Science.gov

Sample records for acid waste caw

  1. Laboratory-scale vitrification and leaching of Hanford high-level waste for the purpose of simulant and glass property models validation

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Elliott, M.L.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being built to process the high-level and TRU waste into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Testing programs have been established within the Project to verify process technology using simulated waste. A parallel testing program with actual radioactive waste is being performed to confirm the validity of using simulates and glass property models for waste form qualification and process testing. The first feed type to be processed by and the first to be tested on a laboratory-scale is pretreated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). The NCAW is a neutralized high-level waste stream generated from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel in the Plutonium and Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant at Hanford. As part of the fuel reprocessing, the high-level waste generated in PUREX was denitrated with sugar to form current acid waste (CAW). Sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite were added to the CAW to minimize corrosion in the tanks, thus yielding neutralized CAW. The NCAW contains small amounts of plutonium, fission products from the irradiated fuel, stainless steel corrosion products, and iron and sulfate from the ferrous sulfamate reductant used in the PUREX process. This paper will discuss the results and status of the laboratory-scale radioactive testing.

  2. HyCAW: Hydrological Climate change Adaptation Wizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagli, Stefano; Mazzoli, Paolo; Broccoli, Davide; Luzzi, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Changes in temporal and total water availability due to hydrologic and climate change requires an efficient use of resources through the selection of the best adaptation options. HyCAW provides a novel service to users willing or needing to adapt to hydrological change, by turning available scientific information into a user friendly online wizard that lets to: • Evaluate the monthly reduction of water availability induced by climate change; • Select the best adaptation options and visualize the benefits in terms of water balance and cost reduction; • Quantify potential of water saving by improving of water use efficiency. The tool entails knowledge of the intra-annual distribution of available surface and groundwater flows at a site under present and future (climate change) scenarios. This information is extracted from long term scenario simulation by E-HYPE (European hydrological predictions for the environment) model from Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, to quantify the expected evolution in water availability (e.g. percent reduction of soil infiltration and aquifer recharge; relative seasonal shift of runoff from summer to winter in mountain areas; etc.). Users are requested to provide in input their actual water supply on a monthly basis, both from surface and groundwater sources. Appropriate decision trees and an embedded precompiled database of Water saving technology for different sectors (household, agriculture, industrial, tourisms) lead them to interactively identify good practices for water saving/recycling/harvesting that they may implement in their specific context. Thanks to this service, users are not required to have a detailed understanding neither of data nor of hydrological processes, but may benefit of scientific analysis directly for practical adaptation in a simple and user friendly way, effectively improving their adaptation capacity. The tool is being developed under a collaborative FP7 funded project called SWITCH

  3. Caffeoylquinic acids in Centella asiatica protect against amyloid-β toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gray, Nora E; Morré, Jeff; Kelley, Jeremiah; Maier, Claudia S; Stevens, Jan F; Quinn, Joseph F; Soumyanath, Amala

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and is known to result in neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We previously demonstrated that treatment with the water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) improves learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice, an animal model of Aβ accumulation. However the active compounds in CAW remain unknown. Here we used two in vitro models of Aβ toxicity to confirm this neuroprotective effect and identify several active constituents of the CAW extract. CAW reduced Aβ-induced cell death and attenuated Aβ-induced changes in tau expression and phosphorylation in both the MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. We confirmed and quantified the presence of several mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in CAW using chromatographic separation coupled to mass spectrometry and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Multiple dicaffeoylquinic acids showed efficacy in protecting MC65 cells against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Isochlorogenic acid A and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were found to be the most abundant CQAs in CAW, and the most active in protecting MC65 cells from Aβ-induced cell death. Both compounds showed neuroprotective activity in MC65 and SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations comparable to their levels in CAW. Each compound not only mitigated Aβ-induced cell death, but was able to attenuate Aβ-induced alterations in tau expression and phosphorylation in both cell lines, as seen with CAW. These data suggest that CQAs are active neuroprotective components in CAW, and therefore are important markers for future studies on CAW standardization, bioavailability, and dosing.

  4. Acoustic profiling in a complexly social species, the American crow: caws encode information on caller sex, identity, and behavioural context

    PubMed Central

    Mates, Exu Anton; Tarter, Robin R.; Ha, James C.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on inter-individual variation in the calls of corvids has largely been restricted to single call types, such as alarm or contact calls, and has rarely considered the effects of age on call structure. This study explores structural variation in a contextually diverse set of “caw” calls of the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), including alarm, foraging recruitment and territorial calls, and searches for structural features that may be associated with behavioural context and caller sex, age, and identity. Automated pitch detection algorithms are used to generate 23 pitch-related and spectral parameters for a collection of caws from 18 wild, marked crows. Using principal component analysis and mixed models, we identify independent axes of acoustic variation associated with behavioural context and with caller sex, respectively. We also have moderate success predicting caller sex and identity from call structure. However, we do not find significant acoustic variation with respect to caller age. PMID:25419053

  5. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  6. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  7. ACID-BASE ACCOUNT EFFECTIVENESS FOR DETERMINATION OF MINE WASTE POTENTIAL ACIDITY. (R825549C048)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxidation of sulfide minerals in mine waste is a widespread source of resource degradation, often resulting in the generation of acidic water and mobilization of heavy metals. The quantity of acid forming minerals present in mine waste, dominantly as pyrite (FeS2

  8. Recovery of high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid in toluene nitration process by rectification.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Meng, Qingqiang; Shu, Fan; Ye, Zhengfang

    2013-01-01

    Waste sulfuric acid is a byproduct generated from numerous industrial chemical processes. It is essential to remove the impurities and recover the sulfuric acid from the waste acid. In this study the rectification method was introduced to recover high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid generated in toluene nitration process by using rectification column. The waste acid quality before and after rectification were evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, GC/MS, HPLC and other physical and chemical analysis. It was shown that five nitro aromatic compounds in the waste acid were substantially removed and high purity sulfuric acid was also recovered in the rectification process at the same time. The COD was removed by 94% and the chrominance was reduced from 1000° to 1°. The recovered sulfuric acid with the concentration reaching 98.2 wt% had a comparable quality with commercial sulfuric acid and could be recycled back into the toluene nitration process, which could avoid waste of resources and reduce the environmental impact and pollution.

  9. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  10. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  11. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  12. NITRIC ACID RECPVERY FROM WASTE COLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A.S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acids ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of rutheniuim.

  13. Nitric acid recovery from waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.

  14. Waste acid recycling via diffusion dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.

    1995-05-26

    Inorganic acids are commonly used for surface cleaning and finishing of metals. The acids become unuseable due to contamination with metals or diluted and weakened. Diffusion dialysis has become a way to recover the useable acid and allow separation of the metals for recovery and sale to refineries. This technique is made possible by the use of membranes that are strong enough to withstand low ph and have long service life.

  15. Using imaging spectroscopy to map acidic mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Smith, K.S.; Clark, R.N.; Sutley, S.J.; Pearson, R.M.; Vance, J.S.; Hageman, P.L.; Briggs, P.H.; Meier, A.L.; Singleton, M.J.; Roth, S.

    2000-01-01

    The process of pyrite oxidation at the surface of mine waste may produce acidic water that is gradually neutralized as it drains away from the waste, depositing different Fe-bearing secondary minerals in roughly concentric zones that emanate from mine-waste piles. These Fe-bearing minerals are indicators of the geochemical conditions under which they form. Airborne and orbital imaging spectrometers can be used to map these mineral zones because each of these Fe-bearing secondary minerals is spectrally unique. In this way, imaging spectroscopy can be used to rapidly screen entire mining districts for potential sources of surface acid drainage and to detect acid producing minerals in mine waste or unmined rock outcrops. Spectral data from the AVIRIS instrument were used to evaluate mine waste at the California Gulch Superfund Site near Leadville, CO. Laboratory leach tests of surface samples show that leachate pH is most acidic and metals most mobile in samples from the inner jarosite zone and that leachate pH is near-neutral and metals least mobile in samples from the outer goethite zone.

  16. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1986-01-01

    A method of immobilizing boric acid liquid wastes containing radionuclides by neutralizing the solution and evaporating the resulting precipitate to near dryness. The dry residue is then fused into a reduced volume, insoluble, inert, solid form containing substantially all the radionuclides.

  17. Mixed food waste as renewable feedstock in succinic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Mingji; Qi, Qingsheng; Gao, Cuijuan; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-11-01

    Mixed food waste, which was directly collected from restaurants without pretreatments, was used as a valuable feedstock in succinic acid (SA) fermentation in the present study. Commercial enzymes and crude enzymes produced from Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were separately used in hydrolysis of food waste, and their resultant hydrolysates were evaluated. For hydrolysis using the fungal mixture comprising A. awamori and A. oryzae, a nutrient-complete food waste hydrolysate was generated, which contained 31.9 g L(-1) glucose and 280 mg L(-1) free amino nitrogen. Approximately 80-90 % of the solid food waste was also diminished. In a 2.5 L fermentor, 29.9 g L(-1) SA was produced with an overall yield of 0.224 g g(-1) substrate using food waste hydrolysate and recombinant Escherichia coli. This is comparable to many similar studies using various wastes or by-products as substrates. Results of this study demonstrated the enormous potential of food waste as renewable resource in the production of bio-based chemicals and materials via microbial bioconversion.

  18. A simplified method for estimation of jarosite and acid-forming sulfates in acid mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C; Schumann, Russell C; Gerson, Andrea R; Levay, George

    2007-02-01

    In acid base accounting (ABA) estimates of acid mine wastes, the acid potential (AP) estimate can be improved by using the net carbonate value (NCV) reactive sulfide S method rather than total S assay methods but this does not give recovery of potentially acid producing ferrous and ferric sulfates present in many wastes. For more accurate estimation of AP, an effective, site-specific method to quantify acid sulfate salts, such as jarosite and melanterite, in waste rocks has been developed and tested on synthetic and real wastes. The SPOCAS (acid sulfate soils) methods have been modified to an effective, rapid method to speciate sulfate forms in different synthetic waste samples. A three-step sequential extraction procedure has been established. These steps are: (1) argon-purged water extraction (3 min) to extract soluble Fe(II) salts (particularly melanterite), epsomite and gypsum (<10 wt.%), (2) roasting at 550 degrees C (1 h) to remove sulfur from pyrite and other reactive sulfides, (3) HCl extraction (4 M, 30 min) for determination of jarosites. Products (solid and aqueous) have been characterized at each step including the jarosite decomposition process in Step 2 where temperature control is critical to avoid S loss. The sequential extraction procedure was used to quantitatively determine melanterite, epsomite, gypsum, pyrite and jarosite concentrations in a synthetic waste sample containing these mineral phases at 5 wt.% in quartz, and also tested using a tailings waste sample to quantitatively determine epsomite, gypsum and jarosite contents. The method is applicable to most waste samples including those with non-pyrite sulfides but for samples containing significant amounts of sulfur (>1 wt.% S) as copper sulfides, the second step of roasting needs to be excluded from the procedure with an increased time of 4 M HCl extraction to 16 h for jarosite determination.

  19. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  20. Method for distinctive estimation of stored acidity forms in acid mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Fan, Rong; Schumann, Russell C; Gerson, Andrea R; Smart, Roger St C

    2014-10-01

    Jarosites and schwertmannite can be formed in the unsaturated oxidation zone of sulfide-containing mine waste rock and tailings together with ferrihydrite and goethite. They are also widely found in process wastes from electrometallurgical smelting and metal bioleaching and within drained coastal lowland soils (acid-sulfate soils). These secondary minerals can temporarily store acidity and metals or remove and immobilize contaminants through adsorption, coprecipitation, or structural incorporation, but release both acidity and toxic metals at pH above about 4. Therefore, they have significant relevance to environmental mineralogy through their role in controlling pollutant concentrations and dynamics in contaminated aqueous environments. Most importantly, they have widely different acid release rates at different pHs and strongly affect drainage water acidity dynamics. A procedure for estimation of the amounts of these different forms of nonsulfide stored acidity in mining wastes is required in order to predict acid release rates at any pH. A four-step extraction procedure to quantify jarosite and schwertmannite separately with various soluble sulfate salts has been developed and validated. Corrections to acid potentials and estimation of acid release rates can be reliably based on this method.

  1. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  2. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  3. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  4. Airborne remote sensing of coal waste and acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.E.; Lee, T.S.

    1996-07-01

    High resolution airborne remote sensing data, spatial resolution of 2m X 2m, were used to study the stream quality degradation due to the coal mines in Taebaek city, one of the major coalfields in Korea. In order to circumvent the severe topographic effect and small scale of the water stream, principal components with the least variances were utilized. They showed the subtle details in the image that were obscured by higher contrast due to the topographic effect. Through maximum likelihood classification of those components, yellowboy and mine waste could be effectively identified. Areas affected by acid mine drainage and mine waste could be also located by identifying areas of dead or dying vegetation using vegetation index map.

  5. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 100/sup 0/C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters.

  6. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T.K.

    2011-02-01

    Acidic uranium (U) contaminated plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in-situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in-situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/y) show that desorption of U and HA were non-detectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH < 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results demonstrated that HA-treatment is a promising in-situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  7. Method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiamin; Dong, Wenming; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2011-03-15

    Acidic uranium (U) groundwater plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/year) show that desorption of U and HA were nondetectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH ≤ 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results indicate that HA-treatment is a promising in situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost-effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  8. Method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiamin; Dong, Wenming; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2011-03-15

    Acidic uranium (U) groundwater plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/year) show that desorption of U and HA were nondetectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH ≤ 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results indicate that HA-treatment is a promising in situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost-effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface. PMID:21319737

  9. Simulation and optimization of the waste nitric acid recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, S.C.; Yeo, Y.K.; Oh, Y.S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper deals with the simulation and optimization of composite distillation columns for the waste nitric acid recovery process. The composite distillation columns which consist of a multistage vacuum column and an atmospheric pressure column, half of which, consists of a packed bed, were modeled by using an equilibrium stage method and a nonequilibrium stage method. The required physical properties of a nitric acid solution for simulation were obtained from correlations based on experimental data. Simulation results using the nonequilibrium model showed better agreement with actual plant data than those of the equilibrium model. Based on the simulation results, the optimal operation conditions were studied. In the optimization reflux ratio was employed as the key variable to maximize the operating profit.

  10. Remotely sensed and laboratory spectral signatures of an ocean-dumped acid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Collins, V. G.

    1977-01-01

    An ocean-dumped acid waste plume was studied by using a rapid scanning spectrometer to remotely measure ocean radiance from a helicopter. The results of these studies are presented and compared with results from sea truth samples and laboratory experiments. An ocean spectral reflectance signature and a laboratory spectral transmission signature were established for the iron-acid waste pollutant. The spectrally and chemically significant component of the acid waste pollutant was determined to be ferric iron.

  11. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  12. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  13. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished. PMID:24078235

  14. Reaction sequences in simulated neutralized current acid waste slurry during processing with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Wiemers, K.D.; Langowski, M.H.; Powell, M.R.; Larson, D.E.

    1993-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Department of Energy to immobilize high-level and transuranic wastes as glass for permanent disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is supporting the HWVP design activities by conducting laboratory-scale studies using a HWVP simulated waste slurry. Conditions which affect the slurry processing chemistry were evaluated in terms of offgas composition and peak generation rate and changes in slurry composition. A standard offgas profile defined in terms of three reaction phases, decomposition of H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, destruction of NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, and production of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} was used as a baseline against which changes were evaluated. The test variables include nitrite concentration, acid neutralization capacity, temperature, and formic acid addition rate. Results to date indicate that pH is an important parameter influencing the N{sub 2}O/NO{sub x} generation ratio; nitrite can both inhibit and activate rhodium as a catalyst for formic acid decomposition to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}; and a separate reduced metal phase forms in the reducing environment. These data are being compiled to provide a basis for predicting the HWVP feed processing chemistry as a function of feed composition and operation variables, recommending criteria for chemical adjustments, and providing guidelines with respect to important control parameters to consider during routine and upset plant operation.

  15. Low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids produced from hydrothermal treatment of organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Quitain, Armando T; Faisal, Muhammad; Kang, Kilyoon; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

    2002-07-22

    This article reports production of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i.e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes) with or without oxidant (H(2)O(2)). Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa), acetic acid of about 26 mg/g dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H(2)O(2). Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. In addition, production of lactic acid, one of the interesting low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, was discussed on the viewpoint of resources recovery. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product.

  16. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in masonry cement. [Masonry cement-boric acid waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1987-03-01

    Portland cements are widely used as solidification agents for low-level radioactive wastes. However, it is known that boric acid wastes, as generated at pressurized water reactors (PWR's) are difficult to solidify using ordinary portland cements. Waste containing as little as 5 wt % boric acid inhibits the curing of the cement. For this purpose, the suitability of masonry cement was investigated. Masonry cement, in the US consists of 50 wt % slaked lime (CaOH/sub 2/) and 50 wt % of portland type I cement. Addition of boric acid in molar concentrations equal to or less than the molar concentration of the alkali in the cement eliminates any inhibiting effects. Accordingly, 15 wt % boric acid can be satisfactorily incorporated into masonry cement. The suitability of masonry cement for the solidification of sodium sulfate wastes produced at boiling water reactors (BWR's) was also investigated. It was observed that although sodium sulfate - masonry cement waste forms containing as much as 40 wt % Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ can be prepared, waste forms with more than 7 wt % sodium sulfate undergo catastrophic failure when exposed to an aqueous environment. It was determined by x-ray diffraction that in the presence of water, the sulfate reacts with hydrated calcium aluminate to form calcium aluminum sulfate hydrate (ettringite). This reaction involves a volume increase resulting in failure of the waste form. Formulation data were identified to maximize volumetric efficiency for the solidification of boric acid and sodium sulfate wastes. Measurement of some of the waste form properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment included leachability, compression strengths and chemical interactions between the waste components and masonry cement. 15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Nitric-phosphoric acid treatment of TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Pierce, R.A.; Sturcken, E.F.

    1993-09-30

    A general process is being developed for the treatment of solid TRU and hazardous organic waste. Experimental data indicates that 100 lb/hr of aliphatic organic (plastics) and 1,000 lb/hr of non-aliphatic organic compounds can be quantitatively oxidized in a 1,000 gallon reaction vessel. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allows oxidation at temperatures up to 200{degrees}C and is relatively non-corrosive on 304-L stainless steel, especially at room temperature. Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sup 2+} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. Polyethylene is quantitatively oxidized in 1.0M HNO{sub 3}/13.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution while contained in pressure vessels heated with microwave energy. This is probably due to the high concentrations of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} obtained in the reaction environment.

  18. Plasma-chemical waste treatment of acid gases

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-09-01

    The research to date has shown that a H{sub 2}S waste-treatment process based on plasma-chemical dissociation technology is compatible with refinery and high-carbon-oxide acid-gas streams. The minor amounts of impurities produced in the plasma-chemical reactor should be treatable by an internal catalytic reduction step. Furthermore, the plasma-chemical technology appears to be more efficient and more economical than the current technology. The principal key to achieving high conversions with relatively low energies of dissociation is the concept of the high-velocity, cyclonic-flow pattern in the plasma reaction zone coupled with the recycling of unconverted hydrogen sulfide. Future work will include testing the effects of components that might be carried over to the plasma reactor by ``upset`` conditions in the amine purification system of a plant and testing the plasma-chemical process on other industrial wastes streams that contain potentially valuable chemical reagents. The strategy for the commercialization of this technology is to form a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Institute of Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology of the Russian Scientific Center/Kurchatov Institute and with an American start-up company to develop an ``American`` version of the process and to build a commercial-scale demonstration unit in the United States. The timetable proposed would involve building a ``field test`` facility which would test the plasma-chemical reactor and sulfur recovery unit operations on an industrial hydrogen sulfide waste s at a scale large enough to obtain the energy and material balance data required for a final analysis of the commercial potential of this technology. The field test would then be followed by construction of a commercial demonstration unit in two to three years. The commercial demonstration unit would be a fully integrated plant consisting of one commercial-scale module.

  19. Acid-base accounting assessment of mine wastes using the chromium reducible sulfur method.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Russell; Stewart, Warwick; Miller, Stuart; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger

    2012-05-01

    The acid base account (ABA), commonly used in assessment of mine waste materials, relies in part on calculation of potential acidity from total sulfur measurements. However, potential acidity is overestimated where organic sulfur, sulfate sulfur and some sulfide compounds make up a substantial portion of the sulfur content. The chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) method has been widely applied to assess reduced inorganic sulfur forms in sediments and acid sulfate soils, but not in ABA assessment of mine wastes. This paper reports the application of the CRS method to measuring forms of sulfur commonly found in mine waste materials. A number of individual sulfur containing minerals and real waste materials were analyzed using both CRS and total S and the potential acidity estimates were compared with actual acidity measured from net acid generation tests and column leach tests. The results of the CRS analysis made on individual minerals demonstrate good assessment of sulfur from a range of sulfides. No sulfur was measured using the CRS method in a number of sulfate salts, including jarosite and melanterite typically found in weathered waste rocks, or from dibenzothiophene characteristic of organic sulfur compounds common to coal wastes. Comparison of ABA values for a number of coal waste samples demonstrated much better agreement of acidity predicted from CRS analysis than total S analysis with actual acidity. It also resulted in reclassification of most samples tested from PAF to NAF. Similar comparisons on base metal sulfide wastes generally resulted in overestimation of the acid potential by total S and underestimation of the acid potential by CRS in comparison to acidity measured during NAG tests, but did not generally result in reclassification. In all the cases examined, the best estimate of potential acidity included acidity calculated from both CRS and jarositic S. PMID:22444067

  20. Acid-base accounting assessment of mine wastes using the chromium reducible sulfur method.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Russell; Stewart, Warwick; Miller, Stuart; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger

    2012-05-01

    The acid base account (ABA), commonly used in assessment of mine waste materials, relies in part on calculation of potential acidity from total sulfur measurements. However, potential acidity is overestimated where organic sulfur, sulfate sulfur and some sulfide compounds make up a substantial portion of the sulfur content. The chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) method has been widely applied to assess reduced inorganic sulfur forms in sediments and acid sulfate soils, but not in ABA assessment of mine wastes. This paper reports the application of the CRS method to measuring forms of sulfur commonly found in mine waste materials. A number of individual sulfur containing minerals and real waste materials were analyzed using both CRS and total S and the potential acidity estimates were compared with actual acidity measured from net acid generation tests and column leach tests. The results of the CRS analysis made on individual minerals demonstrate good assessment of sulfur from a range of sulfides. No sulfur was measured using the CRS method in a number of sulfate salts, including jarosite and melanterite typically found in weathered waste rocks, or from dibenzothiophene characteristic of organic sulfur compounds common to coal wastes. Comparison of ABA values for a number of coal waste samples demonstrated much better agreement of acidity predicted from CRS analysis than total S analysis with actual acidity. It also resulted in reclassification of most samples tested from PAF to NAF. Similar comparisons on base metal sulfide wastes generally resulted in overestimation of the acid potential by total S and underestimation of the acid potential by CRS in comparison to acidity measured during NAG tests, but did not generally result in reclassification. In all the cases examined, the best estimate of potential acidity included acidity calculated from both CRS and jarositic S.

  1. Embedding of laboratory wastes in clay or concrete blocks, with special reference to baking osmic acid and cacodylic acid wastes with clay.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Murakami, T; Yamana, S

    1998-12-01

    Liquid laboratory waste containing osmic acid and cacodylic acid was mixed with potter's clay or hydraulic cement. The clay-waste product was kneaded into blocks and baked in a klin (1,200-1,400 degrees C). The cement-waste product was allowed to harden into concrete blocks. Some of the baked clay blocks and concrete blocks were ground, and immersed in 1 N NaOH or 10% HCI solutions for 3-6 months. X-ray microanalysis of the dried samples of these solutions showed that no leakage of osmium and arsenic occurred in the baked clay embedding, and that some leakage of these agents occurred in the concrete embedding. The present study indicates that the baked clay embedding method is useful for safe storage of dangerous laboratory wastes. Additional experiments suggested that glass embedding is also useful for safe storage of laboratory wastes or harmful metals. PMID:9876766

  2. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  3. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  4. More value from food waste: Lactic acid and biogas recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Ryu, Hoyoung; Chang, Yong-Keun; Triolo, Jin M; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 °C to 55 °C, with the highest performance attained at 50 °C. At 50 °C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration in the broth was 40 kg LA/m(3), corresponding to a yield of 1.6 mol LA/mol hexoseadded. Pyrosequencing results showed that Lactobacillus (97.6% of the total number of sequences) was the predominant species performing LA fermentation of FW. The fermented broth was then centrifuged and LA was extracted from the supernatant by the combined process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis. The process could recover highly purified LA by removing 85% of mineral ions such as Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) and 90% of residual carbohydrates. Meanwhile, the solid residue remained after centrifugation was further fermented to biogas by AD. At HRT 40 d (organic loading rate of 7 kg COD/m(3)/d), the highest volumetric biogas production rate of 3.5 m(3)/m(3)/d was achieved with a CH4 yield of 0.25 m(3) CH4/kg COD. The mass flow showed that 47 kg of LA and 54 m(3) of biogas could be recovered by the developed process from 1 ton of FW with COD removal efficiency of 70%. These products have a higher economic value 60 USD/ton FW compared to that of conventional AD (27 USD/ton FW).

  5. Separation of boric acid from PWR waste by volatilization during evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeman, A.; Braet, J.; Smaers, F.; De Regge, P.

    1997-01-01

    SCK{circ}CEN has developed a process to separate boric acid during and/or after evaporation of the liquid waste from pressurized light-water reactors. The key goal is to achieve higher waste volume reduction factors, while maintaining low activity discharge limits. An additional goal is to obtain purified boric acid for recycling. The process is based on the volatility of boric acid in steam. The liquid waste is treated in a semicontinuous evaporator, which operates preferentially at a higher temperature than the present evaporators. The stream loaded with boric acid is fed to a column for fractional condensation with partial reflux. In this way, one obtains a highly concentrated waste that contains all the radioactive and chemical impurities and little boron, a concentrated boric acid solution which can be reused, as well as a highly decontaminated effluent without boron. In case replacement or adaptation of existing evaporators is less practical, one can adapt the process for the treatment of evaporator concentrates. After having been intensively tested at SCK{circ}CEN, the process has recently been demonstrated in a small pilot installation and with realistic liquid waste, at the nuclear power station in Doel, Belgium. The results corresponded to the theoretical predictions. After a transitional period, the boron concentration in the evaporator no longer increased and consequently did not limit the achievable waste volume reduction factor. The boric acid was recovered from the steam and during a supplementary treatment additional boric acid from the waste concentrate was recovered.

  6. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment.

  7. Enzymatic saccharification coupling with polyester recovery from cotton-based waste textiles by phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fei; Xiao, Wenxiong; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

    2013-02-01

    In order to recycle the cotton-based waste textiles, a novel process was designed for pretreating waste textiles with phosphoric acid to recover polyester and fermentable sugar. The effects of pretreatment conditions including, phosphoric acid concentration, pretreatment temperature, time, and ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid were thoroughly investigated. Results indicated the mentioned four factors had significant influences on sugar and polyester recovery. Almost complete polyester recovery was achieved by enhancing phosphoric acid concentration, temperature and pretreatment time or reducing the ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid. However, these behaviors decreased the sugar recovery seriously. 100% polyester recovery with a maximum sugar recovery of 79.2% was achieved at the optimized conditions (85% phosphoric acid, 50°C, 7h, and the ratio of 1:15). According to the technical and cost-benefit analysis, it was technically feasible and potentially profitable to recover polyester and sugar from waste textiles by phosphoric acid pretreatment.

  8. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600ºC.

  9. Quantitative mapping by remote sensing of an ocean acid-waste dump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    Results from quantitative analysis show that airplane remotely sensed spectral data can be used to quantify and map an acid-waste dump in terms of its particulate iron concentration. These same data, however, could not be used to map the dump in terms of total suspended solids, organic suspended solids, or inorganic suspended solids concentrations. A single-variable equation using the ratio of band 2 (440 to 490 nm) radiance to band 4 (540 to 580 nm) radiance was used to quantify the iron concentration in the acid-waste dump. The acid waste that was mapped varied in age from freshly dumped to 31/2 hr. Particulate iron concentrations in the acid waste were estimated to range up to 1.1 mg/l at a depth of 0.46 m. A classification technique was developed to identify pixels in the data set affected by sun glitter.

  10. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m(2) g(-1), which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g(-1) of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  11. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-08-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g-1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g-1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste.

  12. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis–sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g−1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g−1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)–sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  13. Production of lactic acid and fungal biomass by Rhizopus fungi from food processing waste streams.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Yin, Pinghe; Ma, Yihong; Zhao, Ling

    2005-12-01

    This study proposed a novel waste utilization bioprocess for production of lactic acid and fungal biomass from waste streams by fungal species of Rhizopus arrhizus 36017 and R. oryzae 2062. The lactic acid and fungal biomass were produced in a single-stage simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using potato, corn, wheat and pineapple waste streams as production media. R. arrhizus 36017 gave a high lactic acid yield up to 0.94-0.97 g/g of starch or sugars associated with 4-5 g/l of fungal biomass produced, while 17-19 g/l fungal biomass with a lactic acid yield of 0.65-0.76 g/g was produced by the R. oryzae 2062 in 36-48 h fermentation. Supplementation of 2 g/l of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract and peptone stimulated an increase in 8-15% lactic acid yield and 10-20% fungal biomass. PMID:16208461

  14. In situ volatile fatty acids influence biogas generation from kitchen wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiyang; Zhao, Mingxing; Miao, Hengfeng; Huang, Zhenxing; Gao, Shumei; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is considered to be an efficient way of disposing kitchen wastes, which can not only reduce waste amounts, but also produce biogas. However, the excessive accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) caused by high organic loads will inhibit anaerobic digestion intensively. Effects of the VFA composition on biogas generation and microbial community are still required for the investigation under various organic loads of kitchen wastes. Our results showed that the maximum specific methane production was 328.3 ml g TS(-1), and acetic acid was the main inhibitor in methanogenesis. With the increase of organic load, aceticlastic methanogenesis was more sensitive to acetic acid than hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Meanwhile, methanogenic microbial community changed significantly, and few species grew well under excessive organic loads. This study provides an attempt to reveal the mechanism of VFA inhibition in anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes.

  15. Influence of lactic acid on the two-phase anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Cai, Wei-min; He, Pin-jing

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of lactic acid on the methanogenesis, anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes was firstly conducted in a two-phase anaerobic digestion process, and performance of two digesters fed with lactic acid and glucose was subsequently compared. The results showed that the lactic acid was the main fermentation products of hydrolysis-acidification stage in the two-phase anaerobic digestion process for kitchen wastes. The lactic acid concentration constituted approximately 50% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in the hydrolysis-acidification liquid. The maximum organic loading rate was lower in the digester fed with lactic acid than that fed with glucose. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and COD removal were deteriorated in the methanogenic reactor fed with lactic acid compared to that fed with glucose. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) declined to 0.343 g COD/(gVSSxd) when the COD loading were designated as 18.8 g/(Lxd) in the digester fed with lactic acid. The propionic acid accumulation occurred due to the high concentration of lactic acid fed. It could be concluded that avoiding the presence of the lactic acid is necessary in the hydrolysis-acidification process for the improvement of the two-phase anaerobic digestion process of kitchen wastes.

  16. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Phase 1, Project planning and concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.; Brouns, T.M.

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implemeting these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic in that they meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids, such as HF/--/HNO/sub 3/ etch solutions contianing Zr as a major metal impurity and HNO/sub 3/ strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity, are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ which contains U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup /minus// to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in downstream precipitation step. These waste minimization processes were developed to meet Hanford's fuel fabrication process needs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

  18. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  19. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

  1. Wet Chemical Oxidation of Organic Waste Using Nitric-Phosphoric Acid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1998-10-06

    Experimental progress has been made in a wide range of areas which support the continued development of the nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation process for combustible, solid organic wastes. An improved understanding of the overall process operation has been obtained, acid recovery and recycle systems have been studied, safety issues have been addressed, two potential final waste forms have been tested, preliminary mass flow diagrams have been prepared, and process flowsheets have been developed. The flowsheet developed is essentially a closed-loop system which addresses all of the internally generated waste streams. The combined activities aim to provide the basis for building and testing a 250-400 liter pilot-scale unit. Variations of the process now must be evaluated in order to address the needs of the primary customer, SRS Solid Waste Management. The customer is interested in treating job control waste contaminated with Pu-238 for shipment to WIPP. As a result, variations for feed preparation, acid recycle, and final form manufacturing must be considered to provide for simpler processing to accommodate operations in high radiation and contamination environments. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate a nitric-phosphoric acid destruction technology which can treat a heterogeneous waste by oxidizing the solid and liquid organic compounds while decontaminating noncombustible items.

  2. Evaluation of Hanford high level waste vitrification chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- FY 1994: Potential exothermic reactions in the presence of formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    A potential for an uncontrollable exothermic reaction between nitrate and organic salts during preparation of a high level waste melter feed has been identified. In order to examine this potential more closely, the thermal behavior of simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) treated with various organic reductants was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were collected on simulated waste samples and their supernates treated with organics. Organic reductants used were formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. For comparison, samples of untreated simulant and untreated simulant with added noble metals were tested. When heated, untreated simulant samples both with and without noble metals showed no exothermic behavior. All of the treated waste simulant samples showed exothermic behavior. Onset temperatures of exothermic reactions were 120 C to 210 C. Many onset temperatures, particularly those for formic acid treated samples, are well below 181 C, the estimated maximum steam coil temperature (considered to be a worst case maximum temperature for chemical process tank contents). The enthalpies of the reactions were {minus}180 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} J/Kg supernate ({minus}181 J/g) for the oxalic acid treated simulant supernate to {minus}1,150 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} J/Kg supernate ({minus}1,153 J/g) for the formic acid treated simulant supernate.

  3. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  4. Production of L-lactic Acid from Biomass Wastes Using Scallop Crude Enzymes and Novel Lactic Acid Bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Nakamura, Kanami; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    In the present study, biomass waste raw materials including paper mill sludge, bamboo, sea lettuce, and shochu residue (from a distiller) and crude enzymes derived from inedible and discarded scallop parts were used to produce L-lactic acid for the raw material of biodegradable plastic poly-lactic acid. The activities of cellulase and amylase in the crude enzymes were 22 and 170units/L, respectively, and L-lactic acid was produced from every of the above mentioned biomass wastes, by the method of liquid-state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) . The L-lactic acid concentrations produced from sea lettuce and shochu residue, which contain high concentration of starch were 3.6 and 9.3g/L, respectively, and corresponded to greater than 25% of the conversion of glucans contained in these biomass wastes. Furthermore, using the solid state SSF method, concentrations as high as 13g/L of L-lactic acid were obtained from sea lettuce and 26g/L were obtained from shochu residue.

  5. Conversion of waste cellulose to ethanol. Phase 2: Reaction kinetics with phosphoric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, M. B.; Isbell, R. E.

    1982-05-01

    Waste cellulosic material can be hydrolyzed in dilute acid solution to produce fermentable sugars which can then be converted into ethanol. A laboratory investigation was made of the feasibility of using phosphoric acid as the hydrolysis catalyst. The hydrolysis reaction with phosphoric acid solutions was compared with the reaction employing the more conventional dilute sulfuric acid catalyst. The purpose of this research was to examine the hydrolysis step in a proposed process for the conversion of cellulose (from wood, newspapers, municipal solid waste, or other sources) into ethanol - by which a potentially valuable co-product, DICAL (dicalcium phosphate), might be made and sold with or without the lignin content as a fertilizer. The pertinent reaction kinetics for the acid catalyzed production of glucose from cellulose consists of consecutive, pseudo-first order reactions.

  6. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides from Mo-99 Acidic Liquid Waste - 13027

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Hsien-Ming; Pen, Ben-Li

    2013-07-01

    About 200 liters highly radioactive acidic liquid waste originating from Mo-99 production was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research). A study regarding the treatment of the radioactive acidic liquid waste was conducted to solve storage-related issues and allow discharge of the waste while avoiding environmental pollution. Before discharging the liquid waste, the acidity, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and Hg ions in high concentrations, and radionuclides must comply with environmental regulations. Therefore, the treatment plan was to neutralize the acidic liquid waste, remove key radionuclides to reduce the dose rate, and then remove the nitrate and mercury ions. Bench tests revealed that NaOH is the preferred solution to neutralize the high acidic waste solution and the pH of solution must be adjusted to 9∼11 prior to the removal of nuclides. Significant precipitation was produced when the pH of solution reached 9. NaNO{sub 3} was the major content in the precipitate and part of NaNO{sub 3} was too fine to be completely collected by filter paper with a pore size of approximately 3 μm. The residual fine particles remaining in solution therefore blocked the adsorption column during operation. Two kinds of adsorbents were employed for Cs-137 and a third for Sr-90 removal to minimize cost. For personnel radiation protection, significant lead shielding was required at a number of points in the process. The final process design and treatment facilities successfully treated the waste solutions and allowed for environmentally compliant discharge. (authors)

  7. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-08

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalic acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the untreated

  8. Valorisation of food waste via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Hu, Yunzi; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-10-01

    Food waste recycling via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid (LA) fermentation has been investigated. Hydrolysates derived from mixed food waste and bakery waste were rich in glucose (80.0-100.2gL(-1)), fructose (7.6gL(-1)) and free amino nitrogen (947-1081mgL(-1)). In the fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota, 94.0gL(-1) and 82.6gL(-1) of LA were produced with productivity of 2.61gL(-1)h(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1) for mixed food waste and bakery waste hydrolysate, respectively. The yield was 0.94gg(-1) for both hydrolysates. Similar results were obtained using food waste powder hydrolysate, in which 90.1gL(-1) of LA was produced with a yield and productivity of 0.92gg(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1). The results demonstrate the feasibility of an efficient bioconversion of food waste to LA and a decentralized approach of food waste recycling in urban area.

  9. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  10. REMOVING SLUDGE HEELS FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANKS BY OXALIC ACID DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Fernando Fondeur, F; John Pareizs, J; Michael Hay, M; Bruce Wiersma, B; Kim Crapse, K; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S; Donald Thaxton, D

    2009-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will remove sludge as part of waste tank closure operations. Typically the bulk sludge is removed by mixing it with supernate to produce a slurry, and transporting the slurry to a downstream tank for processing. Experience shows that a residual heel may remain in the tank that cannot be removed by this conventional technique. In the past, SRS used oxalic acid solutions to disperse or dissolve the sludge heel to complete the waste removal. To better understand the actual conditions of oxalic acid cleaning of waste from carbon steel tanks, the authors developed and conducted an experimental program to determine its effectiveness in dissolving sludge, the hydrogen generation rate, the generation rate of other gases, the carbon steel corrosion rate, the impact of mixing on chemical cleaning, the impact of temperature, and the types of precipitates formed during the neutralization process. The test samples included actual SRS sludge and simulated SRS sludge. The authors performed the simulated waste tests at 25, 50, and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge over seven days. They conducted the actual waste tests at 50 and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge as a single batch. Following the testing, SRS conducted chemical cleaning with oxalic acid in two waste tanks. In Tank 5F, the oxalic acid (8 wt %) addition occurred over seven days, followed by inhibited water to ensure the tank contained enough liquid to operate the mixer pumps. The tank temperature during oxalic acid addition and dissolution was approximately 45 C. The authors analyzed samples from the chemical cleaning process and compared it with test data. The conclusions from the work are: (1) Oxalic acid addition proved effective in dissolving sludge heels in the simulant demonstration, the actual waste demonstration, and in SRS Tank 5F. (2) The oxalic acid dissolved {approx} 100% of the uranium, {approx} 100% of the iron, and {approx} 40% of the manganese

  11. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol. PMID:21251816

  12. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

  13. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin).

  14. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). PMID:26159043

  15. A supported polymeric liquid membrane process for removal of carboxylic acids from a waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.V.

    1999-12-31

    The removal or elimination of organic residues from aqueous waste streams represents a major need in the chemical industry. The authors have developed a new class of membrane called supported polymeric liquid membranes that are capable of removing and concentrating low molecular weight organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions, especially those that also contain high concentrations of inorganic salts. Attractive features of this membrane process include the ability to recover the contaminants in concentrated form for either recycle or more economical disposal, low pressure (ambient) operation, simple scale-up using commercial hollow fiber modules, and ease of in-situ regeneration of the polymeric liquid. The process has shown treatment feasibility for several types of aqueous waste streams. This paper describes the laboratory development activities for treating a waste stream containing a dilute mixture of C2-C6 carboxylic acids and nitric acid.

  16. Relation of laboratory and remotely sensed spectral signatures of ocean-dumped acid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    Results of laboratory transmission and remotely sensed ocean upwelled spectral signatures of acid waste ocean water solutions are presented. The studies were performed to establish ocean-dumped acid waste spectral signatures and to relate them to chemical and physical interactions occurring in the dump plume. The remotely sensed field measurements and the laboratory measurements were made using the same rapid-scanning spectrometer viewing a dump plume and with actual acid waste and ocean water samples, respectively. Laboratory studies showed that the signatures were produced by soluble ferric iron being precipitated in situ as ferric hydroxide upon dilution with ocean water. Sea-truth water samples were taken and analyzed for pertinent major components of the acid waste. Relationships were developed between the field and laboratory data both for spectral signatures and color changes with concentration. The relationships allow for the estimation of concentration of the indicator iron from remotely sensed spectral data and the laboratory transmission concentration data without sea-truth samples.

  17. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  18. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  19. HTR Fuel Waste Management: TRISO separation and acid-graphite intercalation compounds preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guittonneau, Fabrice; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Grambow, Bernd

    2010-12-01

    Considering the need to reduce waste production and greenhouse emissions and still keeping high energy efficiency, various 4th generation nuclear energy systems have been proposed. As far as graphite-moderated reactors are concerned (future high temperature fast or thermal reactors), one of the key issues is the large volumes of irradiated graphite encountered. With the objective to reduce volume of waste in the HTR concept, it is very important to be able to separate the fuel from low level activity graphite representing a large volume. The separated TRISO particles can then be reprocessed for waste separation or disposed off in geological repository. In addition, preparation of acid-GICs from the separated graphite may constitute a way to recycle this waste. We used HTR-type compact fuel with ZrO 2 TRISO particles to test two separation methods: low (H 2SO 4 + H 2O 2) and high (H 2SO 4 + HNO 3) temperature acid treatments. In both cases the TRISO separation was complete but some TRISO layers oxidized at high temperature. At low temperature, the desegregation of graphite grains is facilitated by intercalation of sulfuric acid between the graphene layers. The acid-GIC obtained consists of pure phases of high quality suggesting their potential industrial recycling.

  20. Enhanced isomer purity of lactic acid from the non-sterile fermentation of kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; He, Pin-Jing; Ye, Ning-Fang; Shao, Li-Ming

    2008-03-01

    In order to improve the purity of lactic acid isomers, the effects of pH, temperature, fermentation time and their interactions on l(+) or d(-)-lactic acid production were evaluated during lactic acid fermentation of the non-sterile kitchen wastes. The results showed that l(+)-lactic acid was the main isomeric form. The isomer purity was much higher at acidic or alkalic pH (non-controlled pH, pH 5 and pH 8) than neutral pH (pH 6 and pH 7). Increasing the fermentation temperature from 35 degrees C to 45 degrees C at pH 7 enhanced the isomer purity from 60:40 to 83:17. The optimal fermentation time for the purity of lactic acid isomers was found to depend on the corresponding pH and temperature. From the response surface analysis, the optimized combination of pH and temperature could obviously increase the l(+)-isomer concentration. It is confirmed that the variation of the isomer purity with pH, temperature and fermentation time change resulted from the substitution of microbial community composition. The lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium sp. dominated the fermentation of non-sterile kitchen wastes, and the emergence and disappearance of lactic acid bacteria which produced l(+)-isomer and Clostridium sp. resulted in the variations of the isomer purity. PMID:17376675

  1. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    El-Tayeb, T.S.; Abdelhafez, A.A.; Ali, S.H.; Ramadan, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker’s yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker’s yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

  2. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    El-Tayeb, T S; Abdelhafez, A A; Ali, S H; Ramadan, E M

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker's yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker's yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

  3. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  4. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness. PMID:25750056

  5. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness.

  6. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid

    PubMed Central

    Alrumman, Sulaiman A.

    2016-01-01

    The bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. The alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. The maximum rate of saccharification was found at a substrate concentration of 4% and enzyme concentration of 30 FPU/g of substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the bioconversions were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively, after 24 h of incubation, with a yield of 31.56 mg/mL of glucose at a saccharification degree of 71.03%. The saccharification was increased to 94.88% by removal of the hydrolysate after 24 h by using a two-step hydrolysis. Significant lactic acid production (27.8 mg/mL) was obtained by separate saccharification and fermentation after 72 h of incubation. The results indicate that production of fermentable sugar and lactic acid is feasible and may reduce environmental pollution by using date palm wastes as a cheap substrate. PMID:26887233

  7. Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from the waste liquid of acid hydrolysis NCC.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yonghui; Liu, Pengtao; Liu, Zhong

    2016-05-20

    The principal goal of this work was to reuse the carbohydrates and recycle sulfuric acid in the waste liquid of acid hydrolysis nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). Therefore, in this work, the optimizations of further hydrolysis of waste liquid of acid hydrolysis NCC and catalytic conversion of L4 to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) were studied. Sulfuric acid was separated by spiral wound diffusion dialysis (SWDD). The results revealed that cellulose can be hydrolyze to glucose absolutely under the condition of temperature 35 °C, 3 h, and sulfuric acid's concentration 62 wt%. And 78.3% sulfuric acid was recovered by SWDD. The yield of 5-HMF was highest in aqueous solution under the optimal condition was as follows, temperature 160 °C, 3 h, and sulfuric acid's concentration 12 wt%. Then the effect of biphasic solvent systems catalytic conversion and inorganic salt as additives were still examined. The results showed that both of them contributed to prepare 5-HMF. The yield and selectivity of 5-HMF was up to 21.0% and 31.4%, respectively.

  8. Decontamination of CCA-treated eucalyptus wood waste by acid leaching.

    PubMed

    Ferrarini, Suzana Frighetto; dos Santos, Heldiane Souza; Miranda, Luciana Gampert; Azevedo, Carla Maria Nunes; Maia, Sandra Maria; Pires, Marçal

    2016-03-01

    Preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) are used to increase the resistance of wood to deterioration. The components of CCA are highly toxic, resulting in growing concern over the disposal of the waste generated. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of Cu, Cr and As present in CCA-treated eucalyptus wood from utility poles removed from service in southern Brazil, in order to render them non-hazardous waste. The removal was carried out by acid leaching in bench-scale and applying optimal extractor concentration, total solid content, reactor volume, temperature and reaction time obtained by factorial experiments. The best working conditions were achieved using three extraction steps with 0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4 at 75°C for 2h each (total solid content of 15%), and 3 additional 1h-long washing steps using water at ambient temperature. Under these conditions, removal of 97%, 85% and 98% were obtained for Cu, Cr and As, respectively, rendering the decontaminated wood non-hazardous waste. The wastewater produced by extraction showed acid pH, high organic loading as well as high concentrations of the elements, needing prior treatment to be discarded. However, rinsing water can be recycled in the extraction process without compromising its efficiency. The acid extraction is a promising alternative for CCA removal from eucalyptus wood waste in industrial scale. PMID:26856447

  9. A solid acid esterification catalyst which reduces waste and increases yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, E.G.

    1993-12-31

    Recent research on polymeric catalysts has led to the development of a new solid acid esterification catalyst which is highly active for the esterification of fatty acids and maleic anhydride at elevated temperatures. The use of this catalyst eliminates the need for a final neutralization step which is required when using traditional homogenous acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HCl) catalysts. This neutralization step generates large amounts of waste salts and hurts efficiency since unconsumed organic acid reactants are also neutralized. In the high temperature esterification reactions studied here, the production of dialkyl ether by-products from the acid catalyzed self-condensation of alcohol is also greatly reduced allowing for both high activity and selectivity.

  10. Microbial production of specialty organic acids from renewable and waste materials.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of organic acids has become a fast-moving field due to the increasing role of these compounds as platform chemicals. In recent years, the portfolio of specialty fermentation-derived carboxylic acids has increased considerably, including the production of glyceric, glucaric, succinic, butyric, xylonic, fumaric, malic, itaconic, lactobionic, propionic and adipic acid through innovative fermentation strategies. This review summarizes recent trends in the use of novel microbial platforms as well as renewable and waste materials for efficient and cost-effective bio-based production of emerging high-value organic acids. Advances in the development of robust and efficient microbial bioprocesses for producing carboxylic acids from low-cost feedstocks are also discussed. The industrial market scenario is also reviewed, including the latest information on the stage of development for producing these emerging bio-products via large-scale fermentation.

  11. Air-nitric acid destructive oxidation of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-09-01

    Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution with air sparging. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sub +2} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. The rate for aliphatic organic compounds (polyethylene, PVC, and n-dodecane) is relatively very slow. This is due to the large energy required to abstract a hydrogen atom from these compounds, 99 kcal/mole. The combination of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} and H{center_dot} to produce HNO{sub 2} releases only 88 kcal/mole. Under conditions of high NO{sub 2}{center_dot} concentration it should be possible to oxidize these aliphatic compounds.

  12. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen.

  13. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen. PMID:26639411

  14. Co-composting of acid waste bentonites and their effects on soil properties and crop biomass.

    PubMed

    Soda, Wannipa; Noble, Andrew D; Suzuki, Shinji; Simmons, Robert; Sindhusen, La-Ait; Bhuthorndharaj, Suwannee

    2006-01-01

    Acid waste bentonite is a byproduct from vegetable oil bleaching that is acidic (pH < 3.0) and hydrophobic. These materials are currently disposed of in landfills and could potentially have a negative impact on the effective function of microbes that are intolerant of acidic conditions. A study was undertaken using three different sources of acid waste bentonites, namely soybean oil bentonite (SB), palm oil bentonite (PB), and rice bran oil bentonite (RB). These materials were co-composted with rice husk, rice husk ash, and chicken litter to eliminate their acid reactivity and hydrophobic nature. The organic carbon (OC) content, pH, exchangeable cations, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the acid-activated bentonites increased significantly after the co-composting phase. In addition, the hydrophobic nature of these materials as measured using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) decreased from >10 800 s to 16 to 80 s after composting. Furthermore, these composted materials showed positive impacts on soil physical attributes including specific surface area, bulk density, and available water content for crop growth. Highly significant increases in maize biomass (Zea mays L.) production over two consecutive cropping cycles was observed in treatments receiving co-composted bentonite. The study clearly demonstrates the potential for converting an environmentally hazardous material into a high-quality soil conditioner using readily available agricultural byproducts. It is envisaged that the application of these composted acid waste bentonites to degraded soils will increase productivity and on-farm income, thus contributing toward food security and poverty alleviation.

  15. Ruthenium recovery from acetic acid waste water through sorption with bacterial biosorbent fibers.

    PubMed

    Kwak, In Seob; Won, Sung Wook; Chung, Yong Sik; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2013-01-01

    A fibrous bacterial biosorbent was developed to bind precious metal-organic complexes in batch and column processes. Polyethylenimine (PEI)-modified bacterial biosorbent fiber (PBBF) was prepared by spinning Corynebacterium glutamicum biomass-chitosan blends, coating them with PEI and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. When an acetic acid waste solution containing 1822.9mg/L Ru was used as a model waste solution, Ru uptake by the PBBF was 16.5 times higher than that of the commercial ion exchange resin, Lewatit MonoPlus M600. The maximum amounts of Ru uptake were 110.5, 16.0 and 6.7mg/g for PBBF, raw biomass, and Lewatit MonoPlus M600, respectively. In a flow-through packed bed, PBBF exhibited the breakthrough time of 42.32h. Therefore, PBBF can be considered as an alternative sorbent for recovery of anionic metal-organic complexes from waste solutions.

  16. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively. PMID:27266630

  17. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively.

  18. Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of silage from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different periods of ensilage.

    PubMed

    Dele, P A; Jolaosho, A O; Arigbede, O M; Ojo, V O A; Amole, T A; Okukenu, O A; Akinyemi, B T

    2013-12-01

    A study was carried out to determine the quality of silage produced from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different ensiling periods. The materials were mixed into nine different proportions and ensiled for 30, 60 and 90 days making twenty-seven (27) treatments with each replicated three times. At the expiration of ensiling duration, the jars were opened, the contents were mixed, oven-dried and the proximate composition and fibre fractions were determined. The results showed that there were significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP) and Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) with increase in ensiling duration while the Non Fibre Carbohydrate (NFC) increased with increased ensiling duration. The highest CP content (14.44%) was obtained in 25% Guinea Grass (GG)+25% cassava peel (CAP)+50% Cashew Apple Waste (CAW) which was not significantly (p > 0.05) different from 100% CAW. The NDF varied (p < 0.05) from 44.21 in 75% CAP+25% CAW silage to 60.31 in 100% GG. The reduction in the CP and NDF of the silage is still within the range required for growth and maintenance in ruminant animals.

  19. Single-Cell Protein Production by the Acid-Tolerant Fungus Scytalidium acidophilum from Acid Hydrolysates of Waste Paper †

    PubMed Central

    Ivarson, K. C.; Morita, H.

    1982-01-01

    The bioconversion of waste paper to single-cell protein at pH <1 by Scytalidium acidophilum is described. Waste paper pretreated with 72% H2SO4 at 4°C was diluted with water to a pH of <0.1 and hydrolyzed. This yielded an adequate sugar-containing substrate for the growth of the fungus. A total of 97% of the sugars (glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose) in the hydrolysates were converted to cell biomass. Microbial contamination was not observed. Based on the sugars consumed, S. acidophilum produced higher yields in shake cultures than many other Fungi Imperfecti. In aerated cultures, productivity increased, and yields of 43 to 46% containing 44 to 47% crude protein were obtained. This compares favorably with Candida utilis, a yeast used commercially to produce single-cell protein. The chemical constituents and the essential amino acids of the fungal cells were similar to those of other fungi. The nucleic acid content was characteristic of microbes containing low levels of nucleic acid. The advantages of using S. acidophilum for single-cell protein production are discussed. PMID:16345970

  20. Efficient production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste at ambient temperature by regulating key enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Yinguang; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xiong; Luo, Jinyang; Liu, Yanan

    2015-03-01

    Bio-production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste has attracted much interest as it can treat organic wastes with simultaneous recovery of valuable by-products. However, the yield of L-lactic acid was very low and no optically pure L-lactic acid was produced in the literature due to (1) the lower activity of enzymes involved in hydrolysis and L-lactic acid generation, and (2) the participation of other enzymes related to D-lactic acid and acetic and propionic acids production. In this paper, a new strategy was reported for effective production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste at ambient temperature, i.e. via regulating key enzyme activity by sewage sludge supplement and intermittent alkaline fermentation. It was found that not only optically pure L-lactic acid was produced, but the yield was enhanced by 2.89-fold. The mechanism study showed that the activities of enzymes relevant to food waste hydrolysis and lactic acid production were enhanced, and the key enzymes related to volatile fatty acids and D-lactic acid generations were severally decreased or inhibited. Also, the microbes responsible for L-lactic acid production were selectively proliferated. Finally, the pilot-scale continuous experiment was conducted to testify the feasibility of this new technique.

  1. Fermentation and recovery of glutamic acid from palm waste hydrolysate by Ion-exchange resin column.

    PubMed

    Das, K; Anis, M; Azemi, B M; Ismail, N

    1995-12-01

    Glutamic acid produced from palm waste hydrolysate by fermentation with Brevibacterium lactofermentum ATCC 13869 is produced with a remarkably high yield compared with that produced from pure glucose as a carbon source. The produce yield is 70 g/L with glucose, wherease, when palm waste hydrolysate is the fermentation medium in the same bioreactor under same conditions, it is 88 g/L. The higher yield may be attributed to the fact that this organism has the ability to convert sugars other than only glucose present in the hydrolysate. Bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production are pH 7.5, temperature of 30 degrees rmentation period of 48 h, inoculum size 6%, substrate concentration of 10 g per 100 mL, yeast extract 0.5 g per 100 mL as a suitable N source, and biotin at a concentration of 10 pg/L. Palm waste hydrolysate used in this study was prepared by enzymic saccharification of treated palm press fiber under conditions that yielded a maximum of 30 g/L total reducing sugars. Glutamic acid from fermentation broth was recovered by using a chromatographic column (5cm x 60 cm) packed with a strong ion-exchange resin. The filtered broth containing glutamic acid and other inorganic ions was fed to the fully charged column. The broth was continuously recycled at a flow rate of 50 mL/min (retention time of 55 min) until glutamic acid was fully adsorbed on the column leaving other ions in the effluent. Recovery was done by eluting with urea and sodium hydroxide for total displacement of glutamic acid from the resin. The eluent containing 88 g/L of glutamic acid was concentrated by evaporation to obtain solid crystals of the product. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Impact of supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites on muscle wasting in patients with critical illness or other muscle wasting illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wandrag, L; Brett, S J; Frost, G; Hickson, M

    2015-08-01

    Muscle wasting during critical illness impairs recovery. Dietary strategies to minimise wasting include nutritional supplements, particularly essential amino acids. We reviewed the evidence on enteral supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites in the critically ill and in muscle wasting illness with similarities to critical illness, aiming to assess whether this intervention could limit muscle wasting in vulnerable patient groups. Citation databases, including MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, the meta-register of controlled trials and the Cochrane Collaboration library, were searched for articles from 1950 to 2013. Search terms included 'critical illness', 'muscle wasting', 'amino acid supplementation', 'chronic obstructive pulmonary disease', 'chronic heart failure', 'sarcopenia' and 'disuse atrophy'. Reviews, observational studies, sport nutrition, intravenous supplementation and studies in children were excluded. One hundred and eighty studies were assessed for eligibility and 158 were excluded. Twenty-two studies were graded according to standardised criteria using the GRADE methodology: four in critical care populations, and 18 from other clinically relevant areas. Methodologies, interventions and outcome measures used were highly heterogeneous and meta-analysis was not appropriate. Methodology and quality of studies were too varied to draw any firm conclusion. Dietary manipulation with leucine enriched essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and creatine warrant further investigation in critical care; EAA has demonstrated improvements in body composition and nutritional status in other groups with muscle wasting illness. High-quality research is required in critical care before treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:24807079

  3. Impact of supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites on muscle wasting in patients with critical illness or other muscle wasting illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wandrag, L; Brett, S J; Frost, G; Hickson, M

    2015-08-01

    Muscle wasting during critical illness impairs recovery. Dietary strategies to minimise wasting include nutritional supplements, particularly essential amino acids. We reviewed the evidence on enteral supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites in the critically ill and in muscle wasting illness with similarities to critical illness, aiming to assess whether this intervention could limit muscle wasting in vulnerable patient groups. Citation databases, including MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, the meta-register of controlled trials and the Cochrane Collaboration library, were searched for articles from 1950 to 2013. Search terms included 'critical illness', 'muscle wasting', 'amino acid supplementation', 'chronic obstructive pulmonary disease', 'chronic heart failure', 'sarcopenia' and 'disuse atrophy'. Reviews, observational studies, sport nutrition, intravenous supplementation and studies in children were excluded. One hundred and eighty studies were assessed for eligibility and 158 were excluded. Twenty-two studies were graded according to standardised criteria using the GRADE methodology: four in critical care populations, and 18 from other clinically relevant areas. Methodologies, interventions and outcome measures used were highly heterogeneous and meta-analysis was not appropriate. Methodology and quality of studies were too varied to draw any firm conclusion. Dietary manipulation with leucine enriched essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and creatine warrant further investigation in critical care; EAA has demonstrated improvements in body composition and nutritional status in other groups with muscle wasting illness. High-quality research is required in critical care before treatment recommendations can be made.

  4. Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    PubMed

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Ormazabal, Markel; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  5. Utilization of waste syrup for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls by Aurantiochytrium.

    PubMed

    Iwasaka, Hiroaki; Aki, Tsunehiro; Adachi, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Kenshi; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    In the food industry, syrups containing a high concentration of sugar used for fruit preservation is abundantly discharged as a food processing waste and disposed by incineration, resulting in the rise of the manufacturing cost and environmental pollution. This study demonstrates how waste syrup can be utilized as carbon source for production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and astaxanthin by the thraustochytrid strain, Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. The strain could grow in culture medium containing 3-50% waste syrup, and the maximum yields of DHA and astaxanthin were 207.6 mg/L (at 50%) and 1.1 mg/L (at 25%), respectively. After the optimization of culture medium composition by response surface method, DHA and astaxanthin yields increased by 2.1 and 1.5 fold, respectively. When the waste syrup was treated with activated charcoal, citrate concentration in the syrup was reduced and the astaxanthin yield increased by 2.3 fold. This study shows that the waste syrup can be effectively used for the functional lipid production by the thraustochytrid. PMID:24005017

  6. Acidogenic fermentation of food waste for volatile fatty acid production with co-generation of biohydrogen.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Shikha; Sarkar, Omprakash; Swamy, Y V; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-01

    Fermentation experiments were designed to elucidate the functional role of the redox microenvironment on volatile fatty acid (VFA, short chain carboxylic acid) production and co-generation of biohydrogen (H2). Higher VFA productivity was observed at pH 10 operation (6.3g/l) followed by pH 9, pH 6, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 11 (3.5 g/l). High degree of acidification, good system buffering capacity along with co-generation of higher H2 production from food waste was also noticed at alkaline condition. Experiments illustrated the role of initial pH on carboxylic acids synthesis. Alkaline redox conditions assist solubilization of carbohydrates, protein and fats and also suppress the growth of methanogens. Among the carboxylic acids, acetate fraction was higher at alkaline condition than corresponding neutral or acidic operations. Integrated process of VFA production from waste with co-generation of H2 can be considered as a green and sustainable platform for value-addition.

  7. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Tuong Vi; Kaiprommarat, Sunanta; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Guan, Guoqing; Nguyen, Manh Huan; Samart, Chanatip

    2016-06-01

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86m(2)/g and 1.38mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110°C, duration time of 4h, and catalyst loading of 10wt% under elevated pressure 2.3bar and 1.4bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste. PMID:27053375

  8. Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.

    1995-12-01

    The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) as a means to partition the actinides from acidic sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The mercury content of this waste averages 1 g/l. Because the chemistry of mercury has not been extensively evaluated in the TRUEX process, mercury was singled out as an element of interest. Radioactive mercury, {sup 203}Hg, was spiked into a simulated solution of SBW containing 1 g/l mercury. Successive extraction batch contacts with the mercury spiked waste simulant and successive scrubbing and stripping batch contacts of the mercury loaded TRUEX solvent (0.2 M CMPO-1.4 M TBP in dodecane) show that mercury will extract into and strip from the solvent. The extraction distribution coefficient for mercury, as HgCl{sub 2} from SBW having a nitric acid concentration of 1.4 M and a chloride concentration of 0.035 M was found to be 3. The stripping distribution coefficient was found to be 0.5 with 5 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.077 with 0.25 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. An experimental flowsheet was designed from the batch contact tests and tested counter-currently using 5.5 cm centrifugal contactors. Results from the counter-current test show that mercury can be removed from the acidic mixed SBW simulant and recovered separately from the actinides.

  9. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Tuong Vi; Kaiprommarat, Sunanta; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Guan, Guoqing; Nguyen, Manh Huan; Samart, Chanatip

    2016-06-01

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86m(2)/g and 1.38mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110°C, duration time of 4h, and catalyst loading of 10wt% under elevated pressure 2.3bar and 1.4bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste.

  10. Bioconversion of volatile fatty acids derived from waste activated sludge into lipids by Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Jia-Nan; Yuan, Ming; Shen, Zi-Heng; Peng, Kai-Ming; Lu, Li-Jun; Huang, Xiang-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Pure volatile fatty acid (VFA) solution derived from waste activated sludge (WAS) was used to produce microbial lipids as culture medium in this study, which aimed to realize the resource recovery of WAS and provide low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production simultaneously. Cryptococcus curvatus was selected among three oleaginous yeast to produce lipids with VFAs derived from WAS. In batch cultivation, lipid contents increased from 10.2% to 16.8% when carbon to nitrogen ratio increased from about 3.5 to 165 after removal of ammonia nitrogen by struvite precipitation. The lipid content further increased to 39.6% and the biomass increased from 1.56g/L to 4.53g/L after cultivation for five cycles using sequencing batch culture (SBC) strategy. The lipids produced from WAS-derived VFA solution contained nearly 50% of monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, ginkgolic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, which showed the adequacy of biodiesel production. PMID:27038264

  11. Comparative study on copper leaching from waste printed circuit boards by typical ionic liquid acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengjun; Huang, Jinxiu; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhu, Nengming; Wang, Yan-min

    2015-07-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are attracting increasing concerns because the recovery of its content of valuable metallic resources is hampered by the presence of hazardous substances. In this study, we used ionic liquids (IL) to leach copper from WPCBs. [BSO3HPy]OTf, [BSO3HMIm]OTf, [BSO4HPy]HSO4, [BSO4HMim]HSO4 and [MIm]HSO4 were selected. Factors that affect copper leaching rate were investigated in detail and their leaching kinetics were also examined with the comparison of [Bmim]HSO4. The results showed that all six IL acids could successfully leach copper out, with near 100% recovery. WPCB particle size and leaching time had similar influences on copper leaching performance, while IL acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide addition, solid to liquid ratio, temperature, showed different influences. Moreover, IL acid with HSO4(-) was more efficient than IL acid with CF3SO3(-). These six IL acids indicate a similar behavior with common inorganic acids, except temperature since copper leaching rate of some IL acids decreases with its increase. The results of leaching kinetics studies showed that diffusion plays a more important role than surface reaction, whereas copper leaching by inorganic acids is usually controlled by surface reaction. This innovation provides a new option for recovering valuable materials such as copper from WPCBs.

  12. Theoretical Study on Free Fatty Acid Elimination Mechanism for Waste Cooking Oils to Biodiesel over Acid Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xiaochao; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Caimei; Han, Peide

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical investigation on the esterification mechanism of free fatty acid (FFA) in waste cooking oils (WCOs) has been carried out using DMol(3) module based on the density functional theory (DFT). Three potential pathways of FFA esterification reaction are designed to achieve the formation of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), and calculated results show that the energy barrier can be efficiently reduced from 88.597kcal/mol to 15.318kcal/mol by acid catalyst. The molar enthalpy changes (ΔrHm°) of designed pathways are negative, indicating that FFA esterification reaction is an exothermic process. The obtained favorable energy pathway is: H(+) firstly activates FFA, then the intermediate combines with methanol to form a tetrahedral structure, and finally, producing FAME after removing a water molecule. The rate-determining step is the combination of the activated FFA with methanol, and the activation energy is about 11.513kcal/mol at 298.15K. Our results should provide basic and reliable theoretical data for further understanding the elimination mechanism of FFA over acid catalyst in the conversion of WCOs to biodiesel products. PMID:27023919

  13. Theoretical Study on Free Fatty Acid Elimination Mechanism for Waste Cooking Oils to Biodiesel over Acid Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xiaochao; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Caimei; Han, Peide

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical investigation on the esterification mechanism of free fatty acid (FFA) in waste cooking oils (WCOs) has been carried out using DMol(3) module based on the density functional theory (DFT). Three potential pathways of FFA esterification reaction are designed to achieve the formation of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), and calculated results show that the energy barrier can be efficiently reduced from 88.597kcal/mol to 15.318kcal/mol by acid catalyst. The molar enthalpy changes (ΔrHm°) of designed pathways are negative, indicating that FFA esterification reaction is an exothermic process. The obtained favorable energy pathway is: H(+) firstly activates FFA, then the intermediate combines with methanol to form a tetrahedral structure, and finally, producing FAME after removing a water molecule. The rate-determining step is the combination of the activated FFA with methanol, and the activation energy is about 11.513kcal/mol at 298.15K. Our results should provide basic and reliable theoretical data for further understanding the elimination mechanism of FFA over acid catalyst in the conversion of WCOs to biodiesel products.

  14. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400 mg L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3 g L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45 h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53 cm(3) h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400 g L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation.

  15. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hu; Zhang, Shengen; Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin; Volinsky, Alex A

    2014-05-15

    This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19) and the Blue phosphor (Ba0.9Eu0.1MgAl10O17) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications.

  16. Development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction of waste with acidic extraction fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.S.

    1993-08-01

    Subject is characterization of waste materials. Since acid rain is increasingly prevalent throughout the world, a sequential batch extraction method was developed which uses a dilute acid solution as the extraction fluid. A collaborative study was conducted in which the draft method was used to treat a spray dryer waste from a clean coal technology process and a composite mining waste. Effects of filter pore size and digestion vs nondigestion on analytical concentrations in extracts were also studied. Elements determined included Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Si, Na, Sr, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Zn. The draft method will be published as ASTM Method D5284-92.

  17. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

  18. Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Doye, I.; Duchesne, J.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

  19. Finished leather waste chromium acid extraction and anaerobic biodegradation of the products.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria J; Almeida, Manuel F; Pinho, Sílvia C; Santos, Isabel C

    2010-06-01

    Due to the amounts of chromium in the leachate resulting from leather leaching tests, chromium sulfate tanned leather wastes are very often considered hazardous wastes. To overcome this problem, one option could be recovering the chromium and, consequently, lowering its content in the leather scrap. With this objective, chromium leather scrap was leached with sulfuric acid solutions at low temperature also aiming at maximizing chromium removal with minimum attack of the leather matrix. The effects of leather scrap dimension, sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate concentration in the solutions, as well as extraction time and temperature on chromium recovery were studied, and, additionally, organic matrix degradation was evaluated. The best conditions found for chromium recovery were leather scrap conditioning using 25mL of concentrated H(2)SO(4)/L solution at 293 or 313K during 3 or 6days. Under such conditions, 30-60+/-5% of chromium was recovered and as low as 3-6+/-1% of the leather total organic carbon (TOC) was dissolved. Using such treatment, the leather scrap area and volume are reduced and the residue is a more brittle material showing enhanced anaerobic biodegradability. Although good recovery results were achieved, due to the fact that the amount of chromium in eluate exceeded the threshold value this waste was still hazardous. Thus, it needs to be methodically washed in order to remove all the chromium de-linked from collagen.

  20. Decontamination and inspection plan for Phase 3 closure of the 300 area waste acid treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-02-01

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 3 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 3 is the third phase of three WATS closure phases. Phase 3 attains clean closure conditions for WATS portions of the 334 and 311 Tank Farms (TF) and the 333 and 303-F Buildings. This DIP also describes designation and management of waste and debris generated during Phase 3 closure activities. Information regarding Phase 1 and Phase 2 for decontamination and verification activities closure can be found in WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001 and HNF-1784, respectively. This DIP is provided as a supplement to the closure plan (DOE/RL-90-11). This DIP provides the documentation for Ecology concurrence with Phase 3 closure methods and activities. This DIP is intended to provide greater detail than is contained in the closure plan to satisfy Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 requirement that closure documents describe the methods for removing, transporting, storing, and disposing of all dangerous waste at the unit. The decontamination and verification activities described in this DIP are based on the closure plan and on agreements reached between Ecology and the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during Phase 3 closure activity workshops and/or project manager meetings (PMMs).

  1. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Mike J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2 +, Mg2 +) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al3 +, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  2. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments.

    PubMed

    Szecsody, Jim E; Truex, Mike J; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Wellman, Dawn M; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH2) resulted in a rapid (<10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al(3+), and K(+), likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH13) resulted in a rapid (<10h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  3. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments.

    PubMed

    Szecsody, Jim E; Truex, Mike J; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Wellman, Dawn M; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH2) resulted in a rapid (<10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al(3+), and K(+), likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH13) resulted in a rapid (<10h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity. PMID:23851265

  4. Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Charles T.; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments has significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2+, Mg2+) and phosphate and a slow (100s of hours) increase in silica, Al3+, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10s to 100s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  5. Glucose metabolic flux distribution of Lactobacillus amylophilus during lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Qunhui; Zou, Hui; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Juan; Gan, Kemin; Xiang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The 13C isotope tracer method was used to investigate the glucose metabolic flux distribution and regulation in Lactobacillus amylophilus to improve lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution (KWSS). The results demonstrate that L. amylophilus is a homofermentative bacterium. In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). After solid–liquid separation of the KWSS, the addition of Fe3+ during fermentation enhanced the NADPH production efficiency and increased the NADH content. The flux to the EMP was also effectively increased. Compared with the control (60.6% flux to EMP without Fe3+ addition), the flux to the EMP with the addition of Fe3+ (74.3%) increased by 23.8%. In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe3+ also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l−1, an increase of 8% compared with the control. All other organic acid by-products were lower than in the control. However, the addition of Zn2+ showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution. PMID:23489617

  6. Glucose metabolic flux distribution of Lactobacillus amylophilus during lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Qunhui; Zou, Hui; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Juan; Gan, Kemin; Xiang, Juan

    2013-11-01

    The (13) C isotope tracer method was used to investigate the glucose metabolic flux distribution and regulation in Lactobacillus amylophilus to improve lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution (KWSS). The results demonstrate that L. amylophilus is a homofermentative bacterium. In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). After solid-liquid separation of the KWSS, the addition of Fe(3+) during fermentation enhanced the NADPH production efficiency and increased the NADH content. The flux to the EMP was also effectively increased. Compared with the control (60.6% flux to EMP without Fe(3+) addition), the flux to the EMP with the addition of Fe(3+) (74.3%) increased by 23.8%. In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe(3+) also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l(-1) , an increase of 8% compared with the control. All other organic acid by-products were lower than in the control. However, the addition of Zn(2+) showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution.

  7. Analysis of carbohydrates and amino acids in vegetable waste waters by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Arienzo, Michele; De Martino, Antonio; Capasso, Renato; Di Maro, Antimo; Parente, Augusto

    2003-01-01

    High-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection was used for the quantitative determination of total and free sugars in olive oil mill waste waters (OMWW). Automated amino acid ion chromatography was employed to analyse total and free amino acids in the same OMWW. Sugars were analysed in samples pre-purified by means of a three-step purification procedure involving: (i) methanol precipitation of OMWW; (ii) dialysis of the obtained solid and liquid fractions; and (iii) chromatographic purification on RP18 phase followed by Amberlite resin. The amino acids were determined directly in samples obtained from the first two steps performed for sugar analysis. The analysis carried out with the reported methodologies allowed the quantitative determination of total sugars and amino acids and the differentiation between their free and bound forms. The sugars determined were arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, xylose, galacturonic and glucuronic acids, and the amino acids were Asp, Glu, Thr, Ser, Pro, Gly, Ala, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Phe, Lys, His, Arg and Cys. Asn, Gin, and Trp were not detected. The technological, biotechnological and environmental advantages arising from this analytical methodology applied to OMWW are briefly discussed.

  8. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

  9. Transuranic removal from neutralized current acid waste with pneumatic hydropulse filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F.M.

    1988-06-01

    Neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) is generated by the solvent extraction portion of the PUREX process. It contains <20% solids by volume, and is currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. These solids contain the transuranic (TRU) elements and most of the fission products and will be converted to glass for permanent disposal. Because of the high cost of vitrification and repository disposal, there is a large economic incentive to minimize volume. Separation of the solids from the supernatant liquor provides a more concentrated high-level waste stream for vitrification, thereby reducing the cost. Removal of the solids will also provide an approximately TRU-free supernatant liquor which can be disposed of as grout in near-surface facilities. Allowing the solids to settle, then decanting (settle/decant) and filtering the supernatant are the principal unit operations used for TRU removal. 3 figs.

  10. Evaluation of different solvent extraction methods for removing actinides from high acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L. ); Rogers, J. )

    1991-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used to recover plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remain the effluent and require additional processing. Currently, a ferric hydroxide carrier precipitation is used to remove the trace actinides and the resulting sludge is cemented. Because it costs approximately $10,000 per drum for disposal, we are developing an additional polishing step so that the effluent actinide levels are reduced to below 100 nCi/g. This would allow the resulting waste sludge to disposed as low-level waste at approximately $200 per drum. We are investigating various solvent extraction techniques for removing actinides. The most promising are chelating resins and membrane-based liquid-liquid solvent extraction. This report details some of our preliminary results. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  12. Radionuclide concentrations in raw and purified phosphoric acids from Brazil and their processing wastes: implications for radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Antunes, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Durrant, Steven F

    2012-02-01

    Radionuclides from the U and Th natural series are present in alkaline rocks, which are used as feedstock in Brazil for the production of raw phosphoric acid, which can be considered as a NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material). As a result of the purification of raw phosphoric acid to food-grade phosphoric acid, two by-products are generated, i.e., solid and liquid wastes. Taking this into account, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclide in the production of food-grade phosphoric acids in Brazil, to determine the radiological impact caused by ingestion of food-grade phosphoric acid, and to evaluate the solid waste environmental hazards caused by its application in crop soils. Radiological characterization of raw phosphoric acid, food-grade phosphoric acid, solid waste, and liquid waste was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th activity concentrations varied depending on the source of raw phosphoric acid. Decreasing radionuclides activity concentrations in raw phosphoric acids used by the producer of the purified phosphoric acid were observed as follows: Tapira (raw phosphoric acid D) > Catalão (raw phosphoric acids B and C) > Cajati (raw phosphoric acid A). The industrial purification process produces a reduction in radionuclide activity concentrations in food-grade phosphoric acid in relation to raw phosphoric acid produced in plant D and single raw phosphoric acid used in recent years. The most common use of food-grade phosphoric acid is in cola soft drinks, with an average consumption in Brazil of 72 l per person per year. Each liter of cola soft drink contains 0.5 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid, which gives an annual average intake of 36 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid per person. Under these conditions, radionuclide intake through consumption of food-grade phosphoric acid per year per person via cola soft drinks is not hazardous to human health in Brazil

  13. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production.

  14. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  15. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  16. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  17. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  18. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  19. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  20. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.2 are subject to the standards for cadmium and lead, the standards for arsenic, beryllium, and... acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of Environment... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of..., Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards...

  4. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Vegliò, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO3, NaOH, and Na2CO3. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws. PMID:18556190

  5. Recovery of sterols as fatty acid steryl esters from waste material after purification of tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Toshihiro; Hirota, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yomi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Fujita, Tokio; Kitano, Motohiro; Shimada, Yuji

    2004-08-01

    Tocopherols are purified industrially from soybean oil deodorizer distillate by a process comprising distillation and ethanol fractionation. The waste material after ethanol fractionation (TC waste) contains 75% sterols, but a purification process has not yet been developed. We thus attempted to purify sterols by a process including a lipase-catalyzed reaction. Candida rugosa lipase efficiently esterified sterols in TC waste with oleic acid (OA). After studying several factors affecting esterification, the reaction conditions were determined as follows: ratio of TC waste/OA, 1:2 (wt/wt); water content, 30%; amount of lipase, 120 U/g-reaction mixture; temperature, 40 degrees C. Under these conditions, the degree of esterification reached 82.7% after 24 h. FA steryl esters (steryl esters) in the oil layer were purified successfully by short-path distillation (purity, 94.9%; recovery, 73.1%). When sterols in TC waste were esterified with FFA originating from olive, soybean, rapeseed, safflower, sunflower, and linseed oils, the FA compositions of the steryl esters differed somewhat from those of the original oils: The content of saturated FA was lower and that of unsaturated FA was higher. The m.p. of the steryl esters synthesized (21.7-36.5 degrees C) were remarkably low compared with those of the steryl esters purified from high-b.p. soybean oil deodorizer distillate substances (56.5 degrees C; JAOCS 80, 341-346, 2003). The low-m.p. steryl esters were soluble in rapeseed oil even at a final concentration of 10%. PMID:15638248

  6. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca Veglio, Francesco

    2009-01-15

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO{sub 3}, NaOH, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

  7. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G.B.; Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Nelson, N.; Steward, G.A.

    1999-06-15

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO[sub 2]. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs.

  8. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G. Bryan; Chiba, Zoher; Lewis, Patricia R.; Nelson, Norvell; Steward, G. Anthony

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

  9. Cesium removal from liquid acidic wastes with the primary focus on ammonium molybdophosphate as an ion exchanger: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    Many articles have been written concerning the selective removal of cesium from both acidic and alkaline defense wastes. The majority of the work performed for cesium removal from defense wastes involves alkaline feed solutions. Several different techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions have been evaluated such as precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review various techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions. The main focus of the review will be on ion exchange techniques, particularly those involving ammonium molybdophosphate as the exchanger. The pertinent literature sources are condensed into a single document for quick reference. The information contained in this document was used as an aid in determining techniques to evaluate cesium removal from the acidic Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste matrices. 47 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Process Coupling Between Mineral Transformation and U Speciation in Acid Waste Weathered Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrial, N.; Kanematsu, M.; Wang, G.; Um, W.; O'Day, P. A.; Chorover, J.

    2013-12-01

    The need for better prediction of contaminant transport motivates multi-faceted lines of inquiry to build a strong bridge between molecular- and field-scale information. At Hanford (WA), millions of liters of U-containing acidic wastes have been discharged to the soil. In order to predict reactive contaminant migration in the soil, it is necessary to determine the process coupling that occurs between mineral transformation and uranium speciation in these acid-uranium waste weathered sediments. Furthermore, we seek to establish linkages between molecular-scale contaminant speciation and meso-scale contaminant lability, release and reactive transport. Unweathered Hanford sediments were reacted for 365 days with acidic (pH 3), uranium bearing waste solutions in batch experiments. The presence and absence of phosphate in the waste as a control on uranium speciation was also investigated. At dedicated reaction times (7, 14, 30, 90, 180 and 365 days) solid and solution chemistry were analyzed to determine weathering trajectories and contaminant speciation. As observed by XRD and U-EXAFS, when present, PO4 exerted a strong controls over uranium speciation at all pH with the rapid precipitation of meta-ankoleite [K(UO2PO4).3H2O] and near complete immobilization of U. Over prolonged reaction time, however, small fractions of boltwoodite [K(UO2)(HSiO4).3H2O] increased in PO4-high U systems. When PO4 was excluded from the reaction systems, U speciation was indirectly controlled by the pH of the reactant solution and its effect on primary mineral weathering. In this case, U immobilization remained limited with 25 to 50% of the uranium precipitated as becquerelite ([Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6.3H2O] or the K equivalent - compreignacite) and suspected boltwoodite. Differences between the systems are attributed to process coupling between acid chemistry and U geochemistry. Carbonate weathering contributed to rapidly buffer the pH to pH 7-8 in the absence of PO4 and to 6-7 in its presence

  11. Inhibition of acid mine drainage and immobilization of heavy metals from copper flotation tailings using a marble cutting waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozsin, Gulsen

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) with high concentrations of sulfates and metals is generated by the oxidation of sulfide bearing wastes. CaCO3-rich marble cutting waste is a residual material produced by the cutting and polishing of marble stone. In this study, the feasibility of using the marble cutting waste as an acid-neutralizing agent to inhibit AMD and immobilize heavy metals from copper flotation tailings (sulfide- bearing wastes) was investigated. Continuous-stirring shake-flask tests were conducted for 40 d, and the pH value, sulfate content, and dissolved metal content of the leachate were analyzed every 10 d to determine the effectiveness of the marble cutting waste as an acid neutralizer. For comparison, CaCO3 was also used as a neutralizing agent. The average pH value of the leachate was 2.1 at the beginning of the experiment ( t = 0). In the experiment employing the marble cutting waste, the pH value of the leachate changed from 6.5 to 7.8, and the sulfate and iron concentrations decreased from 4558 to 838 mg/L and from 536 to 0.01 mg/L, respectively, after 40 d. The marble cutting waste also removed more than 80wt% of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from AMD generated by copper flotation tailings.

  12. Acid-Base Behavior in Hydrothermal Processing of Wastes - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, K.; Rossky, P.

    2000-12-01

    A major obstacle to development of hydrothermal oxidation technology has been a lack of scientific knowledge of chemistry in hydrothermal solution above 350 C, particularly acid-base behavior, and transport phenomena, which is needed to understand corrosion, metal-ion complexation, and salt precipitation and recovery. Our objective has been to provide this knowledge with in situ UV-visible spectroscopic measurements and fully molecular computer simulation. Our recent development of relatively stable organic UV-visible pH indicators for supercritical water oxidation offers the opportunity to characterize buffers and to monitor acid-base titrations. These results have important implications for understanding reaction pathways and yields for decomposition of wastes in supercritical water.

  13. Lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-09-01

    This work focused on the lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes treatment. A long term completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) lasting for 50 days was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) of 11 gVS/(L d) and sludge retention time (SRT) of 3 days with pH controlled at 4.0 (1-24 day) and 5.0 (25-50 day). The results indicated that high amount of approximately 10-20 g/L lactic acid was produced at pH of 4.0 and the fermentation type converted from coexistence of homofermentation and heterofermentation into heterofermentation. At pH of 5.0, the hydrolysis reaction was improved and the total concentration of fermentation products increased up to 29.5 g COD/L. The heterofermentation was maintained, however, bifidus pathway by Bifidobacterium played an important role.

  14. Corrosion resistance of stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys to acid fluoride wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Mackey, D.B.; Pool, K.H. ); Schwenk, E.B. )

    1992-04-01

    TRUEX processing of Hanford Site waste will utilize potentially corrosive acid fluoride processing solutions. Appropriate construction materials for such a processing facility need to be identified. Toward this objective, candidate stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys have been corrosion tested in simulated acid fluoride process solutions at 333K. The high Ni-Cr alloys exhibited corrosion rates as low as 0.14 mm/y in a solution with an HF activity of about 1.2 M, much lower than the 19 to 94 mm/y observed for austenitic stainless steels. At a lower HF activity (about 0.008 M), stainless steels display delayed passivation while high Ni-Cr alloys display essentially no reaction.

  15. Microbial conversion of synthetic and food waste-derived volatile fatty acids to lipids.

    PubMed

    Vajpeyi, Shashwat; Chandran, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Lipid accumulation in the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus albidus was evaluated using mixtures of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as substrates. In general, batch growth under nitrogen limitation led to higher lipid accumulation using synthetic VFA. During batch growth, an initial COD:N ratio of 25:1mg COD:mg N led to maximum intracellular lipid accumulation (28.3 ± 0.7% g/g dry cell weight), which is the maximum reported for C. albidus using VFA as the carbon source, without compromising growth kinetics. At this feed COD:N ratio, chemostat cultures fed with synthetic VFA yielded statistically similar intracellular lipid content as batch cultures (29.9 ± 1.9%, g/g). However, batch cultures fed with VFA produced from the fermentation of food waste, yielded a lower lipid content (14.9 ± 0.1%, g/g). The lipid composition obtained with synthetic and food-waste-derived VFA was similar to commercial biodiesel feedstock. We therefore demonstrate the feasibility of linking biochemical waste treatment and biofuel production using VFA as key intermediates.

  16. Distributions of 12 elements on 64 absorbers from simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW)

    SciTech Connect

    Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.; Marsh, S.F.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 64 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) (pH 14.2). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y) and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 768 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2304 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing NCAW solutions.

  17. Microbial conversion of synthetic and food waste-derived volatile fatty acids to lipids.

    PubMed

    Vajpeyi, Shashwat; Chandran, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Lipid accumulation in the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus albidus was evaluated using mixtures of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as substrates. In general, batch growth under nitrogen limitation led to higher lipid accumulation using synthetic VFA. During batch growth, an initial COD:N ratio of 25:1mg COD:mg N led to maximum intracellular lipid accumulation (28.3 ± 0.7% g/g dry cell weight), which is the maximum reported for C. albidus using VFA as the carbon source, without compromising growth kinetics. At this feed COD:N ratio, chemostat cultures fed with synthetic VFA yielded statistically similar intracellular lipid content as batch cultures (29.9 ± 1.9%, g/g). However, batch cultures fed with VFA produced from the fermentation of food waste, yielded a lower lipid content (14.9 ± 0.1%, g/g). The lipid composition obtained with synthetic and food-waste-derived VFA was similar to commercial biodiesel feedstock. We therefore demonstrate the feasibility of linking biochemical waste treatment and biofuel production using VFA as key intermediates. PMID:25697838

  18. Characterization of Jamaican agro-industrial wastes. Part II, fatty acid profiling using HPLC: precolumn derivatization with phenacyl bromide.

    PubMed

    Bailey-Shaw, Y A; Golden, K D; Pearson, A G M; Porter, R B R

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the determination of fatty acid composition of coffee, citrus and rum distillery wastes using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Lipid extracts of the waste samples are derivatized with phenacyl bromide and their phenacyl esters are separated on a C8 reversed-phase column by using continuous gradient elution with water and acetonitrile. The presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in quantifiable amounts in the examined wastes, as well as the high percentage recoveries, are clear indications that these wastes have potential value as inexpensive sources of lipids. The HPLC procedures described here could be adopted for further analysis of materials of this nature. PMID:22595260

  19. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, Radmila; Stevanović, Jasmina; Avramović, Ljiljana; Nedeljković, Dragutin; Jugović, Branimir; Stajić-Trošić, Jasna; Gvozdenović, Milica

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

  20. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl-(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of nitric acid which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO/sub 3/ from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO/sub 3/ concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  2. Glucose metabolic flux distribution of Lactobacillus amylophilus during lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Qunhui; Zou, Hui; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Juan; Gan, Kemin; Xiang, Juan

    2013-11-01

    The (13) C isotope tracer method was used to investigate the glucose metabolic flux distribution and regulation in Lactobacillus amylophilus to improve lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution (KWSS). The results demonstrate that L. amylophilus is a homofermentative bacterium. In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). After solid-liquid separation of the KWSS, the addition of Fe(3+) during fermentation enhanced the NADPH production efficiency and increased the NADH content. The flux to the EMP was also effectively increased. Compared with the control (60.6% flux to EMP without Fe(3+) addition), the flux to the EMP with the addition of Fe(3+) (74.3%) increased by 23.8%. In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe(3+) also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l(-1) , an increase of 8% compared with the control. All other organic acid by-products were lower than in the control. However, the addition of Zn(2+) showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution. PMID:23489617

  3. Uranium fate in Hanford sediment altered by simulated acid waste solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Gartman, Brandy N.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Szecsody, James E.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Wang, Zheming; Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.

    2015-07-31

    Many aspects of U(VI) behavior in sediments that are previously exposed to acidic waste fluids for sufficiently long times to induce significant changes in pH and other physical, mineralogical and chemical properties, are not well documented in the literature. For this reason, we conducted a series of macroscopic batch experiments combined with a variety of bulk characterization studies (Mössbauer and laser spectroscopy), micro-scale inspections (µ-XRF), and molecular scale interrogations (XANES) with the objectives to: i) determine the extent of U(VI) partitioning to Hanford sediments previously exposed to acidic waste simulants (pH = 2 and pH = 5) and under neutralmore » conditions (pH = 8) at varying background solution concentrations (i.e., NaNO3); ii) determine micron-scale solid phase associated U valence state and phase identity; and iii) provide information for a plausible conceptual model of U(VI) attenuation under waste plume acidic conditions. The results of the batch experiments showed that the acid pre-treated sediment had high affinity for aqueous U(VI), which was removed from solution via two pH dependent and apparently different mechanisms (adsorption at pH = 2 and precipitation at pH = 5). The micro-scale inspections and XANES analyses confirmed that high concentration areas were rich mainly in U(VI), demonstrating that most of the added U(VI) was not reduced to U(IV). The laser spectroscopy data showed that uranyl phosphates {e.g. metaautunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•10-12H2O] and phosphuranylite [KCa(H3O)3(UO2)7(PO4)4O4•8(H2O)]} were present in the sediments. They also showed clear differences between the U bearing phases in the experiments conducted in the presence or absence of air. As a result, the data generated from these experiments will help in a better understanding of the reactions and processes that have a significant effect and/or control U mobility.« less

  4. Uranium fate in Hanford sediment altered by simulated acid waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gartman, Brandy N.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Szecsody, James E.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Wang, Zheming; Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.

    2015-07-31

    Many aspects of U(VI) behavior in sediments that are previously exposed to acidic waste fluids for sufficiently long times to induce significant changes in pH and other physical, mineralogical and chemical properties, are not well documented in the literature. For this reason, we conducted a series of macroscopic batch experiments combined with a variety of bulk characterization studies (Mössbauer and laser spectroscopy), micro-scale inspections (µ-XRF), and molecular scale interrogations (XANES) with the objectives to: i) determine the extent of U(VI) partitioning to Hanford sediments previously exposed to acidic waste simulants (pH = 2 and pH = 5) and under neutral conditions (pH = 8) at varying background solution concentrations (i.e., NaNO3); ii) determine micron-scale solid phase associated U valence state and phase identity; and iii) provide information for a plausible conceptual model of U(VI) attenuation under waste plume acidic conditions. The results of the batch experiments showed that the acid pre-treated sediment had high affinity for aqueous U(VI), which was removed from solution via two pH dependent and apparently different mechanisms (adsorption at pH = 2 and precipitation at pH = 5). The micro-scale inspections and XANES analyses confirmed that high concentration areas were rich mainly in U(VI), demonstrating that most of the added U(VI) was not reduced to U(IV). The laser spectroscopy data showed that uranyl phosphates {e.g. metaautunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•10-12H2O] and phosphuranylite [KCa(H3O)3(UO2)7(PO4)4O4•8(H2O)]} were present in the sediments. They also showed clear differences between the U bearing phases in the experiments conducted in the presence or absence of air. As a result, the data generated from these experiments will help in a better understanding of the reactions and

  5. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage.

  6. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed.

  7. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed. PMID:26761593

  8. Web technology in the separation of strontium and cesium from INEL-ICPP radioactive acid waste (WM-185)

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Brown, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium and cesium were successfully removed from radioactive acidic waste (WM-185) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), with web technology from 3M and IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. (IBC). A technical team from Pacific Northwest Laboratory, ICPP, 3M and IBC conducted a very successful series of experiments from August 15 through 18, 1994. The ICPP, Remote Analytical Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, provided the hot cell facilities and staff to complete these milestone experiments. The actual waste experiments duplicated the initial `cold` simulated waste results and confirmed the selective removal provided by ligand-particle web technology.

  9. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste. PMID:27376833

  10. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste.

  11. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O.; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E.

    1997-12-31

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  12. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Summary of bench-scale tests for FY 1986 and FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.

    1987-09-01

    Processes to reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acid are being demonstrated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids such as HF-HNO/sub 3/, etch solutions containing Zr as a major metal impurity, and HNO/sub 3/ strip solution containing Cu as a major metal impurity are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ containing U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup -/ to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup -2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in a downstream precipitation step. 10 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. [Microeukaryotic biodiversity in the waste ore samples surrounding an acid mine drainage lake].

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Yuan; Hao, Chun-Bo; Wang, Li-Hua; Lü, Zheng; Zhang, Li-Na; Liu, Ying; Feng, Chuan-Ping

    2013-10-01

    The abandoned mineral samples were collected in an acid mine drainage area in Anhui Province. Molecular ecological methods were used to construct 18S rDNA clone libraries after analyzing the main physicochemical parameters, and then the microeukaryotic diversity and community structure in the acid mine drainage area were studied. The results showed that the region was strongly acidic (pH <3), and the concentrations of Fe, SO2-(4), P, NO-(3) -N showed the same trend, all higher in the bare waste ore samples PD and 1 M than in the vegetation covered samples LW and XC. Four eukaryotic phyla were detected in the abandoned mineral samples: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota and Arthropoda. Glomeromycota can form an absolute symbiotic relationship with the plant, and it was a key factor for early plant to adapt the terrestrial environment. The biodiversity of the vegetation covered samples LW and XC, which contained Glomeromycota, was much higher than that of the bare abandoned rock samples PD and 1 M. Moreover, many sequences in the libraries were closely related to some isolated strains, which are tolerant to low pH and heavy metals, such as Penicillium purpurogenum, Chaetothyriales sp. and Staninwardia suttonii.

  14. Preparation of a novel carbon-based solid acid from cassava stillage residue and its use for the esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingtao; Dong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Zhang, Minhua

    2014-04-01

    A novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of incompletely carbonized cassava stillage residue (CSR) with concentrated sulfuric acid, and employed to catalyze the esterification of methanol and free fatty acids (FFAs) in waste cooking oil (WCO). The effects of the carbonization and the sulfonation temperatures on the pore structure, acid density and catalytic activity of the CSR-derived catalysts were systematically investigated. Low temperature carbonization and high temperature sulfonation can cause the collapse of the carbon framework, while high temperature carbonization is not conducive to the attachment of SO3H groups on the surface. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity for esterification, and the acid value for WCO is reduced to below 2mg KOH/g after reaction. The activity of catalyst can be well maintained after five cycles. CSR can be considered a promising raw material for the production of a new eco-friendly solid acid catalyst.

  15. Application of statistical experimental designs for the optimization of medium constituents for the production of citric acid from pineapple waste.

    PubMed

    Imandi, Sarat Babu; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Somalanka, Subba Rao; Bandaru, Sita Ramalakshmi; Garapati, Hanumantha Rao

    2008-07-01

    Statistical experimental designs were applied for the optimization of medium constituents for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 in solid state fermentation (SSF) using pineapple waste as the sole substrate. Using Plackett-Burman design, yeast extract, moisture content of the substrate, KH(2)PO(4) and Na(2)HPO(4) were identified as significant variables which highly influenced citric acid production and these variables were subsequently optimized using a central composite design (CCD). The optimum conditions were found to be yeast extract 0.34 (%w/w), moisture content of the substrate 70.71 (%), KH(2)PO(4) 0.64 (%w/w) and Na(2)HPO(4) 0.69 (%w/w). Citric acid production at these optimum conditions was 202.35 g/kg ds (g citric acid produced/kg of dried pineapple waste as substrate).

  16. Quantitative 'Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. 'Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the 'Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining the

  17. Quantitative ‘Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David. B.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. ‘Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the ‘Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining

  18. Bioproduction of volatile fatty acid from the fermentation of waste activated sludge for in situ denitritation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shuying

    2016-04-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation integrated with denitritation (the reduction of nitrite to dinitrogen gas) at different pHs was investigated in batch-mode reactors over a 24-day period. The results showed that in comparison with controlled pHs, the volatile fatty acid (VFA) bioproduction for in situ denitritation was significantly improved at uncontrolled pH. VFA fermented from WAS was quickly consumed by denitritation at uncontrolled pH, which accelerated sludge degradation. On the other hand, sludge digestion was benefited from the alkalinity produced from denitritation, while methanogenesis was prohibited by alkalinity and nitrite. The integrated sludge fermentation and denitritation can be cost-effectively applied to wastewater treatment plants, so that organic substrates (e.g., VFAs) are produced for denitritation via simultaneous sludge fermentation, which enables WAS reutilization and enhances nitrogen removal efficiency without the need of external carbon sources.

  19. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  20. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  1. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    PubMed

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-02-04

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  2. Free nitrous acid pretreatment of wasted activated sludge to exploit internal carbon source for enhanced denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Peng, Yongzhen; Wei, Yan; Li, Baikun; Bao, Peng; Wang, Yayi

    2015-03-01

    Using internal carbon source contained in waste activated sludge (WAS) is beneficial for nitrogen removal from wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio, but it is usually limited by sludge disintegration. This study presented a novel strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment to intensify the release of organic matters from WAS for enhanced denitrification. During FNA pretreatment, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) production kept increasing when FNA increased from 0 to 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. Compared with untreated WAS, the internal carbon source production increased by 50% in a simultaneous fermentation and denitrification reactor fed with WAS pretreated by FNA for 24 h at 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. This also increased denitrification efficiency by 76% and sludge reduction by 87.5%. More importantly, greenhouse gas nitrous oxide production in denitrification was alleviated since more electrons could be provided by FNA pretreated WAS.

  3. Selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards by a novel non-acid process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2014-08-30

    An environmental benign, non-acid process was successfully developed for selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs). In the process, palladium was firstly enriched during copper recovery procedure and dissolved in a special solution made of CuSO4 and NaCl. The dissolved palladium was then extracted by diisoamyl sulfide (S201). It was found that 99.4% of Pd(II) could be extracted from the solution under the optimum conditions (10% S201, A/O ratio 5 and 2min extraction). In the whole extraction process, the influence of base metals was negligible due to the relatively weak nucleophilic substitution of S201 with base metal irons and the strong steric hindrance of S201 molecular. Around 99.5% of the extracted Pd(II) could be stripped from S201/dodecane with 0.1mol/L NH3 after a two-stage stripping at A/O ratio of 1. The total recovery percentage of palladium was 96.9% during the dissolution-extraction-stripping process. Therefore, this study established a benign and effective process for selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards.

  4. Waste lipids to energy: how to optimize methane production from long‐chain fatty acids (LCFA)

    PubMed Central

    Alves, M. Madalena; Pereira, M. Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z.; Cavaleiro, Ana J.; Picavet, Merijn; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The position of high‐rate anaerobic technology (HR‐AnWT) in the wastewater treatment and bioenergy market can be enhanced if the range of suitable substrates is expanded. Analyzing existing technologies, applications and problems, it is clear that, until now, wastewaters with high lipids content are not effectively treated by HR‐AnWT. Nevertheless, waste lipids are ideal potential substrates for biogas production, since theoretically more methane can be produced, when compared with proteins or carbohydrates. In this minireview, the classical problems of lipids methanization in anaerobic processes are discussed and new concepts to enhance lipids degradation are presented. Reactors operation, feeding strategies and prospects of technological developments for wastewater treatment are discussed. Long‐chain fatty acids (LCFA) degradation is accomplished by syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. For optimal performance these syntrophic communities need to be clustered in compact aggregates, which is often difficult to achieve with wastewaters that contain fats and lipids. Driving the methane production from lipids/LCFA at industrial scale without risk of overloading and inhibition is still a challenge that has the potential for filling a gap in the existing processes and technologies for biological methane production associated to waste and wastewater treatment. PMID:21255287

  5. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of HNO3 which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO3 from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO3 concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion.

  6. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants. PMID:25465511

  7. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants.

  8. Mixing-controlled uncertainty in long-term predictions of acid rock drainage from heterogeneous waste-rock piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedretti, D.; Beckie, R. D.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    The chemistry of drainage from waste-rock piles at mine sites is difficult to predict because of a number of uncertainties including heterogeneous reactive mineral content, distribution of minerals, weathering rates and physical flow properties. In this presentation, we examine the effects of mixing on drainage chemistry over timescales of 100s of years. We use a 1-D streamtube conceptualization of flow in waste rocks and multicomponent reactive transport modeling. We simplify the reactive system to consist of acid-producing sulfide minerals and acid-neutralizing carbonate minerals and secondary sulfate and iron oxide minerals. We create multiple realizations of waste-rock piles with distinct distributions of reactive minerals along each flow path and examine the uncertainty of drainage geochemistry through time. The limited mixing of streamtubes that is characteristic of the vertical unsaturated flow in many waste-rock piles, allows individual flowpaths to sustain acid or neutral conditions to the base of the pile, where the streamtubes mix. Consequently, mixing and the acidity/alkalinity balance of the streamtube waters, and not the overall acid- and base-producing mineral contents, control the instantaneous discharge chemistry. Our results show that the limited mixing implied by preferential flow and the heterogeneous distribution of mineral contents lead to large uncertainty in drainage chemistry over short and medium time scales. However, over longer timescales when one of either the acid-producing or neutralizing primary phases is depleted, the drainage chemistry becomes less controlled by mixing and in turn less uncertain. A correct understanding of the temporal variability of uncertainty is key to make informed long-term decisions in mining settings regarding the management of waste material.

  9. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  10. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  11. Separation of boric acid in liquid waste with anion exchange membrane contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.K.; Lee, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    In order to separate boric acid in liquid waste, some possible technologies were investigated and the membrane contactor without dispersion and density differences was selected. The separation experiments on a Celgard 3401{reg_sign} hydrophilic microporous membrane contactor were first performed to obtain the basic data and to determine the properties of the contactor. The experimental conditions were as follows: boric acid concentrations up to 2.0 M, pH 7.0, temperatures of 25 and 55 C, and flow rates of 100, 300, 500, and 800 cm{sup 3}/min. Secondly, an AFN{reg_sign} anion exchange membrane contactor was tested at temperatures of 40 and 55 C and flow rate 400 cm{sup 3}/min. Boric acid solutions were prepared by the same method as that for Celgard 3401{reg_sign} but contained 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}4} M cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}). To simulate membrane contractors, parameters such as the differential diffusion coefficients of boric acid and the mass transfer coefficients in the AFN membrane were measured, and regression models estimating the diffusion coefficient at several conditions were developed. The Celgard 3401{reg_sign} membrane contactor was simulated and compared with experimental data. Simulation results agreed with the experimental data well when a proper correction factor was utilized. The correction factor was independent of the solution temperature and was 8.75 at the flow rates of 300--800 cm{sup 3}/min. This correction factor was also applied to simulate the AFN{reg_sign} resulted in a good agreement with experiment at 40 C, but not 55 C. The retention on cobalt was also better at 40 c than 55 C. The simulating computer program was also applied to a life size contactor designed conceptually.

  12. Recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum and utilization for remediation of acid mine drainage from coal mines.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Radebe, V

    2012-01-01

    The recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum (a waste product of the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process) was tested using sodium carbonate. Batch recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum slurries by reacting with sodium carbonate under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of CaCO(3) recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effect of key process parameters, such as the slurry concentration (%) and the molar ratio of sodium carbonate to gypsum were considered. It was observed that batch waste gypsum conversion significantly increased with decrease in the slurry concentration or increase in the molar ratio of sodium carbonate to gypsum. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench-scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3).

  13. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals".

  14. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limits for municipal waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are... from that affected facility any gases that contain hydrogen chloride in excess of 29 parts per million by volume or 5 percent of the potential hydrogen chloride emission concentration...

  15. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are specified in... include emission limits for hydrogen chloride at least as protective as the emission limits for hydrogen... hydrogen chloride contained in the gases discharged to the atmosphere from a designated facility is...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limits for municipal waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are... from that affected facility any gases that contain hydrogen chloride in excess of 29 parts per million by volume or 5 percent of the potential hydrogen chloride emission concentration...

  17. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are specified in... include emission limits for hydrogen chloride at least as protective as the emission limits for hydrogen... hydrogen chloride contained in the gases discharged to the atmosphere from a designated facility is...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limits for municipal waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are... from that affected facility any gases that contain hydrogen chloride in excess of 29 parts per million by volume or 5 percent of the potential hydrogen chloride emission concentration...

  19. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are specified in... include emission limits for hydrogen chloride at least as protective as the emission limits for hydrogen... hydrogen chloride contained in the gases discharged to the atmosphere from a designated facility is...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limits for municipal waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are... from that affected facility any gases that contain hydrogen chloride in excess of 29 parts per million by volume or 5 percent of the potential hydrogen chloride emission concentration...

  1. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are specified in... include emission limits for hydrogen chloride at least as protective as the emission limits for hydrogen... hydrogen chloride contained in the gases discharged to the atmosphere from a designated facility is...

  2. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limits for municipal waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are... from that affected facility any gases that contain hydrogen chloride in excess of 29 parts per million by volume or 5 percent of the potential hydrogen chloride emission concentration...

  3. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are specified in... include emission limits for hydrogen chloride at least as protective as the emission limits for hydrogen... hydrogen chloride contained in the gases discharged to the atmosphere from a designated facility is...

  4. Development of Spheroidal Inorganic Sorbents for Treatment of Acidic Salt-Bearing Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.

    2001-09-07

    A spheroidal composite inorganic sorbent was developed for U.S. Department of Energy-Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (USDOE-ESP) for potential use in removing radioactive cesium isotopes from acidic high-salt waste streams such as those at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate (ZrHP) embedded with fine powder of ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), was prepared using a unique internal gelation process which can be used to make porous reproducible microspheres that are structurally strong, have a low tendency for surface erosion, and improve the flow dynamics for column operations. Both ZrHP and AMP are excellent sorbent materials and, being inorganic, are stable in high radiation fields. AMP is a very effective sorbent for removing cesium from salt-bearing waste streams for a wide range of acidity. In the pH range of 2 to 10, ZrHP is also a very effective sorbent for removing Cs, Sr, Th, U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), Hg, and Pb from streams of lower ionic concentrations. Crucial to developing the spheroidal AMP-ZrHP sorbent was to determine the ideal weight percentage of AMP that could be embedded in the ZrHP microspheres in order to maintain the structural integrity of the microspheres and also achieve a good cesium separation. A total of 12 preparations were made. The dry weight percentage of AMP ranged from 30 to 60. Overall, the best composite microspheres prepared contained 50% AMP (by dry weight measurement). Another composite microsphere, which was composed of titanium monohydrogen phosphate (TiHP) embedded with 18 wt % (air-dried weight) potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (KCoCF) and developed for a different separations application, was also batch tested for comparison. It proved to be as effective in removing,the cesium as the air-dried AMP (50 wt %)-ZrHP. Granular KCoCF was also prepared and was very effective. Large samples of each of these materials were sent to

  5. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined the hydraulic conductivity evolution as function of dry density of Tunisian clay soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Follow the hydraulic conductivity evolution at long-term of three clay materials using the waste solution (pH=2.7). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined how compaction affects the hydraulic conductivity of clay soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed the concentration of F and P and examined the retention of each soil. - Abstract: Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}, 2.08 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH = 2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  6. Characterization of phosphogypsum wastes associated with phosphoric acid and fertilizers production.

    PubMed

    El Afifi, E M; Hilal, M A; Attallah, M F; El-Reefy, S A

    2009-05-01

    The present work is directed to characterize the phosphogypsum (PG) wastes associated with phosphoric acid produced by the wet process in industrial facility for the production of fertilizers and chemicals in Egypt. The PG waste samples were characterized in terms of spectroscopic analysis (X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, IR spectra) and radiometric analysis (gamma- and alpha-measurements). The gamma-ray measurements showed that the average activity concentrations are 140+/-12.6, 459+/-36.7, 323+/-28.4, 8.3+/-0.76 and 64.3+/-4.1 Bq/kg for U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Th-232 and K-40, respectively. The alpha-particle measurements of uranium isotopes showed that the average activity concentrations of U-238, U-235 and U-234 were 153+/-9.8, 7+/-0.38, 152+/-10.4 Bq/kg, respectively. The average radiochemical recovery (%) of the destructive alpha-particle measurements is approximately 70% with a resolution (FWHM) of approximately 30 keV. Activity ratios of U-238/Ra-226 and U-238/Pb-210 were less than unity (i.e., <1) and equal to 0.31+/-0.02 and 0.47+/-0.16, respectively. The isotopic ratios of U-238/U-235 and U-238/U-234 (in PG and PR samples) were close to the normal values of approximately 21.7 and approximately 1, respectively and are not affected by the wet processing of phosphate rock (PR). The obtained results of PG waste samples were compared with phosphate rock (PR) samples. The radiation hazard indices are namely, radium activity index (Ra-Eq>370 Bq/kg), total absorbed gamma dose rate (D(gamma r)>5 nGy/h) and radon emanation fraction (Rn-EF>20%). Uncertainty of the sample counting was 95% confidence level of sigma. The results indicated the necessity to find suitable routes to decrease and/or redistribute the radionuclide of environmental interest (i.e., Ra-226) in PG wastes, consequently to reduce its radiation impacts in the surrounding environment.

  7. Characterization of phosphogypsum wastes associated with phosphoric acid and fertilizers production.

    PubMed

    El Afifi, E M; Hilal, M A; Attallah, M F; El-Reefy, S A

    2009-05-01

    The present work is directed to characterize the phosphogypsum (PG) wastes associated with phosphoric acid produced by the wet process in industrial facility for the production of fertilizers and chemicals in Egypt. The PG waste samples were characterized in terms of spectroscopic analysis (X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, IR spectra) and radiometric analysis (gamma- and alpha-measurements). The gamma-ray measurements showed that the average activity concentrations are 140+/-12.6, 459+/-36.7, 323+/-28.4, 8.3+/-0.76 and 64.3+/-4.1 Bq/kg for U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Th-232 and K-40, respectively. The alpha-particle measurements of uranium isotopes showed that the average activity concentrations of U-238, U-235 and U-234 were 153+/-9.8, 7+/-0.38, 152+/-10.4 Bq/kg, respectively. The average radiochemical recovery (%) of the destructive alpha-particle measurements is approximately 70% with a resolution (FWHM) of approximately 30 keV. Activity ratios of U-238/Ra-226 and U-238/Pb-210 were less than unity (i.e., <1) and equal to 0.31+/-0.02 and 0.47+/-0.16, respectively. The isotopic ratios of U-238/U-235 and U-238/U-234 (in PG and PR samples) were close to the normal values of approximately 21.7 and approximately 1, respectively and are not affected by the wet processing of phosphate rock (PR). The obtained results of PG waste samples were compared with phosphate rock (PR) samples. The radiation hazard indices are namely, radium activity index (Ra-Eq>370 Bq/kg), total absorbed gamma dose rate (D(gamma r)>5 nGy/h) and radon emanation fraction (Rn-EF>20%). Uncertainty of the sample counting was 95% confidence level of sigma. The results indicated the necessity to find suitable routes to decrease and/or redistribute the radionuclide of environmental interest (i.e., Ra-226) in PG wastes, consequently to reduce its radiation impacts in the surrounding environment. PMID:19272681

  8. ANL progress in minimizing effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission-product {sup 99}Mo acid waste solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, A.; Vandegrift, G.; Quigley, K.; Aase, S.; Neylon, M.; Carney, K.

    2003-01-01

    A partnership between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), MDS Nordion (MDSN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN (France) has addressed the conversion of the MAPLE Reactor 99Mo production process from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. One effect of the conversion would be to increase the amount of solid uranium waste five-fold; we have worked to minimize the effect of the additional waste on the overall production process and, in particular, solid waste storage. Two processes were investigated for the treatment of the uranium-rich acidic waste solution: direct calcination, and oxalate precipitation as a prelude to calcination. Direct calcination generates a dense UO3 solid that should allow a significantly greater amount of uranium in one waste container than is planned for the HEU process, but doing so results in undesirable sputtering. These results suggest that direct calcination could be adapted for use with LEU targets without a large effect on the uranium waste treatment procedures. The oxalate-calcination generates a lower-density granular U3O8 product; sputtering is not significant during calcination of the uranyl oxalate precipitate. A physical means to densify the product would need to be developed to increase the amount of uranium in each waste container. Future work will focus on the specific chemical reactions that occur during the direct and oxalate calcination processes.

  9. Bioconversion of waste office paper to gluconic acid in a turbine blade reactor by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yuko; Park, Enock Y; Okuda, Naoyuki

    2006-05-01

    Gluconic acid production was investigated using an enzymatic hydrolysate of waste office automation paper in a culture of Aspergillus niger. In repeated batch cultures using flasks, saccharified solution medium (SM) did not show any inhibitory effects on gluconic acid production compared to glucose medium (GM). The average gluconic acid yields were 92% (SM) and 80% (GM). In repeated batch cultures using SM in a turbine blade reactor (TBR), the gluconic acid yields were 60% (SM) and 67% (GM) with 80-100 g/l of gluconic acid. When pure oxygen was supplied the production rate increased to four times higher than when supplying air. Remarkable differences in the morphology of A. niger and dry cell weight between SM and GM were observed. The difference in morphology may have caused a reduction of oxygen transfer, resulting in a decrease in gluconic acid production rate in SM.

  10. Counter-current acid leaching process for copper azole treated wood waste.

    PubMed

    Janin, Amélie; Riche, Pauline; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Cooper, Paul; Morris, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for copper extraction from copper azole treated wood waste for recycling of wood and copper. The leaching process uses three acid leaching steps with 0.1 M H2SO4 at 75degrees C and 15% slurry density followed by three rinses with water. Copper is recovered from the leachate using electrodeposition at 5 amperes (A) for 75 min. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed achieving > or = 94% copper extraction from the wood during the 10 cycles; 80-90% of the copper was recovered from the extract solution by electrodeposition. The counter-current leaching process reduced acid consumption by 86% and effluent discharge volume was 12 times lower compared with the same process without use of counter-current leaching. However, the reuse of leachates from one leaching step to another released dissolved organic carbon and caused its build-up in the early cycles. PMID:23240206

  11. Lactic acid production from potato peel waste by anaerobic sequencing batch fermentation using undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is a necessary industrial feedstock for producing the bioplastic, polylactic acid (PLA), which is currently produced by pure culture fermentation of food carbohydrates. This work presents an alternative to produce LA from potato peel waste (PPW) by anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with undefined mixed culture from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A statistical design of experiments approach was employed using set of 0.8L SBRs using gelatinized PPW at a solids content range from 30 to 50 g L(-1), solids retention time of 2-4 days for yield and productivity optimization. The maximum LA production yield of 0.25 g g(-1) PPW and highest productivity of 125 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved. A scale-up SBR trial using neat gelatinized PPW (at 80 g L(-1) solids content) at the 3 L scale was employed and the highest LA yield of 0.14 g g(-1) PPW and a productivity of 138 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved with a 1 d SRT.

  12. On-line assessment of mixing in an acid waste neutralization system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.E.; Resnick, P.J.; Bickel, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    The acid was neutralization system at Sandia National Laboratories treats process waste water from the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL). The system consists of two 9,500 liter stirred tank reactors in series with an approximate feed rate of 3.17 L/s. The tanks are equipped with 320 W mixers with single impellers. pH sensors in each tank control acid and caustic delivery pumps. Sporadic excursions outside the required range of pH 5 to 11 were observed. Tracer experiments using methylene blue dye were performed during normal MDL operations to assess mixing in the individual reactors and the system. Tracers were injected as instantaneous pulses into the reactors and time dependent concentrations were measured in the effluent. Dimensionless exit age distributions were obtained which were similar to distributions for continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). These age distributions were extended to predict fluoride concentrations. The data indicate a separate fluoride collection system will be required to meet local environmental safety and health (ES H) regulations. Results from these tracer experiments have lead to cost effective design improvements in our neutralization system. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Lactic acid production from potato peel waste by anaerobic sequencing batch fermentation using undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is a necessary industrial feedstock for producing the bioplastic, polylactic acid (PLA), which is currently produced by pure culture fermentation of food carbohydrates. This work presents an alternative to produce LA from potato peel waste (PPW) by anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with undefined mixed culture from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A statistical design of experiments approach was employed using set of 0.8L SBRs using gelatinized PPW at a solids content range from 30 to 50 g L(-1), solids retention time of 2-4 days for yield and productivity optimization. The maximum LA production yield of 0.25 g g(-1) PPW and highest productivity of 125 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved. A scale-up SBR trial using neat gelatinized PPW (at 80 g L(-1) solids content) at the 3 L scale was employed and the highest LA yield of 0.14 g g(-1) PPW and a productivity of 138 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved with a 1 d SRT. PMID:25708409

  14. Efficient conversion of polyamides to ω-hydroxyalkanoic acids: a new method for chemical recycling of waste plastics.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akio; Ikeda, Kosuke; Suzuki, Shuzo; Kato, Kazunari; Akinari, Yugo; Sugimoto, Tsunemi; Kashiwagi, Kohichi; Kaiso, Kouji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    An efficient transformation of polyamides to ω-hydroxy alkanoic acids was achieved. Treatment of nylon-12 with supercritical MeOH in the presence of glycolic acid gave methyl ω-hydroxydodecanoate in 85% yield and the alcohol/alkene selectivity in the product was enhanced to up to 9.5:1. The use of (18)O-enriched acetic acid for the reaction successfully introduced an (18)O atom at the alcoholic OH group in the product. This strategy may provide a new and economical solution for the chemical recycling of waste plastics.

  15. Isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste: Optimization of acid concentration in the hydrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Budiman; Rosyid, Nurul Huda; Effendi, Devi Bentia; Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani; Mudzakir, Ahmad; Hidayat, Topik

    2016-02-01

    Isolation of needle-shaped bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline with a diameter of 16-64 nm, a fiber length of 258-806 nm, and a degree of crystallinity of 64% from pineapple peel waste using an acid hydrolysis process was investigated. Experimental showed that selective concentration of acid played important roles in isolating the bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from the cellulose source. To achieve the successful isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline, various acid concentrations were tested. To confirm the effect of acid concentration on the successful isolation process, the reaction conditions were fixed at a temperature of 50°C, a hydrolysis time of 30 minutes, and a bacterial cellulose-to-acid ratio of 1:50. Pineapple peel waste was used as a model for a cellulose source because to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the use of this raw material for producing bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline. In fact, this material can be used as an alternative for ecofriendly and cost-free cellulose sources. Therefore, understanding in how to isolate bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste has the potential for large-scale production of inexpensive cellulose nanocrystalline.

  16. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  17. Study on Treatment of acidic and highly concentrated fluoride waste water using calcium oxide-calcium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, T.; Gao, X. R.; Zheng, T.; Wang, P.

    2016-08-01

    There are problems with treating acidic waste water containing high concentration fluorine by chemical precipitation, including the low sludge setting velocity and the high difficulty of reaching the criterion. In Heilongjiang province, a graphite factory producing high-purity graphite generates acidic waste water with a high concentration of fluorine. In this paper, the effect of removals on the concentration of fluoride with the combined treatment of calcium oxide and calcium chloride were discussed with regard to acid waste water. The study improved the sludge characteristics by using polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different coagulants on sludge was evaluated by the sludge settlement ratio (SV), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge moisture content. The results showed that the optimal combination for 100 ml waste water was calcium oxide addition amount of 14 g, a calcium chloride addition amount of 2.5 g, a PAM addition amount of 350 mg/L, and the effluent fluoride concentration was below 6 mg/L. PAM significantly improved the sludge settling velocity. The sludge settlement ratio reduced from 87.6% to 60%. The process for wastewater treatment was easily operated and involved low expenditure.

  18. Increase of Unsaturated Fatty Acids (Low Melting Point) of Broiler Fatty Waste Obtained Through Staphylococcus xylosus Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Marques, Roger V; Duval, Eduarda H; Corrêa, Luciara B; Corrêa, Érico K

    2015-11-01

    The increasing rise in the production of meat around the world causes a significant generation of agro-industrial waste--most of it with a low value added. Fatty wastes have the potential of being converted into biodiesel, given the overcome of technological and economical barriers, as well as its presentation in solid form. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of Staphylococcus xylosus strains to modify the chemical structure of chicken fatty wastes intending to reduce the melting points of the wastes to mild temperatures, thereby breaking new ground in the production of biodiesel from these sources in an economically attractive and sustainable manner. The effects in time of fermentation and concentration of the fat in the medium were investigated, assessing the melting point and profile of fatty acids. The melting temperature showed a decrease of approximately 22 °C in the best operational conditions, due to reduction in the content of saturated fatty acids (high melting point) and increase of unsaturated fatty acids (low melting point).

  19. Acidic minespoil reclamation with AFBC by-product and yard-waste compost

    SciTech Connect

    Stehouwer, R.C. [OARDC Dick, W.A.; Lal, R.

    1996-12-31

    Economic and environmental incentives to reduce solid waste volumes have spurred interest in the development of beneficial uses for urban and industrial by-products. This project investigated the reclamation efficacy and impacts on soil and water quality of two such materials: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) by-product and yard-waste compost. Six 1-acre watersheds were constructed on acidic abandoned mined land spoil (pH range 3.5 to 4.5) Two watersheds each were then reclaimed with 8 in of borrow soil, 125 tons/acre of AFBC, or 125 tons/acre of AFBC and 50 tons/acre of compost, and planted with a grass-legume seed mix. Watersheds were instrumented to record hydrographs of storm-water runoff events, measure erosion, and collect samples of surface- and percolate-water flow. One year after reclamation the AFBC and AFBC+ compost treatments compared favorably with the traditional resoil reclamation practice. Spoil pH in the 0 to 4 in depth was increased to the range 6 to 8 which was similar to the resoil pH, and complete vegetative cover was successfully established on all watersheds. However, plant biomass production was approximately 2 times larger on the resoiled watersheds than on the amended spoil. Consequently, erosion was smallest on the resoiled watersheds. All three reclamation treatments increased runoff water pH to >7 and decreased soluble Al. Concentrations of Ca and S were larger in runoff- and percolate-water samples from AFBC-treated watersheds than from the resoiled watersheds. Trace element concentrations in all water samples remained very low and showed almost no treatment effects.

  20. Efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste activated bleaching earth using diesel oil as organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Seiji; Du, Dongning; Sato, Masayasu; Park, Enoch Y

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry was investigated using fossil fuel as a solvent in the esterification of triglycerides. Lipase from Candida cylindracea showed the highest stability in diesel oil. Using diesel oil as a solvent, 3 h was sufficient to obtain a yield of approximately 100% of FAME in the presence of 10% lipase from waste ABE. Kerosene was also a good solvent in the esterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. Fuel analysis showed that the FAME produced using diesel oil as a solvent complied with the Japanese diesel standard and the 10% residual carbon amount was lower than that of FAME produced using other solvents. Use of diesel oil as solvent in the FAME production from the waste ABE simplified the process, because there was no need to separate the organic solvent from the FAME-solvent mixture. These results demonstrate a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME, for use as a biodiesel, from industrial waste resources containing waste vegetable oils.

  1. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals.

  2. Synthesis of biodiesel from a model waste oil feedstock using a carbon-based solid acid catalyst: reaction and separation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Qing; Nawaz, Zeeshan; Gao, Jixian; Liao, Yuhui; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Jinfu

    2010-07-01

    A solid acid catalyst that can keep high activity and stability is necessary when low cost feedstocks are utilized for biodiesel synthesis because the reaction medium contains a large amount of water. Three solid acid catalysts were prepared by the sulfonation of carbonized vegetable oil asphalt and petroleum asphalt. The structure of these catalysts was characterized by a variety of techniques. A new process that used the coupling of the reaction and separation was employed, which greatly improved the conversion of cottonseed oil (triglyceride) and free fatty acids (FFA) when a model waste oil feedstock was used. The vegetable oil asphalt-based catalyst showed the highest catalytic activity. This was due to the high density and stability of its acid sites, its loose irregular network, its hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH species, and large pores that provided more acid sites for the reactants.

  3. Isolation of mono-caffeoylquinic acids from tobacco waste using continuous resin-based pre-separation and preparative HPLC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Lu, Dingqiang; Liang, Yao; Zhao, Hui; Luo, Min; Ling, Xiuquan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2012-06-01

    Three isomers of mono-caffeoylquinic acid, specifically, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were successfully isolated from a crude extract of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum L.) wastes using continuous resin-based pre-separation and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The extract of tobacco wastes was continuously pre-separated by resin-based columns packed with D101 and XAD-4, yielding total mono-caffeoylquinic acids with a purity of 67.71% and a recovery rate of 90.06%. Variables affecting resolution and productivity of three mono-caffeoylquinic acid isomers in preparative HPLC (i.e. mobile-phase composition, pH, flow rate and loading amount) were studied. The optimum chromatographic conditions were determined to be a mobile phase consisting of 15% (v/v) methanol and aqueous acetic acid with a pH of 4.5, a flow rate of 4.0 mL/min, a loading amount of 4 mL and a detection wavelength of 360 nm. From 300 mg of loading sample, 56.3 mg of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 92.8 mg of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 73.1 mg of 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid were obtained in a single run, each with a purity of over 98% by HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by ESI-MS, (1) H-NMR and (13) C-NMR spectral data.

  4. Improved production of propionic acid driven by hydrolyzed liquid containing high concentration of l-lactic acid from co-fermentation of food waste and sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Ma, Li; Lai, Sizhou; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of improved production propionic acid-enriched volatile fatty acid (VFA) from high concentration (Cs) of food waste and waste activated sludge (WAS) via lactic acid pathway by using of Propionibacterium acidipropionici. It was observed that production of l-lactate overwhelmed to d-lactate at first stage, which improved from 3.21 to 35.45gCOD/L with increase of substrate Cs. However, kinetic model analysis indicated that P. acidipropionici growth rate μmax was decreased with increase of l-lactate concentration, which explained second stage free cell fermentation of propionic acid was inhibited when fed by first stage liquid from R-40, R-55 and R-70. Then, the fibrous bed bioreactor was employed to eliminate the feed inhibition. The maximal percentage of propionic acid (68.3%) and production (16.31gCOD/L) was obtained by feeding liquid of R-55, which was improved by 3.33 folds compared to the free cell fermentation. PMID:27614154

  5. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid. PMID:27431730

  6. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid.

  7. Production of L- and D-lactic acid from waste Curcuma longa biomass through simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cuong Mai; Kim, Jin-Seog; Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc; Kim, Seul Ki; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) of Curcuma longa waste biomass obtained after turmeric extraction to L- and D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus coryniformis and Lactobacillus paracasei, respectively, was investigated. This is a rich, starchy, agro-industrial waste with potential for use in industrial applications. After optimizing the fermentation of the biomass by adjusting nitrogen sources, enzyme compositions, nitrogen concentrations, and raw material concentrations, the SSCF process was conducted in a 7-l jar fermentor at 140 g dried material/L. The maximum lactic acid concentration, average productivity, reducing sugar conversion and lactic acid yield were 97.13 g/L, 2.7 g/L/h, 95.99% and 69.38 g/100 g dried material for L-lactic acid production, respectively and 91.61 g/L, 2.08 g/L/h, 90.53% and 65.43 g/100 g dried material for D-lactic acid production, respectively. The simple and efficient process described in this study could be utilized by C. longa residue-based lactic acid industries without requiring the alteration of plant equipment.

  8. Selective separation of hydroxide from alkaline nuclear tank waste by liquid-liquid extraction with weak hydroxy acids.

    PubMed

    Chambliss, C Kevin; Haverlock, Tamara I; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Moyer, Bruce A

    2002-04-15

    Recovery and recycle of caustic reagents in industrial processes offer potential means of pollution prevention, as investigated herein for particular needs related to the cleanup of alkaline nuclear waste. Specifically, the recovery of hydroxide from alkaline media by liquid-liquid extraction can be effected utilizing weak hydroxy acids, as demonstrated for NaOH utilizing a series of lipophilic fluorinated alcohols and alkylated phenols dissolved in 1-octanol. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the hydroxy acids, the phenols being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. After extraction, NaOH is effectively recoverable from the organic phase upon contact with water. The weakest hydroxy acids are the most efficiently stripped, NaOH recovery being nearly quantitative in a single contact. In competitive extraction experiments, good selectivity for hydroxide recovery over other anions such as nitrate and chloride was demonstrated. Since the order of extraction favors larger anions, the exceptional preference for hydroxide implies that the extraction occurs by deprotonation of the hydroxy acids in a cation-exchange process. Stripping therefore occurs by hydrolysis to regenerate the neutral hydroxy acid, liberating NaOH to the aqueous phase. Since hydroxide equivalents rather than actual hydroxide ions are transferred to the solvent, the process is termed "pseudohydroxide extraction." Hydroxide recovery from a simulant of alkaline nuclear tank waste (Hanford DSSF simulant) was also demonstrated in repeated extraction and stripping cycles.

  9. Lactic acid fermentation from food waste with indigenous microbiota: Effects of pH, temperature and high OLR.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jialing; Wang, Xiaochang; Hu, Yisong; Zhang, Yongmei; Li, Yuyou

    2016-06-01

    The effects of pH, temperature and high organic loading rate (OLR) on lactic acid production from food waste without extra inoculum addition were investigated in this study. Using batch experiments, the results showed that although the hydrolysis rate increased with pH adjustment, the lactic acid concentration and productivity were highest at pH 6. High temperatures were suitable for solubilization but seriously restricted the acidification processes. The highest lactic acid yield (0.46g/g-TS) and productivity (278.1mg/Lh) were obtained at 37°C and pH 6. In addition, the lactic acid concentration gradually increased with the increase in OLR, and the semi-continuous reactor could be stably operated at an OLR of 18g-TS/Ld. However, system instability, low lactic acid yield and a decrease in VS removal were noticed at high OLRs (22g-TS/Ld). The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the fermentation mixture were relatively low but slightly increased with OLR, and acetate was the predominant VFA component. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing, Lactobacillus from the raw food waste was found to selectively accumulate and become dominant in the semi-continuous reactor.

  10. Polymer pendant crown thioethers for removal of mercury from acidic wastes: synthesis, characterization and application

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J G; Baumann, T F; Nelson, A J; Fox, G A

    2000-07-21

    Removal of mercury ions from industrial waste streams is a difficult and expensive problem requiring an efficient and selective extractant that is resistant to corrosive conditions. We have now developed an acid-resistant thiacrown polymer that has potential utility as a selective and cost-effective Hg{sup 2+} extractant. Copolymerization of a novel C-substituted thiacrown, N,N-(4-vinylbenzylmethyl)-2-aminomethyl-1,4,8,11,14-pentathiacycloheptadecane, with DVB (80% divinylbenzene) using a radical initiator generated a highly cross-linked polymer containing pendant thiacrowns. Mercury extraction capabilities of the polymer were tested in acidic media (pH range: 1.5 to 6.2) and the extraction of Hg{sup 2+} was determined to be 95% at a mixing time of 30 minutes. The thiacrown polymer was also determined to be selective for Hg{sup 2+}, even in the presence of high concentrations of competing ions such as Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3}, and Fe{sup 3+}. The bound Hg{sup 2+} ions can then be stripped from the polymer, allowing the polymer to be reused without significant loss of loading capacity. The binding of Hg{sup 2+} to the polymer has been examined by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The thiacrown appears unaffected by incorporation into the polymer and the Hg{sup 2+} appears to be bound to the polymer complex in a similar manner as Hg{sup 2+} is bound in monomeric thiacrowns containing five sulfur atoms.

  11. Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste: enhanced anaerobic degradation under hyper-thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, H; Ahring, B K

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half of the threshold value for the use as fertilizer on agricultural soil in Denmark. Analysis of DEHP in samples before and after large-scale anaerobic digesters revealed higher concentrations of DEHP per kg dry matter in the effluent than in the influent. The concentration of DEHP and DBP (dibutylphthalate) in OFMSW was monitored in the influent and effluent of anaerobic thermophilic (55 degrees C) and hyper-thermophilic (68 degrees C) laboratory-scale reactor systems. In the thermophilic reactors with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days 38-70% of DBP was removed, but no consistent removal of DEHP was observed. However, after treatment of the effluent from the thermophilic reactor in a hyper-thermophilic digester (HRT: 5 days) 34-53% of the DEHP content was removed and the DBP removal was increased to further 62-74%. Removal rates (k(h)) of DEHP and DBP were found to be 0.11-0.32 d(-1) and 0.41-0.79 d(-1), which is much higher than in previous investigations. It can be concluded that the higher removal rates are due to the higher temperature and higher initial concentrations per kg dry matter. These results suggest that the limiting factor for DEHP degradation is the bioavailability, which is enhanced at higher temperature and higher degradation of solid organic matter, to which the highly hydrophobic DEHP is adsorbed. The investigated reactor configuration with a thermophilic and a hyper-thermophilic treatment is, therefore, a good option for combining high rate degradation of organic matter with high biogas yields and efficient reduction of the phthalic acid ester contamination.

  12. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1].

  13. Enhanced volatile fatty acids production of waste activated sludge under salinity conditions: Performance and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaoqiang; Wang, Shuying; Yuan, Zhiguo; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-03-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are essential for removing biological nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater treatment plants. The purpose of this work was to investigate whether and how the addition of NaCl could improve the production of VFAs from waste activated sludge (WAS). Sludge solubilization was efficiently improved by the addition of NaCl. Both protein and carbohydrate in the fermentation liquid increased with the dosage of NaCl, and it provided a larger amount of organic compounds for the production of the VFAs. NaCl had inhibitory effects on the production of methane and a high dosage of NaCl could severely suppress the growth of methanogens, which decreased the consumption of the VFAs. Consequently, the production of VFAs was significantly enhanced by the addition of NaCl. The maximum production of VFAs was achieved with the highest dosage of NaCl (3316 mg (COD)/L at the NaCl dosage 0.5 mol/L; 783 mg (COD)/L without the addition of NaCl). Therefore, this study indicates that using NaCl could be an efficient method for improving the production of VFAs from WAS. PMID:26320405

  14. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    PubMed Central

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Tafur Marinos, Janeth Alicia; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  15. Polymethacrylic acid grafted psyllium (Psy- g-PMA): a novel material for waste water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranvijay; Sharma, Kaushlendra; Tiwary, K. P.; Sen, Gautam

    2013-03-01

    Polymethacrylic acid grafted psyllium (Psy- g-PMA) was synthesized by microwave assisted method, which involves a microwave irradiation in synergism with silver sulfate as a free radical initiator to initiate grafting reaction. Psy- g-PMA grades have been synthesized and characterized on structural basis (elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, intrinsic viscosity study) as well as morphological and thermal studies, taking psyllium as reference. The effects of reaction time, amount of monomer and silver sulfate (free radical initiator) on grafting of PMA on psyllium backbone have been studied. It is observed that all the grades of Psy- g-PMA have higher intrinsic viscosities than that of psyllium. The best synthesized grade was Psy- g-PMA having intrinsic viscosity of 6.93 and 58 % grafting of PMA on the main polymer backbone. Further Psy- g-PMA applications as flocculants for waste water treatment have been investigated. Psy- g-PMA resulted in higher decrease in the flocculation parameters such as total dissolved solid or total solids compared to psyllium. Hence the result shows the possible application of grafted psyllium in wastewater treatment.

  16. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    PubMed

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  17. Preparation of ferulic acid from agricultural wastes: its improved extraction and purification.

    PubMed

    Tilay, Ashwini; Bule, Mahesh; Kishenkumar, Jyoti; Annapure, Uday

    2008-09-10

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic antioxidant present in plants, which is widely used in the food and cosmetic industry. In the present study, various agricultural wastes such as maize bran, rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugar cane baggasse, pineapple peels, orange peels, and pomegranate peels were screened for the presence of esterified FA (EFA). Among the sources screened, maize bran was found to contain the highest amount of EFA. Pineapple peels, orange peels, and pomegranate peels were also found to contain traces of EFA. Alkaline extraction of EFA from maize bran was carried out using 2 M NaOH. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of EFA extraction, which resulted in a 1.3-fold increase as compared to the unoptimized conventional extraction technique. FA was analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Purification was carried out by adsorption chromatography using Amberlite XAD-16 followed by preparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The recovery of Amberlite XAD-16 purified FA was up to 57.97% with HPLC purity 50.89%. The fold purity achieved was 1.35. After preparative HPTLC, the maximum HPLC purity obtained was 95.35% along with an increase in fold purity up to 2.53.

  18. Free nitrous acid (FNA)-based pretreatment enhances methane production from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Jiang, Guangming; Jensen, Paul D; Batstone, Damien J; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is currently enjoying renewed interest due to the potential for methane production. However, methane production is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor methane potential of WAS. This study presents a novel pretreatment strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA or HNO2) to enhance methane production from WAS. Pretreatment of WAS for 24 h at FNA concentrations up to 2.13 mg N/L substantially enhanced WAS solubilization, with the highest solubilization (0.16 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/mg volatile solids (VS), at 2.13 mg HNO2-N/L) being six times that without FNA pretreatment (0.025 mg COD/mg VS, at 0 mg HNO2-N/L). Biochemical methane potential tests demonstrated methane production increased with increased FNA concentration used in the pretreatment step. Model-based analysis indicated FNA pretreatment improved both hydrolysis rate and methane potential, with the highest improvement being approximately 50% (from 0.16 to 0.25 d(-1)) and 27% (from 201 to 255 L CH4/kg VS added), respectively, achieved at 1.78-2.13 mg HNO2-N/L. Further analysis indicated that increased hydrolysis rate and methane potential were related to an increase in rapidly biodegradable substrates, which increased with increased FNA dose, while the slowly biodegradable substrates remained relatively static.

  19. Biosorption of clofibric acid and carbamazepine in aqueous solution by agricultural waste rice straw.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanguang; Zhou, Xuefei; Chen, Xiaohua; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Yalei

    2013-12-01

    Due to their widespread use, clofibric acid (CA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) have been frequently detected simultaneously at relatively high concentrations in aquatic environments. In this study, agricultural waste rice straw was employed as a potentially low-cost, effective and easy-to-operate biosorbent (RSB) to remove CA and CBZ. The adsorption of both pharmaceuticals followed pseudo second-order kinetics, and intraparticle diffusion was an important rate-limiting step. The adsorption isotherms of both drugs were fit well with Freundlich model. The adsorption of CA onto RSB was exothermic and was more likely to be dominated by physical processes, while the adsorption of CBZ was endothermic. Solution pH was determined to be the most important factor for CA adsorption, such that the adsorption capacity of CA onto RSB increased with the decline of solution pH. In the lower range of solution pH below 3.1, the CA removal efficiency was enhanced with the increase of biosorbent dosage. The CBZ removal efficiency was enhanced with the increase of RSB dosage without pH control. The maximum adsorption capacities were 126.3 mg/g for CA and 40.0 mg/g for CBZ. PMID:24649668

  20. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  1. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:20362044

  2. Study on analysis of waste edible oil with deterioration and removal of acid value, carbonyl value, and free fatty acid by a food additive (calcium silicate).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Tominaga, Hisato; Kangawa, Moe; Inoue, Kenji; Ueda, Ayaka; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the regeneration of waste edible oil using a food additive (calcium silicate, CAS). Waste edible oil was prepared by combined heat and aeration treatment. Moreover, the deterioration of edible oil by combined heat and aeration treatment was greater than that by heat treatment alone. The acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) increased with increasing deterioration; conversely, the tocopherol concentration decreased with increasing deterioration. The specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore diameter of the 3 CAS formulations used (CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90) were evaluated, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken. The specific surface area increased in the order of CAS30 (115.54 m(2)/g) < CAS60 (163.93 m(2)/g) < CAS90 (187.47 m(2)/g). The mean pore diameter increased in the order of CAS90 (170.59 Å) < CAS60 (211.60 Å) < CAS30 (249.70 Å). The regeneration of waste edible oil was possible with CAS treatment. The AV reduced by 15.2%, 10.8%, and 23.1% by CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90 treatment, respectively, and the CV was reduced by 35.6%, 29.8%, and 31.3% by these 3 treatments, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of tocopherol and free fatty acids did not change with CAS treatment. The characteristics of CAS were not related to the degree of change of AV and CV. However, the adsorption mechanism of polar and non-polar compounds generated in waste edible oil by CAS was related with the presence of silica gel molecules in CAS. The findings indicated that CAS was useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  3. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water pre-treatment combined with acid leaching process.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2013-05-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain a large number of metals such as Cu, Sn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn. In this work, an efficient and environmentally friendly process for metals recovery from waste PCBs by supercritical water (SCW) pre-treatment combined with acid leaching was developed. In the proposed process, waste PCBs were pre-treated by SCW, then the separated solid phase product with concentrated metals was subjected to an acid leaching process for metals recovery. The effect of SCW pre-treatment on the recovery of different metals from waste PCBs was investigated. Two methods of SCW pre-treatment were studied: supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water depolymerization (SCWD). Experimental results indicated that SCWO and SCWD pre-treatment had significant effect on the recovery of different metals. SCWO pre-treatment was highly efficient for enhancing the recovery of Cu and Pb, and the recovery efficiency increased significantly with increasing pre-treatment temperature. The recovery efficiency of Cu and Pb for SCWO pre-treatment at 420°C was 99.8% and 80%, respectively, whereas most of the Sn and Cr were immobilized in the residue. The recovery of all studied metals was enhanced by SCWD pre-treatment and increased along with pre-treatment temperature. Up to 90% of Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Mn could be recovered for SCWD pre-treatment at 440°C.

  4. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)?

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan

    2013-03-15

    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pH<10, possibly due to the dissolution of ettringite (at alkaline pH) or calcium (Ca)-antimonate. Treated APC residues, stored anoxically in the laboratory, simulating the conditions at the NOAH Langøya landfill, gave rise to decreasing concentrations of Sb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration. PMID:23465722

  5. Treatment of electronic waste to recover metal values using thermal plasma coupled with acid leaching - A response surface modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, Swagat S.; Nayak, Pradeep; Mukherjee, P.S.; Roy Chaudhury, G.; Mishra, B.K.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sentences/phrases were modified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Necessary discussions for different figures were included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More discussion have been included on the flue gas analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Queries to both the reviewers have been given. - Abstract: The global crisis of the hazardous electronic waste (E-waste) is on the rise due to increasing usage and disposal of electronic devices. A process was developed to treat E-waste in an environmentally benign process. The process consisted of thermal plasma treatment followed by recovery of metal values through mineral acid leaching. In the thermal process, the E-waste was melted to recover the metal values as a metallic mixture. The metallic mixture was subjected to acid leaching in presence of depolarizer. The leached liquor mainly contained copper as the other elements like Al and Fe were mostly in alloy form as per the XRD and phase diagram studies. Response surface model was used to optimize the conditions for leaching. More than 90% leaching efficiency at room temperature was observed for Cu, Ni and Co with HCl as the solvent, whereas Fe and Al showed less than 40% efficiency.

  6. A Wood-Waste Cover Prevents Sulphide Oxidation and Treats Acid Effluents at the East-Sullivan Mine Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germain, D.; Tassé, N.; Cyr, J.

    2004-05-01

    At the East Sullivan site, wood wastes covering the abandoned mine tailings impoundment prevent sulphide oxidation by creating an anoxic environment. The addition of coarse ligneous wastes favours infiltration, resulting in a water table rise. This maintains most tailings saturated and thus provides an additional protection against sulphide oxidation. Moreover, high infiltration allows a more rapid flushing of acid prone groundwater generated prior to the cover placement. Finally, the pore-waters under the cover are characterized by a strong reducing potential and high alkalinity. These conditions favour sulphate reduction and base metal precipitation as sulphides and carbonates. The restoration strategy capitalized on the alkaline and reductive properties of the waters underlying the wood-waste cover. An original treatment of acid effluents, based on the recirculation of water discharging around the impoundment through the organic cover, was implemented in 1998. In 2003, the total volume of water treated was 725 000 m3. Data gathered near the dispersal zone show that despite dispersing acid water, the groundwater pH decreases by only one unit from 7 to 6, during the recirculation period: May to October. However, alkalinity decreases from 800 to 100 mg/L-CaCO3. But it is back up to 800 mg/L the following spring, thanks to sulphate reduction. Fe2+ concentrations near the dispersal zone are maintained below 2 mg/L. Evolution of the iron mass in the surface waters suggests that the contaminated groundwater flush is completed in the north and west sectors of the impoundment; the east and south ones are expected to be recovered within 3 to 4 years. A wood-waste cover, besides limiting sulphide oxidation, can fill the role of alkaline reducing barrier for the treatment of these acidogenic waters, until a balance between acidity and alkalinity in the effluent is reached.

  7. Isolation and characterization of potential lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from freshwater fish processing wastes for application in fermentative utilisation of fish processing waste.

    PubMed

    R, Jini; Hc, Swapna; Rai, Amit Kumar; R, Vrinda; Pm, Halami; Nm, Sachindra; N, Bhaskar

    2011-10-01

    Proteolytic and/or lipolytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from visceral wastes of different fresh water fishes. LAB count was found to be highest in case of visceral wastes of Mrigal (5.88 log cfu/g) and lowest in that of tilapia (4.22 log cfu/g). Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of the selected LAB isolates were carried out. Two isolates FJ1 (E. faecalis NCIM5367) and LP3 (P. acidilactici NCIM5368) showed both proteolytic and lipolytic properties. All the six native isolates selected for characterization showed antagonistic properties against several human pathogens. All the native isolates were sensitive to antibiotics cephalothin and clindamycin; and, resistant to cotrimoxazole and vancomycin. Considering individually, P. acidilactici FM37, P. acidilactici MW2 and E. faecalis FD3 were sensitive to erythromycin. The two strains FJ1 (E. faecalis NCIM 5367) and LP3 (P. acidilactici NCIM 5368) that had both proteolytic and lipolytic properties have the potential for application in fermentative recovery of lipids and proteins from fish processing wastes.

  8. Isolation and characterization of potential lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from freshwater fish processing wastes for application in fermentative utilisation of fish processing waste.

    PubMed

    R, Jini; Hc, Swapna; Rai, Amit Kumar; R, Vrinda; Pm, Halami; Nm, Sachindra; N, Bhaskar

    2011-10-01

    Proteolytic and/or lipolytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from visceral wastes of different fresh water fishes. LAB count was found to be highest in case of visceral wastes of Mrigal (5.88 log cfu/g) and lowest in that of tilapia (4.22 log cfu/g). Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of the selected LAB isolates were carried out. Two isolates FJ1 (E. faecalis NCIM5367) and LP3 (P. acidilactici NCIM5368) showed both proteolytic and lipolytic properties. All the six native isolates selected for characterization showed antagonistic properties against several human pathogens. All the native isolates were sensitive to antibiotics cephalothin and clindamycin; and, resistant to cotrimoxazole and vancomycin. Considering individually, P. acidilactici FM37, P. acidilactici MW2 and E. faecalis FD3 were sensitive to erythromycin. The two strains FJ1 (E. faecalis NCIM 5367) and LP3 (P. acidilactici NCIM 5368) that had both proteolytic and lipolytic properties have the potential for application in fermentative recovery of lipids and proteins from fish processing wastes. PMID:24031786

  9. Remediation of acid mine drainage within strip mine spoil by sulfate reduction using waste organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, J.; Rose, A.W.; Michaud, L.H.

    1996-12-31

    Many treatment options for AMD, like wetlands and anoxic limestone drains, are limited by acidity, metal loadings, flow rate or areal requirements so as to be inapplicable at many sites. In-situ bacterial sulfate reduction is proposed as a solution for certain settings. Requirements for successful in-situ bacterial sulfate reduction include dissolved sulfate, an organic substrate, permanent anaerobic conditions, a mixed culture of bacteria, appropriate nutrients, and a sufficient AMD contact time. These requirements can be provided within mine spoil by injection of waste organic matter into an extensive zone of saturated spoil. Laboratory experiments on cheese whey, lactate, non-degraded sawdust, partially degraded sawdust, pulped newspaper and mushroom compost have all yielded sulfate reduction, increased alkalinity and iron sulfide precipitate in AMD with pH < 4.0. The addition of a small amount of dolomite to the organic matter creates alkaline microenvironments that facilitate the initiation of sulfate reduction. The rates of sulfate reduction using cellulose materials are slow but the rate for milk products is much more rapid. A field test utilizing partially degraded sawdust is underway. A total of 11.3 tons of sawdust mixed with 5% dolomite, 5% sewage sludge and a mixed bacterial culture was successfully injected into 4 drill holes in mine spoil as 13% w/v suspension, The spoil had enough coarse porosity for injection into the saturated subsurface at about 300 L/min, Data on in-situ SO{sub 4} reduction rates and water quality are being collected in preparation for a full remediation program at the site, which has an extensive zone of saturated spoil 10-20 m thick.

  10. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  11. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  12. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, F.; Watanabe, Y.; Kishita, A.; Enomoto, H.; Kishida, H.

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300°C, 1 min for the first step, and 300°C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  13. Evaluation of calix-crown ionophores for selective separation of radio-cesium from acidic nuclear waste solution.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P K; Ansari, S A; Sarkar, A; Bhattacharyya, A; Manchanda, V K

    2006-07-01

    Extraction of Cs-137 from nitric acid was carried out using nitrobenzene solutions of calix-crowns such as calix[4]arene-bis(crown-6) (CC-A), calix[4]arene-bis(benzo crown-6) (CC-B) and calix[4]arene-bis(napthocrown-6) (CC-C). CC-C was found to be superior extractant for Cs(I) as compared to the other two calix-crown ligands used in the present study. The effect of diluent on the extraction of Cs(I) indicated the trend: nitrobenzene>dichloroethane>chloroform>decanol>carbon tetrachloride approximately n-hexane approximately toluene. Subsequently, the studies were carried out with nitrobenzene solutions of the calix-crown ligands (mainly CC-C) on the effects of (a) aqueous phase acidity, (b) ligand concentration, and (c) cesium concentration on Cs extraction from nitric acid media. Conditions for quantitative extraction and stripping were optimized and the extracted species conformed to {[CsL]+.[NO3]-.nH2O}. Selectivity studies were carried out using an irradiated natural U target involving tracer amount of fission products activities. Extraction of Cs(I) from a synthetic high level waste solution was also carried out. The promising results obtained in the present studies indicate possible use of the calix-crown ligand for Cs(I) recovery from the acidic high level waste.

  14. Cu retention in an acid soil amended with perlite winery waste.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2016-02-01

    The effect of perlite waste from a winery on general soil characteristics and Cu adsorption was assessed. The studied soil was amended with different perlite waste concentrations corresponding to 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1). General soil characteristics and Cu adsorption and desorption curves were determined after different incubation times (from 1 day to 8 months). The addition of perlite waste to the soil increased the amounts of organic matter as well as soil nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium, and these increments were stable with time. An increase in Cu adsorption capacity was also detected in the perlite waste-amended soils. The effect of perlite waste addition to the soil had special relevance on its Cu adsorption capacity at low coverage concentrations and on the energy of the soil-Cu bonds.

  15. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in vineyard acid soils amended with a bentonitic winery waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification processes were determined in different vineyard soils. The measurements were performed in samples non-amended and amended with different bentonitic winery waste concentrations. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO2 released by the soil under laboratory conditions, whereas NH4+ was determined after its extraction with KCl 2M. The time evolution of both, carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification, was followed during 42 days. The released CO2 was low in the analyzed vineyard soils, and hence the metabolic activity in these soils was low. The addition of the bentonitic winery waste to the studied soils increased highly the carbon mineralization (2-5 fold), showing that the organic matter added together the bentonitic waste to the soil have low stability. In both cases, amended and non-amended samples, the maximum carbon mineralization was measured during the first days (2-4 days), decreasing as the incubation time increased. The NH4+ results showed an important effect of bentonitic winery waste on the ammonification behavior in the studied soils. In the non-amended samples the ammonification was no detected in none of the soils, whereas in the amended soils important NH4+ concentrations were detected. In these cases, the ammonification was fast, reaching the maximum values of NH4 between 7 and 14 days after the bentonitic waste additions. Also, the percentages of ammonification respect to the total nitrogen in the soil were high, showing that the nitrogen provided by the bentonitic waste to the soil is non-stable. The fast carbon mineralization found in the soils amended with bentonitic winery wastes shows low possibilities of the use of this waste for the increasing the organic carbon pools in the soil.On the other hand, the use of this waste as N-fertilizer can be possible. However, due its fast ammonification, the waste should be added to the soils during active plant growth periods.

  16. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  17. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. PMID:26616933

  18. Multiphase transfer processes in waste rock piles producing acid mine drainage 1: Conceptual model and system characterization.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, R; Hockley, D; Smolensky, J; Gélinas, P

    2001-11-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) results from the oxidation of sulfides, mainly pyrite, present in mine wastes, either mill tailings or waste rock. This is the first of two papers describing the coupled physical processes taking place in waste rock piles undergoing AMD production. Since the oxidation of pyrite involves the consumption of oxygen and the production of heat, the oxidation process initiates coupled processes of gas transfer by diffusion and convection as well as heat transfer. These processes influence the supply of oxygen that is required to sustain the oxidation process. This first paper describes a general conceptual model of the interaction of these coupled transfer processes. This general conceptual model is illustrated by the physicochemical conditions observed at two large sites where extensive characterization programs revealed widely different properties. The South Dump of the Doyon mine in Canada is permeable and has a high pyrite oxidation rate leading to high temperatures (over 65 degrees C), thus making temperature-driven air convection the main oxygen supply mechanism. The Nordhalde of the Ronnenberg mining district in Germany contains lower permeability material which is less reactive, thus leading to a more balanced contribution of gaseous diffusion and convection as oxygen supply mechanisms. The field characterization and monitoring data at these sites were thoroughly analyzed to yield two coherent sets of representative physical properties. These properties are used in the second paper as a basis for applications of numerical simulation in AMD-producing waste rock piles. PMID:11695739

  19. Performance of in-vessel composting of food waste in the presence of coal ash and uric acid.

    PubMed

    An, Chun-Jiang; Huang, Guo-He; Yao, Yao; Sun, Wei; An, Kai

    2012-02-15

    Massive quantities of food waste often coexist with other agroindustrial and industrial waste, which might contain coal ash (CA) and uric acid (UA). This study investigated the influence of CA and UA on the composting of food waste in the in-vessel system. The patterns of food waste composting were compared among various combinations. The results showed that the temperature level was enhanced in the presence of CA and UA during the first 8 days. The significant drop in pH was observed in the treatment without any amendment. But the presence of CA could alleviate the drop of pH. More intensive organic mass reduction took place in the treatments with amended CA and UA in the first half of process. The O(2) uptake rate in the reactor with CA and UA was higher than that with only CA in the early stage. Both thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms were present throughout the composting period. The populations of both thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms were influenced when amended with CA and UA. The decreasing trend in C/N ratio was shown in all the reactors, while a relatively lower C/N ratio was obtained in the series with both CA and UA.

  20. Environmental assessment and management of metal-rich wastes generated in acid mine drainage passive remediation systems.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José Miguel

    2012-08-30

    As acid mine drainage (AMD) remediation is increasingly faced by governments and mining industries worldwide, the generation of metal-rich solid residues from the treatments plants is concomitantly raising. A proper environmental management of these metal-rich wastes requires a detailed characterization of the metal mobility as well as an assessment of this new residues stability. The European standard leaching test EN 12457-2, the US EPA TCLP test and the BCR sequential extraction procedure were selected to address the environmental assessment of dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS) residues generated in AMD passive treatment systems. Significant discrepancies were observed in the hazardousness classification of the residues according to the TCLP or EN 12457-2 test. Furthermore, the absence of some important metals (like Fe or Al) in the regulatory limits employed in both leaching tests severely restricts their applicability for metal-rich wastes. The results obtained in the BCR sequential extraction suggest an important influence of the landfill environmental conditions on the metals released from the wastes. To ensure a complete stability of the pollutants in the studied DAS-wastes the contact with water or any other leaching solutions must be avoided and a dry environment needs to be provided in the landfill disposal selected. PMID:22717063

  1. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  2. Characterization of Jamaican agro-industrial wastes. Part I: characterization of amino acids using HPLC: pre-column derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Bailey-Shaw, Y A; Golden, K D; Pearson, A G M; Porter, R B R

    2009-09-01

    Jamaican agro-industries generate large quantities of wastes, which are either discarded or under-utilized. In order to evaluate the possible utilization of these wastes, it is necessary that the profiles of the major biochemical groups be developed. This paper describes the determination of the amino acid composition of coffee, citrus, and rum distillery wastes using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. Acid hydrolysates of the wastes are derivatized with phenylisothiocyanate. They are analyzed as their phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives and determined quantitatively using norleucine as the internal standard. The presence of all the 17 amino acids investigated, nine of which include those essential for animal nutrition, are observed in the samples investigated, suggesting a high quality of protein with implications in the formulation of animal feeds. PMID:19772744

  3. Sources of acid and metals from the weathering of the Dinero waste pile, Lake Fork watershed, Leadville, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, Phil L.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Herron, J.T.; Desborough, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two trenches were dug into the south Dinero mine-waste pile near Leadville, Colorado, to study the weathering of rock fragments and the mineralogic sources of metal contaminants in the surrounding wetland and Lake Fork Watershed. Water seeping from the base of the south Dinero waste-rock pile was pH 2.9, whereas leachate from a composite sample of the rock waste was pH 3.3. The waste pile was mostly devoid of vegetation, open to infiltration of precipitation, and saturated at the base because of placement in the wetland. The south mine-waste pile is composed of poorly sorted material, ranging from boulder-size to fine-grained rock fragments. The trenches showed both matrix-supported and clast-supported zones, with faint horizontal color banding, suggesting zonation of Fe oxides. Secondary minerals such as jarosite and gypsum occurred throughout the depth of the trenches. Infiltration of water and transport of dissolved material through the pile is evidenced by optically continuous secondary mineral deposits that fill or line voids. Iron-sulfate material exhibits microlaminations with shrinkage cracking and preferential dissolution of microlayers that evidence drying and wetting events. In addition to fluids, submicron-sized to very fine-grained particles such as jarosite are transported through channel ways in the pile. Rock fragments are coated with a mixture of clay, jarosite, and manganese oxides. Dissolution of minerals is a primary source of metals. Skeletal remnants of grains, outlined by Fe-oxide minerals, are common. Potassium jarosite is the most abundant jarosite phase, but Pb-and Ag-bearing jarosite are common. Grain-sized clusters of jarosite suggest that entire sulfide grains were replaced by very fine-grained jarosite crystals. The waste piles were removed from the wetland and reclaimed upslope in 2003. This was an opportunity to test methods to identify sources of acid and metals and metal transport processes within a waste pile. A series of

  4. Kinetic modeling, production and characterization of an acidic lipase produced by Enterococcus durans NCIM5427 from fish waste.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Halami, Prakash M; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2015-03-01

    Enterococcus durans NCIM5427 (ED-27), capable of producing an intracellular acid stable lipase, was isolated from fish processing waste. Its growth and subsequent lipase production was optimized by Box Behneken design (optimized conditions: 5 % v/v fish waste oil (FWO), 0.10 mg/ml fish waste protein hydrolysates (FWPH) at 48 h of fermentation time). Under optimized conditions, ED-27 showed a 3.0 fold increase (207.6 U/ml to 612.53 U/ml) in lipase production, as compared to un-optimized conditions. Cell growth and lipase production was modeled using Logistic and Luedeking-Piret model, respectively; and lipase production by ED-27 was found to be growth-associated. Lipase produced by ED-27 showed stability at low pH ranges from 2 to 5 with its optimal activity at 30 °C , pH 4.6; showed metal ion dependent activity wherein its catalytic activity was activated by barium, sodium, lithium and potassium (10 mM); reduced by calcium and magnesium (10 mM). However, iron and mercury (5 mM) completely inactivated the enzyme. In addition, modifying agents like SDS, DTT, β-ME (1%v/v) increased activity of lipase of ED-27; while, PMSF, DEPC and ascorbic acid resulted in a marked decrease. ED-27 had maximum cell growth of 9.90309 log CFU/ml under optimized conditions as compared to 13 log CFU/ml in MRS. The lipase produced has potential application in poultry and slaughterhouse waste management. PMID:25745201

  5. Enhanced production of short-chain fatty acid from food waste stimulated by alkyl polyglycosides and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Dongbo; Luo, Kun; Zhong, Yu; Xu, Qiuxiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the valuable products derived from the anaerobic fermentation of organic solid waste. However, SCFAs yield was limited by the worse solubilization and hydrolysis of particulate organic matter, and rapid consumption of organic acid by methanogens. In this study, an efficient and green strategy, i.e. adding biosurfactant alkyl polyglycosides (APG) into anaerobic fermentation system, was applied to enhance SCFAs production from food waste. Experimental results showed that APG not only greatly improved SCFAs production but also shortened the fermentation time for the maximum SCFAs accumulation. The SCFAs yield at optimal APG dosage 0.2g/g TS (total solid) reached 37.2g/L, which was 3.1-fold of that in blank. Meanwhile, the time to accumulate the maximum SCFAs in the presence of APG was shortened from day 14 to day 6. The activities of key enzymes such as hydrolytic and acid-forming enzymes were greatly promoted due to the presence of APG. These results demonstrated that the enhanced mechanism of SCFAs production should be attributed to the acceleration of solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancement of acidification and inhibition of methanogenesis by APG. PMID:26342451

  6. Enhanced production of short-chain fatty acid from food waste stimulated by alkyl polyglycosides and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Dongbo; Luo, Kun; Zhong, Yu; Xu, Qiuxiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the valuable products derived from the anaerobic fermentation of organic solid waste. However, SCFAs yield was limited by the worse solubilization and hydrolysis of particulate organic matter, and rapid consumption of organic acid by methanogens. In this study, an efficient and green strategy, i.e. adding biosurfactant alkyl polyglycosides (APG) into anaerobic fermentation system, was applied to enhance SCFAs production from food waste. Experimental results showed that APG not only greatly improved SCFAs production but also shortened the fermentation time for the maximum SCFAs accumulation. The SCFAs yield at optimal APG dosage 0.2g/g TS (total solid) reached 37.2g/L, which was 3.1-fold of that in blank. Meanwhile, the time to accumulate the maximum SCFAs in the presence of APG was shortened from day 14 to day 6. The activities of key enzymes such as hydrolytic and acid-forming enzymes were greatly promoted due to the presence of APG. These results demonstrated that the enhanced mechanism of SCFAs production should be attributed to the acceleration of solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancement of acidification and inhibition of methanogenesis by APG.

  7. Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Turia River Basin: from waste to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Eric; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2014-06-15

    The occurrence of 21 acidic pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs, and personal care products (PPCPs) in waste, surface and drinking water and in sediments of the Turia River Basin (Valencia, Spain) was studied. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of these PPCPs with electrospray (ESI) in negative ionization (NI) mode. Ammonium fluoride in the mobile phase improved ionization efficiency by an average increase in peak area of 5 compared to ammonium formate or formic acid. All studied compounds were detected and their concentration was waste water>surface water>drinking water. PPCPs were in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) influents up to 7.26μgL(-1), dominated by ibuprofen, naproxen and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCOOH). WWTPs were highly effective in removing most of them, with an average removal rate of >90%. PPCPs were still detected in effluents in the 6.72-940ngL(-1) range, with the THCOOH, triclocarban, gemfibrozil and diclofenac as most prevalent. Similarly, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and propylparaben were detected quite frequently from the low ngL(-1) range to 7μgL(-1) in the surface waters of Turia River. Ibuprofen, methylparaben, salicylic acid and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were at concentrations up to 0.85ngg(-1) d.w. in sediments. The discharge of WWTP as well as of non-treated waters to this river is a likely explanation for the significant amount of PPCPs detected in surface waters and sediments. Mineral and tap waters also presented significant amounts (approx. 100ngL(-1)) of ibuprofen, naproxen, propylparaben and butylparaben. The occurrence at trace levels of several PPCPs in drinking water raises concerns about possible implications for human health.

  8. Alkyl polyglucose enhancing propionic acid enriched short-chain fatty acids production during anaerobic treatment of waste activated sludge and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yinguang; Sun, Han; Shen, Qiuting; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong

    2015-04-15

    Adding alkyl polyglucose (APG) into an anaerobic treatment system of waste activated sludge (WAS) was reported to remarkably improve the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially propionic acid via simultaneously accelerating solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancing acidification, inhibiting methanogenesis and balancing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of substrate. Not only the production of SCFAs, especially propionic acid, was significantly improved by APG, but also the feasible operation time was shortened. The SCFAs yield at 0.3 g APG per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) within 4 d was 2988 ± 60 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter, much higher than that those from sole WAS or sole WAS plus sole APG. The corresponding yield of propionic acid was 1312 ± 25 mg COD/L, 7.9-fold of sole WAS. Mechanism investigation showed that during anaerobic treatment of WAS in the presence of APG both the solubilization and hydrolysis were accelerated and the acidification was enhanced, while the methanogenesis was inhibited. Moreover, the activities of key enzymes involved in WAS hydrolysis and acidification were improved through the adjustment of C/N ratio of substrates with APG. The abundance of microorganisms responsible for organic compounds hydrolysis and SCFAs production was also observed to be greatly enhanced with APG via 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis.

  9. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes.

  10. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes. PMID:26246275

  11. Reclamation of acid pickling waste: A facile route for preparation of single-phase Fe3O4 nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Lu, Bin; Tang, Huihui; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai

    2015-05-01

    Using an alternative method of dropwise addition of iron salt in NaOH aqueous solution, nanocrystalline Fe3O4 materials were prepared from acid pickling waste as a starting material with ultrasonic enhancement and polyethylene glycol as a dispersant, as proved by XRD, TEM, TG-DSC and ICP-MS. The results showed that the Fe3O4 material was a well-crystallized magnetite with an average size of about 25 nm and purity 99.15%. Magnetic measurement revealed the nanocrystals were stronger superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 82.1 emu/g.

  12. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  13. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal driven by short-chain fatty acids produced from waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Chen, Yinguang

    2007-10-15

    This paper examines the feasibility of using alkaline fermentative short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as the carbon sources of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) microorganisms. First, the released phosphorus was recovered from the SCFA-containing alkaline fermentation liquid by the formation of struvite precipitation, and 92.8% of the soluble ortho-phosphorus (SOP) could be recovered under conditions of Mg/P = 1.8 (mol/mol), pH 10.0, and a reaction time of 2 min. One reason for a Mg addition required in this study that was higher than the theoretical value was thatthe organic compounds consumed Mg. Then, two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, respectively, with acetic acid and alkaline fermentative SCFAs as the carbon source of EBPR. The transformations of SOP, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen and the removal of phosphorus were compared between two SBRs. It was observed that the phosphorus removal efficiency was around 98% with the fermentative SCFAs, and about 71% with acetic acid, although the former showed much lower transformations of both PHAs and glycogen. The reasons that fermentative SCFAs caused much higher SOP removal than acetic acid were due to less PHAs used for glycogen synthesis and a higher PHA utilization efficiency for SOP uptake. Finally, the toxicity of fermentation liquid to EBPR microorganisms was examined, and no inhibitory effect was observed. It can be concluded from this studythatthe SCFAs from alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge were a superior carbon source for EBPR microorganisms than pure acetic acid.

  14. Production of hydroxy-fatty acid derivatives from waste oil by Escherichia coli cells producing fungal cytochrome P450foxy.

    PubMed

    Kitazume, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Yuya; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Shoun, Hirofumi; Takaya, Naoki

    2008-07-01

    Cytochrome P450foxy (P450foxy) is a fatty acid (FA) monooxygenase that is characterized by self-sufficient catalysis and high turnover numbers due to the fused structure of cytochrome P450 and its reductase. Here we found that resting recombinant Escherichia coli cells producing P450foxy converted saturated FA with a chain length of 7-16 carbon atoms to their omega-1 to omega-3 hydroxy derivatives. Most products were recovered from the culture supernatant. Decanoic acid was most efficiently converted to omega-1 to omega-3 hydroxy decanoic acids in the order of omega-1>omega-2>omega-3, with a total product yield of 47%. We also found that P450foxy was more active against physiological fatty acyl esters such as monopalmitoyl glycerol, monopalmitoyl phospholipid, and palmitoyl CoA than free palmitic acid. The bacteria producing P450foxy were applicable as biocatalysts in the production of omega-1 hydroxy palmitic acid from lard, vegetable, and soy sauce oil wastes from the food industry.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of food waste for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production with different types of inoculum: effect of pH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Yin, Jun; Shen, Dongsheng; Li, Na

    2014-06-01

    Food waste anaerobic fermentation was carried out under acidic conditions using inocula based on aerobic activated sludge (Inoculum AE) or anaerobic activated sludge (Inoculum AN) for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production. The results showed that food waste hydrolysis increased obviously when Inoculum AN was used relative to Inoculum AE at any pH investigated. Hydrolysis at pH 4.0 and uncontrolled pH was higher than that at other pHs when either inoculum was used. Additionally, VFAs production at pH 6.0 was the highest, regardless of the inoculum used. The optimum VFA yields were 0.482g/gVSSremoval with Inoculum AE and 0.918g/gVSSremoval with Inoculum AN, which were observed after 4d and 20d of fermentation, respectively. VFAs composition analysis showed that butyrate acid was the prevalent acid at pH 6.0, followed by acetate acid and propionic acid.

  16. Enhancement of lipase catalyzed-fatty acid methyl esters production from waste activated bleaching earth by nullification of lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dwiarti, Lies; Ali, Ehsan; Park, Enoch Y

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to identify inhibitory factors of lipase catalyzed-fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) production from waste activated bleaching earth (wABE). During the vegetable oil refinery process, activated bleaching earth (ABE) is used for removing the impure compounds, but adsorbs vegetable oil up to 35-40% as on a weight basis, and then the wABE is discarded as waste material. The impurities were extracted from the wABE with methanol and evaluated by infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, which revealed that some were chlorophyll-plant pigments. The chlorophylls inhibited the lipase during FAME conversion from wABE. The inhibition by a mixture of chlorophyll a and b was found to be competitive. The inhibition of the enzymatic hydrolysis of waste vegetable oil contained in wABE by chlorophyll a alone was competitive, while the inhibition by chlorophyll b alone was non-competitive. Furthermore, the addition of a small amount of alkali nullified this inhibitory effect and accelerated the FAME production rate. When 0.9% KOH (w/w wABE) was added to the transesterification reaction with only 0.05% lipase (w/w wABE), the maximum FAME production rate improved 120-fold, as compared to that without the addition of KOH. The alkali-combined lipase significantly enhanced the FAME production rate from wABE, in spite of the presence of the plant pigments, and even when a lower amount of lipase was used as a catalyst.

  17. MERCURY-NITRITE-RHODIUM-RUTHENIUM INTERACTIONS IN NOBLE METAL CATALYZED HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM FORMIC ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136C

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Chemical pre-treatment of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site is performed to prepare the waste for vitrification into a stable waste glass form. During pre-treatment, compounds in the waste become catalytically active. Mercury, rhodium, and palladium become active for nitrite destruction by formic acid, while rhodium and ruthenium become active for catalytic conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Nitrite ion is present during the maximum activity of rhodium, but is consumed prior to the activation of ruthenium. Catalytic hydrogen generation during pre-treatment can exceed radiolytic hydrogen generation by several orders of magnitude. Palladium and mercury impact the maximum catalytic hydrogen generation rates of rhodium and ruthenium by altering the kinetics of nitrite ion decomposition. New data are presented that illustrate the interactions of these various species.

  18. Open fermentative production of fuel ethanol from food waste by an acid-tolerant mutant strain of Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Shui, Zongxia; Wang, Yanwei; Hu, Guoquan; He, Mingxiong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of present study was to develop a process for open ethanol fermentation from food waste using an acid-tolerant mutant of Zymomonas mobilis (ZMA7-2). The mutant showed strong tolerance to acid condition of food waste hydrolysate and high ethanol production performance. By optimizing fermentation parameters, ethanol fermentation with initial glucose concentration of 200 g/L, pH value around 4.0, inoculum size of 10% and without nutrient addition was considered as best conditions. Moreover, the potential of bench scales fermentation and cell reusability was also examined. The fermentation in bench scales (44 h) was faster than flask scale (48 h), and the maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol yield (99.78 g/L, 0.50 g/g) higher than that of flask scale (98.31 g/L, 0.49 g/g). In addition, the stable cell growth and ethanol production profile in five cycles successive fermentation was observed, indicating the mutant was suitable for industrial ethanol production.

  19. Lead recovery and glass microspheres synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process.

    PubMed

    Mingfei, Xing; Yaping, Wang; Jun, Li; Hua, Xu

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a novel process for detoxification and reutilization of waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass was developed by carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process. The key to this process is removal of lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of glass microspheres. Carbon powder was used as an isolation agent and a reducing agent. Under the isolation of the carbon powder, the funnel glass powder was sintered into glass microspheres. In thermal reduction, PbO in the funnel glass was first reduced to elemental Pb by carbon monoxide and then located on the surface of glass microspheres which can be removed easily by acid leaching. Experimental results showed that temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time were the major parameters that controlled lead removal rate. The maximum lead removal rate was 94.80% and glass microspheres that measured 0.73-14.74μm were obtained successfully by setting the temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time at 1200°C, 10% and 30min, respectively. The prepared glass microspheres may be used as fillers in polymer materials and abrasive materials, among others. Accordingly, this study proposed a practical and economical process for detoxification and recycling of waste lead-containing glass. PMID:26642446

  20. Integrated conversion of food waste diluted with sewage into volatile fatty acids through fermentation and electricity through a fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Arslan, Doga; Van Bogaert, Gilbert; Gallego, Yolanda Alvarez; De Wever, Heleen; Diels, Ludo; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, domestic wastewater was given a second life as dilution medium for concentrated organic waste streams, in particular artificial food waste. A two-step continuous process with first volatile fatty acid (VFA)/hydrogen production and second electricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was employed. For primary treatment, bioreactors were optimized to produce hydrogen and VFAs. Hydrolysis of the solids and formation of fermentation products and hydrogen was monitored. In the second step, MFCs were operated batch-wise using the effluent rich in VFAs specifically acetic acid from the continuous reactor of the first step. The combined system was able to reduce the chemical oxygen demand load by 90%. The concentration of VFAs was also monitored regularly in the MFCs and showed a decreasing trend over time. Further, the anode potential changed from -500 to OmV vs. Ag/AgCl when the VFAs (especially acetate) were depleted in the system. On feeding the system again with the effluent, the anode potential recovered back to -500 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Thus, the overall aim of converting chemical energy into electrical energy was achieved with a columbic efficiency of 46% generating 65.33 mA/m2 at a specific cell potential of 148 mV.

  1. Geochemical characterization of acid mine drainage from a waste rock pile, Mine Doyon, Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracek, O.; Choquette, M.; Gélinas, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Nicholson, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Water quality in the unsaturated and saturated zones of a waste rock pile containing sulphides was investigated. The main objectives of the project were (1) the evaluation of geochemical trends including the acid mine drainage (AMD)-buffering mechanism and the role of secondary minerals, and (2) the investigation of the use of stable isotopes for the interpretation of physical and geochemical processes in waste rock. Pore water in unsaturated zone was sampled from suction lysimeters and with piezometers in underlying saturated rocks. The investigation revealed strong temporal (dry period vs. recharge period), and spatial (slope vs. central region of pile) variability in the formation of acid mine drainage. The main secondary minerals observed were gypsum and jarosite. There was a higher concentration of gypsum in solid phase at Site TBT than at Site 6, suggesting that part of the gypsum formed at Site 6 in the early stage of AMD has been already dissolved. Formation of secondary minerals contributed to the formation of AMD by opening of foliation planes in waste rock, thus increasing the access of oxidants like O 2 and Fe 3+ to previously encapsulated pyrite. The behavior of several dissolved species such as Mg, Al, and Fe 2+ can be considered as conservative in the leachate. Stable isotopes, deuterium and 18O, indicated internal evaporation within the pile, and were used to trace recharge pulses from snowmelt. Isotope trends for 34S and 18O(SO 4) indicated a lack of sulfate reduction and zones of active oxidation of pyrite, respectively. Results of numerical modeling of pyrite oxidation and gas and water transport were consistent with geochemical and isotopic trends and confirmed zones of high evaporation rate within the rock pile close to the slope. The results indicate that physical and chemical processes within the pile are strongly coupled and cannot be considered separately when oxidation rates are high and influence gas transport as a result of heat

  2. Geochemical characterization of acid mine drainage from a waste rock pile, Mine Doyon, Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sracek, O; Choquette, M; Gélinas, P; Lefebvre, R; Nicholson, R V

    2004-03-01

    Water quality in the unsaturated and saturated zones of a waste rock pile containing sulphides was investigated. The main objectives of the project were (1) the evaluation of geochemical trends including the acid mine drainage (AMD)-buffering mechanism and the role of secondary minerals, and (2) the investigation of the use of stable isotopes for the interpretation of physical and geochemical processes in waste rock. Pore water in unsaturated zone was sampled from suction lysimeters and with piezometers in underlying saturated rocks. The investigation revealed strong temporal (dry period vs. recharge period), and spatial (slope vs. central region of pile) variability in the formation of acid mine drainage. The main secondary minerals observed were gypsum and jarosite. There was a higher concentration of gypsum in solid phase at Site TBT than at Site 6, suggesting that part of the gypsum formed at Site 6 in the early stage of AMD has been already dissolved. Formation of secondary minerals contributed to the formation of AMD by opening of foliation planes in waste rock, thus increasing the access of oxidants like O2 and Fe3+ to previously encapsulated pyrite. The behavior of several dissolved species such as Mg, Al, and Fe2+ can be considered as conservative in the leachate. Stable isotopes, deuterium and 18O, indicated internal evaporation within the pile, and were used to trace recharge pulses from snowmelt. Isotope trends for 34S and 18O(SO4) indicated a lack of sulfate reduction and zones of active oxidation of pyrite, respectively. Results of numerical modeling of pyrite oxidation and gas and water transport were consistent with geochemical and isotopic trends and confirmed zones of high evaporation rate within the rock pile close to the slope. The results indicate that physical and chemical processes within the pile are strongly coupled and cannot be considered separately when oxidation rates are high and influence gas transport as a result of heat generation

  3. Long-term impact of acid resin waste deposits on soil quality of forest areas I. Contaminants and abiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco; Buegger, Franz; Fuss, Roland; Pritsch, Karin; Schloter, Michael

    2008-11-15

    Acid resins are residues characterised by elevated concentrations of hydrocarbons and trace elements, which were produced by mineral oil industries in Central Europe during the first half of the last century. Due to the lack of environmental legislation at that time, these wastes were dumped into excavated ponds in public areas without further protection. In this work, the long-term effects of such resin deposits on soil quality of two forest areas (Bayern, Germany) were assessed. We evaluated the distribution and accumulation of contaminants in the surroundings of the deposits, where the waste was disposed of about 60 years ago. General soil chemical properties such as pH, C, N and P content were also investigated. Chemical analysis of resin waste from the deposits revealed large amounts of potential contaminants such as hydrocarbons (93 g kg(-1)), As (63 mg kg(-1)), Cd (24 mg kg(-1)), Cu (1835 mg kg(-1)), Pb (8100 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (873 mg kg(-1)). Due to the location of the deposits on a hillside and the lack of adequate isolation, contaminants have been released downhill despite the solid nature of the waste. Five zones were investigated in each site: the deposit, three affected zones along the plume of contamination and a control zone. In affected zones, contaminants were 2 to 350 times higher than background levels depending on the site. In many cases, contaminants exceeded the German environmental guidelines for the soil-groundwater path and action levels based on extractable concentrations. Resin contamination yielded larger total C/total N ratios in affected zones, but no clear effect was observed on absolute C, N and P concentrations. In general, no major acidification effect was reported in affected zones.

  4. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (P<0.05) in Allium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants.

  5. Volatile organic acid adsorption and cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite for enhancing hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Li, Ming; Li, Dawei; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Baoming

    2010-07-01

    Volatile organic acid adsorption, cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite, and their effects on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes were evaluated through batch experiments. The acetic acid adsorption experiments show that pH was mainly regulated by H(+) adsorption. The mono-layer and multi-layer adsorption were found under the low (8.3-83.2 mmol/L) and high (133.22-532.89 mmol/L) initial acetic acid concentration, respectively. The dissociated cations concentration in acidic solution showed the predominance of Ca(2+). Porphyritic andesite addition elevated the pH levels and accelerated hydrolysis and acidogenesis in the batch fermentation experiment. Leachate of porphyritic andesite addition achieved the highest hydrolysis constant of 22.1 x 10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1) and VS degradation rates of 3.9 g L(-1)d(-1). The highest activity of microorganisms represented by specific growth rate of ATP, 0.16d(-1), and specific consumption rate of Ca(2+), 0.18d(-1), was obtained by adding leachate of porphyritic andesite.

  6. Volatile organic acid adsorption and cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite for enhancing hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Li, Ming; Li, Dawei; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Baoming

    2010-07-01

    Volatile organic acid adsorption, cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite, and their effects on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes were evaluated through batch experiments. The acetic acid adsorption experiments show that pH was mainly regulated by H(+) adsorption. The mono-layer and multi-layer adsorption were found under the low (8.3-83.2 mmol/L) and high (133.22-532.89 mmol/L) initial acetic acid concentration, respectively. The dissociated cations concentration in acidic solution showed the predominance of Ca(2+). Porphyritic andesite addition elevated the pH levels and accelerated hydrolysis and acidogenesis in the batch fermentation experiment. Leachate of porphyritic andesite addition achieved the highest hydrolysis constant of 22.1 x 10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1) and VS degradation rates of 3.9 g L(-1)d(-1). The highest activity of microorganisms represented by specific growth rate of ATP, 0.16d(-1), and specific consumption rate of Ca(2+), 0.18d(-1), was obtained by adding leachate of porphyritic andesite. PMID:20156676

  7. Thermochemical destruction of asbestos-containing roofing slate and the feasibility of using recycled waste sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seong-Nam; Jeong, Seongkyeong; Lim, Hojoo

    2014-01-30

    In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of using a thermochemical technique on ∼17% chrysotile-containing roofing sheet or slate (ACS), in which 5N sulfuric acid-digestive destruction was incorporated with 10-24-h heating at 100°C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the polarized light microscopy (PLM) results have clearly shown that raw chrysotile asbestos was converted to non-asbestiform material with no crystallinity by the low temperature thermochemical treatment. As an alternative to the use of pricey sulfuric acid, waste sulfuric acid discharged from a semiconductor manufacturing process was reused for the asbestos-fracturing purpose, and it was found that similar removals could be obtained under the same experimental conditions, promising the practical applicability of thermochemical treatment of ACWs. A thermodynamic understanding based on the extraction rates of magnesium and silica from a chrysotile structure has revealed that the destruction of chrysotile by acid-digestion is greatly influenced by the reaction temperatures, showing a 80.3-fold increase in the reaction rate by raising the temperature by 30-100°C. The overall destruction is dependent upon the breaking-up of the silicon-oxide layer - a rate-limiting step. This study is meaningful in showing that the low temperature thermochemical treatment is feasible as an ACW-treatment method.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E

    2008-07-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

  9. Recycling of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition waste of GaN based power device and LED industry by acidic leaching: Process optimization and kinetics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon; Park, Jeung-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Recovery of metal values from GaN, a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) waste of GaN based power device and LED industry is investigated by acidic leaching. Leaching kinetics of gallium rich MOCVD waste is studied and the process is optimized. The gallium rich waste MOCVD dust is characterized by XRD and ICP-AES analysis followed by aqua regia digestion. Different mineral acids are used to find out the best lixiviant for selective leaching of the gallium and indium. Concentrated HCl is relatively better lixiviant having reasonably faster kinetic and better leaching efficiency. Various leaching process parameters like effect of acidity, pulp density, temperature and concentration of catalyst on the leaching efficiency of gallium and indium are investigated. Reasonably, 4 M HCl, a pulp density of 50 g/L, 100 °C and stirring rate of 400 rpm are the effective optimum condition for quantitative leaching of gallium and indium.

  10. Reduction of sample volume and waste generation in acid/base titrations using microelectrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-03-22

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) has developed microelectrode methods for use with pH titrations and pH determinations. These microelectrode methods offer increased sensitivity and enable analyses to be done with smaller sample and buffer volumes than are used with standard size electrodes. This report establishes the technical validity of the methods and describes the application of these methods to decreased detection limits, decreased waste generation, and decreased radiation exposure.

  11. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  12. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  13. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content.

  14. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Kasirajan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2011-08-01

    Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220°C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Brönsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM D6751.

  15. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation.

  16. Efficient decolorization and deproteinization using uniform polymer microspheres in the succinic acid biorefinery from bio-waste cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Lei, Jiandu; Zhang, Rongyue; Li, Juan; Xing, Jianmin; Gao, Fei; Gong, Fangling; Yan, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dan; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui

    2013-05-01

    Bio-waste cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks were converted into succinic acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. After 54 h SSF at 40 °C and pH 7.0, the production of succinic acid was 63 g/L, with 1.17 g/L/h productivity and 64% conversion yield. After SSF, a simple method for the decolorization and deproteinization of crude SSF broth was developed through adsorption tests of polystyrene (PSt) microspheres. Under optimized conditions (5% PSt loading (w/v), pH 4.0, 60 °C and adsorption time of 40 min), the ratios of decolorization, deproteinization and succinic acid loss ratios were 96.6, 84.5 and 4.1%, respectively. The method developed will provide a potential approach for large-scale production of succinic acid from the biomass waste. PMID:22985822

  17. Evaluation of selected static methods used to estimate element mobility, acid-generating and acid-neutralizing potentials associated with geologically diverse mining wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A comparison study of selected static leaching and acid–base accounting (ABA) methods using a mineralogically diverse set of 12 modern-style, metal mine waste samples was undertaken to understand the relative performance of the various tests. To complement this study, in-depth mineralogical studies were conducted in order to elucidate the relationships between sample mineralogy, weathering features, and leachate and ABA characteristics. In part one of the study, splits of the samples were leached using six commonly used leaching tests including paste pH, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Field Leach Test (FLT) (both 5-min and 18-h agitation), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1312 SPLP (both leachate pH 4.2 and leachate pH 5.0), and the USEPA Method 1311 TCLP (leachate pH 4.9). Leachate geochemical trends were compared in order to assess differences, if any, produced by the various leaching procedures. Results showed that the FLT (5-min agitation) was just as effective as the 18-h leaching tests in revealing the leachate geochemical characteristics of the samples. Leaching results also showed that the TCLP leaching test produces inconsistent results when compared to results produced from the other leaching tests. In part two of the study, the ABA was determined on splits of the samples using both well-established traditional static testing methods and a relatively quick, simplified net acid–base accounting (NABA) procedure. Results showed that the traditional methods, while time consuming, provide the most in-depth data on both the acid generating, and acid neutralizing tendencies of the samples. However, the simplified NABA method provided a relatively fast, effective estimation of the net acid–base account of the samples. Overall, this study showed that while most of the well-established methods are useful and effective, the use of a simplified leaching test and the NABA acid–base accounting method provide investigators fast

  18. Conversion of dried Aspergillus candidus mycelia grown on waste whey to biodiesel by in situ acid transesterification.

    PubMed

    Kakkad, Hardik; Khot, Mahesh; Zinjarde, Smita; RaviKumar, Ameeta; Ravi Kumar, V; Kulkarni, B D

    2015-12-01

    This study reports optimization of the transesterification reaction step on dried biomass of an oleaginous fungus Aspergillus candidus grown on agro-dairy waste, whey. Acid catalyzed transesterification was performed and variables affecting esterification, viz., catalyst methanol and chloroform concentrations, temperature, time, and biomass were investigated. Statistical optimization of the transesterification reaction using Plackett-Burman Design showed biomass to be the predominant factor with a 12.5-fold increase in total FAME from 25.6 to 320mg. Studies indicate that the transesterification efficiency in terms of conversion is favored by employing lower biomass loadings. A. candidus exhibited FAME profiles containing desirable saturated (30.2%), monounsaturated (31.5%) and polyunsaturated methyl esters (38.3%). The predicted and experimentally determined biodiesel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, cetane number, TAN, water content, total and free glycerol) were in accordance with international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) standards.

  19. Conversion of dried Aspergillus candidus mycelia grown on waste whey to biodiesel by in situ acid transesterification.

    PubMed

    Kakkad, Hardik; Khot, Mahesh; Zinjarde, Smita; RaviKumar, Ameeta; Ravi Kumar, V; Kulkarni, B D

    2015-12-01

    This study reports optimization of the transesterification reaction step on dried biomass of an oleaginous fungus Aspergillus candidus grown on agro-dairy waste, whey. Acid catalyzed transesterification was performed and variables affecting esterification, viz., catalyst methanol and chloroform concentrations, temperature, time, and biomass were investigated. Statistical optimization of the transesterification reaction using Plackett-Burman Design showed biomass to be the predominant factor with a 12.5-fold increase in total FAME from 25.6 to 320mg. Studies indicate that the transesterification efficiency in terms of conversion is favored by employing lower biomass loadings. A. candidus exhibited FAME profiles containing desirable saturated (30.2%), monounsaturated (31.5%) and polyunsaturated methyl esters (38.3%). The predicted and experimentally determined biodiesel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, cetane number, TAN, water content, total and free glycerol) were in accordance with international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) standards. PMID:26362462

  20. Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil by the inclusion complex of heteropoly acid with bridged bis-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Changjun; Zhao, Pinwen; Shi, Lihong; Huang, Shaobing; Luo, Pingya

    2013-10-01

    The inclusion complex of Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 with bridged bis-cyclodextrin (CsPW/B) is prepared as a highly efficient catalyst for the direct production of biodiesel via the transesterification of waste cooking oil. CsPW/B is characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the biodiesel is analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. The conversion rate of waste cooking oil is up to 94.2% under the optimum experimental conditions that are methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1, catalyst dosage of 3 wt%, temperature of 65 °C and reaction time of 180 min. The physical properties of biodiesel sample satisfy the requirement of ASTM D6751 standards. The novel CsPW/B catalyst used for the transesterification can lead to 96.9% fatty acid methyl esters and 86.5% of the biodiesel product can serve as the ideal substitute for diesel fuel, indicating its excellent potential application in biodiesel production.

  1. Optimization and effect of dairy industrial waste as media components in the production of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Naresh; Balakrishnan, Rengesh; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar

    2016-08-17

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) production using a dairy industrial waste is a more cost-efficient strategy than using an expensive synthetic medium. In this study, we investigated the production of HA using Streptococcus thermophilus under shake flask conditions using dairy industrial waste as nutritional supplements, namely whey permeate (WP) and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH). Preliminary screening using Plackett-Burman design exhibited WP, WPH, initial pH, and inoculum size as significant factors influencing HA titer. Response surface methodology design of four factors was formulated at three levels for enhanced production of HA. Shake flask HA fermentation by S. thermophilus was performed under global optimized process conditions and the optimal HA titer (342.93 mg L(-1)) corroborates with Box-Behnken design prediction. The molecular weight of HA was elucidated as 9.22-9.46 kDa. The ultralow-molecular weight HA reported in this study has a potential role in drug and gene delivery applications. PMID:26681350

  2. Chlorpyrifos-methyl solubilisation by humic acids used as bio-surfactants extracted from lignocelluloses and kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Baglieri, Andrea; Tambone, Fulvia; Gennari, Mara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-09-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CLP-m) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide that can accumulate in soil and become toxic to humans. CLP-m can be removed from soil by its solubilisation using synthetic surfactants. However, synthetic surfactants can accumulate in soil causing contamination phenomena themselves. Bio-surfactants can be used as an alternative to synthetic ones, reducing costs and environmental issues. In this work, humic acid (HA) extracted from raw biomasses, i.e. lignocelluloses (HAL) and lignocelluloses plus kitchen food waste (HALF), corresponding composts (C) (HALC and HALFC) and leonardite (HAc), were tested in comparison with commercial surfactants, i.e. SDS, Tween 20 and DHAB, to solubilize CLP-m. Results obtained indicated that only biomass-derived HA, composted biomass-derived HA, and SDS solubilized CLP-m: SDS = 0.006; HAL = 0.007; HALC = 0.009 g; HALF = 0.025; HALFC = 0.024) (g CLP-m g(-1) surfactant). Lignocelluloses HAs (HAL, HALF) solubilized CLP-m just as well as SDS while lignocellulosic plus kitchen food waste HA (HALF, HALFC) showed a three times higher CLP-m solubilisation capability. This difference was attributed to the higher concentration of alkyl-Carbon that creates strong links with CLP-m in the hydrophobic micelle-core of the surfactants. PMID:27289207

  3. Development of a chemical process using nitric acid-cerium(IV) for decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.

    1988-06-01

    A simple and effective method was developed for contamination of high-level waste containers. This method of chemical decontamination is applicable to a wide variety of contaminated equipment found in the nuclear industry. The process employs a oxidant system (Ce(IV)) in nitric acid (HNO/sub 3/) solution to chemically mill a thin layer from the canister surface. Contaminated canisters are simply immersed in the solution at a controlled temperature and Ce(IV) concentration level. The spent solution is discarded to the high-level waste stream and added to subsequent glass batches. The Ce(IV)/HNO/sub 3/ solution has been shown to be effective in chemically milling the surface of stainless steel, similar to the electropolishing process, but without the need for an applied electrical current. West Valley (WV) staff had previously evaluated several canister decontamination methods, including electropolishing, liquid abrasive blast, high-pressure water wash, and ultrasonic cleaning, before the Ce(IV)/HNO/sub 3/ redox solution on treatment was selected. The initial concept involved continuous electrochemical regeneration of the ceric ion. Extensive in-cell pumping and close-coupled heat transfer and electrochemical equipment were required. The objective of this study, was to simplify the original concept. 2 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Adsorptive removal of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) antiscalant from membrane concentrates by iron-coated waste filtration sand.

    PubMed

    Boels, L; Tervahauta, T; Witkamp, G J

    2010-10-15

    Iron-coated waste filtration sand was investigated as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from membrane concentrates. The adsorption of this phosphonate-based antiscalant on this material was measured and compared with two commercially available anion exchange resins and activated carbon. Comprehensive adsorption experiments were conducted in several synthetic concentrate solutions and in a concentrate collected from a full scale nano-filtration brackish water desalination plant. The effect of pH, ionic strength and the presence of competitive anions on the equilibrium adsorption were investigated. The results showed that, in contrast to the anion exchange resins, the adsorption on coated filtration sand is not suppressed at increasing ionic strength and is much less affected by the competitive anions carbonate and sulphate. The adsorption decreased slightly when the pH was raised from 7.0 to 8.0. The adsorption isotherms in the real nano-filtration concentrate, measured in the concentration interval of 5-50 mg dm(-1) NTMP, showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of coated filtration sand was 4.06 mg g(-1). The adsorption capacity per unit mass of the adsorbents at low NTMP concentration (12.5 mg dm(-3)) followed the decreasing order Amberlite IRA-410>coated filtration sand>Amberlite IRA-900>Norit SAE Super. This demonstrates that the use of iron-coated waste filtration sand offers a promising means for the removal of NTMP from membrane concentrates.

  5. Injection of acidic industrial waste into the Floridan Aquifer near Belle Glade, Florida: upward migration and geochemical interactions, 1973-75

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    In 1966, a furfural plant at Belle Glade, Florida, began injecting hot, acidic liquid waste into the saline, water-filled lower part of the Floridan aquifer, between the depths of 1 ,495-1,939 feet. The beds above and below the injection zone were subjected to attack by the acid waste. By 1969, effects of the waste were detected in the water of the well monitoring the upper part of the Floridan aquifer at 1,400 feet. The disposal well was deepened late in 1971 to 2,242 feet in an attempt to stop the upward migration of waste. The results of research investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1966-73 indicated that the waste continued to move upward and laterally. This investigated, continued by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973-1975, shows that the remedial actions of repairing the disposal well liner and injecting periodically into the deep monitor well at 2,060 feet failed to contain the wastes within the lower part of the Floridan aquifer. The data collected by the Survey are supported by the owner 's chemical-oxygen-demand and pH determinations. A hydraulic connection between the injection zone and the overlying monitoring zone is implied. Plans call for injecting into deepter strata. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as

  7. Kinetic Aspects of Leaching Zinc from Waste Galvanizing Zinc by Using Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sminčáková, Emília; Trpčevská, Jarmila; Pirošková, Jana

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the results of acid leaching of flux skimmings coming from two plants are presented. Sample A contained two phases, Zn(OH)Cl and NH4Cl. In sample B, the presence of three phases, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O, (NH4)2(ZnCl4) and ZnCl2(NH3)2, was proved. The aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and distilled water was used as the leaching medium. The effects of the leaching time, temperature and concentration of the leaching medium on the zinc extraction were investigated. The apparent activation energy, E a = 4.61 kJ mol-1, and apparent reaction order n = 0.18 for sample A, and the values E a = 6.28 kJ mol-1 and n = 0.33 for sample B were experimentally determined. Zinc leaching in acid medium is a diffusion-controlled process.

  8. Production of high optical purity l-lactic acid from waste activated sludge by supplementing carbohydrate: effect of temperature and pretreatment time.

    PubMed

    Jian, Qiwei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan; Pan, Yin

    2016-10-01

    It has been widely accepted that the most environmentally beneficial way to treat waste activated sludge (WAS), the byproduct of municipal wastewater treatment plant, is to recover the valuable organic acid. However, the bio-conversion of lactic acid, one of the high added-value chemical, is seldom reported from WAS fermentation. In this paper, l-lactic acid was observed dominant in the WAS fermentation liquid with carbohydrate addition at ambient temperature. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid production was fully discussed: two isomers were rapidly produced and consumed up in one day at mesophilic condition; and almost optically pure l-lactic acid was generated at thermophilic condition, yet time-consuming with yield of l-lactic acid enhancing by 52.9% compared to that at ambient temperature. The study mechanism showed that mesophilic condition was optimal for both production and consumption of l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, while consumption of l-lactic acid and production of d-lactic acid were severely inhibited at thermophilic condition. Therefore, by maintaining thermophilic for 4 h in advance and subsequently fermenting mesophilic for 34 h, the concentration of l-lactic acid with optical activity of 98.3% was improved to 16.6 ± 0.5 g COD/L at a high specific efficiency of 0.6097/d.

  9. Using acid-washed waste tire rubber in soilless media for tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Cerasiforne’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown in soilless potting media contained different substrate formulas including 25:25:50 volume ratio of acid-washed (AWR) or non-washed shredded rubber (NAWR): vermiculite or zeolite: perlite. Additionally, plants were grown in a peat: perli...

  10. Synergism and effect of high initial volatile fatty acid concentrations during food waste and pig manure anaerobic co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Dennehy, Conor; Lawlor, Peadar G; Croize, Thomas; Jiang, Yan; Morrison, Liam; Gardiner, Gillian E; Zhan, Xinmin

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste (FW) and pig manure (PM) was undertaken in batch mode at 37°C in order to identify and quantify the synergistic effects of co-digestion on the specific methane yield (SMY) and reaction kinetics. The effects of the high initial volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in PM on synergy observed during co-digestion, and on kinetic modelling were investigated. PM to FW mixing ratios of 1/0, 4/1, 3/2, 2/3, 1/4 and 0/1 (VS basis) were examined. No VFA or ammonia inhibition was observed. The highest SMY of 521±29ml CH4/gVS was achieved at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4. Synergy in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY occurred at PM/FW mixing ratios of 3/2, 2/3 and 1/4. Initial VFA concentrations did not explain the synergy observed. Throughout the study the conversion of butyric acid was inhibited. Due to the high initial VFA content of PM, conventional first order and Gompertz models were inappropriate for determining reaction kinetics. A dual pooled first order model was found to provide the best fit for the data generated in this study. The optimal mixing ratio in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY was found at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4.

  11. Synergism and effect of high initial volatile fatty acid concentrations during food waste and pig manure anaerobic co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Dennehy, Conor; Lawlor, Peadar G; Croize, Thomas; Jiang, Yan; Morrison, Liam; Gardiner, Gillian E; Zhan, Xinmin

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste (FW) and pig manure (PM) was undertaken in batch mode at 37°C in order to identify and quantify the synergistic effects of co-digestion on the specific methane yield (SMY) and reaction kinetics. The effects of the high initial volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in PM on synergy observed during co-digestion, and on kinetic modelling were investigated. PM to FW mixing ratios of 1/0, 4/1, 3/2, 2/3, 1/4 and 0/1 (VS basis) were examined. No VFA or ammonia inhibition was observed. The highest SMY of 521±29ml CH4/gVS was achieved at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4. Synergy in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY occurred at PM/FW mixing ratios of 3/2, 2/3 and 1/4. Initial VFA concentrations did not explain the synergy observed. Throughout the study the conversion of butyric acid was inhibited. Due to the high initial VFA content of PM, conventional first order and Gompertz models were inappropriate for determining reaction kinetics. A dual pooled first order model was found to provide the best fit for the data generated in this study. The optimal mixing ratio in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY was found at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4. PMID:27389859

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 120-B-1, 105-B Battery Acid Sump, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-057

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-25

    The 120-B-1 waste site, located in the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, consisted of a concrete battery acid sump that was used from 1944 to 1969 to neutralize the spent sulfuric acid from lead cell batteries of emergency power packs and the emergency lighting system. The battery acid sump was associated with the 105-B Reactor Building and was located adjacent to the building's northwest corner. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Bioconversion of wastes from the olive oil and confectionary industries: spectroscopic study of humic acids.

    PubMed

    Sellami, F; Hachicha, S; Chtourou, M; Medhioub, K; Ammar, E

    2007-11-01

    Structural changes in humic acids extracted from composted mixtures of sesame bark with the paste of olive mill wastewater or exhausted olive cake, were investigated using FTIR spectroscopy and solid state 13C CP/MAS techniques. The C/N ratio and organic matter degradation decreased significantly after 6 months of composting. The FTIR spectra of humic acids content showed an increase in the aromatic compounds content and a degradation of aliphatic chains. During composting, nuclear magnetic resonance 13C spectral analyses confirmed that aromatic groups exhibited a slight increase while the aliphatic groups decreased and disappeared at the end of the composting process. These results showed that during composting, aliphatic chains were preferentially oxidized, while aromatic macromolecules were bio converted into highly functionalized compounds. PMID:18290538

  14. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  15. Hydrolysis of Selected Tropical Plant Wastes Catalyzed by a Magnetic Carbonaceous Acid with Microwave.

    PubMed

    Su, Tong-Chao; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jia; Li, Xing-Kang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, magnetic carbonaceous acids were synthesized by pyrolysis of the homogeneous mixtures of glucose and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and subsequent sulfonation. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a catalyst with both high acid density (0.75 mmol g(-1)) and strong magnetism [magnetic saturation, Ms = 19.5 Am(2) kg(-1)]. The screened catalyst (C-SO3H/Fe3O4) was used to hydrolyze ball-milled cellulose in a microwave reactor with total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 25.3% under the best conditions at 190 °C for 3.5 h. It was cycled for at least seven times with high catalyst recovery rate (92.8%), acid density (0.63 mmol g(-1)) and magnetism (Ms = 12.9 Am(2) kg(-1)), as well as high TRS yield (20.1%) from the hydrolysis of ball-milled cellulose. The catalyst was further successfully tested for the hydrolysis of tropical biomass with high TRS and glucose yields of 79.8% and 58.3% for bagasse, 47.2% and 35.6% for Jatropha hulls, as well as 54.4% and 35.8% for Plukenetia hulls. PMID:26648414

  16. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  17. Hydrolysis of Selected Tropical Plant Wastes Catalyzed by a Magnetic Carbonaceous Acid with Microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tong-Chao; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jia; Li, Xing-Kang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, magnetic carbonaceous acids were synthesized by pyrolysis of the homogeneous mixtures of glucose and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and subsequent sulfonation. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a catalyst with both high acid density (0.75 mmol g-1) and strong magnetism [magnetic saturation, Ms = 19.5 Am2 kg-1]. The screened catalyst (C-SO3H/Fe3O4) was used to hydrolyze ball-milled cellulose in a microwave reactor with total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 25.3% under the best conditions at 190 °C for 3.5 h. It was cycled for at least seven times with high catalyst recovery rate (92.8%), acid density (0.63 mmol g-1) and magnetism (Ms = 12.9 Am2 kg-1), as well as high TRS yield (20.1%) from the hydrolysis of ball-milled cellulose. The catalyst was further successfully tested for the hydrolysis of tropical biomass with high TRS and glucose yields of 79.8% and 58.3% for bagasse, 47.2% and 35.6% for Jatropha hulls, as well as 54.4% and 35.8% for Plukenetia hulls.

  18. Production of a bioflocculant from chromotropic acid waste water and its application in steroid estrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunying; Xu, Aihua; Chen, Li; Yang, Xianghui; Yang, Baokun; Hong, Wentao; Mao, Kewei; Wang, Buyun; Zhou, Jiangang

    2014-10-01

    A novel strain (designated as SW-2) which could convert chromotropic acid into bioflocculants was isolated from chromotropic acid wastewater. Conditions for bioflocculants production were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and determined to be inoculum size 7.74%, initial pH 6.9, and CODCr of the chromotropic acid wastewater 425mg/L. The yielded bioflocculant was primarily consisting of polysaccharide and protein. It could maintain its flocculating activity to 0.4% (w/w) kaolin suspensions over pH 3-9 and 20-80°C. In addition, conditions for the removal of estrogens with the bioflocculant were investigated and determined to be bioflocculant dosage 50mg/L, initial pH 3, reaction time 60min, and temperature 45°C. Under these optimal conditions, the removal efficiencies of E1, E2, EE2, and E3 were 87%, 92%, 88% and 96%, respectively. The bioflocculant was shown to offer a promising alternative method of removing estrogens from water in pretreatment applications.

  19. Hydrolysis of Selected Tropical Plant Wastes Catalyzed by a Magnetic Carbonaceous Acid with Microwave

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tong-Chao; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jia; Li, Xing-Kang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, magnetic carbonaceous acids were synthesized by pyrolysis of the homogeneous mixtures of glucose and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and subsequent sulfonation. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a catalyst with both high acid density (0.75 mmol g−1) and strong magnetism [magnetic saturation, Ms = 19.5 Am2 kg−1]. The screened catalyst (C-SO3H/Fe3O4) was used to hydrolyze ball-milled cellulose in a microwave reactor with total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 25.3% under the best conditions at 190 °C for 3.5 h. It was cycled for at least seven times with high catalyst recovery rate (92.8%), acid density (0.63 mmol g−1) and magnetism (Ms = 12.9 Am2 kg−1), as well as high TRS yield (20.1%) from the hydrolysis of ball-milled cellulose. The catalyst was further successfully tested for the hydrolysis of tropical biomass with high TRS and glucose yields of 79.8% and 58.3% for bagasse, 47.2% and 35.6% for Jatropha hulls, as well as 54.4% and 35.8% for Plukenetia hulls. PMID:26648414

  20. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  1. Recovery of lead from smelting fly ash of waste lead-acid battery by leaching and electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuh-Shun; Shih, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash that was enriched with lead (Pb), formed as an intermediate in waste lead-acid battery (WLAB) smelting, was recycled by the hydro-electrometallurgy. Characterization of fly ash thereof indicated that the Pb was in the forms of PbSO4 (anglesite) and Pb2OSO4 (lanarkite). Nitric acid and sodium hydroxide were firstly used to study the leaching of the fly ash sample, which was affected by leachant dosage and solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L). At an S/L of 60gL(-1), the leachability of Pb was 43% and 67% in 2M acidic and basic solutions, respectively, based on an average 70wt% of Pb in the original fly ash. Anglesite was completely soluble in NaOH and lanarkite was mildly soluble in HNO3. Pb was recovered from the pregnant leach solution within an electrolytic cell constructed with graphite or RuO2/IrO2-coated titanium (Ti-DSA) anodes and a stainless steel cathode. Properties of anodes deposited with lead dioxides were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The optimized parameters of electrowinning were 2M NaOH leachant, a current density of 0.75Adm(-2) and an electrolytic process duration of 120min, which yielded a Pb removal of higher than 99% and a specific energy consumption of 0.57Whg(-1). This process constitutes an eco-friendly and economic alternative to the presently utilized secondary pyrometallurgy for treating lead-containing fly ash. PMID:27072618

  2. Recovery of lead from smelting fly ash of waste lead-acid battery by leaching and electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuh-Shun; Shih, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash that was enriched with lead (Pb), formed as an intermediate in waste lead-acid battery (WLAB) smelting, was recycled by the hydro-electrometallurgy. Characterization of fly ash thereof indicated that the Pb was in the forms of PbSO4 (anglesite) and Pb2OSO4 (lanarkite). Nitric acid and sodium hydroxide were firstly used to study the leaching of the fly ash sample, which was affected by leachant dosage and solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L). At an S/L of 60gL(-1), the leachability of Pb was 43% and 67% in 2M acidic and basic solutions, respectively, based on an average 70wt% of Pb in the original fly ash. Anglesite was completely soluble in NaOH and lanarkite was mildly soluble in HNO3. Pb was recovered from the pregnant leach solution within an electrolytic cell constructed with graphite or RuO2/IrO2-coated titanium (Ti-DSA) anodes and a stainless steel cathode. Properties of anodes deposited with lead dioxides were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The optimized parameters of electrowinning were 2M NaOH leachant, a current density of 0.75Adm(-2) and an electrolytic process duration of 120min, which yielded a Pb removal of higher than 99% and a specific energy consumption of 0.57Whg(-1). This process constitutes an eco-friendly and economic alternative to the presently utilized secondary pyrometallurgy for treating lead-containing fly ash.

  3. A new process to improve short-chain fatty acids and bio-methane generation from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Lingling; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-05-01

    As an important intermediate product, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be generated after hydrolysis and acidification from waste activated sludge, and then can be transformed to methane during anaerobic digestion process. In order to obtain more SCFA and methane, most studies in literatures were centered on enhancing the hydrolysis of sludge anaerobic digestion which was proved as un-efficient. Though the alkaline pretreatment in our previous study increased both the hydrolysis and acidification processes, it had a vast chemical cost which was considered uneconomical. In this paper, a low energy consumption pretreatment method, i.e. enhanced the whole three stages of the anaerobic fermentation processes at the same time, was reported, by which hydrolysis and acidification were both enhanced, and the SCFA and methane generation can be significantly improved with a small quantity of chemical input. Firstly, the effect of different pretreated temperatures and pretreatment time on sludge hydrolyzation was compared. It was found that sludge pretreated at 100°C for 60min can achieve the maximal hydrolyzation. Further, effects of different initial pHs on acidification of the thermal pretreated sludge were investigated and the highest SCFA was observed at initial pH9.0 with fermentation time of 6d, the production of which was 348.63mg COD/gVSS (6.8 times higher than the blank test) and the acetic acid was dominant acid. Then, the mechanisms for this new pretreatment significantly improving SCFA production were discussed. Finally, the effect of this low energy consumption pretreatment on methane generation was investigated.

  4. Free nitrous acid serving as a pretreatment method for alkaline fermentation to enhance short-chain fatty acid production from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Chen, Hongbo; Zhong, Yu; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-07-01

    Alkaline condition (especially pH 10) has been demonstrated to be a promising method for short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation, because it can effectively inhibit the activities of methanogens. However, due to the limit of sludge solubilization rate, long fermentation time is required but SCFA yield is still limited. This paper reports a new pretreatment method for alkaline fermentation, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge for 2 d, by which the fermentation time is remarkably shortened and meanwhile the SCFA production is significantly enhanced. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production of 370.1 mg COD/g VSS (volatile suspended solids) was achieved at 1.54 mg FNA/L pretreatment integration with 2 d of pH 10 fermentation, which was 4.7- and 1.5-fold of that in the blank (uncontrolled) and sole pH 10 systems, respectively. The total time of this integration system was only 4 d, whereas the corresponding time was 15 d in the blank and 8 d in the sole pH 10 systems. The mechanism study showed that compared with pH 10, FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. After FNA pretreatment, pH 10 treatment (1 d) caused 38.0% higher substrate solubilization than the sole FNA, which indicated that FNA integration with pH 10 could cause positive synergy on sludge solubilization. It was also observed that this integration method benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes. Therefore, more SCFA was produced, but less fermentation time was required in the integrated system.

  5. Extraction and recovery of plutonium and americium from nitric acid waste solutions by the TRUEX process - continuing development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Kalina, D.G.; Fischer, D.F.; Bane, R.W.; Burris, L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarisia, R.; Diamond, H.

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes the work done to date on the application of the TRUEX solvent extraction process for removing and separately recovering plutonium and americium from a nitric acid waste solution containing these elements, uranium, and a complement of inert metal ions. This simulated waste stream is typical of a raffinate from a tributyl phosphate (TBP)-based solvent extraction process for removing uranium and plutonium from dissolved plutonium-containing metallurgical scrap. The TRUEX process solvent in these experiments was a solution of TBP and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. A flowsheet was designed on the basis of measured batch distribution ratios to reduce the TRU content of the solidified raffinate to less than or equal to 10 nCi/g and was tested in a countercurrent experiment performed in a 14-stage Argonne-model centrifugal contractor. The process solvent was recycled without cleanup. An unexpectedly high evaporative loss of CCl/sub 4/ resulted in concentration of the active extractant, CMPO, to nearly 0.30M in the solvent. Results are consistent with this higher CMPO concentration. The raffinate contained only 2 nCi/g of TRU, but the higher CMPO concentration resulted in reduced effectiveness in the stripping of americium from the solvent. Conditions can be easily adjusted to give high yields and good separation of americium and plutonium. Experimental studies of the hydrolytic and gamma-radiolytic degradation of the TRUEX-CCl/sub 4/ showed that solvent degradation would be (1) minimal for a year of processing this typical feed, which contained no fission products, and (2) could be explained almost entirely by hydrolytic and radiolytic damage to TBP. Even for gross amounts of solvent damage, scrubbing with aqueous sodium carbonate solution restored the original americium extraction and stripping capability of the solvent. 43 refs., 5 figs., 36 tabs.

  6. Upcycling potato peel waste - Data of the pre-screening of the acid-catalyzed liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Patrícia; Bordado, João Carlos Moura; Mateus, Maria Margarida; Galhano Dos Santos, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Herein, the data acquired regarding the preliminary and exploratory experiments conducted with potato peel as a biomass source for the direct thermochemical liquefaction is disclosed. The procedure was carried out in a 2-ethylhexanol/DEG solvent mixture at 160 °C in the presence of p-Toluenesulfonic acid. The adopted procedure afforded a bio-oil in high yield (up to 93%) after only 30 min. For longer reaction times, higher amounts of solid residues were obtained leading, consequently, to lower yields. PMID:27182538

  7. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  8. Reclamation of acidic mine residues by creation of technosoils with the addition of biochar and marble waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Díaz, Vicente; Acosta, José; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raul

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the short-term effect of biochar and marble waste addition for the reclamation of acidic mine residues. A lab incubation was carried out for 90 days. Biochars derived from pig manure (PM), crop residues (CR) and municipal solid waste (MSW) were added to the soil at a rate of 20 g kg-1. The marble waste (MW) was added at a rate of 200 g kg-1. Bochars and MW were applied independently and combined. A control soil was used without application of amendments. The evolution of different physical, chemical and biochemical properties and availability of heavy metals was periodically monitored. Results showed that original pH (2.8) was increased with all amendments, those samples containing MW being the ones with the highest pH (~8.0). The electrical conductivity (EC) decreased from 6.6 to 3.0-4.5 mS cm-1 in all the treatments receiving MW. Soil organic C (SOC) increased in all samples receiving biochar up to 18-20 g kg-1, with no shifts during the 90 d incubation, indicating the high stability of the C supplied. Recalcitrant organic C accounted for ~90-98% of the SOC. No significant effect of amendment addition was observed for carbohydrates, soluble C, microbial biomass C and β-glucosidase activity. However, arylesterase activity increased with amendments, highly related to pH. The availability of heavy metals decreased up to 90-95% owing to the addition of amendments, mainly in samples containing MW. The MW provided conditions to increase pH and decrease EC and metals mobility. Biochar was an effective strategy to increase SOC, recalcitrant C and AS, essential to create soil structure. However, a labile source of organic matter should be added together with the proposed amendments to promote the activation of microbial communities. Acknowledgement : This work has been funded by Fundación Séneca (Agency of Science and Technology of the Region of Murcia, Spain) by the project 18920/JLI/13

  9. Attenuation of the protein wasting associated with bed rest by branched-chain amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.; Boden, G.

    1999-01-01

    Bed rest is generally accepted as being an appropriate ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that increasing the amount of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the diet could attenuate the protein loss associated with bed rest. Nineteen healthy subjects were randomized into two groups according to diet. During the 6 d of bed rest, the diets were supplemented with either 30 mmol/d each of three non-essential amino acids, glycine, serine, and alanine (control group), or with 30 mmol/d each of the BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine, and valine (BCAA group). Nutrition was supplied as a commercially available defined formula diet at a rate of 1.3 x REE. Nitrogen (N) balance and urinary 3-MeH excretion were determined for the 6 d. In our results, the urine-based estimate of N balance was 22.2 +/- 14.4 (n = 9) mg N.kg-1.d-1 and 60.5 +/- 10.1 mg (n = 8) N.kg-1.d-1 for the control and BCAA-supplemented groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Urinary 3-MeH excretion was unchanged in both groups with bed rest. We conclude that BCAA supplementation attenuates the N loss during short-term bed rest.

  10. An effective utilization of the slag from acid leaching of coal-waste: preparation of water glass with a low-temperature co-melting reaction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Duan, Xiaofang; Chen, Rongming; Cheng, Fangqin

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an effective utilization of slag from acid leaching of coal-waste with a novel approach, namely low-temperature co-melting method, for preparation of sodium silicate (Na2O x nSiO2) using slag from acid leaching of coal-waste as feedstock. It is very interesting that the co-melting reaction temperature of the mixture of Na2CO3 and the feedstock (50-100 microm) was as low as 850 degrees C, which was significantly lower than the temperature used in traditional sodium silicate production (1400 degrees C). The optimum SiO2/Na2O ratio was identified as 7:3 according to the results of thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC), ICP-AES, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. In this condition, the main product was sodium disilicate (Na2O x 2SiO2), with water solubility of 85.0%. More importantly, the impurities such as aluminum in the feedstock, which had adverse effect on subsequent treatment, were concentrated almost completely in the filter residue as insoluble sodium alumunosilicates, i.e., Na(Si2Al)O6 x H2O. The lower co-melting temperature of this process demonstrates a significant energy-saving opportunity and thus a promising approach for highly effective utilization of coal-waste. Implications: Recently, alumina extraction from coal-waste has been extensively investigated and industrial applied in China. However, the slag-containing silica generated from the acid leaching process of coal-waste led to a secondary pollution, which hindered large-scale production. The proposed low-temperature co-melting method for preparation of sodium silicate (Na2O x nSiO2) using slag from acid leaching of coal-waste as feedstock indicated that it is an efficient approach for the recovery of silica from the acid-leached slag of coal-waste with minimal environmental impact.

  11. Biological properties of extremely acidic cyanide-laced mining waste.

    PubMed

    Feketeová, Zuzana; Hulejová Sládkovičová, Veronika; Mangová, Barbara; Pogányová, Andrea; Šimkovic, Ivan; Krumpál, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    With respect to acidic, cyanide-laced tailings, the data about in situ toxicity and biological activity in highly polluted environment are often lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the microbial characteristics, composition of oribatid mite species, and level of genotoxic impact on plants in the area of inactive tailings pond (Horná Ves, Kremnica region). Sampling of the tailings, soils and selected plant species was carried out in spring of 2012. Trace element analysis (inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectrometry) showed that concentration of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the tailings is approximately in thousands of ppm (mg kg(-1)). Amount of lead exceeded 16,000 mg kg(-1), which is perceived as the biggest threat with respect to possible toxicity. The risk is accentuated by extremely acidic pH of the tailings material which approached 2. In such conditions great mobility of (divalent) heavy metal cations is expected. The total cyanide concentration in the tailings was 472 mg kg(-1). Results of performed tests and measurements suggest that microbial activity at the tailings site (and its close environment) is hampered markedly. In the sludge material we detected low abundance of soil bacteria (2.08 × 10(4) CFU) and predominance of slowly growing K-strategists. On the other hand, the content of microbial C in the sludge sample was not too low, considering its extreme acidity and high amount of risk elements. In the same sample, just one mite species, Oppiella (O.) uliginosa (Willmann 1919), was identified. Also in case of the dam site the abundance of mites was considerably lower in comparison to reference sample. Values of Oribatida abundance were in positive correlation with values of microbial biomass carbon. Results of the pollen grain abortivity test, applied in situ on chosen plant species, indicated substantial presence of genotoxicity in the environment. Total induction index of tailings pond reached 3.59(±2.4) which expresses also

  12. Recombinant D. radiodurans cells for bioremediation of heavy metals from acidic/neutral aqueous wastes.

    PubMed

    Misra, Chitra Seetharam; Appukuttan, Deepti; Kantamreddi, Venkata Siva Satyanarayana; Rao, Amara S; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The stability and superior metal bioremediation ability of genetically engineered Deinococcus radiodurans cells, expressing a non-specific acid phosphatase, PhoN in high radiation environment has already been established. The lyophilized recombinant DrPhoN cells retained PhoN activity and uranium precipitation ability. Such cells also displayed an extended shelf life of 6 months during storage at room temperature and showed surface associated precipitation of uranium as well as other metals like cadmium. Lyophilized cells, immobilized in polyacrylamide gels could be used for uranium bioprecipitation in a flow through system resulting in 70% removal from 1mM input uranium solution and a loading of 1 g uranium/g dry weight cells. Compared with a batch process which achieved a loading of 5.7 g uranium/g biomass, the efficiency of the column process was low due to clogging of the column by the precipitate.

  13. Recombinant D. radiodurans cells for bioremediation of heavy metals from acidic/neutral aqueous wastes.

    PubMed

    Misra, Chitra Seetharam; Appukuttan, Deepti; Kantamreddi, Venkata Siva Satyanarayana; Rao, Amara S; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The stability and superior metal bioremediation ability of genetically engineered Deinococcus radiodurans cells, expressing a non-specific acid phosphatase, PhoN in high radiation environment has already been established. The lyophilized recombinant DrPhoN cells retained PhoN activity and uranium precipitation ability. Such cells also displayed an extended shelf life of 6 months during storage at room temperature and showed surface associated precipitation of uranium as well as other metals like cadmium. Lyophilized cells, immobilized in polyacrylamide gels could be used for uranium bioprecipitation in a flow through system resulting in 70% removal from 1mM input uranium solution and a loading of 1 g uranium/g dry weight cells. Compared with a batch process which achieved a loading of 5.7 g uranium/g biomass, the efficiency of the column process was low due to clogging of the column by the precipitate. PMID:22179144

  14. Application of a set of complementary techniques to understand how varying the proportion of two wastes affects humic acids produced by vermicomposting

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J.; Nogales, Rogelio; Plante, Alain; Plaza, César; Fernández, José M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A set of techniques was used to characterize humic acids content of vermicomposts. • The properties of the humic acids produced from different waste mixtures were similar. • This set of techniques allowed distinguishing the humic acids of each vermicomposts. • Increasing humic acid contents in initial mixtures would produce richer vermicomposts. - Abstract: A better understanding of how varying the proportion of different organic wastes affects humic acid (HA) formation during vermicomposting would be useful in producing vermicomposts enriched in HAs. With the aim of improving the knowledge about this issue, a variety of analytical techniques [UV–visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence spectra, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and thermal analysis] was used in the present study to characterize HAs isolated from two mixtures at two different ratios (2:1 and 1:1) of tomato-plant debris (TD) and paper-mill sludge (PS) before and after vermicomposting. The results suggest that vermicomposting increased the HA content in the TD/PS 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures (15.9% and 16.2%, respectively), but the vermicompost produced from the mixture with a higher amount of TD had a greater proportion (24%) of HAs. Both vermicomposting processes caused equal modifications in the humic precursors contained in the different mixtures of TD and PS, and consequently, the HAs in the vermicomposts produced from different waste mixtures exhibited analogous characteristics. Only the set of analytical techniques used in this research was able to detect differences between the HAs isolated from each type of vermicompost. In conclusion, varying the proportion of different wastes may have a stronger influence on the amount of HAs in vermicomposts than on the properties of HAs.

  15. Klebsiella sp. strain C2A isolated from olive oil mill waste is able to tolerate and degrade tannic acid in very high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Milva; Cappelli, Serena; Hachicho, Nancy; Perra, Guido; Renzi, Monia; Tarabelli, Alessandro; Altieri, Roberto; Esposito, Alessandro; Focardi, Silvano E; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2013-06-01

    Four bacterial strains capable of growing in the presence of tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated from olive mill waste mixtures. 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned them to the genus Klebsiella. The most efficient strain, Klebsiella sp. strain C2A, was able to degrade 3.5 g L(-1) tannic acid within 35 h with synthesizing gallic acid as main product. The capability of Klebsiella sp. strain C2A to produce tannase was evidenced at high concentrations of tannic acid up to 50 g L(-1) . The bacteria adapted to the toxicity of tannic acids by an increase in the membrane lipid fatty acids degree of saturation, especially in the presence of concentrations higher than 20 g L(-1) . The highly tolerant and adaptable bacterial strain characterized in this study could be used in bioremediation processes of wastes rich in polyphenols such as those derived from olive mills, winery or tanneries.

  16. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A Brønsted acidic ILs was used to leach Cu from WPCBs for the first time. • The particle size of WPCBs has significant influence on Cu leaching rate. • Cu leaching rate was higher than 99% under the optimum leaching conditions. • The leaching process can be modeled with shrinking core model, and the E{sub a} was 25.36 kJ/mol. - Abstract: In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO{sub 4}), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1 g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1–0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70 °C and 2 h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO{sub 4} can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.

  17. Hazardous waste to materials: recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from acidic leach liquor of spent hydroprocessing catalyst using alamine 308.

    PubMed

    Sahu, K K; Agrawal, Archana; Mishra, D

    2013-08-15

    Recovery of valuable materials/metals from waste goes hand in hand with environmental protection. This paper deals with the development of a process for the recovery of metals such as Mo, V, Ni, Al from spent hydroprocessing catalyst which may otherwise cause a nuisance if dumped untreated. A detailed study on the separation of molybdenum and vanadium from the leach solution of spent hydroprocessing catalyst of composition: 27.15% MoO₃, 1.7% V₂O₅, 3.75% NiO, 54.3% Al₂O₃, 2.3% SiO₂ and 10.4% LOI is reported in this paper. The catalyst was subjected to roasting under oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature of about 550 °C and leaching in dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve molybdenum, vanadium, nickel and part of aluminium. Metals from the leach solution were separated by solvent extraction. Both molybdenum and vanadium were selectively extracted with a suitable organic solvent leaving nickel and dissolved aluminium in the raffinate. Various parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous feed, organic to aqueous ratio (O:A), solvent concentration etc. were optimized for the complete extraction and recovery of Mo and V. Molybdenum and vanadium from the loaded organic were stripped by ammonia solution. They were recovered as their corresponding ammonium salt by selective precipitation, and were further calcined to get the corresponding oxides in pure form.

  18. Effect of initial total solids concentration on volatile fatty acid production from food waste during anaerobic acidification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial total solids (TS) concentration on volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production from food waste under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) was determined. VFAs concentration and composition, biogas production, soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration, TS and volatile solids (VS) reduction, and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text] release were investigated. The VFAs concentrations were 26.10, 39.68, 59.58, and 62.64 g COD/L at TS contents of 40, 70, 100, and 130 g/L, respectively. While the VFAs' yields ranged from 0.467 to 0.799 g COD/g VSfed, decreased as initial TS increased. The percentage of propionate was not affected by TS concentration, accounting for 30.19-34.86% of the total VFAs, while a higher percentage of butyrate and lower percentage of acetate was achieved at a higher TS concentration. Biogas included mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide and the maximum hydrogen yield of 148.9 ml/g VSfed was obtained at 130 g TS/L. [Formula: see text] concentration, TS and VS reductions increased as initial TS increased. Considering the above variables, we conclude that initial TS of 100 g/L shall be the most appropriate to VFAs production.

  19. Lead accumulation and depression of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in young birds fed automotive waste oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; O'Leary, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of a 3-week dietary exposure to automotive waste crankcase oil (WCO) were examined in 1-week-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) chicks. Treatment groups consisted of birds exposed to 0.5, 1.5, or 4.5% WCO, to 4.5% clean crankcase oil (CCO), or untreated controls. In both species, red blood cell ALAD activity was significantly inhibited after one week by 50 to 60% in the 0.5% WCO group and by 85 to 90% in the 4.5% WCO group due to the presence of lead. Growth, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were not significantly affected at the end of three weeks. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was higher in mallards after three weeks of ingesting either 4.5% WCO or 4.5% CCO, suggesting an oil-related effect due to components other than lead. Treatment had no effect on plasma concentration of uric acid, glucose, triglycerides, total protein, or cholesterol. Lead analysis showed the WCO to contain 4,200 ppm Pb and the CCO to contain 2 ppm. Tissues of mallards were examined for accumulation of lead and the order of accumulation at the end of three weeks was kidney > liver > blood ~ brain.

  20. Volatile fatty acids derived from waste organics provide an economical carbon source for microbial lipids/biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwon Woo; Fei, Qiang; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Kim, Nag-jong; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Kim, Sangyong; Cho, Jaehoon

    2014-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from organic waste, were used as a low cost carbon source for high bioreactor productivity and titer. A multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) process was employed for economic assessment of microbial lipids for biodiesel production. In a simulation study we used a lipid yield of 0.3 g/g-VFAs, cell mass yield of 0.5 g/g-glucose or wood hydrolyzates, and employed process variables including lipid contents from 10-90% of cell mass, bioreactor productivity of 0.5-48 g/L/h, and plant capacity of 20000-1000000 metric ton (MT)/year. A production cost of USD 1.048/kg-lipid was predicted with raw material costs of USD 0.2/kg for wood hydrolyzates and USD 0.15/kg for VFAs; 9 g/L/h bioreactor productivity; 100, 000 MT/year production capacity; and 75% lipids content. The variables having the highest impact on microbial lipid production costs were the cost of VFAs and lipid yield, followed by lipid content, fermenter cost, and lipid productivity. The cost of raw materials accounted for 66.25% of total operating costs. This study shows that biodiesel from microbial lipids has the potential to become competitive with diesels from other sources.

  1. Enhancement of acidogenic fermentation for volatile fatty acid production from food waste: Effect of redox potential and inoculum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yeer; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang; Chen, Ting

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of redox potential (ORP) and inoculum on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from food waste by acidogenic fermentation. Four experimental conditions with two ORP levels were tested: limited aeration conditions with ORP level of -100 to -200mV inoculating anaerobic sludge (LA+AnS) or aerobic sludge (LA+AeS), and anaerobic conditions with ORP level of -200 to -300mV inoculating anaerobic sludge with 2-bromoethanosulfophate (AN+BES) and without BES (AN). The maximal VFA yield (0.79g COD/g VS) was attained in LA+AnS reactor due to enhanced hydrolysis of substrates, especially proteins (degradation efficiency 78.3%). A higher frequency of phylum Firmicutes under limited aeration conditions (42.2-48.2%) was observed than that under anaerobic conditions (21.1%). The microbial community was more diverse in LA+AnS reactors than LA+AeS. We conclude that appropriate ORP level (from -100 to -200mV) and inoculum play essential roles in VFA production.

  2. Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin; Wang, Quan; Gong, Changxiu; Li, Menglu

    2013-09-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were highest at pH 6.0, acetate and butyrate accounted for 77% of total VFAs. VFAs concentration and the VFA/SCOD ratio were highest, and VS levels were lowest, at 45 °C, but the differences compared to the values at 35 °C were slight. The concentrations of VFAs, SCOD, and NH4(+)-N increased as OLR increased, whereas the yield of VFAs decreased from 0.504 at 5 g/Ld to 0.306 at 16 g/Ld. Acetate and butyrate accounted for 60% of total VFAs. The percentage of acetate and valerate increased as OLR increased, whereas a high OLR produced a lower percentage of propionate and butyrate.

  3. Enhancement of waste activated sludge anaerobic digestion by a novel chemical free acid/alkaline pretreatment using electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Charles, W; Ng, B; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Cheng, L; Ho, G; Kayaalp, A

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is relatively poor due to hydrolysis limitations. Acid and alkaline pretreatments are effective in enhancing hydrolysis leading to higher methane yields. However, chemical costs often prohibit full-scale application. In this study, 12 V two-chamber electrolysis using an anion exchange membrane alters sludge pH without chemical dosing. pH dropped from 6.9 to 2.5 in the anode chamber and increased to 10.1 in the cathode chamber within 15 h. The volatile suspended solids solubilisation of WAS was 31.1% in the anode chamber and 34.0% in the cathode chamber. As a result, dissolved chemical oxygen demand increased from 164 to 1,787 mg/L and 1,256 mg/L in the anode and cathode chambers, respectively. Remixing of sludge from the two chambers brought the pH back to 6.5, hence no chemical neutralisation was required prior to anaerobic digestion. Methane yield during anaerobic digestion at 20 d retention time was 31% higher than that of untreated sludge. An energy balance assessment indicated that the non-optimised process could approximately recover the energy (electricity) expended in the electrolysis process. With suitable optimisation of treatment time and voltages, significant energy savings would be expected in addition to the benefit of decreased sludge volume.

  4. Enhancement of acidogenic fermentation for volatile fatty acid production from food waste: Effect of redox potential and inoculum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yeer; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang; Chen, Ting

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of redox potential (ORP) and inoculum on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from food waste by acidogenic fermentation. Four experimental conditions with two ORP levels were tested: limited aeration conditions with ORP level of -100 to -200mV inoculating anaerobic sludge (LA+AnS) or aerobic sludge (LA+AeS), and anaerobic conditions with ORP level of -200 to -300mV inoculating anaerobic sludge with 2-bromoethanosulfophate (AN+BES) and without BES (AN). The maximal VFA yield (0.79g COD/g VS) was attained in LA+AnS reactor due to enhanced hydrolysis of substrates, especially proteins (degradation efficiency 78.3%). A higher frequency of phylum Firmicutes under limited aeration conditions (42.2-48.2%) was observed than that under anaerobic conditions (21.1%). The microbial community was more diverse in LA+AnS reactors than LA+AeS. We conclude that appropriate ORP level (from -100 to -200mV) and inoculum play essential roles in VFA production. PMID:27343452

  5. Growth of lactic acid bacteria in waste waters of vegetable-processing plants.

    PubMed

    Mundt, J O; Larsen, S A; McCarty, I E

    1966-01-01

    Waters used in washing, blanching, cooling, and conveying vegetables during processing for freezing were filtered, sterilized, and inoculated with Streptococcus faecalis, S. lactis, or Lactobacillus plantarum. The contents of total nitrogen and total solids were determined, and ninhydrin tests and Benedict's tests for reducing sugars were performed. Substances positive to the ninyhydrin tests and also capable of supporting the growth of the bacteria to high levels of population were found in waters used to blanch cut green beans, but not in the cooling or conveying waters. They were found only in waters following slicing of blanched whole beans. They were also present in waters used in processing purple hull peas at all stages, but only in the waters used to blanch and cool lima beans. The substances were present in waters used to wash and blanch squash, but only in the waters used to blanch greens; they were not found in the cooling waters during the handling of either vegetable. No waters used in the processing of okra yielded a positive ninhydrin test, nor did they support the growth of the lactic acid bacteria. PMID:4958145

  6. Biofiltration of high concentration of H2S in waste air under extreme acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ben Jaber, Mouna; Couvert, Annabelle; Amrane, Abdeltif; Rouxel, Franck; Le Cloirec, Pierre; Dumont, Eric

    2016-01-25

    Removal of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide using a biofilter packed with expanded schist under extreme acidic conditions was performed. The impact of various parameters such as H2S concentration, pH changes and sulfate accumulation on the performances of the process was evaluated. Elimination efficiency decreased when the pH was lower than 1 and the sulfate accumulation was more than 12 mg S-SO4(2-)/g dry media, due to a continuous overloading by high H2S concentrations. The influence of these parameters on the degradation of H2S was clearly underlined, showing the need for their control, performed through an increase of watering flow rate. A maximum elimination capacity (ECmax) of 24.7 g m(-3) h(-1) was recorded. As a result, expanded schist represents an interesting packing material to remove high H2S concentration up to 360 ppmv with low pressure drops. In addition, experimental data were fitted using both Michaelis-Menten and Haldane models, showing that the Haldane model described more accurately experimental data since the inhibitory effect of H2S was taken into account.

  7. Pretreatment of banana agricultural waste for bio-ethanol production: individual and interactive effects of acid and alkali pretreatments with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Gadhe, Abhijit; Rath, Ritika; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Wate, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Banana agricultural waste is one of the potential lignocellulosic substrates which are mostly un-utilized but sufficiently available in many parts of the world. In the present study, suitability of banana waste for biofuel production with respect to pretreatment and reducing sugar yield was assessed. The effectiveness of both acid and alkali pretreatments along with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication on different morphological parts of banana (BMPs) was studied. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and numerical point prediction tool of MINITAB RELEASE 14. Accordingly, the optimum cumulative conditions for maximum recovery of reducing sugar through acid pretreatment are: leaf (LF) as the substrate with 25 min of reaction time and 180°C of reaction temperature using microwave. Whereas, the optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatments are: pith (PH) as the substrate with 51 min of reaction time and 50°C of reaction temperature using ultrasonication (US).

  8. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  9. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock.

  10. The use of sub-critical water hydrolysis for the recovery of peptides and free amino acids from food processing wastes. Review of sources and main parameters.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Food industry processing wastes are produced in enormous amounts every year, such wastes are usually disposed with the corresponding economical cost it implies, in the best scenario they can be used for pet food or composting. However new promising technologies and tools have been developed in the last years aimed at recovering valuable compounds from this type of materials. In particular, sub-critical water hydrolysis (SWH) has been revealed as an interesting way for recovering high added-value molecules, and its applications have been broadly referred in the bibliography. Special interest has been focused on recovering protein hydrolysates in form of peptides or amino acids, from both animal and vegetable wastes, by means of SWH. These recovered biomolecules have a capital importance in fields such as biotechnology research, nutraceuticals, and above all in food industry, where such products can be applied with very different objectives. Present work reviews the current state of art of using sub-critical water hydrolysis for protein recovering from food industry wastes. Key parameters as reaction time, temperature, amino acid degradation and kinetic constants have been discussed. Besides, the characteristics of the raw material and the type of products that can be obtained depending on the substrate have been reviewed. Finally, the application of these hydrolysates based on their functional properties and antioxidant activity is described. PMID:26831563

  11. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  12. The use of sub-critical water hydrolysis for the recovery of peptides and free amino acids from food processing wastes. Review of sources and main parameters.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Food industry processing wastes are produced in enormous amounts every year, such wastes are usually disposed with the corresponding economical cost it implies, in the best scenario they can be used for pet food or composting. However new promising technologies and tools have been developed in the last years aimed at recovering valuable compounds from this type of materials. In particular, sub-critical water hydrolysis (SWH) has been revealed as an interesting way for recovering high added-value molecules, and its applications have been broadly referred in the bibliography. Special interest has been focused on recovering protein hydrolysates in form of peptides or amino acids, from both animal and vegetable wastes, by means of SWH. These recovered biomolecules have a capital importance in fields such as biotechnology research, nutraceuticals, and above all in food industry, where such products can be applied with very different objectives. Present work reviews the current state of art of using sub-critical water hydrolysis for protein recovering from food industry wastes. Key parameters as reaction time, temperature, amino acid degradation and kinetic constants have been discussed. Besides, the characteristics of the raw material and the type of products that can be obtained depending on the substrate have been reviewed. Finally, the application of these hydrolysates based on their functional properties and antioxidant activity is described.

  13. Citric Acid Production from Orange Peel Wastes by Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P.; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

    2011-01-01

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·103 to 0.7·108 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·106 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

  14. Citric Acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

    2011-01-01

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10(3) to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

  15. Solid-state fermentation for gluconic acid production from sugarcane molasses by Aspergillus niger ARNU-4 employing tea waste as the novel solid support.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Vivekanand, V; Singh, Rajesh P

    2008-06-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was evaluated to produce gluconic acid by metal resistant Aspergillus niger (ARNU-4) strain using tea waste as solid support and with molasses based fermentation medium. Various crucial parameters such as moisture content, temperature, aeration and inoculum size were derived; 70% moisture level, 30 degrees C temperature, 3% inoculum size and an aeration volume of 2.5l min(-1) was suited for maximal (76.3 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. Non-clarified molasses based fermentation media was utilized by strain ARNU-4 and maximum gluconic acid production was observed following 8-12 days of fermentation cycle. Different concentrations of additives viz. oil cake, soya oil, jaggary, yeast extract, cheese whey and mustard oil were supplemented for further enhancement of the production ability of microorganism. Addition of yeast extract (0.5%) was observed inducive for enhanced (82.2 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production.

  16. Chitin and L(+)-lactic acid production from crab (Callinectes bellicosus) wastes by fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Flores-Albino, Belem; Arias, Ladislao; Gómez, Jorge; Castillo, Alberto; Gimeno, Miquel; Shirai, Keiko

    2012-09-01

    Crab wastes are employed for simultaneous production of chitin and L(+)-lactic acid by submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source. Response surface methodology was applied to design the culture media considering demineralization. Fermentations in stirred tank reactor (2L) using selected conditions produced 88% demineralization and 56% deproteinization with 34% yield of chitin and 19.5 gL(-1) of lactic acid (77% yield). The chitin purified from fermentation displayed 95% degree of acetylation and 0.81 and 1 ± 0.125% of residual ash and protein contents, respectively.

  17. Production of poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) from waste organics by the two-stage process: focus on the intermediate volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Hu, Hongyou; Ji, Hongfang; Cai, Jiyuan; He, Ning; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Yuanpeng

    2014-08-01

    The two-stage process, coupling volatile fatty acids (VFAs) fermentation and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (P(HB/HV)) biosynthesis, was investigated for five waste organic materials. The overall conversion efficiencies were glycerol>starch>molasses>waste sludge>protein, meanwhile the maximum P(HB/HV) (1.674 g/L) was obtained from waste starch. Altering the waste type brought more effects on VFAs composition other than the yield in the first stage, which in turn greatly changed the yield in the second stage. Further study showed that even-number carbon VFAs (or odd-number ones) had a good positive linear relationship with P(HB/HV) content of HB (or HV). Additionally, VFA producing microbiota was analyzed by pyrosequencing methods for five wastes, which indicated that specific species (e.g., Lactobacillus for protein; Ethanoligenens for starch; Ruminococcus and Limnobacter for glycerol) were dominant in the community for VFAs production. Potential competition among acidogenic bacteria specially involved to produce some VFA was proposed as well.

  18. Time evolution of the general characteristics and Cu retention capacity in an acid soil amended with a bentonite winery waste.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The effect of bentonite waste added to a "poor" soil on its general characteristic and copper adsorption capacity was assessed. The soil was amended with different bentonite waste concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1)) in laboratory pots, and different times of incubation of samples were tested (one day and one, four and eight months). The addition of bentonite waste increased the pH, organic matter content and phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the soil, being stable for P and K, whereas the organic matter decreased with time. Additionally, the copper sorption capacity of the soil and the energy of the Cu bonds increased with bentonite waste additions. However, the use of this type of waste in soil presented important drawbacks for waste dosages higher than 20 Mg ha(-1), such as an excessive increase of the soil pH and an increase of copper in the soil solution.

  19. Time evolution of the general characteristics and Cu retention capacity in an acid soil amended with a bentonite winery waste.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The effect of bentonite waste added to a "poor" soil on its general characteristic and copper adsorption capacity was assessed. The soil was amended with different bentonite waste concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1)) in laboratory pots, and different times of incubation of samples were tested (one day and one, four and eight months). The addition of bentonite waste increased the pH, organic matter content and phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the soil, being stable for P and K, whereas the organic matter decreased with time. Additionally, the copper sorption capacity of the soil and the energy of the Cu bonds increased with bentonite waste additions. However, the use of this type of waste in soil presented important drawbacks for waste dosages higher than 20 Mg ha(-1), such as an excessive increase of the soil pH and an increase of copper in the soil solution. PMID:25560662

  20. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using combined free nitrous acid and heat pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-15

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow degradation and poor substrate availability of WAS. Our previous study revealed that WAS pre-treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA, i.e. HNO2) is an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method for promoting methane production. In order to further improve methane production from WAS, this study presents a novel strategy based on combined FNA and heat pre-treatment. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated for 24 h with FNA alone (0.52-1.43 mg N/L at 25 °C), heat alone (35, 55 and 70 °C), and FNA (0.52-1.11 mg N/L) combined with heat (35, 55 and 70 °C). The pre-treated WAS was then used for biochemical methane potential tests. Compared to the control (no FNA or heat pre-treatment of WAS), biochemical methane potential of the pre-treated WAS was increased by 12-16%, 0-6%, 17-26%, respectively; hydrolysis rate was improved by 15-25%, 10-25%, 20-25%, respectively, for the three types of pre-treatment. Heat pre-treatment at 55 and 70 °C, independent of the presence or absence of FNA, achieved approximately 4.5 log inactivation of pathogens (in comparison to ∼1 log inactivation with FNA treatment alone), thus capable of producing Class A biosolids. The combined FNA and heat pre-treatment is an economically and environmentally attractive technology for the pre-treatment of WAS prior to anaerobic digestion, particularly considering that both FNA and heat can be produced as by-products of anaerobic sludge digestion.

  1. Changes in mobility of toxic elements during the production of phosphoric acid in the fertilizer industry of Huelva (SW Spain) and environmental impact of phosphogypsum wastes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Alvarez-Valero, Antonio M; Nieto, José Miguel

    2007-09-30

    Presently, about 3 million tonnes of phosphogypsum are being generated annually in Spain as by-product from phosphoric acid in a fertilizer factory located in Huelva (southwestern Iberian Peninsula). Phosphate rock from Morocco is used as raw material in this process. Phosphogypsum wastes are stored in a stack containing 100Mt (approximately 1200ha of surface) over salt marshes of an estuary formed by the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, less than 1km away from the city centre. A very low proportion of this waste is used to improve fertility of agricultural soils in the area of the Guadalquivir river valley (Seville, SW Spain). The chemical speciation of potentially toxic elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) in phosphogypsum and phosphate rock was performed using the modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure, as described by the European Community Bureau of Reference (1999). This study has been done with the main of: (1) evaluate changes in the mobility of metals during the production of phosphoric acid; (2) estimate the amount of mobile metals that can affect the environmental surrounding; and (3) verify the environmentally safe use of phosphogypsum as an amendment to agricultural soils. The main environmental concern associated to phosphoric acid production is that Uranium, a radiotoxic element, is transferred from the non-mobile fraction in the phosphate rock to the bioavailable fraction in phosphogypsum in a rate of 23%. Around 21% of Ba, 6% of Cu and Sr, 5% of Cd and Ni, and 2% of Zn are also contained in the water-soluble phase of the final waste. Considering the total mass of phosphogypsum, the amount of metals easily soluble in water is approximately 6178, 3089, 1931, 579, 232, 193 and 77t for Sr, U, Ba, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cd, respectively. This gives an idea of the pollution potential of this waste. PMID:17683858

  2. Techno-economic analysis of a food waste valorization process via microalgae cultivation and co-production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed from algal biomass and food waste.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Venus, Joachim; Pommeret, Aude; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-12-01

    A techno-economic study of food waste valorization via fungal hydrolysis, microalgae cultivation and production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed was simulated and evaluated by Super-Pro Designer®. A pilot-scale plant was designed with a capacity of 1 metric ton day(-1) of food waste with 20 years lifetime. Two scenarios were proposed with different products: Scenario (I) plasticizer & lactic acid, Scenario (II) plasticizer & animal feed. It was found that only Scenario I was economically feasible. The annual net profits, net present value, payback period and internal rate of return were US$ 422,699, US$ 3,028,000, 7.56 years and 18.98%, respectively. Scenario II was not economic viable due to a deficit of US$ 42,632 per year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the price of lactic acid was the largest determinant of the profitability in Scenario I, while the impact of the variables was very close in Scenario II.

  3. An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of 137 Cesium from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions 2: Bench-Scale Column Experiments, Modeling, and Preliminary Process Design

    SciTech Connect

    Troy J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschagina; V. Utgikar

    2009-03-01

    A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4?3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales.

  4. Waste-Glycerol-Directed Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica and Carbon with Superior Performance in Room-Temperature Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Park, Ji Chan; Lee, Chun-Boo; Oh, Duckkyu; Lee, Sung-Wook; Park, Jin-Woo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The development of easier, cheaper, and more ecofriendly synthetic methods for mesoporous materials remains a challenging topic to commercialize them, and the transformation of waste glycerol, as a biodiesel byproduct, into something useful and salable is one of the pending issues to be resolved. Here we first report that mesoporous silica (KIE-6) and carbon (KIE-7) can be simultaneously synthesized by using cheap and ecofriendly crude-waste-glycerol of biodiesel with or without glycerol purification, and we demonstrated the excellent performance of the mesoporous material as a catalyst support for formic acid decomposition. As a result, Pd-MnOx catalysts supported on NH2-functionalized KIE-6 showed the highest catalytic activity (TOF: 540.6 h−1) ever reported for room-temperature formic acid decomposition without additives. Moreover, we conducted life-cycle assessment (LCA) from biomass cultivation through biodiesel production to KIE-6 and KIE-7 preparation, and it was confirmed that CO2 emission during synthesis of KIE-6 and KIE-7 could be reduced by 87.1% and 85.7%, respectively. We believe that our study suggested more ecofriendly and industry-friendly approaches for preparation of mesoporous materials, and utilization of waste glycerol. PMID:26515193

  5. Waste-Glycerol-Directed Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica and Carbon with Superior Performance in Room-Temperature Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Park, Ji Chan; Lee, Chun-Boo; Oh, Duckkyu; Lee, Sung-Wook; Park, Jin-Woo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2015-10-01

    The development of easier, cheaper, and more ecofriendly synthetic methods for mesoporous materials remains a challenging topic to commercialize them, and the transformation of waste glycerol, as a biodiesel byproduct, into something useful and salable is one of the pending issues to be resolved. Here we first report that mesoporous silica (KIE-6) and carbon (KIE-7) can be simultaneously synthesized by using cheap and ecofriendly crude-waste-glycerol of biodiesel with or without glycerol purification, and we demonstrated the excellent performance of the mesoporous material as a catalyst support for formic acid decomposition. As a result, Pd-MnOx catalysts supported on NH2-functionalized KIE-6 showed the highest catalytic activity (TOF: 540.6 h-1) ever reported for room-temperature formic acid decomposition without additives. Moreover, we conducted life-cycle assessment (LCA) from biomass cultivation through biodiesel production to KIE-6 and KIE-7 preparation, and it was confirmed that CO2 emission during synthesis of KIE-6 and KIE-7 could be reduced by 87.1% and 85.7%, respectively. We believe that our study suggested more ecofriendly and industry-friendly approaches for preparation of mesoporous materials, and utilization of waste glycerol.

  6. Waste-Glycerol-Directed Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica and Carbon with Superior Performance in Room-Temperature Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Park, Ji Chan; Lee, Chun-Boo; Oh, Duckkyu; Lee, Sung-Wook; Park, Jin-Woo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The development of easier, cheaper, and more ecofriendly synthetic methods for mesoporous materials remains a challenging topic to commercialize them, and the transformation of waste glycerol, as a biodiesel byproduct, into something useful and salable is one of the pending issues to be resolved. Here we first report that mesoporous silica (KIE-6) and carbon (KIE-7) can be simultaneously synthesized by using cheap and ecofriendly crude-waste-glycerol of biodiesel with or without glycerol purification, and we demonstrated the excellent performance of the mesoporous material as a catalyst support for formic acid decomposition. As a result, Pd-MnOx catalysts supported on NH2-functionalized KIE-6 showed the highest catalytic activity (TOF: 540.6 h(-1)) ever reported for room-temperature formic acid decomposition without additives. Moreover, we conducted life-cycle assessment (LCA) from biomass cultivation through biodiesel production to KIE-6 and KIE-7 preparation, and it was confirmed that CO2 emission during synthesis of KIE-6 and KIE-7 could be reduced by 87.1% and 85.7%, respectively. We believe that our study suggested more ecofriendly and industry-friendly approaches for preparation of mesoporous materials, and utilization of waste glycerol. PMID:26515193

  7. Changes in soil properties and in the growth of Lolium multiflorum in an acid soil amended with a solid waste from wineries.

    PubMed

    Nóvoa-Muñoz, J C; Simal-Gándara, J; Fernández-Calviño, D; López-Periago, E; Arias-Estévez, M

    2008-10-01

    The agronomic utility of a solid waste, waste perlite (WP), from wine companies was assessed. In this sense, the natural characteristics of the waste were measured, followed by the monitoring of its effects on the chemical properties of acid soils and the growth of Lolium multiflorum. Taking into account that heavy metals associated to the waste (such as Cu, Zn and Mn) could cause problems when used as amendment, the changes in their total levels and in their soil fractionation were also studied, together with their total contents in L. multiflorum. The high content in C (214gkg(-1)), N (25gkg(-1)), P (534mgkg(-1)) and K (106gkg(-1)) of WP turned it into an appropriate amendment to increase soil fertility, solving at the same time its disposal. WP contributed to increase soil pH (in 2 pH units) and cation exchange capacity (CEC increased in 3cmolckg(-1)units), but reduced the potential Cu phytotoxicity due to a change in Cu distribution towards less soluble fractions. The growth of L. multiflorum adequately responds to the treatment with WP at addition rates below 2.5gkg(-1), whereas the imbalance between nutrients can justify the reduction in biomass production at higher WP addition rates. The levels of heavy metals analyzed in L. multiflorum biomass (8-85gkg(-1)) do not seem to cause undesirable effects on its growth. PMID:18331789

  8. Waste activated sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions: effect of pH.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Chen, Yinguang; Zhou, Qi

    2009-08-01

    The effect of pH (4.0-11.0) on waste activated sludge (WAS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions were investigated. The WAS hydrolysis increased markedly in thermophilic fermentation compared to mesophilic fermentation at any pH investigated. The hydrolysis at alkaline pHs (8.0-11.0) was greater than that at acidic pHs, but both of the acidic and alkaline hydrolysis was higher than that pH uncontrolled under either mesophilic or thermophilic conditions. No matter in mesophilic or thermophilic fermentation, the accumulation of SCFAs at alkaline pHs was greater than at acidic or uncontrolled pHs. The optimum SCFAs accumulation was 0.298g COD/g volatile suspended solids (VSS) with mesophilic fermentation, and 0.368 with thermophilic fermentation, which was observed respectively at pH 9.0 and fermentation time 5 d and pH 8.0 and time 9 d. The maximum SCFAs productions reported in this study were much greater than that in the literature. The analysis of the SCFAs composition showed that acetic acid was the prevalent acid in the accumulated SCFAs at any pH investigated under both temperatures, followed by propionic acid and n-valeric acid. Nevertheless, during the entire mesophilic and thermophilic fermentation the activity of methanogens was inhibited severely at acid or alkaline pHs, and the highest methane concentration was obtained at pH 7.0 in most cases. The studies of carbon mass balance showed that during WAS fermentation the reduction of VSS decreased with the increase of pH, and the thermophilic VSS reduction was greater than the mesophilic one. Further investigation indicated that most of the reduced VSS was converted to soluble protein and carbohydrate and SCFAs in two fermentations systems, while little formed methane and carbon dioxide.

  9. Structure and chemistry of bacterially populated acidic microenvironments found on naturally colonized and weathered circumneutral pH unsaturated waste rock from the Antamina Mine, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dockrey, J. W.; Mayer, K. U.; Beckie, R. D.; Southam, G.

    2009-12-01

    The microbial community present in geochemically well characterized field cells and experimental waste rock piles at the Antamina Mine, were examined using electron microscopy, culture dependent, and culture independent techniques. Relatively large populations of up to 10^8 bacteria per gram were found, despite the young age of the waste rock (1.5 years). Most samples were at alkaline pH and dominated by bacteria capable of neutral pH thiosulfate oxidation. One sample from a field cell producing drainage at a pH of 6.5 was dominated by acidophilic bacteria capable of Fe^2+ and S^0 oxidation. A weathered massive sulfide from this sample was thoroughly examined using a field emission gun scanning electron microscope equipped with a focused ion beam (FE-SEM-FIB). Bacteria were abundant as monolayer and agglomerate biofilms upon and within a porous schwertmannite precipitate, while no bacteria were found directly attached to clean sulfide surfaces. Pitting of pyrrhotite was observed beneath the microbially inhabited schwertmannite, while no pitting was observed in adjacent clean pyrrhotite surfaces indicating greater oxidation of the pyrrhotite surface beneath the schwertmannite. Some waste rock that has been exposed to natural surface weathering conditions for more than twice the amount of time, possessed larger total populations of bacteria, but did not support significant populations of acidophiles, suggesting a succession from neutrophiles to acidophiles takes place prior to the development of acid mine drainage. The development of the porous iron oxide film may be prerequisite for acidophilic bacteria to flourish, creating acidic microenvironments within a neutral bulk, ambient pH mine waste.

  10. Simultaneous production of l-lactic acid with high optical activity and a soil amendment with food waste that demonstrates plant growth promoting activity.

    PubMed

    Kitpreechavanich, Vichien; Hayami, Arisa; Talek, Anfal; Chin, Clament Fui Seung; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    A unique method to produce highly optically-active l-lactic acid and soil amendments that promote plant growth from food waste was proposed. Three Bacillus strains Bacillus subtilis KBKU21, B. subtilis N3-9 and Bacillus coagulans T27, were used. Strain KBKU21 accumulated 36.9 g/L l-lactic acid with 95.7% optical activity and 98.2% l-lactic acid selectivity when fermented at 43°C for 84 h in a model kitchen refuse (MKR) medium. Residual precipitate fraction (anaerobically-fermented MKR (AFM) compost) analysis revealed 4.60%, 0.70% and 0.75% of nitrogen (as N), phosphorous (as P2O5), and potassium (as K2O), respectively. Additionally, the carbon to nitrogen ratio decreased from 13.3 to 10.6. AFM compost with KBKU21 promoted plant growth parameters, including leaf length, plant height and fresh weight of Brassica rapa (Komatsuna), than that by chemical fertilizers or commercial compost. The concept provides an incentive for the complete recycling of food waste, contributing towards a sustainable production system.

  11. Simultaneous production of l-lactic acid with high optical activity and a soil amendment with food waste that demonstrates plant growth promoting activity.

    PubMed

    Kitpreechavanich, Vichien; Hayami, Arisa; Talek, Anfal; Chin, Clament Fui Seung; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    A unique method to produce highly optically-active l-lactic acid and soil amendments that promote plant growth from food waste was proposed. Three Bacillus strains Bacillus subtilis KBKU21, B. subtilis N3-9 and Bacillus coagulans T27, were used. Strain KBKU21 accumulated 36.9 g/L l-lactic acid with 95.7% optical activity and 98.2% l-lactic acid selectivity when fermented at 43°C for 84 h in a model kitchen refuse (MKR) medium. Residual precipitate fraction (anaerobically-fermented MKR (AFM) compost) analysis revealed 4.60%, 0.70% and 0.75% of nitrogen (as N), phosphorous (as P2O5), and potassium (as K2O), respectively. Additionally, the carbon to nitrogen ratio decreased from 13.3 to 10.6. AFM compost with KBKU21 promoted plant growth parameters, including leaf length, plant height and fresh weight of Brassica rapa (Komatsuna), than that by chemical fertilizers or commercial compost. The concept provides an incentive for the complete recycling of food waste, contributing towards a sustainable production system. PMID:26819060

  12. Potential application of gasification to recycle food waste and rehabilitate acidic soil from secondary forests on degraded land in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhanyu; Koh, Shun Kai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Lim, Reuben C J; Tan, Hugh T W; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Chong, Clive; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-05-01

    Gasification is recognized as a green technology as it can harness energy from biomass in the form of syngas without causing severe environmental impacts, yet producing valuable solid residues that can be utilized in other applications. In this study, the feasibility of co-gasification of woody biomass and food waste in different proportions was investigated using a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. Subsequently, the capability of biochar derived from gasification of woody biomass in the rehabilitation of soil from tropical secondary forests on degraded land (adinandra belukar) was also explored through a water spinach cultivation study using soil-biochar mixtures of different ratios. Gasification of a 60:40 wood waste-food waste mixture (w/w) produced syngas with the highest lower heating value (LHV) 5.29 MJ/m(3)-approximately 0.4-4.0% higher than gasification of 70:30 or 80:20 mixtures, or pure wood waste. Meanwhile, water spinach cultivated in a 2:1 soil-biochar mixture exhibited the best growth performance in terms of height (a 4-fold increment), weight (a 10-fold increment) and leaf surface area (a 5-fold increment) after 8 weeks of cultivation, owing to the high porosity, surface area, nutrient content and alkalinity of biochar. It is concluded that gasification may be an alternative technology to food waste disposal through co-gasification with woody biomass, and that gasification derived biochar is suitable for use as an amendment for the nutrient-poor, acidic soil of adinandra belukar.

  13. Investigation and optimization of a passively operated compost-based system for remediation of acidic, highly iron- and sulfate-rich industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Dann, Alison L; Cooper, Rodney S; Bowman, John P

    2009-05-01

    A passively operated multi-stage bioremediation system utilizing composted agricultural waste products and an artificial wetland system was found to be effective for purification of acidic, iron- and sulfate-rich waste water derived from titanium mineral processing. The main microbial players involved in the remediation system processes and the dynamics were investigated; mineral processing waste water-filled sludge dams possessed stable microbial communities that included Acidithiobacillus, Desulfurella, and acidophilic, anaerobic fermenters of the order Bacteroidales. These groups were enriched in a subsequent potato waste-based iron mobilization pre-treatment stage. Within downstream reduction treatment stages ("reduction cells"), compost/straw decomposition and associated sulfur/sulfate and iron reduction were carried out by a complex mix of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The efficaciousness of the system without replacement of the compost was found to steadily decline following 2 years of operation and corresponded with the reduction cell communities becoming simultaneously more diverse and homogenous. Microcosm-based experiments demonstrated that operational declines were due to unsustained supply of suitable labile carbon sources combined with spatial heterogeneity within the layered design of the reduction stage of the system resulting in inadequate redox conditions. Temperature was not found to be a critical performance factor in the range of 10-25 degrees C. Application of a combined emulsified oil/molasses amendment was found to be highly effective in promoting a microbial community capable of remediating waste water with high iron and sulfate levels. Acidophilic members of the order Bacteroidales were found to be critical in the investigated remediation system, providing organic donors for subsequent metal and sulfur transformations and could have a broader ecological significance than previously suspected. PMID:19297003

  14. Potential application of gasification to recycle food waste and rehabilitate acidic soil from secondary forests on degraded land in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhanyu; Koh, Shun Kai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Lim, Reuben C J; Tan, Hugh T W; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Chong, Clive; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-05-01

    Gasification is recognized as a green technology as it can harness energy from biomass in the form of syngas without causing severe environmental impacts, yet producing valuable solid residues that can be utilized in other applications. In this study, the feasibility of co-gasification of woody biomass and food waste in different proportions was investigated using a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. Subsequently, the capability of biochar derived from gasification of woody biomass in the rehabilitation of soil from tropical secondary forests on degraded land (adinandra belukar) was also explored through a water spinach cultivation study using soil-biochar mixtures of different ratios. Gasification of a 60:40 wood waste-food waste mixture (w/w) produced syngas with the highest lower heating value (LHV) 5.29 MJ/m(3)-approximately 0.4-4.0% higher than gasification of 70:30 or 80:20 mixtures, or pure wood waste. Meanwhile, water spinach cultivated in a 2:1 soil-biochar mixture exhibited the best growth performance in terms of height (a 4-fold increment), weight (a 10-fold increment) and leaf surface area (a 5-fold increment) after 8 weeks of cultivation, owing to the high porosity, surface area, nutrient content and alkalinity of biochar. It is concluded that gasification may be an alternative technology to food waste disposal through co-gasification with woody biomass, and that gasification derived biochar is suitable for use as an amendment for the nutrient-poor, acidic soil of adinandra belukar. PMID:26921564

  15. Influence of organic acids on kinetic release of chromium in soil contaminated with leather factory waste in the presence of some adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Marzieh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) (MgO, ZnO, TiO2) and clay minerals (bentonite, zeolite) on the release of chromium (Cr) from leather factory waste (LFW) and LFW treated soil using organic acids. Chromium release from all treatments was studied in the presence of citric acid, oxalic acid and CaCl2 solutions. The results showed that, in all treatments, organic acids released more Cr than inorganic salt (CaCl2). The release of Cr by citric acid was higher than that by oxalic acid. In LFW treated soil and LFW, the release of Cr from the all treatments with NPs was less than that from the clay mineral treatments. On the other hand, in the presence of organic acids, Cr release by NPs and clay minerals decreased. Two kinetic models including pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order model were tested to describe the time dependent Cr release data. Among the kinetic models used, the pseudo-second-order model generally gave the best fits to experimental data. Before and after release experiments, Cr in LFW, treated LFW, control soil and LFW treated soils were fractionated. In all treatments, the greatest amounts of Cr were found in the residual fraction (RES). The organic acids were effective in reducing the exchangeable (EXC), bound to organic matter (OM) and bound to carbonate (CAR) fractions of Cr in all treatments, whereas, after release of Cr from treated soils, Cr remained mainly in the RES fraction. The application of NPs and clay minerals in soil led to a significant transformation of Cr from mobile fractions to the RES fraction. Therefore, organic ligands played a dominant role in mobility and bioavailability of Cr and the removal of Cr by adsorbents.

  16. Influence of organic acids on kinetic release of chromium in soil contaminated with leather factory waste in the presence of some adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Marzieh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) (MgO, ZnO, TiO2) and clay minerals (bentonite, zeolite) on the release of chromium (Cr) from leather factory waste (LFW) and LFW treated soil using organic acids. Chromium release from all treatments was studied in the presence of citric acid, oxalic acid and CaCl2 solutions. The results showed that, in all treatments, organic acids released more Cr than inorganic salt (CaCl2). The release of Cr by citric acid was higher than that by oxalic acid. In LFW treated soil and LFW, the release of Cr from the all treatments with NPs was less than that from the clay mineral treatments. On the other hand, in the presence of organic acids, Cr release by NPs and clay minerals decreased. Two kinetic models including pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order model were tested to describe the time dependent Cr release data. Among the kinetic models used, the pseudo-second-order model generally gave the best fits to experimental data. Before and after release experiments, Cr in LFW, treated LFW, control soil and LFW treated soils were fractionated. In all treatments, the greatest amounts of Cr were found in the residual fraction (RES). The organic acids were effective in reducing the exchangeable (EXC), bound to organic matter (OM) and bound to carbonate (CAR) fractions of Cr in all treatments, whereas, after release of Cr from treated soils, Cr remained mainly in the RES fraction. The application of NPs and clay minerals in soil led to a significant transformation of Cr from mobile fractions to the RES fraction. Therefore, organic ligands played a dominant role in mobility and bioavailability of Cr and the removal of Cr by adsorbents. PMID:27139119

  17. Chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid and chitin/chitosan production using marine waste sources: characteristics, applications and eco-friendly processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Amado, Isabel; Montemayor, María Ignacia; Fraguas, Javier; González, María Del Pilar; Murado, Miguel Anxo

    2013-03-11

    In the last decade, an increasing number of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chitin and chitosan applications have been reported. Their commercial demands have been extended to different markets, such as cosmetics, medicine, biotechnology, food and textiles. Marine wastes from fisheries and aquaculture are susceptible sources for polymers but optimized processes for their recovery and production must be developed to satisfy such necessities. In the present work, we have reviewed different alternatives reported in the literature to produce and purify chondroitin sulfate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitin/chitosan (CH/CHs) with the aim of proposing environmentally friendly processes by combination of various microbial, chemical, enzymatic and membranes strategies and technologies.

  18. Chondroitin Sulfate, Hyaluronic Acid and Chitin/Chitosan Production Using Marine Waste Sources: Characteristics, Applications and Eco-Friendly Processes: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Amado, Isabel; Montemayor, María Ignacia; Fraguas, Javier; del Pilar González, María; Murado, Miguel Anxo

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, an increasing number of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chitin and chitosan applications have been reported. Their commercial demands have been extended to different markets, such as cosmetics, medicine, biotechnology, food and textiles. Marine wastes from fisheries and aquaculture are susceptible sources for polymers but optimized processes for their recovery and production must be developed to satisfy such necessities. In the present work, we have reviewed different alternatives reported in the literature to produce and purify chondroitin sulfate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitin/chitosan (CH/CHs) with the aim of proposing environmentally friendly processes by combination of various microbial, chemical, enzymatic and membranes strategies and technologies. PMID:23478485

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Affects Acetic Acid Production during Anaerobic Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge by Altering Activity and Viability of Acetogen.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Chen, Yinguang; Feng, Leiyu

    2016-07-01

    Till now, almost all the studies on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for bioproducts generation focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods and sludge characteristics, and few considered those of widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sludge, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, phenanthrene, which was a typical PAH and widespread in WAS, was selected as a model compound to investigate its effect on WAS anaerobic fermentation for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation. Experimental results showed that the concentration of SCFAs derived from WAS was increased in the presence of phenanthrene during anaerobic fermentation. The yield of acetic acid which was the predominant SCFA in the fermentation reactor with the concentration of 100 mg/kg dry sludge was 1.8 fold of that in the control. Mechanism exploration revealed that the present phenanthrene mainly affected the acidification process of anaerobic fermentation and caused the shift of the microbial community to benefit the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation showed that both the activities of key enzymes (phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase) involved in acetic acid production and the quantities of their corresponding encoding genes were enhanced in the presence of phenanthrene. Viability tests by determining the adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and membrane potential confirmed that the acetogens were more viable in anaerobic fermentation systems with phenanthrene, which resulted in the increased production of acetic acid. PMID:27267805

  20. Citric acid production from glycerol-containing waste of biodiesel industry by Yarrowia lipolytica in batch, repeated batch, and cell recycle regimes.

    PubMed

    Rymowicz, Waldemar; Fatykhova, Alina R; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Rywińska, Anita; Morgunov, Igor G

    2010-07-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica A-101-1.22 produces high citric acid (112 g l(-1)) with a yield of 0.6 g g(-1) and a productivity of 0.71 g l(-1) h(-1) during batch cultivation in the medium with glycerol-containing waste of biodiesel industry. However, it was observed that the specific citric acid production rate, which was maximal at the beginning of the biosynthesis, gradually decreases in the late production phase and it makes continuation of the process over 100 h pointless. The cell recycle and the repeated batch regimes were performed as ways for prolongation of citric acid synthesis by yeast. Using cell recycle, the active citric acid biosynthesis (96-107 g l(-1)) with a yield of 0.64 g g(-1) and a productivity of 1.42 g l(-1) h(-1) was prolongated up to 300 h. Repeated batch culture remained stable for over 1000 h; the RB variant of 30% feed every 3 days showed the best results: 124.2 g l(-1) citric acid with a yield of 0.77 g g(-1) and a productivity of 0.85 g l(-1) h(-1).

  1. Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

    1984-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.

  2. Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat with low free fatty acids by an integrated catalytic process of composite membrane and sodium methoxide.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenying; Li, Jianxin; He, Benqiao; Yan, Feng; Cui, Zhenyu; Wu, Kaiwei; Lin, Ligang; Qian, Xiaomin; Cheng, Yu

    2013-07-01

    An integrated process of catalytic composite membranes (CCMs) and sodium methoxide was developed to produce biodiesel from waste chicken fat. The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the chicken oil were converted to methyl esters by esterification with methanol using a novel sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES)/PES/non-woven fabric (NWF) CCMs in a flow-through catalytic membrane reactor. The CCM is that the NWF fibers were fully embedded in SPES/PES with a homogeneous and microporous structure. The oil obtained after esterification was carried out by transesterification of sodium methoxide. The results showed that the FFAs conversion obtained by CCMs with the acid capacity of 25.28 mmol (H(+)) was 92.8% at the residence time 258s. The CCMs present a good stability during the continuous running of 500 h. The conversion of transesterification was 98.1% under the optimum conditions. The quality of the biodiesel met the international standards. PMID:23665693

  3. Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat with low free fatty acids by an integrated catalytic process of composite membrane and sodium methoxide.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenying; Li, Jianxin; He, Benqiao; Yan, Feng; Cui, Zhenyu; Wu, Kaiwei; Lin, Ligang; Qian, Xiaomin; Cheng, Yu

    2013-07-01

    An integrated process of catalytic composite membranes (CCMs) and sodium methoxide was developed to produce biodiesel from waste chicken fat. The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the chicken oil were converted to methyl esters by esterification with methanol using a novel sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES)/PES/non-woven fabric (NWF) CCMs in a flow-through catalytic membrane reactor. The CCM is that the NWF fibers were fully embedded in SPES/PES with a homogeneous and microporous structure. The oil obtained after esterification was carried out by transesterification of sodium methoxide. The results showed that the FFAs conversion obtained by CCMs with the acid capacity of 25.28 mmol (H(+)) was 92.8% at the residence time 258s. The CCMs present a good stability during the continuous running of 500 h. The conversion of transesterification was 98.1% under the optimum conditions. The quality of the biodiesel met the international standards.

  4. The fulvic acid fraction as it changes in the mature phase of vegetable oil-mill sludge and domestic waste composting.

    PubMed

    Abouelwafa, Rajae; Amir, Soumia; Souabi, Salah; Winterton, Peter; Ndira, Victor; Revel, Jean-Claude; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2008-09-01

    Sludge resulting from the treatment of effluent from a vegetable oil mill, was composted mixed with domestic waste in a pile for five months. Different proportions of sludge and dry waste were mixed: M1 (1v/2v) and M2 (1v/1v). Monitoring different physical-chemical parameters showed the effect of the substrate on the microbiological activity and on the formation of fulvic acids, affecting the maturity of the final compost. Elemental analysis revealed that the fulvic acids of mixes M1 and M2 presented very low concentrations of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and a high level of nitrogen. The FTIR spectroscopy results showed a decrease during composting of the intensity of absorbance of the easily assimilable compounds that are predominant in the initial mixtures i.e. the carbohydrates (1170-1080 cm(-1)) in M1 and long aliphatic chains (2920 cm(-1)) in M2. For mix M1 there was enrichment in compounds bearing oxygen-containing moieties. In M2 it was the nitrogen-containing compounds (in the form of stable amides) which predominated at the end of composting. The first component of PCA analysis, PC1, accounted for 83% of the difference between two distinct groups of parameters governing degradation and restructuration of the fulvic acids during composting. PC2 (17%) explained the variance due to the level of free or less polycondensed compounds in the two mixtures. Oxidised polyphenolic and polysaccharide structures were the least free, or most polycondensed, in the fulvic structures of M1. In M2 fulvic acids however, it was the polyphenols and peptide structures that were involved in the bonding, most likely of the polyphenol-peptide type.

  5. Application of a set of complementary techniques to understand how varying the proportion of two wastes affects humic acids produced by vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Nogales, Rogelio; Plante, Alain; Plaza, César; Fernández, José M

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of how varying the proportion of different organic wastes affects humic acid (HA) formation during vermicomposting would be useful in producing vermicomposts enriched in HAs. With the aim of improving the knowledge about this issue, a variety of analytical techniques [UV-visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence spectra, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and thermal analysis] was used in the present study to characterize HAs isolated from two mixtures at two different ratios (2:1 and 1:1) of tomato-plant debris (TD) and paper-mill sludge (PS) before and after vermicomposting. The results suggest that vermicomposting increased the HA content in the TD/PS 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures (15.9% and 16.2%, respectively), but the vermicompost produced from the mixture with a higher amount of TD had a greater proportion (24%) of HAs. Both vermicomposting processes caused equal modifications in the humic precursors contained in the different mixtures of TD and PS, and consequently, the HAs in the vermicomposts produced from different waste mixtures exhibited analogous characteristics. Only the set of analytical techniques used in this research was able to detect differences between the HAs isolated from each type of vermicompost. In conclusion, varying the proportion of different wastes may have a stronger influence on the amount of HAs in vermicomposts than on the properties of HAs. PMID:25318702

  6. Thermal and thermo-chemical pre-treatment of four waste residues and the effect on acetic acid production and methane synthesis.

    PubMed

    Strong, P J; Gapes, D J

    2012-09-01

    In this study four diverse solid waste substrates (coal, Kraft pulp solids, chicken feathers and chicken processing waste) were thermally pre-treated (70, 140 and 200 °C), under an inert (nitrogen) or oxidative (oxygen) atmosphere, and then anaerobically digested. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry during the thermal and thermo-chemical reactions was successfully used to establish oxygen and carbon dioxide gas fluxes and product formation (acetic acid). There was significant solids hydrolysis pre-treatment at 200 °C under an oxidative atmosphere, as indicated by a decrease in the volatile suspended solids and an increase in dissolved organic carbon. Greater concentrations of volatile fatty acids were produced under oxidative conditions at higher temperatures. The methane yield more than tripled for feathers after pre-treatment at 140 °C (under both atmospheres), but decreased after oxidative pre-treatment at 200 °C, due to the destruction of available carbon by the thermo-chemical reaction. Methane yield more than doubled for the Kraft pulp solids with the 200 °C pre-treatment under oxidative conditions. This study illustrated the power of wet oxidation for solids destruction and its potential to improve methane yields generated during anaerobic digestion. PMID:22609530

  7. HPLC-MS investigations of acidic contaminants in ammunition wastes using volatile ion-pairing reagents (VIP-LC-MS).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Torsten C; Buetehorn, Ulf; Steinbach, Klaus

    2004-02-01

    In order to hyphenate ion pairing chromatography and MS detection we used several types of formates as volatile ion pairing reagents (IPRs) instead of common tetraalkylammonium salts, as these salts tend to precipitate in the ion source. The formates were prepared by mixing formic acid with the corresponding amine. Both tributyl- and trihexylammonium formate proved to be valuable IPRs for the separation of acidic compounds like nitrobenzoic acids, nitrobenzenesulfonic acids and nitrated phenols. Due to the weaker retention of the ion-pairs with trialkylammonium formates compared with tetraalkylammonium compounds, either less organic modifier or a higher concentration of the IPR had to be used. With negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry it was possible to unambiguously identify several acidic oxidation products of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in ammunition wastewater and soil extracts. 2-amino-4,6-dinitrobenzoic acid was often found to be the main metabolite of TNT in such water samples.

  8. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Christopher J.; King, William D.; Ketusky, Edward T.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  9. A new morphological approach for removing acid dye from leather waste water: preparation and characterization of metal-chelated spherical particulated membranes (SPMs).

    PubMed

    Şenay, Raziye Hilal; Gökalp, Safiye Meriç; Türker, Evren; Feyzioğlu, Esra; Aslan, Ahmet; Akgöl, Sinan

    2015-03-15

    In this study, p(HEMA-GMA) poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) spherical particulated membranes (SPMs) were produced by UV-photopolymerization and the synthesized SPMs were coupled with iminodiacetic acid (IDA). Finally the novel SPMs were chelated with Cr(III) ions as ligand and used for removing acid black 210 dye. Characterizations of the metal-chelated SPMs were made by SEM, FTIR and swelling test. The water absorption capacities and acid dye adsorption properties of the SPMs were investigated and the results were 245.0, 50.0, 55.0 and 51.9% for p(HEMA), p(HEMA-GMA), p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA and p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs respectively. Adsorption properties of the p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs were investigated under different conditions such as different initial dye concentrations and pH. The optimum pH was observed at 4.3 and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined as 885.14 mg/g at about 8000 ppm initial dye concentration. The concentrations of the dyes were determined using a UV/Vis Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 435 nm. Reusability of p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs was also shown for five adsorption-desorption cycles without considerable decrease in its adsorption capacity. Finally, the results showed that the metal-chelated p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA SPMs were effective sorbent systems removing acid dye from leather waste water.

  10. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW.

  11. CASE STUDY: IN-SITU SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF HAZARDOUS ACID WASTE OIL SLUDGE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The South 8th Street site contained a 2.5 acre oily sludge pit with very low pH waste produced by oil recycling activities. This sludge was treated using in-situ solidification/stabilization technology applied by deep soil mixing augers. The problems encountered, solutions develo...

  12. Effect of feeding lipids recovered from fish processing waste by lactic acid fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis on antioxidant and membrane bound enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit Kumar; Bhaskar, N; Baskaran, V

    2015-06-01

    Fish oil recovered from fresh water fish visceral waste (FVW-FO) through lactic acid fermentation (FO-LAF) and enzymatic hydrolysis (FO-EH) were fed to rats to study their influence on lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant and membrane bound enzyme in liver, heart and brain. Feeding of FO-LAF and FO-EH resulted in increase (P < 0.05) in lipid peroxides level in serum, liver, brain and heart tissues compared to ground nut oil (control). Activity of catalase (40-235 %) and superoxide dismutase (17-143 %) also increased (P < 0.05) with incremental level of EPA + DHA in diet. The increase was similar to cod liver oil fed rats at same concentration of EPA + DHA. FO-LAF and FO-EH increased (P < 0.05) the Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity in liver and brain microsomes, Ca(+)Mg(+) ATPase in heart microsome and acetylcholine esterase in brain microsomes when fed with 5 % EPA + DHA. There was also significant change in fatty acid composition and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in microsomes of rat fed with FVW-FO. Feeding FVW-FO recovered by biotechnological approaches enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes in tissues, modulates the activities of membrane bound enzymes and improved the fatty acid composition in microsomes of tissues similar to CLO. Utilization of these processing wastes for the production of valuable biofunctional products can reduce the mounting economic values of fish oil and minimize the environmental pollution problems.

  13. Determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in nuclear waste by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    du Bois de Maquillé, Laurence; Renaudin, Laetitia; Goutelard, Florence; Jardy, Alain; Vial, Jérôme; Thiébaut, Didier

    2013-02-01

    EDTA is a chelating agent that has been used in decontamination processes. Its quantification is required for nuclear waste management because it affects the mobility of radionuclides and metals in environment and, thus, can harm the safety of the storage. Ion-pair chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry detection is a convenient method for quantitative analysis of EDTA but EDTA should be present as a single anionic chelate form. However, radioactive liquid wastes contain high concentrations of heavy metals and salts and consequently, EDTA is present as several chelates. Speciation studies were carried out to choose a metal cation to be added in excess to the solution to obtain a major chelate form. Fe is the predominant cation and Fe(III)-EDTA is thermodynamically favored but these speciation studies showed that ferric hydroxide precipitated above pH 2. Consequently, it was not possible to quantify EDTA as Fe(III)-EDTA complex. Therefore, Ni(2+) was chosen but its use implied pretreatment with a base of the solution to eliminate Fe. Deuterated EDTA was used as tracer in order to validate the whole procedure, from the treatment with a base to the final analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS. This analytical method was successfully applied for EDTA quantification in two real effluents resulting from a nuclear liquid waste process. A recovery rate between 60 and 80% was obtained. The limit of detection of this method was determined at 34×10(-9)mol L(-1).

  14. Recovery of Metallic Values from Brass Waste Using Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer; Saridede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2015-11-01

    The waste formed during industrial brass manufacturing is rich in copper and zinc metals. Therefore, treatment of this waste is a necessity from economic and environmental aspects. This study presents a process for recovery of zinc and copper through Brønsted ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate; [Bmim]HSO4), as leachate. It was found that all zinc content could be dissolved from the waste under two optimum conditions: (1) in ionic liquid (IL) concentration of 70% (v/v) at 60°C in 30 min or (2) in IL concentration of 50% (v/v) at 100°C in 60 min. On the other hand, ionic liquid leaching gave poor copper solubility under the conditions of the study. Zinc dissolution in the range 5-75 min by [Bmim]HSO4 can be explained with the shrinking core model controlled by diffusion through a product layer, and the apparent activation energy was calculated as 4.36 kJ/mol. The leach liquor was treated to obtain metallic zinc by the electrowinning method without a purification step. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) investigations showed that the layer of metallic zinc was plated successfully on the cathode.

  15. Determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in nuclear waste by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    du Bois de Maquillé, Laurence; Renaudin, Laetitia; Goutelard, Florence; Jardy, Alain; Vial, Jérôme; Thiébaut, Didier

    2013-02-01

    EDTA is a chelating agent that has been used in decontamination processes. Its quantification is required for nuclear waste management because it affects the mobility of radionuclides and metals in environment and, thus, can harm the safety of the storage. Ion-pair chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry detection is a convenient method for quantitative analysis of EDTA but EDTA should be present as a single anionic chelate form. However, radioactive liquid wastes contain high concentrations of heavy metals and salts and consequently, EDTA is present as several chelates. Speciation studies were carried out to choose a metal cation to be added in excess to the solution to obtain a major chelate form. Fe is the predominant cation and Fe(III)-EDTA is thermodynamically favored but these speciation studies showed that ferric hydroxide precipitated above pH 2. Consequently, it was not possible to quantify EDTA as Fe(III)-EDTA complex. Therefore, Ni(2+) was chosen but its use implied pretreatment with a base of the solution to eliminate Fe. Deuterated EDTA was used as tracer in order to validate the whole procedure, from the treatment with a base to the final analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS. This analytical method was successfully applied for EDTA quantification in two real effluents resulting from a nuclear liquid waste process. A recovery rate between 60 and 80% was obtained. The limit of detection of this method was determined at 34×10(-9)mol L(-1). PMID:23312862

  16. Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger van. Tieghem MTCC 281 using waste apple pomace as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Verma, Rachna; Bhalla, T C

    2010-08-01

    A solid state fermentation process was tried for the production of citric acid from apple pomace left after juice extraction using Aspergillus niger van. Tieghem MTCC 281 spores as inoculum (36.8 × 10(4) spores/100 g of pomace). The yield of citric acid was optimized by varying the amount of methanol (1-5% v/w), temperature (25-35°C) and time of incubation (1-7 days) for fermentation process. Optimum yield of citric acid (4.6 g/100 g of pomace) was recorded with 4% (v/w) methanol after 5 days of incubation at 30°C.

  17. Polymerin and lignimerin, as humic acid-like sorbents from vegetable waste, for the potential remediation of waters contaminated with heavy metals, herbicides, or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Renato; De Martino, Antonio

    2010-10-13

    Polymerin is a humic acid-like polymer, which we previously recovered for the first time from olive oil mill waste waters (OMWW) only, and chemically and physicochemically characterized. We also previously investigated its versatile sorption capacity for toxic inorganic and organic compounds. Therefore, a review is presented on the removal, from simulated polluted waters, of cationic heavy metals [Cu(II), Zn, Cr(III)] and anionic ones [Cr(VI)) and As(V)] by sorption on this natural organic sorbent in comparison with its synthetic derivatives, K-polymerin, a ferrihydrite-polymerin complex and with ferrihydrite. An overview is also performed of the removal of ionic herbicides (2,4-D, paraquat, MCPA, simazine, and cyhalofop) by sorption on polymerin, ferrihydrite, and their complex and of the removal of phenanthrene, as a representative of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by sorption on this sorbent and its complexes with micro- or nanoparticles of aluminum oxide, pointing out the employment of all these sorbents in biobed systems, which might allow the remediation of water and protection of surface and groundwater. In addition, a short review is also given on the removal of Cu(II) and Zn from simulated contaminated waters, by sorption on the humic acid-like organic fraction, named lignimerin, which we previously isolated for the first time, in collaboration with a Chilean group, from cellulose mill Kraft waste waters (KCMWW) only. More specifically, the production methods and the characterization of the two natural sorbents (polymerin and lignimerin) and their derivatives (K-polymerin ferrihydrite-polymerin, polymerin-microAl(2)O(3) and -nanoAl(2)O(3), and H-lignimerin, respectively) as well as their sorption data and mechanism are reviewed. Published and original results obtained by the cyclic sorption on all of the considered sorbents for the removal of the above-mentioned toxic compounds from simulated waste waters are also reported. Moreover, sorption capacity

  18. Novel integrated mechanical biological chemical treatment (MBCT) systems for the production of levulinic acid from fraction of municipal solid waste: A comprehensive techno-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Ng, Kok Siew; Martinez-Hernandez, Elias

    2016-09-01

    This paper, for the first time, reports integrated conceptual MBCT/biorefinery systems for unlocking the value of organics in municipal solid waste (MSW) through the production of levulinic acid (LA by 5wt%) that increases the economic margin by 110-150%. After mechanical separation recovering recyclables, metals (iron, aluminium, copper) and refuse derived fuel (RDF), lignocelluloses from remaining MSW are extracted by supercritical-water for chemical valorisation, comprising hydrolysis in 2wt% dilute H2SO4 catalyst producing LA, furfural, formic acid (FA), via C5/C6 sugar extraction, in plug flow (210-230°C, 25bar, 12s) and continuous stirred tank (195-215°C, 14bar, 20min) reactors; char separation and LA extraction/purification by methyl isobutyl ketone solvent; acid/solvent and by-product recovery. The by-product and pulping effluents are anaerobically digested into biogas and fertiliser. Produced biogas (6.4MWh/t), RDF (5.4MWh/t), char (4.5MWh/t) are combusted, heat recovered into steam generation in boiler (efficiency: 80%); on-site heat/steam demand is met; balance of steam is expanded into electricity in steam turbines (efficiency: 35%).

  19. Characterization and storage stability of astaxanthin esters, fatty acid profile and α-tocopherol of lipid extract from shrimp (L. vannamei) waste with potential applications as food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, J; Calvo, M M; Álvarez-Acero, I; Montero, P; Gómez-Guillén, M C

    2017-02-01

    In this work a lipid extract from shrimp waste was obtained and characterized. The most abundant fatty acids found were C16:0, C18:2n6c, C18:1n9c, C22:6n3, and C20:5n3. The extract contained all-trans-astaxanthin, two cis-astaxanthin isomers, 5 astaxanthin monoesters, and 10 astaxanthin diesters (7±1mg astaxanthin/g). C22:6n3 and C20:5n3 were the most frequent fatty acids in the esterified forms. Appreciable amounts of α-tocopherol and cholesterol were also found (126±11mg/g and 65±1mg/g, respectively). Little lipid oxidation was observed after 120days of storage at room temperature, revealed by a slight reduction of ω-3 fatty acids, but neither accumulation of TBARS nor formation of oxidized cholesterol forms was found. This is attributed to the antioxidant effect of astaxanthin and α-tocopherol, as their concentrations decreased as storage continued. The lipid extract obtained has interesting applications as food ingredient, owing to the coloring capacity and the presence of healthy components. PMID:27596389

  20. Novel integrated mechanical biological chemical treatment (MBCT) systems for the production of levulinic acid from fraction of municipal solid waste: A comprehensive techno-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Ng, Kok Siew; Martinez-Hernandez, Elias

    2016-09-01

    This paper, for the first time, reports integrated conceptual MBCT/biorefinery systems for unlocking the value of organics in municipal solid waste (MSW) through the production of levulinic acid (LA by 5wt%) that increases the economic margin by 110-150%. After mechanical separation recovering recyclables, metals (iron, aluminium, copper) and refuse derived fuel (RDF), lignocelluloses from remaining MSW are extracted by supercritical-water for chemical valorisation, comprising hydrolysis in 2wt% dilute H2SO4 catalyst producing LA, furfural, formic acid (FA), via C5/C6 sugar extraction, in plug flow (210-230°C, 25bar, 12s) and continuous stirred tank (195-215°C, 14bar, 20min) reactors; char separation and LA extraction/purification by methyl isobutyl ketone solvent; acid/solvent and by-product recovery. The by-product and pulping effluents are anaerobically digested into biogas and fertiliser. Produced biogas (6.4MWh/t), RDF (5.4MWh/t), char (4.5MWh/t) are combusted, heat recovered into steam generation in boiler (efficiency: 80%); on-site heat/steam demand is met; balance of steam is expanded into electricity in steam turbines (efficiency: 35%). PMID:27085988

  1. Characterization and storage stability of astaxanthin esters, fatty acid profile and α-tocopherol of lipid extract from shrimp (L. vannamei) waste with potential applications as food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, J; Calvo, M M; Álvarez-Acero, I; Montero, P; Gómez-Guillén, M C

    2017-02-01

    In this work a lipid extract from shrimp waste was obtained and characterized. The most abundant fatty acids found were C16:0, C18:2n6c, C18:1n9c, C22:6n3, and C20:5n3. The extract contained all-trans-astaxanthin, two cis-astaxanthin isomers, 5 astaxanthin monoesters, and 10 astaxanthin diesters (7±1mg astaxanthin/g). C22:6n3 and C20:5n3 were the most frequent fatty acids in the esterified forms. Appreciable amounts of α-tocopherol and cholesterol were also found (126±11mg/g and 65±1mg/g, respectively). Little lipid oxidation was observed after 120days of storage at room temperature, revealed by a slight reduction of ω-3 fatty acids, but neither accumulation of TBARS nor formation of oxidized cholesterol forms was found. This is attributed to the antioxidant effect of astaxanthin and α-tocopherol, as their concentrations decreased as storage continued. The lipid extract obtained has interesting applications as food ingredient, owing to the coloring capacity and the presence of healthy components.

  2. Technological Change in the Auto Industry. CAW Technology Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, David; Wareham, Jeff

    Today the auto industry is going through the most radical restructuring it has experienced since its birth. Included in this upheaval is a dramatic reorganization of the workplace, and technology has been both a catalyst and a central part of such change. The issues involved touch every facet of workplace life: job classifications and demarcation…

  3. Changing Technology and Work: Northern Telecom. CAW Technology Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, David; Wareham, Jeff

    A project to examine the implications of technological change at Northern Telecom consisted of two major components: a technological survey and case study research. A questionnaire that contained more than 90 questions on technological change was distributed through local union technology committee meetings in Brampton, London, Belleville, and…

  4. Influence of operating conditions for volatile fatty acids enrichment as a first step for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on a municipal waste water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Pittmann, Timo; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2013-11-01

    This work describes the generation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as the first step of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production cycle. Therefore four different substrates from a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated regarding high VFA production and stable VFA composition. Due to its highest VFA yield primary sludge was used as substrate to test a series of operating conditions (temperature, pH, retention time (RT) and withdrawal (WD)) in order to find suitable conditions for a stable VFA production. The results demonstrated that although the substrate primary sludge differs in its consistence a stable composition of VFA could be achieved. Experiments with a semi-continuous reactor operation showed that a short RT of 4d and a small WD of 25% at pH=6 and around 30°C is preferable for high VFA mass flow (MF=1913 mg VFA/(Ld)) and a stable VFA composition.

  5. Effect of neutralized solid waste generated in lime neutralization on the ferrous ion bio-oxidation process during acid mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lixiang; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Ming

    2015-12-15

    Bio-oxidation of ferrous ions prior to lime neutralization exhibits great potential for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, while slow ferrous ion bio-oxidation or total iron precipitation is a bottleneck in this process. In this study, neutralized solid waste (NSW) harvested in an AMD lime neutralization procedure was added as a crystal seed in AMD for iron oxyhydroxysulfate bio-synthesis. The effect of this waste on ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield during ferrous ion bio-oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated. Ferrous ion oxidation efficiency was greatly improved by adding NSW. After 72 h incubation, total iron precipitation efficiency in treatment with 24 g/L of NSW was 1.74-1.03 times higher than in treatment with 0-12 g/L of NSW. Compared with the conventional treatment system without added NSW, the iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield was increased by approximately 21.2-80.9% when 3-24 g/L of NSW were added. Aside from NSW, jarosite and schwertmannite were the main precipitates during ferrous ion bio-oxidation with NSW addition. NSW can thus serve as the crystal seed for iron oxyhydroxysulfate mineral bio-synthesis in AMD, and improve ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation efficiency significantly.

  6. Using S and Pb isotope ratios to trace leaching of toxic substances from an acid-impacted industrial-waste landfill (Pozdatky, Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Pacherova, Petra; Erbanova, Lucie; Veron, Alain J; Buzek, Frantisek; Jackova, Ivana; Paces, Tomas; Rukavickova, Lenka; Blaha, Vladimir; Holecek, Jan

    2012-10-15

    Slightly elevated concentrations of toxic species in waters sampled in the surroundings of a leaky landfill may be both a sign of an approaching contaminant plume, or a result of water-rock interaction. Isotopes can be instrumental in distinguishing between anthropogenic and geogenic species in groundwater. We studied sulfur and lead isotope ratios at an abandoned industrial-waste landfill, located in a densely populated part of Central Europe. Stable isotope variability in space and time was used to follow the movement of a groundwater plume, contaminated with toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Be), in fractured granitoids. Toxic metals had been mobilized from industrial waste by a strong pulse of sulfuric acid, also deposited in the landfill. Both tracers exhibited a wide range of values (δ(34)S between +2.6 and +18.9‰; (206)Pb/(207)Pb between 1.16 and 1.39), which facilitated identification of mixing end-members, and made it possible to assess the sources of the studied species. In situ fractionations did not hinder source apportionment. Influx of contaminated groundwater was observed neither in irrigation wells in a nearby village, nor at distances greater than 300 m from the landfill. Combination of stable isotope tracers can be used as part of an early-warning system in landscapes affected by landfills.

  7. Production of a value added compound from the H-acid waste water-Bioflocculants by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunying; Xu, Aihua; Wang, Buyun; Yang, Xianghui; Hong, Wentao; Yang, Baokun; Chen, Changhong; Liu, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiangang

    2014-10-01

    A novel strain (designated as ZCY-7) which could convert H-acid into bioflocculants was isolated from H-acid wastewater sludge. Conditions for bioflocculants production were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and determined to be inoculum size 9.65%, initial pH 7.0, and CODCr of the H-acid wastewater 520mg/L. The highest flocculating efficiency achieved for kaolin suspension was 95.1%, after 60h cultivation. The yielded bioflocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide (82.4%) and protein (14.2%), and maintained its flocculating activity in 0.4% (w/w) kaolin suspensions over pH 2-8 and 20-80°C. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that amino, amide and hydroxyl groups were present in the bioflocculant molecules. A viable alternative treatment technology of H-acid wastewater using this novel strain is suggested, which could largely reduce bioflocculants costs. In addition, flocculating mechanism investigation reveals that the bioflocculant could cause kaolin suspension instability by means of charge neutralization firstly and then promoted the aggregation of suspension particles by adsorption and bridge. It is evident from the results that H-acid wastewater could be used as a source to manufacture bioflocculants. PMID:25127749

  8. Production of a value added compound from the H-acid waste water-Bioflocculants by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunying; Xu, Aihua; Wang, Buyun; Yang, Xianghui; Hong, Wentao; Yang, Baokun; Chen, Changhong; Liu, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiangang

    2014-10-01

    A novel strain (designated as ZCY-7) which could convert H-acid into bioflocculants was isolated from H-acid wastewater sludge. Conditions for bioflocculants production were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and determined to be inoculum size 9.65%, initial pH 7.0, and CODCr of the H-acid wastewater 520mg/L. The highest flocculating efficiency achieved for kaolin suspension was 95.1%, after 60h cultivation. The yielded bioflocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide (82.4%) and protein (14.2%), and maintained its flocculating activity in 0.4% (w/w) kaolin suspensions over pH 2-8 and 20-80°C. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that amino, amide and hydroxyl groups were present in the bioflocculant molecules. A viable alternative treatment technology of H-acid wastewater using this novel strain is suggested, which could largely reduce bioflocculants costs. In addition, flocculating mechanism investigation reveals that the bioflocculant could cause kaolin suspension instability by means of charge neutralization firstly and then promoted the aggregation of suspension particles by adsorption and bridge. It is evident from the results that H-acid wastewater could be used as a source to manufacture bioflocculants.

  9. The use of date waste for lactic acid production by a fed-batch culture using Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus.

    PubMed

    Nancib, Aicha; Nancib, Nabil; Boubendir, Abdelhafid; Boudrant, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The production of lactic acid from date juice by Lactobacillus caseisubsp. rhamnosus in batch and fed-batch cultures has been investigated. The fed-batch culture system gave better results for lactic acid production and volumetric productivity. The aim of this work is to determine the effects of the feeding rate and the concentration of the feeding medium containing date juice glucose on the cell growth, the consumption of glucose and the lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus in fed-batch cultures. For this study, two concentrations of the feeding medium (62 and 100 g/L of date juice glucose) were tested at different feeding rates (18, 22, 33, 75 and 150 mL/h). The highest volumetric productivity (1.3 g/L.h) and lactic acid yield (1.7 g/g) were obtained at a feeding rate of 33 mL/h and a date juice glucose concentration of 62 g/L in the feeding medium. As a result, most of the date juice glucose was completely utilised (residual glucose 1 g/L), and a maximum lactic acid production level (89.2 g/L) was obtained.

  10. Generation of acids from mine waste: Oxidative leaching of pyrrhotite in dilute H 2SO 4 solutions at pH 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, A. R.; Nesbitt, H. W.; muir, I. J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrrhotite (Fe 7S 8) grains 3 × 3 × 6 mm were reacted in solutions of H 2SO 4 (pH 3.0) for eight hours and analyzed using secondary electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM images of reacted surfaces display an array of reaction textures, which are interpreted to represent a five-stage (T1-T5) paragenetic alteration sequence. Leached pyrrhotite surfaces are initially featureless (T1 texture). Surfaces leached more extensively develop a mottled felty texture (T2). Subsequent drying of reacted surfaces causes dehydration, producing cracked, tiled surfaces (T3 textures). Prolonged drying intensifies the effects of desiccation, producing rubbly (T4) textures. The rubble is readily spalled, exposing smooth underlayers (T5 textures). AES and XPS data collected from T1 through T4 textured surfaces indicate primarily Fe-oxyhydroxide reaction products. AES depth profiles show that S varies antipathetically with oxygen. AES analysis of T5 textured surfaces (underlayer exposed by spalling) detect only Fe and S, with S significantly enriched over Fe. XPS and modelled AES data show T5 textured regions are mainly ferric iron bonded to disulphide and/or polysulphide species. The accumulation of S in the underlayer is accomplished by preferential migration of Fe to the overlying oxyhydroxide layer to the pyrrhotite surface, thus, promoting spallation. Spalling of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides is promoted in waste rock dumps and tailings situated above the water table by periodic wetting, drying and desiccation of the oxyhydroxide layer. These circumstances may, in turn, lead to high concentrations of suspended Fe-oxyhydroxide in tailings ponds during flooding and in ponds where there are dramatic seasonal overturns of lake or pond water. Exposure by spalling of S-rich sublayers to aqueous solutions is an effective means for producing sulphuric acid-rich mine waste runoff and of producing periodic flushes of sulphuric

  11. Effect of citric acid on metals mobility in pruning wastes and biosolids compost and metals uptake in Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Y; Eymar, E; Gárate, A; Masaguer, A

    2013-05-01

    To assess metal mobility in pruning waste and biosolids compost (pH 6.9 and total concentration of metals in milligram per kilogram of Cd 1.9, Cu 132, Fe 8,513, Mn 192, Pb 81, and Zn 313), shrubs species Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis were transplanted in this substrate and irrigated with citric acid (4 g L(-1), pH 2.9) and nutrient solution daily for 60 days. Citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of soluble Mn and Fe in the nutrient substrate solution measured by suction probes, while other metals did not vary in concentration (Cu and Zn) or were not observed at detectable levels (Cd and Pb). In plants, citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of Cu (2.7 ± 0.1-3.3 ± 0.1 mg kg(-1)), Fe (49.2 ± 5.2-76.8 ± 6.8 mg kg(-1)), and Mn (7.2 ± 1.1-11.4 ± 0.7 mg kg(-1)) in leaves of R. officinalis, whereas the concentration of only Mn (25.4 ± 0.3-42.2 ± 2.9 mg kg(-1)) was increased in A. halimus. Increasing Fe and Mn solubility by citric acid addition indicates the possibility of using it to improve plant nutrition. The mobility of metals in this substrate was influenced for the concentration of the metal, the degree of humification of organic matter and its high Fe content.

  12. Enhancing the quantity and quality of short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge using CaO2 as an additive.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ai; Wang, Lin

    2015-10-15

    The effect of calcium peroxide (CaO2) addition on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The lab-scale experiments were conducted at 35 °C with CaO2 doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.3 g/g VSS. The performances of hydrolysis and acidification of WAS were significantly enhanced by CaO2 addition, whereas the production of methane was inhibited. Maximum total short-chain fatty acids (TSCFA) production (284 mg COD/g VSS) occurred at a CaO2 dose of 0.2 g/g VSS and fermentation time of 7 d, which was 3.9 times higher than the control tests. Further, CaO2 addition led to the conversion of other SCFAs to acetic acid. Acetic acid comprised 60.2% of TSCFA with the addition of 0.2 g CaO2/g VSS compared with 45.1% in the control tests. The mechanism of improved SCFAs generation was analyzed from the view of both chemical and biological effects. Chemical effect facilitated the disintegration of WAS, and improved the activities of both hydrolytic enzymes and acid-forming enzymes. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that bacteria within phylum Firmicutes increased significantly due to CaO2 addition, which played an important role in the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS. In addition, CaO2 oxidized most refractory organic contaminants, which were difficult to biodegrade under the ordinary anaerobic condition. Hydroxyl radicals were the most abundant reactive oxygen species released by CaO2, which played a key role in the removal of refractory organic compounds. We developed a promising technology to produce a valuable carbon source from WAS.

  13. Continuous fermentation of food waste leachate for the production of volatile fatty acids and potential as a denitrification carbon source.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hakchan; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Hwang, Seokhwan; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and pH on the continuous production of VFAs from food waste leachate using response surface analysis. The response surface approximations (R(2)=0.895, p<0.05) revealed that pH has a dominant effect on the specific VFA production (PTVFA) within the explored space (1-4-day HRT, pH 4.5-6.5). The estimated maximum PTVFA was 0.26g total VFAs/g CODf at 2.14-day HRT and pH 6.44, and the approximation was experimentally validated by running triplicate reactors under the estimated optimum conditions. The mixture of the filtrates recovered from these reactors was tested as a denitrification carbon source and demonstrated superior performance in terms of reaction rate and lag length relative to other chemicals, including acetate and methanol. The overall results provide helpful information for better design and control of continuous fermentation for producing waste-derived VFAs, an alternative carbon source for denitrification.

  14. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R. St. J.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • We have proposed a method to recover antimony from electronic plastics. • The most efficient acid solution was sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide. • Gamma irradiation did not influence the antimony leaching ability. - Abstract: There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5 M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23 °C and heated to ca. 105 °C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed.

  15. Hydrogen production using amino acids obtained by protein degradation in waste biomass by combined dark- and photo-fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Xia, Ao; Lin, Richen; Li, Yuyou; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-03-01

    The biological hydrogen production from amino acids obtained by protein degradation was comprehensively investigated to increase heating value conversion efficiency. The five amino acids (i.e., alanine, serine, aspartic acid, arginine, and leucine) produced limited hydrogen (0.2-16.2 mL/g) but abundant soluble metabolic products (40.1-84.0 mM) during dark-fermentation. The carbon conversion efficiencies of alanine (85.3%) and serine (94.1%) during dark-fermentation were significantly higher than those of other amino acids. Residual dark-fermentation solutions treated with zeolite for NH4(+) removal were inoculated with photosynthetic bacteria to further produce hydrogen during photo-fermentation. The hydrogen yields of alanine and serine through combined dark- and photo-fermentation were 418.6 and 270.2 mL/g, respectively. The heating value conversion efficiency of alanine to hydrogen was 25.1%, which was higher than that of serine (21.2%).

  16. Parallel analysis of volatile fatty acids, indole, skatole, phenol, and trimethylamine from waste-related source environments.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    An experimental technique based on sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatography (ST-TD-GC) was investigated for the simultaneous determination of a cluster of eight volatile odorants (propionic acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, n-valeric acid, trimethylamine, phenol, indole, and skatole) and a reference compound (benzene). Calibration was made by direct injection of a liquid working standard (L-WS) into a quartz tube packed with three bed sorbent (Tenax TA, Carbopack B, and Carbopack X). To assess the relative performance between different detector systems, a comparative analysis was made using both mass spectrometry (MS) and a flame ionization detector (FID) with the aid of a TD system. In the TD-GC-MS analysis, calibration results were evaluated in two different modes, namely total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC). In both FID and MS, the elution order of investigated odorants complied with the retention time index (RTI) values for the polar column with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) at or above 0.99. As a means to validate our detection approach, environmental samples from a bathroom and manhole (vacuum samples) as well as cat stool and wastewater (headspace samples) were also collected. The ST-TD method tested for the concurrent analysis of diverse odorants allowed us to measure a list of offensive odorants from those samples.

  17. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What are the standards for hydrochloric... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric...

  18. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  19. Parallel analysis of volatile fatty acids, indole, skatole, phenol, and trimethylamine from waste-related source environments.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    An experimental technique based on sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatography (ST-TD-GC) was investigated for the simultaneous determination of a cluster of eight volatile odorants (propionic acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, n-valeric acid, trimethylamine, phenol, indole, and skatole) and a reference compound (benzene). Calibration was made by direct injection of a liquid working standard (L-WS) into a quartz tube packed with three bed sorbent (Tenax TA, Carbopack B, and Carbopack X). To assess the relative performance between different detector systems, a comparative analysis was made using both mass spectrometry (MS) and a flame ionization detector (FID) with the aid of a TD system. In the TD-GC-MS analysis, calibration results were evaluated in two different modes, namely total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC). In both FID and MS, the elution order of investigated odorants complied with the retention time index (RTI) values for the polar column with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) at or above 0.99. As a means to validate our detection approach, environmental samples from a bathroom and manhole (vacuum samples) as well as cat stool and wastewater (headspace samples) were also collected. The ST-TD method tested for the concurrent analysis of diverse odorants allowed us to measure a list of offensive odorants from those samples. PMID:24070624

  20. Impacts on microbial communities and cultivable isolates from groundwater contaminated with high levels of nitric acid-uranium waste.

    PubMed

    Fields, Matthew W; Yan, Tingfen; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Carroll, Susan L; Jardine, Phil M; Watson, David B; Criddle, Craig S; Zhou, Jizhong

    2005-08-01

    Microbial communities were characterized at contaminated sites that had elevated levels of nitrate, nickel, aluminum, and uranium (up to 690 mM, 310 microM, 42 mM, and 30 microM, respectively). The bacterial community structure based upon clonal libraries of the SSU rRNA genes (screened clones = 876) was diverse at the background site, but the three acidic samples had decreased diversity and the majority of clones were closely related to Azoarcus and Pseudomonas species. Arthrobacter and Novosphingobium sequences were recovered from the background samples but not the acidic sites, and similar pseudomonad populations were present at the background and acidic sites albeit at different relative abundances. Heterologous sequence coverage analyses indicated the microbial communities at the contaminated sites were very similar (p = 0.001) but different from the background site. Bacterial isolates (n = 67) classified as beta-or gamma-Proteobacteria, high G+C Gram-positive or low G+C Gram-positive were obtained from the background and one contaminated sample, and some of the isolates had less than 95% sequence identity with previously observed microorganisms. Despite variations in nitrate and heavy metal levels and different proximities to the source ponds, the three acidic samples had similar microbial populations. However, the least contaminated site (lowest nitrate and aluminum) had increased diversity compared to the other acidic samples. The results suggested that the combined contamination has decreased the microbial diversity, and Azoarcus populations were observed at a drastically increased frequency compared to the background site that had a more even distribution of multiple taxa.

  1. Combined Effect of Free Nitrous Acid Pretreatment and Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate on Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production from Waste Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianwei; Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bingjie; Wang, Qilin; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Sun, Yingjie; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA) serving as a pretreatment is an effective approach to accelerate sludge disintegration. Also, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), a type of surfactants, has been determined at significant levels in sewage sludge, which thereby affects the characteristics of sludge. Both FNA pretreatment and sludge SDBS levels can affect short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation from sludge anaerobic fermentation. To date, however, the combined effect of FNA pretreatment and SDBS presence on SCFA production as well as the corresponding mechanisms have never been documented. This work therefore aims to provide such support. Experimental results showed that the combination of FNA and SDBS treatment not only improved SCFA accumulation but also shortened the fermentation time. The maximal SCFA accumulation of 334.5 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/g volatile suspended solids (VSS) was achieved at 1.54 mg FNA/L treatment and 0.02 g/g dry sludge, which was respectively 1.79-fold and 1.41-fold of that from FNA treatment and sludge containing SDBS alone. Mechanism investigations revealed that the combined FNA pretreatment and SDBS accelerated solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidification steps but inhibited the methanogenesis. All those observations were in agreement with SCFA enhancement. PMID:26868898

  2. Impact of the substrate loading regime and phosphoric acid supplementation on performance of biogas reactors and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic digestion of chicken wastes.

    PubMed

    Belostotskiy, Dmitry E; Ziganshina, Elvira E; Siniagina, Maria; Boulygina, Eugenia A; Miluykov, Vasili A; Ziganshin, Ayrat M

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the effects of increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) as well as phosphoric acid addition on mesophilic reactors' performance and biogas production from chicken wastes. Furthermore, microbial community composition in reactors was characterized by a 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing analysis. Each step of increasing OLR impacted on the activity of microorganisms what caused a temporary decrease in biogas production. The addition of phosphoric acid resulted in the increased biogas production with values between 361 and 447 mL g(VS)(-1) from day 61 to day 74 compared to control reactor (309-350 mL g(VS)(-1)). With reactors' operation, Bacteroidetes phylotypes were noticeably replaced with Firmicutes representatives, and significant increase of Clostridium sp. was identified. Within Euryarchaeota, Methanosarcina sp. dominated in all analyzed samples, in which high ammonium levels were detected (3.4-4.9 NH4(+)-N g L(-1)). These results can help in better understanding the anaerobic digestion process of simultaneously ammonium/phosphate-rich substrates.

  3. Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

    2013-01-01

    A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

  4. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R St J

    2013-06-01

    There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23°C and heated to ca. 105°C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed.

  5. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R St J

    2013-06-01

    There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23°C and heated to ca. 105°C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed. PMID:23561798

  6. Influence of the Trojan Nickel Mine on surface water quality, Mazowe valley, Zimbabwe: Runoff chemistry and acid generation potential of waste rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupankwa, Keretia; Love, David; Mapani, Benjamin; Mseka, Stephen; Meck, Maideyi

    The impacts of mining on the environment depend on the nature of the ore body, the type of mining and the size of operation. The focus of this study is on Trojan Nickel Mine which is located 90 km north of Harare, Zimbabwe. It produces nickel from iron, iron-nickel and copper-nickel sulphides and disposes of waste rock in a rock dump. Surface water samples were taken at 11 points selected from a stream which drains the rock dump, a stream carrying underground water and the river into which these streams discharge. Samples were analysed for metals using atomic absorption spectrometry, for sulphates by gravitation and for carbonates and bicarbonates by back titration. Ninteen rock samples were collected from the dump and static tests were performed using the Sobek acid base accounting method. The results show that near neutral runoff (pH 7.0-8.5) with high concentrations of sulphate (over 100 mg/L) and some metals (Pb > 1.0 mg/L and Ni > 0.2 mg/L) emanates from the dump. This suggests that acid mine drainage is buffered in the dump (probably by carbonates). This is supported by the static tests, which show that the fine fraction of dump material neutralises acid. Runoff from the dump flows into a pond. Concentrations of sulphates and metals decrease after the dump runoff enters the pond, but sufficient remains to increase levels of calcium, sulphate, bicarbonate, iron and lead in the Pote River. The drop in concentrations at the pond indicates that the settling process has a positive effect on water quality. This could be enhanced by treating the pond water to raise pH, thus precipitating out metals and decreasing their concentrations in water draining from the pond.

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles based dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction as a novel technique for coextraction of acidic and basic drugs from biological fluids and waste water.

    PubMed

    Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Mollazadeh, Narges; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Mirbabaei, Fatemeh; Shekari, Nafiseh

    2014-04-18

    The coextraction of acidic and basic drugs from different samples is a considerable and disputable concept in sample preparation strategies. In this study, for the first time, simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs with magnetic nanoparticles based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was introduced. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-coated Fe3O4@decanoic acid as an efficient sorbent was successfully applied to adsorb diclofenac (DIC) as an acidic and diphenhydramine (DPH) as a basic model compound. First, appropriate amount of synthetic Fe3O4@decanoic acid nanoparticles was added to aqueous solution of drugs. After adjusting the pH of the solution, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to the mixture being stirred at a constant rate. After the adsorption of drugs and decantation of supernatant with a magnetic field, the sorbent was eluted with methanol by fierce vortex. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized and obtained as: pH of the sample=9, concentration of CTAB=0.2mmolL(-1), amount of sorbent=10mg, extraction time=5min, no salt addition to sample, type and volume of the eluent=50μL methanol, and desorption time=1min. Under the optimum conditions detection limits and linear dynamic ranges were achieved in the range of 1.8-3.0, 5-1500μgL(-1) for DPH and 1.5-3.5, 5-1500μgL(-1) for DIC, respectively. The percent of extraction recovery and relative standard deviations (n=5) were in the range of 47.3-60, 5.2-9.0 for DPH and 64-76.7, 5.1-5.8 for DIC, respectively. Ultimately, the applicability of the method was successfully confirmed by the extraction and determination of DIC and DPH in human urine, plasma and waste water samples in the range of microgram per liter and satisfactory results were obtained.

  8. Alternatives to Nitric Acid Stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process for Cesium Removal from Alkaline High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Haverlock, Tamara; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Ditto, Mary E; Moyer, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    Effective alternatives to nitric acid stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent have been demonstrated in this work. The CSSX solvent employs calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-18-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) as the cesium extractant in a modified alkane diluent for decontamination of alkaline high-level wastes. Results reported in this paper support the idea that replacement of the nitrate anion by a much more hydrophilic anion like borate can substantially lower cesium distribution ratios on stripping. Without any other change in the CSSX flowsheet, however, the use of a boric acid stripping solution in place of the 1 mM nitric acid solution used in the CSSX process marginally, though perhaps still usefully, improves stripping. The less-than-expected improvement was explained by the carryover of nitrate from scrubbing into stripping. Accordingly, more effective stripping is obtained after a scrub of the solvent with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Functional alternatives to boric acid include sodium bicarbonate or cesium hydroxide as strip solutions. Profound stripping improvement is achieved when trioctylamine, one of the components of the CSSX solvent, is replaced with a commercial guanidine reagent (LIX 79). The more basic guanidine affords greater latitude in selection of aqueous conditions in that it protonates even at mildly alkaline pH values. Under process-relevant conditions, cesium distributions on stripping are decreased on the order of 100-fold compared with current CSSX performance. The extraction properties of the solvent were preserved unchanged over three successive extract-scrub-strip cycles. From the point of view of compatibility with downstream processing, boric acid represents an attractive stripping agent, as it is also a potentially ideal feed for borosilicate vitrification of the separated 137Cs product stream. Possibilities for use of these results toward a dramatically better next-generation CSSX process, possibly one employing the

  9. Upcycling potato peel waste – Data of the pre-screening of the acid-catalyzed liquefaction

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Patrícia; Bordado, João Carlos Moura; Mateus, Maria Margarida; Galhano dos Santos, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Herein, the data acquired regarding the preliminary and exploratory experiments conducted with potato peel as a biomass source for the direct thermochemical liquefaction is disclosed. The procedure was carried out in a 2-ethylhexanol/DEG solvent mixture at 160 °C in the presence of p-Toluenesulfonic acid. The adopted procedure afforded a bio-oil in high yield (up to 93%) after only 30 min. For longer reaction times, higher amounts of solid residues were obtained leading, consequently, to lower yields. PMID:27182538

  10. A solution for cesium removal from high-salinity acidic or alkaline liquid waste: The crown calix[4]arenes

    SciTech Connect

    Dozol, J.F.; Simon, N.; Lamare, V.; Rouquette, H.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.; Marc, D. de; Macias, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    Calix[4]arenes monocrown or biscrown, blocked in 1,3 alternative cone conformation, display an exceptional efficiency for cesium extraction, even from very acid or alkaline media. Moreover, they possess an important selectivity for cesium over sodium that makes possible the extraction of cesium from media containing high sodium nitrate loadings. Another advantage, since the extraction of cesium is reversible, is that the stripping of cesium can be carried out in deionized water, a property which leads to very high concentration factors. 79 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Development Of Ion Chromatography Methods To Support Testing Of The Glycolic Acid Reductant Flowsheet In The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B. J.; White, T. L.; Mahannah, R. N.; Best, D. R.; Stone, M. E.; Click, D. R.; Lambert, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is the principal analytical method used to support studies of Sludge Reciept and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) chemistry at DWPF. A series of prior analytical ''Round Robin'' (RR) studies included both supernate and sludge samples from SRAT simulant, previously reported as memos, are tabulated in this report.2,3 From these studies it was determined to standardize IC column size to 4 mm diameter, eliminating the capillary column from use. As a follow on test, the DWPF laboratory, the PSAL laboratory, and the AD laboratory participated in the current analytical RR to determine a suite of anions in SRAT simulant by IC, results also are tabulated in this report. The particular goal was to confirm the laboratories ability to measure and quantitate glycolate ion. The target was + or - 20% inter-lab agreement of the analyte averages for the RR. Each of the three laboratories analyzed a batch of 12 samples. For each laboratory, the percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the averages on nitrate, glycolate, and oxalate, was 10% or less. The three laboratories all met the goal of 20% relative agreement for nitrate and glycolate. For oxalate, the PSAL laboratory reported an average value that was 20% higher than the average values reported by the DWPF laboratory and the AD laboratory. Because of this wider window of agreement, it was concluded to continue the practice of an additional acid digestion for total oxalate measurement. It should also be noted that large amounts of glycolate in the SRAT samples will have an impact on detection limits of near eluting peaks, namely Fluoride and Formate. A suite of scoping experiments are presented in the report to identify and isolate other potential interlaboratory disceprancies. Specific ion chromatography inter-laboratory method conditions and differences are tabulated. Most differences were minor but there are some temperature control equipment differences that are significant leading to a recommendation of

  12. Valorization of fatty acids-containing wastes and byproducts into short- and medium-chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Madalena V; Freitas, Filomena; Paiva, Alexandre; Mano, Francisca; Dionísio, Madalena; Ramos, Ana Maria; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-01-25

    Olive oil distillate (OOD), biodiesel fatty acids-byproduct (FAB) and used cooking oil (UCO) were tested as inexpensive carbon sources for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) with different composition using twelve bacterial strains. OOD and FAB were exploited for the first time as alternative substrates for PHA production. UCO, OOD and FAB were used by Cupriavidus necator and Pseudomonas oleovorans to synthesize the homopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, while Pseudomonas resinovorans and Pseudomonas citronellolis produced mcl-PHA polymers mainly composed of hydroxyoctanoate and hydroxydecanoate monomers. The highest polymer content in the biomass was obtained for C. necator (62 wt.%) cultivated on OOD. Relatively high mcl-PHA content (28-31 wt.%) was reached by P. resinovorans cultivated in OOD. This study shows, for the first time, that OOD is a promising substrate for PHA production since it gives high polymer yields and allows for the synthesis of different polymers (scl- or mcl-PHA) by selection of the adequate strains.

  13. Simultaneous Bioconversion of Xylose and Glycerol to Xylonic Acid and 1,3-Dihydroxyacetone from the Mixture of Pre-Hydrolysates and Ethanol-Fermented Waste Liquid by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bioconversion of xylose and glycerol to xylonic acid and 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA) was realized by using Gluconobacter oxydans (G. oxydans). Currently, the enzymatic hydrolysate to ethanol-fermented waste liquid and the inorganic acid pre-hydrolysate that contain abundant glycerol and xylose were difficult to be utilized or disposed. Based on the method of compressed oxygen supply-sealed and stirred tank reactor system (COS-SSTR), the xylonic acid and 1,3-dihydroxyacetone could be co-produced rapidly with the mixture of the dilute sulfuric acid pre-hydrolysate and ethanol-fermented waste liquid of enzymatic hydrolysate (MPEW) as material. By means of the system, we finally produced 102.3 ± 3.2 g/L xylonic acid and 40.6 ± 1.8 g/L 1,3-dihydroxyacetone at yield of 92.4 ± 2.8 % and 80.6 ± 3.5 % directly and simultaneously from the mixed solution. The central features of this bioprocess application would enable cost-competitive bacterial xylonic acid and 1,3-dihydroxyacetone production from lignocellulosic materials.

  14. Comparative analysis for the production of fatty acid alkyl esterase using whole cell biocatalyst and purified enzyme from Rhizopus oryzae on waste cooking oil (sunflower oil).

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Bharathiraja; Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Ayyappasamy; Jayaraman, Jayamuthunagai; Mani, Jayakumar; Ramanujam, Praveenkumar

    2012-08-01

    The petroleum fuel is nearing the line of extinction. Recent research and technology have provided promising outcomes to rely on biodiesel as the alternative and conventional source of fuel. The use of renewable source - vegetable oil constitutes the main stream of research. In this preliminary study, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) was used as the substrate for biodiesel production. Lipase enzyme producing fungi Rhizopus oryzae 262 and commercially available pure lipase enzyme were used for comparative study in the production of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters (FAAE). The whole cell (RO 262) and pure lipase enzyme (PE) were immobilized using calcium alginate beads. Calcium alginate was prepared by optimizing with different molar ratios of calcium chloride and different per cent sodium alginate. Entrapment immobilization was done for whole cell biocatalyst (WCB). PE was also immobilized by entrapment for the transesterification reaction. Seven different solvents - methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, iso-propanol, iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol were used as the acyl acceptors. The reaction parameters like temperature (30°C), molar ratio (1:3 - oil:solvent), reaction time (24 h), and amount of enzyme (10% mass ratio to oil) were also optimized for methanol alone. The same parameters were adopted for the other acyl acceptors too. Among the different acyl acceptors - methanol, whose reaction parameters were optimized showed maximum conversion of triglycerides to FAAE-94% with PE and 84% with WCB. On the whole, PE showed better catalytic converting ability with all the acyl acceptor compared to WCB. Gas chromatography analysis (GC) was done to determine the fatty acid composition of WCO (sunflower oil) and FAAE production with different acyl acceptors.

  15. Hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids accumulation of waste activated sludge enhanced by the combined use of nitrite and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Congcong; Sun, Xiuyun; Sun, Yinglu; Li, Rui; Li, Jiansheng; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow hydrolysis and/or poor substrate availability. Increased attention has been given to enhance the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS recently. This study presented an efficient and green strategy based on the combined use of nitrite pretreatment and alkaline pH to stimulate hydrolysis and VFA accumulation from WAS. Results showed that both proteins and polysaccharides increased in the presence of nitrite, indicating the enhancement of sludge solubilization and hydrolysis processes. Mechanism investigations showed that nitrite pretreatment could disintegrate the sludge particle and disperse extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Then, anaerobic digestion tests demonstrated VFA production increased with nitrite treatment. The maximal VFA accumulation was achieved with 0.1 g N/L nitrite dosage and pH 10.0 at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 7 days, which was much higher VFA production in comparison with the blank, sole nitrite pretreatment, or sole pH 10. The potential analysis suggested that the combined nitrite pretreatment and alkaline pH is capable of enhancing WAS digestion with a great benefit for biological nutrient removal (BNR).

  16. Enhancement of volatile fatty acid production by co-fermentation of food waste and excess sludge without pH control: The mechanism and microbial community analyses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Lian; Guo, Wan-Qian; Zheng, He-Shan; Luo, Hai-Chao; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Yin, Ren-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-09-01

    The study provided a cost-effective and high-efficiency volatile fatty acid (VFA) production strategy by co-fermentation of food waste (FW) and excess sludge (ES) without artificial pH control. VFA production of 867.42mg COD/g-VS was obtained under the optimized condition: FW/ES 5, solid retention time 7d, organic loading rate 9g VS/L-d and temperature 40°C. Mechanism exploration revealed that the holistic biodegradability of substrate was greatly enhanced, and proper pH range (5.2-6.4) was formed by the high buffering capacity of the co-fermentation system itself, which effectively enhanced hydrolysis yield (63.04%) and acidification yield (83.46%) and inhibited methanogenesis. Moreover, microbial community analysis manifested that co-fermentation raised the relative abundances of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria including Clostridium, Sporanaerobacter, Tissierella and Bacillus, but suppressed the methanogen Anaerolineae, which also facilitated high VFA production. These results were of great guiding significance aiming for VFA recovery from FW and ES in large-scale. PMID:27289056

  17. Effect of calcium chloride on abating inhibition due to volatile fatty acids during the start-up period in anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Das, Avijit; Srinivas, G Lohit Kumar; Dhar, Hiya; Ojha, Vivek Kumar; Wong, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Biomethanation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a slow process and the yield of biogas is usually low. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on anaerobic digestion of MSW. Three anaerobic digesters with different concentrations of CaCl2, namely sample without additives (Control), sample with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 (R1) and sample with 5 g/L CaCl2 (R2) were studied separately and the significant results are presented. From the experimental results, it was observed that pH decreased with an increase in the dosage of CaCl2. Total solids and volatile solids reduction percentage in digester R2 was considerably lower than Control and R1 digesters. The significant positive correlation with small increments in volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction were observed with an increase in pH. The cumulative biogas production in all the three digesters (Control, R1 and R2) were observed to be 35.38, 46.46 and 37.56 L, respectively. It was also observed that the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) removal efficiency in digester R1 was the best among all the three digesters. A comparison of the effluent characteristics revealed improvement in the overall performance of the digester R1 amended with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 over the other two digesters. PMID:26609893

  18. Effect of calcium chloride on abating inhibition due to volatile fatty acids during the start-up period in anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Das, Avijit; Srinivas, G Lohit Kumar; Dhar, Hiya; Ojha, Vivek Kumar; Wong, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Biomethanation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a slow process and the yield of biogas is usually low. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on anaerobic digestion of MSW. Three anaerobic digesters with different concentrations of CaCl2, namely sample without additives (Control), sample with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 (R1) and sample with 5 g/L CaCl2 (R2) were studied separately and the significant results are presented. From the experimental results, it was observed that pH decreased with an increase in the dosage of CaCl2. Total solids and volatile solids reduction percentage in digester R2 was considerably lower than Control and R1 digesters. The significant positive correlation with small increments in volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction were observed with an increase in pH. The cumulative biogas production in all the three digesters (Control, R1 and R2) were observed to be 35.38, 46.46 and 37.56 L, respectively. It was also observed that the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) removal efficiency in digester R1 was the best among all the three digesters. A comparison of the effluent characteristics revealed improvement in the overall performance of the digester R1 amended with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 over the other two digesters.

  19. Acid-base properties and surface complexation modeling of phosphate anion adsorption by wasted low grade iron ore with high phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoli; Bai, Chenguang; Xia, Wentang; An, Juan

    2014-08-15

    The adsorption phenomena and specific reaction processes of phosphate onto wasted low grade iron ore with high phosphorus (WLGIOWHP) were studied in this work. Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were used to elucidate the interaction mechanism between WLGIOWHP and aqueous solution. The results implied that the main adsorption mechanism was the replacement of surface hydroxyl groups by phosphate via the formation of inner-sphere complex. The adsorption process was characterized by chemical adsorption onto WLGIOWHP. The non-electrostatic model (NEM) was used to simulate the surface adsorption of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP. The total surface site density and protonation constants for NEM (N(T)=1.6×10(-4) mol/g, K(a1)=2.2×10(-4), K(a2)=6.82×10(-9)) were obtained by non-linear data fitting of acid-base titrations. In addition, the NEM was used to establish the surface adsorption complexation modeling of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP. The model successfully predicted the adsorption of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP from municipal wastewater.

  20. Combining Nitrilotriacetic Acid and Permeable Barriers for Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Municipal Solid Waste Compost by and Reduced Metal Leaching.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shulan; Jia, Lina; Duo, Lian

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction has the potential to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, and chelants can be used to improve the capabilities of phytoextraction. However, environmentally persistent chelants can cause metal leaching and groundwater pollution. A column experiment was conducted to evaluate the viability of biodegradable nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) to increase the uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) by L. in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and to evaluate the effect of two permeable barrier materials, bone meal and crab shell, on metal leaching. The application of NTA significantly increased the concentrations and uptake of heavy metals in . The enhancement was more pronounced at higher dosages of NTA. In the 15 mmol kg NTA treatment using a crab shell barrier, the Cr and Ni concentrations in the plant shoots increased by approximately 8- and 10-fold, respectively, relative to the control. However, the addition of NTA also caused significant heavy metal leaching from the MSW compost. Bone meal and crab shell barriers positioned between the compost and the subsoil were effective in preventing metal leaching down through the soil profile by the retention of metals in the barrier. The application of a biodegradable chelant and the use of permeable barriers is a viable form of enhanced phytoextraction to increase the removal of metals and to reduce possible leaching. PMID:27136160

  1. Combining Nitrilotriacetic Acid and Permeable Barriers for Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Municipal Solid Waste Compost by and Reduced Metal Leaching.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shulan; Jia, Lina; Duo, Lian

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction has the potential to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, and chelants can be used to improve the capabilities of phytoextraction. However, environmentally persistent chelants can cause metal leaching and groundwater pollution. A column experiment was conducted to evaluate the viability of biodegradable nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) to increase the uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) by L. in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and to evaluate the effect of two permeable barrier materials, bone meal and crab shell, on metal leaching. The application of NTA significantly increased the concentrations and uptake of heavy metals in . The enhancement was more pronounced at higher dosages of NTA. In the 15 mmol kg NTA treatment using a crab shell barrier, the Cr and Ni concentrations in the plant shoots increased by approximately 8- and 10-fold, respectively, relative to the control. However, the addition of NTA also caused significant heavy metal leaching from the MSW compost. Bone meal and crab shell barriers positioned between the compost and the subsoil were effective in preventing metal leaching down through the soil profile by the retention of metals in the barrier. The application of a biodegradable chelant and the use of permeable barriers is a viable form of enhanced phytoextraction to increase the removal of metals and to reduce possible leaching.

  2. Valorization of fatty acids-containing wastes and byproducts into short- and medium-chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Madalena V; Freitas, Filomena; Paiva, Alexandre; Mano, Francisca; Dionísio, Madalena; Ramos, Ana Maria; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-01-25

    Olive oil distillate (OOD), biodiesel fatty acids-byproduct (FAB) and used cooking oil (UCO) were tested as inexpensive carbon sources for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) with different composition using twelve bacterial strains. OOD and FAB were exploited for the first time as alternative substrates for PHA production. UCO, OOD and FAB were used by Cupriavidus necator and Pseudomonas oleovorans to synthesize the homopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, while Pseudomonas resinovorans and Pseudomonas citronellolis produced mcl-PHA polymers mainly composed of hydroxyoctanoate and hydroxydecanoate monomers. The highest polymer content in the biomass was obtained for C. necator (62 wt.%) cultivated on OOD. Relatively high mcl-PHA content (28-31 wt.%) was reached by P. resinovorans cultivated in OOD. This study shows, for the first time, that OOD is a promising substrate for PHA production since it gives high polymer yields and allows for the synthesis of different polymers (scl- or mcl-PHA) by selection of the adequate strains. PMID:26047553

  3. A fermentative approach towards optimizing directed biosynthesis of fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae 1526 utilizing apple industry waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2015-12-01

    The present research account deals with the bioproduction of fumaric acid (FA) from apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and apple pomace (AP) through fermentation. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae 1526 was used as a biocatalyst and its morphological impact on FA production was analysed in detail. For submerged fermentation, 40 g L(-1) of total solids concentration of APUS, pH 6.0, 30 °C, 200 rpm flask shaking speed and 72 h of incubation were found to be optimum for FA production (25.2 ± 1.0 g L(-1), 0.350 g (L(-1) h(-1))). Broth viscosity (cP), residual reducing sugar (g L(-1)) and ethanol (g L(-1)) produced as by-product, were also analysed. Plastic trays were used for solid state fermentation and at optimized level of moisture and incubation period, 52 ± 2.67 g FA per kg dry weight of AP was obtained. Changes in the total phenolic content (mg g(-1) dry weight of AP) were monitored at regular intervals. Utilization of APUS and AP for the directed synthesis of the high-value platform chemical FA by the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 was an excellent display of fungal physiological and morphological control over a fermentative product.

  4. A fermentative approach towards optimizing directed biosynthesis of fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae 1526 utilizing apple industry waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2015-12-01

    The present research account deals with the bioproduction of fumaric acid (FA) from apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and apple pomace (AP) through fermentation. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae 1526 was used as a biocatalyst and its morphological impact on FA production was analysed in detail. For submerged fermentation, 40 g L(-1) of total solids concentration of APUS, pH 6.0, 30 °C, 200 rpm flask shaking speed and 72 h of incubation were found to be optimum for FA production (25.2 ± 1.0 g L(-1), 0.350 g (L(-1) h(-1))). Broth viscosity (cP), residual reducing sugar (g L(-1)) and ethanol (g L(-1)) produced as by-product, were also analysed. Plastic trays were used for solid state fermentation and at optimized level of moisture and incubation period, 52 ± 2.67 g FA per kg dry weight of AP was obtained. Changes in the total phenolic content (mg g(-1) dry weight of AP) were monitored at regular intervals. Utilization of APUS and AP for the directed synthesis of the high-value platform chemical FA by the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 was an excellent display of fungal physiological and morphological control over a fermentative product. PMID:26615750

  5. Deciphering visible light photoreductive conversion of CO2 to formic acid and methanol using waste prepared material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Bor-Yann; Ouyang, Tong; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-02-17

    As gradual increases in atmospheric CO2 and depletion of fossil fuels have raised considerable public concern in recent decades, utilizing the unlimited solar energy to convert CO2 to fuels (e.g., formic acid and methanol) apparently could simultaneously resolve these issues for sustainable development. However, due to the complicated characteristics of CO2 reduction, the mechanism has yet to be disclosed. To clarify the postulated pathway as mentioned in the literature, the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR) was implemented herein to confirm the mechanism and related pathways of CO2 reduction under visible light using graphene-TiO2 as catalyst. The findings indicated that CO(-•) radicals, as the main intermediates, were first detected herein to react with several hydrogen ions and electrons for the formation of CH3OH. For example, the generation of CO(-•) radicals is possibly the vital rate-controlling step for conversion of CO2 to methanol as hypothesized elsewhere. The kinetics behind the proposed mechanism was also determined in this study. The mechanism and kinetics could provide the in-depth understanding to the pathway of CO2 reduction and disclose system optimization of maximal conversion for further application.

  6. Structural study of humic acids during composting of activated sludge-green waste: elemental analysis, FTIR and 13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Amir, Soumia; Jouraiphy, Abdelmajid; Meddich, Abdelilah; El Gharous, Mohamed; Winterton, Peter; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2010-05-15

    The humic acids extracted from a compost of activated sludge at different stages of maturity were characterized by various chemical techniques. Elemental analysis showed the reduction of H, and the H/C and C/N ratios and an increase in the proportion of N and S. At the end of composting C% and O% presented the same values as initially, although they increased in the intermediate stage. Based on the ratios of FTIR absorbance it was shown that the end product was enriched in etherified and peptidic compounds absorbing at 1384, 1034 and 1544 cm(-1). The alkyl and other N-rich and oxidized recalcitrant structures compose the new humic polymers produced during composting. In principal components analysis, the first axis, PC1: 49.75% considers the variability between structures in decomposition from the other parameters that concern the stable new humic polymers formed after composting. PC2 (40.5%) shows a negative correlation between (aromatic carbon, FA level) and (aliphatic carbon, HA level) during composting. PMID:20106591

  7. Deciphering visible light photoreductive conversion of CO2 to formic acid and methanol using waste prepared material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Bor-Yann; Ouyang, Tong; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-02-17

    As gradual increases in atmospheric CO2 and depletion of fossil fuels have raised considerable public concern in recent decades, utilizing the unlimited solar energy to convert CO2 to fuels (e.g., formic acid and methanol) apparently could simultaneously resolve these issues for sustainable development. However, due to the complicated characteristics of CO2 reduction, the mechanism has yet to be disclosed. To clarify the postulated pathway as mentioned in the literature, the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR) was implemented herein to confirm the mechanism and related pathways of CO2 reduction under visible light using graphene-TiO2 as catalyst. The findings indicated that CO(-•) radicals, as the main intermediates, were first detected herein to react with several hydrogen ions and electrons for the formation of CH3OH. For example, the generation of CO(-•) radicals is possibly the vital rate-controlling step for conversion of CO2 to methanol as hypothesized elsewhere. The kinetics behind the proposed mechanism was also determined in this study. The mechanism and kinetics could provide the in-depth understanding to the pathway of CO2 reduction and disclose system optimization of maximal conversion for further application. PMID:25612092

  8. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of completed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) waste minimization forms concerning waste generated at the Hanford Reservation. Wastes described include toxic materials such as trichloroethane, ethylene glycol from cooling water, waste range from weapons cleaning, calcium chlorides, antifreeze, insecticides, spent lead acid batteries, corrosive materials, ignitable materials, solvents, radioactive reactive sodium metal from reactor operations, and various other wastes. (CBS)

  9. Improved volatile fatty acids anaerobic production from waste activated sludge by pH regulation: Alkaline or neutral pH?

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xingchun; Liu, He; Liu, Hongbo; Fu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the anaerobic fermentation was carried out for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production at different pH (between 7.0 and 10.0) conditions with untreated sludge and heat-alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge. In the fermentation with untreated sludge, the extent of hydrolysis of organic matters and extent of acidification at alkaline pH are 54.37% and 30.37%, respectively, resulting in the highest VFAs yield at 235.46mg COD/gVS of three pH conditions. In the fermentation with heat-alkaline pretreated sludge, the acidification rate and VFAs yield at neutral pH are 30.98% and 240.14mg COD/gVS, respectively, which are higher than that at other pH conditions. With the glucose or bovine serum albumin as substrate for VFAs production, the neutral pH showed a higher VFAs concentration than the alkaline pH condition. The results of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated that the alkaline pH caused low microbial richness. Based on the results in this study, we demonstrated that the alkaline pH is favor of hydrolysis of organic matter in sludge while neutral pH improved the acidogenesis for the VFAs production from sludge. Our finding is obvious different to the previous research and helpful for the understanding of how heat-alkaline pretreatment and alkaline fermentation influence the VFAs production, and beneficial to the development of VFAs production process.

  10. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.

    1998-01-01

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder.

  11. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOEpatents

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

    1998-12-08

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

  12. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  13. Characterization of waste rock associated with acid drainage at the Penn Mine, California, by ground-based visible to short-wave infrared reflectance spectroscopy assisted by digital mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montero, S.I.C.; Brimhall, G.H.; Alpers, C.N.; Swayze, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Prior to remediation at the abandoned Cu-Zn Penn Mine in the Foothills massive sulfide belt of the Sierra Nevada, CA, acid mine drainage (AMD) was created, in part, by the subaerial oxidation of sulfides exposed on several waste piles. To support remediation efforts, a mineralogical study of the waste piles was undertaken by acquiring reflectance spectra (measured in the visible to short-wave infrared range of light (0.35-2.5 ??m) using a portable, digitally integrated pen tablet PC mapping system with differential global positioning system and laser rangefinder support. Analysis of the spectral data made use of a continuum removal and band-shape comparison method, and of reference spectral libraries of end-member minerals and mineral mixtures. Identification of secondary Fe-bearing minerals focused on band matching in the region between 0.43 and 1.3 ??m. Identification of sheet and other silicates was based on band-shape analysis in the region between 1.9 and 2.4 ??m. Analysis of reflectance spectra of characterized rock samples from the mine helped in gauging the spectral response to particle size and mixtures. The resulting mineral maps delineated a pattern of accumulation of secondary Fe minerals, wherein centers of copiapite and jarosite that formed at low pH (<3) were surrounded successively by goethite and hematite, which mark progressive increases in pH. This pattern represents the evolution of acid solutions discharged from the pyritic waste piles and the subsequent accumulation of secondary precipitates by hydrolysis reactions. The results highlight the high capacity of the pyritic waste to release further acid mine drainage into the environment, as well as the effectiveness of the mapping method to detect subtle changes in surface mineralogy and to produce maps useful to agencies responsible for remediating the site. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 426]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--226. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  15. Efficiency of macroporous poly(vinylphosphoramidic acid) resin adsorbing of selected elements and determination of trace dysprosium, holmium, erbium, and ytterbium in waste water by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan Guangyao; Su Zhixing; Lou Xingyin; Chang Xijun )

    1992-03-01

    A macroporous poly(vinylphosphoramidic acid) resin is synthesized through the reaction of macroporous poly(vinylethylenediamine) resin with formaldehyde and phosphorus acid. The adsorption efficiency of the resin to selected elements is determined. An ICP-OES method has been established for the resin enrichment and separation of trace Dy, Ho, Er and Yb ions in waste water. The ability of the Na-form resin to adsorb Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb ions is far better than the H-form resin. The IR spectra of the resin before and after adsorbing Dy are shown. The mechanism of resin adsorption of Dy is explored. The results of resin enriched waste water analysis from a smelter plant are 31.0 ng/ml for dy, 41.1 ng/ml for Hl, 20.6 ng/ml for Er and 20.2 ng/ml for Yb ions. The recovery of standard additions of Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb to the waste water is in the range of 97.0-98.5%.

  16. Reuse of Organomineral Substrate Waste from Hydroponic Systems as Fertilizer in Open-Field Production Increases Yields, Flavonoid Glycosides, and Caffeic Acid Derivatives of Red Oak Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Much More than Synthetic Fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Dannehl, Dennis; Becker, Christine; Suhl, Johanna; Josuttis, Melanie; Schmidt, Uwe

    2016-09-28

    Effects of organic waste from a hydroponic system added with minerals (organomineral fertilizer) and synthetic fertilizer on major polyphenols of red oak leaf lettuce using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(3) were investigated. Interestingly, contents of the main flavonoid glycosides and caffeic acid derivatives of lettuce treated with organomineral fertilizer were equal to those synthesized without soil additives. This was found although soil nutrient concentrations, including that of nitrogen, were much lower without additives. However, lettuce treated with synthetic fertilizer showed a significant decrease in contents of caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoid glycosides up to 78.3 and 54.2%, respectively. It is assumed that a negative effect of a high yield on polyphenols as described in the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis can be counteracted by (i) a higher concentration of Mg or (ii) optimal physical properties of the soil structure. Finally, the organomineral substrate waste reused as fertilizer and soil improver resulted in the highest yield (+78.7%), a total fertilizer saving of 322 kg ha(-1) and waste reduction in greenhouses. PMID:27606685

  17. Reuse of Organomineral Substrate Waste from Hydroponic Systems as Fertilizer in Open-Field Production Increases Yields, Flavonoid Glycosides, and Caffeic Acid Derivatives of Red Oak Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Much More than Synthetic Fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Dannehl, Dennis; Becker, Christine; Suhl, Johanna; Josuttis, Melanie; Schmidt, Uwe

    2016-09-28

    Effects of organic waste from a hydroponic system added with minerals (organomineral fertilizer) and synthetic fertilizer on major polyphenols of red oak leaf lettuce using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(3) were investigated. Interestingly, contents of the main flavonoid glycosides and caffeic acid derivatives of lettuce treated with organomineral fertilizer were equal to those synthesized without soil additives. This was found although soil nutrient concentrations, including that of nitrogen, were much lower without additives. However, lettuce treated with synthetic fertilizer showed a significant decrease in contents of caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoid glycosides up to 78.3 and 54.2%, respectively. It is assumed that a negative effect of a high yield on polyphenols as described in the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis can be counteracted by (i) a higher concentration of Mg or (ii) optimal physical properties of the soil structure. Finally, the organomineral substrate waste reused as fertilizer and soil improver resulted in the highest yield (+78.7%), a total fertilizer saving of 322 kg ha(-1) and waste reduction in greenhouses.

  18. Feasibility Study of Solidification for Low-Level Liquid Waste Generated by Sulfuric Acid Elution Treatment of Spent Ion Exchange Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tooru; Higuchi, Natsuko; Horikawa, Yoshihiko

    We studied cement-like solidification process for low-level liquid waste with relatively high levels of radioactivity that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. For this type waste, it is important that the sulfate ion should not dissolve from the solid waste because it forms ettringite on reaction with minerals in the concrete of the planned repository, and this leads to cracking during repository storage. It is also preferable that the pH of the pore water of the solid waste be low, because the bentonite of the repository changes in quality on exposure to alkaline solution. Therefore, the present solidification process has two procedures: conversion into insoluble sulfate from sodium sulfate (CIS) and formation of low pH cement-like solid (FLS). In the CIS procedure, BaSO4 precipitation occurs with addition of Ba(OH)2•8H2O to the liquid waste. In the FLS procedure, silica fume and blast furnace slag are added to the liquid waste containing BaSO4 precipitate. We show the range of appropriate Ba/SO4 molar ratio is from 1.1 to 1.5 in the present solidification process by leaching tests for some kinds of solid waste samples. The CIS reaction yield is over 98% at a typical CIS condition, i.e. Ba/SO4 molar ratio=1.3, reaction temperature=60°C, and time=3 hr.

  19. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  20. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Richard G.; Blasewitz, Albert G.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  1. Utilization of the wastes of vital activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusarov, B. G.; Drigo, Y. A.; Novikov, V. M.; Samsonov, N. M.; Farafonov, N. S.; Chizhov, S. V.; Yazdovskiy, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    The recycling of wastes from the biological complex for use in life-support systems is discussed. Topics include laboratory equipment, heat treatment of waste materials, mineralization of waste products, methods for production of ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid, the extraction of sodium chloride from mineralized products, and the recovery of nutrient substances for plants from urine.

  2. USE OF AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL TO FORECAST DISSOLUTION EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY IMPACTS, AND DOWNSTREAM PROCESSABILITY FROM OXALIC ACID AIDED SLUDGE REMOVAL IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS 1-15

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2005-10-31

    This thesis details a graduate research effort written to fulfill the Magister of Technologiae in Chemical Engineering requirements at the University of South Africa. The research evaluates the ability of equilibrium based software to forecast dissolution, evaluate safety impacts, and determine downstream processability changes associated with using oxalic acid solutions to dissolve sludge heels in Savannah River Site High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks 1-15. First, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Coupled with a model, a material balance determines the fate of hypothetical worst-case sludge in the treatment and neutralization tanks during each chemical adjustment. Although sludge is dissolved, after neutralization more is created within HLW. An energy balance determines overpressurization and overheating to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen may overwhelm the purge ventilation. Limiting the heel volume treated/acid added and processing the solids through vitrification is preferred and should not significantly increase the number of glass canisters.

  3. Illumina sequencing-based analyses of bacterial communities during short-chain fatty-acid production from food waste and sewage sludge fermentation at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weixiao; Chen, Hong; Yan, ShuHai; Su, Jianqiang

    2014-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be produced by primary and waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation. The yield and product spectrum distribution of SCFAs can be significantly affected by different initial pH values. However, most studies have focused on the physical and chemical aspects of SCFA production by waste activated sludge fermentation at different pH values. Information on the bacterial community structures during acidogenic fermentation is limited. In this study, comparisons of the bacterial communities during the co-substrate fermentation of food wastes and sewage sludge at different pH values were performed using the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing method. The results showed that different pH environments harbored a characteristic bacterial community, including sequences related to Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Mitsuokella, Treponema, Clostridium, and Ureibacillus. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units in the different pH environments were those related to carbohydrate-degrading bacteria, which are associated with constituents of co-substrate fermentation. Further analyses showed that during organic matter fermentation, a core microbiota composed of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes existed. Comparison analyses revealed that the bacterial community during fermentation was significantly affected by the pH, and that the diverse product distribution was related to the shift in bacterial communities.

  4. Textile Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  5. The effect of the dumping of waste-acid from the titanium-dioxide production on the chlorophyl-a concentration of North Sea water: A time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Musters, C J; Van Latesteijn, H C; Ter Keurs, W J

    1988-05-01

    Since 1963 the waste-acid of the German titanium dioxide industry is discharged off the Dutch coast. From March 1980 on the dumping takes place in an area situated 40-80 km from the coast. Although about 2 500 000 kg waste-acid is discharged every day, until now no effects could be found on the plankton.This paper describes the study on the effects of the dumping on the chlorophyl-a concentration of the seawater at a site north of the dumping area, with the help of time series analysis. It is shown that considerable changes in the chlorophyl concentration occur during the dumping period and that these changes coincide with certain events within the dumping history. However, it is most remarkable that the starting of the dumping itself does not show an effect on the chlorophyl concentrations. Explanations are suggested, but could not be investigated yet.This study shows also that collecting data without a proper statistical design make it impossible to draw unambiguous conclusions based on those data. PMID:24248726

  6. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Automotive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed.

  8. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Hickox, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 155 refs.

  10. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  11. Review Of Rheology Modifiers For Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-09-30

    As part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)'s strategic development scope for the Department of Energy - Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste feed acceptance and product qualification scope, the SRNL has been requested to recommend candidate rheology modifiers to be evaluated to adjust slurry properties in the Hanford Tank Farm. SRNL has performed extensive testing of rheology modifiers for use with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulated melter feed - a high undissolved solids (UDS) mixture of simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm sludge, nitric and formic acids, and glass frit. A much smaller set of evaluations with Hanford simulated waste have also been completed. This report summarizes past work and recommends modifiers for further evaluation with Hanford simulated wastes followed by verification with actual waste samples. Based on the review of available data, a few compounds/systems appear to hold the most promise. For all types of evaluated simulated wastes (caustic Handford tank waste and DWPF processing samples with pH ranging from slightly acidic to slightly caustic), polyacrylic acid had positive impacts on rheology. Citric acid also showed improvement in yield stress on a wide variety of samples. It is recommended that both polyacrylic acid and citric acid be further evaluated as rheology modifiers for Hanford waste. These materials are weak organic acids with the following potential issues: The acidic nature of the modifiers may impact waste pH, if added in very large doses. If pH is significantly reduced by the modifier addition, dissolution of UDS and increased corrosion of tanks, piping, pumps, and other process equipment could occur. Smaller shifts in pH could reduce aluminum solubility, which would be expected to increase the yield stress of the sludge. Therefore, it is expected that use of an acidic modifier would be limited to concentrations that do not

  12. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  13. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  14. Recovery of zinc and manganese, and other metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Na, K) from Zn-MnO2 and Zn-C waste batteries: Hydroxyl and carbonate co-precipitation from solution after reducing acidic leaching with use of oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobianowska-Turek, A.; Szczepaniak, W.; Maciejewski, P.; Gawlik-Kobylińska, M.

    2016-09-01

    The article discusses the current situation of the spent batteries and portable accumulators management. It reviews recycling technologies of the spent batteries and portable accumulators which are used in the manufacturing installations in the world. Also, it presents the authors' research results on the reductive acidic leaching of waste material of the zinc-carbon batteries (Zn-C) and zinc-manganese batteries (alkaline Zn-MnO2) delivered by a company dealing with mechanical treatment of this type of waste stream. The research data proved that the reductive acidic leaching (H2SO4 + C2H2O4) of the battery's black mass allows to recover 85.0% of zinc and 100% of manganese. Moreover, it was found that after the reductive acidic leaching it is possible to recover nearly 100% of manganese, iron, cadmium, and chromium, 98.0% of cobalt, 95.5% of zinc, and 85.0% of copper and nickel from the solution with carbonate method. On the basis of the results, it is possible to assume that the carbonate method can be used for the preparation of manganese-zinc ferrite.

  15. Thermo-Acidic Pretreatment of Beach Macroalgae from Rügen to Optimize Biomethane Production—Double Benefit with Simultaneous Bioenergy Production and Improvement of Local Beach and Waste Management

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Eutrophication is a phenomenon which can rapidly generate masses of marine macroalgae, particularly in areas with high nutrient pollution. Washed ashore, this biomass impairs coastal tourism and negatively affects the coastal ecosystem. The present study evaluates the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of a macroalgae mix (Rügen-Mix, RM (RM = Rügen-Mix)) originating from Rügen, Germany. To improve biomethane recovery, thermo-acidic pretreatment was applied to the biomass prior to biomethanation to disintegrate the biomass macrostructure. Acid hydrolysis was successfully triggered with 0.2 M industry-grade HCl at 80 °C for a 2 h period, increasing biomethane recovery by +39%, with a maximum BMP of 121 mL·g−1 volatile solids (VS). To reduce the necessity for input material, HCl was replaced by the acidic waste product flue gas condensate (FGC). Improved performance was achieved by showing an increase in biomethane recovery of +24% and a maximum BMP of 108 mL·g−1 VS. Continuous anaerobic digestion trials of RM were conducted for three hydraulic retention times, showing the feasibility of monodigestion. The biomethane recovery was 60 mL and 65 mL·g−1 VS·d−1 for thermophilic and mesophilic operation, respectively. The quality of biomethanation performance aligned to the composition of the source material which exhibited a low carbon/nitrogen ratio and an increased concentration of sulfur compounds. PMID:26404327

  16. Electrochemical incineration of wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, R. C.; Sharma, D. K.; Bockris, J. OM.

    1990-01-01

    The novel technology of waste removal in space vehicles by electrochemical methods is presented to convert wastes into chemicals that can be eventually recycled. The important consideration for waste oxidation is to select a right kind of electrode (anode) material that should be stable under anodic conditions and also a poor electrocatalyst for oxygen and chlorine evolution. On the basis of long term electrolysis experiments on seven different electrodes and on the basis of total organic carbon reduced, two best electrodes were identified. The effect of redox ions on the electrolyte was studied. Though most of the experiments were done in mixtures of urine and waste, the experiments with redox couples involved 2.5 M sulfuric acid in order to avoid the precipitation of redox ions by urea. Two methods for long term electrolysis of waste were investigated: (1) the oxidation on Pt and lead dioxide electrodes using the galvanostatic methods; and (2) potentiostatic method on other electrodes. The advantage of the first method is the faster rate of oxidation. The chlorine evolution in the second method is ten times less then in the first. The accomplished research has shown that urine/feces mixtures can be oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, but current densities are low and must be improved. The perovskite and Ti4O7 coated with RuO2 are the best electrode materials found. Recent experiment with the redox agent improves the current density, however, sulphuric acid is required to keep the redox agent in solution to enhance oxidation effectively. It is desirable to reduce the use of acid and/or find substitutes.

  17. Electrochemical incineration of wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, R. C.; Sharma, D. K.; Bockris, J. Om.

    1990-08-01

    The novel technology of waste removal in space vehicles by electrochemical methods is presented to convert wastes into chemicals that can be eventually recycled. The important consideration for waste oxidation is to select a right kind of electrode (anode) material that should be stable under anodic conditions and also a poor electrocatalyst for oxygen and chlorine evolution. On the basis of long term electrolysis experiments on seven different electrodes and on the basis of total organic carbon reduced, two best electrodes were identified. The effect of redox ions on the electrolyte was studied. Though most of the experiments were done in mixtures of urine and waste, the experiments with redox couples involved 2.5 M sulfuric acid in order to avoid the precipitation of redox ions by urea. Two methods for long term electrolysis of waste were investigated: (1) the oxidation on Pt and lead dioxide electrodes using the galvanostatic methods; and (2) potentiostatic method on other electrodes. The advantage of the first method is the faster rate of oxidation. The chlorine evolution in the second method is ten times less then in the first. The accomplished research has shown that urine/feces mixtures can be oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, but current densities are low and must be improved. The perovskite and Ti4O7 coated with RuO2 are the best electrode materials found. Recent experiment with the redox agent improves the current density, however, sulphuric acid is required to keep the redox agent in solution to enhance oxidation effectively. It is desirable to reduce the use of acid and/or find substitutes.

  18. Supercritical waste oxidation of aqueous wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modell, M.

    1986-01-01

    For aqueous wastes containing 1 to 20 wt% organics, supercritical water oxidation is less costly than controlled incineration or activated carbon treatment and far more efficient than wet oxidation. Above the critical temperature (374 C) and pressure (218 atm) of water, organic materials and gases are completely miscible with water. In supercritical water oxidation, organics, air and water are brought together in a mixture at 250 atm and temperatures above 400 C. Organic oxidation is initiated spontaneously at these conditions. The heat of combustion is released within the fluid and results in a rise in temperature 600 to 650 C. Under these conditions, organics are destroyed rapidly with efficiencies in excess of 99.999%. Heteroatoms are oxidized to acids, which can be precipitated out as salts by adding a base to the feed. Examples are given for process configurations to treat aqueous wastes with 10 and 2 wt% organics.

  19. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  20. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  1. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  2. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  3. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  4. Preparation of Clay Brick Using Coal Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jung W.; Jung, Jin H.; Kim, Jae M.; Lee, Sung M.; Kim, Hyung T.

    2004-03-31

    A great deal of coal waste produced during the development of a mine was accumulated around the mine, which caused many problems such as traffic, acid mine drainage and damage of forest and scenery. Carbon in the coal waste helps calcination of the brick even at low temperature. Considering the reuse of natural waste and energy saving, clay brick was prepared using coal waste under various conditions, including particle size, amount of coal waste mixed, calcination temperature and pressing pressure. The specimens were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG-DTA and interpreted in terms of water absorption and compressive strength.

  5. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department.

  6. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Kyle D; Volmer, Dietrich A; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H](-)) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba(2+) have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba](+) precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH](+) and [BaOH](+)). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  7. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Kyle D.; Volmer, Dietrich A.; Gill, Chris G.; Krogh, Erik T.

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H]-) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba2+ have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba]+ precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH]+ and [BaOH]+). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  8. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  9. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  10. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  11. Performance Test on Polymer Waste Form - 12137

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Se Yup

    2012-07-01

    Polymer solidification was attempted to produce stable waste form for the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent resins. The polymer mixture was directly injected into the mold or drum which was packed with the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent resins, respectively. The waste form was produced by entirely curing the polymer mixture. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, water immersion test, leach test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test for the polymer waste forms. From the results of the performance tests for the polymer waste forms, it is believed that the polymer waste form is very stable and can satisfy the acceptance criteria for permanent disposal. At present, performance tests with full scale polymer waste forms are being carried out in order to obtain qualification certificate by the regulatory institute in Korea. Polymer waste forms were prepared with the surrogate of boric acid concentrates and the surrogate of spent ion exchange resins respectively. Waste forms were also made in lab scale and in full scale. Lab. scale waste forms were directly subjected to a series of the performance tests. In the case of full scale waste form, the test specimens for the performance test were taken from a part of waste form by coring. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test, water immersion test, leach test, and free standing water for the polymer waste forms. In addition, a fire resistance test was performed on the waste forms by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea. Every polymer waste forms containing the boric acid concentrates and the spent ion exchange resins had exhibited excellent structural integrity of more than 27.58 MPa (4,000 psi) of compressive strength. On thermal stability testing, biodegradation

  12. Assessment of the use potential of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) processing waste within the agricultural system: influence on soil chemical and biological properties and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth in an amended acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Garau, Giovanni; Castaldi, Paola; Deiana, Salvatore; Campus, Paolo; Mazza, Antonio; Deiana, Pietrino; Pais, Antonio

    2012-10-30

    In this study we evaluated the influence of ground purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) endoskeletons, a processing waste common to all edible sea urchin plants, on the chemical, biochemical and microbiological features of an acidic (pH 5.65) sandy-loam soil. The purple sea urchin endoskeletons were characterized by a high content of total carbonates (∼94%), a moderately alkaline pH in water (pH 7.88) and electrical conductivity values (3.55 mS/cm) very similar to those of commercial lime. To evaluate the influence of the P. lividus endoskeletons on soil properties four different amendment rates were tested, notably 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% based on soil dry weight, and the effects compared with those recorded on unamended control soil. The addition of the purple sea urchin processing waste caused an immediate and significant pH increase which was positively related to the rate of the amendment addition. After a six months equilibration period, the differences in soil pH were still evident and significant increases of electrical conductivity and available phosphorus were also detected in soils with the higher amendment rates. The number of heterotrophic and cellulolytic bacteria and actinomycetes significantly increased after amendment addition while the number of culturable fungi steadily declined. The analysis of the Biolog Community Level Physiological Profile indicated a clear influence of the purple sea urchin processing waste on the structure of the native microbial community while a significant increase of microbial functionality (i.e. dehydrogenase activity) was recorded in soil treated with the higher amendment rates (i.e. 3.0 and 5.0%). The improvement of microbial abundance and functionality as well as the change of the microbial community structure were ascribed to the pH shift induced by the P. lividus processing waste. To investigate possible effects on soil fertility, dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth were also

  13. Assessment of the use potential of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) processing waste within the agricultural system: influence on soil chemical and biological properties and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth in an amended acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Garau, Giovanni; Castaldi, Paola; Deiana, Salvatore; Campus, Paolo; Mazza, Antonio; Deiana, Pietrino; Pais, Antonio

    2012-10-30

    In this study we evaluated the influence of ground purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) endoskeletons, a processing waste common to all edible sea urchin plants, on the chemical, biochemical and microbiological features of an acidic (pH 5.65) sandy-loam soil. The purple sea urchin endoskeletons were characterized by a high content of total carbonates (∼94%), a moderately alkaline pH in water (pH 7.88) and electrical conductivity values (3.55 mS/cm) very similar to those of commercial lime. To evaluate the influence of the P. lividus endoskeletons on soil properties four different amendment rates were tested, notably 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% based on soil dry weight, and the effects compared with those recorded on unamended control soil. The addition of the purple sea urchin processing waste caused an immediate and significant pH increase which was positively related to the rate of the amendment addition. After a six months equilibration period, the differences in soil pH were still evident and significant increases of electrical conductivity and available phosphorus were also detected in soils with the higher amendment rates. The number of heterotrophic and cellulolytic bacteria and actinomycetes significantly increased after amendment addition while the number of culturable fungi steadily declined. The analysis of the Biolog Community Level Physiological Profile indicated a clear influence of the purple sea urchin processing waste on the structure of the native microbial community while a significant increase of microbial functionality (i.e. dehydrogenase activity) was recorded in soil treated with the higher amendment rates (i.e. 3.0 and 5.0%). The improvement of microbial abundance and functionality as well as the change of the microbial community structure were ascribed to the pH shift induced by the P. lividus processing waste. To investigate possible effects on soil fertility, dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth were also

  14. Waste Form Evaluation Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-09-01

    This report presents data that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. The waste streams selected for this study include dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash as representative wastes which result from advanced volume reduction technologies and ion exchange resins which remain problematic for solidification using commercially available matrix materials. Property evaluation tests such as compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation and leachability were conducted for polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms over a range of waste-to-binder ratios. Based on the results of the tests, optimal waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash and 30 wt % ion exchange resins were established for polyethylene, although maximum loadings were considerably higher. For modified sulfur cement, optimal loadings of 40 wt % sodium sulfate, 40 wt % boric acid and 40 wt % incinerator ash are reported. Ion exchange resins are not recommended for incorporation into modified sulfur cement because of poor waste form performance even at very low waste concentrations. The results indicate that all waste forms tested within the range of optimal waste concentrations satisifed the requirements of the NRC Technical Position Paper on Waste Form.

  15. Effects of pH control and concentration on microbial oil production from Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the effluent of a low-cost organic waste fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced from low-cost organic waste to the major carbon sources of microalgae cultivation for highly efficient biofuel production. An integrated process that consists of a sewage sludge fermentation system producing VFAs (SSFV) and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was operated to produce microbial lipids economically. The effluents from the SSFV diluted to different concentrations at the level of 100%, 50%, and 15% were prepared for the C. vulgaris cultivation and the highest biomass productivity (433±11.9 mg/L/d) was achieved in the 100% culture controlling pH at 7.0. The harvested biomass included lipid contents ranging from 12.87% to 20.01% under the three different effluent concentrations with and without pH control. The composition of fatty acids from C. vulgaris grown on the effluents from the SSFV complied with the requirements of high-quality biodiesel. These results demonstrated that VFAs produced from the SSFV are favorable carbon sources for cultivating C. vulgaris.

  16. Hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1981-12-01

    An international meeting held at the State Department in Washington, DC on hazardous waste management is discussed. The conference was held by the Committee on the Challenges to Modern Society of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Among the wastes considered at the meeting were chromium wastes, lead wastes, pesticides, mercury wastes, nickel wastes, oil refinery wastes, PCBs, cadmium wastes, and others. Radioactive wastes were not considered. Legislation, landfill use, recycling, and the Common Market's approach to these wastes were also discussed. (JMT)

  17. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  18. Waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Dworschak, H.; Mannone, F.; Rocco, P.

    1995-03-01

    The presence of tritium in tritium-burning devices to be built for large scale research on thermonuclear fusion poses many problems especially in terms of occupational and environmental safety. One of these problems derives from the production of tritiated wastes in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. All these wastes need to be adequately processed and conditioned to minimize tritium releases to an acceptably low occupational and environmental level and consequently to protect workers and the public against the risks of unacceptable doses from exposure to tritium. Since all experimental thermonuclear fusion devices of the Tokomak type to be built and operated in the near future as well as all experimental activities undertaken in tritium laboratories like ETHEL will generate tritiated wastes, current strategies and practices to be applied for the routine management of these wastes need to be defined. Adequate background information is provided through an exhaustive literature survey. In this frame alternative tritiated waste management options so far investigated or currently applied to this end in Europe, USA and Canada have been assessed. The relevance of tritium in waste containing gamma-emitters, originated by the neutron activation of structural materials is assessed in relation to potential final disposal options. Particular importance has been attached to the tritium retention efficiency achievable by the various waste immobilization options. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Use of organic waste from the brewery industry for high-density cultivation of the docosahexaenoic acid-rich microalga, Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Jungmin; Han, Jong-In; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, spent yeast from a brewery was used as the growth substrate for the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich microalga, Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101. A significant biomass yield (6.69 g/l/d) was obtained using only spent yeast as the growth substrate, with simple stirring as pretreatment. Maximization of nutrient utilization through the use of stepwise cultivation increased the yield to 31.8 g/l of biomass. DHA constituted 38.2% (w/w) of the total fatty acids, and the highest DHA productivity was observed when the C/N ratio was 20:1 (w/w). Spent yeast thus served as a good growth substrate for the production of DHA. Economic assessment revealed that stepwise cultivation using spent yeast as either the sole growth substrate or as a nutrient source could substantially reduce the production cost of microalgal DHA. PMID:23262011

  20. Production of polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid by using waste biomass of Sphingobacterium sp. ATM generated after degradation of textile dye Direct Red 5B.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Dhawal P; Kagalkar, Anuradha N; Jadhav, Mital U; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2010-04-01

    The degradation of textile effluent using microorganisms has been studied extensively, but disposal of generated biomass after dye degradation is a serious problem. The isolated Sphingobacterium sp. ATM was found to decolorize dye Direct Red 5B (DR5B) and simultaneously it produced polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid (PHD). The organism decolorized DR5B at 500mgl(-1) concentration within 24h of dye addition and gave optimum production of PHD. The medium contains carbon source as a molasses which was found to be more significant within all carbon sources used. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates obtained revealed the compound as a polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid. The activity of PHA synthase was found more at 24h after dye addition. The enzymes responsible for dye degradation include veratrol oxidase, laccase, DCIP (2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol) reductase, riboflavin reductase and azo reductase was found to be induced during decolorization process. The FTIR analysis of samples before and after decolorization of dye confirmed the biotransformation of DR5B. The GC-MS analysis of product obtained led to the identification of two metabolites after biotransformation of dye as p-amino benzenesulfonic acid and naphthalene-1-ol.