ubiquitously expressed protein complexes, WASH and the endosomal coat complex retromer, function together to play a central role in directing the fate of receptors into the latter two pathways. In this chapter, we describe fluorescent- and flow cytometry-based methods for analyzing the recycling and retrograde trafficking of two receptors, α5β1 and CI-M6PR, whose intracellular fates are regulated by WASH and retromer activity. The guidelines presented in this chapter can be applied to the analysis of any cell surface or intracellular membrane protein to determine the impact of WASH or retromer deregulation on its intracellular trafficking route. PMID:26360036

  7. Wash-out in N2-dominated leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn-Woernle, F.

    2010-08-01

    We study the wash-out of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by subsequent interactions. Therefore we focus on a scenario in which a lepton asymmetry is established in the out-of-equilibrium decays of the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrino. We apply the full classical Boltzmann equations without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors to calculate the wash-out of the lepton asymmetry by interactions of the lightest right-handed state. We include scattering processes with top quarks in our analysis. This is of particular interest since the wash-out is enhanced by scatterings and the use of mode equations with quantum statistical distribution functions. In this way we provide a restriction on the parameter space for this scenario.

  8. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford Tank C-106 sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Hoopes, F.V.; Steele, R.T.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the results of a laboratory-scale washing and caustic leaching test performed on sludge from Hanford Tank C-106. The purpose of this test was to determine the behavior of important sludge components when subjected to washing with dilute or concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions. The results of this laboratory-scale test were used to support the design of a bench-scale washing and leaching process used to prepare several hundred grams of high-level waste solids for vitrification tests to be done by private contractors. The laboratory-scale test was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1996 as part of the Hanford privatization effort. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS; EM-30).

  9. Gravity and magnetic study of Yucca Wash, southwest Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-12-31

    Gravity and ground magnetic data were collected along five traverses across and one traverse along Yucca Wash in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site. Two additional ground magnetic profiles were collected approximately 100 m to either side of the longitudinal profile. These data do not indicate major vertical offsets greater than 100 m using a density contrast of 0.2 to 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} along the proposed Yucca Wash fault. A broad magnetic high coincides with the location of the hydrologic gradient. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Yucca Wash is about 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}.

  10. Increasing hand washing compliance with a simple visual cue.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric W; Boyer, Brian T; Menachemi, Nir; Huerta, Timothy R

    2014-10-01

    We tested the efficacy of a simple, visual cue to increase hand washing with soap and water. Automated towel dispensers in 8 public bathrooms were set to present a towel either with or without activation by users. We set the 2 modes to operate alternately for 10 weeks. Wireless sensors were used to record entry into bathrooms. Towel and soap consumption rates were checked weekly. There were 97,351 hand-washing opportunities across all restrooms. Towel use was 22.6% higher (P=.05) and soap use was 13.3% higher (P=.003) when the dispenser presented the towel without user activation than when activation was required. Results showed that a visual cue can increase hand-washing compliance in public facilities. PMID:24228670

  11. Improving protein array performance: focus on washing and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Hurst, Robin; Hook, Brad; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Zhao, Kate Q; Nassif, Nadine; Bulleit, Robert F; Storts, Douglas R

    2008-10-01

    For protein microarrays, maintaining protein stability during the slide processing steps of washing, drying, and storage is of major concern. Although several studies have focused on the stability of immobilized antibodies in antibody microarrays, studies on protein-protein interaction arrays and enzyme arrays are lacking. In this paper we used five bait-prey protein interaction pairs and three enzymes to optimize the washing, drying, and storage conditions for protein arrays. The protein arrays for the study were fabricated by combining HaloTag technology and cell-free protein expression. The HaloTag technology, in combination with cell-free expression, allowed rapid expression and immobilization of fusion proteins on hydrogel-coated glass slides directly from cell extracts without any prior purification. Experimental results indicate enzyme captured on glass slides undergoes significant loss of activity when washed and spin-dried using only phosphate buffer, as is typically done with antibody arrays. The impact of washing and spin-drying in phosphate buffer on protein-protein interaction arrays was minimal. However, addition of 5% glycerol to the wash buffer helps retain enzyme activity during washing and drying. We observed significant loss of enzyme activity when slides were stored dry at 4 degrees C, however immobilized enzymes remained active for 30 days when stored at -20 degrees C in 50% glycerol. We also found that cell-free extract containing HaloTag-fused enzymes could undergo multiple freeze/thaw cycles without any adverse impact on enzyme activity. The findings indicate that for large ongoing studies, proteins of interest expressed in cell-free extract can be stored at -70 degrees C and repeatedly used to print small batches of protein array slides to be used over a few weeks.

  12. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE ELECTRIC TROLLEY IS SEEN AT THE LEFT. THE BULKHEAD SEEN AT THE LOWER RIGHT IS NOT PART OF THE MACHINE; IT WAS INSTALLED TO RETAIN THE FILTER SAND AFTER THE MACHINE WAS NO LONGER USED. THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 4 IS SEEN IN THE DISTANCE BELOW THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE TROLLEY. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  13. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE SUCTION (INTAKE) HOSE IS SEEN AT THE LEFT RESTING ON THE FILTER BED SURFACE; THE DISCHARGE HOSE IS AT THE RIGHT, RUNNING FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE CENTRAL VERTICAL AXLE TO THE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. FROM THE PUMP WATER IS DISCHARGED THROUGH THE HORIZONTAL PIPE LOCATED UNDER THE EDGE OF PLATFORM DECK INTO THE WASTE-WATER TROUGH (NOT SEEN IN THIS VIEW). - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  14. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  15. Washing the patient: dignity and aesthetic values in nursing care.

    PubMed

    Pols, Jeannette

    2013-07-01

    Dignity is a fundamental concept, but its meaning is not clear. This paper attempts to clarify the term by analysing and reconnecting two meanings of dignity: humanitas and dignitas. Humanitas refers to citizen values that protect individuals as equal to one another. Dignitas refers to aesthetic values embedded in genres of sociality that relate to differences between people. The paper explores these values by way of an empirical ethical analysis of practices of washing psychiatric patients in nursing care. Nurses legitimate the washing of reluctant patients with reference to dignity. The analysis shows the intertwinement of humanitas and dignitas that gives dignity its fundamental meaning.

  16. Effects of washing produce contaminated with the snail and slug hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with three common household solutions.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Norine W; Hayes, Kenneth A; Cowie, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    The emerging infectious disease angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease) is caused by ingesting snails and slugs infected by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The definitive hosts of A. cantonensis are rats and the obligatory intermediate hosts are slugs and snails. Many cases result from accidentally ingesting infected snails or slugs on produce (eg, lettuce). This study assessed three readily available household products as washing solutions for removing snails and slugs from produce (romaine lettuce) to lower the probability of accidentally ingesting them. The solutions were acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), and sodium chloride (domestic salt). Snail and slug species known to be intermediate hosts and that are common in the Hawaiian Islands were used in the experiments: the alien snail Succinea tenella, the alien semi-slug Parmarion martensi, and the alien slugs Veronicella cubensis and Deroceras laeve. None of the products was any more effective than washing and rinsing with tap water alone. Most snails and slugs were removed after treatment but some remained on the lettuce even after washing and rinsing the produce. Only washing, rinsing, and then rinsing each leaf individually resulted in complete removal of all snails and slugs. The study did not address removal of any remaining slime left by the snails and slugs, nor did it address killing of worms. PMID:23901391

  17. Understanding wash efficiency and chloride transfer in copper solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, D. J.

    2003-07-01

    Carryover of entrained aqueous from primary leaching operations into copper electrowinning electrolytes introduces impurities that can affect cathode quality and cause corrosion. As a result, more operations are introducing wash stages in their solvent extraction circuits in an attempt to dilute these entrainments with high-quality water.

  18. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL/SEDIMENT WASHING SYSTEM BERGMANN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System is a waste minimization technique designed to separate or "partition" soils and sediments by grain size and density. In this water-based volume reduction process, hazardous contaminants are concentrated into a small residual portion...

  19. BERGMANN USA SOIL SEDIMENT WASHING TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides an evaluation of the performance of the Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System and its applicability for the treatment of soils or sediments contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspects of the technology w...

  20. 14. VARIOUS OUTBUILDINGS: a) OCTAGONAL STRUCTURE (center): WASH HOUSE b) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VARIOUS OUTBUILDINGS: a) OCTAGONAL STRUCTURE (center): WASH HOUSE b) SQUARE BUILDING WITH HIPPED ROOF (right front): SMOKEHOUSE c) BRICK BUILDING WITH END CHIMNEYS (left front): KITCHEN AND COOK'S BUILDING d) LONG BRICK BUILDING (in background): SERVANTS' QUARTERS (?) - Colonel McNeal House, Union & Bills Streets, Bolivar, Hardeman County, TN

  1. Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest.

    PubMed

    DeOtte, R E; Spivey, K S; Galloway, H O; Lawrence, T E

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA-FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provide an objective measure of head cleaning. Twenty-one beef heads were manually washed during the harvest process. An average 18.75 L (2.49 SD) and a maximum of 23.88 L were required to cleanse the heads to USDA-FSIS standards. Digital images were captured before and after manual washing then evaluated for percentage red saturation using commercially available image analysis software. A decaying exponential curve extracted from these data indicated that as wash water increased beyond 20 L the impact on red saturation decreased. At 4 sigma from the mean of 18.75 L, red saturation is 16.0 percent, at which logistic regression analysis indicates 99.994 percent of heads would be accepted for inspection, or less than 1 head in 15,000 would be rejected. Reducing to 3 sigma would increase red saturation to 27.6 percent, for which 99.730 percent of heads likely would be accepted (less than 1 in 370 would be rejected). PMID:20374798

  2. Radioactive demonstration of the ``late wash`` Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ``late wash`` flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  3. Radioactive demonstration of the late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  4. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  5. 18. Photocopy of circa 1839 ink and wash drawing by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of circa 1839 ink and wash drawing by Richard Upjohn in Avery Library, Columbia University ELEVATION OF ENTRANCE FRONT (above) AND PRELIMINARY OR PARTIAL FIRST FLOOR PLAN WITH TWO SMALL ELEVATION SKETCHES (below) - Kingscote, Bellevue Avenue & Bowery Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  6. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae from washed and unwashed commercial shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, Michael T; Jones, Deana R; Northcutt, Julie K; Cox, Nelson A; Harrison, Mark A

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of processing on the safety and quality of retail shell eggs, a storage study was conducted with unwashed and commercially washed eggs. This work demonstrated that commercial processing decreased microbial contamination of eggshells. To know which species persisted during storage on washed or unwashed eggs, Enterobacteriaceae isolates were selected and identified biochemically. For each of three replications, shell eggs were purchased from a commercial processing plant, transported back to the laboratory, and stored at 4 degrees C. Once a week for 6 weeks, 12 eggs for each treatment (washed and unwashed control) were rinsed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. A 1-ml aliquot of each sample was plated onto violet red bile glucose agar with overlay and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Following incubation, plates were observed for colonies characteristic of the family Enterobacteriaceae. A maximum of 10 isolates per positive sample were streaked for isolation before being identified to the genus or species level using commercially available biochemical strips. Although most of the isolates from the unwashed control eggs belonged to the genera Escherichia or Enterobacter, many other genera and species were identified. These included Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Pantoea, Providencia, Rahnella, Salmonella, Serratia, and Yersinia. Non-Enterobacteriaceae also recovered from the unwashed egg samples included Xanthomonas and Flavimonas. Very few washed egg samples were contaminated with any of these bacteria. These data provide useful information on the effectiveness of processing in removing microorganisms from commercial shell eggs.

  7. WASHING STUDIES FOR PCP AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. The high sand content and lo...

  8. Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest.

    PubMed

    DeOtte, R E; Spivey, K S; Galloway, H O; Lawrence, T E

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA-FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provide an objective measure of head cleaning. Twenty-one beef heads were manually washed during the harvest process. An average 18.75 L (2.49 SD) and a maximum of 23.88 L were required to cleanse the heads to USDA-FSIS standards. Digital images were captured before and after manual washing then evaluated for percentage red saturation using commercially available image analysis software. A decaying exponential curve extracted from these data indicated that as wash water increased beyond 20 L the impact on red saturation decreased. At 4 sigma from the mean of 18.75 L, red saturation is 16.0 percent, at which logistic regression analysis indicates 99.994 percent of heads would be accepted for inspection, or less than 1 head in 15,000 would be rejected. Reducing to 3 sigma would increase red saturation to 27.6 percent, for which 99.730 percent of heads likely would be accepted (less than 1 in 370 would be rejected).

  9. 30 CFR 206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... life of the reserves which the wash plant services, whichever is appropriate, or a unit of production... breached its duty to the lessor to market the production for the mutual benefit of the lessee and the... based on a dollar-per-unit basis, the lessee shall convert whatever consideration is paid to a...

  10. 35. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden ELEVATIONS OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR WILLIAM C. PRATT - CAMDEN PLACE - RIVER FRONT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  11. 36. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden ELEVATIONS OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR WILLIAM C. PRATT - CAMDEN PLACE - DRIVE FRONT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  12. Ultrasonic system for continuous washing of textiles in liquid layers.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A; Riera, Enrique; Acosta, Victor; Rodríguez, Germán; Blanco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic energy for washing of textiles has been tried several times without achieving practical development. In fact, the softness of the fibres makes the cavitation to produce small erosion effect and the reticulate structure of the fabric favours the formation of air bubble layers which obstruct wave penetration. In addition, a high proportion of water with respect to the wash load and a certain water degassing is required to assure efficiency and homogeneity in the wash performance. Such requirements have hindered the commercial development of the ultrasonic washing machines for domestic purposes. For specific industrial applications, a great part of these limitations may be overcome. This article deals with a new process in which the fabric is exposed to the ultrasonic field in a flat format. Such process has been implemented at laboratory and at semi-industrial stage by using specially designed power ultrasonic transducers with rectangular plate radiators. The cleaning effect is produced by the intense cavitation field generated by the plate radiator within a thin layer of liquid where the fabric is introduced. The homogeneity of such effect is achieved by the successive exposure of all the fabric areas to the intense acoustic field. In this paper the structure and performance of the developed system are shown.

  13. 62. May 1985. NORTH END OF WASH HOUSE (Negative slightly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. May 1985. NORTH END OF WASH HOUSE (Negative slightly reticulated. Tree behind fence is common fig, Ficus carica.) - Borough House, West Side State Route 261, about .1 mile south side of junction with old Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  14. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  15. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  16. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  17. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  18. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  19. Remediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil by Washing with Novel Chemically Modified Humic Substances.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, César; Nebbioso, Antonio; Piccolo, Alessandro; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina; Martínez-Palou, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    In this work, humic (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were chemically modified by esterification and etherification with alkanes under microwave (MW) irradiation to improve their surfactant properties for the remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs)-contaminated soil. Humic acid and FA were evaluated as surfactant for the remediation of soil by means of washing an aged highly TPH-contaminated soil (50,000 mg TPH kg) sampled from a Mexican petrochemical area. The efficiency of chemical modification of HA and FA was increased and accelerated under MW irradiation with respect to that of conventional heating. Results showed that modified HA and FA were able to considerably reduce the contamination of TPH-polluted soils. The best results were obtained with HA modified by esterification with -dodecanol and FA modified with -decanol, which increased the hydrocarbon removal by 24 and 18%, respectively, with respect to amounts removed by the unmodified derivatives.

  20. Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors. PMID:19008513

  1. Removal of arsenic from Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil with soil washing using magnetic iron oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jaemaro; Zhao, Xin; Lee, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic compounds are considered carcinogen and easily enter drinking water supplies with their natural abundance. US Environmental Protection Agency is finalizing a regulation to reduce the public health risks from arsenic in drinking water by revising the current drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 ppb to 10 ppb in 2001 (USEPA, 2001). Therefore, soil remediation is also growing field to prevent contamination of groundwater as well as crop cultivation. Soil washing is adjusted as ex-situ soil remediation technique which reduces volume of the contaminated soil. The technique is composed of physical separation and chemical extraction to extract target metal contamination in the soil. Chemical extraction methods have been developed solubilizing contaminants containing reagents such as acids or chelating agents. And acid extraction is proven as the most commonly used technology to treat heavy metals in soil, sediment, and sludge (FRTR, 2007). Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, magnetic iron oxide have been used in diverse areas including information technology and biomedicine. Magnetic iron oxides also can be used as adsorbent to heavy metal enhancing removal efficiency of arsenic concentration. In this study, magnetite is used as the washing agent with acid extraction condition so that the injected oxide can be separated by magnetic field. Soil samples were collected from three separate areas in the Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil to have synergy effect with phytoremediation. Each sample was air-dried and sieved (2mm). Soil washing condition was adjusted on pH in the range of 0-12 with hydrogen chloride and sodium hydroxide. After performing soil washing procedure, arsenic-extracted samples were analyzed for arsenic concentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). All the soils have exceeded worrisome level of soil contamination for region 1 (25mg/kg) so the soil remediation techniques are

  2. Comparison of adhesive properties of water- and phosphate-buffer-washed cottonseed meals with cottonseed protein isolate on bonding maple and poplar veneers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water- and phosphate buffer (35 mM Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4, pH 7.5)-washed cottonseed meals (abbreviated as WCM and BCM, respectively) could be low-cost and environmentally friendly protein-based adhesives as their preparation does not involve corrosive alkali and acid solutions that are needed for cottonse...

  3. Apparatus for washing particulate material. [Removal of silicone oil from microspheres by trichloroethylene

    DOEpatents

    Rivera, A.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Justice, G.V.

    1983-12-29

    Transport of nuclear fuel microspheres through a wash liquid is facilitated by feeding a slurry containing the microspheres into the wash liquid via a column having a vibrating tubular screen located under its lower end.

  4. Evaluation of Postharvest Washing on Removal of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Spinach Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyun; Guo, Huiyuan; Carlisle, Thomas; Mukherjee, Arnab; Kinchla, Amanda; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan; He, Lili

    2016-09-21

    There is increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as pesticides for fruits and vegetables due to the particles' unique antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. However, residual AgNPs in harvested produce may transfer through the food chain and pose a potential risk to public health. The objective of this study is to determine whether postharvest washing can effectively remove AgNPs that had accumulated on fresh produce. Ten microliters of commercially available 40 nm citrate coated AgNPs (0.4 mg/L) was dropped to a (1 × 1 cm(2)) spot on spinach leaves, followed by washing with deionized water (DI water), Tsunami 100 (80 mg/L), or Clorox bleach (200 mg/L). Then, the AgNP removal efficiency of the three treatments was evaluated by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). ICP-MS results showed that deionized water removed statistically insignificant amounts of total Ag (5%), whereas Tsunami 100 and Clorox bleach yielded 21 and 10% decreases in total Ag, respectively (P < 0.05). The increased removal efficiency resulted from AgNP dissolution and Ag(+) release upon contact with the oxidizing agents in Tsunami 100 (peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide) and Clorox bleach (sodium hypochlorite). According to the SERS results, the deionized water and Tsunami 100 treatments removed nonsignificant amounts of AgNPs. Clorox bleach decreased Ag NPs by >90% (P < 0.05); however, SEM-EDS images revealed the formation of large silver chloride (AgCl) crystals (162 ± 51 nm) on the leaf, which explained the low total Ag removal from ICP-MS. This study indicates current factory washing methods for fresh produce may not be effective in reducing AgNPs (by water and Tsunami 100) and total Ag (by all three means). This highlights the necessity to develop an efficient washing method for NP removal from food surfaces in the future. PMID:27548506

  5. Evaluation of Postharvest Washing on Removal of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Spinach Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyun; Guo, Huiyuan; Carlisle, Thomas; Mukherjee, Arnab; Kinchla, Amanda; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan; He, Lili

    2016-09-21

    There is increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as pesticides for fruits and vegetables due to the particles' unique antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. However, residual AgNPs in harvested produce may transfer through the food chain and pose a potential risk to public health. The objective of this study is to determine whether postharvest washing can effectively remove AgNPs that had accumulated on fresh produce. Ten microliters of commercially available 40 nm citrate coated AgNPs (0.4 mg/L) was dropped to a (1 × 1 cm(2)) spot on spinach leaves, followed by washing with deionized water (DI water), Tsunami 100 (80 mg/L), or Clorox bleach (200 mg/L). Then, the AgNP removal efficiency of the three treatments was evaluated by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). ICP-MS results showed that deionized water removed statistically insignificant amounts of total Ag (5%), whereas Tsunami 100 and Clorox bleach yielded 21 and 10% decreases in total Ag, respectively (P < 0.05). The increased removal efficiency resulted from AgNP dissolution and Ag(+) release upon contact with the oxidizing agents in Tsunami 100 (peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide) and Clorox bleach (sodium hypochlorite). According to the SERS results, the deionized water and Tsunami 100 treatments removed nonsignificant amounts of AgNPs. Clorox bleach decreased Ag NPs by >90% (P < 0.05); however, SEM-EDS images revealed the formation of large silver chloride (AgCl) crystals (162 ± 51 nm) on the leaf, which explained the low total Ag removal from ICP-MS. This study indicates current factory washing methods for fresh produce may not be effective in reducing AgNPs (by water and Tsunami 100) and total Ag (by all three means). This highlights the necessity to develop an efficient washing method for NP removal from food surfaces in the future.

  6. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  7. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    PubMed

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study. PMID:11420346

  8. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26722373

  9. Inactivation of viruses using novel protein A wash buffers.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Glen R; Selvitelli, Keith R; Iliescu, Ionela; Cecchini, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Low pH viral inactivation is typically performed in the eluate pool following the protein A capture step during the manufacturing of monoclonal antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins. However, exposure to low pH has the potential to alter protein quality. To avoid these difficulties, novel wash buffers capable of inactivating viruses while antibodies or Fc-fusion proteins were bound to protein A or mixed mode resins were developed. By equilibrating the column in high salt buffer (2 M ammonium sulfate or 3 M sodium chloride) after loading, the hydrophobic interactions between antibodies and protein A ligands were increased enough to prevent elution at pH 3. The ammonium sulfate was also found to cause binding of an antibody to a mixed mode cation exchange and a mixed mode anion exchange resin at pH values that caused elution in conventional cation and anion exchange resins (pH 3.5 for Capto Adhere and pH 8.0 for Capto MMC), indicating that retention was due to enhanced hydrophobic interactions. The potential of the 2 M ammonium sulfate pH 3 buffer, a 1 M arginine buffer, and a buffer containing the detergent LDAO to inactivate XMuLV virus when used as protein A wash buffers with a 1 hour contact time were studied. The high salt and detergent containing wash buffers provided about five logs of removal, determined using PCR, and complete combined removal and inactivation (> 6 logs), determined by measuring infectivity. The novel protein A washes could provide more rapid, automated viral inactivation steps with lower pool conductivities.

  10. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  11. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  12. Reduction of Salmonella enterica contamination on grape tomatoes by washing with thyme oil, thymol, and carvacrol as compared with chlorine treatment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Wu, Changqing

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, multistate outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serovars were traced to tomatoes and resulted in serious economic loss for the tomato industry and decreased consumer confidence in the safety of tomato produce. Purified compounds derived from essential oils such as thymol and carvacrol had wide inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens including Salmonella. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activities of thymol, carvacrol, and thyme oil against Salmonella on grape tomatoes. Surface-inoculated grape tomatoes were washed with 4% ethanol, 200 ppm of chlorine, or one of six washing solutions (thymol [0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml], thyme oil [1 and 2 mg/ml], and carvacrol [0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml]) for 5 or 10 min. There was no significant difference in the reduction of S. enterica serovars when different washing times were used (P > 0.05). Thymol (especially at the concentration of 0.4 mg/ml) was the most effective (P < 0.05) among the three natural antimicrobial agents, which achieved >4.1-log reductions of S. enterica serovars Typhimurium, Kentucky, Senftenberg, and Enteritidis on grape tomatoes after a 5-min washing and >4.3-log reductions after a 10-min washing. A >4.6-log reduction in the S. enterica populations in comparison to control was observed with the use of thymol solutions. The uses of these antimicrobial agents achieved significant log reductions of Salmonella on inoculated grape tomatoes and decreased dramatically the risk of potential transmission of pathogens from tomatoes to washing solutions. None of these antimicrobial agents decreased the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content, nor did any of them change the color and pH values or affect the taste, aroma, or visual quality of grape tomatoes. Therefore, 0.4 mg/ml thymol has great potential to be an alternative to chlorine-based washing solution for fresh produce. PMID:21219747

  13. Integrating EDDS-enhanced washing with low-cost stabilization of metal-contaminated soil from an e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Baek, Kitae; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-09-01

    While chelant-enhanced soil washing has been widely studied for metal extraction from contaminated soils, there are concerns about destabilization and leaching of residual metals after remediation. This study integrated 2-h soil washing enhanced by biodegradable ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and 2-month stabilization using agricultural waste product (soybean stover biochar pyrolyzed at 300 and 700 °C), industrial by-product (coal fly ash (CFA)), and their mixture. After integration with 2-month stabilization, the leachability and mobility of residual metals (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in the field-contaminated soil were significantly reduced, especially for Cu, in comparison with 2-h EDDS washing alone. This suggested that the metals destabilized by EDDS-washing could be immobilized by subsequent stabilization with biochar and CFA. Moreover, when the remediation performance was evaluated for phytoavailability and bioaccessibility, prior EDDS washing helped to achieve a greater reduction in the bioavailable fraction of metals than sole stabilization treatment. This was probably because the weakly-bound metals were first removed by EDDS washing before stabilization. Both individual and combined applications of biochar and CFA showed comparable effectiveness regardless of the difference in material properties, possibly due to the high level of amendments (150 ton ha(-1)). Based on the mobility and bioaccessibility results, the estimated human health risk (primarily resulting from Pb) could be mitigated to an acceptable level in water consumption pathway or reduced by half in soil ingestion pathway. These results suggest that an integration of EDDS washing with soil stabilization can alleviate post-remediation impacts of residual metals in the treated soil.

  14. Integrating EDDS-enhanced washing with low-cost stabilization of metal-contaminated soil from an e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Baek, Kitae; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-09-01

    While chelant-enhanced soil washing has been widely studied for metal extraction from contaminated soils, there are concerns about destabilization and leaching of residual metals after remediation. This study integrated 2-h soil washing enhanced by biodegradable ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and 2-month stabilization using agricultural waste product (soybean stover biochar pyrolyzed at 300 and 700 °C), industrial by-product (coal fly ash (CFA)), and their mixture. After integration with 2-month stabilization, the leachability and mobility of residual metals (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in the field-contaminated soil were significantly reduced, especially for Cu, in comparison with 2-h EDDS washing alone. This suggested that the metals destabilized by EDDS-washing could be immobilized by subsequent stabilization with biochar and CFA. Moreover, when the remediation performance was evaluated for phytoavailability and bioaccessibility, prior EDDS washing helped to achieve a greater reduction in the bioavailable fraction of metals than sole stabilization treatment. This was probably because the weakly-bound metals were first removed by EDDS washing before stabilization. Both individual and combined applications of biochar and CFA showed comparable effectiveness regardless of the difference in material properties, possibly due to the high level of amendments (150 ton ha(-1)). Based on the mobility and bioaccessibility results, the estimated human health risk (primarily resulting from Pb) could be mitigated to an acceptable level in water consumption pathway or reduced by half in soil ingestion pathway. These results suggest that an integration of EDDS washing with soil stabilization can alleviate post-remediation impacts of residual metals in the treated soil. PMID:27337434

  15. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS) workers, respectively. Methods We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale) and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. Results There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003). Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Conclusion Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing. PMID:26587098

  16. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    PubMed

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value < 0.05). A complete wash-out of VOCs in this setting was not observed, whereby a statistically significant reduction up to 65% as for terpinolene was achieved. Our setting successfully demonstrated a reduction of ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  17. Recovery of MSWI and soil washing residues as concrete aggregates.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Abbà, Alessandro; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study if municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) residues and aggregates derived from contaminated soil washing could be used as alternative aggregates for concrete production. Initially, chemical, physical and geometric characteristics (according to UNI EN 12620) of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes and some contaminated soils were evaluated; moreover, the pollutants release was evaluated by means of leaching tests. The results showed that the reuse of pre-treated MSWI bottom ash and washed soil is possible, either from technical or environmental point of view, while it is not possible for the raw wastes. Then, the natural aggregate was partially and totally replaced with these recycled aggregates for the production of concrete mixtures that were characterized by conventional mechanical and leaching tests. Good results were obtained using the same dosage of a high resistance cement (42.5R calcareous Portland cement instead of 32.5R); the concrete mixture containing 400 kg/m(3) of washed bottom ash and high resistance cement was classified as structural concrete (C25/30 class). Regarding the pollutants leaching, all concrete mixtures respected the limit values according to the Italian regulation. PMID:20537523

  18. Recovery of MSWI and soil washing residues as concrete aggregates.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Abbà, Alessandro; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study if municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) residues and aggregates derived from contaminated soil washing could be used as alternative aggregates for concrete production. Initially, chemical, physical and geometric characteristics (according to UNI EN 12620) of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes and some contaminated soils were evaluated; moreover, the pollutants release was evaluated by means of leaching tests. The results showed that the reuse of pre-treated MSWI bottom ash and washed soil is possible, either from technical or environmental point of view, while it is not possible for the raw wastes. Then, the natural aggregate was partially and totally replaced with these recycled aggregates for the production of concrete mixtures that were characterized by conventional mechanical and leaching tests. Good results were obtained using the same dosage of a high resistance cement (42.5R calcareous Portland cement instead of 32.5R); the concrete mixture containing 400 kg/m(3) of washed bottom ash and high resistance cement was classified as structural concrete (C25/30 class). Regarding the pollutants leaching, all concrete mixtures respected the limit values according to the Italian regulation.

  19. Status and progress in sludge washing: A pivotal pretreatment method

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, W.B.; MacLean, G.T.; Meng, C.D.; Winkler, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Separation of the bulk soluble chemical salts from the insoluble metal hydroxides and radionuclides is central to the strategy of disposing Hanford tank waste. Sludge washing and caustic leaching have been selected as the primary methods for processing the 230 million L (61,000,000 gal) of Hanford tank waste. These processes are very similar to those selected for processing waste at the West Valley Site in New York and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The purpose of sludge washing is to dissolve and remove the soluble salts in the waste. Leaching of the insoluble solids with caustic will be used to dissolve aluminum hydroxide and chromium hydroxide, and convert insoluble bismuth phosphate to soluble phosphate. The waste will be separated into a high-level solids fraction and a liquid fraction that can be disposed of as low-level waste after cesium removal. The washing and leaching operations involve batchwise mixing, settling, and decanting within the existing underground storage tanks.

  20. Evaluation of soil washing for radiologically contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D. II

    1994-03-01

    Soil washing has been applied internationally to decontaminate soils due to the widespread increase in environmental awareness manifested in the United States by promulgation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, yet we continue to lack understanding on why the technique works in one application and not in another. A soil washing process typically integrates a variety of modules, each designed to decontaminate the matrix by destroying a particular phase or segregating a particle size fraction in which the contaminants are concentrated. The more known about how the contaminants are fixed, the more likely the process will succeed. Much can be learned from bioavailability studies on heavy metals in soils. Sequential extraction experiments designed to destroy one fixation mechanism at a time can be used to determine how contaminants are bound. This knowledge provides a technical basis for designing a processing strategy to efficiently decontaminate soil while creating a minimum of secondary wastes. In this study, a soil from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was physically and chemically characterized, then sequentially extracted to determine if soil washing could be effectively used to remove cesium, cobalt and chromium.

  1. 78 FR 28577 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity: Whirlpool Corporation Subzone 8I; (Washing Machines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ...; (Washing Machines): Clyde and Green Springs, Ohio Whirlpool Corporation (Whirlpool), operator of Subzone 8I... standard and high capacity washing machines using certain imported components. The current request would add subassemblies and other unfinished washing machine parts to the list of approved finished...

  2. Fostering hand washing before lunch by students attending a special needs young adult program.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Christopher; Mahoney, Amanda; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A multiple baseline across groups design was used to investigate the effects of a treatment package on hand washing before lunch by five students with disabilities who attended a young adult educational program. To evaluate hand washing, a lotion called Glo Germ was applied to participants' hands. Glo Germ is visible under a black light, which allowed the quality of hand washing to be assessed by comparing the amount visible before and after hand washing using a 3-point scale. Following a baseline period in which hand washing was assessed, participants were exposed to a hand washing training procedure, which improved one participant's hand washing. Next, a lottery system was imposed in which the number of lottery tickets earned each day depended on the quality of hand washing, specifically, on the rating assigned (0, 1, or 2). This condition was associated with improved hand washing by the other four participants. Finally, a condition adding feedback to the lottery system resulted in further improvements in the quality of hand washing for all participants. Follow up data indicated modest maintenance of hand washing after lunch. These results suggest that treatment packages similar to that used in the present study merit further investigation and that Glo Germ is of value in ascertaining the quality of hand washing. PMID:22940163

  3. Fostering hand washing before lunch by students attending a special needs young adult program.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Christopher; Mahoney, Amanda; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A multiple baseline across groups design was used to investigate the effects of a treatment package on hand washing before lunch by five students with disabilities who attended a young adult educational program. To evaluate hand washing, a lotion called Glo Germ was applied to participants' hands. Glo Germ is visible under a black light, which allowed the quality of hand washing to be assessed by comparing the amount visible before and after hand washing using a 3-point scale. Following a baseline period in which hand washing was assessed, participants were exposed to a hand washing training procedure, which improved one participant's hand washing. Next, a lottery system was imposed in which the number of lottery tickets earned each day depended on the quality of hand washing, specifically, on the rating assigned (0, 1, or 2). This condition was associated with improved hand washing by the other four participants. Finally, a condition adding feedback to the lottery system resulted in further improvements in the quality of hand washing for all participants. Follow up data indicated modest maintenance of hand washing after lunch. These results suggest that treatment packages similar to that used in the present study merit further investigation and that Glo Germ is of value in ascertaining the quality of hand washing.

  4. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device...

  9. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash...

  10. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash...

  11. Live-line insulator washing: Experimental investigation to assess safety and efficiency requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, D.; Pigini, A.; Visintainer, I.; Channakeshava; Ramamoorty, M.

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory investigation was carried out to study live-line washing of insulators, with special attention to the two washing procedures which adopt hand-held nozzles or helicopter mounted nozzles. The aspects related to safety and those related to efficiency and reliability were considered. On the basis of the results, safe working distances and indications to define optimal washing procedures were derived.

  12. Impact of alternative antimicrobial commercial egg washes on reducing Salmonella contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Table eggs are washed with an alkaline detergent at approximately pH 11 and at a temperature at least 32°C, followed by a chlorine rinse. Both wash temperature and an antimicrobial rinse are required by regulation, but wash pH is not specified. At this pH, little, if any, free chlorine...

  13. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  14. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  15. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  16. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  17. Testing the Effects of Social Norms and Behavioral Privacy on Hand Washing: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Maloney, Erin K.; Braz, Mary; Shulman, Hillary C.

    2013-01-01

    A 2-part study examines the influence of normative messages on college males' hand washing perceptions and behaviors. Study 1 tests for the appropriateness of hand washing as a target of social norms campaigns and tests messages designed to change perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that hand washing behavior is appropriate for health…

  18. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  19. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  20. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  1. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  2. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  3. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by

  4. The calcination process in a system for washing, calcinating, and converting treated municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash into raw material for the cement industry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-07-01

    Calcination is the second step in a washing-calcination-conversion system in which treated municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and bottom ash can be reused as raw material in the cement industry and can decompose or stabilize hazardous compounds, reduce residue amounts, and alter residue characteristics. In this research, only fly ash is discussed. Chloride reduction is important if treated fly ash is to be reused in cement; however, the relationship between washed fly ash properties and chloride reduction by calcination is not well understood. This study used washed residues of three types of fly ash-raw fly ash (RFA) from the boiler or economizer of an incineration system, fly ash collected in a bag filter injected with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) for acid removal (CaFA), and fly ash collected in a bag filter injected with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) for acid removal (NaFA)-in calcination experiments with varying temperature (400-1100 degrees C) and atmosphere (100% nitrogen [N2] at 25 mL/min or 10% oxygen [O2] [90% N2] at fluxes of 25, 50, and 75 mL/min). From the perspective of chloride reduction, heating to 1000 degrees C with 1-hr heating time, 1-hr holding time, and an atmosphere of 10% O2/90% N2 was most suitable for calcination. Under these conditions, chloride levels were reduced by 91, 52, and 96% in washed residues of RFA, CaFA, and NaFA, respectively. Among the washed residues, the weight of the washed residue of NaFA decreased the most. PMID:21850828

  5. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  6. Geophysical Studies Based on Gravity and Seismic Data of Tule Desert, Meadow Valley Wash, and California Wash Basins, Southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Daniel S.; Page, William R.; Miller, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Gravity and seismic data from Tule Desert, Meadow Valley Wash, and California Wash, Nevada, provide insight into the subsurface geometry of these three basins that lie adjacent to rapidly developing areas of Clark County, Nevada. Each of the basins is the product of Tertiary extension accommodated with the general form of north-south oriented, asymmetrically-faulted half-grabens. Geophysical inversion of gravity observations indicates that Tule Desert and Meadow Valley Wash basins are segmented into subbasins by shallow, buried basement highs. In this study, basement refers to pre-Cenozoic bedrock units that underlie basins filled with Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic units. In Tule Desert, a small, buried basement high inferred from gravity data appears to be a horst whose placement is consistent with seismic reflection and magnetotelluric observations. Meadow Valley Wash consists of three subbasins separated by basement highs at structural zones that accommodated different styles of extension of the adjacent subbasins, an interpretation consistent with geologic mapping of fault traces oblique to the predominant north-south fault orientation of Tertiary extension in this area. California Wash is a single structural basin. The three seismic reflection lines analyzed in this study image the sedimentary basin fill, and they allow identification of faults that offset basin deposits and underlying basement. The degree of faulting and folding of the basin-fill deposits increases with depth. Pre-Cenozoic units are observed in some of the seismic reflection lines, but their reflections are generally of poor quality or are absent. Factors that degrade seismic reflector quality in this area are rough land topography due to erosion, deformed sedimentary units at the land surface, rock layers that dip out of the plane of the seismic profile, and the presence of volcanic units that obscure underlying reflectors. Geophysical methods illustrate that basin geometry is more

  7. Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing.

    PubMed

    Van Haute, Sam; Sampers, Imca; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-05-01

    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing.

  8. Physicochemical Quality and Chemical Safety of Chlorine as a Reconditioning Agent and Wash Water Disinfectant for Fresh-Cut Lettuce Washing

    PubMed Central

    Van Haute, Sam; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing. PMID:23396332

  9. ‘If an Eye Is Washed Properly, It Means It Would See Clearly’: A Mixed Methods Study of Face Washing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Aiemjoy, Kristen; Stoller, Nicole E.; Gebresillasie, Sintayehu; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Tadesse, Zerihun; Sewnet, Tegene; Ayele, Bezuayehu; Chanyalew, Melsew; Callahan, Kelly; Stewart, Aisha; Emerson, Paul M.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Keenan, Jeremy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Face cleanliness is a core component of the SAFE (Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvements) strategy for trachoma control. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to face washing may be helpful for designing effective interventions for improving facial cleanliness. Methods In April 2014, a mixed methods study including focus groups and a quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in the East Gojjam zone of the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Participants were asked about face washing practices, motivations for face washing, use of soap (which may reduce bacterial load), and fly control strategies. Results Overall, both knowledge and reported practice of face washing was high. Participants reported they knew that washing their own face and their children’s faces daily was important for hygiene and infection control. Although participants reported high knowledge of the importance of soap for face washing, quantitative data revealed strong variations by community in the use of soap for face washing, ranging from 4.4% to 82.2% of households reporting using soap for face washing. Cost and forgetfulness were cited as barriers to the use of soap for face washing. Keeping flies from landing on children was a commonly cited motivator for regular face washing, as was trachoma prevention. Conclusions Interventions aiming to improve facial cleanliness for trachoma prevention should focus on habit formation (to address forgetfulness) and address barriers to the use of soap, such as reducing cost. Interventions that focus solely on improving knowledge may not be effective for changing face-washing behaviors. PMID:27788186

  10. Factors influencing hand washing behaviour in primary schools: process evaluation within a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Nicholson, Alexandra L; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2012-12-01

    This article explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomized controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n = 16, aged 6-11 years), semi-structured interviews (n = 16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n = 57). Pupils and staff in intervention and control schools demonstrated a similar level of understanding of how, when and why they should wash their hands. Lack of time, poor adult modelling of regular hand washing and unattractive facilities were seen as important barriers to regular hand washing. Reminders and explanations for the importance of hand hygiene were thought to have a positive impact. Influencing individual choices about hand washing through education and information may be necessary, but not sufficient, for initiating and maintaining good hand washing practices. Structural factors, including having time to wash hands using accessible, clean facilities, and being encouraged through the existence of hand washing opportunities in the daily routine and hand washing being viewed as the social norm, will also influence hand washing behaviour. The effectiveness of educational interventions at improving hand hygiene in primary schools may be improved by changing priorities of staff and increasing accessibility to quality facilities.

  11. Factors influencing hand washing behaviour in primary schools: process evaluation within a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Nicholson, Alexandra L; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2012-12-01

    This article explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomized controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n = 16, aged 6-11 years), semi-structured interviews (n = 16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n = 57). Pupils and staff in intervention and control schools demonstrated a similar level of understanding of how, when and why they should wash their hands. Lack of time, poor adult modelling of regular hand washing and unattractive facilities were seen as important barriers to regular hand washing. Reminders and explanations for the importance of hand hygiene were thought to have a positive impact. Influencing individual choices about hand washing through education and information may be necessary, but not sufficient, for initiating and maintaining good hand washing practices. Structural factors, including having time to wash hands using accessible, clean facilities, and being encouraged through the existence of hand washing opportunities in the daily routine and hand washing being viewed as the social norm, will also influence hand washing behaviour. The effectiveness of educational interventions at improving hand hygiene in primary schools may be improved by changing priorities of staff and increasing accessibility to quality facilities. PMID:22623617

  12. Petrology of Aztec Wash pluton, Eldorado Mountains, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Falkner, C.M.; Miller, C.F. ); Wooden, J.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Aztec Wash pluton, a 50 km[sup 2] intrusive complex in the northern Eldorado Mountains, was emplaced ca. 16 Ma (Faulds et al., 1990) during extension within the Colorado River Corridor. The pluton displays extreme compositional variability, ranging from olivine gabbro (ca. 50 wt% SiO[sub 2]) to highly evolved aplite (76% SiO[sub 2]). Most of the intrusion is medium grained, homogeneous granite (ca. 72% SiO[sub 2]), but 1/3 is highly heterogeneous and dominated by mafic to intermediate rocks; a 6 [times] 3km, N-S mafic zone almost bisects the pluton. Well-displayed magma mingling and late mafic and felsic dikes verify the coexistence of mafic and felsic melts. Hornblende barometry indicates that the entire exposed portion of Aztec Wash pluton was emplaced at very shallow depth (Wash pluton: felsic magma intruded shallow levels of crust; the base of the magma chamber was intruded by basalt; after the upper portion of the initial magma was largely crystallized, basalt ascended into, perhaps remobilized, and mingled with felsic magma; this ascent may have been facilitated by E-W extension of the crystallizing pluton; more discrete syn- to post-pluton, mafic to felsic dikes mark additional intrusive pulses triggered by basalt intrusion and extensional fracturing. Field relations suggest that the mingling led to mixing in both the main units and the late dikes, but geochemical data indicate that mixing, if it occurred, was not a simple 2-end member process.

  13. Development of a preprototype hyperfiltration wash water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The use of hyperfiltration as a mode of reclamation of waste water on board an extended mission spacecraft was investigated. Two basic approaches are considered with respect to hyperfiltration of wash water recovery. The initial approach involves the use of a hollow fiber permeator and a tubular module, operating at ambient temperature. In this system, relatively large doses of biocides are used to control microbial activity. Since biocides require a long contact time, and many have adverse dematological effects as well as many interact with membrane material, a second approach is considered which involves operating at pasturization temperature.

  14. Geomorphology of Upper Palm Wash, Anza Borrego Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, A.O.; Hansen, C.L.

    1988-05-01

    The Anza Borrego Desert has many geomorphic features to attract the attention of earth scientists. Deep, narrow stream channels, cut into Tertiary sedimentary rocks exposed west of the Salton Sea, have reaches that are almost devoid of alluvium and therefore are unprotected from the erosive work of running water. The usually dry, relatively small channels provide a microcosm in which to study desert landforms and processes associated with stream erosion and canyon formation. The processes and characteristics associated with these channels in Palm Wash are described in this article. 7 references.

  15. Soil decontamination at the Montevecchio-Levante mine site with experimental washing and leaching techniques.

    PubMed

    Dessi, R; Fadda, S; Peretti, R; Serci, A; Zucca, A

    2000-01-01

    The soils in the neighbourhood of the Rio Montevecchio-Sitzerri, a stream that flows in the valley below the tailings pond of the Montevecchio-Levante mineral processing plant (SW Sardinia, Italy) are severely contaminated by heavy metals, to the extent that traditional land uses are compromised. Consequently urgent measures are needed both to abate the pollution at source and rehabilitate the contaminated land. This paper is concerned with the problem of soil decontamination using washing and leaching techniques. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in mechanically agitated reactors, using citric acid and acetic acid solutions and brine of hydrochloric acid and calcium chloride. The influence of both reagent concentration and solid-to-liquid ratio has been assessed, and in the most significant cases, the attack kinetics has been determined. The tests showed the brine to be the most effective for removing metals from the soils. Based on the findings of the investigations, the possibility of decontamination by heap leaching has been simulated in the laboratory using the column technique.

  16. Physical separations soil washing system cold test results

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, J.P.

    1993-07-28

    This test summary describes the objectives, methodology, and results of a physical separations soil-washing system setup and shakedown test using uncontaminated soil. The test is being conducted in preparation for a treatability test to be conducted in the North Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. It will be used to assess the feasibility of using a physical separations process to reduce the volume of contaminated soils in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The test is described in DOE-RL (1993). The setup test was conducted at an uncontrolled area located approximately 3.2 km northwest of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The material processed was free of contamination. The physical separation equipment to be used in the test was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. On May 13, 1993, soil-washing equipment was moved to the cold test location. Design assistance and recommendation for operation was provided by the EPA.

  17. Ultrasonic coal washing to leach alkali elements from coals.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, S; Reddy, V Midhun; Nagarajan, R

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of fly ash particles onto heat-transfer surfaces is often one of the reasons for unscheduled shut-downs of coal-fired boilers. Fouling deposits encountered in convective sections of a boiler are characterized by arrival of ash particles in solidified (solid) state. Fouling is most frequently caused by condensation and chemical reaction of alkali vapors with the deposited ash particles creating a wet surface conducive to collect impacting ash particles. Hence, the amount of alkali elements present in coals, which, in turn, is available in the flue gas as condensable vapors, determines the formation and growth of fouling deposits. In this context, removal of alkali elements becomes vital when inferior coals having high-ash content are utilized for power generation. With the concept of reducing alkali elements present in a coal entering the combustor, whereby the fouling deposits can either be minimized or be weakened due to absence of alkali gluing effect, the ultrasonic leaching of alkali elements from coals is investigated in this study. Ultrasonic water-washing and chemical-washing, in comparison with agitation, are studied in order to estimate the intensification of the alkali removal process by sonication. PMID:26186840

  18. Final wash precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.C.

    1992-05-15

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is scheduled to start non-radioactive process operation in September, 1992. The Cold Chemical Runs will demonstrate acceptable process operation and provide data required to satisfy the Waste Compliance Plan. Five basic sludge simulants will be required for these tests. Two basic precipitate simulants will be needed to operate the Salt Processing Cell with and without mercury in the precipitate feed. Precipitate feed simulant specifications for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs are revised in this report. All previous specifications of precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs (CCRs) are superceded by this document. The revision is needed to (1) eliminate use of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) in the precipitate process operation, (2) simulate the projected composition of the precipitate feed to DWPF produced by final washing to reduce the nitrite concentration to {le} 0.01M without washing the simulated feed, (3) delete organic trim chemical additions to the precipitate feed and (4) specify an additive to prevent foaming of the precipitate. Two specifications are provided to operate the Salt Processing Cell with mercury (Tests 5&6) and without mercury (Tests 1--4) in the precipitate feed.

  19. Final wash precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.C.

    1992-05-15

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is scheduled to start non-radioactive process operation in September, 1992. The Cold Chemical Runs will demonstrate acceptable process operation and provide data required to satisfy the Waste Compliance Plan. Five basic sludge simulants will be required for these tests. Two basic precipitate simulants will be needed to operate the Salt Processing Cell with and without mercury in the precipitate feed. Precipitate feed simulant specifications for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs are revised in this report. All previous specifications of precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs (CCRs) are superceded by this document. The revision is needed to (1) eliminate use of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) in the precipitate process operation, (2) simulate the projected composition of the precipitate feed to DWPF produced by final washing to reduce the nitrite concentration to [le] 0.01M without washing the simulated feed, (3) delete organic trim chemical additions to the precipitate feed and (4) specify an additive to prevent foaming of the precipitate. Two specifications are provided to operate the Salt Processing Cell with mercury (Tests 5 6) and without mercury (Tests 1--4) in the precipitate feed.

  20. Accuracy of Different Putty-Wash Impression Techniques with Various Spacer Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Aman; Singh, Vijay Pratap

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the most important steps is accurate impression making for fabrication of fixed partial denture. The two different putty-wash techniques that are commonly used are: (1) Putty-wash one-step technique, (2) putty-wash two-step technique. A uniform wash space is needed for an accurate impression. Nissan et al recommended the use of two-step technique for accurate impression making as there is uniform wash space for the light body material to polymerize. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of stone casts obtained from different putty-wash impression techniques using various spacer thickness. The critical factor that influences the accuracy of putty-wash impression techniques is the controlled wash bulk which is absent in one-step putty-wash impression technique and with polyethylene spacer was used. How to cite this article: Chugh A, Arora A, Singh VP. Accuracy of Different Putty-Wash Impression Techniques with Various Spacer Thickness. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):33-38. PMID:25206132

  1. Faecal indicator bacteria on the hands and the effectiveness of hand-washing in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kaltenthaler, E; Waterman, R; Cross, P

    1991-10-01

    Two aspects of hand-washing were explored in this study. Mothers and children from 80 families in Zimbabwe were asked to wash their hands in the traditional manner in sterile water. Mothers were asked to answere a socio-economic questionnaire. By using the questionnaire and observations in conjunction with the microbiological data from hand-washing, factors were identified which contributed to high counts on the hands. These were: high relative humidity, living on a commercial farm, and having an infant in the family. Mothers and children 1-5 years of age had higher counts than children of 6-12 years. People recently involved in outdoor physical activities such as farming had higher counts than those involved in other activities. The traditional hand-washing method was also compared with two other hand-washing methods: hand-washing using soap and hand-washing using a container known as the mukombe. Hand-washing with soap was the most effective method closely followed by hand-washing using the mukombe. The least effective method was traditional hand-washing.

  2. Accuracy of different putty-wash impression techniques with various spacer thickness.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Anshul; Arora, Aman; Singh, Vijay Pratap

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important steps is accurate impression making for fabrication of fixed partial denture. The two different putty-wash techniques that are commonly used are: (1) Putty-wash one-step technique, (2) putty-wash two-step technique. A uniform wash space is needed for an accurate impression. Nissan et al recommended the use of two-step technique for accurate impression making as there is uniform wash space for the light body material to polymerize. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of stone casts obtained from different putty-wash impression techniques using various spacer thickness. The critical factor that influences the accuracy of putty-wash impression techniques is the controlled wash bulk which is absent in one-step putty-wash impression technique and with polyethylene spacer was used. How to cite this article: Chugh A, Arora A, Singh VP. Accuracy of Different Putty-Wash Impression Techniques with Various Spacer Thickness. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):33-38.

  3. WASH has a critical role in NK cell cytotoxicity through Lck-mediated phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, L; Zhu, P; Xia, P; Fan, Z

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important effector cells of the innate immune system to kill certain virus-infected and transformed cells. Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) and SCAR homolog (WASH) has been identified as a member of WASP family proteins implicated in regulating the cytoskeletal reorganization, yet little is known about its function in lymphocytes. Here we demonstrate that WASH is crucial for NK cell cytotoxicity. WASH was found to colocalize with lytic granules upon NK cell activation. Knockdown of WASH expression substantially inhibited polarization and release of lytic granules to the immune synapse, resulting in the impairment of NK cell cytotoxicity. More importantly, our data also define a previously unappreciated mechanism for WASH function, in which Src family kinase Lck can interact with WASH and induce WASH phosphorylation. Mutation of tyrosine residue Y141, identified here as the major site of WASH phosphorylation, partially blocked WASH tyrosine phosphorylation and NK cell cytotoxicity. Taken together, these observations suggest that WASH has a pivotal role for regulation of NK cell cytotoxicity through Lck-mediated Y141 tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:27441653

  4. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOEpatents

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  5. Efficacy of plant-derived antimicrobials as antimicrobial wash treatments for reducing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Upadhyaya, Indu; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Roshni Amalaradjou, Mary Anne; Schreiber, David; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 3 GRAS-status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), carvacrol (CR), and β-resorcylic acid (BR) applied as an antimicrobial wash for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples. "Red delicious" apples inoculated with a 5 strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 were subjected to washing in sterile deionized water containing 0% PDA (control), 0.15% TC, 0.35% TC, 0.15% CR, 0.30% CR, 0.5% BR, or 1% BR for 1, 3, and 5 min at 23 °C in the presence and absence of 1% soil, and surviving pathogen populations on apples were enumerated at each specified time. All PDAs were more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 compared to the water wash treatment (P < 0.05) and reduced the pathogen by 4- to 5-log CFU/apple in 5 min. Chlorine (1%) was the most effective treatment reducing the pathogen on apples to undetectable levels in 1 min (P < 0.05). Moreover, the antimicrobial effect of CR and BR was not affected by the presence of soil, whereas the efficacy of TC and BR was decreased in the presence of soil. Further, no bacteria were detected in the wash solution containing CR and BR; however, E. coli O157:H7 was recovered in the control wash water and treatment solutions containing TC and chlorine, in the presence of 1% soil (P < 0.05). Results suggest that the aforementioned PDAs, especially CR and BR could be used effectively to kill E. coli O157:H7 on apples when used as a wash treatment. Studies on the sensory and quality characteristics of apples treated with PDAs are needed before recommending their usage.

  6. Wash durability and optimal drying regimen of four brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets after repeated washing under tropical conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The current study was undertaken to determine the optimal wash-drying regimen and the effects of different washing procedures on the efficacy, and durability of four brands of newly introduced long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) under tropical conditions. Methods In the current study, the following four LLINs were tested: Olyset®, PermaNet ®2.0, BASF® and TNT®. Nets were divided into three sets; one set was washed by hand rubbing and air-dried either hanging or spread on the ground in direct sunlight or hanging or spread on the ground under the shade. A second set was washed using the WHO protocol (machine) and the third set was washed by beating the nets on rocks. The biological activities of the nets were assessed by a three-minute bioassay cone test and the residual insecticide contents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure. Results Nets that were dried hanging under the shade retained more insecticide, 62.5% and recorded higher mortality compared to nets which were dried lying on the ground in direct sunlight 58.8%, nets dried under the shade spread on the ground 56.3%, and 57.8% for nets dried hanging in direct sunlight. It was also observed that nets washed by the standard WHO protocol, retained more insecticide and were more effective in killing mosquitoes compared to nets washed by local methods of hand rubbing and beating on rocks. There were significant differences between drying regimens (p < 0.0001) and between washing procedures (p < 0.001) respectively. However, the effect of net type was statistically insignificant. The statistical differences on individual nets were also compared, for PermaNet® and TNT there were no significant differences observed between the four drying regimens (p = 0.7944 and 0.4703) respectively). For BASF and Olyset, the differences were significant (p < 0.001 and p > 0.0001). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that washing and drying regimen influence

  7. Changes in soil toxicity by phosphate-aided soil washing: effect of soil characteristics, chemical forms of arsenic, and cations in washing solutions.

    PubMed

    Jho, Eun Hea; Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-01-01

    This study was set to investigate the changes in the toxicity of arsenic (As)-contaminated soils after washing with phosphate solutions. The soil samples collected from two locations (A: rice paddy and B: forest land) of a former smelter site were contaminated with a similar level of As. Soil washing (0.5 M phosphate solution for 2 h) removed 24.5% As, on average, in soil from both locations. Regardless of soil washing, Location A soil toxicities, determined using Microtox, were greater than that of Location B and this could be largely attributed to different soil particle size distribution. With soils from both locations, the changes in As chemical forms resulted in either similar or greater toxicities after washing. This emphasizes the importance of considering ecotoxicological aspects, which are likely to differ depending on soil particle size distribution and changes in As chemical forms, in addition to the total concentration based remedial goals, in producing ecotoxicologically-sound soils for reuse. In addition, calcium phosphate used as the washing solution seemed to contribute more on the toxic effects of the washed soils than potassium phosphate and ammonium phosphate. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to use potassium or ammonium phosphate than calcium phosphate for phosphate-aided soil washing of the As-contaminated soils. PMID:25482580

  8. Study of phase transformation and microstructure of alcohol washed titania nanoparticles for thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Gaganjot; Bimbraw, Keshav; Uniyal, Poonam

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructured titania have been successfully synthesized by hydrolysis of alkoxide at calcination temperatures 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C. As the calcination temperature increases, alcohol washed samples show lesser rutile content as compared to water washed samples. Morphology and Particle sizes was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), while thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) was used to determine thermal stability. Alcohol washed samples undergo 30% weight loss whereas 16% in water washed samples was observed. The mean particle sizes were found to be increase from 37 nm to 100.9 nm and 35.3 nm to 55.2 nm for water and alcohol washed samples respectively. Hydrolysis of alkoxide was shown to be an effective means to prepare thermally stable titania by using alcohol washed samples as a precursor.

  9. Study of phase transformation and microstructure of alcohol washed titania nanoparticles for thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Manpreet Singh, Gaganjot; Bimbraw, Keshav; Uniyal, Poonam

    2015-08-28

    Nanostructured titania have been successfully synthesized by hydrolysis of alkoxide at calcination temperatures 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C. As the calcination temperature increases, alcohol washed samples show lesser rutile content as compared to water washed samples. Morphology and Particle sizes was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), while thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) was used to determine thermal stability. Alcohol washed samples undergo 30% weight loss whereas 16% in water washed samples was observed. The mean particle sizes were found to be increase from 37 nm to 100.9 nm and 35.3 nm to 55.2 nm for water and alcohol washed samples respectively. Hydrolysis of alkoxide was shown to be an effective means to prepare thermally stable titania by using alcohol washed samples as a precursor.

  10. [Spectrum characteristics of leaching components from co-contaminated loess in ex-situ column washing reaction].

    PubMed

    Fan, Chun-hui; Zhang, Ying-chao; Du, Bo; He, Lei; Wang, Jia-hong

    2015-02-01

    Soil contamination is regarded as one of the most serious issues to humanity all over the world. It is statistically believed that over one-fifth of the farmland, that is 20 million ha, is found to be contaminated by heavy metals in China. And the related issues, caused by soil contamination, of food safety, human health and eco-environmental quality attract much attention by public with more serious contamination than before. The technological approach for soil remediation is widely investigated. The technology of soil washing is effective for contaminants removal, while the treatment procedure might lead to component leaching from soil system, harmful for soil fertility, physicochemical properties and ecological functions. The study of spectral characteristics on leaching component is significant for decision-making of contaminated sites remediation and ecological function recovery, while the related investigation seems weaker nowadays. The paper mainly revealed the leaching characteristics of component from Pb/Cd contaminated loess in the washing process with Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA) in reaction column, and the research objectives included base cations, loess nutrients, clay minerals and organic matter. The variation of clay minerals was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and 3D-EEM fluorescence spectrum was used for the identification of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The experimental results showed: the leaching component from loess is detected in the washing reaction. The final removal efficiency (240 min) of Pb and Cd from loess are 49. 86% and 62.25%, respectively. The sodium ions and nitrate nitrogen are the most easily leaching component, and little difference of clay minerals is identified before and after washing reaction. The fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material was firstly (10 min) detected around E(ex/em) = 240-250/320-340 and E(ex/em) = 260-290/450-470 in 3D-EEM fluorescence spectrum, and the

  11. [Spectrum characteristics of leaching components from co-contaminated loess in ex-situ column washing reaction].

    PubMed

    Fan, Chun-hui; Zhang, Ying-chao; Du, Bo; He, Lei; Wang, Jia-hong

    2015-02-01

    Soil contamination is regarded as one of the most serious issues to humanity all over the world. It is statistically believed that over one-fifth of the farmland, that is 20 million ha, is found to be contaminated by heavy metals in China. And the related issues, caused by soil contamination, of food safety, human health and eco-environmental quality attract much attention by public with more serious contamination than before. The technological approach for soil remediation is widely investigated. The technology of soil washing is effective for contaminants removal, while the treatment procedure might lead to component leaching from soil system, harmful for soil fertility, physicochemical properties and ecological functions. The study of spectral characteristics on leaching component is significant for decision-making of contaminated sites remediation and ecological function recovery, while the related investigation seems weaker nowadays. The paper mainly revealed the leaching characteristics of component from Pb/Cd contaminated loess in the washing process with Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA) in reaction column, and the research objectives included base cations, loess nutrients, clay minerals and organic matter. The variation of clay minerals was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and 3D-EEM fluorescence spectrum was used for the identification of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The experimental results showed: the leaching component from loess is detected in the washing reaction. The final removal efficiency (240 min) of Pb and Cd from loess are 49. 86% and 62.25%, respectively. The sodium ions and nitrate nitrogen are the most easily leaching component, and little difference of clay minerals is identified before and after washing reaction. The fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material was firstly (10 min) detected around E(ex/em) = 240-250/320-340 and E(ex/em) = 260-290/450-470 in 3D-EEM fluorescence spectrum, and the

  12. The Effects of Chemical Wash Additives on the Corrosion of Aerospace Alloys in Marine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Joseph; Hodge, Tim; Barile, Ronald; Heidersbach, Robert; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for comparing the relative effectiveness of four chemical products used for rinsing airplanes and helicopters. The products were applied on a weekly basis to a series of flat alloy panels exposed to an oceanfront marine environment for one year. The results are presented along with comparisons of exposures of the same alloys that were not washed, were washed with seawater, or washed with de-ionized water.

  13. Live-line insulator washing: Experimental investigation to assess safety and efficiency requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, D.; Pigini, A.; Visintainer, I.; Ramamoorty, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was carried out to study live-line washing of insulators, with special attention to the two washing procedures which adopt hand-held jet nozzles and helicopter mounted nozzles. The aspects related to safety and those related to efficiency and reliability were considered. On the basis of the results, site working distances and indications to define optimal washing procedures were derived.

  14. Superstorm Sandy marine debris wash-ups on Long Island - What happened to them?

    PubMed

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Lwiza, Kamazima; Willig, Kaitlin; Morris, Kaitlin

    2016-07-15

    Superstorm Sandy generated huge quantities of debris in the Long Island, NY coastal zone. However, little appears to have been washed offshore to eventually be returned to Long Island's beaches as marine debris wash-ups. Information for our analysis includes debris collection statistics, very high resolution satellite images, along with wind and sea level data. Rigorous debris collection efforts along with meteorological conditions following the storm appear to have reduced the likelihood of debris wash-ups. PMID:27158045

  15. Residual behaviour of profenofos on some field-grown vegetables and its removal using various washing solutions and household processing.

    PubMed

    Radwan, M A; Abu-Elamayem, M M; Shiboob, M H; Abdel-Aal, A

    2005-04-01

    Profenofos (Selecron 72% EC), was sprayed on field-grown pepper and eggplant at the recommended rate of 1.28 kg a,i/ha. Fruit samples were collected at 1 h to 14 days after application and analysed to determine the content and dissipation rate of profenofos. The effect of different washing solutions and some household processing on the removal of such residues from treated vegetables were also investigated. Profenofos residues were quantified by using gas chromatography. The results showed that the consumable safety time were found to be 10 days on sweet pepper and 14 days on hot pepper and eggplant fruits. The initial disappearance of profenofos appeared to follow first order kinetics with different rates of reaction of 0.38, 0.40 and 0.35 day(-1) for hot pepper, sweet pepper and eggplant, respectively. The corresponding half-lives (t1/2) were 1.84, 1.74 and 1.96 days. Also, the results indicated that tap water, potassium permenganate and acetic acid solution gave high percent removal of profenofos residues from hot and sweet pepper fruits, while no detectable residues was found in eggplant fruit after washing with soap and acetic acid solutions. In general, all tested washing solutions gave higher percent removal of profenofos residues from eggplant fruit than the two other pepper fruits. Blanching and frying of pepper and eggplant fruits resulted in great reduction to almost completely removed (approximately 100%) of the deposited profenofos. In addition, pickling process removed 92.58 and 95.61% from hot pepper fruit after one week and after two weeks, respectively. PMID:15721202

  16. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on hands.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ∼ 6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P < 0.05) in E. aerogenes (0.5 log CFU greater reduction) was observed with soap when there was ground beef debris on the hands. The greatest difference (1.1 log CFU greater average reduction) in effectiveness occurred when ground beef debris was on the hands and a 20-s wash with water was compared with a 20-s wash with soap. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) reductions were observed with paper towel drying compared with air (0.5 log CFU greater reductions). Used paper towels may contain high bacterial levels (>4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause.

  17. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on hands.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ∼ 6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P < 0.05) in E. aerogenes (0.5 log CFU greater reduction) was observed with soap when there was ground beef debris on the hands. The greatest difference (1.1 log CFU greater average reduction) in effectiveness occurred when ground beef debris was on the hands and a 20-s wash with water was compared with a 20-s wash with soap. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) reductions were observed with paper towel drying compared with air (0.5 log CFU greater reductions). Used paper towels may contain high bacterial levels (>4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause. PMID:25836392

  18. 1. Photocopy of undated wash drawing. The largest building is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of undated wash drawing. The largest building is the Hotel Williams. Next to it is the Williams House (Williams Hotel Annex), HABS No. MI-258 A. Below them are the log cabins built by the American Fur Company (from left to right): Log Building No. 1 (MI-258 C), Log Building No. 2 (MI-258 D), Log Building No. 3 (not documented), Log Building No. 4 (MI-258 E), and Log Building No. 5 (MI-258 F). (Williams Log House, MI-258 B, and Log Building No. 8, MI-258 G, are not shown). The drawing is in the collection of the Michigan Historical Commission. Although it does not have a date, it was painted in the early 20th century after the main building was constructed. - Hotel Williams, Murray Bay, Munising, Alger County, MI

  19. Wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an analytical study and assessment of state-of-the-art wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft is presented. All non-phase-change unit operations, unit processes, and subsystems currently under development by NASA are considered. Included among these are: filtration, ultrafiltration, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, chemical pretreatment, reverse osmosis, hyperfiltration, and certain urea removal techniques. Performance data are given together with the projected weights and sizes of key components and subsystems. In the final assessment, a simple multifiltration approach consisting of surface-type cartridge filters, carbon adsorption and ion exchange resins receives the highest rating for six-man orbital missions of up to 10 years in duration.

  20. Tests of disinfection by heat in a bedpan washing machine.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, G A; Collins, B J; Deverill, C E

    1974-09-01

    Tests of effectiveness of disinfection of metal and polypropylene bedpans were made in a washer fitted with a steam generator. Broth cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus faecalis (approximately 4 x 10(8) organisms) were sealed in lengths of capillary tubing and attached to the surface of the pans. In other tests, pans were contaminated with an artificial soil containing Str. faecalis (10(8) organisms/ml). In both series of tests, counts of surviving organisms were made at the end of the washing and disinfection cycle. The tests using capillary tubes showed that the Gram-negative bacilli were effectively killed, but not necessarily Gram-positive cocci. However, when incorporated in standard soil, Str. faecalis was killed or removed during the cycle. The results indicate that the disinfection process was effective for metal bedpans, but less so for polypropylene. Possible disadvantages and modification of the machine are suggested. PMID:4214841

  1. Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils.

    PubMed

    Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4 ℃ for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied.

  2. Diphtheria on Skid Road, Seattle, Wash., 1972-75.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, A H; Spearman, J; Tronca, E; Bader, M; Harnisch, J

    1977-01-01

    From July 1972 to December 1975, an unusual outbreak of diphtheria in Seattle, Wash., resulted in a total of 558 cases and carriers, mostly among heavy alcohol users. Skin infections were predominant. Four white men died. The highest attack rate was among native American Indians. Environmental contamination and poor personal hygience were believed to be important in continuation of the epidemic, but could not be proved. Control measures included casefinding, isolation and quarantine, sanitizing dwelling units and mass immunization with Td toxoid. The high-risk geographic area was the city's Skid Road. This area continues to be the reservoir of continuing infection, but not all population subgroups there have been at equal risk. Spread to other geographic areas of the city and county has been minimal and remains under control. PMID:877208

  3. [Bactericidal power's assessment of eight antiseptic products intended to surgeon's hand-washing (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Charrel, J; Gevaudan, M J; Mallet, M N; Blancard, A; Gevaudan, P

    1977-01-01

    A standard hand-washing technique was used in order to test the relative effectiveness of eight both detergent and alcoholic preparations intended to surgeon's hands disinfection. A single four or seven minutes washing with alcoholic solutions was shown to eliminate a much larger proportion of the skin flora than could be removed by a single four or seven minutes hand-washing with detergent antiseptic preparations. Authors have also determined effect of wearing surgical rubber gloves after skin disinfection and compared viable bacterial counts in hand washings immediately after the antiseptic treatment and when gloves had been worn for one hour.

  4. Characterising nutrients wash-off for effective urban stormwater treatment design.

    PubMed

    Miguntanna, Nandika P; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-05-15

    This paper characterises nitrogen and phosphorus wash-off processes on urban road surfaces to create fundamental knowledge to strengthen stormwater treatment design. The study outcomes confirmed that the composition of initially available nutrients in terms of their physical association with solids and chemical speciation determines the wash-off characteristics. Nitrogen and phosphorus wash-off processes are independent of land use, but there are notable differences. Nitrogen wash-off is a "source limiting" process while phosphorus wash-off is "transport limiting". Additionally, a clear separation between nitrogen and phosphorus wash-off processes based on dissolved and particulate forms confirmed that the common approach of replicating nutrients wash-off based on solids wash-off could lead to misleading outcomes particularly in the case of nitrogen. Nitrogen is present primarily in dissolved and organic form and readily removed even by low intensity rainfall events, which is an important consideration for nitrogen removal targeted treatment design. In the case of phosphorus, phosphate constitutes the primary species in wash-off for the particle size fraction <75 μm, while other species are predominant in particle size range >75 μm. This means that phosphorus removal targeted treatment design should consider both phosphorus speciation as well as particle size.

  5. Efficacy of hand washing procedures on bacterial contamination of hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Ly, V T; Simmons, P A; Edrington, T B; Wechsler, S; De Land, P N

    1997-05-01

    The effect of various hand washing regimens on transfer of bacterial contaminants from the hands to a hydrogel contact lenses was evaluated. Each of 47 subjects performed 5 different hand washing procedures, and then handled a new, sterile hydrogel contact lens. The lenses were cultured to determine colony-forming units (CFUs) and microbial identity. Median CFUs on lenses handled after washing with water, soap and water, or soap and water followed by towel drying were higher than the median CFU for lenses handled after no hand washing. The median CFU for lenses handled after soap and water washing followed by an alcohol wipe was not different from the no washing group. The majority of the contaminants were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis. These results show that ordinary hand washing alone does not decrease, and may even increase, the amount of contaminants transferred from the hands to a hydrogel lens. Use of an alcoholic wipe after hand washing reverses this effect. Hand washing is still recommended in contact lens hygiene for removal of more pathogenic contaminants.

  6. Metal distribution and spectroscopic analysis after soil washing with chelating agents and humic substances.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Hartley, Neil R

    2014-03-01

    Biodegradable chelating agents ([S,S]-ethylenediamine-N,N-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and glutamic-N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA)) and natural humic substances (lignite-derived, standard, and commercially available humic acids) are potentially useful for enhancing soil remediation of timber treatment sites. This study integrated macroscopic and spectroscopic analyses to assess their influence on the distribution and chemical speciation of the remaining metals as well as their interaction with the soil surface after 48-h washing of a field-contaminated soil. The results demonstrated that EDDS and GLDA were an appealing alternative to non-biodegradable ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid, but the three humic substances were less effective. As shown by sequential extractions, Cu was primarily extracted from the carbonate fraction while Cr and As extraction resulted from (co-)dissolution of the oxide fraction. As a result, the relative proportion of strongly bound organic matter and residual fractions increased by 7-16 %. However, it was noteworthy that the exchangeable fraction also increased by 5-11 %, signifying that a portion of the remaining metals was destabilized by chelating agents and transformed to be more labile in the treated soil. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra confirmed the substantial removal of readily accessible Cu from the soil surface, but Cr maintained its original chemical forms of trivalent chromium oxides and iron-chromium coprecipitates, whereas As remained as arsenic trioxide/pentoxide and copper arsenate precipitates. On the other hand, the absence of characteristic peaks of adsorbed carboxylate groups in the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra inferred that the extent of adsorption of chelating agents and humic substances on the bulk soil was insufficient to be characterized by FTIR analysis. These results suggested that attention should be paid to the exchangeable fraction of Cu and oxides/coprecipitates of As prior to possible on

  7. The characterization of biodiesel wash water and the potential for microbial remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamers, Anton

    Biodiesel is a fuel produced from vegetable oils or other lipids that can be substituted for petroleum diesel in many internal combustion engines. Substitution of biodiesel for petroleum diesel has the potential to reduce green house gas emissions, decrease dependence on fossil fuels, add value to agriculture products and localize energy production. The production of biodiesel is a straight forward process and the scale of production varies from backyard brewers producing twenty litres at a time, to large industrial operations which produce thousands of litres. Biodiesel production in Ontario will see a great expansion in the next few years. Amendments to the Clean Air Act in 2006 incorporate a mandate that 2 % renewable content be blended into all diesel fuel by 2012. Since biodiesel is the primary fuel blended with petroleum diesel, the production of biodiesel in Canada will need to increase approximately five-fold from today's capacity. Raw biodiesel must be refined and one of the most common approaches is water washing, in which clean water is passed through the biodiesel. Water is an excellent medium for neutralizing residual catalyst, as well as removing residual methanol and glycerol. However, the resulting biodiesel wash water (BWW) is high in organics and cannot be disposed of in municipal waste streams. Biodiesel wash water from several laboratory and industrial biodiesel production facilities was characterized. The lab produced BWW chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were 150,000 +/- 20,000 mg/L and total solids content averaged 11,170 +/- 600 mg/L of which the majority was total dissolved solids. Soap content averaged 7,900 +/- 800 mg/L and a high pH near 10 was commonly seen. The industrial samples had higher levels of COD (754,200 +/- 162,600 mg/L) and solids (328,900 +/- 24,300 mg/L again mostly containing dissolved solids). Soap content was typically 778,100 +/- 306,500 mg/L, and pH ranged from very alkaline (10 +/- 0.4) to very acidic (1.1 +/- 0

  8. Short communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Peter T; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and test a system for automatic washing of the hooves of dairy cows and to evaluate the effect of frequent automatic washing on the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD). An automatic hoof washer was developed in an experimental dairy herd and tested in 6 commercial dairy herds in 2 experiments (1 and 2). In the experimental herd, automatic hoof washing resulted in cleaner hooves. In experiments 1 and 2, cows were washed after each milking on the left side only, leaving the right side unwashed as a within-cow control. In experiment 1, hooves were washed with a water and 0.4% soap solution. In experiment 2, hooves were washed with water only. In each experiment, DD was scored in a hoof-trimming chute approximately 60 d after the start of hoof washing. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The outcome was the DD status of each leg (DD positive or DD negative). Herd and cow within herd were included as random effects, and treatment (washing or control) was included as a fixed effect. The statistical analyses showed that the odds ratio of having DD was 1.48 in the control leg compared with the washed leg in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the odds ratio of having DD was 1.27 in the control leg compared with the washed leg. We concluded that automatic washing of hooves with water and soap can help decrease the prevalence of DD in commercial dairy herds.

  9. Is the wash-off process of road-deposited sediment source limited or transport limited?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongtao; Chen, Xuefei; Hao, Shaonan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Jiang; Zou, Changliang; Xie, Wenxia

    2016-09-01

    An in-depth understanding of the road-deposited sediments (RDS) wash-off process is essential to estimation of urban surface runoff pollution load and to designing methods to minimize the adverse impacts on the receiving waters. There are two debatable RDS wash-off views: source limited and transport limited. The RDS build-up and wash-off process was characterized to explore what determines the wash-off process to be source limited or transport limited based on twelve RDS sampling activities on an urban road in Beijing. The results showed that two natural rain events (2.0mm and 23.2mm) reduced the total RDS mass by 30%-40%, and that finer particles (<105μm) contributed 60%-80% of the wash-off load. Both single- and multi-rain events caused the RDS particle grain size to become coarser, while dry days made the RDS particle grain size finer. These findings indicated that the bulk RDS particles wash-off tends to be transport limited, but that finer particles tend to be source limited. To further explore and confirm the results of the field experiment, a total of 40 simulated rain events were designed to observe the RDS wash-off with different particle size fractions. The finer particles have a higher wash-off percentage (Fw) than the coarser particles, and the Fw values provide a good view to characterize the wash-off process. The key conclusions drawn from the combined field and simulated experiments data are: (i) Finer and coarser particle wash-off processes tend to be source limited and transport limited, respectively. (ii) The source and transport limited processes occur during the initial period (the first flush) and later periods, respectively. (iii) The smaller and larger rain events tend to be transport limited and source limited, respectively. Overall, the wash-off process is generally a combination of source and transport limited processes.

  10. Is the wash-off process of road-deposited sediment source limited or transport limited?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongtao; Chen, Xuefei; Hao, Shaonan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Jiang; Zou, Changliang; Xie, Wenxia

    2016-09-01

    An in-depth understanding of the road-deposited sediments (RDS) wash-off process is essential to estimation of urban surface runoff pollution load and to designing methods to minimize the adverse impacts on the receiving waters. There are two debatable RDS wash-off views: source limited and transport limited. The RDS build-up and wash-off process was characterized to explore what determines the wash-off process to be source limited or transport limited based on twelve RDS sampling activities on an urban road in Beijing. The results showed that two natural rain events (2.0mm and 23.2mm) reduced the total RDS mass by 30%-40%, and that finer particles (<105μm) contributed 60%-80% of the wash-off load. Both single- and multi-rain events caused the RDS particle grain size to become coarser, while dry days made the RDS particle grain size finer. These findings indicated that the bulk RDS particles wash-off tends to be transport limited, but that finer particles tend to be source limited. To further explore and confirm the results of the field experiment, a total of 40 simulated rain events were designed to observe the RDS wash-off with different particle size fractions. The finer particles have a higher wash-off percentage (Fw) than the coarser particles, and the Fw values provide a good view to characterize the wash-off process. The key conclusions drawn from the combined field and simulated experiments data are: (i) Finer and coarser particle wash-off processes tend to be source limited and transport limited, respectively. (ii) The source and transport limited processes occur during the initial period (the first flush) and later periods, respectively. (iii) The smaller and larger rain events tend to be transport limited and source limited, respectively. Overall, the wash-off process is generally a combination of source and transport limited processes. PMID:27135567

  11. Environmental assessment on a soil washing process of a Pb-contaminated shooting range site: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Moon, Deok-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an environmental assessment on a soil washing process for the remediation of a Pb-contaminated shooting range site was conducted, using a green and sustainable remediation tool, i.e., SiteWise ver. 2, based on data relating specifically to the actual remediation project. The entire soil washing process was classified into four major stages, consisting of soil excavation (stage I), physical separation (stage II), acid-based (0.2 N HCl) chemical extraction (stage III), and wastewater treatment (stage IV). Environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy consumption, water consumption, and critical air pollutant productions such as PM10, NO x , and SO x , were calculated, and the relative contribution of each stage was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In stage I, the relative contribution of the PM10 emissions was 55.3 % because the soil excavation emitted the fine particles. In stage II, the relative contribution of NO x and SO x emissions was 42.5 and 52.5 %, respectively, which resulted from electricity consumption for the operation of the separator. Stage III was the main contributing factor to 63.1 % of the GHG emissions, 67.5 % of total energy used, and 37.4 % of water consumptions. The relatively high contribution of stage III comes from use of consumable chemicals such as HCl and water-based extraction processes. In stage IV, the relative contributions of GHG emissions, total energy used, and NO x and SO x emissions were 23.2, 19.4, 19.5, and 25.3 %, respectively, which were caused by chemical and electricity demands for system operation. In conclusion, consumable chemicals such as HCl and NaOH, electric energy consumption for system operation, and equipment use for soil excavation were determined to be the major sources of environmental pollution to occur during the soil washing process. Especially, the acid-based chemical extraction process should be avoided in order to improve the sustainability of soil

  12. 40 CFR 429.110 - Applicability; description of the log washing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the log... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Log Washing Subcategory § 429.110 Applicability; description of the log washing subcategory. This subpart applies...

  13. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  14. Using Olfaction and Unpleasant Reminders to Reduce the Intention-behavior Gap in Hand Washing.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Robert; Crandall, Philip G; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-06

    Lack of hand washing is a leading cause of food borne illnesses. To successfully increase hand hygiene compliance, interventions must have continual engagement with employees. This study used a real-time prospective memory (PM) scenario to measure the effectiveness of a control and sensory reminders of disgust to influence hand washing behavior and performance. First, a model of hand washing performance was built by having six participants' hands contaminated with GermGlo (a florescent micro-particle) and then washed their hands using predetermined protocols while monitored by an electronic hand hygiene verification (HHV) system. Next, eighty Hispanic/Latino participants, in a between-group experimental design, performed a PM experiment while one of four reminders were present (hand washing poster, disgusting image, disgusting sound, and disgusting odor) as the HHV recorded their hand washing performance. Visual cues, typical of hand washing campaigns, were not as effective at increasing hand hygiene compliance as disgust-induced sensory cues. Furthermore, olfactory disgust showed a significantly higher probability that individuals would engage in hand washing behaviors than all other conditions. This study provides new insight into the effectiveness of different senses and emotion to reduce the intention-behavior gap associated with modifying behaviors, and broadens current PM research to a real-time application.

  15. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base...

  16. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base...

  17. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base...

  18. Factors Influencing Hand Washing Behaviour in Primary Schools: Process Evaluation within a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    This article explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomized controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n = 16, aged 6-11 years), semi-structured interviews (n = 16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n = 57).…

  19. Hand-washing behaviour and nurses' knowledge after a training programme.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Tulay; Findik, Ummu Yildiz; Tokuc, Burcu

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nurses' hand-washing behaviour and knowledge before and after a training programme. This prospective study involved 200 nurses who participated in hand-washing training at a university hospital in Turkey. The data were collected using a personal information form and pre- and post-test surveys that had been developed by the researchers. During the study, the nurses received 40 min of training on hand washing and a handbook prepared by the researchers. The hand-washing behaviour and knowledge of the nurses were assessed before training and 1 month after the training. To analyse the data, descriptive statistics, a t-test and a Mc Nemar chi-squared test were used. Following the training, there was a significant increase in the frequency of hand washing by the nurses (t = -2.202, P = 0.029), together with an increase in the time allowed for hand washing (P = 0.024, P < 0.05), knowledge of hand-washing practices (t = -16.081, P < 0.05) and quality (t = -10.874, P < 0.05). Planned training programmes for hand washing should be implemented to improve the behaviour and knowledge of nurses. PMID:21939477

  20. Influence of pollutant build-up on variability in wash-off from urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-09-15

    Variability in the pollutant wash-off process is a concept which needs to be understood in-depth in order to better assess the outcomes of stormwater quality models, and thereby strengthen stormwater pollution mitigation strategies. Current knowledge about the wash-off process does not extend to a clear understanding of the influence of the initially available pollutant build-up on the variability of the pollutant wash-off load and composition. Consequently, pollutant wash-off process variability is poorly characterised in stormwater quality models, which can result in inaccurate stormwater quality predictions. Mathematical simulation of particulate wash-off from three urban road surfaces confirmed that the wash-off load of particle size fractions < 150 μm and > 150 μm after a storm event vary with the build-up of the respective particle size fractions available at the beginning of the storm event. Furthermore, pollutant load and composition associated with the initially available build-up of < 150 μm particles predominantly influence the variability in washed-off pollutant load and composition. The influence of the build-up of pollutants associated with > 150 μm particles on wash-off process variability is significant only for relatively shorter duration storm events.

  1. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  2. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  3. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  4. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  5. Evaluating the Utility of Commercial Videotapes for Teaching Hand Washing to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Nancy E.; Schwartz, Ilene S.; Davis, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of using a commercially available video model to teach three preschoolers with autism to wash their hands. While one child learned 80% of the hand washing steps, 2 of the 3 children did not learn from the commercial model. All were subsequently exposed to a customized video model, which resulted in at least some…

  6. An Examination of "Wash-Out" and Workplace Conditions of Beginning Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma; Colem, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the extent of wash-out in two beginning physical education teachers; and (2) determine the workplace conditions these novice teachers experienced that may have influenced the extent of wash-out for them. The interactive factors influencing workplace conditions for physical education teachers…

  7. 16 CFR 1630.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing... ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) Washing...

  8. 16 CFR 1630.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing... ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) Washing...

  9. 16 CFR 1630.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing... ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) Washing...

  10. 16 CFR 1630.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing... ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) Washing...

  11. 16 CFR 1630.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing... ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) Washing...

  12. WASH is required for lysosomal recycling and efficient autophagic and phagocytic digestion

    PubMed Central

    King, Jason S.; Gueho, Aurélie; Hagedorn, Monica; Gopaldass, Navin; Leuba, Florence; Soldati, Thierry; Insall, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) is an important regulator of vesicle trafficking. By generating actin on the surface of intracellular vesicles, WASH is able to directly regulate endosomal sorting and maturation. We report that, in Dictyostelium, WASH is also required for the lysosomal digestion of both phagocytic and autophagic cargo. Consequently, Dictyostelium cells lacking WASH are unable to grow on many bacteria or to digest their own cytoplasm to survive starvation. WASH is required for efficient phagosomal proteolysis, and proteomic analysis demonstrates that this is due to reduced delivery of lysosomal hydrolases. Both protease and lipase delivery are disrupted, and lipid catabolism is also perturbed. Starvation-induced autophagy therefore leads to phospholipid accumulation within WASH-null lysosomes. This causes the formation of multilamellar bodies typical of many lysosomal storage diseases. Mechanistically, we show that, in cells lacking WASH, cathepsin D becomes trapped in a late endosomal compartment, unable to be recycled to nascent phagosomes and autophagosomes. WASH is therefore required for the maturation of lysosomes to a stage at which hydrolases can be retrieved and reused. PMID:23885127

  13. Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of high quality, fresh-cut produce is a key driver for the produce industry. A critical area of concern is the chlorinated wash water used during post-harvest processing in large industrial processing facilities. Predominantly using a batch process, wash water is recycled over 8hr shift...

  14. Fostering Hand Washing before Lunch by Students Attending a Special Needs Young Adult Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Christopher; Mahoney, Amanda; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A multiple baseline across groups design was used to investigate the effects of a treatment package on hand washing before lunch by five students with disabilities who attended a young adult educational program. To evaluate hand washing, a lotion called Glo Germ was applied to participants' hands. Glo Germ is visible under a black light, which…

  15. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. 157.130 Section 157.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  16. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  17. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. 157.130 Section 157.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  18. 33 CFR 110.229 - Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. 110.229 Section 110.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.229 Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. (a)...

  19. Using Olfaction and Unpleasant Reminders to Reduce the Intention-behavior Gap in Hand Washing.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Robert; Crandall, Philip G; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Lack of hand washing is a leading cause of food borne illnesses. To successfully increase hand hygiene compliance, interventions must have continual engagement with employees. This study used a real-time prospective memory (PM) scenario to measure the effectiveness of a control and sensory reminders of disgust to influence hand washing behavior and performance. First, a model of hand washing performance was built by having six participants' hands contaminated with GermGlo (a florescent micro-particle) and then washed their hands using predetermined protocols while monitored by an electronic hand hygiene verification (HHV) system. Next, eighty Hispanic/Latino participants, in a between-group experimental design, performed a PM experiment while one of four reminders were present (hand washing poster, disgusting image, disgusting sound, and disgusting odor) as the HHV recorded their hand washing performance. Visual cues, typical of hand washing campaigns, were not as effective at increasing hand hygiene compliance as disgust-induced sensory cues. Furthermore, olfactory disgust showed a significantly higher probability that individuals would engage in hand washing behaviors than all other conditions. This study provides new insight into the effectiveness of different senses and emotion to reduce the intention-behavior gap associated with modifying behaviors, and broadens current PM research to a real-time application. PMID:26732033

  20. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the...

  1. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the...

  2. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent...

  3. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent...

  4. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the...

  5. Washing Machines--Components & Operations; Appliance Repair 2: #9025.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Designed to familiarize the student with the components and operations of automatic washing machines, this course outline offers instruction on the principles of washing and their relation to the automatic washer, the functions and operations of washer components, identification of various component malfunctions, washer installation, and the…

  6. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recent discharge of crude oil from that tank is discharged in accordance with § 157.37(a); and (4) Cargo... is carried only in a cargo tank that is crude oil washed during or after the most recent discharge of... crude oil washed during or after the most recent discharge of crude oil from those tanks to...

  7. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  8. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  9. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  10. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  11. Using Olfaction and Unpleasant Reminders to Reduce the Intention-behavior Gap in Hand Washing

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Robert; Crandall, Philip G.; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Lack of hand washing is a leading cause of food borne illnesses. To successfully increase hand hygiene compliance, interventions must have continual engagement with employees. This study used a real-time prospective memory (PM) scenario to measure the effectiveness of a control and sensory reminders of disgust to influence hand washing behavior and performance. First, a model of hand washing performance was built by having six participants’ hands contaminated with GermGlo (a florescent micro-particle) and then washed their hands using predetermined protocols while monitored by an electronic hand hygiene verification (HHV) system. Next, eighty Hispanic/Latino participants, in a between-group experimental design, performed a PM experiment while one of four reminders were present (hand washing poster, disgusting image, disgusting sound, and disgusting odor) as the HHV recorded their hand washing performance. Visual cues, typical of hand washing campaigns, were not as effective at increasing hand hygiene compliance as disgust-induced sensory cues. Furthermore, olfactory disgust showed a significantly higher probability that individuals would engage in hand washing behaviors than all other conditions. This study provides new insight into the effectiveness of different senses and emotion to reduce the intention-behavior gap associated with modifying behaviors, and broadens current PM research to a real-time application. PMID:26732033

  12. Investigation of water washes suitable for very small meat plants to reduce pathogens on beef surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Sally Flowers; Henning, William R; Mills, Edward W; Doores, Stephanie; Ostiguy, Nancy; Cutter, Catherine N

    2010-05-01

    Water washing with a handheld hose was performed on beef surfaces to ascertain the most effective combination of methods needed to remove potentially harmful microorganisms. For these experiments, beef brisket surfaces were experimentally inoculated with a fecal slurry containing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter jejuni. In a pilot study, surfaces were washed with cold water (15 degrees C) at various water pressures, spray distances, application times, and drip times, and remaining bacterial populations were determined following the enumeration and isolation of pathogens and naturally occurring hygiene indicators (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli). The most efficacious combinations of these washing conditions were applied subsequently to artificially contaminated beef brisket surfaces in conjunction with hot (77 degrees C), warm (54 degrees C), and additional cold (15 degrees C) water washes. In the cold water washing pilot study, combinations of physical washing conditions significantly reduced all bacterial populations (P < 0.05). Further studies clearly indicated the superior bactericidal effectiveness of hot water washing; E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced by 3.8 and 4.1 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Overall, higher water temperature, longer application times, and shorter spray distances more effectively removed pathogens from inoculated beef surfaces. These findings will be used to formulate water washing recommendations for very small meat processing establishments. PMID:20501042

  13. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BESCORP SOIL WASHING SYSTEM ALASKAN BATTERY ENTERPRISES SITE - BRICE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BESCORP Soil Washing System is an aqueous volume reduction system that utilizes trommel agitation, high-pressure washing, sizing, and density separation to remove lead, lead compounds, and battery casing chips from soil contaminated by broken lead batteries. The basic concept...

  14. Microfluidic chemical processing with on-chip washing by deterministic lateral displacement arrays with separator walls

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; D'Silva, Joseph; Austin, Robert H.; Sturm, James C.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a microfluidic device for on-chip chemical processing, such as staining, and subsequent washing of cells. The paper introduces “separator walls” to increase the on-chip incubation time and to improve the quality of washing. Cells of interest are concentrated into a treatment stream of chemical reagents at the first separator wall for extended on-chip incubation without causing excess contamination at the output due to diffusion of the unreacted treatment chemicals, and then are directed to the washing stream before final collections. The second separator wall further reduces the output contamination from diffusion to the washing stream. With this approach, we demonstrate on-chip leukocyte staining with Rhodamine 6G and washing. The results suggest that other conventional biological and analytical processes could be replaced by the proposed device. PMID:26396659

  15. Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

  16. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-11-10

    Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R

  17. Efficacy of low-concentration iodophors for germicidal hand washing.

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, M. E.; Sheena, A. Z.

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy of iodophor germicides containing different concentrations of available iodine against transient (inoculated) bacteria and the natural hand microflora was compared with chlorhexidine gluconate (2 and 4%) liquid detergent (Hibitane), non-germicidal soap and a tap water rinse. The tap water rinse was ineffective compared with all other treatments. Only 4% chlorhexidine gluconate liquid detergent and iodophor containing 0.75% available iodine were significantly better than the non-germicidal soap for reduction of transient bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens, that had been inoculated onto hands. These agents also caused a significant reduction in the number of 'natural' microorganisms released from hands after a standard 15 s hand wash. The low-concentration iodophor products and the product containing 2% chlorhexidine gluconate failed to give results significantly better than the non-germicidal control soap. Baird-Parker medium and standard aerobic plate counts were highly correlated (r = 0.82), so that for studies of Gram-negative bacteria inoculated onto hands as a transient microflora, counts on Baird-Parker medium give a reasonable indication of the natural (residual) hand microflora. PMID:3924994

  18. Evaluation of biosurfactants for crude oil contaminated soil washing.

    PubMed

    Urum, Kingsley; Pekdemir, Turgay

    2004-12-01

    An evaluation of the ability of aqueous biosurfactant solutions (aescin, lecithin, rhamnolipid, saponin and tannin) for possible applications in washing crude oil contaminated soil was carried out. The biosurfactants behaviour in soil-water, water-oil and oil-soil systems (such as foaming, solubilization, sorption to soil, emulsification, surface and interfacial tension) was measured and compared with a well-known chemical surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) at varying concentrations. Results showed that the biosurfactants were able to remove significant amount of crude oil from the contaminated soil at different solution concentrations for instance rhamnolipid and SDS removed up to 80% oil and lecithin about 42%. The performance of water alone in crude oil removal was equally as good as those of the other biosurfactants. Oil removal was due to mobilization, caused by the reduction of surface and interfacial tensions. Solubilization and emulsification effects in oil removal were negligible due to the low crude oil solubilization of 0.11%. Therefore, these studies suggest that knowledge of surfactants' behaviour across different systems is paramount before their use in the practical application of oil removal.

  19. Multiphasic strain differentiation of atypical mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Loke, Mun Fai; Ong, Bee Lee; Wong, Yan Ling; Hong, Kar Wai; Tan, Kian Hin; Kaur, Sargit; Ng, Hien Fuh; Abdul Razak, Mfa; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Two non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains, UM_3 and UM_11, were isolated from the trunk wash of captive elephants in Malaysia. As they appeared to be identical phenotypes, they were investigated further by conventional and whole genome sequence-based methods of strain differentiation. Methods. Multiphasic investigations on the isolates included species identification with hsp65 PCR-sequencing, conventional biochemical tests, rapid biochemical profiling using API strips and the Biolog Phenotype Microarray analysis, protein profiling with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, repetitive sequence-based PCR typing and whole genome sequencing followed by phylogenomic analyses. Results. The isolates were shown to be possibly novel slow-growing schotochromogens with highly similar biological and genotypic characteristics. Both strains have a genome size of 5.2 Mbp, G+C content of 68.8%, one rRNA operon and 52 tRNAs each. They qualified for classification into the same species with their average nucleotide identity of 99.98% and tetranucleotide correlation coefficient of 0.99999. At the subspecies level, both strains showed 98.8% band similarity in the Diversilab automated repetitive sequence-based PCR typing system, 96.2% similarity in protein profiles obtained by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and a genomic distance that is close to zero in the phylogenomic tree constructed with conserved orthologs. Detailed epidemiological tracking revealed that the elephants shared a common habitat eight years apart, thus, strengthening the possibility of a clonal relationship between the two strains.

  20. Washing of Rocky Flats Combustible Residues (Conducted March - May 1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Mary E. Barr; Ann R. Schake; David A. Romero; Gordon D. Jarvinen

    1999-03-01

    The scope of this project is to determine the feasibility of washing plutonium-containing combustible residues using ultrasonic disruption as a method for dislodging particulate. Removal of plutonium particulate and, to a lesser extent, solubilized plutonium from the organic substrate should substantially reduce potential fire, explosion or radioactive release hazards due to radiolytic hydrogen generation or high flammability. Tests were conducted on polypropylene filters which were used as pre-filters in the rich-residue ion-exchange process at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. These filters are similar to the Ful-Flo{reg_sign} cartridges used at Rocky Flats that make up a substantial fraction of the combustible residues with the highest hazard rating. Batch experiments were run on crushed filter material in order to determine the amount of Pu removed by stirring, stirring and sonication, and stirring and sonication with the introduction of Pu-chelating water-soluble polymers or surfactants. Significantly more Pu is removed using sonication and sonication with chelators than is removed with mechanical stirring alone.

  1. [Characterization of Pollutant Wash-off in the Urban Stormwater].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-liang; Ren, Yu-fen; Wang, Xue-mei; Wang, Xiao-ke; Chein, Li-ding; Liu, Gang-cai

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pollution character of urban road runoff, the concentrations of TSS, EC, N and P in the ring road runoff of Beijing from June to September 2013 were evaluated, the correlations among pollutants were examined, and the load of TSS, N and P were estimated. Result showed that the small particulates in the range of 1-10 μm consisted of 60% TSS in the road runoff. Totally 89 percent of the nitrogen (N) was dissolved phase state in the road runoff, 80 percent of the phosphorus (P) was particular phase state in the road runoff. Based on the characteristics of correlations between EC, TSS and TN, TP, EC and TSS were the surrogate indexes of pollution degree assessment for the dissolved N and particulate P in the urban road runoff, respectively. Based on our results, the SS, N and P year load per unit area in Beijing ring road runoff were 16 725.69, 1777.91 and 24.23 mg x (m2 x a)(-1), respectively. Our findings described the polutant wash off character in urban road runoff, which provide a scientific basis for management of nonpoint pollution in a city and an alternative method for controlling pollution.

  2. Reverse osmosis for wash water recovery in space vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, R. W.; Saltonstall, C. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were carried out on both synthetic and real wash water derived from clothes laundry to determine the utility of reverse osmosis in recovering the water for recycle use. A blend membrane made from cellulose di- and triacetates, and a cross-linked cellulose acetate/methacrylate were evaluated. Both were found acceptable. A number of detergents were evaluated, including a cationic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate, potassium palmitate, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. The tests were all made at a temperature of 165 F to minimize microbial growth. Long-term (15 to 30 day) runs were made at 600 and 400 psi on laundry water which was pretreated either by alum addition and sand filtration or by filtration only through 0.5 micron filters. A 30-day run was made using a 2-in. diameter by 22-in. long spiral module at 400 psig with filtering as the pretreatment. The membrane fouling by colloidal matter was found to be controllable. The unit produced initially 55 gal/day and 27 gal/day after 30 days.

  3. [Characterization of Pollutant Wash-off in the Urban Stormwater].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-liang; Ren, Yu-fen; Wang, Xue-mei; Wang, Xiao-ke; Chein, Li-ding; Liu, Gang-cai

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pollution character of urban road runoff, the concentrations of TSS, EC, N and P in the ring road runoff of Beijing from June to September 2013 were evaluated, the correlations among pollutants were examined, and the load of TSS, N and P were estimated. Result showed that the small particulates in the range of 1-10 μm consisted of 60% TSS in the road runoff. Totally 89 percent of the nitrogen (N) was dissolved phase state in the road runoff, 80 percent of the phosphorus (P) was particular phase state in the road runoff. Based on the characteristics of correlations between EC, TSS and TN, TP, EC and TSS were the surrogate indexes of pollution degree assessment for the dissolved N and particulate P in the urban road runoff, respectively. Based on our results, the SS, N and P year load per unit area in Beijing ring road runoff were 16 725.69, 1777.91 and 24.23 mg x (m2 x a)(-1), respectively. Our findings described the polutant wash off character in urban road runoff, which provide a scientific basis for management of nonpoint pollution in a city and an alternative method for controlling pollution. PMID:26841600

  4. Multiphasic strain differentiation of atypical mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Loke, Mun Fai; Ong, Bee Lee; Wong, Yan Ling; Hong, Kar Wai; Tan, Kian Hin; Kaur, Sargit; Ng, Hien Fuh; Abdul Razak, MFA

    2015-01-01

    Background. Two non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains, UM_3 and UM_11, were isolated from the trunk wash of captive elephants in Malaysia. As they appeared to be identical phenotypes, they were investigated further by conventional and whole genome sequence-based methods of strain differentiation. Methods. Multiphasic investigations on the isolates included species identification with hsp65 PCR-sequencing, conventional biochemical tests, rapid biochemical profiling using API strips and the Biolog Phenotype Microarray analysis, protein profiling with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, repetitive sequence-based PCR typing and whole genome sequencing followed by phylogenomic analyses. Results. The isolates were shown to be possibly novel slow-growing schotochromogens with highly similar biological and genotypic characteristics. Both strains have a genome size of 5.2 Mbp, G+C content of 68.8%, one rRNA operon and 52 tRNAs each. They qualified for classification into the same species with their average nucleotide identity of 99.98% and tetranucleotide correlation coefficient of 0.99999. At the subspecies level, both strains showed 98.8% band similarity in the Diversilab automated repetitive sequence-based PCR typing system, 96.2% similarity in protein profiles obtained by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and a genomic distance that is close to zero in the phylogenomic tree constructed with conserved orthologs. Detailed epidemiological tracking revealed that the elephants shared a common habitat eight years apart, thus, strengthening the possibility of a clonal relationship between the two strains. PMID:26587340

  5. Washing and changing uniforms: is guidance being adhered to?

    PubMed

    Potter, Yvonne Camilla; Justham, David

    To allay public apprehension regarding the risk of nurses' uniforms transmitting healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), national and local guidelines have been issued to control use, laundry and storage. This paper aims to measure the knowledge of registered nurses (RNs) and healthcare assistants (HCAs) working within a rural NHS foundation Trust and their adherence to the local infection prevention and control (IPC) standard regarding uniforms through a Trust-wide audit. Stratified random sampling selected 597 nursing staff and 399 responded (67%) by completing a short questionnaire based on the local standard. Responses were coded and transferred to SPSS (v. 17) for analysis. The audit found that nursing staff generally adhere to the guidelines, changing their uniforms daily and immediately upon accidental soiling, and wearing plastic aprons where indicated. At home, staff normally machine-wash and then iron their uniforms at the hottest setting. Nevertheless, few observe the local direction to place their newly-laundered uniforms in protective covers. This paper recommends a re-audit to compare compliance rates with baseline figures and further research into the reasons why compliance is lacking to sanction interventions for improvement, such as providing relevant staff education and re-introducing appropriate changing facilities. PMID:22875349

  6. Multiphasic strain differentiation of atypical mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Loke, Mun Fai; Ong, Bee Lee; Wong, Yan Ling; Hong, Kar Wai; Tan, Kian Hin; Kaur, Sargit; Ng, Hien Fuh; Abdul Razak, Mfa; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Two non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains, UM_3 and UM_11, were isolated from the trunk wash of captive elephants in Malaysia. As they appeared to be identical phenotypes, they were investigated further by conventional and whole genome sequence-based methods of strain differentiation. Methods. Multiphasic investigations on the isolates included species identification with hsp65 PCR-sequencing, conventional biochemical tests, rapid biochemical profiling using API strips and the Biolog Phenotype Microarray analysis, protein profiling with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, repetitive sequence-based PCR typing and whole genome sequencing followed by phylogenomic analyses. Results. The isolates were shown to be possibly novel slow-growing schotochromogens with highly similar biological and genotypic characteristics. Both strains have a genome size of 5.2 Mbp, G+C content of 68.8%, one rRNA operon and 52 tRNAs each. They qualified for classification into the same species with their average nucleotide identity of 99.98% and tetranucleotide correlation coefficient of 0.99999. At the subspecies level, both strains showed 98.8% band similarity in the Diversilab automated repetitive sequence-based PCR typing system, 96.2% similarity in protein profiles obtained by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and a genomic distance that is close to zero in the phylogenomic tree constructed with conserved orthologs. Detailed epidemiological tracking revealed that the elephants shared a common habitat eight years apart, thus, strengthening the possibility of a clonal relationship between the two strains. PMID:26587340

  7. Reduction of an E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Bailey, Rebecca B; Jin, Tony Z; Fan, Xuetong

    2014-10-17

    A 2011 outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis, which resulted in the death of two individuals, was associated with contaminated strawberries. A study was conducted to identify antimicrobial washes effective at reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica from the surface of fresh whole strawberries during two-minute immersion washes. Twenty-seven antimicrobial treatments were tested. Vacuum perfusion was applied to strawberries during chlorine and peracetic acid treatments to promote infiltration of sanitizer into porous strawberry tissue. Strawberries were inoculated to 7.1logCFU/strawberry with a seven-strain bacterial composite, consisting of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 and four serovars of Salmonella enterica. Berries were air-dried for 2h and immersed in circulating antimicrobial solutions for 120s at 22°C. Four treatments reduced ≥3.0logCFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% acetic acid+1% H2O2, (b) 30% ethanol+1% H2O2, (c) 90ppm peracetic acid, and (d) 1% lactic acid+1% H2O2. Two additional treatments that reduced 2.8logCFU/strawberry were (a) 40% ethanol, and (b) 1% each of phosphoric+fumaric acids. Eight treatments reduced 2.0-2.6logCFU/strawberry. Five treatments reduced <1.45CFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% citric acid, (b) 1% lactic acid, (c) 1% acetic acid, (d) 0.5% each of acetic+citric acids and (e) 0.5% each of acetic+lactic acids. The use of vacuum perfusion with 200ppm chlorine or 90ppm peracetic acid did not reduce greater populations of pathogens than did the same treatments without vacuum perfusion. Fourteen treatments reduced no more pathogens (p<0.05) than did sterile deionized water. Results from this study provide some options for end-point decontamination of strawberries for retail operations just prior to serving to customers.

  8. Reduction of an E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Bailey, Rebecca B; Jin, Tony Z; Fan, Xuetong

    2014-10-17

    A 2011 outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis, which resulted in the death of two individuals, was associated with contaminated strawberries. A study was conducted to identify antimicrobial washes effective at reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica from the surface of fresh whole strawberries during two-minute immersion washes. Twenty-seven antimicrobial treatments were tested. Vacuum perfusion was applied to strawberries during chlorine and peracetic acid treatments to promote infiltration of sanitizer into porous strawberry tissue. Strawberries were inoculated to 7.1logCFU/strawberry with a seven-strain bacterial composite, consisting of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 and four serovars of Salmonella enterica. Berries were air-dried for 2h and immersed in circulating antimicrobial solutions for 120s at 22°C. Four treatments reduced ≥3.0logCFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% acetic acid+1% H2O2, (b) 30% ethanol+1% H2O2, (c) 90ppm peracetic acid, and (d) 1% lactic acid+1% H2O2. Two additional treatments that reduced 2.8logCFU/strawberry were (a) 40% ethanol, and (b) 1% each of phosphoric+fumaric acids. Eight treatments reduced 2.0-2.6logCFU/strawberry. Five treatments reduced <1.45CFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% citric acid, (b) 1% lactic acid, (c) 1% acetic acid, (d) 0.5% each of acetic+citric acids and (e) 0.5% each of acetic+lactic acids. The use of vacuum perfusion with 200ppm chlorine or 90ppm peracetic acid did not reduce greater populations of pathogens than did the same treatments without vacuum perfusion. Fourteen treatments reduced no more pathogens (p<0.05) than did sterile deionized water. Results from this study provide some options for end-point decontamination of strawberries for retail operations just prior to serving to customers. PMID:25146462

  9. Use of oleic acid to reduce the population of the bacterial flora of poultry skin.

    PubMed

    Hinton, A; Ingram, K D

    2000-09-01

    The effect of oleic acid on native bacterial flora of poultry skin was examined. Skin from commercial broiler carcasses was washed once or twice in solutions of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% (wt/vol) oleic acid and rinsed in peptone water. Aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci in the rinsates were enumerated. Significantly fewer aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci were recovered from rinsates of skin washed in oleic acid than from control samples. Additionally, fewer bacteria were recovered from rinsates of skin washed in higher concentrations of oleic acid than from skin washed in lower concentrations of the fatty acid. In most cases, there was no significant difference in the number of bacteria recovered from rinsates of skin washed once or twice in solutions of oleic acid. Washing skin samples twice in 10% solutions of oleic acid significantly reduced the number of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci that remained attached to the skin. Campylobacter sp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes isolates possessed the least resistance to the antibacterial activity of oleic acid in vitro, while Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed higher resistance. Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Salmonella Typhimurium had the greatest resistance to the antibacterial activity of oleic acid. Findings indicate that oleic acid reduces the number of bacteria on the skin of processed broilers and that the fatty acid is bactericidal to several spoilage and pathogenic bacteria associated with poultry.

  10. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both {sup 137}Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report.

  11. The survival of foodborne pathogens during domestic washing-up and subsequent transfer onto washing-up sponges, kitchen surfaces and food.

    PubMed

    Mattick, Karen; Durham, Karen; Domingue, Gil; Jørgensen, Frieda; Sen, Mithu; Schaffner, Donald W; Humphrey, Tom

    2003-08-25

    In this study, the survival of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli O157: H7, when exposed to a range of constant temperatures (47-60 degrees C), in hard or soft water, in the presence/absence of detergent (0-0.3%) and organic matter, and during drying, was investigated. Further experiments used a washing-up process simulation, where soiled dishes contaminated with bacteria were washed in a bowl of warm water containing detergent. In addition, this study considered the risk of bacterial transfer onto (1) sterile dishes and sponges via contaminated water, (2) kitchen surfaces wiped with a contaminated sponge, (3) items placed in direct contact with a contaminated kitchen surface, (4) food placed on a contaminated dish or (5) dishes from contaminated food. A proportion of dishes remained contaminated with all pathogen types after a typical washing-up. Water hardness did not appear to affect survival. E. coli, and to a lesser extent Salmonella, survived towel- or air-drying on dishes and after towel-drying the cloth became contaminated on every occasion, regardless of the test organism. A proportion of sterile dishes washed after contaminated dishes became contaminated with pathogens but transfer from dishes onto food was rare. Washing-up sponges frequently became contaminated with pathogens. The results of this study highlight the potential for survival and cross contamination of food borne pathogens in the kitchen environment. PMID:12878380

  12. Actin polymerization driven by WASH causes V-ATPase retrieval and vesicle neutralization before exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Carnell, Michael; Zech, Tobias; Calaminus, Simon D.; Ura, Seiji; Hagedorn, Monica; Johnston, Simon A.; May, Robin C.; Soldati, Thierry; Machesky, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    WASP and SCAR homologue (WASH) is a recently identified and evolutionarily conserved regulator of actin polymerization. In this paper, we show that WASH coats mature Dictyostelium discoideum lysosomes and is essential for exocytosis of indigestible material. A related process, the expulsion of the lethal endosomal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans from mammalian macrophages, also uses WASH-coated vesicles, and cells expressing dominant negative WASH mutants inefficiently expel C. neoformans. D. discoideum WASH causes filamentous actin (F-actin) patches to form on lysosomes, leading to the removal of vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) and the neutralization of lysosomes to form postlysosomes. Without WASH, no patches or coats are formed, neutral postlysosomes are not seen, and indigestible material such as dextran is not exocytosed. Similar results occur when actin polymerization is blocked with latrunculin. V-ATPases are known to bind avidly to F-actin. Our data imply a new mechanism, actin-mediated sorting, in which WASH and the Arp2/3 complex polymerize actin on vesicles to drive the separation and recycling of proteins such as the V-ATPase. PMID:21606208

  13. Washing older blood units before transfusion reduces plasma iron and improves outcomes in experimental canine pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Puch, Irene; Wang, Dong; Sun, Junfeng; Solomon, Steven B; Remy, Kenneth E; Fernandez, Melinda; Feng, Jing; Kanias, Tamir; Bellavia, Landon; Sinchar, Derek; Perlegas, Andreas; Solomon, Michael A; Kelley, Walter E; Popovsky, Mark A; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Klein, Harvey G; Natanson, Charles

    2014-02-27

    In a randomized controlled blinded trial, 2-year-old purpose-bred beagles (n = 24), with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, were exchanged-transfused with either 7- or 42-day-old washed or unwashed canine universal donor blood (80 mL/kg in 4 divided doses). Washing red cells (RBC) before transfusion had a significantly different effect on canine survival, multiple organ injury, plasma iron, and cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) levels depending on the age of stored blood (all, P < .05 for interactions). Washing older units of blood improved survival rates, shock score, lung injury, cardiac performance and liver function, and reduced levels of non-transferrin bound iron and plasma labile iron. In contrast, washing fresh blood worsened all these same clinical parameters and increased CFH levels. Our data indicate that transfusion of fresh blood, which results in less hemolysis, CFH, and iron release, is less toxic than transfusion of older blood in critically ill infected subjects. However, washing older blood prevented elevations in plasma circulating iron and improved survival and multiple organ injury in animals with an established pulmonary infection. Our data suggest that fresh blood should not be washed routinely because, in a setting of established infection, washed RBC are prone to release CFH and result in worsened clinical outcomes.

  14. Understanding road surface pollutant wash-off and underlying physical processes using simulated rainfall.

    PubMed

    Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2008-01-01

    Pollutant wash-off is one of the key pollutant processes that detailed knowledge is required in order to develop successful treatment design strategies for urban stormwater. Unfortunately, current knowledge relating to pollutant wash-off is limited. This paper presents the outcomes of a detailed investigation into pollutant wash-off on residential road surfaces. The investigations consisted of research methodologies formulated to overcome the physical constraints due to the heterogeneity of urban paved surfaces and the dependency on naturally occurring rainfall. This entailed the use of small road surface plots and artificially simulated rainfall. Road surfaces were selected due to its critical importance as an urban stormwater pollutant source. The study results showed that the influence of initially available pollutants on the wash-off process was limited. Furthermore, pollutant wash-off from road surfaces can be replicated using an exponential equation. However, the typical version of the exponential wash-off equation needs to be modified by introducing a non dimensional factor referred to as 'capacity factor' CF. Three rainfall intensity ranges were identified where the variation of CF can be defined. Furthermore, it was found that particulate density rather than size is the critical parameter that influences the process of pollutant wash-off.

  15. Droplet-based microfluidic washing module for magnetic particle-based assays

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hun; Xu, Linfeng; Oh, Kwang W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a continuous flow droplet-based microfluidic platform for magnetic particle-based assays by employing in-droplet washing. The droplet-based washing was implemented by traversing functionalized magnetic particles across a laterally merged droplet from one side (containing sample and reagent) to the other (containing buffer) by an external magnetic field. Consequently, the magnetic particles were extracted to a parallel-synchronized train of washing buffer droplets, and unbound reagents were left in an original train of sample droplets. To realize the droplet-based washing function, the following four procedures were sequentially carried in a droplet-based microfluidic device: parallel synchronization of two trains of droplets by using a ladder-like channel network; lateral electrocoalescence by an electric field; magnetic particle manipulation by a magnetic field; and asymmetrical splitting of merged droplets. For the stable droplet synchronization and electrocoalescence, we optimized droplet generation conditions by varying the flow rate ratio (or droplet size). Image analysis was carried out to determine the fluorescent intensity of reagents before and after the washing step. As a result, the unbound reagents in sample droplets were significantly removed by more than a factor of 25 in the single washing step, while the magnetic particles were successfully extracted into washing buffer droplets. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate a magnetic particle-based immunoassay with streptavidin-coated magnetic particles and fluorescently labelled biotin in the proposed continuous flow droplet-based microfluidic platform. PMID:25379098

  16. Efficient remediation of pentachlorophenol contaminated soil with tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Menghua; Wang, Li; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2015-07-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that pentachlorophenol contaminated soil can be efficiently remediated with tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent zerovalent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment. 2 mmol L(-1) of tetrapolyphosphate could wash away 52.8% of pentachlorophenol (PCP) at pH 7.0 and 84.2% of pentachlorophenol at pH 11.0 from contaminated soil owing to the promotion effect of tetrapolyphosphate on the soil matrix dispersion and the subsequent solubilization of pentachlorophenol. More importantly, tetrapolyphosphate ions remained in the washing effluent could greatly enhance the molecular oxygen activation by ZVI to oxidize the desorbed PCP without any pH adjustment, and also avoid the competitive consumption of reactive oxygen species, as caused by the common organic surfactants in the washing effluent. Therefore, 85.1% of pentachlorophenol could be aerobically removed from the washing effluent by merely using 5 g L(-1) of ZVI. We also interestingly found that the dissolved iron ions released from the soil could enhance the oxidation of pentachlorophenol in the washing effluent, but the dissolved organic matter had the opposite effect. This study suggests the coupling tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent ZVI/Air treatment is an optional approach to remediate pentachlorophenol contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign.

  17. Challenging the scalp with 'dry' wash shampooing (DW) on Chinese men: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Liu, C; Collaudin, C; Saint-Léger, D; Loussouarn, G; Kravtchenko, S; Genain, G

    2010-04-01

    Cosmetic habits show a strong diversity worldwide. The same applies to procedures that are considered as basic hygiene acts such as shampooing. Apart from common traditional shampoo routine, a special shampoo procedure, 'dry' wash is daily performed in Chinese hair salons. Without pre-wetting step, hairdresser applies the shampoo directly to dry hair with small quantity of water to create foam. Hand massaging is then offered on the scalp. This shampooing process is distinguished from traditional 'regular wash' by slightly diluted shampoo, and longer contact with the scalp and scalp massaging, all of which could be possibly considered as challenges to the structure and barrier function of the scalp. In this study, the effects of 'dry' wash on Chinese scalp have been investigated, in vivo, using regular wash as a control. A total of 67 Chinese males in two cohorts, non-dandruff and with dandruff, were included. In each cohort, volunteers were split into two groups, one with 'dry' wash and the other one with regular wash. Both shampoo methods were performed daily for five consecutive days using the same shampoo formulation. Volunteers' self assessment, clinical assessment by an expert and instrumental measurements were carried out. The results showed that Chinese 'dry' wash did not induce any negative consequence on the scalp physiology under such experimental conditions. PMID:20412218

  18. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  19. gamma. -hexachlorocyclohexane (. gamma. -HCH) activates washed rabbit platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Lalau-Keraly, C.; Delautier, D.; Benveniste, J.; Puiseux-Dao, S.

    1986-03-01

    In guinea-pig macrophages, ..gamma..-HCH triggers activation of the phosphatidylinositol cycle and Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization. Since these two biochemical events are also involved in platelet activation, the authors examined the effects of ..gamma..-HCH on washed rabbit platelets. Release of /sup 14/C-serotonin (/sup 14/C-5HT) and ATP from platelets prelabelled with /sup 14/C-5HT was measured simultaneously with aggregation. ..gamma..-HCH induced shape-change, aggregation and release reaction of platelets. Maximal aggregation (89 arbitrary units, AU), was observed using 170 ..mu..M ..gamma..-HCH, and was associated with 38.1 +/- 6.9% and 161 +/- 48 nM for /sup 14/C-5HT and ATP release respectively (mean +/- 1 SD, n=3). Using 80 ..mu..M ..gamma..-HCH yielded 18 AU, 12.8 +/- 1.0% and 27 +/- 14 nM for aggregation, C-5HT and ATP release respectively (n=3). No effect was observed with 40 ..mu.. M ..gamma..-HCH. Aspirin (ASA), a cyclooxygenase blocker, did not affect ..gamma..-HCH-induced platelet activation. Apyrase (APY), an ADP scavenger, inhibited by 90% aggregation induced by 170 ..mu..M ..gamma..-HCH and slightly inhibited (15%) the /sup 14/C-5HT release. In the presence of both ASA and APY, 96% inhibition of aggregation and 48% inhibition of /sup 14/C-5HT release were observed. Thus, ..gamma..-HCH induced platelet activation in a dose-dependent manner ADP, but not cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonate metabolites, is involved in ..gamma..-HCH-induced aggregation, whereas, both appear to play a role in ..gamma..-HCH-induced release reaction.

  20. Aqueous Geochemistry of the Pueblo Colorado Wash Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandamouz, A.; Ort, M. H.; Breit, G. N.; Hiza, M.; Parnell, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Pueblo Colorado Wash alluvial aquifer, located in northeastern Arizona on the Navajo Nation, is about 20 km long and 2-5 km wide and formed by infilling a canyon as deep as 70 m in Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This aquifer is the main source of drinking water for many Navajo communities. The composition of shallow water (<20 m) in the aquifer contrasts with that from deeper parts. The shallower water is distinguished by low specific conductance (<1 mS cm-1) and higher dissolved oxygen, while the deeper parts have a wide range of values for specific conductance (<1-22 mS cm-1) and low dissolved oxygen. Some wells (deeper water) are sulfate dominant whilst most springs and shallow wells (shallow water) are bicarbonate dominant. A comparison of two datasets-one from 1960's, and the other from the current study started in 2004-shows that the concentration of ions, such as Cl- and SO42-, in the water from some wells is much higher in samples taken in 2004. High concentrations of SO42-, Cl-, F- , K+, Ca2+, Na+, and Mg2+ in different wells and springs follow no apparent spatial trends. δ 13C data have a wide range, from -3.4 in shallow water to -11.7 in deep water. The low δ 13C values along with the high dissolved Fe, Mn, and Ba in some wells and springs are consistent with microbial respiration in the aquifer. The δ 18O and δ D show that the shallow water has experienced varying amounts of evaporation. The differences in water composition reflect the heterogeneity in the alluvium and older formations surrounding the aquifer, and the role of water-sediment interactions in the water composition. Temporal increases in salinity are attributed to decreased rainfall and increased withdrawal of water for domestic supplies. Results highlight the sensitivity of water quality in small aquifers to climate shifts and development.