Science.gov

Sample records for acid waste streams

  1. Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal.

  2. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    PubMed

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  3. Production of lactic acid and fungal biomass by Rhizopus fungi from food processing waste streams.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Yin, Pinghe; Ma, Yihong; Zhao, Ling

    2005-12-01

    This study proposed a novel waste utilization bioprocess for production of lactic acid and fungal biomass from waste streams by fungal species of Rhizopus arrhizus 36017 and R. oryzae 2062. The lactic acid and fungal biomass were produced in a single-stage simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using potato, corn, wheat and pineapple waste streams as production media. R. arrhizus 36017 gave a high lactic acid yield up to 0.94-0.97 g/g of starch or sugars associated with 4-5 g/l of fungal biomass produced, while 17-19 g/l fungal biomass with a lactic acid yield of 0.65-0.76 g/g was produced by the R. oryzae 2062 in 36-48 h fermentation. Supplementation of 2 g/l of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract and peptone stimulated an increase in 8-15% lactic acid yield and 10-20% fungal biomass.

  4. A supported polymeric liquid membrane process for removal of carboxylic acids from a waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.V.

    1999-12-31

    The removal or elimination of organic residues from aqueous waste streams represents a major need in the chemical industry. The authors have developed a new class of membrane called supported polymeric liquid membranes that are capable of removing and concentrating low molecular weight organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions, especially those that also contain high concentrations of inorganic salts. Attractive features of this membrane process include the ability to recover the contaminants in concentrated form for either recycle or more economical disposal, low pressure (ambient) operation, simple scale-up using commercial hollow fiber modules, and ease of in-situ regeneration of the polymeric liquid. The process has shown treatment feasibility for several types of aqueous waste streams. This paper describes the laboratory development activities for treating a waste stream containing a dilute mixture of C2-C6 carboxylic acids and nitric acid.

  5. Citrus waste stream utilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Waste streams, generated during fruit processing, consist of solid fruit residues in addition to liquid waste streams from washing operations which must be handled in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unsound fruit from packing houses are usually sent off to be processed for juice and the solid ...

  6. Rechanneling the waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, G

    1989-08-01

    Like energy, garbage can be changed into different forms, but it can never be wholly destroyed. Whether it is burned, buried, or recycled, some residue will always remain. The purpose of waste management goes beyond more disposal to the more difficult task of ensuring that the authors and their habitat sustain the least possible damage from the masses of things they discard every day. The article is divided into the following areas: Recycling: An elusive ideal; A lucrative waste stream; Making plastics a resource; Turning waste into power; Recovery the continental way; Solid fuel; Ash: The final product.

  7. Evaluation of different solvent extraction methods for removing actinides from high acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L. ); Rogers, J. )

    1991-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used to recover plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remain the effluent and require additional processing. Currently, a ferric hydroxide carrier precipitation is used to remove the trace actinides and the resulting sludge is cemented. Because it costs approximately $10,000 per drum for disposal, we are developing an additional polishing step so that the effluent actinide levels are reduced to below 100 nCi/g. This would allow the resulting waste sludge to disposed as low-level waste at approximately $200 per drum. We are investigating various solvent extraction techniques for removing actinides. The most promising are chelating resins and membrane-based liquid-liquid solvent extraction. This report details some of our preliminary results. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties.

  9. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  10. Method for recovering metal from waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes a method for recovering metal from a waste stream to render the waste stream suitable for discharge. It comprises passing a waste stream comprised of heavy metal salts in dilute solution into a cathode chamber of an anion exchange membrane delineated electrolytic cell, wherein the metals are selected from the group having a standard reduction potential more negative than that of hydrogen in the electromotive force series and the heavy metal ion concentration of the solution is less than about 10,000 parts per million of dissolved material; subjecting the waste stream to high current density electrolysis at up to about 25 volts to enhance the controlled regular formation of a noncompressible metal hydrous oxide crystalline precipitate in the cathode chamber; separating the precipitate from the waste stream; and splitting the clarified liquid waste stream so that a portion of the clarified liquid waste stream is discharged and a portion is returned downstream for commingling with the metal ion-containing waste stream for further treatment.

  11. Acid mediated chemical treatment to remove sugar from waste acid stream from nano-crystalline cellulose manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sampa; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Pulicharla, Rama; Berry, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Nano-crystalline cellulose (NCC) is a nano-scale biomaterial derived from highly abundant natural polymer cellulose. It is industrially produced by concentrated acid hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. However, presences of as high as 5-10% of sugar monomers in spent sulphuric acid during the manufacturing process, makes it unsuitable for such recycling or reuse of sulphuric acid. Currently, the industry has been using membrane and ion exchange technology to remove such sugars, however, such technologies cannot achieve the target of 80-90% removal. In the current investigation, thermal treatment and acid mediated thermal treatment have been evaluated for sugar removal from the spent sulphuric acid. Almost complete removal of sugar has been achieved by this approach. Maximum sugar removal efficiency (99.9%) observed during this study was at 120±1°C for 60min using 0.8 ratio (sample: acid) or at 100±1°C for 40min using 1.5 ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Waste streams in a crewed space habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Golub, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    A judicious compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste feed streams in a typical crewed space habitat was made in connection with the waste-management aspect of NASA's Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Program. Waste composition definitions are needed for the design of waste-processing technologies involved in closing major life support functions in future long-duration human space missions. Tables of data for the constituents and chemical formulas of the following waste streams are presented and discussed: human urine, feces, hygiene (laundry and shower) water, cleansing agents, trash, humidity condensate, dried sweat, and trace contaminants. Tables of data on dust generation and pH values of the different waste streams are also presented and discussed.

  13. Waste streams in a crewed space habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Golub, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    A judicious compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste feed streams in a typical crewed space habitat was made in connection with the waste-management aspect of NASA's Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Program. Waste composition definitions are needed for the design of waste-processing technologies involved in closing major life support functions in future long-duration human space missions. Tables of data for the constituents and chemical formulas of the following waste streams are presented and discussed: human urine, feces, hygiene (laundry and shower) water, cleansing agents, trash, humidity condensate, dried sweat, and trace contaminants. Tables of data on dust generation and pH values of the different waste streams are also presented and discussed.

  14. Waste Form Development for the Solidification of PDCF/MOX Liquid Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    COZZI, ALEX

    2004-02-18

    At the Savannah River Site, part of the Department of Energy's nuclear materials complex located in South Carolina, cementation has been selected as the solidification method for high-alpha and low-activity waste streams generated in the planned plutonium disposition facilities. A Waste Solidification Building (WSB) that will be used to treat and solidify three radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility is in the preliminary design stage. The WSB is expected to treat a transuranic (TRU) waste stream composed primarily of americium and two low-level waste (LLW) streams. The acidic wastes will be concentrated in the WSB evaporator and neutralized in a cement head tank prior to solidification. A series of TRU mixes were prepared to produce waste forms exhibiting a range of processing and cured properties. The LLW mixes were prepared using the premix from the preferred TRU waste form. All of the waste forms tested passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. After processing in the WSB, current plans are to dispose of the solidified TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and the solidified LLW waste at an approved low-level waste disposal facility.

  15. 40 CFR 434.61 - Commingling of waste streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commingling of waste streams. 434.61... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Miscellaneous Provisions § 434.61 Commingling of waste streams. Where waste streams from any facility covered by this part are combined for treatment or discharge with waste streams...

  16. 40 CFR 434.61 - Commingling of waste streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commingling of waste streams. 434.61... STANDARDS Miscellaneous Provisions § 434.61 Commingling of waste streams. Where waste streams from any facility covered by this part are combined for treatment or discharge with waste streams from...

  17. 40 CFR 434.61 - Commingling of waste streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commingling of waste streams. 434.61... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Miscellaneous Provisions § 434.61 Commingling of waste streams. Where waste streams from any facility covered by this part are combined for treatment or discharge with waste streams...

  18. 40 CFR 434.61 - Commingling of waste streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commingling of waste streams. 434.61... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Miscellaneous Provisions § 434.61 Commingling of waste streams. Where waste streams from any facility covered by this part are combined for treatment or discharge with waste streams...

  19. 40 CFR 434.61 - Commingling of waste streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commingling of waste streams. 434.61... STANDARDS Miscellaneous Provisions § 434.61 Commingling of waste streams. Where waste streams from any facility covered by this part are combined for treatment or discharge with waste streams from another...

  20. Operational Waste Stream Assumption for TSLCC Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    S. Gillespie

    2000-09-01

    This document provides the background and basis for the operational waste stream used in the 2000 Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This document has been developed in accordance with its Development Plan (CRWMS M&O 2000a), and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''.

  1. Managing and Transforming Waste Streams – A Tool for Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Managing and Transforming Waste Streams Tool features 100 policy and program options communities can pursue to increase rates of recycling, composting, waste reduction, and materials reuse across waste stream generators.

  2. Potential metal recovery from waste streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Budahn, James R.; Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2015-01-01

    Waste stream’ is a general term that describes the total flow of waste from homes, businesses, industrial facilities, and institutions that are recycled, burned or isolated from the environment in landfills or other types of storage, or dissipated into the environment. The recovery and reuse of chemical elements from waste streams have the potential to decrease U.S. reliance on primary resources and imports, and to lessen unwanted dispersion of some potentially harmful elements into the environment. Additional benefits might include reducing disposal or treatment costs and decreasing the risk of future environmental liabilities for waste generators. Elemental chemistry and mineralogical residences of the elements are poorly documented for many types of waste streams.

  3. New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    K. E. Archibald

    1999-08-01

    This report addresses the issues of conducting debris treatment in the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF) decontamination area and the methods currently being used to decontaminate material at the NWCF.

  4. Pectin content and composition from different food waste streams.

    PubMed

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bencivenni, Mariangela; Caligiani, Augusta; Tedeschi, Tullia; Bruggeman, Geert; Bosch, Montse; Petrusan, Janos; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Elst, Kathy; Sforza, Stefano

    2016-06-15

    In the present paper, 26 food waste streams were selected according to their exploitation potential and investigated in terms of pectin content. The isolated pectin, subdivided into calcium bound and alkaline extractable pectin, was fully characterized in terms of uronic acid and other sugar composition, methylation and acetylation degree. It was shown that many waste streams can be a valuable source of pectin, but also that pectin structures present a huge structural diversity, resulting in a broad range of pectin structures. These can have different physicochemical and biological properties, which are useful in a wide range of applications. Even if the data could not cover all the possible batch by batch and country variabilities, to date this represents the most complete pectin characterization from food waste streams ever reported in the literature with a homogeneous methodology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrothermal carbonization of municipal waste streams.

    PubMed

    Berge, Nicole D; Ro, Kyoung S; Mao, Jingdong; Flora, Joseph R V; Chappell, Mark A; Bae, Sunyoung

    2011-07-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that can be used to convert municipal waste streams into sterilized, value-added hydrochar. HTC has been mostly applied and studied on a limited number of feedstocks, ranging from pure substances to slightly more complex biomass such as wood, with an emphasis on nanostructure generation. There has been little work exploring the carbonization of complex waste streams or of utilizing HTC as a sustainable waste management technique. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the environmental implications associated with the carbonization of representative municipal waste streams (including gas and liquid products), to evaluate the physical, chemical, and thermal properties of the produced hydrochar, and to determine carbonization energetics associated with each waste stream. Results from batch carbonization experiments indicate 49-75% of the initially present carbon is retained within the char, while 20-37% and 2-11% of the carbon is transferred to the liquid- and gas-phases, respectively. The composition of the produced hydrochar suggests both dehydration and decarboxylation occur during carbonization, resulting in structures with high aromaticities. Process energetics suggest feedstock carbonization is exothermic.

  6. Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.J.; Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, A.B.; Cummins, R.L.; Reeves, M.E.; Hylton, T.D.

    1990-07-01

    This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Radioactive Waste Streams: Waste Classification for Disposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-13

    are different. CRS-5 Figure 1. Comparison of Radioactive Wastes CRS-6 8 69 pressurized water reactors ( PWR ) and 35 boiling water reactors (BWR): U.S...designed 1,000-megawatt pressurized-water reactor ( PWR ) operates with 100 metric tons of nuclear fuel. During refueling, approximately one- third of the...in the range of hundreds-of-thousand of years. The short-lived radionuclide table includes tritium (hydrogen-3), cobalt-60, nickel-63, CRS-18 39 U.S

  8. Hydrothermal carbonization of municipal waste streams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that can be used to convert municipal waste streams into sterilized, value-added hydrochar. HTC has been mostly applied and studied on a limited number of feedstocks, ranging from pure substances to slightly more complex biomass ...

  9. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  10. Baseline Glass Development for Combined Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Billings, Amanda Y.; Lang, Jesse B.; Marra, James C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-06-29

    Borosilicate glass was selected as the baseline technology for immobilization of the Cs/Sr/Ba/Rb (Cs), lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) waste steams as part of a cost benefit analysis study.[1] Vitrification of the combined waste streams have several advantages, minimization of the number of waste forms, a proven technology, and similarity to waste forms currently accepted for repository disposal. A joint study was undertaken by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop acceptable glasses for the combined Cs + Ln + TM waste streams (Option 1) and Cs + Ln combined waste streams (Option 2) generated by the AFCI UREX+ set of processes. This study is aimed to develop baseline glasses for both combined waste stream options and identify key waste components and their impact on waste loading. The elemental compositions of the four-corners study were used along with the available separations data to determine the effect of burnup, decay, and separations variability on estimated waste stream compositions.[2-5] Two different components/scenarios were identified that could limit waste loading of the combined Cs + LN + TM waste streams, where as the combined Cs + LN waste stream has no single component that is perceived to limit waste loading. Combined Cs + LN waste stream in a glass waste form will most likely be limited by heat due to the high activity of Cs and Sr isotopes.

  11. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne's process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  12. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-07-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne`s process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  13. Biodegradation testing of solidified low-level waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1985-05-01

    The NRC Technical Position on Waste Form (TP) specifies that waste should be resistant to biodegradation. The methods recommended in the TP for testing resistance to fungi, ASTM G21, and for testing resistance to bacteria, ASTM G22, were carried out on several types of solidified simulated wastes, and the effect of microbial activity on the mechanical strength of the materials tested was examined. The tests are believed to be sufficient for distinguishing between materials that are susceptible to biodegradation and those that are not. It is concluded that failure of these tests should not be regarded of itself as an indication that the waste form will biodegrade to an extent that the form does not meet the stability requirements of 10 CFR Part 61. In the case of failure of ASTM G21 or ASTM G22 or both, it is recommended that additional data be supplied by the waste generator to demonstrate the resistance of the waste form to microbial degradation. To produce a data base on the applicability of the biodegradation tests, the following simulated laboratory-scale waste forms were prepared and tested: boric acid and sodium sulfate evaporator bottoms, mixed-bed bead resins and powdered resins each solidified in asphalt, cement, and vinyl ester-styrene. Cement solidified wastes supported neither fungal nor bacterial growth. Of the asphalt solidified wastes, only the forms of boric acid evaporator bottoms did not support fungal growth. Bacteria grew on all of the asphalt solidified wastes. Cleaning the surface of these waste forms did not affect bacterial growth and had a limited effect on the fungal growth. Only vinyl esterstyrene solidified sodium sulfate evaporator bottoms showed viable fungi cultures, but surface cleaning with solvents eliminated fungal growth in subsequent testing. Some forms of all the waste streams solidified in vinyl ester-styrene showed viable bacteria cultures. 13 refs., 12 tabs.

  14. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  15. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  16. Flax Processing: Use of Waste Streams for Profit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The waste streams generated by flax fiber processing represent potential sources of value-added co-products that can enhance profits and provide direct economic support for the flax industry. These waste streams include the dust, shive, retting wash water, and waste cellulose. Fatty alcohols (polico...

  17. Analysis of an organization's waste stream.

    PubMed

    Hayne, A N; Peoples, L T

    1993-02-01

    The steps involved in conducting a waste stream analysis for a health care organization have been described. The development of a corporate position on the organization's stewardship of its environment can be the major result of such an analysis. This position would communicate to the community the organization's commitment to the environment and would be used as policy guiding corporate decisions that affect the environment. As a result of the corporate policy, a health system waste management program could be developed. This program would consist of standardized policies and procedures, educational requirements for employees, roles and responsibilities' defined in job descriptions, public education programs, recycling programs, and capital equipment acquisition. Additionally, such a program would promote economies of scale. A waste stream analysis is only as good as the information it contains. Making it of sufficient priority within the organization ensures that adequate time and personnel are allocated to complete the analysis in a precise manner. A well completed analysis is a major component of the larger issue of an organization's responsibility to its environment.

  18. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, William; Pereira, Candido; Heltemes, Thad A.; Youker, Amanda; Makarashvili, Vakhtang; Vandegrift, George F.

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  19. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  20. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  1. Waste stream recycling: Its effect on water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, D.A. ); Lee, R.G. )

    1994-11-01

    Waste streams recycled to the influent of a water treatment plant typically contain contaminants at concentrations that are of concern. These contaminants may include giardia and Cryptosporidium, trihalomethanes, manganese, and assimilable organic carbon. This research shows that proper management--treatment, equalization, and monitoring--of the waste streams can render them suitable for recycling in many situations.

  2. Regulatory framework for the thermal treatment of various waste streams.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Huffman, G L; Mao, Y L

    2000-08-28

    Since 1990, regulations and standards have changed considerably. This article is an update of the regulatory requirements for the thermal treatment of various waste streams. The waste categories covered, along with the laws they are governed under, include: Hazardous waste under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and under the Clean Air Act; municipal solid waste under Subtitle D of the RCRA; medical waste under Subtitle J of the RCRA; Superfund waste under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA); toxic waste under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); and sludge waste under the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  3. Using Financial Incentives to Manage the Solid Waste Stream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spindler, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews two approaches to solid waste stream management that encourage recycling in the beverage industry, a model categorizing public policies directed at diverting postconsumer waste from the waste system, and industry initiatives in the context of these policies. Preemptive and compelled partnerships represent innovations in…

  4. Using Financial Incentives to Manage the Solid Waste Stream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spindler, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews two approaches to solid waste stream management that encourage recycling in the beverage industry, a model categorizing public policies directed at diverting postconsumer waste from the waste system, and industry initiatives in the context of these policies. Preemptive and compelled partnerships represent innovations in…

  5. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  6. Regional Monitoring of Acidic Lakes and Streams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This asset provides data on the acid-base status of lakes and streams. Key chemical indicators measured include: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC), pH, base cations, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total aluminum. TIME and LTM are part of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Long-term monitoring of the acid-base status (pH, ANC, SO4, NO3, NH4, DOC, base cations, Al) in lakes and streams. Monitoring is conducted in acid sensitive regions of the Eastern U.S.

  7. Regional Monitoring of Acidic Lakes and Streams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This asset provides data on the acid-base status of lakes and streams. Key chemical indicators measured include: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC), pH, base cations, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total aluminum. TIME and LTM are part of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Long-term monitoring of the acid-base status (pH, ANC, SO4, NO3, NH4, DOC, base cations, Al) in lakes and streams. Monitoring is conducted in acid sensitive regions of the Eastern U.S.

  8. Characterization of waste streams on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, A.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Jackson, A.M.; Butcher, B.T. Jr.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) plants generate solid low-level waste (LLW) that must be disposed of or stored on-site. The available disposal capacity of the current sites is projected to be fully utilized during the next decade. An LLW disposal strategy has been developed by the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program as a framework for bringing new, regulator-approved disposal capacity to the ORR. An increasing level of waste stream characterization will be needed to maintain the ability to effectively manage solid LLW by the facilities on the ORR under the new regulatory scenario. In this paper, current practices for solid LLW stream characterization, segregation, and certification are described. In addition, the waste stream characterization requirements for segregation and certification under the LLWDDD Program strategy are also examined. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Electric power generation using a phosphoric acid cell on a municipal solid waste landfill gas stream. Technology verification report, November 1997--July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Masemore, S.; Piccot, S.

    1998-08-01

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phosphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Performance data were collected at two sites determined to be representative of the U.S. landfill market. The Penrose facility, in Los Angeles, CA, was the first test site. The landfill gas at this site represented waste gas recovery from four nearby landfills, consisting primarily of industrial waste material. It produced approximately 3000 scf of gas/minute, and had a higher heating value of 446 Btu/scf at about 44% methane concentration. The second test site, in Groton, CT, was a relatively small landfill, but with greater heat content gas (methane levels were about 57% and the average heating value was 585 Btu/scf). The verification test addressed contaminant removal efficiency, flare destruction efficiency, and the operational capability of the cleanup system, and the power production capability of the fuel cell system.

  10. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

  11. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

  12. Characterization of waste streams and suspect waste from largest Los Alamos National Laboratory generators

    SciTech Connect

    Soukup, J.D.; Erpenbeck, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed waste stream characterization of 4 primary generators of low level waste at LANL was performed to aid in waste minimization efforts. Data was compiled for these four generators from 1988 to the present for analyses. Prior waste minimization efforts have focused on identifying waste stream processes and performing source materials substitutions or reductions where applicable. In this historical survey, the generators surveyed included an accelerator facility, the plutonium facility, a chemistry and metallurgy research facility, and a radiochemistry research facility. Of particular interest in waste minimization efforts was the composition of suspect low level waste in which no radioactivity is detected through initial survey. Ultimately, this waste is disposed of in the LANL low level permitted waste disposal pits (thus filling a scarce and expensive resource with sanitary waste). Detailed analyses of the waste streams from these 4 facilities, have revealed that suspect low level waste comprises approximately 50% of the low level waste by volume and 47% by weight. However, there are significant differences in suspect waste density when one considers the radioactive contamination. For the 2 facilities that deal primarily with beta emitting activation and spallation products (the radiochemistry and accelerator facilities), the suspect waste is much lower density than all low level waste coming from those facilities. For the 2 facilities that perform research on transuranics (the chemistry and metallurgy research and plutonium facilities), suspect waste is higher in density than all the low level waste from those facilities. It is theorized that the low density suspect waste is composed primarily of compactable lab trash, most of which is not contaminated but can be easily surveyed. The high density waste is theorized to be contaminated with alpha emitting radionuclides, and in this case, the suspect waste demonstrates fundamental limits in detection.

  13. Reactive solute transport in acidic streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

  14. Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    the economic viability of the WADRTM system, waste throughput is also a concern. Figure 5 shows the effect that waste throughput has on the economic ... viability of the system. Each change-out represents one 3400 gallon acid tank. During time of normal manufacturing activity the Arsenal will require 8

  15. High-temperature waste-heat-stream selection and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wikoff, P.M.; Wiggins, D.J.; Tallman, R.L.; Forkel, C.E.

    1983-08-01

    Four types of industrial high-temperature, corrosive waste heat streams are selected that could yield significant energy savings if improved heat recovery systems were available. These waste heat streams are the flue gases from steel soaking pits, steel reheat furnaces, aluminum remelt furnaces, and glass melting furnaces. Available information on the temperature, pressure, flow, and composition of these flue gases is given. Also reviewed are analyses of corrosion products and fouling deposits resulting from the interaction of these flue gases with materials in flues and heat recovery systems.

  16. Waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.; Wydeven, T.

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat, reported in a prior NASA Technical Memorandum and a related journal article, was updated. This report augments that compilation by the inclusion of the following new data: those data uncovered since completion of the prior report; those obtained from Soviet literature relevant to life support issues; and those for various minor human body wastes not presented previously (saliva, flatus, hair, finger- and toenails, dried skin and skin secretions, tears, and semen), but included here for purposes of completeness. These waste streams complement those discussed previously: toilet waste (urine, feces, etc.), hygiene water (laundry, shower/handwash, dishwasher water and cleansing agents), trash, humidity condensate, perspiration and respiration water, trace contaminants, and dust generation. This report also reproduces the latest information on the environmental control and life support system design parameters for Space Station Freedom.

  17. Waste streams in a crewed space habitat II.

    PubMed

    Golub, M A; Wydeven, T

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat, reported in a prior NASA Technical Memorandum and a related journal article, has been updated. This paper augments that compilation by the inclusion of the following new data: those uncovered since completion of the prior report; those obtained from Soviet literature relevant to life support issues; and those for various minor human body wastes not presented previously (saliva, flatus, hair, finger- and toenails, dried skin and skin secretions, tears and semen), but included here for purposes of completeness. These waste streams complement those discussed previously: toilet waste (urine, feces, etc.), hygiene water (laundry, shower/handwash, dishwash water and cleansing agents), trash, humidity condensate, perspiration and respiration water, trace contaminants and dust generation. This paper also reproduces the latest information on the environmental control and life support system design parameters for Space Station Freedom.

  18. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  19. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  20. Metal Poisons for Criticality in Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-06-26

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper.

  1. Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Soupir, Michelle L.; Ikenberry, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water.

  2. The determination of critical nuclides in PWR waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    De Goeyse, A.

    1993-12-31

    The safety studies concerning the final disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste take into consideration a series of long-lived radionuclides. The problem the producers have to cope with comes from the fact that those nuclides, which are mainly (pure) {beta} emitters or {alpha} emitters, cannot be measured by a direct current method such as gamma scanning. Their determination involves sophisticated radiochemical techniques which are difficult to implement by a producer on a routine basis for normal production waste. A current method for the determination of those nuclides in the waste streams produced by a nuclear power reactor consists in applying correlation factors or scaling factors between those critical nuclides and so called key radionuclides, which can be easily measured and are representative for the occurrence of activation products and fission products in the waste streams. In order to identify and define those correlation factors, ONDRAF/NIRAS, has subcontracted, in agreement with the waste producer (ELECTRABEL), a complete study to the engineering company BELGATOM (BA) for the different waste streams produced by the seven Belgian PWR plants.

  3. Electrochemical and photochemical treatment of aqueous waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Pekala, R.W.; Wang, F.T.; Fix, D.V.; Volpe, A.M.; Dietrich, D.D.; Siegel, W.H.; Carley, J.F.

    1996-03-01

    Carbon aerogel electrodes have been used to remove NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} and heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Photochemical oixdation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been used to destroy organic contamination and is proposed as a means of avoiding the fouling of carbon aerogel electrodes.

  4. ORGANIC WASTE CONTAMINATION INDICATORS IN SMALL GEORGIA PIEDMONT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO), and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. Here we present estimates of the amounts of organic waste input to these wate...

  5. ORGANIC WASTE CONTAMINATION INDICATORS IN SMALL GEORGIA PIEDMONT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO), and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. Here we present estimates of the amounts of organic waste input to these wate...

  6. Redesigning Urban Carbon Cycles: from Waste Stream to Commodity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brabander, D. J.; Fitzstevens, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    While there has been extensive research on the global scale to quantify the fluxes and reservoirs of carbon for predictive climate change models, comparably little attention has been focused on carbon cycles in the built environment. The current management of urban carbon cycles presents a major irony: while cities produce tremendous fluxes of organic carbon waste, their populations are dependent on imported carbon because most urban have limited access to locally sourced carbon. The persistence of outdated management schemes is in part due to the fact that reimagining the handling of urban carbon waste streams requires a transdisciplinary approach. Since the end of the 19th century, U.S. cities have generally relied on the same three options for managing organic carbon waste streams: burn it, bury it, or dilute it. These options still underpin the framework for today's design and management strategies for handling urban carbon waste. We contend that urban carbon management systems for the 21st century need to be scalable, must acknowledge how climate modulates the biogeochemical cycling of urban carbon, and should carefully factor local political and cultural values. Urban waste carbon is a complex matrix ranging from wastewater biosolids to municipal compost. Our first goal in designing targeted and efficient urban carbon management schemes has been examining approaches for categorizing and geochemically fingerprinting these matrices. To date we have used a combination of major and trace element ratio analysis and bulk matrix characteristics, such as pH, density, and loss on ignition, to feed multivariable statistical analysis in order to identify variables that are effective tracers for each waste stream. This approach was initially developed for Boston, MA, US, in the context of identifying components of municipal compost streams that were responsible for increasing the lead inventory in the final product to concentrations that no longer permitted its use in

  7. Metal poisons for criticality in waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-12-31

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals that may serve as neutron poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist; the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper. In an earlier study, the authors demonstrated safe ratios for iron, manganese, and chromium oxides to {sup 235}U. In these studies, the Hansen-Roach 16-group cross sections were used with the Savannah River site code HRXN. Multiplication factors were computed, and safe ratios were defined such that the adjusted neutron multiplication factors (k values) were <0.95. These safe weight ratios were Fe:{sup 235}U - 77:1; Mn:{sup 235}U - 30:1; and Cr:{sup 235}U - 52:1. Palmer has shown that for certain mixtures of aluminum, iron, and zirconium with {sup 235}U, the computed infinite multiplication factors may differ by as much as 20% with different cross sections and processing systems. Parks et al. have further studied these mixtures and state, {open_quotes}...these metal/uranium mixtures are very sensitive to the metal cross-section data in the intermediate-energy range and the processing methods that are used.{close_quotes} They conclude with a call for more experimental data. The purpose of this study is to reexamine earlier work with cross sections and processing codes used at Westinghouse Savannah River Company today. This study will focus on {sup 235}U mixtures with iron, manganese and chromium. Sodium will be included in the list of poisons because it is abundant in many of the waste materials.

  8. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  9. Strong and Optically Transparent Films Prepared Using Cellulosic Solid Residue Recovered from Cellulose Nanocrystals Production Waste Stream

    Treesearch

    Qianqian Wang; J.Y. Zhu; John M. Considine

    2013-01-01

    We used a new cellulosic material, cellulosic solid residue (CSR), to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) for potential high value applications. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were produced from CSR recovered from the hydrolysates (waste stream) of acid hydrolysis of a bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEP) to produce nanocrystals (CNC). Acid hydrolysis greatly facilitated...

  10. Stabilization and Solidification of Nitric Acid Effluent Waste at Y-12

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta

    2016-12-16

    Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS) at the Y-12 plant is investigating approaches for the treatment (stabilization and solidification) of a nitric acid waste effluent that contains uranium. Because the pH of the waste stream is 1-2, it is a difficult waste stream to treat and stabilize by a standard cement-based process. Alternative waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the nitric acid effluent wastes.

  11. Sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, K.N.; White, D.J.; Xu, Jide; Mohs, T.R.

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this project is to take a biomimetic approach toward developing new separation technologies for the removal of radioactive elements from contaminated DOE sites. To achieve this objective, the authors are investigating the fundamental chemistry of naturally occurring, highly specific metal ion sequestering agents and developing them into liquid/liquid and solid supported actinide extraction agents. Nature produces sideophores (e.g., Enterobactin and Desferrioxamine B) to selectivity sequester Lewis acidic metal ions, in particular Fe(III), from its surroundings. These chelating agents typically use multiple catechols or hydroxamic acids to form polydentate ligands that chelate the metal ion forming very stable complexes. The authors are investigating and developing analogous molecules into selective chelators targeting actinide(IV) ions, which display similar properties to Fe(III). By taking advantage of differences in charge, preferred coordination number, and pH stability range, the transition from nature to actinide sequestering agents has been applied to the development of new and highly selective actinide extraction technologies. Additionally, the authors have shown that these chelating ligands are versatile ligands for chelating U(VI). In particular, they have been studying their coordination chemistry and fundamental interactions with the uranyl ion [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, the dominant form of uranium found in aqueous media. With an understanding of this chemistry, and results obtained from in vivo uranium sequestration studies, it should be possible to apply these actinide(IV) extraction technologies to the development of new extraction agents for the removal of uranium from waste streams.

  12. Innovative waste stream analysis process for a utilities environmental laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.; Scherer, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    Compliance with government regulations for a vast multitude of chemical wastes streams can be a difficult undertaking. Under 40 CFR 261.11, a person who generates a solid waste must first determine if the waste is a hazardous waste to determine proper disposal. A common sense approach to meeting this requirement for a utility environmental laboratory has been developed at the Colorado Springs Utilities, Department of Water Resources, Environmental Quality Laboratory (EQL). The Colorado Springs Utilities, Water Resources Department, Environmental Quality Laboratory (EQL) operates a 10,000 square foot state-of-the-art laboratory facility. The EQL is a complete utilities environmental laboratory that conducts compliance analyses, process control analyses, and general environmental analyses. The EQL also provides inter-departmental analytical support analyses including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformer gas analysis for the electric department, hazard analyses for the Fire Department`s Haz-mat Unit, and compressor oil analyses for the Gas Department. The EQL has an excellent record of quality performance and is the only municipally owned laboratory in Colorado with Class 100 Clean Room capability. The EQL developed an innovative waste stream analysis process for its laboratory operations.

  13. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  14. Waste streams in a crewed space habitat. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore

    1992-01-01

    An update is presented of a compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat which was reported in the NASA Technical Memorandum. New topics under consideration include data obtained from Soviet literature on life support issues and data on various minor human body wastes not presented previously (saliva, Flatus, hair, finger- and toenails, dried skin and skin secretions, tears and semen). Attention is also given to the latest information on the environmental control and life support system design parameters for SSF.

  15. Waste streams in a crewed space habitat. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore

    1992-01-01

    An update is presented of a compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat which was reported in the NASA Technical Memorandum. New topics under consideration include data obtained from Soviet literature on life support issues and data on various minor human body wastes not presented previously (saliva, Flatus, hair, finger- and toenails, dried skin and skin secretions, tears and semen). Attention is also given to the latest information on the environmental control and life support system design parameters for SSF.

  16. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  17. Organic waste compounds as contaminants in Milwaukee-area streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; Magruder, Christopher; Magruder, Matthew; Bruce, Jennifer L.

    2015-09-22

    Organic waste compounds (OWCs) are ingredients and by-products of common agricultural, industrial, and household substances that can contaminate our streams through sources like urban runoff, sewage overflows, and leaking septic systems. To better understand how OWCs are affecting Milwaukee-area streams, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District, conducted a three-year study to investigate the presence and potential toxicity of 69 OWCs in base flow, stormflow, pore water, and sediment at 14 stream sites and 3 Milwaukee harbor locations. This fact sheet summarizes the major findings of this study, including detection frequencies and concentrations, potential toxicity, the prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the influence of urbanization.

  18. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.H.

    1995-09-11

    The author studied liquid anion exchangers, such as Aliquat-336 nitrate, various pyridinium nitrates, and related salts, so that they may be applied toward a specific process for extracting (partitioning) and recovering {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from nuclear waste streams. Many of the waste streams are caustic and contain a variety of other ions. For this reason, the author studied waste stream simulants that are caustic and contain appropriate concentrations of selected, relevant ions. Methods of measuring the performance of the exchangers and extractant systems included contact experiments. Batch contact experiments were used to determine the forward and reverse extraction parameters as a function of temperature, contact time, phase ratio, concentration, solvent (diluent), and other physical properties. They were also used for stability and competition studies. Specifically, the author investigated the solvent extraction behavior of salts of perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), a stable (non-radioactive) chemical surrogate for {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. Results are discussed for alternate organic solvents; metalloporphyrins, ferrocenes, and N-cetyl pyridium nitrate as alternate extractant salts; electroactive polymers; and recovery of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}.

  19. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    SciTech Connect

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  20. A Comparison between Ultraviolet Disinfection and Copper Alginate Beads within a Vortex Bioreactor for the Deactivation of Bacteria in Simulated Waste Streams with High Levels of Colour, Humic Acid and Suspended Solids

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Simon F.; Rooks, Paul; Rudin, Fabian; Atkinson, Sov; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M.; Mason, Paul T.; Allen, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads) is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries. PMID:25541706

  1. A comparison between ultraviolet disinfection and copper alginate beads within a vortex bioreactor for the deactivation of bacteria in simulated waste streams with high levels of colour, humic acid and suspended solids.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Simon F; Rooks, Paul; Rudin, Fabian; Atkinson, Sov; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M; Mason, Paul T; Allen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads) is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries.

  2. In-stream sorption of fulvic acid in an acidic stream: A stream-scale transport experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Hornberger, G.M.; Bencala, K.E.; Boyer, E.W.

    2002-01-01

    The variation of concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in stream waters cannot be explained solely on the basis of soil processes in contributing subcatchments. To investigate in-stream processes that control DOC, we injected DOC-enriched water into a reach of the Snake River (Summit County, Colorado) that has abundant iron oxyhydroxides coating the streambed. The injected water was obtained from the Suwannee River (Georgia), which is highly enriched in fulvic acid. The fulvic acid from this water is the standard reference for aquatic fulvic acid for the International Humic Substances Society and has been well characterized. During the experimental injection, significant removal of sorbable fulvic acid occurred within the first 141 m of stream reach. We coinjected a conservative tracer (lithium chloride) and analyzed the results with the one-dimensional transport with inflow and storage (OTIS) stream solute transport model to quantify the physical transport mechanisms. The downstream transport of fulvic acid as indicated by absorbance was then simulated using OTIS with a first-order kinetic sorption rate constant applied to the sorbable fulvic acid. The "sorbable" fraction of injected fulvic acid was irreversibly sorbed by streambed sediments at rates (kinetic rate constants) of the order of 10-4-10-3 S-1. In the injected Suwannee River water, sorbable and nonsorbable fulvic acid had distinct chemical characteristics identified in 13C-NMR spectra. The 13C-NMR spectra indicate that during the experiment, the sorbable "signal" of greater aromaticity and carboxyl content decreased downstream; that is, these components were preferentially removed. This study illustrates that interactions between the water and the reactive surfaces will modify significantly the concentration and composition of DOC observed in streams with abundant chemically reactive surfaces on the streambed and in the hyporheic zone.

  3. In-stream sorption of fulvic acid in an acidic stream: A stream-scale transport experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Diane M.; Hornberger, George M.; Bencala, Kenneth E.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    2002-01-01

    The variation of concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in stream waters cannot be explained solely on the basis of soil processes in contributing subcatchments. To investigate in-stream processes that control DOC, we injected DOC-enriched water into a reach of the Snake River (Summit County, Colorado) that has abundant iron oxyhydroxides coating the streambed. The injected water was obtained from the Suwannee River (Georgia), which is highly enriched in fulvic acid. The fulvic acid from this water is the standard reference for aquatic fulvic acid for the International Humic Substances Society and has been well characterized. During the experimental injection, significant removal of sorbable fulvic acid occurred within the first 141 m of stream reach. We coinjected a conservative tracer (lithium chloride) and analyzed the results with the one-dimensional transport with inflow and storage (OTIS) stream solute transport model to quantify the physical transport mechanisms. The downstream transport of fulvic acid as indicated by absorbance was then simulated using OTIS with a first-order kinetic sorption rate constant applied to the sorbable fulvic acid. The ``sorbable'' fraction of injected fulvic acid was irreversibly sorbed by streambed sediments at rates (kinetic rate constants) of the order of 10-4-10-3 s-1. In the injected Suwannee River water, sorbable and nonsorbable fulvic acid had distinct chemical characteristics identified in 13C-NMR spectra. The 13C-NMR spectra indicate that during the experiment, the sorbable ``signal'' of greater aromaticity and carboxyl content decreased downstream; that is, these components were preferentially removed. This study illustrates that interactions between the water and the reactive surfaces will modify significantly the concentration and composition of DOC observed in streams with abundant chemically reactive surfaces on the streambed and in the hyporheic zone.

  4. Composting: Dirty riches. [Composting organic wastes from the municiple solid waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, A.

    1993-08-01

    Up to three-quarters of municiple solid waste (MSW) is organic, readily biodegradable material, such as food, leaves, and paper. If this waste were allowed to root properly, the solid waste crisis would be less serious. However, rotting isn't easy in a tightly packed mountain of garbage at a typical landfill. The last few years have at least established composing as a rising green industry, especially in the most populous regions of the developed world. However, the variety of composting programs is too inefficient to divert any more than a tiny fraction of the compostable waste stream away from landfills and incinerators. This article discusses the problems of mixed municiple solid wastes and composting organic wastes, and possible solutions.

  5. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  6. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing-capacity streams

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Mitch, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands.

  7. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States, 2, Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlihy, Alan T.; Kaufmann, Philip R.; Mitch, Mark E.

    1991-04-01

    We examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small (<30 km2) forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands.

  8. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    SciTech Connect

    Arbon, R.E.

    2001-01-31

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  9. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files: Part 2, Low-level waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

  10. New Innovations in Highly Ion Specific Media for Recalcitrant Waste stream Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, M. S.; Wilson, J.; Ahrendt, M.; Bostick, W. D.; DeSilva, F.; Meyers, P.

    2006-07-01

    Specialty ion specific media were examined and developed for, not only pre- and post-outage waste streams, but also for very difficult outage waste streams. This work was carried out on first surrogate waste streams, then laboratory samples of actual waste streams, and, finally, actual on-site waste streams. This study was particularly focused on PWR wastewaters such as Floor Drain Tank (FDT), Boron Waste Storage Tank (BWST), and Waste Treatment Tank (WTT, or discharge tank). Over the last half decade, or so, treatment technologies have so greatly improved and discharge levels have become so low, that certain particularly problematic isotopes, recalcitrant to current treatment skids, are all that remain prior to discharge. In reality, they have always been present, but overshadowed by the more prevalent and higher activity isotopes. Such recalcitrants include cobalt, especially Co 58 [both ionic/soluble (total dissolved solids, TDS) and colloidal (total suspended solids, TSS)] and antimony (Sb). The former is present in most FDT and BWST wastewaters, while the Sb is primarily present in BWST waste streams. The reasons Co 58 can be elusive to granulated activated carbon (GAC), ultrafiltration (UF) and ion exchange (IX) demineralizers is that it forms submicron colloids as well as has a tendency to form metal complexes with chelating agents (e.g., ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, or EDTA). Such colloids and non-charged complexes will pass through the entire treatment skid. Antimony (Sb) on the other hand, has little or no ionic charge, and will, likewise, pass through both the filtration and de-min skids into the discharge tanks. While the latter will sometimes (the anionic vs. the cationic or neutral species) be removed on the anion bed(s), it will slough off (snow-plow effect) when a higher affinity anion (iodine slugs, etc.) comes along; thus causing effluents not meeting discharge criteria. The answer to these problems found in this study, during an actual

  11. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  12. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  13. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett; Zielke, Clyde W.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  14. Economic assessment of flash co-pyrolysis of short rotation coppice and biopolymer waste streams.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, T; Cornelissen, T; Carleer, R; Yperman, J; Schreurs, S; Jans, M; Thewys, T

    2010-12-01

    The disposal problem associated with phytoextraction of farmland polluted with heavy metals by means of willow requires a biomass conversion technique which meets both ecological and economical needs. Combustion and gasification of willow require special and costly flue gas treatment to avoid re-emission of the metals in the atmosphere, whereas flash pyrolysis mainly results in the production of (almost) metal free bio-oil with a relatively high water content. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste of biopolymers synergistically improves the characteristics of the pyrolysis process: e.g. reduction of the water content of the bio-oil, more bio-oil and less char production and an increase of the HHV of the oil. This research paper investigates the economic consequences of the synergistic effects of flash co-pyrolysis of 1:1 w/w ratio blends of willow and different biopolymer waste streams via cost-benefit analysis and Monte Carlo simulations taking into account uncertainties. In all cases economic opportunities of flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with biopolymer waste are improved compared to flash pyrolysis of pure willow. Of all the biopolymers under investigation, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most promising, followed by Eastar, Biopearls, potato starch, polylactic acid (PLA), corn starch and Solanyl in order of decreasing profits. Taking into account uncertainties, flash co-pyrolysis is expected to be cheaper than composting biopolymer waste streams, except for corn starch. If uncertainty increases, composting also becomes more interesting than flash co-pyrolysis for waste of Solanyl. If the investment expenditure is 15% higher in practice than estimated, the preference for flash co-pyrolysis compared to composting biopolymer waste becomes less clear. Only when the system of green current certificates is dismissed, composting clearly is a much cheaper processing technique for disposing of biopolymer waste. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatability study of Tank E-3-1 waste: mixed waste stream SR-W049

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1997-08-21

    Treatability studies were conducted for tank E-3-1 waste which was previously characterized in WSRC-RP-87-0078. The waste was determined to be mixed waste because it displayed the characteristic of metal toxicity for Hg and Cr and was also contaminated with low levels of radionuclides. Two types of treatments for qualifying this waste suitable for land disposal were evaluated: ion exchange and stabilization with hydraulic materials (portland cement, slag and magnesium phosphate cement). These treatments were selected for testing because: (1) Both treatments can be carried out as in-drum processes., (2) Cement stabilization is the RCRA/LDR best developed available technology (BDAT) for Hg (less than 280 mg/L) and for Cr., and (3) Ion exchange via Mag-Sep is a promising alternative technology for in drum treatment of liquid wastes displaying metal toxicity. Cement stabilization of the E-3-1 material ( supernate and settled solids) resulted in waste forms which passed the TCLP test for both Hg and Cr. However, the ion exchange resins tested were ineffective in removing the Hg from this waste stream. Consequently, cement stabilization is recommended for a treatment of the five drums of the actual waste.

  16. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, R.B.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

  17. Disposal Analysis of I-129 Bearing Waste Streams at the Intermediate Level Vault

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2001-01-25

    This report examines the effects of new waste-specific sorption characteristics reported for I-129 bearing wastes on inventory limits in the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). Inventory limits are described based on the revised performance assessment model using the waste-specific Kd's. Results are compared with inventory projections of waste streams for the next ten years.

  18. Documentation of acceptable knowledge for LANL Plutonium Facility transuranic waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, A.J.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Foxx, C.; Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1998-07-01

    Characterization of transuranic waste from the LANL Plutonium Facility for certification and transportation to WIPP includes the use of acceptable knowledge as specified in the WIPP Quality Assurance Program Plan. In accordance with a site-specific procedure, documentation of acceptable knowledge for retrievably stored and currently generated transuranic waste streams is in progress at LANL. A summary overview of the transuranic waste inventory is complete and documented in the Sampling Plan. This document also includes projected waste generation, facility missions, waste generation processes, flow diagrams, times, and material inputs. The second part of acceptable knowledge documentation consists of assembling more detailed acceptable knowledge information into auditable records and is expected to require several years to complete. These records for each waste stream must support final assignment of waste matrix parameters, EPA hazardous waste numbers, and radionuclide characterization. They must also include a determination whether waste streams are defense waste streams for compliance with the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The LANL Plutonium Facility`s mission is primarily plutonium processing in basic special nuclear material (SNM) research activities to support national defense and energy programs. It currently has about 100 processes ranging from SNM recovery from residues to development of plutonium 238 heat sources for space applications. Its challenge is to characterize and certify waste streams from such diverse and dynamic operations using acceptable knowledge. This paper reports the progress on the certification of the first of these waste streams to the WIPP WAC.

  19. Extraction and reductive stripping of pertechnetate from spent nuclear fuel waste streams.

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, I.; Marin, T.; Stepinski, D.; Vandegrift, G.; Muntean, J.; Dietz, M.

    2011-01-01

    An approach directed at rapid sequestration and disposal of technetium-99 from UREX (uranium extraction) liquid waste streams is presented. This stream is generated during reprocessing of light-water-reactor spent fuel to recycle the actinides and separate fission products for waste disposal. U and Tc are co-extracted from a nitric acid solution using tri-n-butylphosphate in dodecane, so that Tc(VII) is present in the strip solution after the actinide separations. The goal is to separate uranyl from the pertechnetate in this U-Tc stream and then sequester Tc in the metallic form. Our approach is based on reductive stripping of pertechnetate either from aqueous solution (for column extractions) or organic solvents (for liquid-liquid extractions). In both of these methods, metallic zinc in the presence of formic acid serves as a reducing agent, and {sup 99}Tc is recovered as a co-precipitate of Zn(II) hydroxide and hydrous Tc(IV) oxide, with a Zn:Tc ratio between 1:1 and 2:1 mol/mol. This solid residue can be reduced to a Zn-Tc alloy by high temperature (500-700 C) hydrogenation, and the resulting heterophase alloy can be added to a metallic Fe-Zr-Mo waste form that is processed at 1600 C, with subsequent loss of Zn by evaporation. Alternatively, Zn and Tc can be separated and {sup 99}Tc sequestered as NH{sub 4}TcO{sub 4} for further reduction to Tc(0) metal. The aqueous Zn reduction process removes {approx}90% of {sup 99}Tc per cycle. The nonaqueous Zn reduction in 1:1 methanol-formic acid removes 60-70% of {sup 99}Tc per cycle, depending on the extracting agent (such as a tetraalkylammonium nitrate). The extracting agent is recycled in the process. The pertechnetate is extracted from the aqueous phase into 1,2-dichloroethane, which is removed by evaporation and reused. The residue is either calcined and steam reformed to Tc(0) or processed by the nonaqueous Zn reduction method. These methods can be used not only to remove the pertechnetate from the U-Tc product

  20. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1995-10-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

  1. Landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management: Combining valuable practices with respect to future waste streams.

    PubMed

    Hoogmartens, Rob; Eyckmans, Johan; Van Passel, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Both landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management (EWM) practices can mitigate the scarcity issue of landfill capacity by respectively reducing landfilled waste volumes and valorising future waste streams. However, high landfill taxes might erode incentives for EWM, even though EWM creates value by valorising waste. Concentrating on Flanders (Belgium), the paper applies dynamic optimisation modelling techniques to analyse how landfill taxation and EWM can reinforce each other and how taxation schemes can be adjusted in order to foster sustainable and welfare maximising ways of processing future waste streams. Based on the Flemish simulation results, insights are offered that are generally applicable in international waste and resource management policy. As shown, the optimal Flemish landfill tax that optimises welfare in the no EWM scenario is higher than the one in the EWM scenario (93 against €50/ton). This difference should create incentives for applying EWM and is driven by the positive external effects that are generated by EWM practices. In Flanders, as the current landfill tax is slightly lower than these optimal levels, the choice that can be made is to further increase taxation levels or show complete commitment to EWM. A first generally applicable insight that was found points to the fact that it is not necessarily the case that the higher the landfill tax, the more effective waste management improvements can be realised. Other insights are about providing sufficient incentives for applying EMW practices and formulating appropriate pleas in support of technological development. By these insights, this paper should provide relevant information that can assist in triggering the transition towards a resource-efficient, circular economy in Europe.

  2. Biological treatment of habitation waste streams using full scale MABRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, William; Barta, Daniel J.; Morse, Audra; Christenson, Dylan; Sevanthi, Ritesh

    Recycling waste water is a critical step to support sustainable long term habitation in space. Water is one of the largest contributors to life support requirements. In closed loop life support systems, membrane aerated biological reactors (MABRs) can reduce the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia (NH3) concentration as well as decrease the pH, leading to a more stable solution with less potential to support biological growth or promote carryover of unionized ammonia as well as producing a higher quality brine. Over the last three years we have operated 3 full size MABRs ( 120L) treating a habitation type waste stream composed of urine, hygiene, and laundry water. The reactors varied in the specific surface area (260, 200, and 150 m2/m3) available for biofilm growth and gas transfer. The liquid side system was continually monitored for pH, TDS, and DO, and the influent and effluent monitored daily for DOC, TN, NOx, and NH4. The gas side system was continuously monitored for O2, CO2, and N2O in the effluent gas as well as pressure and flow rates. These systems have all demonstrated greater than 90% DOC reductions and ammonium conversion rates of 50-70% over a range of loading rates with effluent pH from 5-7.5. We have evaluated. In addition, to evaluating the impact of loading rates (10-70 l/d) we have also evaluated the impact of forced hibernation, the use of pure O2 on performance, the impact of pressurize operation to prevent de-gassing of N2 and to promote higher O2 transfer and a discontinuous feeding cycle to allow integration with desalination. Our analysis includes quantification of consumables (power and O2), waste products such as CO2 and N2O as well as solids production. Our results support the use of biological reactors to treat habitation waste streams as an alternative to the use of pretreatment and desalination alone.

  3. Method for the removal of carbon or carbon compounds from a waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.

    1983-05-17

    A method for the removal of carbon or carbon compounds from a waste stream generated in an unsupported slurry catalyst process utilized for the hydroconversion of heavy hydrocarbonaceous black oil which stream comprises vanadium sulfide, nickel sulfide and carbon or carbon compounds is disclosed. The carbon or carbon compound is removed by contacting the waste stream with sulfur dioxide at oxidizing conditions to yield a solid residue which contains metal sulfides.

  4. Biological removal of carbon disulfide from waste air streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hugler, W.; Acosta, C.; Revah, S.

    1999-09-30

    A pilot-scale biological control system for the treatment of 3,400 m{sup 3} h{sup {minus}1} of a gaseous stream containing up to 7.8 g CS{sub 2} m{sup {minus}3} and trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) was installed in a cellulose sponge manufacturing facility. The objective was to demonstrate the capability of the process to attain sustained removal efficiencies of 90% for CS{sub 2} and 99% for H{sub 2}S. The system consisted of two sequential biotrickling reactors, which had been previously inoculated with an adapted microbial consortium. During the pilot test, stable removal efficiency and elimination capacity of +90% and 220g CS{sub 2} m{sup {minus}3} h{sup {minus}1}, respectively, were attained with an empty bed residence time (EBTR) of 33 seconds for a period of several weeks. Efficiencies greater than 99% were always obtained for H{sub 2}S. Based on the results, the system was determined to be an effective process to remediate waste air streams containing reduced sulfur compounds generated at cellulose sponge facilities.

  5. Roles of Benthic Algae in the Structure, Function, and Assessment of Stream Ecosystems Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tens of thousands of stream kilometers around the world are degraded by a legacy of environmental impacts and acid mine drainage (AMD) caused by abandoned underground and surface mines, piles of discarded coal wastes, and tailings. Increased acidity, high concentrations of metals...

  6. Roles of Benthic Algae in the Structure, Function, and Assessment of Stream Ecosystems Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tens of thousands of stream kilometers around the world are degraded by a legacy of environmental impacts and acid mine drainage (AMD) caused by abandoned underground and surface mines, piles of discarded coal wastes, and tailings. Increased acidity, high concentrations of metals...

  7. Assessment of plasma gasification of high caloric waste streams.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Bert; Elslander, Helmut; Vanderreydt, Ive; Peys, Kurt; Diels, Ludo; Oosterlinck, Michel; Joos, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Plasma gasification is an innovative technology for transforming high calorific waste streams into a valuable synthesis gas and a vitrified slag by means of a thermal plasma. A test program has been set up to evaluate the feasibility of plasma gasification and the impact of this process on the environment. RDF (refuse derived fuel) from carpet and textile waste was selected as feed material for semi-pilot gasification tests. The aim of the tests was: (1) to evaluate the technical feasibility of making a stable synthesis gas; (2) to characterize the composition of this synthesis gas; (3) to define a suitable after-treatment configuration for purification of the syngas and (4) to characterize the stability of the slag, i.e., its resistance to leaching for use as a secondary building material. The tests illustrate that plasma gasification can result in a suitable syngas quality and a slag, characterized by an acceptable leachability. Based on the test results, a further scale-up of this technology will be prepared and validation tests run.

  8. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity streams

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Mitch, M.E. )

    1991-04-01

    The authors examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probably sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern US. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small (<30 km{sup 2}) forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1,950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1,250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1,180 km of acidic stream length, and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4,590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4,380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands.

  9. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  10. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  11. Recovery of valuable agricultural materials from various industrial and municipal waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Many agriculturally beneficial materials can be recovered from industrial and municipal waste streams. Processes for conversion of waste by-products as diverse as treated Class A sewage sludge, waste wallboard, fly ash, and synthetic (FGD) gypsum into fertilizers, fillers and amendments are presented.

  12. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  13. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  14. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Phase 1, Project planning and concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.; Brouns, T.M.

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implemeting these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic in that they meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids, such as HF/--/HNO/sub 3/ etch solutions contianing Zr as a major metal impurity and HNO/sub 3/ strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity, are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ which contains U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup /minus// to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in downstream precipitation step. These waste minimization processes were developed to meet Hanford's fuel fabrication process needs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Nitrification in four acidic streams in southern New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schornick, James C.; Ram, Neil M.

    1978-01-01

    Four characteristically acidic streams in southern New Jersey were investigated to determine the effect of secondary effluent on nitrification in the receiving waters. Chemical and microbiological data were obtained at four sites on each stream. From these data seven factors were evaluated to determine the proclivity of each stream to nitrify. pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were used to describe the general condition of the streams, while neutralization of alkalinity, nitrogen species concentration trends, biological and nitrogenous oxygen demand incubations, and nitrifying bacteria densities were used to determine the actual presence of nitrification in each stream. Each stream had a unique distribution of conditions, making it possible to qualitatively rank the streams according to their proclivity to nitrify. Hay StackBrook showes strong evidence for nitrification on the basis of all four nitrification indicators, whereas Landing Creek showed little, if any, evidence of nitrification. Hammonton Creek is apparently nitrifying, but because of the uncertainty in the downstream trends of the nitrogen species and a lower level of alkalinity neutralization, it is nitrifying less than Hay Stack Brook. Squankum Branch also showed some evidence for nitrification, mostly on the basis of the biological and nitrogenous oxygen demand incubations. Although these streams are acidic in character, acidity does not appear to be an exclusive factor in determining whether a stream will undergo nitrification. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Generation rates and chemical compositions of waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, Theodore; Golub, Morton A.

    1990-01-01

    A judicious compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste feed streams in a typical crewed space habitat was made in connection with the waste-management aspect of NASA's Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Program. Waste composition definitions are needed for the design of waste-processing technologies involved in closing major life support functions in future long-duration human space missions. Tables of data for the constituents and chemical formulas of the following waste streams are presented and discussed: human urine, feces, hygiene (laundry and shower) water, cleansing agents, trash, humidity condensate, dried sweat, and trace contaminants. Tables of data on dust generation and pH values of the different waste streams are also presented and discussed.

  17. Feasibility Study – Using a Solar Evaporator to Reduce the Metalworking Fluid (MWF) Waste Stream

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2008-12-03

    A solar evaporator was designed, built, and operated to reduce the water-based metalworking fluid waste stream. The evaporator was setup in Waste Management’s barrel lot inside one of the confinement areas. The unit processed three batches of waste fluid during the prototype testing. Initial tests removed 13% of the fluid waste stream. Subsequent modifications to the collector improved the rate to almost 20% per week. Evaluation of the risk during operation showed that even a small spill when associated with precipitation, and the unit placement within a confinement area, gave it the potential to contaminate more fluid that what it could save.

  18. Process, product, and waste-stream monitoring with fiber optics

    SciTech Connect

    Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.

    1983-10-10

    Fiber optic technology, motivated by communications and defense applications, has advanced significantly the past ten years. In particular, advances have been made in visible radiation transmission efficiency with concurrent reductions in fiber size, weight, and cost. Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) coupled these advances in fiber optic technology with analytical fluorescence analysis to establish a new technology - remote fiber fluorimetry (RFF). Laser-based RFF offers the potential to measure and monitor from one central and remote laboratory, on-line, and in near real time, trace (ppM) to substantial (g/L) concentrations of selected chemical species in typical process, product, and waste streams. The fluorimeter consists of a fluorescence or Raman spectrometer; unique coupling optics that separates input excitation (laser) radiation from return (fluorescence) radiation; a fiber optic cable; and an optrode - a terminal that interfaces the fiber to the measurement point, which is designed to respond quantitatively to a particular chemical species. At LLNL, research is underway into optrodes that measure pressure, temperature, and pH and those that detect and quantify various actinides, sulfates, inorganic chloride, hydrogen sulfide, aldehydes, and alcohols.

  19. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  20. Removal of dichloromethane from waste gas streams using a hybrid bubble column/biofilter bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a hybrid bubble column/biofilter (HBCB) bioreactor for the removal of dichloromethane (DCM) from waste gas streams was studied in continuous mode for several months. The HBCB bioreactor consisted of two compartments: bubble column bioreactor removing DCM from liquid phase and biofilter removing DCM from gas phase. Effect of inlet DCM concentration on the elimination capacity was examined in the DCM concentration range of 34–359 ppm with loading rates ranged from 2.2 to 22.8 g/m3.h and constant total empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 200 s. In the equal loading rates, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency of the biofilter were higher than the corresponding values of the bubble column bioreactor. The maximum elimination capacity of the HBCB bioreactor was determined to be 15.7 g/m3.h occurred in the highest loading rate of 22.8 g/m3.h with removal efficiency of 69%. The overall mineralization portion of the HBCB bioreactor was in the range of 72-79%. The mixed liquor acidic pH especially below 5.5 inhibited microbial activity and decreased the elimination capacity. Inhibitory effect of high ionic strength was initiated in the mixed liquor electrical conductivity of 12.2 mS/cm. This study indicated that the HBCB bioreactor could benefit from advantages of both bubble column and biofilter reactors and could remove DCM from waste gas streams in a better manner. PMID:24406056

  1. Removal of dichloromethane from waste gas streams using a hybrid bubble column/biofilter bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Mehrnoosh; Naddafi, Kazem; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Jaafarzadeh, Nematollah; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Saeedi, Reza

    2014-01-09

    The performance of a hybrid bubble column/biofilter (HBCB) bioreactor for the removal of dichloromethane (DCM) from waste gas streams was studied in continuous mode for several months. The HBCB bioreactor consisted of two compartments: bubble column bioreactor removing DCM from liquid phase and biofilter removing DCM from gas phase. Effect of inlet DCM concentration on the elimination capacity was examined in the DCM concentration range of 34-359 ppm with loading rates ranged from 2.2 to 22.8 g/m3.h and constant total empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 200 s. In the equal loading rates, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency of the biofilter were higher than the corresponding values of the bubble column bioreactor. The maximum elimination capacity of the HBCB bioreactor was determined to be 15.7 g/m3.h occurred in the highest loading rate of 22.8 g/m3.h with removal efficiency of 69%. The overall mineralization portion of the HBCB bioreactor was in the range of 72-79%. The mixed liquor acidic pH especially below 5.5 inhibited microbial activity and decreased the elimination capacity. Inhibitory effect of high ionic strength was initiated in the mixed liquor electrical conductivity of 12.2 mS/cm. This study indicated that the HBCB bioreactor could benefit from advantages of both bubble column and biofilter reactors and could remove DCM from waste gas streams in a better manner.

  2. Potential Applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Technologies to RCRA Waste Streams and Contaminated Media (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report provides an evaluation of the potential applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) technologies to RCRA waste streams and contaminated media found at RCRA and Superfund sites.

  3. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams during 1994 and 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.J.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Riley, R.G.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Facility Effluent Management Program characterized and monitored liquid waste streams from 300 Area buildings that are owned by the US Department of Energy and are operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine whether the waste streams would meet administrative controls that were put in place by the operators of the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. This report summarizes the data obtained between March 1994 and September 1995 on the following waters: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 325, 326, 327, 331, and 3,720; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe).

  4. Waste Stream Analysis of Two United States Army Dining Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    after other nonfood waste volume was collapsed. The composition of service food waste was moisture (70.81%); carbohydrate (16.47%); fat (6.43%); protein...165 Moisture content .......................... 166 Protein composition ....................... 166 Nonfood Waste...weight per meal at other institutional settings. (6) to report and compare the nutrient composition and moisture content of service food waste at both

  5. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Executive summary: Volume 1, Program summary information; Volume 2, Waste stream technical summary: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL`s waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

  6. Pervaporation process and use in treating waste stream from glycol dehydrator

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen; Baker, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    Pervaporation processes and apparatus with few moving parts. Ideally, only one pump is used to provide essentially all of the motive power and driving force needed. The process is particularly useful for handling small streams with flow rates less than about 700 gpd. Specifically, the process can be used to treat waste streams from glycol dehydrator regeneration units.

  7. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C. R.; Lerch, R. E.; Crippen, M. D.; Cowan, R. G.

    1982-03-01

    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 10/sup 6/ and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 10/sup 8/; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>450/sup 0/stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N/sub 2/) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO/sub 2/stack was > 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives.

  8. Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Technology Certification Program IRR Internal Rate of Return IWTP Industrial Waste Treatment Plan NPV Net Present Value PLC Programmable Logic Controller PNNL...operated through a graphical man-machine interface. A touch screen provides the operator access to the system. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) uses

  9. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  10. Recovery of bromine from waste gas-phase hydrogen bromide streams using an electrolytic membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Wauters, C.N; Winnick, J.

    1996-09-01

    An electrochemical cell is used to demonstrate a significant improvement in the recovery of bromine (Br{sub 2}) from waste gas-phase hydrogen bromide (HBr) streams. The continuous process operates at 300 C and utilizes reticulated vitreous carbon gas-diffusion electrodes, a molten (Li{sub 0.575}K{sub 0.133}Cs{sub 0.292})Br electrolyte, and borosilicate glass fiber membrane. HBr is simultaneously electrolytically decomposed and separated into a hydrogen enriched waste stream and pure anhydrous Br{sub 2} product stream. Simulated industrial waste streams containing HBr, nitrogen, water vapor, and organic compounds have been tested. These results include removals of greater than 90% and current densities approaching 1.0 A/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  12. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 100/sup 0/C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters.

  13. ERM 593 Applied Project_Guidance for Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System_Final_05-05-15

    SciTech Connect

    Elicio, Andy U.

    2015-05-05

    My ERM 593 applied project will provide guidance for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Stream Profile reviewer (i.e. RCRA reviewer) in regards to Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System. The Waste Compliance and Tracking system is called WCATS. WCATS is a web-based application that “supports the generation, characterization, processing and shipment of LANL radioactive, hazardous, and industrial waste.” The LANL generator must characterize their waste via electronically by filling out a waste stream profile (WSP) in WCATS. Once this process is completed, the designated waste management coordinator (WMC) will perform a review of the waste stream profile to ensure the generator has completed their waste stream characterization in accordance with applicable state, federal and LANL directives particularly P930-1, “LANL Waste Acceptance Criteria,” and the “Waste Compliance and Tracking System User's Manual, MAN-5004, R2,” as applicable. My guidance/applied project will describe the purpose, scope, acronyms, definitions, responsibilities, assumptions and guidance for the WSP reviewer as it pertains to each panel and subpanel of a waste stream profile.

  14. Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibu, B. S.; Reddy, M. L. P.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 μm) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

  15. Current EU-27 technical potential of organic waste streams for biogas and energy production.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Helge; Fischer, Peter; Schumacher, Britt; Adler, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand.

  16. Geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a historic metal mining area in the UK.

    PubMed

    Rieuwerts, J S; Mighanetara, K; Braungardt, C B; Rollinson, G K; Pirrie, D; Azizi, F

    2014-02-15

    Mining generates large amounts of waste which may contain potentially toxic elements (PTE), which, if released into the wider environment, can cause air, water and soil pollution long after mining operations have ceased. The fate and toxicological impact of PTEs are determined by their partitioning and speciation and in this study, the concentrations and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a former metal mining area of the UK are investigated. Pseudo-total (aqua-regia extractable) arsenic concentrations in all samples from the mining area exceeded background and guideline values by 1-5 orders of magnitude, with a maximum concentration in mine wastes of 1.8×10(5)mgkg(-1) As and concentrations in stream sediments of up to 2.5×10(4)mgkg(-1) As, raising concerns over potential environmental impacts. Mineralogical analysis of the wastes and sediments was undertaken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automated SEM-EDS based quantitative evaluation (QEMSCAN®). The main arsenic mineral in the mine waste was scorodite and this was significantly correlated with pseudo-total As concentrations and significantly inversely correlated with potentially mobile arsenic, as estimated from the sum of exchangeable, reducible and oxidisable arsenic fractions obtained from a sequential extraction procedure; these findings correspond with the low solubility of scorodite in acidic mine wastes. The work presented shows that the study area remains grossly polluted by historical mining and processing and illustrates the value of combining mineralogical data with acid and sequential extractions to increase our understanding of potential environmental threats.

  17. Hazardous Waste Code Determinations for the First/Second Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    SciTech Connect

    Arbon, Rodney Edward

    2001-01-01

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  18. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  19. Separation of boric acid from PWR waste by volatilization during evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeman, A.; Braet, J.; Smaers, F.; De Regge, P.

    1997-01-01

    SCK{circ}CEN has developed a process to separate boric acid during and/or after evaporation of the liquid waste from pressurized light-water reactors. The key goal is to achieve higher waste volume reduction factors, while maintaining low activity discharge limits. An additional goal is to obtain purified boric acid for recycling. The process is based on the volatility of boric acid in steam. The liquid waste is treated in a semicontinuous evaporator, which operates preferentially at a higher temperature than the present evaporators. The stream loaded with boric acid is fed to a column for fractional condensation with partial reflux. In this way, one obtains a highly concentrated waste that contains all the radioactive and chemical impurities and little boron, a concentrated boric acid solution which can be reused, as well as a highly decontaminated effluent without boron. In case replacement or adaptation of existing evaporators is less practical, one can adapt the process for the treatment of evaporator concentrates. After having been intensively tested at SCK{circ}CEN, the process has recently been demonstrated in a small pilot installation and with realistic liquid waste, at the nuclear power station in Doel, Belgium. The results corresponded to the theoretical predictions. After a transitional period, the boron concentration in the evaporator no longer increased and consequently did not limit the achievable waste volume reduction factor. The boric acid was recovered from the steam and during a supplementary treatment additional boric acid from the waste concentrate was recovered.

  20. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.

    1991-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy's Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the fifth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Washington, DC, on April 25-26, 1991. The concepts in this year's fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept's economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes; Volume 1 addresses innovations for mining and metals remediation that can reduce or use waste streams, and Volume 2 addresses general industrial innovations that can reduce or use waste streams. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  1. Depolymerization of the waste polymers in municipal solid waste streams using induction-coupled plasma technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guddeti, Ravikishan Reddy

    2000-10-01

    A significant, valuable percentage of today's municipal solid waste stream consists of polymeric materials, for which almost no economic recycling technology currently exists. This polymeric waste is incinerated, landfilled or recycled via downgraded usage. Thermal plasma treatment is a potentially viable means of recycling these materials by converting them back into monomers or into other useful compounds. The technical, laboratory scale, feasibility of using an induction-coupled RF plasma [ICP] heated reactor for this purpose has been demonstrated in the present study. Polyethylene [PE], polypropylene [PP] and polyethylene terephthalate [PET], the model polymers chosen for the study, were injected axially through the center of an ICP torch. 68% of PE, 78% of PP and 75% of PET were converted into gaseous products. Ethylene and propylene were the primary gaseous products of decomposition of the former two polymers and acetylene was the primary product of the depolymerization of PET. The amount of propylene obtained in PE depolymerization was significantly higher than anticipated and was believed to be due to beta-scission reactions occurring at the high plasma temperatures. Statistical design of experiments was used to determine the influence of individual variables. Analysis of results showed that plasma plate power, central gas flow rate, probe gas flow rate, powder feed rate and the interaction between the quench gas flow rate and power input were the key process parameters affecting the yield of monomer in the product gas stream. Depolymerization of a PE + PP mixture yielded concentrations of propylene and ethylene close to those predicted from weighting the concentrations of products from the individual polymers. 75.5 wt.% of the mixture was converted into monomers. TEM analysis of the carbon residues collected from different locations of the reactor indicated the formation of some novel carbon structures, including carbon nanotubes. The presence of these

  2. The Rocky Flats Plant Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization Program (WSRIC): Progress and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Ideker, V.L.; Doyle, G.M.

    1994-02-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) Program, as described in the WSRIC Program Description delineates the process knowledge used to identify and characterize currently-generated waste from approximately 5404 waste streams originating from 576 processes in 288 buildings at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Annual updates to the WSRIC documents are required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement between the US Department of Energy, the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency. Accurate determination and characterization of waste is a crucial component in RFP`s waste management strategy to assure compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage and treatment requirements, as well as disposal acceptance criteria. The WSRIC Program was rebaselined in September 1992, and serves as the linchpin for documenting process knowledge in RFP`s RCRA operating record. Enhancements to the WSRIC include strengthening the waste characterization rationale, expanding WSRIC training for waste generators, and incorporating analytical information into the WSRIC building books. These enhancements will improve credibility with the regulators and increase waste generators` understanding of the basis for credible waste characterizations.

  3. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600ºC.

  4. Production of organic acids from kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Loh, C W; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Hassan, M A; Karim, M I

    1999-01-01

    This study involves the production of short-chain organic acids from kitchen wastes as intermediates for the production of biodegradable plastics. Flasks, without mixing were used for the anaerobic conversion of the organic fraction of kitchen wastes into short-chain organic acids. The influence of pH, temperature and addition of sludge cake on the rate of organic acids production and yield were evaluated. Fermentations were carried out in an incubator at different temperatures controlled at 30 degrees C. 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C and uncontrolled at room temperature. The pH was also varied at pH 5, 6, 7, and uncontrolled pH. 1.0 M phosphate buffer was used for pH control, and 1.0 M HCl and 1.0 M NaOH were added when necessary. Sludge cake addition enhanced the rate of maximum acids production from 4 days to 1 day. The organic acids produced were maximum at pH 7 and 50 degrees C i.e., 39.84 g/l on the fourth day of fermentation with a yield of 0.87 g/g soluble COD consumed, and 0.84 g/g TVS. The main organic acid produced was lactic acid (65-85%), with small amounts of acetic (10-30%), propionic (5-10%), and butyric (5-20%) acids. The results of this study showed that kitchen wastes could be fermented to high concentration of organic acids, which could be used as substrates for the production of biodegradable plastics.

  5. Iron photoreduction and oxidation in an acidic mountain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, D.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Bencala, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    In a small mountain stream in Colorado that receives acidic mine drainage, photoreduction of ferric iron results in a well-defined increase in dissolved ferrous iron during the day. To quantify this process, an instream injection of a conservative tracer was used to measure discharge at the time that each sample was collected. Daytime production of ferrous iron by photoreduction was almost four times as great as nighttime oxidation of ferrous iron. The photoreduction process probably involves dissolved or colloidal ferric iron species and limited interaction with organic species because concentrations of organic carbon are low in this stream.

  6. Iron photoreduction and oxidation in an acidic mountain stream.

    PubMed

    McKnight, D M; Kimball, B A; Bencala, K E

    1988-04-29

    In a small mountain stream in Colorado that receives acidic mine drainage, photoreduction of ferric iron results in a well-defined increase in dissolved ferrous iron during the day. To quantify this process, an instream injection of a conservative tracer was used to measure discharge at the time that each sample was collected. Daytime production of ferrous iron by photoreduction was almost four times as great as nighttime oxidation of ferrous iron. The photoreduction process probably involves dissolved or colloidal ferric iron species and limited interaction with organic species because concentrations of organic carbon are low in this stream.

  7. Acid Rain Effects on Adirondack Streams - Results from the 2003-05 Western Adirondack Stream Survey (the WASS Project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Roy, Karen M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, Howard A.; Passy, Sophia I.; Bode, Robert W.; Capone, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally lakes have been the focus of acid rain assessments in the Adirondack region of New York. However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of streams as environmental indicators. Streams, like lakes, also provide important aquatic habitat, but streams more closely reflect acid rain effects on soils and forests and are more prone to acidification than lakes. Therefore, a large-scale assessment of streams was undertaken in the drainage basins of the Oswegatchie and Black Rivers; an area of 4,585 km2 in the western Adirondack region where acid rain levels tend to be highest in New York State.

  8. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

  9. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-03-07

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

  10. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid--liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers.

  11. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kirby, C S; McInerney, B; Turner, M D

    2008-04-15

    Atmospheric acid deposition is of environmental concern worldwide, and the determination of impacts in remote areas can be problematic. Rainwater in central Pennsylvania, USA, has a mean pH of approximately 4.4. Bedrock varies dramatically in its ability to neutralize acidity. A GIS database simplified reconnaissance of non-carbonate bedrock streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and identified potentially chronically impacted headwater streams, which were sampled for chemistry and brook trout. Stream sites (n=26) that originate in and flow through the Tuscarora had a median pH of 5.0 that was significantly different from other formations. Shawangunk streams (n=6) and non-Tuscarora streams (n=20) had a median pH of 6.0 and 6.3, respectively. Mean alkalinity for non-Tuscarora streams (2.6 mg/L CaCO(3)) was higher than the mean for Tuscarora streams (0.5 mg/L). Lower pH and alkalinity suggest that the buffering capability of the Tuscarora is inferior to that of adjacent sandstones. Dissolved aluminum concentrations were much higher for Tuscarora streams (0.2 mg/L; approximately the lethal limit for brook trout) than for non-Tuscarora streams (0.03 mg/L) or Shawangunk streams (0.02 mg/L). Hook-and-line methods determined the presence/absence of brook trout in 47 stream reaches with suitable habitat. Brook trout were observed in 21 of 22 non-Tuscarora streams, all 6 Shawangunk streams, and only 9 of 28 Tuscarora stream sites. Carefully-designed hook-and-line sampling can determine the presence or absence of brook trout and help confirm biological impacts of acid deposition. 15% of 334 km of Tuscarora stream lengths are listed as "impaired" due to atmospheric deposition by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 65% of the 101 km of Tuscarora stream lengths examined in this study were impaired.

  12. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE`s waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE`s mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters.

  13. Measurement of arsenic and gallium content of gallium arsenide semiconductor waste streams by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Torrance, Keith W; Keenan, Helen E; Hursthouse, Andrew S; Stirling, David

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry of semiconductor wafer processing liquid waste, contaminated by heavy metals, was investigated to determine arsenic content. Arsenic and gallium concentrations were determined for waste slurries collected from gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer processing at three industrial sources and compared to slurries prepared under laboratory conditions. The arsenic and gallium content of waste slurries was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) and it is reported that the arsenic content of the waste streams was related to the wafer thinning process, with slurries from wafer polishing having the highest dissolved arsenic content at over 1,900 mgL(-1). Lapping slurries had much lower dissolved arsenic (< 90 mgL(-1)) content, but higher particulate contents. It is demonstrated that significant percentage of GaAs becomes soluble during wafer lapping. Grinding slurries had the lowest dissolved arsenic content at 15 mgL(-1). All three waste streams are classified as hazardous waste, based on their solids content and dissolved arsenic levels and treatment is required before discharge or disposal. It is calculated that as much as 93% of material is discarded through the entire GaAs device manufacturing process, with limited recycling. Although gallium can be economically recovered from waste slurries, there is little incentive to recover arsenic, which is mostly landfilled. Options for treating GaAs processing waste streams are reviewed and some recommendations made for handling the waste. Therefore, although the quantities of hazardous waste generated are miniscule in comparison to other industries, sustainable manufacturing practices are needed to minimize the environmental impact of GaAs semiconductor device fabrication.

  14. Radiological characterization of the nuclear waste streams of the Belgian nuclear research centre SCK.CEN

    SciTech Connect

    Maris, Patrick; Cornelissen, Rene; Bruggeman, Michel

    2007-07-01

    The radiological characterization of nuclear wastes of a research centre is difficult seen the many different processes that generate waste. Since these wastes may contain radionuclides relevant for the disposal option, the nuclide content and activity have to be known. Considering the fact that some wastes are generated only in minor quantities, complex approaches, involving sampling and successive analysis are not justified. Basic physical models can generally be applied to estimate activity ratios, from which the radionuclide inventory can be determined by non-destructive assay on waste-packages. This article discusses waste streams at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN and explains how nuclide inventories and activity are determined. The physical models, used to derive activity ratios, and other simple approaches are discussed. (authors)

  15. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  16. Hierarchical porous structured zeolite composite for removal of ionic contaminants from waste streams and effective encapsulation of hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Al-Jubouri, Sama M; Curry, Nicholas A; Holmes, Stuart M

    2016-12-15

    A hierarchical structured composite made from clinoptilolite supported on date stones carbon is synthesized using two techniques. The composites are manufactured by fixing a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) to the porous surface of date stones carbon or by direct hydrothermal synthesis on to the surface to provide a supported high surface area ion-exchange material for metal ion removal from aqueous streams. The fixing of the clinoptilolite is achieved using sucrose and citric acid as a binder. The composites and pure clinoptilolite were compared to test the efficacy for the removal of Sr(2+) ions from an aqueous phase. The encapsulation of the Sr(2+) using either vitrification or a geo-polymer addition was tested to ensure that the hazardous waste can be made safe for disposal. The hierarchical structured composites were shown to achieve a higher ion exchange capacity per gram of zeolite than the pure clinoptilolite (65mg/g for the pure natural clinoptilolite and 72mg/g for the pure synthesized clinoptilolite) with the synthesized composite (160mg/g) having higher capacity than the natural clinoptilolite composite (95mg/g). The rate at which the equilibria were established followed the same trend showing the composite structure facilitates diffusion to the ion-exchange sites in the zeolite.

  17. Recycling ferrous and nonferrous waste streams with FASTMET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, James M.; Metius, Gary E.

    2003-08-01

    In metals processing, residue streams are routinely generated containing recoverable metallic compounds. These metallics represent both valuable materials and potential disposal problems to the producer. Midrex, primarily involved in ferrous conversion for many years, has developed a variety of new processing techniques for ferrous and non-ferrous recovery. The processing technologies involve either shaft or rotary hearth furnaces, and can be both hydrocarbon or coal based. Recent developments have included conversion studies for ferrous and non-ferrous residual streams that are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. The technologies to be presented, predominantly coal based, include FASTMET®, FASTMELT®, and Itmk3®.

  18. ORGANIC WASTE CONTAMINATION INDICATORS IN SMALL GEORGIA PIEDMONT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients and other parameters (T, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, DOC, DON, flow rate) in 17 headwater streams (watershed sizes from 0.5 to 3.4 kilometers) of the South Fork Broad River waters...

  19. BIOGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF ORGANIC WASTE CONTAMINATION IN GEORGIA PIEDMONT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients and other parameters (T, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, DOC, DON, flow rate) in 17 headwater streams (watershed sizes from 0.5 to 3.4 km2) of the South Fork Broad River, Georgia wate...

  20. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF ORGANIC WASTES ON SMALL STREAM WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO) and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River (SFBR) watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. Our monthly monitoring results showed a strong inverse relationship betwe...

  1. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF ORGANIC WASTES ON SMALL STREAM WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO) and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River (SFBR) watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. Our monthly monitoring results showed a strong inverse relationship betwe...

  2. BIOGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF ORGANIC WASTE CONTAMINATION IN GEORGIA PIEDMONT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients and other parameters (T, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, DOC, DON, flow rate) in 17 headwater streams (watershed sizes from 0.5 to 3.4 km2) of the South Fork Broad River, Georgia wate...

  3. ORGANIC WASTE CONTAMINATION INDICATORS IN SMALL GEORGIA PIEDMONT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients and other parameters (T, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, DOC, DON, flow rate) in 17 headwater streams (watershed sizes from 0.5 to 3.4 kilometers) of the South Fork Broad River waters...

  4. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity

    Treesearch

    Nicholas A. Povak; Paul F. Hessburg; Keith M. Reynolds; Timothy J. Sullivan; Todd C. McDonnell; R. Brion Salter

    2013-01-01

    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially...

  5. Selection and Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for Waste Stream Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVita, W. M.; Hall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Human and animal wastes pose a threat to the quality of groundwater, surface water and drinking water. This is especially of concern for private and public water supplies in agricultural areas of Wisconsin where land spreading of livestock waste occurs on thin soils overlaying fractured bedrock. Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for source identification requires the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Due to cost, these tests are often not an option for homeowners, municipalities or state agencies with limited resources. The Water and Environmental Analysis Laboratory sought to develop chemical methods to provide lower cost processes to determine sources of fecal waste using fecal sterols, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary) and human care/use products in ground and surface waters using solid phase extraction combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The two separate techniques allow for the detection of fecal sterol and other chemical markers in the sub part per billion-range. Fecal sterol ratios from published sources were used to evaluate drinking water samples and wastewater from onsite waste treatment systems and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products indicative of human waste included: acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, paraxanthine, sulfamethoxazole, and the artificial sweeteners; acesulfame, saccharin, and sucralose. The bovine antibiotic sulfamethazine was also targeted. Well water samples with suspected fecal contamination were analyzed for fecal sterols and PPCPs. Results were compared to traditional MST results from the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Chemical indicators were found in 6 of 11 drinking water samples, and 5 of 11 were in support of MST results. Lack of detection of chemical indicators in samples contaminated with fecal waste supports the need for confirmatory methods and advancement of chemical indicator detection technologies.

  6. Streams in Catskill Mountains still susceptible to acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    Precipitation in North America has become less acidic over the past 2 decades because of reduced power plant emissions and compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments [Sirois, 19937rsqb;. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments were developed to reduce the acidity of sensitive surface waters, which are primarily in upland forested environments, where acidified waters and associated high aluminum concentrations are toxic to many species of aquatic flora and fauna [Schindler et al., 1989]. Our studies show that in spite of less acidic precipitation, the buffering capacity of streams in upland forests of the Catskill Mountains in southeastern New York has not increased in recent years. These data suggest that long-term leaching by acid rain has lowered exchangeable calcium ion concentrations in the soil in upland areas, where the underlying, slow-weathering bedrock provides an inadequate supply of cations to neutralize acidity.

  7. Dealing with emerging waste streams: used tyre assessment in Thailand using material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Paul; Kashyap, Prakriti; Suparat, Tasawan; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2014-09-01

    Increasing urbanisation and automobile use have given rise to an increase in global tyre waste generation. A tyre becomes waste once it wears out and is no longer fit for its original purpose, and is thus in its end-of-life state. Unlike in developed countries, where waste tyre management has already become a significant issue, it is rarely a priority waste stream in developing countries. Hence, a large quantity of waste tyres ends up either in the open environment or in landfill. In Thailand, waste tyre management is in its infancy, with increased tyre production and wider use of vehicles, but low levels of recycling, leaving scope for more appropriate policies, plans and strategies to increase waste tyre recycling. This article describes the journey of waste tyres in Thailand in terms of recycling and recovery, and disposal. Material flow analysis was used as a tool to quantify the flows and accumulation of waste tyres in Thailand in 2012. The study revealed that, in Thailand in 2012, waste tyre management was still biased towards destructive technologies (48.9%), rather than material recovery involving rubber reclamation, retreading tyres and whole and shredded tyre applications (6.7%). Despite having both economic and environmental benefits, 44.4% of used tyres in 2012 were dumped in the open environment, and the remaining 0.05% in landfills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Electrochemical and Photochemical Treatment of Aqueous Waste Streams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    PAGES 6 Aerogel, Electrochemical treatment, Photochemical waste treatment, SERDP 16. PRICE CODE N/A 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY 19...Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 7000 East Avenue Livermore, California 94550 (510)423-6574 ABSTRACT from sea water and 0.1 M KNO3 . This electrolytic

  9. Strategic plan for the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex Polymer Waste Stream

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, W.E. Jr.

    1991-08-08

    This plan addresses the objectives and implementation strategy for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Polymer Waste Stream (PWS) program through FY 1996. The purpose of the plan is to develop a comprehensive hazard/waste minimization program for PWS projects. The overall focus of the strategy is directed toward hazard/waste minimization for PWS processes. This involves the elimination/minimization of processes and materials that result in potential exposure of the work force to hazardous materials during the production of nuclear weapons and pose a threat to the environment by the potential release of toxic or environmentally harmful materials. The Department of Energy established the Waste Minimization Management Group (WMMG) in August 1990. The WMMG was given the mission of establishing and coordinating a comprehensive program which would minimize waste and hazards in the production of weapons within the NWC.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  11. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1998-10-26

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Savannah River Site FB-Line produced Weapons Grade Plutonium for the United States National Defense Program. The facility mission was mainly to process dilute plutonium solution received from the 221-F Canyon into highly purified plutonium metal. As a result of various activities (maintenance, repair, clean up, etc.) in support of the mission, the facility generated a transuranic heterogeneous debris waste stream. Prior to January 25, 1990, the waste stream was considered suspect mixed transuranic waste (based on potential for inclusion of F-Listed solvent rags/wipes) and is not included in this characterization. Beginning January 25, 1990, Savannah River Site began segregation of rags and wipes containing F-Listed solvents thus creating a mixed transuranic waste stream and a non-mixed transuranic waste stream. This characterization addresses the non-mixed transuranic waste stream packaged in 55-gallon drums after January 25, 1990.Characterization of the waste stream was achieved using knowledge of process operations, facility safety basis documentation, facility specific waste management procedures and storage / disposal records. The report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 "Acceptable Knowledge" from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  12. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  13. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at nuclear power plants. [R

    SciTech Connect

    Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of LLW (i.e., Government and commerical (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle)) that is generated at LWR plants. Many different chemical engineering unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at LWR plants include adsorption, evaporation, calcination, centrifugation, compaction, crystallization, drying, filtration, incineration, reverse osmosis, and solidification of waste residues. The treatment of these various streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described. The various treatment options for concentrates or solid wet wastes, and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting and shredding. Organic materials (liquids (e.g., oils or solvents) and/or solids), could be incinerated in most cases. The filter sludges, spent resins, and concentrated liquids (e.g., evaporator concentrates) are usually solidified in cement, or urea-formaldehyde or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Incinerator ashes can also be incorporated in these binding agents. Asphalt has not yet been used. This paper presents a brief survey of operational experience at LWRs with various unit operations, including a short discussion of problems and some observations on recent trends.

  15. Techno-economic feasibility of waste biorefinery: Using slaughtering waste streams as starting material for biopolyester production.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Khurram; Narodoslawsky, Michael; Sagir, Muhammad; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Shahid; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Koller, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of industrial waste streams as input materials for bio-mediated production processes constitutes a current R&D objective not only to reduce process costs at the input side but in parallel, to minimize hazardous environmental emissions. In this context, the EU-funded project ANIMPOL elaborated a process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers starting from diverse waste streams of the animal processing industry. This article provides a detailed economic analysis of PHA production from this waste biorefinery concept, encompassing the utilization of low-quality biodiesel, offal material and meat and bone meal (MBM). Techno-economic analysis reveals that PHA production cost varies from 1.41 €/kg to 1.64 €/kg when considering offal on the one hand as waste, or, on the other hand, accounting its market price, while calculating with fixed costs for the co-products biodiesel (0.97 €/L) and MBM (350 €/t), respectively. The effect of fluctuating market prices for offal materials, biodiesel, and MBM on the final PHA production cost as well as the investment payback time have been evaluated. Depending on the current market situation, the calculated investment payback time varies from 3.25 to 4.5years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    PubMed

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g · water/g · dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  17. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    PubMed Central

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  18. AMERICIUM SEPARATIONS FROM NITRIC ACID PROCESS EFFLUENT STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    M. BARR; G. JARVINEN; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    The aging of the US nuclear stockpile presents a number of challenges, including the ever-increasing radioactivity of plutonium residues from {sup 241}Am. Minimization of this weak gamma-emitter in process and waste solutions is desirable to reduce both worker exposure and the effects of radiolysis on the final waste product. Removal of americium from plutonium nitric acid processing effluents, however, is complicated by the presence of large.quantities of competing metals, particularly Fe and Al, and-strongly oxidizing acidic solutions. The reprocessing operation offers several points at which americium removal maybe attempted, and we are evaluating two classes of materials targeted at different steps in the process. Extraction chromatography resin materials loaded with three different alkylcarbamoyl phosphinates and phosphine oxides were accessed for Am removal efficiency and Am/Fe selectivity from 1-7 molar nitric acid solutions. Commercial and experimental mono- and bifunctional anion-exchange resins were evaluated for total alpha-activity removal from post-evaporator solutions whose composition, relative to the original nitric acid effluent, is reduced in acid and greatly increased in total salt content. With both classes of materials, americium/total alpha emission removal is sufficient to meet regulatory requirements even under sub-optimal conditions. Batch distribution coefficients, column performance data, and the effects of Fe-masking agents will be presented.

  19. Production of fluid fertilizer from phosphorus furnace waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J. C.

    1985-04-30

    Processes and compositions of matter are disclosed for the production of liquid fertilizers wherein wastewater from a phosphorus smelting furnace is incorporated in liquid fertilizer processes. The wastewater replaces water evaporated and the wastewater dissolves fertilizer salts. A serious water pollution problem is avoided when wastewater is incorporated in liquid fertilizers. The invention discloses a process for making orthophosphate suspension fertilizer wherein impure phosphoric acid is neutralized in the condensing system, water from the condensing system is bled off, and a suspending clay is added to produce orthophosphate suspension fertilizer. In this process, phosphorus sludge made at phosphorus furnaces is used to produce suspension fertilizer, and wastewater from phosphate smelting furnaces is recovered. New compositions of matter are disclosed. A process is disclosed for making phosphoric acid with low impurities content wherein phosphorus sludge is burned to make impure orthophosphoric acid and the impure acid is recycled to an agglomerating step in a process for making elemental phosphorus.

  20. Independent review of inappropriate identification, storage and treatment methods of polychlorinated biphenyl waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate incidents involving the inappropriate identification, storage, and treatment methods associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste streams originating from the V-tank system at the Test Area North (TAN). The team was instructed to perform a comprehensive review of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO`s) compliance programs related to these incidents to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of the management program in all respects including: adequacy of the waste management program in meeting all LMITCO requirements and regulations; adequacy of policies, plans, and procedures in addressing and implementing all federal and state requirements and regulations; and compliance status of LMITCO, LMITCO contract team members, and LMITCO contract/team member subcontractor personnel with established PCB management policies, plans, and procedures. The V-Tanks are part of an intermediate waste disposal system and are located at the Technical Support Facility (TSF) at TAN at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The IRT evaluated how a waste was characterized, managed, and information was documented; however, they did not take control of wastes or ensure followup was performed on all waste streams that may have been generated from the V-Tanks. The team has also subsequently learned that the Environmental Restoration (ER) program is revising the plans for the decontamination and decommissioning of the intermediate waste disposal system based on new information listed and PCB wastes. The team has not reviewed those in-process changes. The source of PCB in the V-Tank is suspected to be a spill of hydraulic fluid in 1968.

  1. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp and paper mill waste streams.

    PubMed

    Mockos, Gregory R; Smith, William A; Loge, Frank J; Thompson, David N

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste-activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25 degrees C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  2. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  3. Grout formulation for disposal of low-level and hazardous waste streams containing fluoride

    DOEpatents

    McDaniel, E.W.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

    1987-06-02

    A composition and related process for disposal of hazardous waste streams containing fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. the presence of fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. The presence of fluoride in waste materials acts as a set retarder and as a result, prevents cement-based grouts from setting. This problem is overcome by the present invention wherein calcium hydroxide is incorporated into the dry-solid portion of the grout mix. The calcium hydroxide renders the fluoride insoluble, allowing the grout to set up and immobilize all hazardous constituents of concern. 4 tabs.

  4. Wet Chemical Oxidation of Organic Waste Using Nitric-Phosphoric Acid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1998-10-06

    Experimental progress has been made in a wide range of areas which support the continued development of the nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation process for combustible, solid organic wastes. An improved understanding of the overall process operation has been obtained, acid recovery and recycle systems have been studied, safety issues have been addressed, two potential final waste forms have been tested, preliminary mass flow diagrams have been prepared, and process flowsheets have been developed. The flowsheet developed is essentially a closed-loop system which addresses all of the internally generated waste streams. The combined activities aim to provide the basis for building and testing a 250-400 liter pilot-scale unit. Variations of the process now must be evaluated in order to address the needs of the primary customer, SRS Solid Waste Management. The customer is interested in treating job control waste contaminated with Pu-238 for shipment to WIPP. As a result, variations for feed preparation, acid recycle, and final form manufacturing must be considered to provide for simpler processing to accommodate operations in high radiation and contamination environments. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate a nitric-phosphoric acid destruction technology which can treat a heterogeneous waste by oxidizing the solid and liquid organic compounds while decontaminating noncombustible items.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  6. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  7. Materials Discarded in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009 (in tons)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years. We use this information to measure the success of waste reduction and recycling programs across the country. Our trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW), is made up of the things we commonly use and then throw away. These materials include items such as packaging, food scraps, grass clippings, sofas, computers, tires, and refrigerators. MSW does not include industrial, hazardous, or construction waste. The data on Materials Discarded in the Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009, provides estimated data in thousands of tons discarded after recycling and compost recovery for the years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2007, 2008, and 2009. In this data set, discards include combustion with energy recovery. This data table does not include construction & demolition debris, industrial process wastes, or certain other wastes. The Other category includes electrolytes in batteries and fluff pulp, feces, and urine in disposable diapers. Details may not add to totals due to rounding.

  8. Materials in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2012 (in tons)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years. We use this information to measure the success of waste reduction and recycling programs across the country. Our trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW), is made up of the things we commonly use and then throw away. These materials include items such as packaging, food scraps, grass clippings, sofas, computers, tires, and refrigerators. MSW does not include industrial, hazardous, or construction waste. The data in Materials and Products in the Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2012, provides estimated data in thousands of tons discarded after recycling and compost recovery for the years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. In this data set, discards include combustion with energy recovery. This data table does not include construction & demolition debris, industrial process wastes, or certain other wastes. Details may not add to totals due to rounding.

  9. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  10. Separation of Metal Ions from Liquid Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Glasgow, D. G.; Kennel, E. B.

    2004-12-01

    A unique mechanism was verified for removing uranium from continuously flowing aqueous solutions on a carbon nanofiber electrode with a bias voltage of -0.9 volts (dc versus Ag/AgC1). Uranium concentration was reduced from 100 ppm in the inlet feed to below 1 ppm in a single pass. Cell sizes of 1 cm, 2 inch and 4 inch evaluated during this program were all found to electrosorb uranium from an aqueous stream. The 4 inch cell performed well at uranium concentrations of 1000 ppm. Normally, ordinary electrolysis is not an option for removing uranyl ions because the electrodeposition potential is higher than the dissociation voltage of water. Thus, the ability to electrosorb uranium with greater than 99% effectiveness is a surprising result. In addition, the process was found to be reversible, so that the uranium can be released in a highly concentrated form. In addition to verifying the effectiveness of the system on bench top scale, a regeneration protocol was developed, consisting of passing a 0.1 M KNO{sub3}, solution at a pH of 2.0 and an applied potential of +1.0 V (dc versus Ag/AgC1) which resulted in a measured regeneration of 70% of the electrosorbed uranium. Other experiments studied the effect of pH on electrosorption and desorption, establishing a range of pH for both processes. Finally, it was found that, for an inlet solution of 100 ppm, the carbon nanofiber electrodes were able to electrosorb an amount of uranium in excess of 60% of the electrode mass.

  11. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Reynolds, John G.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2002-01-01

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  12. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Reynolds, John G.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2004-02-24

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  13. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  14. Assessing aluminium toxicity in streams affected by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Waters, A S; Webster-Brown, J G

    2013-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has degraded water quality and ecology in streams on the Stockton Plateau, the site of New Zealand's largest open-cast coal mining operation. This has previously been attributed largely to the effects of acidity and elevated aluminium (Al) concentrations. However, the toxicity of dissolved Al is dependent on speciation, which is influenced by pH which affects Al hydrolysis, as well as the concentrations of organic carbon and sulphate which complex Al. Methods for the assessment of the toxic fraction of Al, by chemical analysis and geochemical modelling, have been investigated in selected streams on the Stockton Plateau, where dissolved Al concentrations ranged from 0.034 to 27 mg L(-1). Modelling using PHREEQC indicated that between 0.2 and 85% of the dissolved Al was present as the free ion Al(3+), the most toxic Al species, which dominated in waters of pH = 3.8-4.8. Al-sulphate complexation reduced the Al(3+) concentration at lower pH, while Al-organic and -hydroxide complexes dominated at higher pH. Macroinvertebrate richness in the streams identified an Al(3+) 'threshold' of approximately 0.42 mg/L, above which taxa declined rapidly. Colorimetric 'Aluminon' analysis on unpreserved, unfiltered waters provided a better estimation of Al(3+) concentrations than inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on filtered, acidified waters. The Aluminon method does not react with particulate Al or strong Al complexes, often registering as little as 53% of the dissolved Al concentration determined by ICP-MS.

  15. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-06-28

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000.

  16. Novel use of geochemical models in evaluating treatment trains for aqueous radioactive waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Abitz, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Thermodynamic geochemical models have been applied to assess the relative effectiveness of a variety of reagents added to aqueous waste streams for the removal of radioactive elements. Two aqueous waste streams were examined: effluent derived from the processing of uranium ore and irradiated uranium fuel rods. Simulations of the treatment train were performed to estimate the mass of reagents needed per kilogram of solution, identify pH regions corresponding to solubility minimums, and predict the identity and quantity of precipitated solids. Results generated by the simulations include figures that chart the chemical evolution of the waste stream as reagents are added and summary tables that list mass balances for all reagents and radioactive elements of concern. Model results were used to set initial reagent levels for the treatment trains, minimizing the number of bench-scale tests required to bring the treatment train up to full-scale operation. Additionally, presentation of modeling results at public meetings helps to establish good faith between the federal government, industry, concerned citizens, and media groups. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Ikenberry, A.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors.

  18. Synthesis of dawsonite: a method to treat the etching waste streams of the aluminium anodising industry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Nugteren, H W

    2005-05-01

    Synthesis of dawsonite was studied as a way to deal with the etching waste streams of the aluminium anodising industry in order to reduce the emissions to the environment and also to recover useful and marketable mineral resource materials. The process of synthesis was carried out using two different waste streams arising from the etching section of an anodising process when a cascade rinsing system is employed, the spent etching bath solution (132 g/l of Al and 151 g/l of Na), and the first stage effluent from the cascade rinsing system (67 g/l of Al and 71 g/l of Na). The synthesis of dawsonite was studied as a function of NaHCO3/Al molar ratio (1-10), crystallization temperature (30-150 degrees C), and reaction time (2-48 h) using supersaturated NaHCO3 solutions. A NaHCO3/Al molar ratio of 3 was optimal to obtain dawsonite as a single phase, and a reaction time of 24 h and high crystallization temperature (150 degrees C) to improve its crystallinity. The mineral characterisation was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA), all of which indicated characteristics typical of the desired compound. Almost 100% of the aluminium initially present in the etching waste streams was recovered in the form of dawsonite when the appropriate conditions for its synthesis were used.

  19. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle waste stream immobilization with cermets for improved thermal properties and waste consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Luis H.; Kaminski, Michael D.; Zeng, Zuotao; Cunnane, James

    2013-07-01

    In the pursuit of methods to improve nuclear waste form thermal properties and combine potential nuclear fuel cycle wastes, a bronze alloy was combined with an alkali, alkaline earth metal bearing ceramic to form a cermet. The alloy was prepared from copper and tin (10 mass%) powders. Pre-sintered ceramic consisting of cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium alumino-silicates was mixed with unalloyed bronze precursor powders and cold pressed to 300 × 103 kPa, then sintered at 600 °C and 800 °C under hydrogen. Cermets were also prepared that incorporated molybdenum, which has a limited solubility in glass, under similar conditions. The cermet thermal conductivities were seven times that of the ceramic alone. These improved thermal properties can reduce thermal gradients within the waste forms thus lowering internal temperature gradients and thermal stresses, allowing for larger waste forms and higher waste loadings. These benefits can reduce the total number of waste packages necessary to immobilize a given amount of high level waste and immobilize troublesome elements.

  1. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  2. REDWC Waste Stream Matrix Waste Treatment, Disposition and Container Selection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, R P

    2007-03-30

    There are 3 types of REWDC container types listed. Type 1 is used for long term storage of conditions waste. It's made of steel and it's a 55-gallon galvanized drum with a 90 mil HDPE liner. Type 2 is used for solid waste, point of generation and short term storage. It can be made of steel or poly. They come in 2-gallon, 5-gallon, 30-gallon, and 55-gallon drums used with 4 mil polyethylene liner. Type 3 is used for liquid waste. It can be made of steel or poly. It comes in 2-gallon, 5-gallon, 30-gallon, or 55-gallon drums. They have a closed head.

  3. Process Control for Simultaneous Vitrification of Two Mixed Waste Streams in the Transportable Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.D.; Jantzen, C.M.; Brown, K.G.; Cicero-Herman, C.

    1998-05-01

    Two highly variable mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste sludges were simultaneously vitrified in an EnVitCo Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) deployed at the Oak Ridge Reservation. The TVS was the result of a cooperative effort between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and EnVitCo to design and build a transportable melter capable of vitrifying a variety of mixed low level wastes.The two waste streams for the demonstration were the dried B and C Pond sludges at the K-25 site and waste water sludge produced in the Central Neutralization Facility from treatment of incinerator blowdown. Large variations occurred in the sodium, calcium, silicon, phosphorus, fluorine and iron content of the co- blended waste sludges: these elements have a significant effect on the process ability and performance of the final glass product. The waste sludges were highly reduced due to organics added during processing, coal-pile runoff (coal and sulfides), and other organics, including wood chips. A batch-by-batch process control model was developed to control glass viscosity, liquidus, and reduction/oxidation, assuming that the melter behaved as a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor.

  4. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use Of Stream Analyzer For Solubility Predictions Of Selected Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Kayla; Belsher, Jeremy; Ho, Quynh-dao

    2012-11-02

    The Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) models the mission to manage, retrieve, treat and vitrify Hanford waste for long-term storage and disposal. HTWOS is a dynamic, flowsheet, mass balance model of waste retrieval and treatment activities. It is used to evaluate the impact of changes on long-term mission planning. The project is to create and evaluate the integrated solubility model (ISM). The ISM is a first step in improving the chemistry basis in HTWOS. On principal the ISM is better than the current HTWOS solubility. ISM solids predictions match the experimental data well, with a few exceptions. ISM predictions are consistent with Stream Analyzer predictions except for chromium. HTWOS is producing more realistic results with the ISM.

  6. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  7. A new side stream process for easily degradable industrial waste waters to avoid sludge bulking.

    PubMed

    Wandl, G; Matsché, N; Bayer, H

    2004-01-01

    A new treatment scheme for the treatment of easily biodegradable industrial waste waters has been developed. The side stream treatment of dairy waste water with the excess sludge from the domestic treatment line of the regional treatment plant Bad Vöslau has been operated successfully for a period of three years during which the industrial load stemming from the dairy increased from 800 kg COD/d to 2,500 kg COD/d with peak loads up to 5,000 kg/d. Despite of the increased load to the treatment plant the total aeration tank volume had not been increased. This treatment is performed in an existing aeration tank of the WWTP (V = 1,800 m3) which is now used as contact tank for the combined aeration of dairy waste water and excess sludge from the domestic treatment line (volume aeration tank = 15,000 m3). In this tank the easily degradable substrate from the industrial waste is mainly adsorbed to the biological sludge and after a mechanical dewatering transferred to the anaerobic digester where it yields in an increased gas production. The filtrate of the dewatering process is completely free from biodegradable material and can without danger of bulking be fed to the aeration tank of the domestic treatment line. The new process has proven to be extremely flexible since already now daily peak loads exceeding the design load by more then 60% could be treated in the plant without any problems. Compared to other alternatives for the dairy waste water treatment that were investigated during this study, the new side stream process is very advantageous. No other pre-treatment process for industrial waste water could have been operated under comparable loading conditions without severe operating problems.

  8. Sources of acidity in lakes and streams of the United States.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, P R; Herlihy, A T; Baker, L A

    1992-01-01

    Acidic (acid neutralizing capacity [ANC] < or = 0) surface waters in the United States sampled in the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS) were classified into three groups according to their probable sources of acidity: (1) organic-dominated waters (organic anions > SO4*; (2) watershed sulphate-dominated waters (watershed sulphate sources > deposition sulphate sources); and (3) deposition-dominated waters (anion chemistry dominated by inputs of sulphate and nitrate derived from deposition). The classification approach is highly robust; therefore, it is a useful tool in segregating surface waters into chemical categories. An estimated 75% (881) of acidic lakes and 47% (2190) of acidic streams are dominated by acid anions from deposition and are probably acidic due to acidic deposition. In about a quarter of the acidic lakes and streams, organic acids were the dominant source of acidity. In the remaining 26% of the acidic streams, watershed sources of sulphate, mainly from acid mine drainage, were the dominant source of acidity.

  9. Arsenic partitioning among particle-size fractions of mine wastes and stream sediments from cinnabar mining districts.

    PubMed

    Silva, Veronica; Loredo, Jorge; Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Larios, Raquel; Ordóñez, Almudena; Gómez, Belén; Rucandio, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Tailings from abandoned mercury mines represent an important pollution source by metals and metalloids. Mercury mining in Asturias (north-western Spain) has been carried out since Roman times until the 1970s. Specific and non-specific arsenic minerals are present in the paragenesis of the Hg ore deposit. As a result of intensive mining operations, waste materials contain high concentrations of As, which can be geochemically dispersed throughout surrounding areas. Arsenic accumulation, mobility and availability in soils and sediments are strongly affected by the association of As with solid phases and granular size composition. The objective of this study was to examine phase associations of As in the fine grain size subsamples of mine wastes (La Soterraña mine site) and stream sediments heavily affected by acid mine drainage (Los Rueldos mine site). An arsenic-selective sequential procedure, which categorizes As content into seven phase associations, was applied. In spite of a higher As accumulation in the finest particle-size subsamples, As fractionation did not seem to depend on grain size since similar distribution profiles were obtained for the studied granulometric fractions. The presence of As was relatively low in the most mobile forms in both sites. As was predominantly linked to short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides, coprecipitated with Fe and partially with Al oxyhydroxides and associated with structural material in mine waste samples. As incorporated into short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides was the predominant fraction at sediment samples, representing more than 80% of total As.

  10. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.H.

    1994-09-30

    The authors evaluated several calorimetric assays for ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and discovered that all were flawed. They evaluated atomic absorption spectroscopy as a technique to determine sub-millimolar concentrations of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and discovered that it is not sensitive enough for their use. However, they discovered that ICP-AES can be used to determine concentrations of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} down to 0.25 ppm. They next determined that ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can be quickly extracted (10 minutes or less) from aqueous HNO{sub 3} using the commercial extractant Aliquat-336 nitrate diluted with 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Higher concentrations of extractant led to higher values of K{sub d} (the distribution ratio). K{sub d} was lower as the nitrate concentration of the medium increased, and was also lowered by increasing the acidity at constant nitrate ion concentration. The authors performed parallel studies with TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, determining that K{sub d}(ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) and K{sub d}(TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) track similarly as the conditions are changed. An effort was made to prepare substituted pyridium nitrate salts that are soluble in organic solvents to be used as alternate extractants. However, in all cases but one, the salts were also soluble to some extent in the aqueous phase, significantly limiting their usefulness as extractants for these purposes. Many of the new extractant salts would partition between the organic solvent and water so that 10% of the extractant salt was in the aqueous phase. Only 1-methyl-3,5-didodecylpyridium nitrate did not show any measurable solubility in water. However, this compound was not as good an extractant as Aliquat-336. A considerable effort was also made to find suitable alternative solvents to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Several ketone solvents with flash points above 60 C were tested, and two of these, 2-nonanone and 3-nonanone, were superior to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene as a diluent.

  11. Phosphorus recovery potential from a waste stream with high organic and nutrient contents via struvite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Karabegovic, L; Uldal, M; Werker, A; Morgan-Sagastume, F

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of NH4(+)-N and PO(3-)-P via struvite precipitation (SP) was evaluated from liquor of thermally pretreated waste activated sludge, containing high levels of nutrients (1500 mg NH4(+)-N/L and 650 mg PO(3-)-P/L), organics (45.5 g COD/L) and suspended solids (3.5 g TSS/L), with reference to anaerobically digested sludge centrate. In a series of jar tests, the order of pH adjustment and chemical addition were first tested for the digested sludge centrate. The effects of MgCl2 and MgO, as Mg2+ sources, on SP were evaluated in both waste streams. Up to 80% of the dissolved PO4(3-)-P was recovered using MgO (pH = 9.2) from the pretreated sludge liquor and more than 86% of NH4(+)-N from the digested sludge centrate (pH = 8.0-8.5) regardless of the Mg2+ source used. NH4(+)-N recovery from digested sludge centrate required the addition of alkali, Mg2+ source and PO4(3-)-P, making the process less viable. The precipitates contained mostly struvite and some levels of Ca2+, Fe2+ and other Mg2+ phosphates. The levels of solids, inorganics and organics in the waste streams influenced SP, specifically struvite crystal formation and settleability in the pretreated sludge liquor, which suggests that the applicability of SP for nutrient recovery from complex waste streams requires case-by-case testing, and process optimization.

  12. Removal of pertechnetate from simulated nuclear waste streams using supported zerovalent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Darab, John; Amonette, Alexandra; Burke, Deborah; Orr, Robert; Ponder, Sherman; Schrick, Bettina; Mallouk, Thomas; Lukens, Wayne; Caulder, Dana; Shuh, David

    2007-07-11

    The application of nanoparticles of predominantly zerovalent iron (nanoiron), either unsupported or supported, to the separation and reduction of pertechnetate anions (TcO4-) from complex waste mixtures was investigated as an alternative approach to current waste-processing schemes. Although applicable to pertechnetate-containing waste streams in general, the research discussed here was directed at two specific potential applications at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site: (1) the direct removal of pertechnetate from highly alkaline solutions, typical of those found in Hanford tank waste, and (2) the removal of dilute pertechnetate from near-neutral solutions, typical of the eluate streams from commercial organic ion-exchange resins that may be used to remediate Hanford tank wastes. It was envisioned that both applications would involve the subsequent encapsulation of the loaded sorbent material into a separate waste form. A high surface area (>200 M2/g) base-stable, nanocrystalline zirconia was used as a support for nanoiron for tests with highly alkaline solutions, while a silica gel support was used for tests with near-neutral solutions. It was shown that after 24 h of contact time, the high surface area zirconia supported nanoiron sorbent removed about 50percent (K-d = 370 L/kg) of the pertechnetate from a pH 14 tank waste simulant containing 0.51 mM TCO4- and large concentrations of Na+, OH-, NO3-, and CO32- for a phase ratio of 360 L simulant per kg of sorbent. It was also shown that after 18 h of contact time, the silica-supported nanoiron removed>95percent pertechnetate from a neutral pH eluate simulant containing 0.076 mM TcO4_ for a phase ratio of 290 L/kg. It was determined that in all cases, nanoiron reduced the Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), or possibly to Tc(V), through a redox reaction. Finally, it was demonstrated that a mixture of 20 mass percent of the solid reaction products obtained from contacting zirconia- supported nanoiron with an alkaline

  13. Removal of Pertechnetate From Simulated Nuclear Waste Streams Using Supported Zerovalent Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Darab, J.G.; Amonette, A.B.; Burke, D.S.D.; Orr, R.D.; Ponder, S.M.; Schrick, B.; Mallouk, T.E.; Lukens, W.W.; Caulder, D.L.; Shuh, D.K.

    2009-06-02

    The application of nanoparticles of predominantly zerovalent iron (nanoiron), either unsupported or supported, to the separation and reduction of pertechnetate anions (TcO{sub 4{sup -}}) from complex waste mixtures was investigated as an alternative approach to current waste-processing schemes. Although applicable to pertechnetate-containing waste streams in general, the research discussed here was directed at two specific potential applications at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site: (1) the direct removal of pertechnetate from highly alkaline solutions, typical of those found in Hanford tank waste, and (2) the removal of dilute pertechnetate from near-neutral solutions, typical of the eluate streams from commercial organic ion-exchange resins that may be used to remediate Hanford tank wastes. It was envisioned that both applications would involve the subsequent encapsulation of the loaded sorbent material into a separate waste form. A high surface area (>200 m{sup 2}/g) base-stable, nanocrystalline zirconia was used as a support for nanoiron for tests with highly alkaline solutions, while a silica gel support was used for tests with near-neutral solutions. It was shown that after 24 h of contact time, the high surface area zirconia supported nanoiron sorbent removed about 50% (K{sub d} = 370 L/kg) of the pertechnetate from a pH 14 tank waste simulant containing 0.51 mM TcO{sub 4{sup -}} and large concentrations of Na{sup +}, OH{sup -}, NO{sub 3{sup -}}, and CO{sub 3{sup 2-}} for a phase ratio of 360 L simulant per kg of sorbent. It was also shown that after 18 h of contact time, the silica-supported nanoiron removed >95% pertechnetate from a neutral pH eluate simulant containing 0.076 mM TcO{sub 4{sup -}} for a phase ratio of 290 L/kg. It was determined that in all cases, nanoiron reduced the Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), or possibly to Tc(V), through a redox reaction. Finally, it was demonstrated that a mixture of 20 mass % of the solid reaction products obtained

  14. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL1A, NPFPDL1B, NPFPDL1C and NPFPDL1D

    SciTech Connect

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This Hazardous Waste Determination Report is intended to satisfy the terms of a Memorandum of Agreement (Agreement signed on June 16, 1999) between the U.S. Department of Energy and the New Mexico Environment Department. The Agreement pertains to the exchange of information before a final decision is made on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant application for a permit under the ''New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act''. The Agreement will terminate upon the effective date of a final ''New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act'' permit for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In keeping with the principles and terms of the Agreement, this report describes the waste stream data and information compilation process, and the physical and chemical analyses that the U.S. Department of Energy has performed on selected containers of transuranic debris waste to confirm that the waste is nonhazardous (non-mixed). This also summarizes the testing and analytical results that support the conclusion that the selected transuranic debris waste is not hazardous and thus, not subject to regulation under the ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' or the ''New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act''. This report will be submitted to the New Mexico Environment Department no later than 45 days before the first shipment of waste from the Hanford Site to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, unless the parties mutually agree in writing to a shorter time. The 52 containers of transuranic debris waste addressed in this report were generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1995 and 1997. Based on reviews of administrative documents, operating procedures, waste records, generator certifications, and personnel interviews, this transuranic debris waste was determined to be nonhazardous. This determination is supported by the data derived from nondestructive examination, confirmatory visual examination, and the results of container headspace gas sampling and analysis. Therefore, it is concluded that this transuranic debris

  15. PAPER STUDY EVALUATIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE WASTE STREAMS TO THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Stone, M.; Koopman, D.

    2010-06-29

    The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2}, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is

  16. Quantification of acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived streams

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Deutch, Steve; Salvachúa, Davinia; Cywar, Robin M.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass-derived streams that contain acidic compounds from the degradation of lignin and polysaccharides (e.g. black liquor, pyrolysis oil, pyrolytic lignin, etc.) are chemically complex solutions prone to instability and degradation during analysis, making quantification of compounds within them challenging. Here we present a robust analytical method to quantify acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived mixtures using ion exchange, sample reconstitution in pyridine and derivatization with BSTFA. The procedure is based on an earlier method originally reported for kraft black liquors and, in this work, is applied to identify and quantify a large slate of acidic compounds in corn stover derived alkaline pretreatment liquor (APL) as a function of pretreatment severity. Analysis of the samples is conducted with GCxGC-TOFMS to achieve good resolution of the components within the complex mixture. The results reveal the dominant low molecular weight components and their concentrations as a function of pretreatment severity. Application of this method is also demonstrated in the context of lignin conversion technologies by applying it to track the microbial conversion of an APL substrate. Here too excellent results are achieved, and the appearance and disappearance of compounds is observed in agreement with the known metabolic pathways of two bacteria, indicating the sample integrity was maintained throughout analysis. Finally, it is shown that this method applies more generally to lignin-rich materials by demonstrating its usefulness in analysis of pyrolysis oil and pyrolytic lignin.

  17. Quantification of acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived streams

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Deutch, Steve; Salvachúa, Davinia; Cywar, Robin M.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-05-10

    Biomass-derived streams that contain acidic compounds from the degradation of lignin and polysaccharides (e.g. black liquor, pyrolysis oil, pyrolytic lignin, etc.) are chemically complex solutions prone to instability and degradation during analysis, making quantification of compounds within them challenging. Here we present a robust analytical method to quantify acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived mixtures using ion exchange, sample reconstitution in pyridine and derivatization with BSTFA. The procedure is based on an earlier method originally reported for kraft black liquors and, in this work, is applied to identify and quantify a large slate of acidic compounds in corn stover derived alkaline pretreatment liquor (APL) as a function of pretreatment severity. Analysis of the samples is conducted with GCxGC-TOFMS to achieve good resolution of the components within the complex mixture. The results reveal the dominant low molecular weight components and their concentrations as a function of pretreatment severity. Application of this method is also demonstrated in the context of lignin conversion technologies by applying it to track the microbial conversion of an APL substrate. Here as well excellent results are achieved, and the appearance and disappearance of compounds is observed in agreement with the known metabolic pathways of two bacteria, indicating the sample integrity was maintained throughout analysis. Finally, it is shown that this method applies more generally to lignin-rich materials by demonstrating its usefulness in analysis of pyrolysis oil and pyrolytic lignin.

  18. Quantification of acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived streams

    DOE PAGES

    Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Deutch, Steve; ...

    2016-05-10

    Biomass-derived streams that contain acidic compounds from the degradation of lignin and polysaccharides (e.g. black liquor, pyrolysis oil, pyrolytic lignin, etc.) are chemically complex solutions prone to instability and degradation during analysis, making quantification of compounds within them challenging. Here we present a robust analytical method to quantify acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived mixtures using ion exchange, sample reconstitution in pyridine and derivatization with BSTFA. The procedure is based on an earlier method originally reported for kraft black liquors and, in this work, is applied to identify and quantify a large slate of acidic compounds in corn stover derived alkalinemore » pretreatment liquor (APL) as a function of pretreatment severity. Analysis of the samples is conducted with GCxGC-TOFMS to achieve good resolution of the components within the complex mixture. The results reveal the dominant low molecular weight components and their concentrations as a function of pretreatment severity. Application of this method is also demonstrated in the context of lignin conversion technologies by applying it to track the microbial conversion of an APL substrate. Here as well excellent results are achieved, and the appearance and disappearance of compounds is observed in agreement with the known metabolic pathways of two bacteria, indicating the sample integrity was maintained throughout analysis. Finally, it is shown that this method applies more generally to lignin-rich materials by demonstrating its usefulness in analysis of pyrolysis oil and pyrolytic lignin.« less

  19. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction.

  20. Recovery of plutonium from nitric acid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Saba, M.T.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-12-21

    Seven candidate materials, each contained in a static-bed column, have been evaluated for removing plutonium from nitric acid waste. Three materials have insufficient capacity for plutonium: TBP (tri-n-butylphosphate) sorbed on Amberlite XAD-4 resin, O phi D(IB)CMPO (octylphenyl-N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) sorbed on XAD-4, and Amberlite IRA-938 anion exchange resin. The remaining four materials reduced 10/sup -3/ g/l plutonium in 7.2M HNO/sub 3/ to low 10/sup -5/ g/l for 80 bed volumes (BV). The 10% breakthrough capacities for 3 x 10/sup -2/ g/l plutonium are: TOPO (tri-n-octylphosphine oxide) on XAD-4 - 1800 BV, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate) on XAD-4 - 960 BV, Dowex 1 x 4 - 840 BV, and DHDECMP + TBP - 640 BV. Based on these results and generally poor elution of all materials, TOPO on XAD-4 is recommended as the best candidate for recovery of plutonium followed by acid digestion or combustion of the TOPO to recover the concentrated plutonium.

  1. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Delva, Laurens Ragaert, Kim Cardon, Ludwig

    2015-12-17

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  2. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delva, Laurens; Ragaert, Kim; Cardon, Ludwig

    2015-12-01

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  3. Decanting of Neutralized H-Canyon Unirradiated Nuclear Material High Activity Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    BRONIKOWSKI, MICHAELG.

    2004-08-05

    An option to dispose of the High Activity Waste (HAW) stream from the processing of unirradiated materials directly to Saltstone is being evaluated to conserve High Level Waste (HLW) tank farm space and to reduce the future production of HLW glass logs. To meet the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), decanting the supernate from precipitated solids was proposed to reduce mercury and radionuclide levels in the waste. Only the caustic supernate will then be sent to Saltstone. Verification that the Saltstone WAC will be met has involved a series of laboratory studies using surrogate and actual HAW solutions from H-Canyon. The initial experiment involved addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to a surrogate HAW test solution and subsequent decanting of the supernate away from the precipitated solids. The chemical composition of the surrogate solution was based on a composition defined from analyses of actual HAW solutions generated during dissolution of unirradiated nuclear materials in H-Canyon [1]. Results from testing the surrogate HAW solution were reported in Reference [2]. Information obtained from the surrogate test solution study was used to define additional experiments on actual HAW solutions obtained from H-Canyon. These experiments were conducted with samples from three different batches of HAW solutions. The first and third HAW samples (HAW No.1 and HAW No.3 solutions) contained the centrifuge filter cake material from a gelatin strike that is periodically added to the waste stream. The second HAW sample (HAW No.2 solution) did not contain filter cake material. Monosodium titanate (MST) was added to the HAW No.2 and HAW No.3 solutions after addition of NaOH was complete and before the settling step. The addition of MST was to improve the decontamination of alpha and beta emitters (primarily plutonium and strontium) from the supernate. The addition of excess NaOH and the addition of MST were expected to result in sufficient alpha and beta

  4. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  5. Seasonal patterns in stream periphyton fatty acids and community benthic algal composition in six high quality headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are integral components of periphyton and differ among algal taxa. We examined seasonal patterns in periphyton fatty acids in six minimally disturbed headwater streams in Pennsylvania’s Appalachian Mountains, USA. Environmental data and periphyton were collected across four seasons for fatty acid and algal taxa content. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination suggested significant seasonal differences in fatty acids; an ordination on algal composition revealed similar seasonal patterns, but with slightly weaker separation of summer and fall. Summer and fall fatty acid profiles were driven by temperature, overstory cover, and conductivity and winter profiles by measures of stream size. Ordination on algal composition suggested that summer and fall communities were driven by overstory and temperature, whereas winter communities were driven by velocity. The physiologically important fatty acid 18:3ω6 was highest in summer and fall. Winter samples had the highest 20:3ω3. Six saturated fatty acids differed among the seasons. Periphyton fatty acids profiles appeared to reflect benthic algal species composition. This suggests that periphyton fatty acid composition can be useful in characterizing basal food resources and stream water quality.

  6. Bentonite-Clay Waste Form for the Immobilization of Cesium and Strontium from Fuel Processing Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    The physical properties of a surrogate waste form containing cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium sintered into bentonite clay were evaluated for several simulant feed streams: chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD-PEG) strip solution, nitrate salt, and chloride salt feeds. We sintered bentonite clay samples with a loading of 30 mass% of cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium to a density of approximately 3 g/cm3. Sintering temperatures of up to 1000°C did not result in volatility of cesium. Instead, there was an increase in crystallinity of the waste form upon sintering to 1000ºC for chloride- and nitrate-salt loaded clays. The nitrate salt feed produced various cesium pollucite phases, while the chloride salt feed did not produce these familiar phases. In fact, many of the x-ray diffraction peaks could not be matched to known phases. Assemblages of silicates were formed that incorporated the Sr, Rb, and Ba ions. Gas evolution during sintering to 1000°C was significant (35% weight loss for the CCD-PEG waste-loaded clay), with significant water being evolved at approximately 600°C.

  7. The hypocholesterolemic effect of lemon peels, lemon pectin, and the waste stream material of lemon peels in hybrid F1B hamsters.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, A H M; Lapré, J A; de Vries, H T; Beynen, A C

    2002-02-01

    We found in preliminary studies with hamsters that citrus peels have a cholesterol lowering effect comparable to that of pectin extracted from these peels. We wanted to examine whether the cholesterol lowering effect of the peels could be completely accounted for by the pectin in the peels. We fed cholesterol enriched (0.1 %,w/w) semipurified diets containing 3% (w/w) of cellulose, lemon peels, lemon pectin, and the waste stream material of the lemon peels to hybrid F1B hamsters for a period of 8 weeks. The waste stream of the lemon peels is the left over after extraction of the lemon pectin. Feeding the semipurified diets resulted in an increase of plasma cholesterol levels in all the dietary groups after 2 and 4 weeks on the diets. Cholesterol concentrations in the cellulose fed hamsters continued to increase after 4 weeks on the diet, whereas cholesterol levels in the other groups had reached a plateau. As a consequence, the plasma cholesterol levels in the hamsters fed the peels (5.59 +/- 0.74 mmol/L, mean +/- SD, n = 14), pectin (5.19 +/- 0.48 mmol/L), or waste stream (5.53 +/- 0.94 mmol/L) were lower than those in the hamsters fed cellulose (6.71 +/- 1.52 mmol/L) after 8 weeks on the diets. Differences in total plasma cholesterol were reflected in differences in both VLDL and LDL cholesterol concentration, but this effect was more distinct for the VLDL. There was no effect of the type of fiber on HDL cholesterol levels. Liver cholesterol concentrations paralleled. the concentrations of plasma cholesterol and the liver cholesterol concentrations in the hamsters fed the peels (3.57+/- 1.01 micromol/g liver, mean +/- SD, n = 14), pectin (4.86 +/- 1.42), and the waste stream (4.96 +/- 1.89) were lower than those in the cellulose group (7.19 +/- 2.32). The hamsters fed the peels, pectin, or waste stream tended to have a higher excretion of fecal bile acids and neutral sterols then the cellulose fed hamsters. The results of this study suggest that lemon peels and

  8. Stream ecosystem response to limestone treatment in acid impacted watersheds of the allegheny plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClurg, S.E.; Petty, J.T.; Mazik, P.M.; Clayton, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Restoration programs are expanding worldwide, but assessments of restoration effectiveness are rare. The objectives of our study were to assess current acid-precipitation remediation programs in streams of the Allegheny Plateau ecoregion of West Virginia (USA), identify specific attributes that could and could not be fully restored, and quantify temporal trends in ecosystem recovery. We sampled water chemistry, physical habitat, periphyton biomass, and benthic macroinvertebrate and fish community structure in three stream types: acidic (four streams), naturally circumneutral (eight streams), and acidic streams treated with limestone sand (eight streams). We observed no temporal trends in ecosystem recovery in treated streams despite sampling streams that ranged from 2 to 20 years since initial treatment. Our results indicated that the application of limestone sand to acidic streams was effective in fully recovering some characteristics, such as pH, alkalinity, Ca2+, Ca:H ratios, trout biomass and density, and trout reproductive success. However, recovery of many other characteristics was strongly dependent upon spatial proximity to treatment, and still others were never fully recovered. For example, limestone treatment did not restore dissolved aluminum concentrations, macroinvertebrate taxon richness, and total fish biomass to circumneutral reference conditions. Full recovery may not be occurring because treated streams continue to drain acidic watersheds and remain isolated in a network of acidic streams. We propose a revised stream restoration plan for the Allegheny Plateau that includes restoring stream ecosystems as connected networks rather than isolated reaches and recognizes that full recovery of acidified watersheds may not be possible. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Using liquid waste streams as the moisture source during the hydrothermal carbonization of municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Hale, McKenzie; Olsen, Petra; Berge, Nicole D

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process that can be an environmentally beneficial approach for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to value-added products. The influence of using activated sludge and landfill leachate as initial moisture sources during the carbonization of paper, food waste and yard waste over time at 250°C was evaluated. Results from batch experiments indicate that the use of activated sludge and landfill leachate are acceptable alternative supplemental liquid sources, ultimately imparting minimal impact on carbonization product characteristics and yields. Regression results indicate that the initial carbon content of the feedstock is more influential than any of the characteristics of the initial liquid source and is statistically significant when describing the relationship associated with all evaluated carbonization products. Initial liquid-phase characteristics are only statistically significant when describing the solids energy content and the mass of carbon in the gas-phase. The use of these alternative liquid sources has the potential to greatly increase the sustainability of the carbonization process. A life cycle assessment is required to quantify the benefits associated with using these alternative liquid sources.

  10. Ion chromatographic determination of trace hydroxylamine in waste streams generated by a pharmaceutical reaction process.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Peter N; Egwu, Ignatius N; Hussain, Mumtaz S

    2002-05-17

    Hydroxylamine is a key raw material used in a synthetic drug process at Pharmacia. Since hydroxylamine is harmful to microorganisms, concentrations above 5 ppm could interfere with the biological sewage plant performance. This necessitated the development of a sensitive analytical method for detecting low levels of hydroxylamine in the waste streams generated from the pharmaceutical process. The present report describes a cation-exchange chromatographic method coupled with pulsed amperometric detection at a gold electrode for trace analysis of hydroxylamine. This method was evaluated by generating data on the parameters of specificity, precision, linearity, recovery and sensitivity.

  11. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  12. Sorbent Testing For Solidification of Process Waste streams from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, J.; Taylor, P.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate sorbents identified by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to solidify the radioactive liquid organic waste from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL. REDC recovers and purifies heavy elements (berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium) from irradiated targets for research and industrial applications. Both organic and aqueous waste streams are discharged from REDC. The organic waste is generated from the plutonium/uranium extraction (Purex), Cleanex, and Pubex processes. The Purex waste derives from an organic-aqueous isotope separation process for plutonium and uranium fission products, the Cleanex waste derives from the removal of fission products and other impurities from the americium/curium product, and the Pubex waste is derived from the separation process of plutonium from dissolved targets. MSE had also been tasked to test a grouting formula for the aqueous waste stream that includes radioactive shielding material. The aqueous waste is a mixture of the raffinate streams from the various extraction processes plus the caustic solution that is used to dissolve the aluminum cladding from the irradiated targets. (authors)

  13. Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L.; Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

  14. Development of a Certified Low-Level Waste Stream from Analytical Laboratory Operations at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F; Drake, J A; Gallagher, P J

    2005-01-14

    Chemistry and Materials Science Environmental Services (CES) is LLNL's on-site environmental analytical laboratory, analyzing approximately 2500 samples annually generally for waste characterization purposes. Due to the lack of process knowledge for analyzed samples, the waste produced by CES has traditionally been characterized on a ''worst-case'' basis as RCRA-hazardous mixed waste. By instituting rigorous ''up-front'' waste characterization, including segregation of acutely/extremely hazardous materials, utilizing regulatory exemptions, and developing a novel radiological characterization strategy, CES was able to receive approval for a certified LLW waste stream, adequately characterized for disposal at the Nevada Test Site. In the 10 months of operating history, CES has diverted 33% of its waste (by mass) from mixed to LLW. This will result in significant cost savings and reduction in waste re-handling/personnel exposure.

  15. Activity of microorganisms in acid mine water. I. Influence of acid water on aerobic heterotrophs of a normal stream.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, J H; Randles, C I; Dugan, P R

    1968-05-01

    Comparison of microbial content of acid-contaminated and nonacid-contaminated streams from the same geographical area indicated that nonacid streams contained relatively low numbers of acid-tolerant heterotrophic microorganisms. The acid-tolerant aerobes survived when acid entered the stream and actually increased in number to about 2 x 10(3) per ml until the pH approached 3.0. The organisms then represented the heterotrophic aerobic microflora of the streams comprised of a mixture of mine drainage and nonacid water. A stream which was entirely acid drainage did not have a similar microflora. Most gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria died out very rapidly in acidic water, and they comprised a very small percentage of the microbial population of the streams examined. Iron- and sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria were present wherever mine water entered a stream system. The sulfur-oxidizing bacteria predominated over iron oxidizers. Ecological data from the field were verified by laboratory experiments designed to simulate stream conditions.

  16. Effects of livestock wastes on small illinois streams: Lower Kaskaskia river basin and upper little wabash river basins, summer 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.L.; Bickers, C.A.; King, M.M.; Brockamp, D.W.

    1992-07-01

    In early 1991, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) initiated an investigation to evaluate livestock waste runoff in southern Illinois. The primary objectives of this survey were to document stream quality impairments caused by livestock waste runoff, and ultimately, the need for better waste management practices, waste management systems, and funding for such systems. Information provided by Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and IEPA Agricultural staff identified an area in Clinton and Bond Counties in the Kaskaskia River basin and several upper Little Wabash River basin tributaries in Effingham and Cumberland Counties as candidate project areas.

  17. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 2, Site specific---California through Idaho. [Waste mixtures of hazardous materials and low-level radioactive wastes or transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provide site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: eight California facilities which are Energy Technology engineering Center, General Atomics, General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, and Sandia national Laboratories; Grand Junction Project Office; Rocky Flats Plant; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory-Windsor Site; Pinellas Plant; Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard; Argonne National Laboratory-West; and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  18. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  19. Conversion of corn stover alkaline pre-treatment waste streams into biodiesel via Rhodococci

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Rosemary K.; Wells Jr., Tyrone; Das, Parthapratim; Meng, Xianzhi; Stoklosa, Ryan J.; Bhalla, Aditya; Hodge, David B.; Yuan, Joshua S.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2017-01-01

    The bioconversion of second-generation cellulosic ethanol waste streams into biodiesel via oleaginous bacteria is a novel optimization strategy for biorefineries with substantial potential for rapid development. In this study, one- and two-stage alkali/alkali-peroxide pretreatment waste streams of corn stover were separately implemented as feedstocks in 96 h batch reactor fermentations with wild-type Rhodococcus opacus PD 630, R. opacus DSM 1069, and R. jostii DSM 44719T. Here we show using 31P-NMR, HPAEC-PAD, and SEC analyses, that the more rigorous and chemically-efficient two-stage chemical pretreatment effluent provided higher concentrations of solubilized glucose and lower molecular weight (~70–300 g mol-1) lignin degradation products thereby enabling improved cellular density, viability, and oleaginicity in each respective strain. The most significant yields were by R. opacus PD 630, which converted 6.2% of organic content with a maximal total lipid production of 1.3 g L-1 and accumulated 42.1% in oils based on cell dry weight after 48 h.

  20. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels.

  1. Approaches for the treatment of waste streams of the aluminium anodising industry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E

    2009-05-30

    The aluminium anodising industry is an important industrial sector that invariably generates great amounts of different waste streams. Classical and especially new-developing technologies dealing with them are reviewed. Innovative methods are mainly based on engineering geochemical processes, looking for the recovery of resource materials and the reduction of emissions to the environment. These represent a promising alternative to the classical method (neutralisation process and anodising mud disposal) which is an end-of-pipe solution. Among the treatments recently proposed, there are the use of anodising mud in the manufacture of refractory bodies, and the synthesis of useful minerals from the wastewaters arising from the etching, anodising and brightening processes. The viability of the application of such methods in the treatment of waste streams of the aluminium anodising industry is discussed, pointing out the main shortcomings and benefits of each of them. For those methods appearing environmentally friendly the process cost and the actual marketability of the final products should be determinant on their near future applicability.

  2. Conversion of corn stover alkaline pre-treatment waste streams into biodiesel via Rhodococci

    DOE PAGES

    Le, Rosemary K.; Wells Jr., Tyrone; Das, Parthapratim; ...

    2017-01-13

    We present the bioconversion of second-generation cellulosic ethanol waste streams into biodiesel via oleaginous bacteria is a novel optimization strategy for biorefineries with substantial potential for rapid development. In this study, one- and two-stage alkali/alkali-peroxide pretreatment waste streams of corn stover were separately implemented as feedstocks in 96 h batch reactor fermentations with wild-type Rhodococcus opacus PD 630, R. opacus DSM 1069, and R. jostii DSM 44719T . Here we show using 31P-NMR, HPAECPAD, and SEC analyses, that the more rigorous and chemically-efficient two-stage chemical pretreatment effluent provided higher concentrations of solubilized glucose and lower molecular weight (70 300 gmore » mol1 ) lignin degradation products thereby enabling improved cellular density, viability, and oleaginicity in each respective strain. The most significant yields were by R. opacus PD 630, which converted 6.2% of organic content with a maximal total lipid production of 1.3 g L1 and accumulated 42.1% in oils based on cell dry weight after 48 h.« less

  3. Conversion of corn stover alkaline pre-treatment waste streams into biodiesel via Rhodococci

    DOE PAGES

    Le, Rosemary K.; Wells Jr., Tyrone; Das, Parthapratim; ...

    2017-01-01

    The bioconversion of second-generation cellulosic ethanol waste streams into biodiesel via oleaginous bacteria is a novel optimization strategy for biorefineries with substantial potential for rapid development. In this study, one- and two-stage alkali/alkali-peroxide pretreatment waste streams of corn stover were separately implemented as feedstocks in 96 h batch reactor fermentations with wild-type Rhodococcus opacus PD 630, R. opacus DSM 1069, and R. jostii DSM 44719T. Here we show using 31P-NMR, HPAEC-PAD, and SEC analyses, that the more rigorous and chemically-efficient two-stage chemical pretreatment effluent provided higher concentrations of solubilized glucose and lower molecular weight (~70–300 g mol-1) lignin degradation productsmore » thereby enabling improved cellular density, viability, and oleaginicity in each respective strain. The most significant yields were by R. opacus PD 630, which converted 6.2% of organic content with a maximal total lipid production of 1.3 g L-1 and accumulated 42.1% in oils based on cell dry weight after 48 h.« less

  4. Buffered flue gas scrubbing system using adipic acid by-product stream

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.H. Jr.; Danly, D.E.

    1983-12-27

    A by-product stream from the production of adipic acid from cyclohexane, containing glutaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid, is employed as a buffer in lime or limestone flue gas scrubbing for the removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion gases.

  5. Biofilm bacterial community structure in streams affected by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Lear, Gavin; Niyogi, Dev; Harding, Jon; Dong, Yimin; Lewis, Gillian

    2009-06-01

    We examined the bacterial communities of epilithic biofilms in 17 streams which represented a gradient ranging from relatively pristine streams to streams highly impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). A combination of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis with multivariate analysis and ordination provided a sensitive, high-throughput method to monitor the impact of AMD on stream bacterial communities. Significant differences in community structure were detected among neutral to alkaline (pH 6.7 to 8.3), acidic (pH 3.9 to 5.7), and very acidic (pH 2.8 to 3.5) streams. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the acidic streams were generally dominated by bacteria related to the iron-oxidizing genus Gallionella, while the organisms in very acidic streams were less diverse and included a high proportion of acidophilic eukaryotes, including taxa related to the algal genera Navicula and Klebsormidium. Despite the presence of high concentrations of dissolved metals (e.g., Al and Zn) and deposits of iron hydroxide in some of the streams studied, pH was the most important determinant of the observed differences in bacterial community variability. These findings confirm that any restoration activities in such systems must focus on dealing with pH as the first priority.

  6. Impacts of Fire and Mass Wasting on Channel Morphology and Stream Temperature in Mountain Rivers of Central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welcker, C. W.; Buffington, J. M.; Rieman, B. E.; Luce, C. H.; McKean, J.

    2004-12-01

    Debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows immediately impact streams by changing channel morphology, grain size, sediment storage and transport, amount of incision, riparian vegetation, large woody debris dynamics, and extirpating fish, amphibian, and insect populations. In central Idaho, these disturbances are commonly triggered by intense thunderstorms or rain-on-snow events, and are exacerbated by wildfires which alter basin hydrology and sediment supply by removing vegetation and creating hydrophobic soils. While the immediate effect of these flows is dramatic, the time to recovery of the physical habitat is poorly understood and the long-term significance of these disturbances to aquatic organisms is unknown. Stream temperature is a key variable of stream ecosystems and has been shown to control the distribution of salmonids in our study area of the Idaho Batholith. Previous research in 10 recently disturbed streams shows a systematic increase in stream temperature across three stream types representing progressively greater disturbance: undisturbed; burned; and those impacted by both fire and mass-wasting events. Here, we test the hypothesis that the observed pattern of warming is due to increased solar radiation loading caused by wider, shallower streams and the removal of vegetative shade by fires and mass-wasting events. We examine channel conditions across several treatment classes (undisturbed, post-fire debris flow, debris flow without fire) and time since disturbance (1964 to present). In 32 streams, 200-600 meter reaches were surveyed and upstream and downstream temperatures were monitored throughout the summer, the solar load was estimated as a function of shading (measured with hemispherical photo analysis), stream width and depth, and average velocity estimated with salt tracers. Preliminary results indicate that while recent disturbances (1995-2003) significantly increase the solar load and stream temperatures, older disturbances (1964) are similar

  7. Chronic and episodic acidification of Adirondack streams from acid rain in 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Roy, K.M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.; Capone, S.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Boylen, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Limited information is available on streams in the Adirondack region of New York, although streams are more prone to acidification than the more studied Adirondack lakes. A stream assessment was therefore undertaken in the Oswegatchie and Black River drainages; an area of 4585 km2 in the western part of the Adirondack region. Acidification was evaluated with the newly developed base-cation surplus (BCS) and the conventional acid-neutralizing capacity by Gran titration (ANCG). During the survey when stream water was most acidic (March 2004), 105 of 188 streams (56%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS < 0 ??eq L-1, whereas 29% were acidified based on an ANCG value < 0 ??eq L-1. During the survey when stream water was least acidic (August 2003), 15 of 129 streams (12%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS < 0 ??eq L-1, whereas 5% were acidified based on ANCG value < 0 ??eq L -1. The contribution of acidic deposition to stream acidification was greater than that of strongly acidic organic acids in each of the surveys by factors ranging from approximately 2 to 5, but was greatest during spring snowmelt and least during elevated base flow in August. During snowmelt, the percentage attributable to acidic deposition was 81%, whereas during the October 2003 survey, when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest, this percentage was 66%. The total length of stream reaches estimated to be prone to acidification was 718 km out of a total of 1237 km of stream reaches that were assessed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povak, Nicholas A.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reynolds, Keith M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Salter, R. Brion

    2013-06-01

    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially affected biota, and create resource protection strategies. In this study, we developed correlative models to predict the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of streams across the southern Appalachian Mountain region, USA. Models were developed using stream water chemistry data from 933 sampled locations and continuous maps of pertinent environmental and climatic predictors. Environmental predictors were averaged across the upslope contributing area for each sampled stream location and submitted to both statistical and machine-learning regression models. Predictor variables represented key aspects of the contributing geology, soils, climate, topography, and acidic deposition. To reduce model error rates, we employed hurdle modeling to screen out well-buffered sites and predict continuous ANC for the remainder of the stream network. Models predicted acid-sensitive streams in forested watersheds with small contributing areas, siliceous lithologies, cool and moist environments, low clay content soils, and moderate or higher dry sulfur deposition. Our results confirmed findings from other studies and further identified several influential climatic variables and variable interactions. Model predictions indicated that one quarter of the total stream network was sensitive to additional sulfur inputs (i.e., ANC < 100 µeq L-1), while <10% displayed much lower ANC (<50 µeq L-1). These methods may be readily adapted in other regions to assess stream water quality and potential biotic sensitivity to acidic inputs.

  9. Economic and environmental characterization of an evolving Li-ion battery waste stream.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W; Bailey, Chelsea; Ganter, Matthew J; Landi, Brian J

    2014-03-15

    While disposal bans of lithium-ion batteries are gaining in popularity, the infrastructure required to recycle these batteries has not yet fully emerged and the economic motivation for this type of recycling system has not yet been quantified comprehensively. This study combines economic modeling and fundamental material characterization methods to quantify economic trade-offs for lithium ion batteries at their end-of-life. Results show that as chemistries transition from lithium-cobalt based cathodes to less costly chemistries, battery recovery value decreases along with the initial value of the raw materials used. For example, manganese-spinel and iron phosphate cathode batteries have potential material values 73% and 79% less than cobalt cathode batteries, respectively. A majority of the potentially recoverable value resides in the base metals contained in the cathode; this increases disassembly cost and time as this is the last portion of the battery taken apart. A great deal of compositional variability exists, even within the same cathode chemistry, due to differences between manufacturers with coefficient of variation up to 37% for some base metals. Cathode changes over time will result in a heavily co-mingled waste stream, further complicating waste management and recycling processes. These results aim to inform disposal, collection, and take-back policies being proposed currently that affect waste management infrastructure as well as guide future deployment of novel recycling techniques.

  10. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and

  11. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-08-23

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site FB-Line conducted atomic energy defense activities consistent with the listing in Section 10101(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The facility mission was to process and convert dilute plutonium solution into highly purified weapons grade plutonium metal. As a result of various activities conducted in support of the mission (e.g., operation, maintenance, repair, clean up, and facility modifications), the facility generated transuranic waste. This document, along with referenced supporting documents, provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration,equipment, process operations, and waste management practices.

  12. ACID-BASE ACCOUNT EFFECTIVENESS FOR DETERMINATION OF MINE WASTE POTENTIAL ACIDITY. (R825549C048)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxidation of sulfide minerals in mine waste is a widespread source of resource degradation, often resulting in the generation of acidic water and mobilization of heavy metals. The quantity of acid forming minerals present in mine waste, dominantly as pyrite (FeS2

  13. Sources of alkalinity and acidity along an acid mine drainage remediated stream in SE Ohio: Hewett Fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleich, K. L.; Lopez, D. A.; Bowman, J. R.; Kruse, N. A.; Mackey, A. L.; VanDervort, D.; Korenowsky, R.

    2013-12-01

    In the remediation of acid mine drainage impacted streams, it is important to locate and quantify the sources of acidity and alkalinity inputs. These parameters affect the long-term recovery of the stream habitat. Previous studies have focused on treating the remediation of AMD as point source pollution, targeting the main acid seep for remediation. However, in the interest of biological and chemical recovery, it is important to understand how sources of alkalinity and acidity, throughout the stream, affect water and sediment quality. The Hewett Fork watershed in Southeastern Ohio is impacted by AMD from the AS-14 mine complex in Carbondale, Ohio. In attempts to remediate the stream, the water is being treated with a continuous alkaline input from a calcium oxide doser. While the section of watershed furthest downstream from the doser is showing signs of recovery, the water chemistry and aquatic life near the doser are still impacted. The objective of this study is to examine and model the chemistry of the tributaries of Hewett Fork to see how they contribute to the alkalinity and acidity budgets of the main stem of the stream. By examining the inputs of tributaries into the main stem, this project aims to understand processes occurring during remediation throughout the entire stream. Discharge was measured during a dry period in October, 2012 and at a high flow in May, 2013. Field parameters such as pH, TDS, DO, alkalinity and acidity were also determined. Low flow data collected during fall sampling shows variable flow along the stream path, the stream gains water from ground water at some points while it loses water at others, potentially due to variable elevation of the water table. Flow data collected during spring sampling shows that Hewett Fork is a gaining stream during that period with inputs from groundwater contributing to increasing flow downstream. When using this data to calculate the net alkalinity load along the stream, there are areas with alkaline

  14. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 4, Site specific---Ohio through South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE`s mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes at the following five Ohio facilities: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Fernald Environmental Management Project; Mound Plant; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and RMI, Titanium Company.

  15. Anthropogenic and natural sources of acidity and metals and their influence on the structure of stream food webs.

    PubMed

    Hogsden, Kristy L; Harding, Jon S

    2012-03-01

    We compared food web structure in 20 streams with either anthropogenic or natural sources of acidity and metals or circumneutral water chemistry in New Zealand. Community and diet analysis indicated that mining streams receiving anthropogenic inputs of acidic and metal-rich drainage had much simpler food webs (fewer species, shorter food chains, less links) than those in naturally acidic, naturally high metal, and circumneutral streams. Food webs of naturally high metal streams were structurally similar to those in mining streams, lacking fish predators and having few species. Whereas, webs in naturally acidic streams differed very little from those in circumneutral streams due to strong similarities in community composition and diets of secondary and top consumers. The combined negative effects of acidity and metals on stream food webs are clear. However, elevated metal concentrations, regardless of source, appear to play a more important role than acidity in driving food web structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. URBANIZATION ALTERS FATTY ACID CONCENTRATIONS OF STREAM FOOD WEBS IN THE NARRAGANSETT BAY WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization and associated human activities negatively affect stream algal and invertebrate assemblages, likely altering food webs. Our goal was to determine if urbanization affects food web essential fatty acids (EFAs) and if EFAs could be useful ecological indicators in monito...

  17. URBANIZATION ALTERS FATTY ACID CONCENTRATIONS OF STREAM FOOD WEBS IN THE NARRAGANSETT BAY WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization and associated human activities negatively affect stream algal and invertebrate assemblages, likely altering food webs. Our goal was to determine if urbanization affects food web essential fatty acids (EFAs) and if EFAs could be useful ecological indicators in monito...

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2014-09-01

    This work describes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) at different operation conditions. Therefore various tests were conducted regarding a high PHA production and stable PHA composition. Influence of substrate concentration, temperature, pH and cycle time of an installed feast/famine-regime were investigated. The results demonstrated a strong influence of the operating conditions on the PHA production. Lower substrate concentration, 20°C, neutral pH-value and a 24h cycle time are preferable for high PHA production up to 28.4% of cell dry weight (CDW). PHA composition was influenced by cycle time only and a stable PHA composition was reached. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Challenges of scaling-up PHA production from waste streams. A review.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Perez, Santiago; Serrano, Antonio; Pantión, Alba A; Alonso-Fariñas, Bernabé

    2017-10-05

    The search for new materials that replace fossil fuel-based plastics has been focused on biopolymers with similar physicochemical properties to fossil fuel-based plastics, such as Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). The present paper reviews the challenges of scaling-up PHA production from waste streams during the period from 2014 to 2016, focusing on the feasibility of the alternatives and the most promising alternatives to its scaling-up. The reviewed research studies mainly focus on reducing costs or obtaining more valuable polymers. In the future, the integration of PHA production into processes such as wastewater treatment plants, hydrogen production or biodiesel factories could enhance its implementation at industrial scale. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Three dimensional electrode for the electrolytic removal of contaminants from aqueous waste streams

    DOEpatents

    Spiegel, Ella F.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-01-01

    Efficient and cost-effective electrochemical devices and processes for the remediation of aqueous waste streams. The invention provides electrolytic cells having a high surface area spouted electrode for removal of heavy metals and oxidation of organics from aqueous environments. Heavy metal ions are reduced, deposited on cathode particles of a spouted bed cathode and removed from solution. Organics are efficiently oxidized at anode particles of a spouted bed anode and removed from solution. The method of this inventions employs an electrochemical cell having an anolyte compartment and a catholyte compartment, separated by a microporous membrane, in and through which compartments anolyte and catholyte, respectively, are circulated. A spouted-bed electrode is employed as the cathode for metal deposition from contaminated aqueous media introduced as catholyte and as the anode for oxidation of organics from contaminated aqueous media introduced as anolyte.

  1. Sediment toxicity and ecological risk of trace metals from streams surrounding a municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Sayadi, M H; Rezaei, M R; Rezaei, A

    2015-05-01

    The present study is an attempt to assess the pollution intensity and corresponding ecological risk of heavy metals such as Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr using various indices like geo-accumulation index, concentration factor, pollution loading and ecological risk index. In all 21 surface sediments samples were collected from the stream flowing around the solid waste disposal landfill of Qayen city in southeastern Iran. Although Igeo values for Cd varied greatly, sites 18-21 with class 5 show heavy loads of Cd (values between 4.13 and 4.45). PLI values (3.37-12.89) clearly suggest strong contamination with respect to the measured metals. This study clearly indicates that the contamination risk in the downstream reservoir is much higher than upstream sites due to transfer and accumulation of leached metals from upstream to downstream.

  2. Biology in focus: better lives through better science: new hope for acid streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, Barnaby

    1998-01-01

    Across the nation, a toxic pollutant turns clean streams orange, kills fish and plant life, and smells like rotten eggs. The culprit is acid mine drainage, the poisonous water leaking from more than 500,000 abandoned and inactive mines in 32 states. The toxic discharge is a problem for operational mines as well. In the Appalachian coal region, for example, acid mine drainage has degraded more than 8,000 miles of streams and has left some aquatic habitats virtually lifeless.

  3. Recovery of high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid in toluene nitration process by rectification.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Meng, Qingqiang; Shu, Fan; Ye, Zhengfang

    2013-01-01

    Waste sulfuric acid is a byproduct generated from numerous industrial chemical processes. It is essential to remove the impurities and recover the sulfuric acid from the waste acid. In this study the rectification method was introduced to recover high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid generated in toluene nitration process by using rectification column. The waste acid quality before and after rectification were evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, GC/MS, HPLC and other physical and chemical analysis. It was shown that five nitro aromatic compounds in the waste acid were substantially removed and high purity sulfuric acid was also recovered in the rectification process at the same time. The COD was removed by 94% and the chrominance was reduced from 1000° to 1°. The recovered sulfuric acid with the concentration reaching 98.2 wt% had a comparable quality with commercial sulfuric acid and could be recycled back into the toluene nitration process, which could avoid waste of resources and reduce the environmental impact and pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol in an aqueous waste stream by immobilized bacteria.

    PubMed

    Heitkamp, M A; Camel, V; Reuter, T J; Adams, W J

    1990-10-01

    Microbiological analyses of activated sludge reactors after repeated exposure to 100 mg of p-nitrophenol (PNP) per liter resulted in the isolation of three Pseudomonas species able to utilize PNP as a sole source of carbon and energy. Cell suspensions of the three Pseudomonas sp., designated PNP1, PNP2, and PNP3, mineralized 70, 60, and 45% of a 70-mg/liter dose of PNP in 24, 48, and 96 h, respectively. Mass-balance analyses of PNP residues for all three cultures showed that undegraded PNP was less than 1% (less than 50 micrograms); volatile metabolites, less than 1%; cell residues, 8.4 to 14.9%; and water-soluble metabolites, 1.2 to 6.7%. A mixed culture of all three PNP-degrading Pseudomonas sp. was immobilized by adsorption onto diatomaceous earth biocarrier in a 1.75-liter Plexiglas column. The column was aerated and exposed to a synthetic waste stream containing 629 to 2,513 mg of PNP per liter at flow rates of 2 to 15 ml/min. Chemical loading studies showed that the threshold concentration for acute toxicity of PNP to the immobilized bacteria was 2,100 to 2,500 mg/liter. Further studies at PNP concentrations of 1,200 to 1,800 mg/liter showed that greater than 99 and 91 to 99% removal of PNP was achieved by immobilized bacteria at flow rates of 10 and 12 ml/min, respectively. These values represent hydraulic retention times of 48 to 58 min and PNP removal rates of 0.99 to 1.1 mg/h per g of biocarrier at 25 degrees C under optimal conditions. This study shows the successful use of immobilized bacteria technology to remove high concentrations of PNP from aqueous waste streams.

  5. Sensitivity of stream basins in Shenandoah National Park to acid deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, D.D.; Dise, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    Six synoptic surveys of 56 streams that drain the Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, were conducted in cooperation with the University of Virginia to evaluate sensitivity of dilute headwater streams to acid deposition and to determine the degree of acidification of drainage basins. Flow-weighted alkalinity concentration of most streams is below 200 microequivalents per liter, which is considered the threshold of sensitivity. Streams draining resistant siliceous bedrocks have an extreme sensitivity (alkalinity below 20 microequivalents/L); those draining granite and granodiorite have a high degree of sensitivity (20 to 100 microequivalents/L); and streams draining metamorphosed volcanics have moderate to marginal sensitivity (100 to 200 microequivalents/L). A comparison of current stream water chemistry to that predicted by a model based on carbonic acid weathering reactions suggests that all basins in the Park shows signs of acidification by atmospheric deposition. Acidification is defined as a neutralization of stream water alkalinity and/or an increase in the base cation weathering rate. Acidification averages 50 microequivalents/L, which is fairly evenly distributed in the Park. However, the effects of acidification are most strongly felt in extremely sensitive basins, such as those underlain by the Antietam Formation, which have stream water pH values averaging 4.99 and a mineral acidity of 7 microequivalents/L. (USGS)

  6. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  7. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  8. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  9. Behavioral responses by migratory chum salmon to amino acids in natal stream water.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuzo; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We propose that amino acids in natal stream water have Important roles in Pacific salmon homing. This study hypothesized that amino acids found in natal stream water have a role in the ability of mature male chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) to home to the Osaru River (OR), Hokkaido, Japan. Behavioral experiments were conducted in a two-choice test tank using various combinations of control water (natural Toya Lake water; NLW and three artificial stream waters using amino acids: 1) artificial OR water (AOR); 2) AOR without L-glutamic acid, the major amino acid in OR water (AOR-E); and 3) artificial water matching another stream (ALS) that had much higher amino acid concentrations than OR. In behavioral tests, the fish did not select between AOR and AOR-E, but still chose AOR over NLW, AOR-E over NLW, and AOR over ALS. These results suggest that migratory male chum salmon respond to amino acid mixtures in their natal stream water and appear to be affected by multiple amino acids.

  10. NITRIC ACID RECPVERY FROM WASTE COLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A.S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acids ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of rutheniuim.

  11. Nitric acid recovery from waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.

  12. Novel Acid Catalysts from Waste-Tire-Derived Carbon: Application in Waste-to-Biofuel Conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Li, Yunchao; ...

    2017-06-21

    Many inexpensive biofuel feedstocks, including those containing free fatty acids (FFAs) in high concentrations, are typically disposed of as waste due to our inability to efficiently convert them into usable biofuels. Here we demonstrate that carbon derived from waste tires could be functionalized with sulfonic acid (-SO3H) to effectively catalyze the esterification of oleic acid or a mixture of fatty acids to usable biofuels. Waste tires were converted to hard carbon, then functionalized with catalytically active -SO3H groups on the surface through an environmentally benign process that involved the sequential treatment with L-cysteine, dithiothreitol, and H2O2. In conclusion, when benchmarkedmore » against the same waste-tire derived carbon material treated with concentrated sulfuric acid at 150 °C, similar catalytic activity was observed. Both catalysts could also effectively convert oleic acid or a mixture of fatty acids and soybean oil to usable biofuels at 65 °C and 1 atm without leaching of the catalytic sites.« less

  13. Optimization of the anaerobic treatment of a waste stream from an enhanced oil recovery process.

    PubMed

    Alimahmoodi, Mahmood; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the anaerobic treatment of a waste stream from an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. The treatment of a simulated waste water containing about 150 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and the saturation level of CO2 was evaluated. A two-step anaerobic system was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (30-40°C). The method of evolutionary operation EVOP factorial design was used to optimize pH, temperature and organic loading rate with the target parameters of CO2 reduction and CH4 production in the first reactor and TPH removal in the second reactor. The results showed 98% methanogenic removal of CO2 and CH4 yield of 0.38 L/gCOD in the first reactor and 83% TPH removal in the second reactor. In addition to enhancing CO2 and TPH removal and CH4 production, application of this method showed the degree of importance of the operational variables and their interactive effects for the two reactors in series. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological technologies for the removal of sulfur containing compounds from waste streams: bioreactors and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Jingying; Lin, Jian; Liu, Junxin

    2015-10-01

    Waste gases containing sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, thioethers, and mercaptan, produced and emitted from industrial processes, wastewater treatment, and landfill waste may cause undesirable issues in adjacent areas and contribute to atmospheric pollution. Their control has been an area of concern and research for many years. As alternative to conventional physicochemical air pollution control technologies, biological treatment processes which can transform sulfur compounds to harmless products by microbial activity, have gained in popularity due to their efficiency, cost-effectiveness and environmental acceptability. This paper provides an overview of the current biological techniques used for the treatment of air streams contaminated with sulfur compounds as well as the advances made in the past year. The discussion focuses on bioreactor configuration and design, mechanism of operation, insights into the overall biological treatment process, and the characterization of the microbial species present in bioreactors, their populations and their interactions with the environment. Some bioreactor case studies are also introduced. Finally, the perspectives on future research and development needs in this research area were also highlighted.

  15. Separation of heavy metals from industrial waste streams by membrane separation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yichu Huang; Koseoglu, S.S. . Engineering Biosciences Research Center)

    1993-01-01

    Industrial membrane technology is becoming increasingly attractive as a low-cost generic separation technique for volume reduction, recovery, and/or purification of the liquid phase and concentration and/or recovery of the contaminant or solute. It offers outstanding future potential in the reduction and/or recycling of hazardous pollutants from waste streams. Membrane separation technology may include: (1) commercial processes such as electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and ultrafiltration and (2) the development of hybrid processes such as liquid membranes, Donnan dialysis, and membrane bioreactor technology. Membrane separation technology as applied to waste treatment/reduction and environmental engineering problems has several advantages over conventional treatment processes. In contrast to distillation and solvent extraction membrane separation is achieved without a phase change and use of expensive solvents. The advantages of this technology are (1) low energy requirements; (2) small volumes of retentate that need to be handled; (3) selective removal of pollutants with the use of complexing agents and biocatalysts or by membrane surface modification; (4) the possibility for achieving zero discharge'' with reuse of product water, binding media and target, compounds; (5) continuous operation; (6) modular design without significant size limitations; (7) discrete membrane barrier to ensure physical separation of contaminants; and (8) minimal labor requirement.

  16. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H J H; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  17. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H. J. H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C. J. N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates. PMID:26937632

  18. Downstream Warming and Headwater Acidity May Diminish Coldwater Habitat in Southern Appalachian Mountain Streams

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, W. A; Sams, C.

    2015-01-01

    Stream-dwelling species in the U.S. southern Appalachian Mountains region are particularly vulnerable to climate change and acidification. The objectives of this study were to quantify the spatial extent of contemporary suitable habitat for acid- and thermally sensitive aquatic species and to forecast future habitat loss resulting from expected temperature increases on national forest lands in the southern Appalachian Mountain region. The goal of this study was to help watershed managers identify and assess stream reaches that are potentially vulnerable to warming, acidification, or both. To our knowledge, these results represent the first regional assessment of aquatic habitat suitability with respect to the combined effects of stream water temperature and acid-base status in the United States. Statistical models were developed to predict July mean daily maximum water temperatures and air-water temperature relations to determine potential changes in future stream water temperatures. The length of stream considered suitable habitat for acid- and thermally sensitive species, based on temperature and acid neutralizing capacity thresholds of 20°C and 50 μeq/L, was variable throughout the national forests considered. Stream length displaying temperature above 20°C was generally more than five times greater than the length predicted to have acid neutralizing capacity below 50 μeq/L. It was uncommon for these two stressors to occur within the same stream segment. Results suggested that species’ distributional shifts to colder, higher elevation habitats under a warming climate can be constrained by acidification of headwater streams. The approach used in this study can be applied to evaluate climate change impacts to stream water resources in other regions. PMID:26247361

  19. Downstream Warming and Headwater Acidity May Diminish Coldwater Habitat in Southern Appalachian Mountain Streams.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, T C; Sloat, M R; Sullivan, T J; Dolloff, C A; Hessburg, P F; Povak, N A; Jackson, W A; Sams, C

    2015-01-01

    Stream-dwelling species in the U.S. southern Appalachian Mountains region are particularly vulnerable to climate change and acidification. The objectives of this study were to quantify the spatial extent of contemporary suitable habitat for acid- and thermally sensitive aquatic species and to forecast future habitat loss resulting from expected temperature increases on national forest lands in the southern Appalachian Mountain region. The goal of this study was to help watershed managers identify and assess stream reaches that are potentially vulnerable to warming, acidification, or both. To our knowledge, these results represent the first regional assessment of aquatic habitat suitability with respect to the combined effects of stream water temperature and acid-base status in the United States. Statistical models were developed to predict July mean daily maximum water temperatures and air-water temperature relations to determine potential changes in future stream water temperatures. The length of stream considered suitable habitat for acid- and thermally sensitive species, based on temperature and acid neutralizing capacity thresholds of 20°C and 50 μeq/L, was variable throughout the national forests considered. Stream length displaying temperature above 20°C was generally more than five times greater than the length predicted to have acid neutralizing capacity below 50 μeq/L. It was uncommon for these two stressors to occur within the same stream segment. Results suggested that species' distributional shifts to colder, higher elevation habitats under a warming climate can be constrained by acidification of headwater streams. The approach used in this study can be applied to evaluate climate change impacts to stream water resources in other regions.

  20. Using imaging spectroscopy to map acidic mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Smith, K.S.; Clark, R.N.; Sutley, S.J.; Pearson, R.M.; Vance, J.S.; Hageman, P.L.; Briggs, P.H.; Meier, A.L.; Singleton, M.J.; Roth, S.

    2000-01-01

    The process of pyrite oxidation at the surface of mine waste may produce acidic water that is gradually neutralized as it drains away from the waste, depositing different Fe-bearing secondary minerals in roughly concentric zones that emanate from mine-waste piles. These Fe-bearing minerals are indicators of the geochemical conditions under which they form. Airborne and orbital imaging spectrometers can be used to map these mineral zones because each of these Fe-bearing secondary minerals is spectrally unique. In this way, imaging spectroscopy can be used to rapidly screen entire mining districts for potential sources of surface acid drainage and to detect acid producing minerals in mine waste or unmined rock outcrops. Spectral data from the AVIRIS instrument were used to evaluate mine waste at the California Gulch Superfund Site near Leadville, CO. Laboratory leach tests of surface samples show that leachate pH is most acidic and metals most mobile in samples from the inner jarosite zone and that leachate pH is near-neutral and metals least mobile in samples from the outer goethite zone.

  1. Waste acid recycling via diffusion dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.

    1995-05-26

    Inorganic acids are commonly used for surface cleaning and finishing of metals. The acids become unuseable due to contamination with metals or diluted and weakened. Diffusion dialysis has become a way to recover the useable acid and allow separation of the metals for recovery and sale to refineries. This technique is made possible by the use of membranes that are strong enough to withstand low ph and have long service life.

  2. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, T.L.; Wilson, J.M.; Ruhter, A.H.; Bonney, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics.

  3. The chemistry of iron, aluminum, and dissolved organic material in three acidic, metal-enriched, mountain streams, as controlled by watershed and in-stream processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    Several studies were conducted in three acidic, metal-enriched, mountain streams, and the results are discussed together in this paper to provide a synthesis of watershed and in-stream processes controlling Fe, Al, and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) concentrations. One of the streams, the Snake River, is naturally acidic; the other two, Peru Creek and St. Kevin Gulch, receive acid mine drainage. Analysis of stream water chemistry data for the acidic headwaters of the Snake River shows that some trace metal solutes (Al, Mn, Zn) are correlated with major ions, indicating that watershed processes control their concentrations. Once in the stream, biogeochemical processes can control transport if they occur over time scales comparable to those for hydrologic transport. Examples of the following in-stream reactions are presented: (1) photoreduction and dissolution of hydrous iron oxides in response to an experimental decrease in stream pH, (2) precipitation of Al at three stream confluences, and (3) sorption of dissolved organic material by hydrous iron and aluminum oxides in a stream confluence. The extent of these reactions is evaluated using conservative tracers and a transport model that includes storage in the substream zone.

  4. Chemical pollution and toxicity of water samples from stream receiving leachate from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, A; Kuklińska, K; Wolska, L; Namieśnik, J

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the impact of municipal waste landfill on the pollution level of surface waters, and to investigate whether the choice and number of physical and chemical parameters monitored are sufficient for determining the actual risk related to bioavailability and mobility of contaminants. In 2007-2012, water samples were collected from the stream flowing through the site at two sampling locations, i.e. before the stream׳s entry to the landfill, and at the stream outlet from the landfill. The impact of leachate on the quality of stream water was observed in all samples. In 2007-2010, high values of TOC and conductivity in samples collected down the stream from the landfill were observed; the toxicity of these samples was much greater than that of samples collected up the stream from the landfill. In 2010-2012, a significant decrease of conductivity and TOC was observed, which may be related to the modernization of the landfill. Three tests were used to evaluate the toxicity of sampled water. As a novelty the application of Phytotoxkit F™ for determining water toxicity should be considered. Microtox(®) showed the lowest sensitivity of evaluating the toxicity of water samples, while Phytotoxkit F™ showed the highest. High mortality rates of Thamnocephalus platyurus in Thamnotoxkit F™ test can be caused by high conductivity, high concentration of TOC or the presence of compounds which are not accounted for in the water quality monitoring program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory EnergyX Macroencapsulated Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream (B LAMACRONCAP, Revision 1) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is macroencapsulated mixed waste generated during research laboratory operations and maintenance (LLNL 2015). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H), cobalt-60 (60Co), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015).The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the waste stream in a SLB trench. Addition of the LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated inventory slightly increases multiple performance assessment results, with the largest relative increase occurring for the all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The maximum mean and 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  6. Mixed food waste as renewable feedstock in succinic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Mingji; Qi, Qingsheng; Gao, Cuijuan; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-11-01

    Mixed food waste, which was directly collected from restaurants without pretreatments, was used as a valuable feedstock in succinic acid (SA) fermentation in the present study. Commercial enzymes and crude enzymes produced from Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were separately used in hydrolysis of food waste, and their resultant hydrolysates were evaluated. For hydrolysis using the fungal mixture comprising A. awamori and A. oryzae, a nutrient-complete food waste hydrolysate was generated, which contained 31.9 g L(-1) glucose and 280 mg L(-1) free amino nitrogen. Approximately 80-90 % of the solid food waste was also diminished. In a 2.5 L fermentor, 29.9 g L(-1) SA was produced with an overall yield of 0.224 g g(-1) substrate using food waste hydrolysate and recombinant Escherichia coli. This is comparable to many similar studies using various wastes or by-products as substrates. Results of this study demonstrated the enormous potential of food waste as renewable resource in the production of bio-based chemicals and materials via microbial bioconversion.

  7. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-08-14

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303.

  8. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

  9. PERSISTENT EPISODIC ACIDIFICATION OF STREAMS LINKED TO ACID RAIN EFFECTS ON SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indic...

  10. PERSISTENT EPISODIC ACIDIFICATION OF STREAMS LINKED TO ACID RAIN EFFECTS ON SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indic...

  11. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1986-01-01

    A method of immobilizing boric acid liquid wastes containing radionuclides by neutralizing the solution and evaporating the resulting precipitate to near dryness. The dry residue is then fused into a reduced volume, insoluble, inert, solid form containing substantially all the radionuclides.

  12. Performance catalytic ozonation over the carbosieve in the removal of toluene from waste air stream.

    PubMed

    Samarghandi, Mohammad Reza; Babaee, Seyed Alireza; Ahmadian, Mohammad; Asgari, Ghorban; Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Poormohammadi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Toluene is a volatile organic compound, one of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and the most important pollutant found in most industries and indoor environments; owing to its adverse health, toluene must be treated before being released into the environment. In this research study, a continuous-flow system (including an air compressor, silica gel filters and activated charcoal, impinger, an ozone generation and a fixed bed reactor packed with the carbosieve in size 1.8-2.3 mm, specific surface: 972 m2/g,) was used. This glass reactor was 0.7 m in height; at a distance of 0.2 m from its bottom, a mesh plane was installed so as to hold the adsorbent. Moreover, 3 l/min oxygen passed through this system, 0.43 g/h ozone was prepared. The flow rate of waste airstream was 300 ml/min. The efficiency of this system for removal of toluene was compared under the same experimental conditions. Under similar conditions, performance of catalytic ozonation was better in toluene removal than that of ozonation and carbosieve alone. On average, increasing the removal efficiency was 45% at all concentrations. When carbosieve and ozone come together, their synergistic effects increased on toluene degradation. Catalytic ozonation is a suitable, high-efficient and available method for removing toluene from various concentrations of waste air stream. This process due to the short contact time, low energy consuming and making use of cheap catalysts can be used as a novel process for removing various concentrations of volatile organic compounds.

  13. Effects of remediation on the bacterial community of an acid mine drainage impacted stream.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Suchismita; Moitra, Moumita; Woolverton, Christopher J; Leff, Laura G

    2012-11-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) represents a global threat to water resources, and as such, remediation of AMD-impacted streams is a common practice. During this study, we examined bacterial community structure and environmental conditions in a low-order AMD-impacted stream before, during, and after remediation. Bacterial community structure was examined via polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Also, bacterial abundance and physicochemical data (including metal concentrations) were collected and relationships to bacterial community structure were determined using BIO-ENV analysis. Remediation of the study stream altered environmental conditions, including pH and concentrations of some metals, and consequently, the bacterial community changed. However, remediation did not necessarily restore the stream to conditions found in the unimpacted reference stream; for example, bacterial abundances and concentrations of some elements, such as sulfur, magnesium, and manganese, were different in the remediated stream than in the reference stream. BIO-ENV analysis revealed that changes in pH and iron concentration, associated with remediation, primarily explained temporal alterations in bacterial community structure. Although the sites sampled in the remediated stream were in relatively close proximity to each other, spatial variation in community composition suggests that differences in local environmental conditions may have large impacts on the microbial assemblage.

  14. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 1. Synoptic survey design, acid-base status, and regional patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, P.R.; Herlihy, A.T.; Mitch, M.E.; Messer, J.J. ); Overton, W.S. )

    1991-04-01

    To assess the regional acid-base status of streams in the mid-Atlantic and southern US, spring base flow chemistry was surveyed in a probability sample of 500 stream reaches representing a population of 64,300 reaches (224,000 km). Approximately half of the streams had acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) {le} 200 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1}. Acidic (ANC {le} 0) streams were located in the highlands of the Mid-Atlantic region (southern New York to southern Virginia, 2,330 km), in coastal lowlands of the Mid-Atlantic (2,600 km), and in Florida (462 km). Acidic streams were rare (less than 1%) in the highlands of the Southeast. Inorganic monomeric aluminum (Al{sub im}) concentrations were highest in acidic streams of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands where over 70% of the acidic streams had Al{sub im} greater than 100 {mu}g L{sup {minus}1}, a concentration above which deleterious biological effects have frequently been reported. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations were much higher in lowland coastal streams, compared with inland streams. The authors data supports a hypothesis that atmospheric sources and watershed retention control regional patterns in streamwater sulfate concentrations. Most stream watersheds retain the vast majority of the total nitrogen loading from wet deposition. The data suggest, however, that some deposition nitrogen may be reaching streams in the Northern Appalachians.

  15. Immobilized cell reactors in mineralization of dicarboxylic acid solid waste.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ganesh Kumar; Somasundaram, Swarnalatha; Kassey, Victor Babu; Ganesan, Sekaran

    2006-12-01

    Dicarboxylic acid solid waste containing phthalic acid, malic acid, quinone, saturated and unsaturated dicarboxylic esters etc., are discharged in huge quantities during the crackdown of benzene over the catalyst vanadium at temperatures greater than 500 degrees C in a dicarboxylic acid manufacturing industry. Concern over the biological effects of these compounds underlines the necessity to treat this solid waste. The role of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and anaerobic mixed bacterial cultures immobilized in activated carbon, in sequential two stage anoxic reactors, were investigated for the degradation of dicarboxylic acid solid waste (DASW). In the first stage, DASW was dissolved in water to yield a concentration of 0.5% w/v and was treated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized reactor at an optimum residence time of 24 h. The yeast fermented samples were further treated in an upflow anaerobic reactor containing mixed culture immobilized in activated carbon at an Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of 0.2076 days at an hydraulic flow rate of 14.6x10(-3 )m(3)/day and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loading rate of 4.3 kg/m(3)/day. The intermediates that were formed during the yeast fermentation and the anaerobic degradation of DASW were characterized by HPLC, proton NMR, C(13) NMR and mass spectrometry.

  16. Ammonia removal in food waste anaerobic digestion using a side-stream stripping process.

    PubMed

    Serna-Maza, A; Heaven, S; Banks, C J

    2014-01-01

    Three 35-L anaerobic digesters fed on source segregated food waste were coupled to side-stream ammonia stripping columns and operated semi-continuously over 300 days, with results in terms of performance and stability compared to those of a control digester without stripping. Biogas was used as the stripping medium, and the columns were operated under different conditions of temperature (55, 70, 85 °C), pH (unadjusted and pH 10), and RT (2-5 days). To reduce digester TAN concentrations to a useful level a high temperature (≥70 °C) and a pH of 10 were needed; under these conditions 48% of the TAN was removed over a 138-day period without any detrimental effects on digester performance. Other effects of the stripping process were an overall reduction in digestate organic nitrogen-containing fraction compared to the control and a recovery in the acetoclastic pathway when TAN concentration was 1770±20 mg kg(-1).

  17. Pharmaceutical contamination in residential, industrial, and agricultural waste streams: risk to aqueous environments in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2008-12-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the occurrence of antibiotics, hormones and other pharmaceuticals in water sites that have major potential for downstream environmental contamination. These include residential (hospitals, sewage treatment plants, and regional discharges), industrial (pharmaceutical production facilities), and agricultural (animal husbandries and aquacultures) waste streams. We assayed 23 Taiwanese water sites for 97 targeted compounds, of which a significant number were detected and quantified. The most frequently detected compounds were sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen, followed closely by cephalexin, ofloxacin, and diclofenac, which were detected in >91% of samples and found to have median (maximum) concentrations of 0.2 (5.8), 0.39 (24.0), 0.02 (100.4), 0.41 (14.5), 0.15 (31.4), 0.14 (13.6) and 0.083 (29.8) microg/L, respectively. Lincomycin and acetaminophen had high measured concentrations (>100 microg/L), and 35 other pharmaceuticals occurred at the microg/L level. These incidence and concentration results correlate well with published data for other worldwide locations, as well as with Taiwanese medication usage data, suggesting a human contamination source. Many pharmaceuticals also occurred at levels exceeding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), warranting further investigation of their occurrence and fate in receiving waters, as well as the overall risks they pose for local ecosystems and human residents. The information provided here will also be useful for development of strategies for regulation and remediation.

  18. Fractionation and Purification of Bioactive Compounds Obtained from a Brewery Waste Stream

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Pocheville, Ainara; Angulo, Inmaculada; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto; Cruz, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    The brewery industry generates waste that could be used to yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. We compared two methods of purifying the crude extract—solid-phase extraction (SPE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)—with the aim of improving the quality of the final extract for potential use as safe food additive, functional food ingredient, or nutraceutical. The predominant fractions yielded by SPE were the most active, and the fraction eluted with 30% (v/v) of methanol displayed the highest antioxidant activity (0.20 g L−1), similar to that of BHA. The most active fraction yielded by SFE (EC50 of 0.23 g L−1) was obtained under the following conditions: temperature 40°C, pressure 140 bar, extraction time 30 minutes, ethanol (6%) as a modifier, and modifier flow 0.2 mL min−1. Finally, we found that SFE is the most suitable procedure for purifying the crude extracts and improves the organoleptic characteristics of the product: the final extract was odourless, did not contain solvent residues, and was not strongly coloured. Therefore, natural extracts obtained from the residual stream and purified by SFE can be used as natural antioxidants with potential applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23762844

  19. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, 'Ken-Flote' column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  20. Novel fungal consortium for bioremediation of metals and dyes from mixed waste stream.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree

    2014-11-01

    The present study is targeted towards development of a three member fungal consortium for effective removal of metals [Cr(6+) and Cu(2+)] and dyes [AB and PO] from mixed waste streams. Initial studies using individual fungal strain showed that Aspergillus lentulus was best for Cu(2+) and AB removal, Aspergillus terreus for Cr(6+) removal whereas, Rhizopus oryzae was best for PO removal. Based on the complementary pollutant affinities and positive interactions, a consortium comprising all three strains was developed. Consortium removed 100% Cr(6+) and 81.60% Cu(2+) from metal mixture which was significantly higher than that achieved individually by A. lentulus (Cr(6+): 83.11%; Cu(2+): 67.32%), A. terreus (Cr(6+): 95.57%; Cu(2+): 65.77%) or R. oryzae (Cr(6+): 25.34%; Cu(2+): 30.20%). Further, 98.0% AB and 100.0% PO was removed after 48 h by the consortia. Unlike individual strains, consortium's performance was unaltered irrespective of the complexity of metal-dye mixtures, thereby establishing its superiority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote'' column flotation to recover clean coal with minimum sulfur and ash content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. This project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance to rejection of liberated ash and pyritic sulfur. During this contract period, column flotation testing was conducted on the flotation feed slurry obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant. The column flotation tests were conducted using three different bubble generating devices: static, gas saver and foam jet spargers. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column operating variables to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. In general, the column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 4--6 percent ash at combustible recovery ranging from 88 to 92 percent. 10 figs.

  2. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote column flotation to maximize BTU recovery with minimum product sulfur and ash content from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. The project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance the rejection of liberated ash and pyrite. During this contract period, samples were obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant and characterized. Analysis of the flotation feed slurry indicate that a significant amount of pyrite is present in the 5 microns size range as free particles. The coal is hydrophobic in nature and optimum reagent addition is 0.75 lb/ton frother and 1.5 lb/ton fuel oil. The best flotation results were obtained near pH 6 for all frothers tested. Two ash depressants tested showed no significant improvement in ash rejection. A pyrite depressant was also tested which indicated improved pyrite rejection from 28 to 37 percent at a dosage of 5 lb/ton. Efforts are in progress to design a test matrix to determine optimum operating conditions for column flotation testing with this substrate. The test matrixes will be designed to investigate three different bubble generating mechanisms. The objective is to identify column operating variables that will provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-04-05

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents, selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 87 figures.

  4. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents, selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  5. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  6. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-10-25

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

  7. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1993-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1094 - What waste streams are exempt from the requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Ethylene Manufacturing Process Units: Heat Exchange... process fluids. (b) Waste that is contained in a segregated storm water sewer system. Waste Requirements ...

  9. Coupling of hydrologic transport and chemical reactions in a stream affected by acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, B.A.; Broshears, R.E.; Bencala, K.E.; McKnight, Diane M.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, examined the coupling of hydrologic transport to chemical reactions affecting metal concentrations. Injection of LiCl as a conservative tracer was used to determine discharge and residence time along a 1497-m reach. Transport of metals downstream from inflows of acidic, metal-rich water was evaluated based on synoptic samples of metal concentrations and the hydrologic characteristics of the stream. Transport of SO4 and Mn was generally conservative, but in the subreaches most affected by acidic inflows, transport was reactive. Both 0.1-??m filtered and particulate Fe were reactive over most of the stream reach. Filtered Al partitioned to the particulate phase in response to high instream concentrations. Simulations that accounted for the removal of SO4, Mn, Fe, and Al with first-order reactions reproduced the steady-state profiles. The calculated rate constants for net removal used in the simulations embody several processes that occur on a stream-reach scale. The comparison between rates of hydrologie transport and chemical reactions indicates that reactions are only important over short distances in the stream near the acidic inflows, where reactions occur on a comparable time scale with hydrologic transport and thus affect metal concentrations.

  10. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of an acidic stream draining a disused copper mine.

    PubMed

    Walton, K C; Johnson, D B

    1992-01-01

    Water samples draining a disused copper mine (Parys Mountain) in Anglesey, North Wales, were analysed for distribution of acidophilic bacteria (iron oxidising and heterotrophic) and for changes in physicochemical composition along the length of the drainage stream. Ten samples were taken at regular distance intervals along a 1 km stretch from the source of the acid mine drainage. The stream remained highly acidic (pH < 2.8) although a slight decrease (0.6 pH unit) in acidity with distance from source was observed. Concentrations of most metals measured decreased with distance along the length of the stream, although some showed a gradual increase and others peaked at c. 200 m from source. Most dissolved iron was in the ferrous form in the upper reaches of the stream, but ferric iron became increasingly dominant downstream as a result of microbial oxidation. Although concentrations of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus were low in the acid mine drainage, they were not limiting rates of bacterial iron oxidation, which appeared to be limited more by temperature. The iron oxidising bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans were both isolated from all sampling sites, although their relative abundances varied; L. ferrooxidans accounted for 57% of all iron oxidising isolates. Numbers of iron oxidising bacteria decreased with distance from drainage source, in contrast to those of acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria which increased. The diversity of heterotrophic isolates also increased with distance. The relationship between the chemistry and microbiology of the stream is discussed.

  11. Influence of the contaminated wastes/soils on the geochemical characteristics of the Bodelhão stream waters and sediments from Panasqueira mine area, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Maria Manuela; Godinho, Berta; Magalhães, Maria Clara F.; Anjos, Carla; Santos, Erika

    2013-04-01

    Panasqueira is a famous Portuguese tin-tungsten mine operating more or less continuously since the end of the nineteenth century. This mine is located in the Central Iberian Zone, northwest of Castelo Branco, about 35 km from Fundão, being the greatest producer of tungsten in Europe. Panasqueira mine also produces copper and tin. The ore exploitation has caused huge local visual and chemical impact from the large waste tailings, together with water drainage from mine galleries, seepage and effluents from water plant treatment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the contaminated wastes and soils on the water and sediments characteristics of the Bodelhão stream. This stream crosses the mine area at the bottom of the main tailings, receiving sediments, seepage and drainage waters from wastes and/or soils developed on the waste materials which cover the host rocks (schists), and also from the water treatment plant. Waste materials contain different levels of hazardous chemical elements depending on their age and degree of weathering (mg/kg - As: 466-632; Cd: 2.6-4.2; Cu: 264-457; Zn: 340-456; W: 40-1310). Soils developed on old wastes (60-80 years old) are mainly silty loam, acidic (except one soil (pH 8.2) developed on waste materials covered by leakage mud from a pipe conducting effluent to a pond), with relatively high concentration of organic carbon (median 48.6 g/kg). The majority of soils are heavily contaminated in As (158-7790 mg/kg), Cd (0.6-138 mg/kg), Cu (51-4081 mg/kg), W (19-1450 mg/kg), and Zn (142-12300 mg/kg). The fraction of these elements extracted with DTPA solution, relatively to total concentration, varies from low to As (< 4%) to high, as for Cd (4-76%) or Zn (1.5-60%). Surface waters collected after the water treatment plant are less acidic (pH: 5.6-6.5) than those collected upper stream (pH 4.9) and showed high electric conductivity (up to 1.5 mS/cm), high concentrations of sulfate (618-1030 mg/L), and hazardous

  12. A simplified method for estimation of jarosite and acid-forming sulfates in acid mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C; Schumann, Russell C; Gerson, Andrea R; Levay, George

    2007-02-01

    In acid base accounting (ABA) estimates of acid mine wastes, the acid potential (AP) estimate can be improved by using the net carbonate value (NCV) reactive sulfide S method rather than total S assay methods but this does not give recovery of potentially acid producing ferrous and ferric sulfates present in many wastes. For more accurate estimation of AP, an effective, site-specific method to quantify acid sulfate salts, such as jarosite and melanterite, in waste rocks has been developed and tested on synthetic and real wastes. The SPOCAS (acid sulfate soils) methods have been modified to an effective, rapid method to speciate sulfate forms in different synthetic waste samples. A three-step sequential extraction procedure has been established. These steps are: (1) argon-purged water extraction (3 min) to extract soluble Fe(II) salts (particularly melanterite), epsomite and gypsum (<10 wt.%), (2) roasting at 550 degrees C (1 h) to remove sulfur from pyrite and other reactive sulfides, (3) HCl extraction (4 M, 30 min) for determination of jarosites. Products (solid and aqueous) have been characterized at each step including the jarosite decomposition process in Step 2 where temperature control is critical to avoid S loss. The sequential extraction procedure was used to quantitatively determine melanterite, epsomite, gypsum, pyrite and jarosite concentrations in a synthetic waste sample containing these mineral phases at 5 wt.% in quartz, and also tested using a tailings waste sample to quantitatively determine epsomite, gypsum and jarosite contents. The method is applicable to most waste samples including those with non-pyrite sulfides but for samples containing significant amounts of sulfur (>1 wt.% S) as copper sulfides, the second step of roasting needs to be excluded from the procedure with an increased time of 4 M HCl extraction to 16 h for jarosite determination.

  13. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 2, Site specific---California through Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provide site-specific information on DOE`s mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: eight California facilities which are Energy Technology engineering Center, General Atomics, General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, and Sandia national Laboratories; Grand Junction Project Office; Rocky Flats Plant; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory-Windsor Site; Pinellas Plant; Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard; Argonne National Laboratory-West; and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  14. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Mixed TRU Waste Streams: SR-W026-221F-HET-A through D

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-10-02

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for the heterogeneous debris mixed transuranic waste streams generated in the FB-Line after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997.

  15. Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Waste Disposal Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    overflow. Newport AAP Newport, IN Storage lagoon; Combined with other lagoon overflow wastewaters; dis - to river, charged to river. Radford AAP Radford...VA Vacuvim filtered; Combined with other $ landfilled. wastewaters; dis - charged to river. Volunteer AAP Chattanooga, TN Vacuum filtered; Double ion...Volpicelli, G., Caprio , V. and Santoro, L. (1982), "Development of a Process for Neutralizing Acid Wastewaters by Powdered Limestone," Enviro Technology

  16. Novel selective surface flow (SSF{sup TM}) membranes for the recovery of hydrogren from waste gas streams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.

    1995-08-01

    The waste streams are off-gas streams from various chemical/refinery operations. In Phase I, the architecture of the membrane and the separation device were defined and demonstrated. The system consists of a shell-and-tube separator in which the gas to be separated is fed to the tube side, the product is collected as high pressure effluent and the permeate constitutes the waste/fuel stream. Each tube, which has the membrane coated on the interior, does the separation. A multi- tube separator device containing 1 ft{sup 2} membrane area was built and tested. The engineering data were used for designing a process for hydrogen recovery from a fluid catalytic cracker off-gas stream. First-pass economics showed that overall cost for hydrogen production is reduced by 35% vs on-purpose production of hydrogen by steam- methane reforming. The hydrogen recovery process using the SSF membrane results in at least 15% energy reduction and significant decrease in CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions.

  17. Persistent episodic acidification of streams linked to acid rain effects on soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indicates that episodic acidification of streams in upland regions in the northeastern United States persists, and is likely to be much more widespread than chronic acidification. Depletion of exchangeable Ca in the mineral soil has decreased the neutralization capacity of soils and increased the role of the surface organic horizon in the neutralization of acidic soil water during episodes. Increased accumulation of N and S in the forest floor from decades of acidic deposition will delay the recovery of soil base status, and therefore, the elimination of acidic episodes, which is anticipated from decreasing emissions.

  18. Persistent episodic acidification of streams linked to acid rain effects on soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G. B.

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indicates that episodic acidification of streams in upland regions in the northeastern United States persists, and is likely to be much more widespread than chronic acidification. Depletion of exchangeable Ca in the mineral soil has decreased the neutralization capacity of soils and increased the role of the surface organic horizon in the neutralization of acidic soil water during episodes. Increased accumulation of N and S in the forest floor from decades of acidic deposition will delay the recovery of soil base status, and therefore, the elimination of acidic episodes, which is anticipated from decreasing emissions.

  19. Processing of wastes from lead/acid battery production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivianny, I. R.; Rusin, A. I.; Lata, V. A.; Khegay, L. D.; Nourjigitov, S. T.

    Experience in the recovery of scrap and wastes from lead/acid battery production suggests that an electrothermal method has good prospects. This process is characterized by a high degree of lead and antimony (approx 98%) extraction, by effective gas cleaning and dust collection, and by full dust returning to the furnace. The electrothermal method is also distinguished by the high reliability of electric furnaces, the useability of any type of secondary lead battery scrap and wastes, and the possibility of process mechanization and control. In this paper, a description is given of the main technical and economical factors of soda-reduction smelting in an electric furnace, a technological scheme for wastes recovery, and the charge composition and features of the process.

  20. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B; Passy, Sophia I

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification,' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  1. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Passy, Sophia I.

    2013-01-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  2. Geology-based method of assessing sensitivity of streams to acidic deposition in Charles and Anne Arundel Counties, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen C.; Bricker, Owen P.

    1991-01-01

    The report describes the results of a study to assess the sensitivity of streams to acidic deposition in Charles and Anne Arundel Counties, Maryland using a geology-based method. Water samples were collected from streams in July and August 1988 when streams were at base-flow conditions. Eighteen water samples collected from streams in Charles County, and 17 water samples from streams in Anne Arundel County were analyzed in the field for pH, specific conductance, and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC); 8 water samples from streams in Charles County were analyzed in the laboratory for chloride and sulfate concentrations. The assessment revealed that streams in these counties are sensitive to acidification by acidic deposition.

  3. Methodology of recent solid waste stream assessments and summary of current recycling endeavors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.

    1996-04-01

    Solid Waste Stream Assessments determine the components of given waste streams. An evaluation of findings allows components to be targeted for effective source reduction, reuse, or recycling. LLNL assessed 10% of its onsite dumpster locations (25 of 250). Dumpsters were selected based on location and surrounding facility use. Dumpster contents were sorted according to type into containers. The filled containers were weighed and photographed. The information was noted on field tabulation sheets. Dumpster locations, date of sort, sort categories, weight, and cubic yardage were entered into a database for review and tabulation. LLNL sorted approximately 7000 pounds of waste in each of the two assessments. A high incidence of cardboard (uncompacted) was present in most dumpsters. A high incidence of polystyrene was also present at dumpsters serving the LLNL cafeterias. Very little glass or aluminium was found. Enough waste paper was present to indicate that the paper recycling program needed increased employee awareness and a possible expansion. As a result of our assessments, LLNL has expanded its cardboard and paper recycling programs and implemented moving box and pallet reuse programs. LLNL is also studying a possible recycling program for cafeteria polystyrene and possible program expansions for magazine, newsprint, and glass recycling.

  4. Impact of Unconventional Shale Gas Waste Water Disposal on Surficial Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzarelli, I.; Akob, D.; Mumford, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    The development of unconventional natural gas resources has been rapidly increasing in recent years, however, the environmental impacts and risks are not yet well understood. A single well can generate up to 5 million L of produced water (PW) consisting of a blend of the injected fluid and brine from a shale formation. With thousands of wells completed in the past decade, the scope of the challenge posed in the management of this wastewater becomes apparent. The USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program is studying both intentional and unintentional releases of PW and waste solids. One method for the disposal of PW is underground injection; we are assessing the potential risks of this method through an intensive, interdisciplinary study at an injection disposal facility in the Wolf Creek watershed in WV. Disposal of PW via injection begun in 2002, with over 5.5 mil. L of PW injected to date. The facility consists of the injection well, a tank farm, and two former holding ponds (remediated in early 2014) and is bordered by two small tributaries of Wolf Creek. Water and sediments were acquired from these streams in June 2014, including sites upstream, within, and downstream from the facility. We are analyzing aqueous and solid phase geochemistry, mineralogy, hydrocarbon content, microbial community composition, and potential toxicity. Field measurements indicated that conductivity downstream (416 μS/cm) was elevated in comparison to upstream (74 μS/cm) waters. Preliminary data indicated elevated Cl- (115 mg/L) and Br- (0.88 mg/L) concentrations downstream, compared to 0.88 mg/L Cl- and <0.03 mg/L Br- upstream of the facility. Because elevated TDS is a marker of PW, these data provide a first indication that PW from the facility is impacting nearby streams. In addition, total Fe concentrations downstream were 8.1 mg/L, far in excess of the 0.13 mg/L found upstream from the facility, suggesting the potential for microbial Fe cycling. We are conducting a broad suite of

  5. Reactive iron transport in an acidic mountain stream in Summit County, Colorado: A hydrologic perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    A pH perturbation experiment was conducted in an acidic, metal-enriched, mountain stream to identify relative rates of chemical and hydrologic processes as they influence iron transport. During the experiment the pH was lowered from 4.2 to 3.2 for three hours by injection of sulfuric acid. Amorphous iron oxides are abundant on the streambed, and dissolution and photoreduction reactions resulted in a rapid increase in the dissolved iron concentration. The increase occurred simultaneously with the decrease in pH. Ferrous iron was the major aqueous iron species. The changes in the iron concentration during the experiment indicate that variation exists in the solubility properties of the hydrous iron oxides on the streambed with dissolution of at least two compartments of hydrous iron oxides contributing to the iron pulse. Spatial variations of the hydrologic properties along the stream were quantified by simulating the transport of a coinjected tracer, lithium. A simulation of iron transport, as a conservative solute, indicated that hydrologie transport had a significant role in determining downstream changes in the iron pulse. The rapidity of the changes in iron concentration indicates that a model based on dynamic equilibrium may be adequate for simulating iron transport in acid streams. A major challenge for predictive solute transport models of geochemical processes may be due to substantial spatial and seasonal variations in chemical properties of the reactive hydrous oxides in such streams, and in the physical and hydrologic properties of the stream. ?? 1989.

  6. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  7. Mercury speciation and microbial transformations in mine wastes, stream sediments, and surface waters at the Almaden Mining District, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Hines, Mark E.; Higueras, Pablo L.; Adatto, Isaac; Lasorsa, Brenda K.

    2004-01-01

    Speciation of Hg and conversion to methyl-Hg were evaluated in mine wastes, sediments, and water collected from the Almade??n District, Spain, the world's largest Hg producing region. Our data for methyl-Hg, a neurotoxin hazardous to humans, are the first reported for sediment and water from the Almade??n area. Concentrations of Hg and methyl-Hg in mine waste, sediment, and water from Almade??n are among the highest found at Hg mines worldwide. Mine wastes from Almade??n contain highly elevated Hg concentrations, ranging from 160 to 34 000 ??g/g, and methyl-Hg varies from <0.20 to 3100 ng/g. Isotopic tracer methods indicate that mine wastes at one site (Almadenejos) exhibit unusually high rates of Hg-methylation, which correspond with mine wastes containing the highest methyl-Hg concentrations. Streamwater collected near the Almade??n mine is also contaminated, containing Hg as high as 13 000 ng/L and methyl-Hg as high as 30 ng/L; corresponding stream sediments contain Hg concentrations as high as 2300 ??g/g and methyl-Hg concentrations as high as 82 ng/g. Several streamwaters contain Hg concentrations in excess of the 1000 ng/L World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard. Methyl-Hg formation and degradation was rapid in mines wastes and stream sediments demonstrating the dynamic nature of Hg cycling. These data indicate substantial downstream transport of Hg from the Almade??n mine and significant conversion to methyl-Hg in the surface environment.

  8. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. . Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote'' column flotation to recover clean coal with minimum sulfur and ash content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. The project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance the rejection of liberated ash and pyritic sulfur. During this contract period, column flotation testing was completed on the flotation feed slurry obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant. The column flotation tests were conducted using three different bubble generating devices: Static, gas saver and foam jet spargers. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column operating variables to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. In general, the column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 4--6 percent ash at combustible recovery ranging from 88 to 92 percent while pyrite rejection was 70 to 75 percent. Flotation tests were also conducted on a slurry sample obtained from The Ziegler {number sign}26 Preparation Plant in Sesse, Illinois. Base-line flotation testing was completed using batch flotation to identify optimum reagent addition. Column flotation of the Ziegler slurry provided a clean coal containing 4--6 percent ash with a combustible recovery of 90--95 percent and pyrite rejection of 60--67 percent. Efforts are in progress in installing a 6-inc. I.D. pilot column at the Ziegler {number sign}26. 9 figs.

  9. Development of pervaporation to recover and reuse volatile organic compounds from industrial waste streams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.; Athayde, A.L.; Daniels, R.; Le, M.; Pinnau, I.; Ly, J.H.; Wijmans, J.G.; Kaschemekat, J.H.; Helm, V.D.

    1997-03-01

    Objective was to demonstrate use of pervaporation, a new membrane technology, as an efficient, low-cost method of recovering dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water and to commercialize this technology. MTR`s industrial commercialization partner, Hoechst Celanese, allowed the project to move rapidly with both demonstration work and precommercial business planning. However, in Dec. 1996 the technology was returned to MT. To date, two systems were sold: one for a wastewater application, the other for removing off flavors from soup stock. Two other customers did extensive field tests and are expected to purchase systems in 1997. This report describes the development of pervaporation membranes and modules at MT. A study was performed with these membrane modules to determine the parameters governing membrane performance. Laboratory data were integrated into the design of several pervaporation demonstration systems, which were operated in the laboratory and at field sites. Results of two of these field trials (benzene/toluene/ethylbenzene/xylenes removal from evaporator condensate water produced by a natural gas glycol dehydration unit at a PG&E gas processing plant, and chlorinated solvent removal from contaminated groundwater at Pinellas) are reported. Economic analysis shows that pervaporation is cheaper than steam stripping for treating water containing highly VOCs such as toluene or TCE up to flow rates of 100-200 gpm. For moderately VOCs such as acetone or methylene chloride, pervaporation is cheaper for streams < 10-20 gpm. Market studies suggest that by 2010 pervaporation will realize energy savings of 81x10{sup 12} Btu and waste reduction of 0.54x10{sup 6} tons VOCs; benefits include lower CO{sub 2} emissions because of less destruction of VOCs by incineration. Also, raw material costs for the chemical industry will be reduced with the recovered VOCs. Industries will be less likely to move overseas due to increased wastewater regulation in US.

  10. Relationships between stream acid anion-base cation chemistry and watershed soil types on the Allegheny high plateau

    Treesearch

    Gregory P. Lewis

    1999-01-01

    The leaching of calcium and magnesium from forests by atmospherically-deposited strong acid anions (sulfate and nitrate) is evidenced in some watersheds by the positive correlation in stream water between concentrations of these base cations and acid anions.

  11. Approach of technical decision-making by element flow analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation of municipal solid waste stream.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bao-Guo; Si, Ji-Tao; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the procedure and methodology which can be used to select the optimal treatment and disposal technology of municipal solid waste (MSW), and to provide practical and effective technical support to policy-making, on the basis of study on solid waste management status and development trend in China and abroad. Focusing on various treatment and disposal technologies and processes of MSW, this study established a Monte-Carlo mathematical model of cost minimization for MSW handling subjected to environmental constraints. A new method of element stream (such as C, H, O, N, S) analysis in combination with economic stream analysis of MSW was developed. By following the streams of different treatment processes consisting of various techniques from generation, separation, transfer, transport, treatment, recycling and disposal of the wastes, the element constitution as well as its economic distribution in terms of possibility functions was identified. Every technique step was evaluated economically. The Mont-Carlo method was then conducted for model calibration. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out to identify the most sensitive factors. Model calibration indicated that landfill with power generation of landfill gas was economically the optimal technology at the present stage under the condition of more than 58% of C, H, O, N, S going to landfill. Whether or not to generate electricity was the most sensitive factor. If landfilling cost increases, MSW separation treatment was recommended by screening first followed with incinerating partially and composting partially with residue landfilling. The possibility of incineration model selection as the optimal technology was affected by the city scale. For big cities and metropolitans with large MSW generation, possibility for constructing large-scale incineration facilities increases, whereas, for middle and small cities, the effectiveness of incinerating waste decreases.

  12. Downstream Warming and Headwater Acidity May Diminish Coldwater Habitat in Southern Appalachian Mountain Streams

    Treesearch

    T. C. McDonnell; M. R. Sloat; T. J. Sullivan; C. A. Dolloff; P. F. Hessburg; N. A. Povak; W. A Jackson; C. Sams

    2015-01-01

    Stream-dwelling species in the U.S. southern Appalachian Mountains region are particularly vulnerable to climate change and acidification. The objectives of this study were to quantify the spatial extent of contemporary suitable habitat for acid- and thermally sensitive aquatic species and to forecast future habitat loss resulting from expected temperature increases on...

  13. Characterization of past and present waste streams from the 325 Radiochemistry Building

    SciTech Connect

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize, as far as possible, the solid waste generated by the 325 Radiochemistry Building since its construction in 1953. Solid waste as defined in this document is any containerized or self-contained material that has been declared waste. This characterization is of particular interest in the planning of transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations including the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility. Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) activities at Building 325 have generated approximately 4.4% and 2.4%, respectively, of the total volume of TRU waste currently stored at the Hanford Site.

  14. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  15. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  16. Organic waste compounds in streams: Occurrence and aquatic toxicity in different stream compartments, flow regimes, and land uses in southeast Wisconsin, 2006–9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; Richards, Kevin D.; Geis, Steven W.; Magruder, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of organic chemicals and aquatic toxicity in streams located near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, indicated high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms that could be related to organic waste compounds (OWCs). OWCs used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewage overflows, among other sources. Many of these compounds are toxic at elevated concentrations and (or) known to have endocrine-disrupting potential, and often they occur as complex mixtures. There is still much to be learned about the chronic exposure effects of these compounds on aquatic populations. During 2006–9, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD), conducted a study to determine the occurrence and potential toxicity of OWCs in different stream compartments and flow regimes for streams in the Milwaukee area. Samples were collected at 17 sites and analyzed for a suite of 69 OWCs. Three types of stream compartments were represented: water column, streambed pore water, and streambed sediment. Water-column samples were subdivided by flow regime into stormflow and base-flow samples. One or more compounds were detected in all 196 samples collected, and 64 of the 69 compounds were detected at least once. Base-flow samples had the lowest detection rates, with a median of 12 compounds detected per sample. Median detection rates for stormflow, pore-water, and sediment samples were more than double that of base-flow samples. Compounds with the highest detection rates include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), insecticides, herbicides, and dyes/pigments. Elevated occurrence and concentrations of some compounds were detected in samples from urban sites, as compared with more rural sites, especially during stormflow conditions. These include the PAHs and the domestic waste

  17. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  18. Development of Spheroidal Inorganic Sorbents for Treatment of Acidic Salt-Bearing Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.

    2001-09-07

    A spheroidal composite inorganic sorbent was developed for U.S. Department of Energy-Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (USDOE-ESP) for potential use in removing radioactive cesium isotopes from acidic high-salt waste streams such as those at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate (ZrHP) embedded with fine powder of ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), was prepared using a unique internal gelation process which can be used to make porous reproducible microspheres that are structurally strong, have a low tendency for surface erosion, and improve the flow dynamics for column operations. Both ZrHP and AMP are excellent sorbent materials and, being inorganic, are stable in high radiation fields. AMP is a very effective sorbent for removing cesium from salt-bearing waste streams for a wide range of acidity. In the pH range of 2 to 10, ZrHP is also a very effective sorbent for removing Cs, Sr, Th, U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), Hg, and Pb from streams of lower ionic concentrations. Crucial to developing the spheroidal AMP-ZrHP sorbent was to determine the ideal weight percentage of AMP that could be embedded in the ZrHP microspheres in order to maintain the structural integrity of the microspheres and also achieve a good cesium separation. A total of 12 preparations were made. The dry weight percentage of AMP ranged from 30 to 60. Overall, the best composite microspheres prepared contained 50% AMP (by dry weight measurement). Another composite microsphere, which was composed of titanium monohydrogen phosphate (TiHP) embedded with 18 wt % (air-dried weight) potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (KCoCF) and developed for a different separations application, was also batch tested for comparison. It proved to be as effective in removing,the cesium as the air-dried AMP (50 wt %)-ZrHP. Granular KCoCF was also prepared and was very effective. Large samples of each of these materials were sent to

  19. Gas Generation and Hold-Up in Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Process Streams Containing Anti-Foam Agent (AFA)

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, Stuart T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Stewart, Charles W.; Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2007-06-29

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify defense wastes stored at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Some of the WTP process streams are slurries that exhibit non-Newtonian rheological behavior. Such streams can accumulate hazardous quantities of thermally and radiolytically generated flammable gases. Experiments were performed in a bubble column to measure gas hold-up under various conditions to better understand flammable gas behavior in WTP processes. The two non-Newtonian slurries tested were kaolin-bentonite clay and a chemical surrogate of pretreated high-level waste (HLW) from Hanford Tank AZ-101. The addition of solutes, whether a salt or anti-foaming agent (AFA) decrease the bubble coalescence rate leading to smaller bubbles, lower bubble rise velocity and higher gas holdup. Gas holdup decreased with increasing yield stress and consistency. The impact of AFA on gas holdup in kaolin-bentonite clay was less than in simulated HLW, presumably because the AFA adsorbed onto the clay particles, rendering it unavailable to retard coalescence.

  20. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Pippa J; Clark, Joanna M; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer.

  1. An evaluation of the effects of acid rain on low conductivity headwater streams in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.; Brown, Ann E.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of water collected at 32 sites on headwater streams in Pennsylvania during low-flow conditions in 1970-80 were compared to pre-1971 data to evaluate whether acid rain had changed the chemistry of the streams in the previous decade. Most pH, alkalinity, and sulfate values of the samples collected in 1970-80 fell within the ranges of values for samples collected before 1971. The limited data indicate, however, that pH may have increased and alkalinity and sulfate may have decreased with time.

  2. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  3. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  4. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  5. System and process for capture of acid gasses at elevated pressure from gaseous process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Linehan, John C.; Rainbolt, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.; Zheng, Feng

    2016-09-06

    A system, method, and material that enables the pressure-activated reversible chemical capture of acid gasses such as CO.sub.2 from gas volumes such as streams, flows or any other volume. Once the acid gas is chemically captured, the resulting product typically a zwitterionic salt, can be subjected to a reduced pressure whereupon the resulting product will release the captures acid gas and the capture material will be regenerated. The invention includes this process as well as the materials and systems for carrying out and enabling this process.

  6. Modeling acid mine drainage in waste rock dumps

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.

    1995-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) results from the oxidation of sulfides present in mine wastes. The acidity generated by these reactions creates conditions under which metals can be leached and represent a threat for surface and ground waters. Even though leachate collection and neutralization are used to treat the problem, the industry is looking for methods to predict and prevent the generation of AMD at new sites and control methods for sites already producing AMD. Waste rock dumps are generally very large accumulations of barren rocks extracted from open pits to access ore bodies. These rocks contain sulfides, most commonly pyrite, and often generate AMD at rates much higher than in mine tailings which are fine grained by-products of milling operations. Numerous coupled physical processes are involved in AMD production in waste rocks. Sulfide oxidation reactions are strongly exothermic and temperatures beyond 70{degrees}C have been measured in some dumps. That heat is transfered by conduction and fluid advection. Dumps have thick partly saturated zones through which gases flow under thermal gradients and water infiltrates. Oxygen is required by the oxidation reactions and is supplied by diffusion and advection. The reaction products are carried in solution in very concentrated leachates. Numerical modeling of AMD aims to (1) provide a better understanding of the physical processes involved in AMD, (2) allow the integration of available waste rock characterization data, (3) indicate new data or studies which are required to fill the gaps in our quantitative understanding of AMD processes, and (4) supply a tool for the prediction of AMD production, taking into account the impact of control methods. These objectives can only be met through sustained research efforts. This study is part of a wider research effort which as been on-going at La Mine Doyon since 1991.

  7. Preliminary results of sequential extraction experiments for selenium on mine waste and stream sediments from Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R.; Sanzolone, R.F.; Lamothe, P.J.; Brown, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the preliminary results of sequential partial dissolutions used to characterize the geochemical distribution of selenium in stream sediments, mine wastes, and flotation-mill tailings. In general, extraction schemes are designed to extract metals associated with operationally defined solid phases. Total Se concentrations and the mineralogy of the samples are also presented. Samples were obtained from the Elizabeth, Ely, and Pike Hill mines in Vermont, the Callahan mine in Maine, and the Martha mine in New Zealand. These data are presented here with minimal interpretation or discussion. Further analysis of the data will be presented elsewhere.

  8. Tellurite glass as a waste form for a simulated mixed chloride waste stream: Candidate materials selection and initial testing

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

    2012-02-02

    Tellurite glasses have been researched widely for the last 60 years since they were first introduced by Stanworth. These glasses have been primarily used in research applications as glass host materials for lasers and as non-linear optical materials, though many other uses exist in the literature. Tellurite glasses have long since been used as hosts for various, and even sometimes mixed, halogens (i.e., multiple chlorides or even chlorides and iodides). Thus, it was reasonable to expect that these types of glasses could be used as a waste form to immobilize a combination of mixed chlorides present in the electrochemical separations process involved with fuel separations and processing from nuclear reactors. Many of the properties related to waste forms (e.g., chemical durability, maximum chloride loading) for these materials are unknown and thus, in this study, several different types of tellurite glasses were made and their properties studied to determine if such a candidate waste form could be fabricated with these glasses. One of the formulations studied was a lead tellurite glass, which had a low sodium release and is on-par with high-level waste silicate glass waste forms.

  9. Determination of sulphuric acid in process effluent streams using sequential injection titration.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, H; van Staden, J F

    2000-05-31

    Sulphuric acid in process effluent streams from an electrorefining copper plant was analysed with a sequential injection (SI) titration system using sodium hydroxide as titrant. In the proposed SI titration system a base titrant, acid analyte and base titrant zone were injected sequentially into a distilled water carrier stream in a holding coil and swept by flow reversal through a reaction coil to the detector. The base zones contained bromothymol blue as indicator and the endpoint was monitored spectrophotometrically at 620 nm. The influence of carrier stream flow rate, acid and base zone volumes and titrant concentration on the linear range of the method was studied to obtain an optimum. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the acid concentration was obtained in the range 0.006-0.178 mol l(-1) of H(2)SO(4) for a NaOH concentration of 0.002 mol l(-1). The results obtained for the SI titration of process samples were in good agreement with a standard potentiometric method with an RSD<0.75% and a sample frequency of 23 samples h(-1).

  10. Soil calcium status and the response of stream chemistry to changing acidic deposition rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Burns, Douglas A.; Stoddard, J.L.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Porter, J.H.; Thompson, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a decreasing trend in acidic deposition rates over the past two to three decades, acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States have shown minimal changes. Depletion of soil Ca pools has been suggested as a cause, although changes in soil Ca pools have not been directly related to long-term records of stream chemistry. To investigate this problem, a comprehensive watershed study was conducted in the Neversink River Basin, in the Catskill Mountains of New York, during 1991-1996. Spatial variations of atmospheric deposition, soil chemistry, and stream chemistry were evaluated over an elevation range of 817-1234 m to determine whether these factors exhibited elevational patterns. An increase in atmospheric deposition of SO4 with increasing elevation corresponded with upslope decreases of exchangeable soil base concentrations and acid-neutralizing capacity of stream water. Exchangeable base concentrations in homogeneous soil incubated within the soil profile for one year also decreased with increasing elevation. An elevational gradient in precipitation was not observed, and effects of a temperature gradient on soil properties were not detected. Laboratory leaching experiments with soils from this watershed showed that (1) concentrations of Ca in leachate increased as the concentrations of acid anions in added solution increased, and (2) the slope of this relationship was positively correlated with base saturation. Field and laboratory soil analyses are consistent with the interpretation that decreasing trends in acid-neutralizing capacity in stream water in the Neversink Basin, dating back to 1984, are the result of decreases in soil base saturation caused by acidic deposition.

  11. Sensitivity of high-elevation streams in the Southern Blue Ridge Province to acidic deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Hudy, M.; Fowler, D.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Southern Blue Ridge Province, which encompasses parts of northern Georgia, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina, has been predicted to be sensitive to impacts from acidic deposition, owing to the chemical composition of the bedrock geology and soils. This study confirms the predicted potential sensitivity, quantifies the level of total alkalinity and describes the chemical characteristics of 30 headwater streams of this area. Water chemistry was measured five times between April 1983 and June 1984 at first and third order reaches of each stream during baseflow conditions. Sensitivity based on total alkalinity and the Calcite Saturation Index indicates that the headwater streams of the Province are vulnerable to acidification. Total alkalinity and p11 were generally higher in third order reaches (mean, 72 ?eq/? and 6.7) than in first order reaches (64 ?eq/? and 6.4). Ionic concentrations were low, averaging 310 and 340 ?eq/? in first and third order reaches, respectively. A single sampling appears adequate for evaluating sensitivity based on total alkalinity, but large temporal variability requires multiple sampling for the detection of changes in pH and alkalinity over time. Monitoring of stream water should continue in order to detect any subtle effects of acidic deposition on these unique resource systems.

  12. Quantitative ‘Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David. B.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. ‘Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the ‘Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining

  13. Quantitative 'Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. 'Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the 'Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining the

  14. Sorbent Testing for the Solidification of Organic Process Waste streams from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, J.; Foote, M.; Taylor, P.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating various sorbents to solidify the radioactive liquid organic waste from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). REDC recovers and purifies heavy elements (berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium) from irradiated targets for research and industrial applications. Both aqueous and organic waste streams are discharged from REDC. Organic waste is generated from the plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX), Cleanex, and Pubex processes.1 The PUREX waste derives from an organic-aqueous isotope separation process for plutonium and uranium fission products, the Cleanex waste derives from the removal of fission products and other impurities from the americium/curium product, and the Pubex waste is derived from the separation process of plutonium from dissolved targets. An aqueous waste stream is also produced from these separation processes. MSE has been tasked to test a grouting formula for the aqueous waste stream that includes specially formulated radioactive shielding materials developed by Science and Technology Applications, LLC. This paper will focus on the sorbent testing work. Based on work performed at Savannah River Site (SRS) (Refs. 1, 2), ORNL tested and evaluated three sorbents capable of solidifying the PUREX, Pubex, and Cleanex waste streams and a composite of the three organic waste streams: Imbiber Beads{sup R} IMB230301 (Imbiber Beads), Nochar A610 Petro Bond, and Petroset II Granular{sup TM} (Petroset II-G). Surrogates of the PUREX, Pubex, Cleanex, and a composite organic waste were used for the bench-scale testing. Recommendations resulting from the ORNL testing included follow-on testing by MSE for two of the three sorbents: Nochar Petro Bond and Petroset II-G. MSE recommended that another clay sorbent, Organoclay BM-QT-199, be added to the test sequence. The sorbent/surrogate combinations

  15. Removal and recovery of metal ions from process and waste streams using polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Kraus, K.M.; Thompson, J.A.

    1999-06-13

    Polymer Filtration (PF) is an innovative, selective metal removal technology. Chelating, water-soluble polymers are used to selectively bind the desired metal ions and ultrafiltration is used to concentrate the polymer-metal complex producing a permeate with low levels of the targeted metal ion. When applied to the treatment of industrial metal-bearing aqueous process streams, the permeate water can often be reused within the process and the metal ions reclaimed. This technology is applicable to many types of industrial aqueous streams with widely varying chemistries. Application of PF to aqueous streams from nuclear materials processing and electroplating operations will be described.

  16. Transport and cycling of iron and hydrogen peroxide in a freshwater stream: Influence of organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.T.; Runkel, R.L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Voelker, B.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Carraway, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    An in-stream injection of two dissolved organic acids (phthalic and aspartic acids) was performed in an acidic mountain stream to assess the effects of organic acids on Fe photoreduction and H2O2 cycling. Results indicate that the fate of Fe is dependent on a net balance of oxidative and reductive processes, which can vary over a distance of several meters due to changes in incident light and other factors. Solution phase photoreduction rates were high in sunlit reaches and were enhanced by the organic acid addition but were also limited by the amount of ferric iron present in the water column. Fe oxide photoreduction from the streambed and colloids within the water column resulted in an increase in the diurnal load of total filterable Fe within the experimental reach, which also responded to increases in light and organic acids. Our results also suggest that Fe(II) oxidation increased in response to the organic acids, with the result of offsetting the increase in Fe(II) from photoreductive processes. Fe(II) was rapidly oxidized to Fe(III) after sunset and during the day within a well-shaded reach, presumably through microbial oxidation. H2O 2, a product of dissolved organic matter photolysis, increased downstream to maximum concentrations of 0.25 ??M midday. Kinetic calculations show that the buildup of H2O2 is controlled by reaction with Fe(III), but this has only a small effect on Fe(II) because of the small formation rates of H2O2 compared to those of Fe(II). The results demonstrate the importance of incorporating the effects of light and dissolved organic carbon into Fe reactive transport models to further our understanding of the fate of Fe in streams and lakes.

  17. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  18. Remotely sensed and laboratory spectral signatures of an ocean-dumped acid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Collins, V. G.

    1977-01-01

    An ocean-dumped acid waste plume was studied by using a rapid scanning spectrometer to remotely measure ocean radiance from a helicopter. The results of these studies are presented and compared with results from sea truth samples and laboratory experiments. An ocean spectral reflectance signature and a laboratory spectral transmission signature were established for the iron-acid waste pollutant. The spectrally and chemically significant component of the acid waste pollutant was determined to be ferric iron.

  19. The mass flow and proposed management of bisphenol A in selected Norwegian waste streams.

    PubMed

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Morin, Nicolas A O; Hale, Sarah E; Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breivik, Knut; Sparrevik, Magnus

    2017-02-01

    Current initiatives for waste-handling in a circular economy favor prevention and recycling over incineration or landfilling. However, the impact of such a transition on environmental emissions of contaminants like bisphenol A (BPA) during waste-handling is not fully understood. To address this, a material flow analysis (MFA) was constructed for selected waste categories in Norway, for which the amount recycled is expected to increase in the future; glass, vehicle, electronic, plastic and combustible waste. Combined, 92tons/y of BPA are disposed of via these waste categories in Norway, with 98.5% associated with plastic and electronic waste. During the model year 2011, the MFA showed that BPA in these waste categories was destroyed through incineration (60%), exported for recycling into new products (35%), stored in landfills (4%) or released into the environment (1%). Landfilling led to the greatest environmental emissions (up to 13% of landfilled BPA), and incinerating the smallest (0.001% of incinerated BPA). From modelling different waste management scenarios, the most effective way to reduce BPA emissions are to incinerate BPA-containing waste and avoid landfilling it. A comparison of environmental and human BPA concentrations with CoZMoMAN exposure model estimations suggested that waste emissions are an insignificant regional source. Nevertheless, from monitoring studies, landfill emissions can be a substantial local source of BPA. Regarding the transition to a circular economy, it is clear that disposing of less BPA-containing waste and less landfilling would lead to lower environmental emissions, but several uncertainties remain regarding emissions of BPA during recycling, particularly for paper and plastics. Future research should focus on the fate of BPA, as well as BPA alternatives, in emerging reuse and recycling processes, as part of the transition to a circular economy.

  20. Succinic acid production on xylose-enriched biorefinery streams by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch fermentation

    DOE PAGES

    Salvachua, Davinia; Mohagheghi, Ali; Smith, Holly; ...

    2016-02-02

    Co-production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass alongside fuels holds promise for improving the economic outlook of integrated biorefineries. In current biochemical conversion processes that use thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, fractionation of hemicellulose-derived and cellulose-derived sugar streams is possible using hydrothermal or dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), which then offers a route to parallel trains for fuel and chemical production from xylose- and glucose-enriched streams. Succinic acid (SA) is a co-product of particular interest in biorefineries because it could potentially displace petroleum-derived chemicals and polymer precursors for myriad applications. Furthermore, SA production from biomass-derived hydrolysates has not yet been fully exploredmore » or developed.« less

  1. Selective reduction of Cr(VI) in chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) mixed waste streams using UV/TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shan; Jiang, Wenjun; Rashid, Mamun; Cai, Yong; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2015-02-03

    The highly toxic Cr(VI) is a critical component in the Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) formulations extensively employed as wood preservatives. Remediation of CCA mixed waste and discarded treated wood products is a significant challenge. We demonstrate that UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) in the presence of arsenate, As(V), and copper, Cu(II). The rapid conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis occurs over a range of concentrations, solution pH and at different Cr:As:Cu ratios. The reduction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and increases with decreasing solution pH. Saturation of the reaction solution with argon during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis had no significant effect on the Cr(VI) reduction demonstrating the reduction of Cr(VI) is independent of dissolved oxygen. Reduction of Cu(II) and As(V) does not occur under the photocatalytic conditions employed herein and the presence of these two in the tertiary mixtures had a minimal effect on Cr(VI) reduction. The Cr(VI) reduction was however, significantly enhanced by the addition of formic acid, which can act as a hole scavenger and enhance the reduction processes initiated by the conduction band electron. Our results demonstrate UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) in mixed waste streams under a variety of conditions.

  2. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in masonry cement. [Masonry cement-boric acid waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1987-03-01

    Portland cements are widely used as solidification agents for low-level radioactive wastes. However, it is known that boric acid wastes, as generated at pressurized water reactors (PWR's) are difficult to solidify using ordinary portland cements. Waste containing as little as 5 wt % boric acid inhibits the curing of the cement. For this purpose, the suitability of masonry cement was investigated. Masonry cement, in the US consists of 50 wt % slaked lime (CaOH/sub 2/) and 50 wt % of portland type I cement. Addition of boric acid in molar concentrations equal to or less than the molar concentration of the alkali in the cement eliminates any inhibiting effects. Accordingly, 15 wt % boric acid can be satisfactorily incorporated into masonry cement. The suitability of masonry cement for the solidification of sodium sulfate wastes produced at boiling water reactors (BWR's) was also investigated. It was observed that although sodium sulfate - masonry cement waste forms containing as much as 40 wt % Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ can be prepared, waste forms with more than 7 wt % sodium sulfate undergo catastrophic failure when exposed to an aqueous environment. It was determined by x-ray diffraction that in the presence of water, the sulfate reacts with hydrated calcium aluminate to form calcium aluminum sulfate hydrate (ettringite). This reaction involves a volume increase resulting in failure of the waste form. Formulation data were identified to maximize volumetric efficiency for the solidification of boric acid and sodium sulfate wastes. Measurement of some of the waste form properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment included leachability, compression strengths and chemical interactions between the waste components and masonry cement. 15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Hydrogen ion (H+) in waste acid as a driver for environmentally sustainable processes: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    German, Michael; SenGupta, Arup K; Greenleaf, John

    2013-03-05

    Acid-base neutralization reaction in the aqueous phase is thermodynamically favorable and kinetically fast. Waste acid neutralization is also the most common waste management practice globally. However, waste acid neutralization is yet to be used for any work/energy generation because of the low concentrations of the waste acid and the high heat capacity of aqueous solutions. In this paper, we address potential processes that can effectively take advantage of the high energy inherent in neutralization reactions, in accordance with the goal of sustainable development.

  4. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D R; Mayancsik, B A; Pottmeyer, J A; Vejvoda, E J; Reddick, J A; Sheldon, K M; Weyns, M I

    1993-02-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  5. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Mayancsik, B.A.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Reddick, J.A.; Sheldon, K.M.; Weyns, M.I.

    1993-02-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was

  7. Applying value stream mapping techniques to eliminate non-value-added waste for the procurement of endovascular stents.

    PubMed

    Teichgräber, Ulf K; de Bucourt, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    OJECTIVES: To eliminate non-value-adding (NVA) waste for the procurement of endovascular stents in interventional radiology services by applying value stream mapping (VSM). The Lean manufacturing technique was used to analyze the process of material and information flow currently required to direct endovascular stents from external suppliers to patients. Based on a decision point analysis for the procurement of stents in the hospital, a present state VSM was drawn. After assessment of the current status VSM and progressive elimination of unnecessary NVA waste, a future state VSM was drawn. The current state VSM demonstrated that out of 13 processes for the procurement of stents only 2 processes were value-adding. Out of the NVA processes 5 processes were unnecessary NVA activities, which could be eliminated. The decision point analysis demonstrated that the procurement of stents was mainly a forecast driven push system. The future state VSM applies a pull inventory control system to trigger the movement of a unit after withdrawal by using a consignment stock. VSM is a visualization tool for the supply chain and value stream, based on the Toyota Production System and greatly assists in successfully implementing a Lean system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural Versus Anthropogenic Remediation of Streams Impacted by Acid Mine Drainage in Southeast Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, T.; Lopez, D. L.

    2004-12-01

    Three streams that have been affected by acid mine drainage in southeast Ohio have been investigated (Sulphur Run in the Federal Creek watershed, Rock Run in the Monday Creek watershed, and Buffer Run in the Raccoon Creek watershed). Sulphur Run neutralizes acidic inputs naturally due to its strong buffering capacity acquired from water-rock interactions with the abundant carbonate lithology surrounding the stream. Rock Run and Buffer Run have been anthropogenically remediated using successive alkalinity producing wetlands, open limestone channels, and alkaline capping of adjacent coal refuse piles. The objective of this study is to compare the water quality evolution of the three streams. For this purpose, water and sediment samples were collected for chemical analysis and in-situ flow rate, alkalinity, acidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity were measured. Preliminary results reveal that the pH of Sulphur Run, which never drops below 6.7, increases steadily along the flow path. Downstream of the remediation sites, the pH of Rock Run and Buffer Run is always below 4 and declines along the flow path, possibly due to a combination of additional acidic inputs downstream from the main source and the oxidation of metals, leading to hydrolysis reactions that produce additional hydrogen protons. The net alkalinity of Sulphur Run increases steadily downstream, reflecting the effectiveness of a continuous supply of alkaline material at neutralizing acidic inputs. Both Buffer Run and Rock Run are net acidic, suggesting that armoring of the open limestone channels by metal precipitates is impeding the recovery of water quality. The early results indicate that remediation schemes that do not mimic nature by providing a long term, steady supply of alkaline material appear to be ineffective.

  9. Method for sequestering CO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 utilizing a plurality of waste streams

    DOEpatents

    Soong, Yee; Allen, Douglas E.; Zhu, Chen

    2011-04-12

    A neutralization/sequestration process is provided for concomitantly addressing capture and sequestration of both CO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 from industrial gas byproduct streams. The invented process concomitantly treats and minimizes bauxite residues from aluminum production processes and brine wastewater from oil/gas production processes. The benefits of this integrated approach to coincidental treatment of multiple industrial waste byproduct streams include neutralization of caustic byproduct such as bauxite residue, thereby decreasing the risk associated with the long-term storage and potential environmental of storing caustic materials, decreasing or obviating the need for costly treatment of byproduct brines, thereby eliminating the need to purchase CaO or similar scrubber reagents typically required for SO.sub.2 treatment of such gasses, and directly using CO.sub.2 from flue gas to neutralize bauxite residue/brine mixtures, without the need for costly separation of CO.sub.2 from the industrial byproduct gas stream by processes such as liquid amine-based scrubbers.

  10. Spatial and taxonomic variation in trace element bioaccumulation in two herbivores from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Mills, Gary L; Blas, Susan A; Vaun McArthur, J

    2014-03-01

    Dissimilarities in habitat use, feeding habits, life histories, and physiology can result in syntopic aquatic taxa of similar trophic position bioaccumulating trace elements in vastly different patterns. We compared bioaccumulation in a clam, Corbicula fluminea and mayfly nymph Maccaffertium modestum from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream. Collection sites differed in distance to contaminant sources, incision, floodplain activity, and sources of flood event water and organic matter. Contaminants variably accumulated in both sediment and biofilm. Bioaccumulation differed between species and sites with C. fluminea accumulating higher concentrations of Hg, Cs, Sr, Se, As, Be, and Cu, but M. modestum higher Pb and V. Stable isotope analyses suggested both spatial and taxonomic differences in resource use with greater variability and overlap between species in the more physically disturbed site. The complex but essential interactions between organismal biology, divergence in resource use, and bioaccumulation as related to stream habitat requires further studies essential to understand impacts of metal pollution on stream systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  12. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T.K.

    2011-02-01

    Acidic uranium (U) contaminated plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in-situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in-situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/y) show that desorption of U and HA were non-detectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH < 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results demonstrated that HA-treatment is a promising in-situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  13. Tranexamic Acid and Supportive Measures to Treat Wasting Marmoset Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Takuro; Niimi, Kimie; Takahashi, Eiki

    2016-01-01

    Wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS) has high incidence and mortality rates and is one of the most important problems in captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies. Despite several reports on WMS, little information is available regarding its reliable treatment. We previously reported that marmosets with WMS had high serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). MMP9 is thought to be a key enzyme in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, the main disease state of WMS, and is activated by plasmin, a fibrinolytic factor. In a previous study, treating mice with an antibody to inhibit plasmin prevented the progression of inflammatory bowel disease. Here we examined the efficacy of tranexamic acid, a commonly used plasmin inhibitor, for the treatment of WMS, with supportive measures including amino acid and iron formulations. Six colony marmosets with WMS received tranexamic acid therapy with supportive measures for 8 wk. The body weight, Hct, and serum albumin levels of these 6 marmosets were increased and serum MMP9 levels decreased after this regimen. Therefore, tranexamic acid therapy may be a new and useful treatment for WMS. PMID:28304250

  14. Reducing the solid waste stream: reuse and recycling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K. L.

    1997-08-01

    In Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) increased its solid waste diversion by 365 percent over FY 1992 in five solid waste categories - paper, cardboard, wood, metals, and miscellaneous. (LLNL`s fiscal year is from October 1 to September 30.) LLNL reused/ recycled 6,387 tons of waste, including 340 tons of paper, 455 tons of scrap wood, 1,509 tons of metals, and 3,830 tons of asphalt and concrete (Table1). An additional 63 tons was diverted from landfills by donating excess food, selling toner cartridges for reconditioning, using rechargeable batteries, redirecting surplus equipment to other government agencies and schools, and comporting plant clippings. LLNL also successfully expanded its demonstration program to recycle and reuse construction and demolition debris as part of its facility-wide, comprehensive solid waste reduction programs.

  15. PROCESS SIMULATION TOOLS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION: NEW METHODS REDUCE THE MAGNITUDE OF WASTE STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing environmental concerns have spurred considerable interest in pollution prevention. In most instances, pollution prevention involves introducing radical changes to the design of processes so that waste generation is minimized. Process simulators can be effective tools in a...

  16. PROCESS SIMULATION TOOLS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION: NEW METHODS REDUCE THE MAGNITUDE OF WASTE STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing environmental concerns have spurred considerable interest in pollution prevention. In most instances, pollution prevention involves introducing radical changes to the design of processes so that waste generation is minimized. Process simulators can be effective tools in a...

  17. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  18. Lactic acid fermentation of food waste for swine feed.

    PubMed

    Yang, S Y; Ji, K S; Baik, Y H; Kwak, W S; McCaskey, T A

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus salivarius) inoculation on the microbial, physical and chemical properties of food waste mixture (FWM) stored at ambient temperature (25 degrees C) for 10 and 30 days. A complete pig diet including restaurant food waste, bakery by-product, barley and wheat bran, and broiler poultry litter was amended with LAB at the levels of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0% and fermented anaerobically. These treatments were compared with intact FWM before storage and non-anaerobically stored FWM. Non-anaerobic storage of FWM showed microbial putrefaction with the loss (P < 0.05) of water and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and increases (P < 0.005) in protein and fiber. Anaerobic fermentation of FWM with or without LAB seemed effective in both 10- and 30-day-storage. The addition of LAB inoculants to FWM showed a linear trend (P < 0.05) toward an increase in the number of total and lactic acid bacteria and toward the nutritional improvement with WSC increased and fiber decreased. Long-term (30 days) storage resulted in consistent reduction (P < 0.05) in numbers of total and lactic acid bacteria and pH and showed little change in chemical components, compared with short-term (10 days) storage. On the basis of these results, LAB inoculation improved fermentative characteristics of FWM. Among anaerobic treatments, further WSC increase and NDF reduction did not occur (P > 0.05) when LAB-added levels were over 0.2%. Based on these observations the optimum level of LAB addition to FWM was 0.2%.

  19. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

  20. Reaction kinetics of waste sulfuric acid using H2O2 catalytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiade; Hong, Binxun; Tong, Xinyang; Qiu, Shufeng

    2016-12-01

    The process of recovering waste sulfuric acids using H2O2 catalytic oxidation is studied in this paper. Activated carbon was used as catalyst. Main operating parameters, such as temperature, feed rate of H2O2, and catalyst dosage, have effects on the removal of impurities from waste sulfuric acids. The reaction kinetics of H2O2 catalytic oxidation on impurities are discussed. At a temperature of 90°C, H2O2 feeding rate of 50 g (kg waste acid)(-1) per hour, and catalyst dosage of 0.2 wt% (waste acid weight), the removal efficiencies of COD and chrominance were both more than 99%, the recovery ratio of sulfuric acid was more than 95%, and the utilization ratio of H2O2 was 88.57%. Waste sulfuric acid is a big environmental problem in China. The amount of waste sulfuric acid is huge every year. Many small and medium-sized businesses produced lots of waste acids, but they don't have an appropriate method to treat and recover them. H2O2 catalytic oxidation has been used to treat and recover waste sulfuric acid and activated carbon is the catalyst here. Main parameters, such as temperature, feed rate of H2O2, and catalyst dosage, have been investigated. The reaction kinetics are discussed. This method can be economical and feasible for most small and medium-sized businesses.

  1. Development of a processing and treatment solution for a thoria waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Andy; Mitchell, Charles; Jenkins, Jon; Simmons, Richard

    2007-07-01

    Waste Management Technology Ltd (WMT) has developed the optimal process for immobilizing a solid waste contaminated with thorium dioxide (thoria). The physical and chemical characteristics of the waste present challenges to producing a wasteform acceptable for disposal. Also, high-energy radiation from thorium's decay progeny requires a treatment plant with shielding and remote handling facilities. Key points of the paper are as follows. 1. Treatment options were investigated and the best practicable means identified as intimate mixing of the waste with cementitious grout. 2. Samples were analysed for particle size and organic contamination. 3. Small-scale active mixes resulted in a single treatment formulation for all the waste. Leach tests confirmed that the organic material is adequately retained within the immobilised waste provided activated carbon is included in the formulation. 4. Active mixes at the two litre scale confirmed that the formulation is mixable and the product acceptable and consistent with expectations from the earlier work. 5. WMT is constructing a treatment plant at its Winfrith site, based on remote grouting in a 200 litre drum with a sacrificial mixer. Inactive full-scale trials with such 200 litre drums were carried out after selection of simulants with the appropriate physical properties. (authors)

  2. Methods for Facilitating Microbial Growth on Pulp Mill Waste Streams and Characterization of the Biodegradation Potential of Cultured Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Stephanie L.; Ayoub, Ali S.; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

  3. Methods for facilitating microbial growth on pulp mill waste streams and characterization of the biodegradation potential of cultured microbes.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Ayoub, Ali S; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M

    2013-12-12

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor.

  4. THOREX processing and zeolite transfer for high-level waste stream processing blending

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, S. Jr.; Meess, D.C.

    1997-07-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) completed the pretreatment of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) prior to the start of waste vitrification. The HLW originated form the two million liters of plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) and thorium extraction (THOREX) wastes remaining from Nuclear Fuel Services` (NFS) commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing operations at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) from 1966 to 1972. The pretreatment process removed cesium as well as other radionuclides from the liquid wastes and captured these radioactive materials onto silica-based molecular sieves (zeolites). The decontaminated salt solutions were volume-reduced and then mixed with portland cement and other admixtures. Nineteen thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven 270-liter square drums were filled with the cement-wastes produced from the pretreatment process. These drums are being stored in a shielded facility on the site until their final disposition is determined. Over 6.4 million liters of liquid HLW were processed through the pretreatment system. PUREX supernatant was processed first, followed by two PUREX sludge wash solutions. A third wash of PUREX/THOREX sludge was then processed after the neutralized THOREX waste was mixed with the PUREX waste. Approximately 6.6 million curies of radioactive cesium-137 (Cs-137) in the HLW liquid were removed and retained on 65,300 kg of zeolites. With pretreatment complete, the zeolite material has been mobilized, size-reduced (ground), and blended with the PUREX and THOREX sludges in a single feed tank that will supply the HLW slurry to the Vitrification Facility.

  5. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  6. Metal mobilization from metallurgical wastes by soil organic acids.

    PubMed

    Potysz, Anna; Grybos, Malgorzata; Kierczak, Jakub; Guibaud, Gilles; Fondaneche, Patrice; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2017-07-01

    Three types of Cu-slags differing in chemical and mineralogical composition (historical, shaft furnace, and granulated slags) and a matte from a lead recovery process were studied with respect to their susceptibility to release Cu, Zn and Pb upon exposure to organic acids commonly encountered in soil environments. Leaching experiments (24-960 h) were conducted with: i) humic acid (20 mg/L) at pH t0 = 4.4, ii) fulvic acid (20 mg/L) at pH t0 = 4.4, iii) an artificial root exudates (ARE) (17.4 g/L) solution at pH t0 = 4.4, iv) ARE solution at pH t0 = 2.9 and v) ultrapure water (pH t0 = 5.6). The results demonstrated that the ARE contribute the most to the mobilization of metals from all the wastes analyzed, regardless of the initial pH of the solution. For example, up to 14%, 30%, 24% and 5% of Cu is released within 960 h from historical, shaft furnace, granulated slags and lead matte, respectively, when exposed to the artificial root exudates solution (pH 2.9). Humic and fulvic acids were found to have a higher impact on granulated and shaft furnace slags as compared to the ultrapure water control and increased the release of metals by a factor up to 37.5 (Pb) and 20.5 (Cu) for granulated and shaft furnace slags, respectively. Humic and fulvic acids amplified the mobilization of metals by a maximal factor of 13.6 (Pb) and 12.1 (Pb) for historical slag and lead matte, respectively. The studied organic compounds contributed to different release rates of metallic contaminants from individual metallurgical wastes under the conditions tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for acid-precipitation-induced trends in stream chemistry at hydrologic bench-mark stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.

    1983-01-01

    Ten- to 15-year water-quality records from a network of headwater sampling stations show small declines in stream sulfate concentrations at stations in the northeastern quarter of the Nation and small increases in sulfate at most southeastern and western sites. The regional pattern of stream sulfate trends is similar to that reported for trends in S02 emissions to the atmosphere during the same period. Trends in the ratio of alkalinity to total major cation concentrations at the stations follow an inverse pattern of small increases in the Northeast and small, but widespread decreases elsewhere. The undeveloped nature of the sampled basins and the magnitude and direction of observed changes in relation to SO2 emissions support the hypothesis that the observed patterns in water quality trends reflect regional changes in the rates of acid deposition.

  8. Adsorption of tannic acid on polyelectrolyte monolayers determined in situ by streaming potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Oćwieja, M; Adamczyk, Z; Morga, M

    2015-01-15

    Physicochemical characteristics of tannic acid (tannin) suspensions comprising its stability for a wide range of ionic strength and pH were thoroughly investigated using UV-vis spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering and microelectrophoretic measurements. These studies allowed to determine the hydrodynamic diameter of the tannic acid that was 1.63 nm for the pH range 3.5-5.5. For pH above 6.0 the hydrodynamic diameter significantly decreased as a result of the tannin hydrolysis. The electrophoretic mobility measurements confirmed that tannic acid is negatively charged for these values of pH and ionic strength 10(-4)-10(-2) M. Therefore, in order to promote adsorption of tannin molecules on negatively charged mica, the poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) supporting monolayers were first adsorbed under diffusion transport conditions. The coverage of polyelectrolyte monolayers was regulated by changing bulk concentration of PAH and the adsorption time. The electrokinetic characteristics of bare and PAH-covered mica were determined using the streaming potential measurements. The zeta potential of these PAH monolayers was highly positive, equal to 46 mV for ionic strength of 10(-2) M. The kinetics of tannin adsorption on these PAH supporting monolayers was evaluated by the in situ the streaming potential measurements. The zeta potential of PAH monolayers abruptly decreases with the adsorption of tannin molecules that was quantitatively interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional electrokinetic model. The acid-base characteristics of tannin monolayers were acquired via the streaming potential measurements for a broad range of pH. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to control adsorption of tannin on positively charged surfaces in order to designed new multilayer structures of desirable electrokinetic properties and stability.

  9. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-01-31

    The purpose of this Special Analysis (SA) is to determine if the Oak Ridge (OR) Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project (CEUSP) uranium-233 (233U) waste stream (DRTK000000050, Revision 0) is acceptable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The CEUSP 233U waste stream requires a special analysis because the concentrations of thorium-229 (229Th), 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U exceeded their NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria action levels. The acceptability of the waste stream is evaluated by determining if performance assessment (PA) modeling provides a reasonable expectation that SLB disposal is protective of human health and the environment. The CEUSP 233U waste stream is a long-lived waste with unique radiological hazards. The SA evaluates the long-term acceptability of the CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal as a two tier process. The first tier, which is the usual SA process, uses the approved probabilistic PA model to determine if there is a reasonable expectation that disposal of the CEUSP 233U waste stream can meet the performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” for a period of 1,000 years (y) after closure. The second tier addresses the acceptability of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal by evaluating long-term site stability and security, by performing extended (i.e., 10,000 and 60,000 y) modeling analyses, and by evaluating the effect of containers and the depth of burial on performance. Tier I results indicate that there is a reasonable expectation of compliance with all performance objectives if the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is disposed in the Area 5 RWMS SLB disposal units. The maximum mean and 95th percentile PA results are all less than the performance objective for 1,000 y. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is a high likelihood of

  10. Photocatalytic oxidation of gas-phase BTEX-contaminated waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gratson, D A; Nimlos, M R; Wolfrum, E J

    1995-03-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have been exploring heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) as a remediation technology for air streams contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes (BTEX). This research is a continuation of work performed on chlorinated organics. The photocatalytic oxidation of BTEX has been studied in the aqueous phase, however, a study by Turchi et al. showed a more economical system would involve stripping organic contaminants from the aqueous phase and treating the resulting gas stream. Another recent study by Turchi et al. indicated that PCO is cost competitive with such remediation technologies as activated carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration for some types of contaminated air streams. In this work we have examined the photocatalytic oxidation of benzene using ozone (0{sub 3}) as an additional oxidant. We varied the residence time in the PCO reactor, the initial concentration of the organic pollutant, and the initial ozone concentration in a single-pass reactor. Because aromatic hydrocarbons represent only a small fraction of the total hydrocarbons present in gasoline and other fuels, we also added octane to the reaction mixture to simulate the composition of air streams produced from soil-vapor-extraction or groundwater-stripping of sites contaminated with gasoline.

  11. BIOGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF ORGANIC WASTE CONTAMINATION IN SMALL STREAMS OF THE GEORGIA PIEDMONT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients and other parameters (T, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, DOC, DON, flow rate) in 17 headwater streams (watershed sizes from 0.5 to 3.4 km2) of the South Fork Broad River, Georgia wate...

  12. BIOGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF ORGANIC WASTE CONTAMINATION IN SMALL STREAMS OF THE GEORGIA PIEDMONT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients and other parameters (T, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, DOC, DON, flow rate) in 17 headwater streams (watershed sizes from 0.5 to 3.4 km2) of the South Fork Broad River, Georgia wate...

  13. Treating metal-bearing wastes with a transportable test system

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.O.; Stewart, T.L.

    1990-02-01

    The Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) process combines selective precipitation and vacuum distillation to remove heavy metals and recycle acids from spent acid streams. Now at the pilot-scale stage, the transportable system includes a flash separator, vacuum column, and support equipment to separate out the acids and heavy metals{endash}leaving a clean water stream that can be reused or sent to sewer. Simulated spent acid wastes can be tested to determine potential waste volume reductions and acid recoveries. Preliminary testing can be performed in a laboratory-scale system with large-scale demonstration testing to follow if desired or necessary. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Nitric-phosphoric acid treatment of TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Pierce, R.A.; Sturcken, E.F.

    1993-09-30

    A general process is being developed for the treatment of solid TRU and hazardous organic waste. Experimental data indicates that 100 lb/hr of aliphatic organic (plastics) and 1,000 lb/hr of non-aliphatic organic compounds can be quantitatively oxidized in a 1,000 gallon reaction vessel. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allows oxidation at temperatures up to 200{degrees}C and is relatively non-corrosive on 304-L stainless steel, especially at room temperature. Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sup 2+} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. Polyethylene is quantitatively oxidized in 1.0M HNO{sub 3}/13.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution while contained in pressure vessels heated with microwave energy. This is probably due to the high concentrations of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} obtained in the reaction environment.

  15. Review of treatment for hazardous-waste streams (Chapter 21). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    The publication will examine some of the practices being used or considered for use at on-site or commercial hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDF). Options for managing hazardous wastes containing heavy metals and/or cyanide compounds involve conventional treatment processes, recycle/reuse applications and waste minimization. Some of the technologies to be reviewed in this section include: precipitation applications such as hydroxide (e.g. lime, magnesium and iron oxyhydroxide), sulfide and carbonate systems; reduction techniques employing chromium, mercury and selenium reducing agents; adsorption/selection techniques using activated carbon ion exchange and hydrous solids; stabilization/fixation with discussion on applications, interferences and landfill design; cyanide destruction, including chemical oxidation (e.g. alkaline chlorination, ozonation/photolysis), electrolytic decompostion and incineration; and pollution prevention measures such as source reduction, recycling and reuse. Each of these options will be described in terms of effectiveness of treatment in removing the hazardous constituents of interest and characterization of the generated treatment residuals or in the case of waste minimization practices, the degree to which the constituents of concern are eliminated at the point of waste generation.

  16. Removal of common organic solvents from aqueous waste streams via supercritical C02 extraction: a potential green approach to sustainable waste management in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Leazer, Johnnie L; Gant, Sean; Houck, Anthony; Leonard, William; Welch, Christopher J

    2009-03-15

    Supercritical CO2 extraction of aqueous streams is a convenient and effective method to remove commonly used solvents of varying polarities from aqueous waste streams. The resulting aqueous layers can potentially be sewered; whereas the organic layer can be recovered for potential reuse. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a technology that is increasingly being used in commercial processes (1). Supercritical fluids are well suited for extraction of a variety of media, including solids, natural products, and liquid products. Many supercritical fluids have low critical temperatures, allowing for extractions to be done at modestly low temperatures, thus avoiding any potential thermal decomposition of the solutes under study (2). Furthermore, the CO2 solvent strength is easily tuned by adjusting the density of the supercritical fluid (The density is proportional to the pressure of the extraction process). Since many supercritical fluids are gases at ambient temperature, the extract can be concentrated by simply venting the reaction mixture to a cyclone collection vessel, using appropriate safety protocols.

  17. CZCS view of an oceanic acid waste dump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Jane A.

    1988-01-01

    Plumes from the acid waste dump in the New York Bight were visible in all nine cloud-free Coastal Zone Color Scanner images from April and May 1981. The CZCS subsurface radiance channels displayed consistent spectral characteristics, which consisted of a strong increase in the 550 nm channel and a moderate increase in the 520 nm channel relative to the surrounding coastal waters. The 443 nm channel showed no change or a slight decrease in radiance within the plumes. These anomalous radiances preclude the calculation of pigment in the dump plumes using existing algorithms. However, the high radiances of the 550 nm channel can be used to examine the flow patterns of surface water in the vicinity of the dump.

  18. Embedding of laboratory wastes in clay or concrete blocks, with special reference to baking osmic acid and cacodylic acid wastes with clay.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Murakami, T; Yamana, S

    1998-12-01

    Liquid laboratory waste containing osmic acid and cacodylic acid was mixed with potter's clay or hydraulic cement. The clay-waste product was kneaded into blocks and baked in a klin (1,200-1,400 degrees C). The cement-waste product was allowed to harden into concrete blocks. Some of the baked clay blocks and concrete blocks were ground, and immersed in 1 N NaOH or 10% HCI solutions for 3-6 months. X-ray microanalysis of the dried samples of these solutions showed that no leakage of osmium and arsenic occurred in the baked clay embedding, and that some leakage of these agents occurred in the concrete embedding. The present study indicates that the baked clay embedding method is useful for safe storage of dangerous laboratory wastes. Additional experiments suggested that glass embedding is also useful for safe storage of laboratory wastes or harmful metals.

  19. Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report 5. The effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: rivers and streams

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.; Chang, B.K.Y.

    1982-06-01

    This report on rivers and streams is part of a series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources. The effects of photochemical oxidants, particulates, and acidifying air pollutants on water quality and river and stream biota are summarized. The characteristics that reflect river and stream sensitivity to air pollutants, in particular acidifying pollutants, are presented. Socioeconomic aspects of air pollution impacts on river and stream ecosystems are discussed. 71 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Recovery of hydrochloric acid from the waste acid solution by diffusion dialysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Lu, Shuguang; Fu, Dan

    2009-06-15

    Diffusion dialysis using a series of anion exchange membranes was employed to recover HCl acid from the waste acid solution. Effects of flow rate, flow rate ratio of water to feed, and Fe ion concentration on the recovery of HCl were investigated. It was found that the flow rate ratio was an important factor in the diffusion dialysis operation, and the recovered HCl concentration and Fe ion concentration in diffusate decreased significantly with the change of flow rate ratio from 0.4 to 1.7. In addition, the higher the Fe ion concentration in the feed, the higher the Fe leakage in the recovered acid solution. The HCl recovery efficiency was influenced not only by the recovered acid concentration, but also the outlet flow rate. While using the actual pot galvanizing waste HCl solution with the co-existence of 2.70 mol/L of Fe and 0.07 mol/L of Zn ions, over 88% HCl recovery efficiency could be achieved and Fe leakage was within the range of 11-23%. However, over 56% of Zn leakage was found due to the formation of negative Zn complexes in solution, which was unfavorable for the recovered acid reuse.

  1. Performance of an open limestone channel for treating a stream affected by acid rock drainage (León, Spain).

    PubMed

    Santofimia, Esther; López-Pamo, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    higher acidity than the inflow into the system due to the discharge of ARDs (mainly from the tunnel) that is received and to the existence of a natural stream, which is affected by a waste-rock pile. The predictions and calculations necessary for the design of any remediation/attenuation techniques are quite difficult. Despite the fact that the selected design is the most adequate one for this valley and type of passive treatment system (including adequate slopes), we must admit that the physicochemical characteristics of the ARD were not the most appropriate according to the literature. Moreover, during the design, engineers were unaware of the existence of the inflow from two highly polluting sources, which have rendered the passive treatment system ineffective and which therefore suggest that certain improvement measures could be considered.

  2. Assessment of the Regenerative Potential of Organic Waste Streams in Lagos Mega-City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opejin, Adenike Kafayat

    There is never a better time for this study than now when Nigeria as a country is going through the worst time in power supply. In Lagos city about 12,000 tons of waste is generated daily, and is expected to increase as the city adds more population. The management of these waste has generated great concern among professionals, academia and government agencies. This study examined the regenerative management of organic waste, which accounts for about 45% of the total waste generated in Lagos. To do this, two management scenarios were developed: landfill methane to electricity and compost; and analyzed using data collected during field work and from government reports. While it is understood that landfilling waste is the least sustainable option, this study argued that it could be a viable method for developing countries. Using U.S EPA LandGEM and the IPCC model, estimates of capturable landfill methane gas was derived for three landfills studied. Furthermore, a 35-year projection of waste and landfill methane was done for three newly proposed landfills. Assumptions were made that these new landfills will be sanitary. It was established that an average of 919,480,928m3 methane gas could be captured to generate an average of 9,687,176 MW of electricity annually. This makes it a significant source of power supply to a city that suffers from incessant power outages. Analysis of composting organics in Lagos was also done using descriptive method. Although, it could be argued that composting is the most regenerative way of managing organics, but it has some problems associated with it. Earthcare Compost Company processes an average of 600 tons of organics on a daily basis. The fraction of waste processed is infinitesimal compared to the rate of waste generated. One major issue identified in this study as an obstacle to extensive use of this method is the marketability of compost. The study therefore suggests that government should focus on getting the best out of the

  3. Acid-base accounting assessment of mine wastes using the chromium reducible sulfur method.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Russell; Stewart, Warwick; Miller, Stuart; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger

    2012-05-01

    The acid base account (ABA), commonly used in assessment of mine waste materials, relies in part on calculation of potential acidity from total sulfur measurements. However, potential acidity is overestimated where organic sulfur, sulfate sulfur and some sulfide compounds make up a substantial portion of the sulfur content. The chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) method has been widely applied to assess reduced inorganic sulfur forms in sediments and acid sulfate soils, but not in ABA assessment of mine wastes. This paper reports the application of the CRS method to measuring forms of sulfur commonly found in mine waste materials. A number of individual sulfur containing minerals and real waste materials were analyzed using both CRS and total S and the potential acidity estimates were compared with actual acidity measured from net acid generation tests and column leach tests. The results of the CRS analysis made on individual minerals demonstrate good assessment of sulfur from a range of sulfides. No sulfur was measured using the CRS method in a number of sulfate salts, including jarosite and melanterite typically found in weathered waste rocks, or from dibenzothiophene characteristic of organic sulfur compounds common to coal wastes. Comparison of ABA values for a number of coal waste samples demonstrated much better agreement of acidity predicted from CRS analysis than total S analysis with actual acidity. It also resulted in reclassification of most samples tested from PAF to NAF. Similar comparisons on base metal sulfide wastes generally resulted in overestimation of the acid potential by total S and underestimation of the acid potential by CRS in comparison to acidity measured during NAG tests, but did not generally result in reclassification. In all the cases examined, the best estimate of potential acidity included acidity calculated from both CRS and jarositic S. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  5. Olfactory homing of chum salmon to stable compositions of amino acids in natal stream water.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuzo; Shibata, Hideaki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Many attempts have been made to identify natal stream odors for salmon olfactory homing. It has recently been hypothesized that odors are dissolved free amino acids; however, it is unknown whether these odors change on a seasonal or annual basis. We analyzed dissolved free amino acid (DFAA) concentration and composition of water from the Teshio River in Hokkaido, Japan, where chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) returned for spawning, during juvenile downstream migration in spring and adult upstream migration in autumn with a 4-year difference. Among the 19 amino acids found in the Teshio River water, DFAA concentrations fluctuated largely, but 5-7 stable DFAA compositions (mole %) were found between the spring and autumn samples over a 4-year span. Two kinds of artificial stream water (ASW) were prepared using the same DFAA concentration in the Teshio River during the time of juvenile imprinting in spring (jASW) and adult homing in autumn (aASW), after a 4-year period. In behavioral experiments of upstream selective movement in a 2choice test tank, 4-year-old mature male chum salmon captured in the Teshio River showed significant preference for either jASW or aASW when compared to control water, but did not show any preference with respect to jASW or aASW. In electro-olfactogram experiments, adults were able to discriminate between jASW and aASW. Our findings demonstrate that the long-term stability of the DFAA compositions in natal streams may be crucial for olfactory homing in chum salmon.

  6. Production of bio-based fiber gums from the waste streams resulting from the commercial processing of corn bran and oat hulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. food and non-food industries would benefit from the development of a domestically produced crude, semi-pure and pure bio-based fiber gum from corn bran and oat hulls processing waste streams. When corn bran and oat hulls are processed to produce a commercial cellulose enriched fiber gel, th...

  7. Leaching behavior of phosphate-bonded ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Dorf, M.

    1996-04-01

    Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. This technology is crucial for stabilizing waste streams that contain volatile species and off-gas secondary waste streams generated by high-temperature treatment of such wastes. We have developed a magnesium phosphate ceramic to treat mixed wastes such as ash, salts, and cement sludges. Waste forms of surrogate waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between the mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and the wastes, and phosphoric acid or acid phosphate solutions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with ash waste streams spiked with hazardous and radioactive surrogates. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and TCLP were conducted on the final waste forms. Fates of the contaminants in the final waste forms were established by electron microscopy. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated with long-term water-immersion tests.

  8. Removal of radioactive caesium from low level radioactive waste (LLW) streams using cobalt ferrocyanide impregnated organic anion exchanger.

    PubMed

    Valsala, T P; Roy, S C; J G Shah; Gabriel, J; Raj, Kanwar; Venugopal, V

    2009-07-30

    The volumes of low level waste (LLW) generated during the operation of nuclear reactor are very high and require a concentration step before suitable matrix fixation. The volume reduction (concentration) is achieved either by co-precipitating technique or by the use of highly selective sorbents and ion exchange materials. The present study details the preparation of cobalt ferrocyanide impregnated into anion exchange resin and its evaluation with respect to removal of Cs in LLW streams both in column mode and batch mode operations. The Kd values of the prepared exchanger materials were found to be very good in actual reactor LLW solutions also. It was observed that the exchanger performed very well in the pH range of 3-9. A batch size of 6 g l(-1) of the exchanger was enough to give satisfactory decontamination for Cs in actual reactor LLW streams. The lab scale and pilot plant scale performance of the exchanger material in both batch mode and column mode operations was very good.

  9. Gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis enables rapid analysis of acids in complex biomass-derived streams

    DOE PAGES

    Munson, Matthew S.; Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; ...

    2016-09-27

    Biomass conversion processes such as pretreatment, liquefaction, and pyrolysis often produce complex mixtures of intermediates that are a substantial challenge to analyze rapidly and reliably. To characterize these streams more comprehensively and efficiently, new techniques are needed to track species through biomass deconstruction and conversion processes. Here, we present the application of an emerging analytical method, gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE), to quantify a suite of acids in a complex, biomass-derived streams from alkaline pretreatment of corn stover. GEMBE offers distinct advantages over common chromatography-spectrometry analytical approaches in terms of analysis time, sample preparation requirements, and cost of equipment.more » As demonstrated here, GEMBE is able to track 17 distinct compounds (oxalate, formate, succinate, malate, acetate, glycolate, protocatechuate, 3-hydroxypropanoate, lactate, glycerate, 2-hydroxybutanoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, vanillate, p-coumarate, ferulate, sinapate, and acetovanillone). The lower limit of detection was compound dependent and ranged between 0.9 and 3.5 umol/L. Results from GEMBE were similar to recent results from an orthogonal method based on GCxGC-TOF/MS. Altogether, GEMBE offers a rapid, robust approach to analyze complex biomass-derived samples, and given the ease and convenience of deployment, may offer an analytical solution for online tracking of multiple types of biomass streams.« less

  10. Gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis enables rapid analysis of acids in complex biomass-derived streams

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Matthew S.; Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Salit, Marc; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-09-27

    Biomass conversion processes such as pretreatment, liquefaction, and pyrolysis often produce complex mixtures of intermediates that are a substantial challenge to analyze rapidly and reliably. To characterize these streams more comprehensively and efficiently, new techniques are needed to track species through biomass deconstruction and conversion processes. Here, we present the application of an emerging analytical method, gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE), to quantify a suite of acids in a complex, biomass-derived streams from alkaline pretreatment of corn stover. GEMBE offers distinct advantages over common chromatography-spectrometry analytical approaches in terms of analysis time, sample preparation requirements, and cost of equipment. As demonstrated here, GEMBE is able to track 17 distinct compounds (oxalate, formate, succinate, malate, acetate, glycolate, protocatechuate, 3-hydroxypropanoate, lactate, glycerate, 2-hydroxybutanoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, vanillate, p-coumarate, ferulate, sinapate, and acetovanillone). The lower limit of detection was compound dependent and ranged between 0.9 and 3.5 umol/L. Results from GEMBE were similar to recent results from an orthogonal method based on GCxGC-TOF/MS. Altogether, GEMBE offers a rapid, robust approach to analyze complex biomass-derived samples, and given the ease and convenience of deployment, may offer an analytical solution for online tracking of multiple types of biomass streams.

  11. Diel variations in iron chemistry in an acidic stream in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, D.; Bencala, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the Snake River, an acidic mountain stream in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the concentration of dissolved iron is apparently unrelated to seasonal changes in hydrologic regime, which strongly influence the concentrations of most other dissolved constituents. Hourly sampling indicated that short-term fluctuations in iron chemistry occur, whereas the concentrations of most other dissolved constituents, including other trace metals, remain stable. During the day, greater concentrations of dissolved total and ferrous iron generally occurred during periods of full sunlight. Photoreduction of hydrous iron oxides, which are abundant in the fine sediment and as coatings on the rocks, may be responsible for these observations. Iron chemistry also varied at night, decreasing in dissolved total and ferrous iron until about midnight and increasing until dawn. Oxidation of ferrous iron, and several microbial processes, may contribute to these nighttime changes. In an on-site batch experiment using rocks and streamwater, an increase in dissolved total and ferrous iron occurred on exposure to sunlight, and ferrous oxidation occurred on return to darkness. Short-term fluctuations in iron chemistry are consistent with the lack of correlation between iron and other constituents in the long-term data, and illustrate the potential importance of complex in-stream processes in such stream systems.

  12. Gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis enables rapid analysis of acids in complex biomass-derived streams

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Matthew S.; Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Salit, Marc; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-09-27

    Biomass conversion processes such as pretreatment, liquefaction, and pyrolysis often produce complex mixtures of intermediates that are a substantial challenge to analyze rapidly and reliably. To characterize these streams more comprehensively and efficiently, new techniques are needed to track species through biomass deconstruction and conversion processes. Here, we present the application of an emerging analytical method, gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE), to quantify a suite of acids in a complex, biomass-derived streams from alkaline pretreatment of corn stover. GEMBE offers distinct advantages over common chromatography-spectrometry analytical approaches in terms of analysis time, sample preparation requirements, and cost of equipment. As demonstrated here, GEMBE is able to track 17 distinct compounds (oxalate, formate, succinate, malate, acetate, glycolate, protocatechuate, 3-hydroxypropanoate, lactate, glycerate, 2-hydroxybutanoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, vanillate, p-coumarate, ferulate, sinapate, and acetovanillone). The lower limit of detection was compound dependent and ranged between 0.9 and 3.5 umol/L. Results from GEMBE were similar to recent results from an orthogonal method based on GCxGC-TOF/MS. Altogether, GEMBE offers a rapid, robust approach to analyze complex biomass-derived samples, and given the ease and convenience of deployment, may offer an analytical solution for online tracking of multiple types of biomass streams.

  13. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  14. Genetic risk assessment of acid waste water containing heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Miadoková, E; Dúhová, V; Vlcková, V; Sládková, L; Sucha, V; Vlcek, D

    1999-10-01

    The mutagenic/cancerogenic potential of acid-mine water from the Slovak mining area Rudnany containing a high load of toxic metals was evaluated after its application to three model test organisms (bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and plant Vicia sativa L.). The results obtained from the modified preincubation Ames assay proved that 1000-fold diluted waste water exhibited mutagenic effect in three (TA97, TA98, TA102) of four bacterial strains. In the test on yeast the toxicity and genotoxicity increased as a function of the concentration. At the highest concentration used (0.06%) the frequency of revertants increased 6 times and convertants increased 4.5 times above the control level. In the simultaneous phytotoxicity and clastogenicity assay, concentration dependent toxicity and statistically significant clastogenicity was proved. We can conclude that heavy metals might be responsible for the genotoxic/cancerogenic potential of the test water. However, we do not entirely exclude the possibility that its genotoxicity might be promoted by its high acidity.

  15. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in Taiwan's surface waters: impact of waste streams from hospitals and pharmaceutical production facilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Tsai, Yu-Ting

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics, estrogens, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta-blockers, and lipid regulators) in three rivers and in the waste streams of six hospitals and four pharmaceutical production facilities in Taiwan. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were acetaminophen, erythromycin-H(2)O, sulfamethoxazole, and gemfibrozil. NSAIDs were the next most-often detected compounds, with a detection frequency >60%. The other analytes were not detected or were seen in only a few samples at trace concentrations. The present study demonstrates a significant discharge of human medications from hospital and drug production facilities into surface waters in the Taipei district. The high concentrations of pharmaceuticals found in the Sindian and Dahan rivers demonstrate the alarming degree to which they have been impacted by urban drainage (waste effluents from hospitals, households, and pharmaceutical production facilities). The ubiquitous occurrence at extremely high concentrations of acetaminophen and erythromycin-H(2)O in both rivers (up to 15.7 and 75.5 microg/L) and in wastewater from hospitals and pharmaceutical production facilities (up to 417.5 and 7.84 microg/L) was unique. This finding, in combination with acetaminophen's status as the drug most often prescribed by Taiwan's dominant clinical institute, suggests the potential use of acetaminophen as a molecular indicator of contamination of Taiwan's aqueous environments with untreated urban drainage.

  16. The effect of broadleaf woodland on aluminium speciation in stream water in an acid-sensitive area in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer L; Lynam, Philippa; Heal, Kate V; Palmer, Sheila M

    2012-11-15

    Acidification can result in the mobilisation and release of toxic inorganic monomeric aluminium (Al) species from soils into aquatic ecosystems. Although it is well-established that conifer trees enhance acidic atmospheric deposition and exacerbate soil and water acidification, the effect of broad-leaved woodland on soil and water acidification is less clear. This study investigated the effect of broadleaf woodland cover on the acid-base chemistry and Al species present in stream water, and processes controlling these in the acid-sensitive area around Loch Katrine, in the central Highlands, Scotland, UK, where broadleaf woodland expansion is occurring. A nested sampling approach was used to identify 22 stream sampling locations, in sub-catchments of 3.2-61 ha area and 0-45% broadleaf woodland cover. In addition, soils sampled from 68 locations were analysed to assess the influence of: (i) broadleaf woodland cover on soil characteristics and (ii) soil characteristics on stream water chemistry. Stream water pH was negatively correlated with sub-catchment % woodland cover, indicating that woodland cover is enhancing stream water acidification. Concentrations of all stream water Al species (monomeric total, organic and inorganic) were positively correlated with % woodland cover, although not significantly, but were below levels that are toxic to fish. Soil depth, O horizon depth and soil chemistry, particularly of the A horizon, appeared to be the dominant controls on stream water chemistry rather than woodland cover. There were significant differences in soil acid-base chemistry, with significantly lower O horizon pH and A horizon base saturation and higher A horizon exchangeable Al in the wooded catchments compared to the control. This is evidence that the mobile anion effect is already occurring in the study catchments and suggests that stream water acidification arising from broadleaf woodland expansion could occur, especially where tree density is high and acid

  17. Developing Critical Loads of acidity for streams in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, using PnET-BGC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraei, H.

    2015-12-01

    Acid deposition has impaired acid-sensitive streams and reduced aquatic biotic integrity in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) by decreasing pH and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Twelve streams in GRSM are listed by the state of Tennessee as impaired due to low stream pH (pH<6.0) under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. A dynamic biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, was used to evaluate past, current and potential future changes in soil and water chemistry of watersheds of GRSM in response to changes in acid deposition. Calibrating 30 stream-watersheds in GRSM (including 12 listed impaired streams) to the long-term stream chemistry observations, the model was parameterized for the Park. The calibrated model was used to evaluate the level of atmospheric deposition above which harmful effects occur, known as "critical loads", for individual study watersheds. Estimated critical loads and exceedances (levels of deposition above the critical load) of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition were depicted through geographic information system maps. Accuracy of model simulations in the presence of uncertainties in the estimated model parameters and inputs was assessed using three uncertainty and sensitivity techniques.

  18. Recovering Americium and Curium from Mark-42 Target Materials- New Processing Approaches to Enhance Separations and Integrate Waste Stream Disposition - 12228

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Brad D.; Benker, Dennis; Collins, Emory D.; Mattus, Catherine H.; Robinson, Sharon M.; Wham, Robert M.

    2012-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating flowsheets to enhance processing efficiencies and to address waste streams associated with recovery of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) from Mark-42 (Mk-42) target materials stored at ORNL. The objective of this work was to identify the most effective flowsheet with which to process the 104 Mk-42 oxide capsules holding a total of 80 g of plutonium (Pu), 190 g of Cm, 480 g of Am, and 5 kg of lanthanide (Ln) oxides for the recovery and purification of the Am/Cm for future use as feedstock for heavy actinide production. Studies were also conducted to solidify the process flowsheet waste streams for disposal. ORNL is investigating flowsheets to enhance processing efficiencies and address waste streams associated with recovery of Am and Cm from Mk-42 target materials stored at ORNL. A series of small-scale runs are being performed to demonstrate an improved process to recover Am/Cm and to optimize the separations of Ln fission products from the Am/Cm constituents. The first of these runs has been completed using one of the Am/Cm/Ln oxide capsules stored at ORNL. The demonstration run showed promising results with a Ln DF of 40 for the Am/Cm product and an Am/Cm DF of 75 for the Ln product. In addition, the total losses of Am, Cm, and Ln to the waste solvents and raffinates were very low at <0.2%, 0.02%, and 0.04%, respectively. However, the Ln-actinide separation was less than desired. For future Reverse TALSPEAK demonstration runs, several parameters will be adjusted (flow rates, the ratio of scrub to strip stages, etc.) to improve the removal of Ln from the actinides. The next step will also include scale-up of the processing flowsheet to use more concentrated solutions (15 g/L Ln versus 5 g/L) and larger volumes and to recycle the HDEHP solvent. This should improve the overall processing efficiency and further reduce losses to waste streams. Studies have been performed with simulated wastes to develop solidification

  19. Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.; Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D.

    1995-04-01

    Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO{sub 3}, quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite.

  20. More value from food waste: Lactic acid and biogas recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Ryu, Hoyoung; Chang, Yong-Keun; Triolo, Jin M; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 °C to 55 °C, with the highest performance attained at 50 °C. At 50 °C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration in the broth was 40 kg LA/m(3), corresponding to a yield of 1.6 mol LA/mol hexoseadded. Pyrosequencing results showed that Lactobacillus (97.6% of the total number of sequences) was the predominant species performing LA fermentation of FW. The fermented broth was then centrifuged and LA was extracted from the supernatant by the combined process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis. The process could recover highly purified LA by removing 85% of mineral ions such as Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) and 90% of residual carbohydrates. Meanwhile, the solid residue remained after centrifugation was further fermented to biogas by AD. At HRT 40 d (organic loading rate of 7 kg COD/m(3)/d), the highest volumetric biogas production rate of 3.5 m(3)/m(3)/d was achieved with a CH4 yield of 0.25 m(3) CH4/kg COD. The mass flow showed that 47 kg of LA and 54 m(3) of biogas could be recovered by the developed process from 1 ton of FW with COD removal efficiency of 70%. These products have a higher economic value 60 USD/ton FW compared to that of conventional AD (27 USD/ton FW). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Catalytic methods using molecular oxygen for treatment of PMMS and ECLSS waste streams, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.

    1992-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation has proven to be an effective addition to the baseline sorption, ion exchange water reclamation technology which will be used on Space Station Freedom (SSF). Low molecular weight, polar organics such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, and thiocarbamides which are poorly removed by the baseline multifiltration (MF) technology can be oxidized to carbon dioxide at low temperature (121 C). The catalytic oxidation process by itself can reduce the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) to below 500 ppb for solutions designed to model these waste waters. Individual challenges by selected contaminants have shown only moderate selectivity towards particular organic species. The combined technology is applicable to the more complex waste water generated in the Process Materials Management System (PMMS) and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard SSF. During the phase 3 Core Module Integrated Facility (CMIF) water recovery tests at NASA MSFC, real hygiene waste water and humidity condensate were processed to meet potable specifications by the combined technology. A kinetic study of catalytic oxidation demonstrates that the Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate equation for heterogeneous catalysts accurately represent the kinetic behavior. From this relationship, activation energy and rate constants for acetone were determined.

  2. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Stable nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids reveals food web structure in stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Kato, Yoshikazu; Togashi, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Okuda, Noboru; Tayasu, Ichiro

    2014-07-01

    The stable N isotopic composition of individual amino acids (SIAA) has recently been used to estimate trophic positions (TPs) of animals in several simple food chain systems. However, it is unknown whether the SIAA is applicable to more complex food web analysis. In this study we measured the SIAA of stream macroinvertebrates, fishes, and their potential food sources (periphyton and leaf litter of terrestrial C3 plants) collected from upper and lower sites in two streams having contrasting riparian landscapes. The stable N isotope ratios of glutamic acid and phenylalanine confirmed that for primary producers (periphyton and C3 litter) the TP was 1, and for primary consumers (e.g., mayfly and caddisfly larvae) it was 2. We built a two-source mixing model to estimate the relative contributions of aquatic and terrestrial sources to secondary and higher consumers (e.g., stonefly larva and fishes) prior to the TP calculation. The estimated TPs (2.3-3.5) roughly corresponded to their omnivorous and carnivorous feeding habits, respectively. We found that the SIAA method offers substantial advantages over traditional bulk method for food web analysis because it defines the food web structure based on the metabolic pathway of amino groups, and can be used to estimate food web structure under conditions where the bulk method cannot be used. Our result provides evidence that the SIAA method is applicable to the analysis of complex food webs, where heterogeneous resources are mixed.

  4. Contrasting effects of anthropogenic and natural acidity in streams: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Petrin, Zlatko; Englund, Göran; Malmqvist, Björn

    2008-05-22

    Large-scale human activities including the extensive combustion of fossil fuels have caused acidification of freshwater systems on a continental scale, resulting in reduced species diversity and, in some instances, impaired ecological functioning. In regions where acidity is natural, however, species diversity and functioning seem to be less affected. This contrasting response is likely to have more than one explanation including the possibility of adaptation in organisms exposed to natural acidity over evolutionary time scales and differential toxicity due to dissimilarities in water chemistry other than pH. However, empirical evidence supporting these hypotheses is equivocal. Partly, this is because previous research has mainly been conducted at relatively small geographical scales, and information on ecological functioning in this context is generally scarce. Our goal was to test whether anthropogenic acidity has stronger negative effects on species diversity and ecological functioning than natural acidity. Using a meta-analytic approach based on 60 datasets, we show that macroinvertebrate species richness and the decomposition of leaf litter -- an important process in small streams -- tend to decrease with increasing acidity across regions and across both the acidity categories. Macroinvertebrate species richness, however, declines three times more rapidly with increasing acidity where it is anthropogenic than where it is natural, in agreement with the adaptation hypothesis and the hypothesis of differences in water chemistry. By contrast, the loss in ecological functioning differs little between the categories, probably because increases in the biomass of taxa remaining at low pH compensate for losses in functionality that would otherwise accompany losses of taxa from acidic systems. This example from freshwater acidification illustrates how natural and anthropogenic stressors can differ markedly in their effects on species diversity and one aspect of

  5. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene, HCl and terephthalic acid

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1995-11-07

    A process is described for pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene, HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to pyrolyze polystyrene; separating styrene; heating the waste feed stream to a third temperature to pyrolyze polyethylene; and separating hydrocarbons. 83 figs.

  6. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and terephthalic acid

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1995-01-01

    A process of pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to pyrolyze polystyrene; separating styrene; heating the waste feed stream to a third temperature to pyrolyze polyethylene; and separating hydrocarbons.

  7. Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Jose M.; Plaza, Cesar; Polo, Alfredo; Plante, Alain F.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis was used to assess stability and composition of organic matter in three diverse municipal waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were compared with C mineralization during 90-day incubation, FTIR and {sup 13}C NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis reflected the differences between the organic wastes before and after the incubation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated energy density showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional and thermal methods provide complimentary means of characterizing organic wastes. - Abstract: The use of organic municipal wastes as soil amendments is an increasing practice that can divert significant amounts of waste from landfill, and provides a potential source of nutrients and organic matter to ameliorate degraded soils. Due to the high heterogeneity of organic municipal waste streams, it is difficult to rapidly and cost-effectively establish their suitability as soil amendments using a single method. Thermal analysis has been proposed as an evolving technique to assess the stability and composition of the organic matter present in these wastes. In this study, three different organic municipal waste streams (i.e., a municipal waste compost (MC), a composted sewage sludge (CS) and a thermally dried sewage sludge (TS)) were characterized using conventional and thermal methods. The conventional methods used to test organic matter stability included laboratory incubation with measurement of respired C, and spectroscopic methods to characterize chemical composition. Carbon mineralization was measured during a 90-day incubation, and samples before and after incubation were analyzed by chemical (elemental analysis) and spectroscopic (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) methods. Results were compared with those obtained by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC

  8. Immobilized materials for removal of toxic metal ions from surface/groundwaters and aqueous waste streams.

    PubMed

    Zawierucha, Iwona; Kozlowski, Cezary; Malina, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metals from industrial processes are of special concern because they produce chronic poisoning in the aquatic environment. More strict environmental regulations on the discharge of toxic metals require the development of various technologies for their removal from polluted streams (i.e. industrial wastewater, mine waters, landfill leachate, and groundwater). The separation of toxic metal ions using immobilized materials (novel sorbents and membranes with doped ligands), due to their high selectivity and removal efficiency, increased stability, and low energy requirements, is promising for improving the environmental quality. This critical review is aimed at studying immobilized materials as potential remediation agents for the elimination of numerous toxic metal (e.g. Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) ions from polluted streams. This study covers the general characteristics of immobilized materials and separation processes, understanding of the metal ion removal mechanisms, a review of the application of immobilized materials for the removal of toxic metal ions, as well as the impacts of various parameters on the removal efficiency. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of remediation technologies using these materials are addressed.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... halide + sodium-lead alloy Nickel Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Zinc Organic pigments/Azo... + coupling compounds Vat dyes Acid dyes Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Acid dyes, Azo..., metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Direct dyes, Azo Disperse dyes, Azo and Vat Organic pigment Green 7/Copper...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... halide + sodium-lead alloy Nickel Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Zinc Organic pigments/Azo... + coupling compounds Vat dyes Acid dyes Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Acid dyes, Azo..., metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Direct dyes, Azo Disperse dyes, Azo and Vat Organic pigment Green 7/Copper...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... halide + sodium-lead alloy Nickel Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Zinc Organic pigments/Azo... + coupling compounds Vat dyes Acid dyes Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Acid dyes, Azo..., metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Direct dyes, Azo Disperse dyes, Azo and Vat Organic pigment Green 7/Copper...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... halide + sodium-lead alloy Nickel Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Zinc Organic pigments/Azo... + coupling compounds Vat dyes Acid dyes Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Acid dyes, Azo..., metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Direct dyes, Azo Disperse dyes, Azo and Vat Organic pigment Green 7/Copper...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Tetramethyl lead/Alkyl halide + sodium-lead alloy Nickel Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Zinc... diazonium salts + coupling compounds Vat dyes Acid dyes Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Acid...-acetamidoanisole Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Direct dyes, Azo Disperse dyes, Azo and Vat Organic...

  14. Ultrasonic recovery of copper and iron through the simultaneous utilization of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) spent acid etching solution and PCB waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiyuan; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang

    2011-01-15

    A method was developed to recover the copper and iron from Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) manufacturing generated spent acid etching solution and waste sludge with ultrasonic energy at laboratory scale. It demonstrated that copper-containing PCB spent etching solution could be utilized as a leaching solution to leach copper from copper contained PCB waste sludge. It also indicated that lime could be used as an alkaline precipitating agent in this method to precipitate iron from the mixture of acidic PCB spent etching solution and waste sludge. This method provided an effective technique for the recovery of copper and iron through simultaneous use of PCB spent acid solution and waste sludge. The leaching rates of copper and iron enhanced with ultrasound energy were reached at 93.76% and 2.07% respectively and effectively separated copper from iron. Followed by applying lime to precipitate copper from the mixture of leachate and rinsing water produced by the copper and iron separation, about 99.99% and 1.29% of soluble copper and calcium were settled as the solids respectively. Furthermore the settled copper could be made as commercial rate copper. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and temperature. This method provided a simple and reliable technique to recover copper and iron from waste streams generated by PCB manufacturing, and would significantly reduce the cost of chemicals used in the recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of sun elevation upon remote sensing of ocean color over an acid waste dump site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic flights were made over an ocean acid waste dump site while dumping was in progress. The flights resulted in wide angle, broadband, spectral radiance film exposure data between the wavelengths of 500 to 900 nanometers for sun elevation angles ranging from 26 to 42 degrees. It is shown from densitometer data that the spectral signature of acid waste discharged into ocean water can be observed photographically, the influence of sun elevation upon remotely sensed apparent color can be normalized by using a single spectral band ratioing technique, and photographic quantification and mapping of acid waste through its suspended iron precipitate appears possible.

  16. Enzymatic saccharification coupling with polyester recovery from cotton-based waste textiles by phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fei; Xiao, Wenxiong; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

    2013-02-01

    In order to recycle the cotton-based waste textiles, a novel process was designed for pretreating waste textiles with phosphoric acid to recover polyester and fermentable sugar. The effects of pretreatment conditions including, phosphoric acid concentration, pretreatment temperature, time, and ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid were thoroughly investigated. Results indicated the mentioned four factors had significant influences on sugar and polyester recovery. Almost complete polyester recovery was achieved by enhancing phosphoric acid concentration, temperature and pretreatment time or reducing the ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid. However, these behaviors decreased the sugar recovery seriously. 100% polyester recovery with a maximum sugar recovery of 79.2% was achieved at the optimized conditions (85% phosphoric acid, 50°C, 7h, and the ratio of 1:15). According to the technical and cost-benefit analysis, it was technically feasible and potentially profitable to recover polyester and sugar from waste textiles by phosphoric acid pretreatment.

  17. Succinic acid production on xylose-enriched biorefinery streams by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Mohagheghi, Ali; Smith, Holly; Bradfield, Michael F A; Nicol, Willie; Black, Brenna A; Biddy, Mary J; Dowe, Nancy; Beckham, Gregg T

    2016-01-01

    Co-production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass alongside fuels holds promise for improving the economic outlook of integrated biorefineries. In current biochemical conversion processes that use thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, fractionation of hemicellulose-derived and cellulose-derived sugar streams is possible using hydrothermal or dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), which then offers a route to parallel trains for fuel and chemical production from xylose- and glucose-enriched streams. Succinic acid (SA) is a co-product of particular interest in biorefineries because it could potentially displace petroleum-derived chemicals and polymer precursors for myriad applications. However, SA production from biomass-derived hydrolysates has not yet been fully explored or developed. Here, we employ Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z to produce succinate in batch fermentations from various substrates including (1) pure sugars to quantify substrate inhibition, (2) from mock hydrolysates similar to those from DAP containing single putative inhibitors, and (3) using the hydrolysate derived from two pilot-scale pretreatments: first, a mild alkaline wash (deacetylation) followed by DAP, and secondly a single DAP step, both with corn stover. These latter streams are both rich in xylose and contain different levels of inhibitors such as acetate, sugar dehydration products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), and lignin-derived products (ferulate, p-coumarate). In batch fermentations, we quantify succinate and co-product (acetate and formate) titers as well as succinate yields and productivities. We demonstrate yields of 0.74 g succinate/g sugars and 42.8 g/L succinate from deacetylated DAP hydrolysate, achieving maximum productivities of up to 1.27 g/L-h. Moreover, A. succinogenes is shown to detoxify furfural via reduction to furfuryl alcohol, although an initial lag in succinate production is observed when furans are present. Acetate seems to be the

  18. Determination of vapor-liquid equilibrium data and decontamination factors needed for the development of evaporator technology for use in volume reduction of radioactive waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, Stephen Ellsworth

    1993-05-01

    A program is currently in progress at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste streams. By concentrating radioactive waste streams, disposal costs can be significantly reduced. To effectively reduce the volume of waste, the evaporator must achieve high decontamination factors so that the distillate is sufficiently free of radioactive material. One technology that shows a great deal of potential for this application is being developed by LICON, Inc. In this program, Argonne plans to apply LICON`s evaporator designs to the processing of radioactive solutions. Concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of the evaporator include, criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. To design an effective process for concentrating waste streams, both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed. The key issue, however, is the high decontamination factors that have been demonstrated by this equipment. Two major contributions were made to this project. First, a literature survey was completed to obtain available solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data. Some vapor-liquid data necessary for the project but not available in the literature was obtained experimentally. Second, the decontamination factor for the evaporator was determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA).

  19. Silica-based waste form for immobilization of iodine from reprocessing plant off-gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Matyáš, Josef; Canfield, Nathan; Sulaiman, Sannoh; Zumhoff, Mac

    2016-08-01

    A high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine and a feasible consolidation to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes silver-functionalized silica aerogel (Ag0-aerogel) an attractive choice for the removal and sequestration of iodine compounds from the off-gas of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Hot uniaxial pressing of iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel (20.2 mass% iodine) at 1200°C for 30 min under 29 MPa pressure provided a partially sintered product with residual open porosity of 16.9% that retained ~93% of sorbed iodine. Highly iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel was successfully consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1200°C with a 30-min hold and under 207 MPa. The fully densified waste form had a bulk density of 3.3 g/cm3 and contained ~39 mass% iodine. The iodine was retained in the form of nano- and micro-particles of AgI that were uniformly distributed inside and along boundaries of fused silica grains.

  20. Silica-based waste form for immobilization of iodine from reprocessing plant off-gas streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyáš, Josef; Canfield, Nathan; Sulaiman, Sannoh; Zumhoff, Mac

    2016-08-01

    A high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine and a feasible consolidation to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes silver-functionalized silica aerogel (Ag0-aerogel) an attractive choice for the removal and sequestration of iodine compounds from the off-gas of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Hot uniaxial pressing of iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel (20.2 mass% iodine) at 1200 °C for 30 min under 29 MPa pressure provided a partially sintered product with residual open porosity of 16.9% that retained ∼93% of sorbed iodine. Highly iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel was successfully consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1200 °C with a 30-min hold and under 207 MPa. The fully densified waste form had a bulk density of 3.3 × 103 kg/m3 and contained ∼39 mass% iodine. The iodine was retained in the form of nano- and micro-particles of AgI that were uniformly distributed inside and along boundaries of fused silica grains.

  1. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: Application of a reactive transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    A reactive transport model based on one-dimensional transport and equilibrium chemistry is applied to synoptic data from an acid mine drainage stream. Model inputs include streamflow estimates based on tracer dilution, inflow chemistry based on synoptic sampling, and equilibrium constants describing acid/base, complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption reactions. The dominant features of observed spatial profiles in pH and metal concentration are reproduced along the 3.5-km study reach by simulating the precipitation of Fe(III) and Al solid phases and the sorption of Cu, As, and Pb onto freshly precipitated iron-(III) oxides. Given this quantitative description of existing conditions, additional simulations are conducted to estimate the streamwater quality that could result from two hypothetical remediation plans. Both remediation plans involve the addition of CaCO3 to raise the pH of a small, acidic inflow from ???2.4 to ???7.0. This pH increase results in a reduced metal load that is routed downstream by the reactive transport model, thereby providing an estimate of post-remediation water quality. The first remediation plan assumes a closed system wherein inflow Fe(II) is not oxidized by the treatment system; under the second remediation plan, an open system is assumed, and Fe(II) is oxidized within the treatment system. Both plans increase instream pH and substantially reduce total and dissolved concentrations of Al, As, Cu, and Fe(II+III) at the terminus of the study reach. Dissolved Pb concentrations are reduced by ???18% under the first remediation plan due to sorption onto iron-(III) oxides within the treatment system and stream channel. In contrast, iron(III) oxides are limiting under the second remediation plan, and removal of dissolved Pb occurs primarily within the treatment system. This limitation results in an increase in dissolved Pb concentrations over existing conditions as additional downstream sources of Pb are not attenuated by

  2. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  3. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  4. Hyporheic exchange and fulvic acid redox reactions in an Alpine stream/wetland ecosystem, Colorado Front Range.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew P; McKnight, Diane M; Cory, Rose M; Williams, Mark W; Runkel, Robert L

    2006-10-01

    The influence of hyporheic zone interactions on the redox state of fulvic acids and other redox active species was investigated in an alpine stream and adjacent wetland, which is a more reducing environment. A tracer injection experiment using bromide (Br-) was conducted in the stream system. Simulations with a transport model showed that rates of exchange between the stream and hyporheic zone were rapid (alpha approximately 10(-3) s(-1)). Parallel factor analysis of fluorescence spectra was used to quantifythe redox state of dissolved fulvic acids. The rate coefficient for oxidation of reduced fulvic acids (lambda = 6.5 x 10(-3) s(-1)) in the stream indicates that electron-transfer reactions occur over short time scales. The rate coefficients for decay of ammonium (lambda = 1.2 x 10(-3) s(-1)) and production of nitrate (lambda = -1.0 x 10(-3) s(-1)) were opposite in sign but almost equal in magnitude. Our results suggest that fulvic acids are involved in rapid electron-transfer processes in and near the stream channel and may be important in determining ecological energy flow at the catchment scale.

  5. Hyporheic exchange and fulvic acid redox reactions in an alpine stream/wetland ecosystem, Colorado front range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Matthew P.; McKnight, Diane M.; Cory, R.M.; Williams, Mark W.; Runkel, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of hyporheic zone interactions on the redox state of fulvic acids and other redox active species was investigated in an alpine stream and adjacent wetland, which is a more reducing environment. A tracer injection experiment using bromide (Br-) was conducted in the stream system. Simulations with a transport model showed that rates of exchange between the stream and hyporheic zone were rapid (?? ??? 10-3 s -1). Parallel factor analysis of fluorescence spectra was used to quantify the redox state of dissolved fulvic acids. The rate coefficient for oxidation of reduced fulvic acids (?? = 6.5 ?? 10-3 s -1) in the stream indicates that electron-transfer reactions occur over short time scales. The rate coefficients for decay of ammonium (?? = 1.2 ?? 10-3 s-1) and production of nitrate (?? = -1.0 ?? 10-3 s-1) were opposite in sign but almost equal in magnitude. Our results suggest that fulvic acids are involved in rapid electron-transfer processes in and near the stream channel and may be important in determining ecological energy flow at the catchment scale. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  6. Formulation of fermentation media from flour-rich waste streams for microbial lipid production by Lipomyces starkeyi.

    PubMed

    Tsakona, Sofia; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Chatzifragkou, Afroditi; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kookos, Ioannis K; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2014-11-10

    Flour-rich waste (FRW) and by-product streams generated by bakery, confectionery and wheat milling plants could be employed as the sole raw materials for generic fermentation media production, suitable for microbial oil synthesis. Wheat milling by-products were used in solid state fermentations (SSF) of Aspergillus awamori for the production of crude enzymes, mainly glucoamylase and protease. Enzyme-rich SSF solids were subsequently employed for hydrolysis of FRW streams into nutrient-rich fermentation media. Batch hydrolytic experiments using FRW concentrations up to 205 g/L resulted in higher than 90% (w/w) starch to glucose conversion yields and 40% (w/w) total Kjeldahl nitrogen to free amino nitrogen conversion yields. Starch to glucose conversion yields of 98.2, 86.1 and 73.4% (w/w) were achieved when initial FRW concentrations of 235, 300 and 350 g/L were employed in fed-batch hydrolytic experiments, respectively. Crude hydrolysates were used as fermentation media in shake flask cultures with the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 reaching a total dry weight of 30.5 g/L with a microbial oil content of 40.4% (w/w), higher than that achieved in synthetic media. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures led to a total dry weight of 109.8 g/L with a microbial oil content of 57.8% (w/w) and productivity of 0.4 g/L/h. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, T.; Herbst, S.

    1996-10-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is collaborating with several DOE and international organizations to develop and evaluate: technologies for the treatment of acidic high-level radioactive wastes. The focus on the treatment of high-level radioactive wastes is on the removal of cesium and strontium from wastes typically 1 to 3 M in acidity. Technologies to treat groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and/or toxic metals. Technologies to remove toxic metals from hazardous or mixed waste streams, for neutral pH to 3 M acidic waste streams.

  8. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WAST STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown

    2003-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of two coagulants used in water treatment, ferric chloride (FC) and polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} was investigated. Corrosion tests were performed to compare the corrosivity of these two coagulants on aluminum 6061 and steel 4140 specimens. Results showed that both temperature and concentration of the coagulants substantially impact corrosion rates. The corrosion rates increased with the increase of temperature and concentration. The results from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that chloride caused more serious pitting than sulfate anion on both aluminum and steel specimens. Although SEM confirmed the existence of pitting corrosion, the results of weight loss indicated that the uniform corrosion predominate the corrosion mechanism, and pitting corrosion played a less important role. The test proved that PFS was less corrosive than FC, which may lead to the large-scale application of PFS in waste treatment in the near future.

  9. Catalytic oxidation for treatment of ECLSS and PMMS waste streams. [Process Material Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John; Scott, Bryan; Jolly, Clifford; Carter, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation was added to the baseline multifiltration technology for use on the Space Station Freedom in order to convert low-molecular weight organic waste components such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, and thiocarbamides to CO2 at low temperature (121 C), thereby reducing the total organic carbon (TOC) to below 500 ppb. The rate of reaction for the catalytic oxidation of aqueous organics to CO2 and water depends primarily upon the catalyst, temperature, and concentration of reactants. This paper describes a kinetic study conducted to determine the impact of each of these parameters upon the reaction rate. The results indicate that a classic kinetic model, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate equation for heterogeneous catalysis, can accurately represent the functional dependencies of this rate.

  10. Catalytic oxidation for treatment of ECLSS and PMMS waste streams. [Process Material Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John; Scott, Bryan; Jolly, Clifford; Carter, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation was added to the baseline multifiltration technology for use on the Space Station Freedom in order to convert low-molecular weight organic waste components such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, and thiocarbamides to CO2 at low temperature (121 C), thereby reducing the total organic carbon (TOC) to below 500 ppb. The rate of reaction for the catalytic oxidation of aqueous organics to CO2 and water depends primarily upon the catalyst, temperature, and concentration of reactants. This paper describes a kinetic study conducted to determine the impact of each of these parameters upon the reaction rate. The results indicate that a classic kinetic model, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate equation for heterogeneous catalysis, can accurately represent the functional dependencies of this rate.

  11. Quantitative mapping by remote sensing of an ocean acid-waste dump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    Results from quantitative analysis show that airplane remotely sensed spectral data can be used to quantify and map an acid-waste dump in terms of its particulate iron concentration. These same data, however, could not be used to map the dump in terms of total suspended solids, organic suspended solids, or inorganic suspended solids concentrations. A single-variable equation using the ratio of band 2 (440 to 490 nm) radiance to band 4 (540 to 580 nm) radiance was used to quantify the iron concentration in the acid-waste dump. The acid waste that was mapped varied in age from freshly dumped to 31/2 hr. Particulate iron concentrations in the acid waste were estimated to range up to 1.1 mg/l at a depth of 0.46 m. A classification technique was developed to identify pixels in the data set affected by sun glitter.

  12. The Role of Alkalinity Inputs in the Composition of Sediments in AN Acid Mine Drainage Remediated Stream: Hewett Fork, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, D. L.; Korenowsky, R. K.; Kruse, N.; Bowman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Hewett Fork, a tributary of Raccoon Creek in SE Ohio, is severely impacted by acid mine drainage. This stream is being actively treated using a calcium oxide doser. In this work, we report the results of our investigations into the chemical effect of remediation in the stream throughout an evaluation of the chemical composition of its sediments. Results show that the grain size of the sediments is finer in the areas where high alkalinity loads enter the stream, at the output from the doser and downstream of the confluence with alkaline tributaries. The composition of heavy metals (magnesium, aluminum, calcium, nickel, zinc, manganese, potassium, lead, chromium, copper, cobalt and arsenic) is higher in concentration in the fine-grained sediments where alkalinity enters the stream, forming two peaks of high sediment concentration along the stream, one at the doser and the second after the confluence with alkaline tributaries. Iron has a different behavior with a higher sediment concentration downstream from the doser at the areas where the grain size is larger, due to the kinetics of the oxidation process for the formation of iron (III) minerals. These results suggest that in remediation of acid-mine-drainage impacted streams, alkalinity inputs along and oxidation processes are important for the storage of heavy metals in the sediments.

  13. Phosphate dynamics in an acidic mountain stream: Interactions involving algal uptake, sorption by iron oxide, and photoreduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, Cathy M.; Broshears, Robert E.; McKnight, Diane M.

    1995-01-01

    Acid mine drainage streams in the Rocky Mountains typically have few algal species and abundant iron oxide deposits which can sorb phosphate. An instream injection of radiolabeled phosphate (32P0,) into St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, was used to test the ability of a dominant algal species, Ulothrix sp., to rapidly assimilate phosphate. Approximately 90% of the injected phosphate was removed from the water column in the 175-m stream reach. When shaded stream reaches were exposed to full sunlight after the injection ended, photoreductive dissolution of iron oxide released sorbed 32P, which was then also removed downstream. The removal from the stream was modeled as a first-order process by using a reactive solute transport transient storage model. Concentrations of 32P mass-’ of algae were typically lo-fold greater than concentrations in hydrous iron oxides. During the injection, concentrations of 32P increased in the cellular P pool containing soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds and confirmed direct algal uptake of 32P0, from water. Mass balance calculations indicated that algal uptake and sorption on iron oxides were significant in removing phosphate. We conclude that in stream ecosystems, PO, sorbed by iron oxides can act as a dynamic nutrient reservoir regulated by photoreduction.

  14. Mechanisms of iron photoreduction in a metal-rich, acidic stream (St. Kevin Gulch, Colorado, U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, B.A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Wetherbee, G.A.; Harnish, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Iron photoreduction in metal-rich, acidic streams affected by mine drainage accounts for some of the variability in metal chemistry of such streams, producing diel variations in Fe(II). Differentiation of the mechanisms of the Fe photoreduction reaction by a series of in-stream experiments at St. Kevin Gulch, Colorado, indicates that a homogeneous, solution-phase reaction can occur in the absence of suspended particulate Fe and bacteria, and the rate of reaction is increased by the presence of Fe colloids in the stream water. In-stream Fe photoreduction is limited during the diel cycle by the available Fe(III) in the water column and streambed. The quantum yield of Fe(II) was reproducible in diel measurements: the quantum yield, in mol E-1 (from 300 to 400 nm) was 1.4 ?? 10-3 in 1986, 0.8 ?? 10-3 in 1988 and 1.2 ?? 10-3 in 1989, at the same location and under similar streamflow and stream-chemistry conditions. In a photolysis control experiment, there was no detectable production of Fe(II) above background concentrations in stream-water samples that were experimentally excluded from sunlight. ?? 1992.

  15. Polymer pendant crown thioethers for removal of mercury from acidic wastes: synthesis, characterization and application

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J G; Baumann, T F; Nelson, A J; Fox, G A

    2000-07-21

    Removal of mercury ions from industrial waste streams is a difficult and expensive problem requiring an efficient and selective extractant that is resistant to corrosive conditions. We have now developed an acid-resistant thiacrown polymer that has potential utility as a selective and cost-effective Hg{sup 2+} extractant. Copolymerization of a novel C-substituted thiacrown, N,N-(4-vinylbenzylmethyl)-2-aminomethyl-1,4,8,11,14-pentathiacycloheptadecane, with DVB (80% divinylbenzene) using a radical initiator generated a highly cross-linked polymer containing pendant thiacrowns. Mercury extraction capabilities of the polymer were tested in acidic media (pH range: 1.5 to 6.2) and the extraction of Hg{sup 2+} was determined to be 95% at a mixing time of 30 minutes. The thiacrown polymer was also determined to be selective for Hg{sup 2+}, even in the presence of high concentrations of competing ions such as Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3}, and Fe{sup 3+}. The bound Hg{sup 2+} ions can then be stripped from the polymer, allowing the polymer to be reused without significant loss of loading capacity. The binding of Hg{sup 2+} to the polymer has been examined by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The thiacrown appears unaffected by incorporation into the polymer and the Hg{sup 2+} appears to be bound to the polymer complex in a similar manner as Hg{sup 2+} is bound in monomeric thiacrowns containing five sulfur atoms.

  16. Acute effects of aluminum and acidity upon nine stream insects. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.; Haney, J.

    1984-09-01

    The effects of increased aluminum concentrations and decreased pH upon the larval stages of five caddisflies, two mayflies, a stonefly, and a beetle were tested. These insects were removed from two riffle habitats in southern New Hampshire, placed into artificial streams and subjected to additions of aluminum salts and sulfuric acid for a three-day period. Acute mortality and the drifting behavior over the three-day period were then analyzed using multiple linear regression. Aluminum additions caused increased mortality in the stonefly Nemoura nigratta and the caddisfly Macronema spp.; aluminum additions also increased the drift of the caddisfly Potamyia flava, but the response was small and likely due to the increased salinities in aluminum treatments.

  17. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate analysis for the characterization and discrimination of extractable and nonextractable polyphenols and glucosinolates from red cabbage and Brussels sprout waste streams.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Raes, Katleen; Vanhoutte, Hanne; Coelus, Sofie; Smagghe, Guy; Van Camp, John

    2015-07-10

    Nonextractable polyphenol (NEP) fractions are usually ignored because conventional extraction methods do not release them from the plant matrix. In this study, we optimized the conditions for sonicated alkaline hydrolysis to the residues left after conventional polyphenol extraction of Brussels sprouts top (80°C, 4M NaOH, 30min) and stalks (60°C, 4M NaOH, 30min), and red cabbage waste streams (80°C, 4M NaOH, 45min) to release and characterize the NEP fraction. The NEP fractions of Brussels sprouts top (4.8±1.2mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g dry waste) and stalks (3.3±0.2mg GAE/g dry waste), and red cabbage (11.5mg GAE/g dry waste) waste have significantly higher total polyphenol contents compared to their respective extractable polyphenol (EP) fractions (1.5±0.0, 2.0±0.0 and 3.7±0.0mg GAE/g dry waste, respectively). An LC-MS method combined with principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to tentatively identify and discriminate the polyphenol and glucosinolate composition of the EP and NEP fractions. Results revealed that phenolic profiles of the EP and NEP fractions are different and some compounds are only found in either fraction in all of the plant matrices. This suggests the need to account both fractions when analyzing the polyphenol and glucosinolate profiles of plant matrices to attain a global view of their composition. This is the first report on the discrimination of the phenolic and glucosinolate profiles of the EP and NEP fractions using metabolomics techniques.

  18. Landscape-scale variability of acidity and dissolved organic carbon during spring flood in a boreal stream network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffam, Ishi; Laudon, Hjalmar; Temnerud, Johan; MöRth, Carl-Magnus; Bishop, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    Acidity is well known to influence stream biota, but the less well-studied spatial and temporal distributions of acidity are likely to play a larger ecological role than average values. We present data on spatial variability of chemical parameters contributing to acidity during winter baseflow and spring flood periods in Krycklan, a fourth-order boreal stream network in northern Sweden. Fifteen stream sites were monitored in subcatchments spanning 3 orders of magnitude in size and representing a wide range of percent wetland. At baseflow, pH ranged from 3.9 to 6.5 at the different sites. Baseflow dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration varied by an order of magnitude and was positively correlated with subcatchment percent wetland, resulting in high spatial variability in dissociated organic acids (OA-). During spring flood, DOC and OA- increased in forested sites and decreased in wetland sites, resulting in reduced spatial variability in their concentrations. In contrast, base cations and strong acid anions diluted throughout the stream network, resulting in decreased acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) at all sites. The spatial variability of base cations increased slightly with high flow. As a result of the changes in OA- and ANC, pH dropped at all but the most acidic site, giving a slightly narrowed pH range during spring flood (4.2-6.1). The transition from winter to spring flood stream chemistry could largely be explained by: (1) a shift from mineral to upper riparian organic soil flow paths in forested catchments and (2) dilution of peat water with snowmelt in wetland catchments.

  19. Integrated conversion of food waste diluted with sewage into volatile fatty acids through fermentation and electricity through a fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Arslan, Doga; Van Bogaert, Gilbert; Gallego, Yolanda Alvarez; De Wever, Heleen; Diels, Ludo; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, domestic wastewater was given a second life as dilution medium for concentrated organic waste streams, in particular artificial food waste. A two-step continuous process with first volatile fatty acid (VFA)/hydrogen production and second electricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was employed. For primary treatment, bioreactors were optimized to produce hydrogen and VFAs. Hydrolysis of the solids and formation of fermentation products and hydrogen was monitored. In the second step, MFCs were operated batch-wise using the effluent rich in VFAs specifically acetic acid from the continuous reactor of the first step. The combined system was able to reduce the chemical oxygen demand load by 90%. The concentration of VFAs was also monitored regularly in the MFCs and showed a decreasing trend over time. Further, the anode potential changed from -500 to OmV vs. Ag/AgCl when the VFAs (especially acetate) were depleted in the system. On feeding the system again with the effluent, the anode potential recovered back to -500 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Thus, the overall aim of converting chemical energy into electrical energy was achieved with a columbic efficiency of 46% generating 65.33 mA/m2 at a specific cell potential of 148 mV.

  20. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  1. Variability of Near-stream, Sub-surface Major-ion and Tracer Concentrations in an Acid Mine Drainage Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencala, K. E.; Kimball, B. A.; Runkel, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    In acid mine drainage environments, tracer-injection and synoptic sampling approaches provide tools for making operational estimates of solute loading within a stream segment. Identifying sub-surface contaminant sources remains a challenge both for characterization of in-stream metal loading and hydrological process research. There is a need to quantitatively define the character and source of contaminants entering streams from ground-water pathways, as well as the potential for changes in water chemistry and contaminant concentrations along these flow paths crossing the sediment-water interface. Complicating the identification of inflows is the mixing of solute sources which may occur in the `near-stream' subsurface areas and specifically along hyporheic exchange flows (HEFs). In Mineral Creek (Silverton, Colorado), major-ion (SO42-, Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) meter-scale sampling shows that subsurface inflows and likely HEFs occur in a hydro- geochemical setting of significant, one order-of-magnitude, spatial variation in the solute concentrations. Transient Storage Models (TSMs) are a tool for interpreting the in-stream responses of solute transport in streams influenced by hyporheic exchange flows. Simulations using the USGS TSM code OTIS are interpreted as suggesting that in Mineral Creek the strong concentration `tailing' of bromide following the tracer injection occurred, at least in part, from HEFs in a hydro - solute transport setting of likely multiple, dispersed and mixed sources of water along a 64 m sub-reach of the nominally gaining stream. In acid mine drainage environments, the ability to distinguish between local and deep solute sources is critical in modeling reactive transport along the stream, as well as in identifying the geochemical evolution of dispersed, subsurface inflows thorough the catchment.

  2. Decontamination of uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical fluid and nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jinhyun; Kim, Jungsoo; Lee, Youngbae; Seol, Jeunggun; Ryu, Jaebong; Park, Kwangheon

    2011-07-01

    The waste oil used in nuclear fuel processing is contaminated with uranium because of its contact with materials or environments containing uranium. Under current law, waste oil that has been contaminated with uranium is very difficult to dispose of at a radioactive waste disposal site. To dispose of the uranium-contaminated waste oil, the uranium was separated from the contaminated waste oil. Supercritical R-22 is an excellent solvent for extracting clean oil from uranium-contaminated waste oil. The critical temperature of R-22 is 96.15 °C and the critical pressure is 49.9 bar. In this study, a process to remove uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 was developed. The waste oil has a small amount of additives containing N, S or P, such as amines, dithiocarbamates and dialkyldithiophosphates. It seems that these organic additives form uranium-combined compounds. For this reason, dissolution of uranium from the uranium-combined compounds using nitric acid was needed. The efficiency of the removal of uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 extraction and nitric acid treatment was determined.

  3. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation. Annual report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, `Ken-Flote` column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  4. Variation in trace-element accumulation in predatory fishes from a stream contaminated by coal combustion waste.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Mills, Gary L; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2014-04-01

    Extensive and critical evaluation can be required to assess contaminant bioaccumulation in large predatory fishes. Species differences in habitat use, resource use, and trophic level, often influenced by body form, can result in diverging contaminant bioaccumulation patterns. Moreover, the broad size ranges inherent with large-bodied fish provide opportunity for trophic and habitat shifts within species that can further influence contaminant exposure. We compared contaminant bioaccumulation in four fish species, as well as two herbivorous invertebrates, from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream. Muscle, liver, and gonad tissue were analyzed from fish stratified across the broadest size ranges available. Effects of trophic position (δ (15)N), carbon sources (δ (13)C), and body size varied among and within species. Mercury and cesium concentrations were lowest in the invertebrates and increased with trophic level both among and within fish species. Other elements, such as vanadium, cadmium, barium, nickel, and lead, had greater levels in herbivorous invertebrates than in fish muscle. Sequestration by the fish livers averted accumulation in muscle. Consequently, fish liver tissue appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of bioavailability, but exceptions existed. Despite liver sequestration, within fishes, muscle concentrations of many elements still tended to increase by trophic level. Notable variation within some species was observed. These results illustrate the utility of stable isotope data in exploring differences of bioaccumulation within taxa. Our analyses suggest a need for further evaluation of the underlying sources of this variability to better understand contaminant bioaccumulation in large predatory fishes.

  5. Solid recovered fuel: influence of waste stream composition and processing on chlorine content and fuel quality.

    PubMed

    Velis, Costas; Wagland, Stuart; Longhurst, Phil; Robson, Bryce; Sinfield, Keith; Wise, Stephen; Pollard, Simon

    2012-02-07

    Solid recovered fuel (SRF) produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal waste can replace fossil fuels, being a CO(2)-neutral, affordable, and alternative energy source. SRF application is limited by low confidence in quality. We present results for key SRF properties centered on the issue of chlorine content. A detailed investigation involved sampling, statistical analysis, reconstruction of composition, and modeling of SRF properties. The total chlorine median for a typical plant during summer operation was 0.69% w/w(d), with lower/upper 95% confidence intervals of 0.60% w/w(d) and 0.74% w/w(d) (class 3 of CEN Cl indicator). The average total chlorine can be simulated, using a reconciled SRF composition before shredding to <40 mm. The relative plastics vs paper mass ratios in particular result in an SRF with a 95% upper confidence limit for ash content marginally below the 20% w/w(d) deemed suitable for certain power plants; and a lower 95% confidence limit of net calorific value (NCV) at 14.5 MJ kg(ar)(-1). The data provide, for the first time, a high level of confidence on the effects of SRF composition on its chlorine content, illustrating interrelationships with other fuel properties. The findings presented here allow rational debate on achievable vs desirable MBT-derived SRF quality, informing the development of realistic SRF quality specifications, through modeling exercises, needed for effective thermal recovery.

  6. Valorisation to biogas of macroalgal waste streams: a circular approach to bioproducts and bioenergy in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Silvia; Stokes, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Seaweeds (macroalgae) have been recently attracting more and more interest as a third generation feedstock for bioenergy and biofuels. However, several barriers impede the deployment of competitive seaweed-based energy. The high cost associated to seaweed farming and harvesting, as well as their seasonal availability and biochemical composition currently make macroalgae exploitation too expensive for energy production only. Recent studies have indicated a possible solution to aforementioned challenges may lay in seaweed integrated biorefinery, in which a bioenergy and/or biofuel production step ends an extractions cascade of high-value bioproducts. This results in the double benefit of producing renewable energy while adopting a zero waste approach, as fostered by recent EU societal challenges within the context of the Circular Economy development. This study investigates the biogas potential of residues from six indigenous Irish seaweed species while discussing related issues experienced during fermentation. It was found that Laminaria and Fucus spp. are the most promising seaweed species for biogas production following biorefinery extractions producing 187-195 mL CH4 gVS(-1) and about 100 mL CH4 gVS(-1) , respectively, exhibiting overall actual yields close to raw un-extracted seaweed.

  7. Bio-Based Production of Dimethyl Itaconate From Rice Wine Waste-Derived Itaconic Acid.

    PubMed

    Joo, Young-Chul; You, Seung Kyou; Shin, Sang Kyu; Ko, Young Jin; Jung, Ki Ho; Sim, Sang A; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-08-28

    Dimethyl itaconate is an important raw material for copolymerization, but it is not synthesized from itaconic acid by organisms. Moreover, Corynebacterium glutamicum is used as an important industrial host for the production of organic acids, but it does not metabolize itaconic acid. Therefore, the biosynthetic route toward dimethyl itaconate from itaconic acid is highly needed. In this study, a biological procedure for dimethyl itaconate production is developed from rice wine waste-derived itaconic acid using the engineered C. glutamicum strain. The first step is to investigate the effect of the co-overexpression of the codon-optimized cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (CadA*) and a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in acetic acid metabolism (RamA) on itaconic acid production. The second step is to convert itaconic acid into dimethyl itaconate by lipase-catalyzed esterification. The CadA* and RamA-overexpressing CG4 strain increases the itaconic acid concentration under N-starvation with glucose and acetic acid compared with the concentration produced in the base mCGXII medium with glucose. Furthermore, the rice wine waste-derived itaconic acid is successfully converted into dimethyl itaconate using lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and a methanol substrate. This study is the first trial for bio-based production of dimethyl itaconate from rice wine waste-derived itaconic acid. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m(2) g(-1), which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g(-1) of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste.

  9. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis–sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g−1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g−1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)–sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  10. FINAL REPORT FOR THE REDUCTION OF CHROME (VI) TO CHROME (III) IN THE SECONDARY WASTE STREAM OF THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; GUTHRIE MD

    2008-08-29

    This report documents the laboratory results of RPP-PLAN-35958, Test Plan for the Effluent Treatment Facility to Reduce Chrome (VI) to Chrome (III) in the Secondary Waste Stream With the exception of the electrochemical corrosion scans, all work was carried out at the Center for Laboratory Science (CLS) located at the Columbia Basin College. This document summarizes the work carried out at CLS and includes the electrochemical scans and associated corrosion rates for 304 and 316L stainless steel.

  11. [Analysis of microbial community structure in lactic acid fermentation from kitchen waste].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Qun-Hui; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Qiu, Tian-Lei; Li, Huan

    2012-09-01

    In this study, PCR-DGGE was used to analyze the microbial community structure in lactic acid fermentation from kitchen waste. The results showed that with Lactobacillus amylophilus inoculation, both the microbial diversity and lactic acid production in the open fermentation system were higher than those in the sterilized fermentation system. These results indicated that the microbial diversity and the lactic acid production have great correlation in the kitchen waste fermentation system. Through analyzing the sequence of some DNA bands excised from the DGGE gel, it showed that in addition to the inoculation of Lactobacillus amylophilus there were some indigenous lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum and indigenous hydrolytic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas sp.. These indigenous bacteria can help to promote lactic acid production. PCR-DGGE is feasible for analyzing the dynamic changes of microbial community structure in kitchen waste with complicated composition.

  12. The Response of Stream and Soil Chemistry to Decreases in Acid Deposition in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, M. R.; Burns, D. A.; Siemion, J.; Antidormi, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Catskill Mountains have been adversely impacted by decades of acid deposition, however, since the early 1990s, acid deposition levels have decreased sharply as a result of decreases in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study is to provide updated trends in acid deposition and stream-water chemistry in the southeastern Catskill Mountains and to examine whether soil chemistry has shown signs of recovery during the past 2 decades. We measured significant reductions in acid deposition in the region during the 23 year period from 1992 to 2014. The reductions were reflected in significant improvement in stream-water quality in all 5 of the streams included in this study. The largest and most significant trends were for sulfate (SO42-) concentrations (mean trend of -2.5 μeq L-1 yr-1 for 5 sites); hydrogen ion (H+) also decreased significantly as did inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) which is toxic to some aquatic biota (mean trends of -0.3 μeq L-1 yr-1 for H+ and -0.1 μeq L-1 yr-1 for Alim for the 3 most acidic sites). Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) increased a mean of 0.65 μeq L-1 yr-1 for all 5 sites, which was 4 fold less than the decrease in SO42- concentrations. These upward trends in ANC were limited in part by coincident decreases in base cations (-1.3 μeq L-1 yr-1 for calcium + magnesium). No significant trends were detected in stream-water nitrate (NO3-) concentrations despite significant decreasing trends in NO3- deposition. This incongruity is likely caused by the large biological demand and complex cycling processes of nitrogen. Despite the decreases in stream-water acidity, we measured no recovery in soil chemistry which we attributed to soils with low buffering capacity that have been further depleted by decades of acid deposition. Tightly coupled decreasing trends in stream-water silicon (Si) (-0.2 μeq L-1 yr-1) and base cations suggest a decrease in the soil mineral weathering rate. We hypothesize that a

  13. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  14. In situ volatile fatty acids influence biogas generation from kitchen wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiyang; Zhao, Mingxing; Miao, Hengfeng; Huang, Zhenxing; Gao, Shumei; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is considered to be an efficient way of disposing kitchen wastes, which can not only reduce waste amounts, but also produce biogas. However, the excessive accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) caused by high organic loads will inhibit anaerobic digestion intensively. Effects of the VFA composition on biogas generation and microbial community are still required for the investigation under various organic loads of kitchen wastes. Our results showed that the maximum specific methane production was 328.3 ml g TS(-1), and acetic acid was the main inhibitor in methanogenesis. With the increase of organic load, aceticlastic methanogenesis was more sensitive to acetic acid than hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Meanwhile, methanogenic microbial community changed significantly, and few species grew well under excessive organic loads. This study provides an attempt to reveal the mechanism of VFA inhibition in anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes.

  15. Using marble wastes as a soil amendment for acidic soil neutralization.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Oztas, Taskin; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2014-01-15

    One of the most important factors limiting plant growth is soil pH. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of marble waste applications on neutralization of soil acidity. Marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) were applied to an acid soil at different rates and their effectiveness on neutralization was evaluated by a laboratory incubation test. The results showed that soil pH increased from 4.71 to 6.36 and 6.84 by applications of MCW and MQW, respectively. It was suggested that MQW and MCW could be used as soil amendments for the neutralization of acid soils and thus the negative impact of marble wastes on the environment could be reduced.

  16. Acidification and Prognosis for Future Recovery of Acid-Sensitive Streams in the Southern Blue Ridge Province

    Treesearch

    Timothy Sullivan; Bernard Cosby; William Jackson; Kai Snyder; Alan Herlihy

    2011-01-01

    This study applied the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC) to estimate the sensitivity of 66 watersheds in the Southern Blue Ridge Province of the Southern Appalachian Mountains, United States, to changes in atmospheric sulfur (S) deposition. MAGIC predicted that stream acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) values were above 20 μeq/L in all modeled...

  17. An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of Cesium 137 from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions - Parts 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    T. J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschchagina; V. Utgikar

    2009-03-01

    A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales. A new inorganic ion exchange composite consisting of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C) has been developed. Two different batches of the sorbent were produced resulting in 20% and 25% AMP loading for two and three loading cycles, respectively. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Equilibrium isotherms obtained from these experiments

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

  19. Investigating the Copper Isotope Composition of Red Mountain Creek: a Stream Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, B. E.; Mathur, R.; Brantley, S. L.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding the sources of metals and the processes that affect their transport in watersheds affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) is central to improving stream water quality. Using a new technique to address an old problem, we measured the 65Cu/63Cu ratios in filtered (pore size = 0.45μm or 0.22μm) and unfiltered samples of AMD-impacted streamwater collected during low-flow conditions from Red Mountain Creek near Silverton, Colorado. Red Mountain Creek is a small mountain stream receiving metal-rich, acidic drainage from acid-sulfate and quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zones within dacitic-andesitic lavas and volcaniclastic sediments. We measured δ65Cu values [where δ65Cu = ((65Cu/63Cusample/65Cu/63Custandard) - 1) × 103] on a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer; instrumental mass bias was corrected by doping with the Johnson-Mattey Zn solution and bracketing with the NIST976 standard. All samples are enriched in 65Cu, with δ65Cu values ranging from 1.03 ± 0.10‰ to 3.76 ± 0.10‰ (2σ). Higher values correspond to an inflow emanating from a mineshaft that shows the highest Cu concentration (10.4 mg/L). As Cu becomes less concentrated downstream, the δ65Cu values generally decrease. At two of the three sample locations, the filtered samples are more enriched in 65Cu than the unfiltered samples, which contain suspended precipitates. These results are consistent with previous batch-leach experiments showing that during dissolution of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and chalcocite (Cu2S) (with and without Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans), Cu released into solution by leaching was enriched in 65Cu and Cu precipitates were depleted relative to the starting sulfide minerals. This fractionation may indicate that biotic (e.g., microbial metabolism) and/or abiotic processes (e.g., metal sorption and mineral precipitation) induce isotope effects during Cu partitioning. Future measurements of 65Cu/63Cu ratios in primary Cu-sulfide minerals and

  20. Strong Seasonality in the Response of Streams to Declining Acidic Deposition—the Latest on the Chemical Recovery of Adirondack Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G. B.; Siemion, J.; Baldigo, B. P.; Roy, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Acidic deposition effects on surface waters have been well documented in North America, and several decades of declining sulfur deposition along with more recent declines in nitrogen deposition have shifted the focus to recovery. Partial chemical recovery of surface waters has been recorded in impacted areas such as the Adirondack region of NY, but most information on surface-water recovery in the northeastern U.S. has been collected from lakes. Because lakes can provide in-lake acid-buffering that doesn't occur in streams, these water bodies may not follow the same recovery trajectory. To provide up-to-date information on how stream chemistry is responding to declining deposition, 64 Adirondack streams were sampled in 2004-05 during summer base flow and spring snowmelt, and again in 2014-15 during the same seasons and flow conditions. Two tributaries of Buck Creek, in the same region, also provided biweekly and event chemistry data from 1998 to 2015. Decreases in SO4 concentrations were observed in nearly all streams and were likely to be driving the decreases also observed in base-flow concentrations of inorganic monomeric Al, the form toxic to aquatic biota (P <0.01). Changes over time showed a strong seasonal dependency, with increases in pH and base-cation surplus (BCS) in the summer (P<0.01), but decreases in pH (P <0.01) and no change (P >0.1) in BCS during snowmelt. Despite decreasing atmospheric N deposition throughout the study period, concentrations of NO3 showed no difference between 2004-05 and 2014-15 on an annual basis (P >0.1), although concentrations were higher during snowmelt (P <0.05) and lower during summer (P <0.05) in 2004-05 than in 2014-15. Severe episodic acidification occurred throughout the record at Buck Creek during elevated flows, regardless of season. As a result of base flow recovery and continued high-flow acidification driven by NO3 release, wide fluctuations in stream chemistry continue to occur.

  1. Evaluation of extractants and chelating resins in polishing actinide-contaminated waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used for recovering plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, the trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remaining in the effluent require additional processing. We are doing research to develop a secondary unit operation that can directly polish the effluent so that actinide levels are reduced to below the maximum allowed for facility discharge. We selected solvent extraction, the only unit operation that can meet the stringent process requirements imposed; several carbonyl and phosphoryl extractants were evaluated and their performance characterized. We also investigated various engineering approaches for solvent extraction; the most promising was a chelating resin loaded with extractant. Our research now focuses on the synthesis of malonamides, and our goal is to bond these extractants to a resin matrix. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of phenolic resin containing waste streams to sequentially recover monomers and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.

    1992-08-04

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a waste phenolic resin containing feedstreams in a manner such that pyrolysis of said resins and a given high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolyses of the resins in other monomeric components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said resin and a given high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other monomeric components; selecting, if desired, a catalyst and a support and treating said feedstreams with said catalyst to effect acid or basic catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said first temperature program range to utilize reactive gases such as oxygen and steam in the pyrolysis process to drive the production of specific products; differentially heating said feedstreams at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantity of said high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other monomeric components therein; separating said high value monomeric constituent; selecting a second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said phenolic resins waste and differentially heating said feedstreams at said higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said different high value monomeric constituent; and separating said different high value monomeric constituent. 11 figs.

  3. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of phenolic resin containing waste streams to sequentially recover monomers and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Evans, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a waste phenolic resin containing feedstreams in a manner such that pyrolysis of said resins and a given high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolyses of the resins in other monomeric components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said resin and a given high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other monomeric components; selecting, if desired, a catalyst and a support and treating said feedstreams with said catalyst to effect acid or basic catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said first temperature program range to utilize reactive gases such as oxygen and steam in the pyrolysis process to drive the production of specific products; differentially heating said feedstreams at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantity of said high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other monomeric components therein; separating said high value monomeric constituent; selecting a second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said phenolic resins waste and differentially heating said feedstreams at said higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said different high value monomeric constituent; and separating said different high value monomeric constituent.

  4. Impact of acid mine drainage on benthic communities in streams: the relative roles of substratum vs. aqueous effects.

    PubMed

    DeNicol, Dean M; Stapleton, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    Restoration of streams impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD) focuses on improving water quality, however precipitates of metals on the substrata can remain and adversely affect the benthos. To examine the effects of AMD precipitates independently of aqueous effects, four substrata treatments, clean sandstone, clean limestone, AMD precipitate-coated sandstone and coated limestone, were placed in a circumneutral stream of high water quality for 4 weeks. Iron and Al were the most abundant metals on rocks with AMD precipitate. and significantly decreased after the exposure. Precipitate on the substrata did not significantly affect macroinvertebrate or periphyton density and species composition. In an additional experiment, percent survival of caged live caddisflies was significantly lower when exposed in situ for 5 days in an AMD affected stream than in a reference stream. Caddisfly whole-body concentrations of all combined metals and Fe alone were significantly higher in the AMD stream. Whole-body metal concentrations were higher in killed caddisflies than in live, indicating the importance of passive uptake. The results suggest the aqueous chemical environment of AMD had a greater affect on organisms than a coating of recent AMD precipitate on the substrata (ca. 0.5 mm thick), and treatment that improves water quality in AMD impacted streams has the potential to aid in recovery of the abiotic and biotic benthic environment.

  5. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  6. Long-term amelioration of acidity accelerates decomposition in headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gareth B; Woodward, Guy; Hildrew, Alan G

    2013-04-01

    The secondary production of culturally acidified streams is low, with a few species of generalist detritivores dominating invertebrate assemblages, while decomposition processes are impaired. In a series of lowland headwater streams in southern England, we measured the rate of cellulolytic decomposition and compared it with values measured three decades ago, when anthropogenic acidification was at its peak. We hypothesized that, if acidity has indeed ameliorated, the rate of decomposition will have accelerated, thus potentially supporting greater secondary production and the longer food chains that have been observed in some well-studied recovering freshwater systems. We used cellulose Shirley test cloth as a standardized bioassay to measure the rate of cellulolytic decomposition, via loss in tensile strength, for 31 streams in the Ashdown Forest over 7 days in summer 2011 and 49 days in winter 2012. We compared this with data from an otherwise identical study conducted in 1978 and 1979. In a secondary study, we determined whether decomposition followed a linear or logarithmic decay and, as Shirley cloth is no longer available, we tested an alternative in the form of readily available calico. Overall mean pH had increased markedly over the 32 years between the studies (from 6.0 to 6.7). In both the previous and contemporary studies, the relationship between decomposition and pH was strongest in winter, when pH reaches a seasonal minimum. As in the late 1970s, there was no relationship in 2011/2012 between pH and decay rate in summer. As postulated, decomposition in winter was significantly faster in 2011/2012 than in 1978/1979, with an average increase in decay rate of 18.1%. Recovery from acidification, due to decreased acidifying emissions and deposition, has led to an increase in the rate of cellulolytic decomposition. This response in a critical ecosystem process offers a potential explanation of one aspect of the limited biological recovery that has been

  7. Influence of lactic acid on the two-phase anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Cai, Wei-min; He, Pin-jing

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of lactic acid on the methanogenesis, anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes was firstly conducted in a two-phase anaerobic digestion process, and performance of two digesters fed with lactic acid and glucose was subsequently compared. The results showed that the lactic acid was the main fermentation products of hydrolysis-acidification stage in the two-phase anaerobic digestion process for kitchen wastes. The lactic acid concentration constituted approximately 50% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in the hydrolysis-acidification liquid. The maximum organic loading rate was lower in the digester fed with lactic acid than that fed with glucose. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and COD removal were deteriorated in the methanogenic reactor fed with lactic acid compared to that fed with glucose. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) declined to 0.343 g COD/(gVSSxd) when the COD loading were designated as 18.8 g/(Lxd) in the digester fed with lactic acid. The propionic acid accumulation occurred due to the high concentration of lactic acid fed. It could be concluded that avoiding the presence of the lactic acid is necessary in the hydrolysis-acidification process for the improvement of the two-phase anaerobic digestion process of kitchen wastes.

  8. Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

  9. Production of Caproic Acid from Mixed Organic Waste: An Environmental Life Cycle Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Caproic acid is an emerging platform chemical with diverse applications. Recently, a novel biorefinery process, that is, chain elongation, was developed to convert mixed organic waste and ethanol into renewable caproic acids. In the coming years, this process may become commercialized, and continuing to improve on the basis of numerous ongoing technological and microbiological studies. This study aims to analyze the environmental performance of caproic acid production from mixed organic waste via chain elongation at this current, early stage of technological development. To this end, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate the environmental impact of producing 1 kg caproic acid from organic waste via chain elongation, in both a lab-scale and a pilot-scale system. Two mixed organic waste were used as substrates: the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and supermarket food waste (SFW). Ethanol use was found to be the dominant cause of environmental impact over the life cycle. Extraction solvent recovery was found to be a crucial uncertainty that may have a substantial influence on the life-cycle impacts. We recommend that future research and industrial producers focus on the reduction of ethanol use in chain elongation and improve the recovery efficiency of the extraction solvent. PMID:28513150

  10. Production of Caproic Acid from Mixed Organic Waste: An Environmental Life Cycle Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Shan; Strik, David P B T B; Buisman, Cees J N; Kroeze, Carolien

    2017-06-20

    Caproic acid is an emerging platform chemical with diverse applications. Recently, a novel biorefinery process, that is, chain elongation, was developed to convert mixed organic waste and ethanol into renewable caproic acids. In the coming years, this process may become commercialized, and continuing to improve on the basis of numerous ongoing technological and microbiological studies. This study aims to analyze the environmental performance of caproic acid production from mixed organic waste via chain elongation at this current, early stage of technological development. To this end, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate the environmental impact of producing 1 kg caproic acid from organic waste via chain elongation, in both a lab-scale and a pilot-scale system. Two mixed organic waste were used as substrates: the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and supermarket food waste (SFW). Ethanol use was found to be the dominant cause of environmental impact over the life cycle. Extraction solvent recovery was found to be a crucial uncertainty that may have a substantial influence on the life-cycle impacts. We recommend that future research and industrial producers focus on the reduction of ethanol use in chain elongation and improve the recovery efficiency of the extraction solvent.

  11. Biochar soil amendment for waste-stream diversion, nutrient holding capacity, and carbon sequestration in two contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, L. M.; Crow, S. E.; Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Yanagida, J.

    2013-12-01

    tillage and ratoon (no-till) harvest. We expect that the physical soil differences due to tillage versus no-tillage with vegetative regrowth on the biochar-amended soil will increase the diversity of soil microbial community structure, potential for C sequestration, and overall valuation of biochar as a soil amendment for factors such as waste-stream diversion, nutrient