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Sample records for acid whey emulsions

  1. Optimization of folic acid nano-emulsification and encapsulation by maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions.

    PubMed

    Assadpour, Elham; Maghsoudlou, Yahya; Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Aalami, Mehran

    2016-05-01

    Due to susceptibility of folic acid like many other vitamins to environmental and processing conditions, it is necessary to protect it by highly efficient methods such as micro/nano-encapsulation. Our aim was to prepare and optimize real water in oil nano-emulsions containing folic acid by a low energy (spontaneous) emulsification technique so that the final product could be encapsulated within maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions. A non ionic surfactant (Span 80) was used for making nano-emulsions at three dispersed phase/surfactant ratios of 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0. Folic acid content was 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0mg/mL of dispersed phase by a volume fraction of 5.0, 8.5, and 12%. The final optimum nano-emulsion formulation with 12% dispersed phase, a water to surfactant ratio of 0.9 and folic acid content of 3mg/mL in dispersed phase was encapsulated within maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions. It was found that the emulsification time for preparing nano-emulsions was between 4 to 16 h based on formulation variables. Droplet size decreased at higher surfactant contents and final nano-emulsions had a droplet size<100 nm. Shear viscosity was higher for those formulations containing more surfactant. Our results revealed that spontaneous method could be used successfully for preparing stable W/O nano-emulsions containing folic acid.

  2. Whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized emulsions: Effect of polymer type and pH on release and topical delivery of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Combrinck, Johann; Otto, Anja; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2014-06-01

    Emulsions are widely used as topical formulations in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. They are thermodynamically unstable and require emulsifiers for stabilization. Studies have indicated that emulsifiers could affect topical delivery of actives, and this study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of different polymers, applied as emulsifiers, as well as the effects of pH on the release and topical delivery of the active. O/w emulsions were prepared by the layer-by-layer technique, with whey protein forming the first layer around the oil droplets, while either chitosan or carrageenan was subsequently adsorbed to the protein at the interface. Additionally, the emulsions were prepared at three different pH values to introduce different charges to the polymers. The active ingredient, salicylic acid, was incorporated into the oil phase of the emulsions. Physical characterization of the resulting formulations, i.e., droplet size, zeta potential, stability, and turbidity in the water phase, was performed. Release studies were conducted, after which skin absorption studies were performed on the five most stable emulsions, by using Franz type diffusion cells and utilizing human, abdominal skin membranes. It was found that an increase in emulsion droplet charge could negatively affect the release of salicylic acid from these formulations. Contrary, positively charged emulsion droplets were found to enhance dermal and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid from emulsions. It was hypothesized that electrostatic complex formation between the emulsifier and salicylic acid could affect its release, whereas electrostatic interaction between the emulsion droplets and skin could influence dermal/transdermal delivery of the active.

  3. In vitro digestion of Pickering emulsions stabilized by soft whey protein microgel particles: influence of thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anwesha; Murray, Brent; Holmes, Melvin; Ettelaie, Rammile; Abdalla, Azad; Yang, Xinyi

    2016-04-21

    Emulsions stabilized by soft whey protein microgel particles have gained research interest due to their combined advantages of biocompatibility and a high degree of resistance to coalescence. We designed Pickering oil-in-water emulsions using whey protein microgels by a facile route of heat-set gel formation followed by mechanical shear and studied the influence of heat treatment on emulsions stabilized by these particles. The aim of this study was to compare the barrier properties of the microgel particles and heat-treated fused microgel particles at the oil-water interface in delaying the digestion of the emulsified lipids using an in vitro digestion model. A combination of transmission electron microscopy and surface coverage measurements revealed an increased coverage of heat-treated microgel particles at the interface. The heat-induced microgel particle aggregation and, therefore, a fused network at the oil-water interface were more beneficial to delay the rate of digestion in the presence of pure lipase and bile salts compared to intact whey protein microgel particles, as shown by the measurements of zeta potential and free fatty acid release, plus theoretical calculations. However, simulated gastric digestion with pepsin impacted significantly on such barrier effects, due to the proteolysis of the particle network at the interface irrespective of the heat treatment, as visualized using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis measurements.

  4. Interfacial composition and stability of emulsions made with mixtures of commercial sodium caseinate and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Ye, Aiqian

    2008-10-15

    The interfacial composition and the stability of oil-in-water emulsion droplets (30% soya oil, pH 7.0) made with mixtures of sodium caseinate and whey protein concentrate (WPC) (1:1 by protein weight) at various total protein concentrations were examined. The average volume-surface diameter (d32) and the total surface protein concentration of emulsion droplets were similar to those of emulsions made with both sodium caseinate alone and WPC alone. Whey proteins were adsorbed in preference to caseins at low protein concentrations (<3%), whereas caseins were adsorbed in preference to whey proteins at high protein concentrations. The creaming stability of the emulsions decreased markedly as the total protein concentration of the system was increased above 2% (sodium caseinate >1%). This was attributed to depletion flocculation caused by the sodium caseinate in these emulsions. Whey proteins did not retard this instability in the emulsions made with mixtures of sodium caseinate and WPC.

  5. Enhanced stabilization of cloudy emulsions with gum Arabic and whey protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Klein, Miri; Aserin, Abraham; Svitov, Inna; Garti, Nissim

    2010-05-01

    Cloudy emulsions are oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions normally prepared as concentrates, further diluted, per request, into the final beverage. The cloudy emulsion provides flavor, color, and cloud (turbidity) to the soft drink. These systems are stabilized by emulsifiers and/or amphiphilic polysaccharides. Cloudy emulsions based on naturally occurring food grade emulsifiers were studied in the present work. Two charged natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum Arabic (GA), are interacted in aqueous solution to form charge-charge interactions improving the emulsion stability. The emulsions were high sheared (Microfluidizer) and characterized by particle size distribution analysis (DLS), optical centrifugation (LUMiFuge), optical microscopy observations, and turbidity measurements. Emulsions obtained from 10wt% of 3:1wt. ratio WPI:GA, at pH 7 (10wt% canola oil) show better stability than emulsions stabilized by GA or WPI alone. The droplet sizes were smaller than 1microm and did not grow significantly during 1 month of incubation at 25 degrees C. The D-limonene-based emulsion droplets were larger (> 2microm) than those made with vegetable oils immediately after preparation and underwent significant droplet size increase (coalescence) within 1 month (>8 microm). The emulsion with turbidity suitable as a cloudy emulsion was composed of 3wt% WPI:GA (3:1) and 20wt% canola oil.

  6. Citric acid fermentation in whey permeate

    SciTech Connect

    Somkuti, G.A.; Bencivengo, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acid-whey permeate was used for the production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger. The fermentation proceeded in 2 phases: a growth phase when citric acid was not accumulated, followed by an acidogenic phase when citric acid accumulated and mold growth was greatly reduced. Optimal production of citric acid occurred after 8-12 days at 30 degrees. Maximum citric acid yields were influenced by the initial lactose concentration and reached 10 g/l when the lactose concentration in the acid-whey permeate was adjusted to 15%. MeOH at 2-4% markedly increased the production of citric acid. Fermentation of acid-whey permeate by a mutant strain (A. niger 599-3) was more reproducible, and yields of citric acid were substantially improved. The amount of citric acid produced by A. niger 599-3 was 18-23 g/l after 12-14 days, depending on the lactose content of the whey permeate. Throughout the fermentation, galactose was apparently co-metabolized with glucose.

  7. Lactic acid bacteria production from whey.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Parada, María Elena; Nájera-Martínez, Minerva; Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2006-09-01

    The main purpose of this work was to isolate and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to be used for biomass production using a whey-based medium supplemented with an ammonium salt and with very low levels of yeast extract (0.25 g/L). Five strains of LAB were isolated from naturally soured milk after enrichment in whey-based medium. One bacterial isolate, designated MNM2, exhibited a remarkable capability to utilize whey lactose and give a high biomass yield on lactose. This strain was identified as Lactobacillus casei by its 16S rDNA sequence. A kinetic study of cell growth, lactose consumption, and titratable acidity production of this bacterial strain was performed in a bioreactor. The biomass yield on lactose, the percentage of lactose consumption, and the maximum increase in cell mass obtained in the bioreactor were 0.165 g of biomass/g of lactose, 100%, and 2.0 g/L, respectively, which were 1.44, 1.11, and 2.35 times higher than those found in flask cultures. The results suggest that it is possible to produce LAB biomass from a whey-based medium supplemented with minimal amounts of yeast extract.

  8. Physico-chemical characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions based on whey protein-phospholipid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sünder, A; Scherze, I; Muschiolik, G

    2001-07-01

    Emulsions prepared with whey proteins, phospholipids and 10% of vegetable oil were used for a model typifying dressings, coffee whitener and balanced diets. For the present study, two whey proteins (partial heat-denatured whey protein concentrate (WPC) and undenatured whey protein isolate (WPI)) in combination with different phospholipids (hydrolysed and unmodified deoiled lecithin) were chosen to investigate the interactions between proteins, phospholipids and salt (sodium chloride) in such emulsion systems. Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions (10 wt.% sunflower oil) containing various concentrations of commercial whey proteins (1-2%), phospholipids (0.39-0.78%) and salt (0.5-1.5%) were prepared using a laboratory high pressure homogeniser under various preparation conditions. Each emulsion was characterised by droplet size, creaming rate, flow behaviour and protein load. The dynamic surface activity of the whey proteins and lecithins at the oil-water interface was determined using the drop volume method. The properties of emulsions were significantly influenced by the content of whey protein. Higher protein levels improved the emulsion behaviour (smaller oil droplets and increased stability) independent of the protein or lecithin samples used. An increase of the protein content resulted in a lower tendency for oil droplet aggregation of emulsions with WPC to occur and emulsions tending towards a Newtonian flow behaviour. The emulsification temperature was especially important using the partial heat-denatured WPC in combination with the deoiled lecithin. A higher emulsification temperature (60 degrees C) promoted oil droplet aggregation, as well as an increased emulsion consistency. Emulsions with the WPC were significantly influenced by the NaCl content, as well as the protein-salt ratio. Increasing the NaCl content led to an increase of the droplet size, higher oil droplet aggregation, as well as to a higher creaming rate of the emulsions. An increase of the lecithin

  9. Whey protein isolate modified by transglutaminase aggregation and emulsion gel properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Weiwei; Chen, Chong; Liu, Mujun; Yu, Guoping; Cai, Xinghang; Guo, Peipei; Yao, Yuxiu; Mei, Sijie

    2015-07-01

    Whey protein isolate and commercial soybean salad oil were used to produce the WPI emulsion dispersions. The properties of TG-catalyzed emulsion gelation produced from WPI emulsion dispersions were investigated by the amount of TG, temperature, pH and reaction time. Specifically, the texture properties (hardness and springiness), water-holding capacity and rheological properties (G' and G") were assessed. The result of Orthogonal tests showed WPI emulsion can form better hardness and springiness gel when the ratio of TG and WPI was 20U/g, pH 7.5, treatment temperature and time were 50°C and 3 h, respectively. The microstructure of TG emulsion gels was more compact, gel pore is smaller, distribution more uniform, the oil droplets size smaller compared with untreated emulsion gels. Compared to the control of rheological properties, G' and G" were significantly increased and G' > G", results showed that the gel was solid state, and TG speeded up the process of gelation.

  10. Influence of whey protein-beet pectin conjugate on the properties and digestibility of β-carotene emulsion during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Duoxia; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang; Panya, Atikorn; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The impact of a whey protein isolate (WPI)-beet pectin (BP) conjugate (formed by dry-heating) on the physical properties and digestibilities of β-carotene and carrier oil in oil-in-water emulsions was studied when they passed through a model gastrointestinal system. β-Carotene emulsions were stabilized by WPI, unconjugated and conjugated WPI-BP, separately. The emulsions were then passed through an in vitro digestion model and the mean droplet size, droplet distribution, zeta-potential, free fatty acids and β-carotene released were measured. The stability to droplet flocculation and coalescence during digestion was increased for the WPI-BP conjugate stabilized emulsion. Addition of BP onto the WPI stabilized emulsions could inhibit the releases of carrier oil (MCT) and β-carotene. The releases of free fatty acids and β-carotene did not differ greatly between the unconjugated and conjugated WPI-BP stabilized emulsions. These results have important implications for protein-polysaccharide stabilized emulsions and conjugates used for the protection and delivery of bioactive compounds.

  11. Pickering emulsions stabilized by whey protein nanoparticles prepared by thermal cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Luhai; Wang, Ze; Yan, Xinzhong; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2015-03-01

    A Pickering (o/w) emulsion was formed and stabilized by whey protein isolate nanoparticles (WPI NPs). Those WPI NPs were prepared by thermal cross-linking of denatured WPI proteins within w/o emulsion droplets at 80°C for 15 min. During heating of w/o emulsions containing 10% (w/v) WPI proteins in the water phase, the emulsions displayed turbid-transparent-turbid phase transitions, which is ascribed to the change in the size of the protein-containing water droplets caused by thermal cross-linking between denatured protein molecules. The transparent stage indicated the formation of WPI NPs. WPI NPs of different sizes were obtained by varying the mixing speed. WPI NPs of 200-500 nm were selected to prepare o/w Pickering emulsions because of their good stability against coalescence. By Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, it was observed that WPI NPs were closely packed and distributed at the surface of the emulsion droplets. By measuring water contact angles of WPI NPs films, it was found that under most conditions WPI NPs present good partial wetting properties, but that at the isoelectric point (pI) and high ionic strength the particles become more hydrophobic, resulting in less stable Pickering emulsion. Thus, at pH above and below the pI of WPI NPs and low to moderate ionic strengths (1-10 mM), and with a WPI NPs concentration of 2% (w/v), a stable Pickering emulsion can be obtained. The results may provide useful information for applications of WPI NPs in environmentally friendly and food grade applications, notably in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

  12. Double emulsions stabilized by a charged complex of modified pectin and whey protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Rachel; Aserin, Abraham; Wicker, Louis; Garti, Nissim

    2009-08-01

    Double emulsions based on naturally occurring stabilizers for food applications were studied. Two charged biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and enzymatic modified pectins, interacted in aqueous solution to form a charge-charge complex that was utilized as a hydrophilic polymeric steric stabilizer improving the double emulsion stability. The main factors that influence the interaction between protein and pectin were investigated in relation to double emulsion stability: creaming, coalescence, and water transport between aqueous phases. The pH determined the size of the complex formed. Thus at pH 6, where a soluble complex was obtained between some molecular positively charged patches on the protein and negatively charged fractions of the hydrocolloids, the double emulsion was the most stable. With the smallest droplet size (ca. 15 microm), the lowest creaming, highest yield, and minimized water transport were obtained. The best concentration and ratio to form the soluble complex are 4 wt% WPI and 0.5 wt% pectin (for 30 wt% of the W/O inner phase). The influence of the charge distribution (degree of order of the carboxylic groups) of the pectin on the associated complex was also investigated, and it was found that the more "ordered" pectin (U63) formed the most stable double emulsion against water transport.

  13. Behaviour of formula emulsions containing hydrolysed whey protein and various lecithins.

    PubMed

    Tirok, S; Scherze, I; Muschiolik, G

    2001-07-01

    Formula emulsion systems are used as enteral, sports and health products. In some formulas addition of hydrolysed protein is necessary to guarantee ease of digestion and hypoallergenicity. In the low fat emulsion model an increase in the content of lecithin (phospholipid mixture) was required, in consideration of the advice of the Food and Nutrition Board (USA) for choline supplementation. The individual and interactive effects of whey protein isolate (WPI) or hydrolysate (WPH) (3.7 and 4.9% w/w), unmodified deoiled or hydrolysed lecithin (0.48 or 0.7% w/w) and carbohydrate in the form of maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) 18.5 or glucose syrup with DE 34 (11% w/w) on the properties of formula emulsions with 4% v/w sunflower oil, were investigated using a full factorial design. The emulsions were characterised by particle size distribution, coalescence stability, creaming rate, and also surface protein and lecithin concentration. WPI-containing emulsions proved to be stable against coalescence and showed only little creaming after 1 and 7 days standing. There was a significant increase in the mean droplet size and a significant deterioration of coalescence and creaming stability when WPH instead of WPI was used as the protein source, due to the lower number of large peptides and lower surface activity of the WPH. Increasing the WPH concentration led to an increase in oil droplet size and further deterioration of the stability of the emulsions. The starch hydrolysate and lecithin also significantly influenced the emulsion properties. Their influence was less strong when the emulsion contained WPI. Under the conditions used WPH-based emulsions were more stable, in terms of creaming and coalescence, when a low level of protein was used in conjunction with hydrolysed lecithin and glucose syrup. Oil droplets in emulsions containing unmodified lecithin in either the continuous or disperse phase and WPH in the continuous phase were very sensitive to coalescence

  14. Effect of xanthan/enzyme-modified guar gum mixtures on the stability of whey protein isolate stabilized fish oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Chityala, Pavan Kumar; Khouryieh, Hanna; Williams, Kevin; Conte, Eric

    2016-12-01

    The effect of xanthan gum (XG) and enzyme-modified guar (EMG) gum mixtures on the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of 2wt% whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing 20%v/v fish oil was investigated. EMG was obtained by hydrolyzing native guar gum using α-galactosidase enzyme. At higher gum concentrations (0.2 and 0.3wt%), the viscosity of the emulsions containing XG/EMG gum mixtures was significantly higher (P<0.05) of all emulsions. Increasing concentrations (0-0.3wt%) of XG/EMG gum mixtures did not affect the droplet size of emulsions. Microstructure images revealed decreased flocculation at higher concentrations. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation measurements indicated a slower rate of oxidation in emulsions containing XG/EMG gum mixtures, compared to XG, guar (GG), and XG/GG gum mixtures. These results indicate that XG/EMG gum mixtures can be used in O/W emulsions to increase physical and oxidative stabilities of polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  15. Influence of calcium, magnesium, or potassium ions on the formation and stability of emulsions prepared using highly hydrolyzed whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, C; Singh, H; Munro, P A; Singh, A M

    2000-05-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions (4 wt % soy oil) containing 4 wt % whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) (27% degree of hydrolysis) and different levels of calcium, magnesium, or potassium chloride were prepared in a two-stage homogenizer. Other emulsions containing 4 wt % WPH but including 0.35 wt % hydroxylated lecithin and different levels of the above minerals were similarly prepared. The formation and stability of these emulsions were determined by measuring oil droplet size distributions using laser light scattering and by confocal scanning laser microscopy and a gravity creaming test. Both lecithin-free and lecithin-containing emulsions showed no change in droplet size distributions with increasing concentration of potassium in the range 0-37.5 mM. In contrast, the diameter of emulsion droplets increased with increasing calcium or magnesium concentration >12.5 mM. Emulsions containing hydroxylated lecithin were more sensitive to the addition of calcium or magnesium than the lecithin-free emulsions. Storage of emulsions at 20 degrees C for 24 h further increased the diameter of droplets and resulted in extensive creaming in emulsions containing >25 mM calcium or magnesium. It appears that both flocculation and coalescence processes were involved in the destabilization of emulsions induced by the addition of divalent cations.

  16. Development of stable flaxseed oil emulsions as a potential delivery system of ω-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Upadhyay, Neelam; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit; Lal, Darshan; Sabikhi, Latha

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a stable flaxseed oil emulsion for the delivery of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids through food fortification. Oil-in-water emulsions containing 12.5 % flaxseed oil, 10 % lactose and whey protein concentrate (WPC)-80 ranging from 5 to 12.5 % were prepared at 1,500, 3,000 and 4,500 psi homogenization pressure. Flaxseed oil emulsions were studied for its physical stability, oxidative stability (peroxide value), particle size distribution, zeta (ζ)-potential and rheological properties. Emulsions homogenized at 1,500 and 4,500 psi pressure showed oil separation and curdling of WPC, respectively, during preparation or storage. All the combinations of emulsions (homogenized at 3,000 psi) were physically stable for 28 days at 4-7 ºC temperature and did not show separation of phases. Emulsion with 7.5 % WPC showed the narrowest particle size distribution (190 to 615 nm) and maximum zeta (ζ)-potential (-33.5 mV). There was a slight increase in peroxide value (~20.98 %) of all the emulsions (except 5 % WPC emulsion), as compared to that of free flaxseed oil (~44.26 %) after 4 weeks of storage. Emulsions showed flow behavior index (n) in the range of 0.206 to 0.591, indicating higher shear thinning behavior, which is a characteristic of food emulsions. Results indicated that the most stable emulsion of flaxseed oil (12.5 %) can be formulated with 7.5 % WPC-80 and 10 % lactose (filler), homogenized at 3,000 psi pressure. The formulated emulsion can be used as potential omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids delivery system in developing functional foods such as pastry, ice-creams, curd, milk, yogurt, cakes, etc.

  17. Chemical characterisation and application of acid whey in fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Lievore, Paolla; Simões, Deise R S; Silva, Karolline M; Drunkler, Northon L; Barana, Ana C; Nogueira, Alessandro; Demiate, Ivo M

    2015-04-01

    Acid whey is a by-product from cheese processing that can be employed in beverage formulations due to its high nutritional quality. The objective of the present work was to study the physicochemical characterisation of acid whey from Petit Suisse-type cheese production and use this by-product in the formulation of fermented milk, substituting water. In addition, a reduction in the fermentation period was tested. Both the final product and the acid whey were analysed considering physicochemical determinations, and the fermented milk was evaluated by means of sensory analysis, including multiple comparison and acceptance tests, as well as purchase intention. The results of the physicochemical analyses showed that whey which was produced during both winter and summer presented higher values of protein (1.22 and 0.97 %, w/v, respectively), but there were no differences in lactose content. During the autumn, the highest solid extract was found in whey (6.00 %, w/v), with larger amounts of lactose (4.73 %, w/v) and ash (0.83 %, w/v). When analysing the fermented milk produced with added acid whey, the acceptance test resulted in 90 % of acceptance; the purchase intention showed that 54 % of the consumers would 'certainly buy' and 38 % would 'probably buy' the product. Using acid whey in a fermented milk formulation was technically viable, allowing by-product value aggregation, avoiding discharge, lowering water consumption and shortening the fermentation period.

  18. Preparation of a multiple emulsion based on pectin-whey protein complex for encapsulation of saffron extract nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Faridi Esfanjani, Afshin; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Assadpour, Elham

    2017-04-15

    The present study illustrates a simple and practical way to produce an adequate delivery system of bioactive compounds of saffron by protein-polysaccharide complex. Frist, crocin, safranal, and picrocrocin were loaded in nanodroplets (<100nm) by using water in oil (W/O) microemulsions contain 5, and 10% aqueous saffron extract as a dispersed phase. These microemulsions were then covered with whey protein concentrate (WPC)-maltodextrin or WPC-pectin-maltodextrin through water in oil in water (W/O/W) multiple emulsions. The stability and release of loaded crocin, safranal, and picrocrocin in multiple emulsions were investigated during 22days storage. The produced multiple emulsion by WPC-pectin-maltodextrin along with 5% inner aqueous phase showed a high stability and low release of encapsulated compounds over time. This emulsion also provided a high protection of crocin, safranal, and picrocrocin in the gastric condition.

  19. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Modeling of Surface Interactions and Emulsions of Selected Whey Protein Concentrate Combined to i-Carrageenan and Gum Arabic Solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...

  20. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  1. Influence of maltodextrin and environmental stresses on stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Onsaard, E; Putthanimon, J; Singthong, J; Thammarutwasik, P

    2014-12-01

    The influence of maltodextrin with different concentrations (0-30%) and dextrose equivalent (dextrose equivalent 10 and dextrose equivalent 15) under different environmental stresses (pH 3-8, NaCl 0-500 mM, and sucrose 0-20%) on the stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions was investigated by mean particle diameter, particle size distribution, ζ-potential, microstructure, and viscosity. Sesame oil-in-water emulsions containing anionic droplets stabilized by interfacial membranes comprising whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan/maltodextrin (15% sesame oil, 0.5% whey protein concentrate, 0.2% κ-carrageenan, 0.02% sodium azide and 0-30% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 and 15, 5 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7) were produced using a homogenizer. The primary emulsion (1°) containing whey protein concentrate-coated droplets was prepared by homogenizing. The secondary emulsion (2°) containing whey protein concentrate-κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin was produced by mixing the 1° emulsion with an aqueous κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin solution. There were no significant changes in mean droplet diameter and ζ-potential of droplets at any maltodextrin concentration (0-30%) or dextrose equivalent (10 and 15) after 24 h storage. The apparent viscosity of emulsions increased when the maltodextrin concentration increased. The 2° emulsion containing 15% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 had the stability to aggregation at pH 6-8, NaCl ≤ 300 mM, and sucrose 0-20%. The addition of maltodextrin to emulsion can be used to form emulsions with different physicochemical properties for various applications in food processing (for example, encapsulation).

  2. Behaviour of whey protein emulsion gel during oral and gastric digestion: effect of droplet size.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Ye, Aiqian; Lad, Mita; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-06-21

    A set of whey protein stabilized-emulsion gels with different droplet size distributions (D4,3 = ∼1, 6 and 12 μm) was produced, and the mechanical properties of the gels in the linear viscoelastic region and at large deformation were measured, along with the physicochemical and structural changes of the gels during oral mastication and gastric digestion. The gels containing 1 μm oil droplets had an aggregated particle structure with proteins coating at oil droplets whereas the gels containing 12 μm oil droplets had a particle-filled structure with spatially continuous matrix. During oral processing, the release of oil droplets from the gels increased as the droplet size increased, with coalescence being seen in gels containing oil droplets of 6 and 12 μm diameter. Under gastric digestion, high degrees of coalescence and phase separation of oil droplets occurred in the gels containing 6 and 12 μm oil droplets because of oil droplet release from the gel matrix; this led to slow gastric emptying. The gels were finally broken down into peptide aggregates and oil droplets (or free oil). The gels, containing 1 μm oil droplets disintegrated into various particles of several to several tens of microns with a low degree of oil droplet release and coalescence. Protein breakdown was slower in these gels, suggesting that the protein structures of the gel matrices were affected by the sizes of the incorporated oil droplets.

  3. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  4. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  5. Functional properties of whey, whey components, and essential amino acids: mechanisms underlying health benefits for active people (review).

    PubMed

    Ha, Ewan; Zemel, Michael B

    2003-05-01

    Whey proteins and amino acid supplements have a strong position in the sports nutrition market based on the purported quality of proteins and amino acids they provide. Recent studies employing stable isotope methodology demonstrate the ability of whey proteins or amino acid mixtures of similar composition to promote whole body and muscle protein synthesis. Other developing avenues of research explore health benefits of whey that extend beyond protein and basic nutrition. Many bioactive components derived from whey are under study for their ability to offer specific health benefits. These functions are being investigated predominantly in tissue culture systems and animal models. The capacity of these compounds to modulate adiposity, and to enhance immune function and anti-oxidant activity presents new applications potentially suited to the needs of those individuals with active lifestyles. This paper will review the recent literature that describes functional properties of essential amino acids, whey proteins, whey-derived minerals and other compounds and the mechanisms by which they may confer benefits to active people in the context that exercise is a form of metabolic stress. The response to this stress can be positive, as with the accretion of more muscle and improved functionality or greater strength. However, overall benefits may be compromised if immune function or general health is challenged in response to the stress. From a mechanistic standpoint, whey proteins, their composite amino acids, and/or associated compounds may be able to provide substrate and bioactive components to extend the overall benefits of physical activity.

  6. Acid whey powder modification of gari from cassava

    SciTech Connect

    Okezie, B.O.; Kosikowski, F.V.

    1981-01-01

    Gari, a staple food consumed in Nigeria, is made from peeled and ground cassava tubers. The ground material is pressed with a stone slab for 2-4 days to remove moisture, and the partially fermented product is then baked over an open fire. Since gari mainly contributes energy to the diet, attempts were made to develop a more nutritious product without altering organoleptic and textural properties. In laboratory tests, ground cassava was fermented in stainless steel cheese vats for 4 days (to produce gari flavour) and then partially dehydrated by pressing in cheese cloth. A reduction in HCN content from 6.2 to 3.4 mg/100 g resulted. Various combinations of spray-dried acid whey, soya protein and freeze-dried Candida tropicalis were added to the fermented cassava, which was then pressure-cooked for 10 minutes at 121 degrees Celcius, dried and ground in a hammer mill. Product (i), made with gari fortified with 15% soya concentrate and 5% dried acid whey, was as acceptable as traditional gari and had a protein score of 75.8 vs. 9.91 for traditional gari. Product (ii), gari fortified with 20% yeast and 10% dried acid whey, had significantly lower scores for flavour and texture than traditional gari and the protein score was only 29.45. Supplementing gari with relatively inexpensive whey concentrates appears to be a means of overcoming protein energy malnutrition in children.

  7. Evaluation of folic acid release from spray dried powder particles of pectin-whey protein nano-capsules.

    PubMed

    Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Maghsoudlou, Yahya

    2017-02-01

    Our main goal was to evaluate release kinetics of nano-encapsulated folic acid within a double W1/O/W2 emulsion. First, W1/O nano-emulsions loaded with folic acid were prepared and re-emulsified into an aqueous phase (W2) containing single whey protein concentrate (WPC) layer or double layer complex of WPC-pectin to form W1/O/W2 emulsions. Final double emulsions were spray dried and their microstructure was analyzed in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Also the release trends of folic acid were determined and fitted with experimental models of zero and first order, Higuchi, and Hixson-Crowell. It was revealed that folic acid nano-capsules made with Span as the surfactant had the lowest release rate in acidic conditions (pH=4) and highest release in the alkaline conditions (pH=11). The best model fitting for folic acid release data was observed for single layer WPC encapsulated powders with the highest R(2). Our FTIR data showed there was no chemical interaction between WPC and pectin in double layered capsules and based on SEM results, single WPC layered capsules resulted in smooth and uniform particles which by incorporating pectin, some wrinkles and shrinkage were found in the surface of spray dried powder particles.

  8. The influence of flaxseed gum on the microrheological properties and physicochemical stability of whey protein stabilized β-carotene emulsions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Duoxia; Qi, Yameng; Wang, Xu; Li, Xin; Wang, Shaojia; Cao, Yanping; Wang, Chengtao; Sun, Baoguo; Decker, Eric; Panya, Atikorn

    2017-01-25

    The impact of flaxseed gum (FG) on the microrheological properties and physicochemical stability of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized β-carotene emulsions at pH 3.0 was studied. A layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition method was used to prepare multilayered β-carotene emulsions with interfacial membranes consisting of WPI and FG. The microrheological behavior of the multilayered β-carotene emulsions was measured through the diffusive wave spectroscopy technique. WPI alone and WPI-FG (concentration of FG = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 wt%) stabilized β-carotene emulsions were purely viscous giving a mean square displacement that scaled linearly with decorrelation time (τ). The presence of 0.01, 0.02, and 0.05 wt% FG in the WPI-stabilized emulsions caused them to exhibit viscoelastic properties. Meanwhile, the increase in τ reflected the increase in the length scale of connectivity in the emulsions until a "cluster" was formed and the droplets were not free to move due to droplet-network interaction. The apparent increase in the macroscopic viscosity and elasticity index and decrease in the solid lipid balance and fluidity index of emulsions with lower concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.05 wt%) of FG indicated that the bridging flocculation of FG had a much more appreciable influence on the microrheological properties than depletion flocculation (higher concentrations, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 wt%). Droplet size, zeta-potential, and transmission profiles using the centrifugal sedimentation technique and β-carotene degradation during storage were also characterized. With the addition of FG, the zeta-potential of WPI coated β-carotene droplets decreased from positive to negative, and an increase in the apparent droplet size was also noted. LUMISizer analysis exhibited an improvement in physical stability with the addition of 0.1 wt% FG. FG also helped to chemically stabilize the WPI emulsions against β-carotene degradation mainly by slowing down the mobility of the droplets.

  9. Effect of human and simulated gastric juices on the digestion of whey proteins and carboxymethylcellulose-stabilised O/W emulsions.

    PubMed

    Malinauskytė, Ernesta; Ramanauskaitė, Jovita; Leskauskaitė, Daiva; Devold, Tove G; Schüller, Reidar B; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we analysed the impact of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on lipid digestion and physicochemical properties of whey proteins (WP)-stabilised emulsions during in vitro digestion with either artificial or human gastrointestinal juices. The emulsions were made by adsorbing WP on the fat droplets and subsequently adding CMC, which does not interact with the adsorbed proteins. The limited hydrolysis of lipids and their higher physical stability was recorded for WP-stabilised emulsions in the presence of CMC under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The possible mechanism by which CMC lowers the digestion of WP-stabilised emulsions is related to the limited interaction of fat droplets with gastrointestinal fluids due to the extended thickening network formed by CMC in the continuous phase. The digestion of WP- and CMC-stabilised emulsions in the in vitro model with human gastric fluids led to greater lipid hydrolysis, although the enzymatic activity in both in vitro models was observed at the same level.

  10. Stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion using whey protein isolate-conjugated durian seed gum: enhancement of interfacial activity through conjugation process.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaee Amid, Bahareh; Mirhosseini, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    The present work was conducted to investigate the effect of purification and conjugation processes on functional properties of durian seed gum (DSG) used for stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was conjugated to durian seed gum through the covalent linkage. In order to prepare WPI-DSG conjugate, covalent linkage of whey protein isolate to durian seed gum was obtained by Maillard reaction induced by heating at 60 °C and 80% (±1%) relative humidity. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to test the formation of the covalent linkage between whey protein isolate and durian seed gum after conjugation process. In this study, W/O/W stabilized by WPI-conjugated DSG A showed the highest interface activity and lowest creaming layer among all prepared emulsions. This indicated that the partial conjugation of WPI to DSG significantly improved its functional characteristics in W/O/W emulsion. The addition of WPI-conjugated DSG to W/O/W emulsion increased the viscosity more than non-conjugated durian seed gum (or control). This might be due to possible increment of the molecular weight after linking the protein fraction to the structure of durian seed gum through the conjugation process.

  11. The formation of calcium lactate crystals is responsible for concentrated acid whey thickening.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, A; Bouhallab, S; Famelart, M H; Naegele, D; Schuck, P

    2007-01-01

    The use of spray drying for dehydration of acid whey is generally limited by the appearance of uncontrolled thickening and solidifying of the whey mass during the lactose crystallization step. The origin of this physical change is still unknown and probably linked to complex interactions between physical properties and chemical composition of these products. To understand this phenomenon, we simulated the thickening of concentrated acid whey on a laboratory scale by measuring the flow resistance changes as a function of time and whey composition. The thickening process was characterized by an amplitude of torque and a lag time (induction time). Thickening of lactic acid whey concentrate occurred regardless of the presence of whey proteins or lactose crystals. Moreover, this work clearly demonstrated that the thickening process was due to the formation of filamentous structures corresponding to calcium lactate crystals and showed a large dependence on calcium and lactate contents, pH, and phosphate concentration.

  12. Effects of xanthan-locust bean gum mixtures on the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of whey protein stabilised oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Khouryieh, Hanna; Puli, Goutham; Williams, Kevin; Aramouni, Fadi

    2015-01-15

    The effects of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG) mixtures (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5 wt%) on the physicochemical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilised oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing 20% v/v menhaden oil was investigated. At higher concentrations, the apparent viscosity of the emulsions containing XG/LBG mixtures was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the emulsions containing either XG or LBG alone. Locust bean gum showed the greatest phase separation, followed by XG. Microstructure images showed depletion flocculation at lower biopolymer concentrations, and thus led to an increase in creaming instability and apparent viscosity of the emulsions. Addition of 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5 wt% XG/LBG mixtures greatly decreased the creaming of the emulsions. The rate of lipid oxidation for 8-week storage was significantly lower (p<0.05) in emulsions containing XG/LBG mixtures than in emulsions containing either of the biopolymer alone.

  13. Physicochemical stability, microrheological properties and microstructure of lutein emulsions stabilized by multilayer membranes consisting of whey protein isolate, flaxseed gum and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Xu, Duoxia; Aihemaiti, Zulipiya; Cao, Yanping; Teng, Chao; Li, Xiuting

    2016-07-01

    The impact of chitosan (CTS) on the physicochemical stability, microrheological property and microstructure of whey protein isolate (WPI)-flaxseed gum (FG) stabilized lutein emulsions at pH 3.0 was studied. A layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition method was used to prepare multilayered lutein emulsions. Droplet size, zeta-potential, instability index, microstructure and microrheological behavior of lutein emulsions were measured. The influences of interfacial layer, metal chelator and free radical scavenger on the chemical stability of lutein emulsions were also investigated. It was found that multilayer emulsions had better physical stability showing the pronounced effect of 1wt% CTS. The mean square displacement analysis demonstrated that CTS led to increases of macroscopic viscosity and elasticity index for WPI-FG stabilized lutein emulsions due to CTS embedding in the network. CTS also helped to chemically stabilize the lutein emulsions against degradation. The combination of interfacial membrane and prooxidative metal chelator or free radical scavenger was an effective method to control lutein degradation.

  14. Ultrasonic energy input influence οn the production of sub-micron o/w emulsions containing whey protein and common stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Kaltsa, O; Michon, C; Yanniotis, S; Mandala, I

    2013-05-01

    Ultrasonication may be a cost-effective emulsion formation technique, but its impact on emulsion final structure and droplet size needs to be further investigated. Olive oil emulsions (20wt%) were formulated (pH∼7) using whey protein (3wt%), three kinds of hydrocolloids (0.1-0.5wt%) and two different emulsification energy inputs (single- and two-stage, methods A and B, respectively). Formula and energy input effects on emulsion performance are discussed. Emulsions stability was evaluated over a 10-day storage period at 5°C recording the turbidity profiles of the emulsions. Optical micrographs, droplet size and viscosity values were also obtained. A differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) multiple cool-heat cyclic method (40 to -40°C) was performed to examine stability via crystallization phenomena of the dispersed phase. Ultrasonication energy input duplication from 11kJ to 25kJ (method B) resulted in stable emulsions production (reduction of back scattering values, dBS∼1% after 10days of storage) at 0.5wt% concentration of any of the stabilizers used. At lower gum amount samples became unstable due to depletion flocculation phenomena, regardless of emulsification energy input used. High energy input during ultrasonic emulsification also resulted in sub-micron oil-droplets emulsions (D(50)=0.615μm compared to D(50)=1.3μm using method A) with narrower particle size distribution and in viscosity reduction. DSC experiments revealed no presence of bulk oil formation, suggesting stability for XG 0.5wt% emulsions prepared by both methods. Reduced enthalpy values found when method B was applied suggesting structural modifications produced by extensive ultrasonication. Change of ultrasonication conditions results in significant changes of oil droplet size and stability of the produced emulsions.

  15. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Listiyani, M A D; Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Dean, L O; Drake, M A

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations in dried whey products. No legal limit exists in the United States for BP use in whey, but international concerns exist. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide (HP) or BP bleaching on the flavor of 34% WPC (WPC34) and to evaluate residual BA in commercial and experimental WPC bleached with and without BP. Cheddar whey was manufactured in duplicate. Pasteurized fat-separated whey was subjected to hot bleaching with either HP at 500 mg/kg, BP at 50 or 100 mg/kg, or no bleach. Whey was ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC34. Color [L*(lightness), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue)] measurements and norbixin extractions were conducted to compare bleaching efficacy. Descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analyses were used to evaluate bleaching effects on flavor. Benzoic acid was extracted from experimental and commercial WPC34 and 80% WPC (WPC80) and quantified by HPLC. The b* value and norbixin concentration of BP-bleached WPC34 were lower than HP-bleached and control WPC34. Hydrogen peroxide-bleached WPC34 displayed higher cardboard flavor and had higher volatile lipid oxidation products than BP-bleached or control WPC34. Benzoyl peroxide-bleached WPC34 had higher BA concentrations than unbleached and HP-bleached WPC34 and BA concentrations were also higher in BP-bleached WPC80 compared with unbleached and HP-bleached WPC80, with smaller differences than those observed in WPC34. Benzoic acid extraction from permeate showed that WPC80 permeate contained more BA than did WPC34 permeate. Benzoyl peroxide is more effective in color removal of whey and results in fewer flavor side effects compared with HP and residual BA is

  16. Physical properties of emulsion-based hydroxypropyl methylcellulose/whey protein isolate (HPMC/WPI) edible films.

    PubMed

    Rubilar, Javiera F; Zúñiga, Rommy N; Osorio, Fernando; Pedreschi, Franco

    2015-06-05

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of the film microstructure of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/whey protein isolate (HPMC/WPI) with or without sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) over physical properties of HPMC/WPI emulsion-based films. The films were prepared with different HPMC/WPI-oil-SDS combinations (%w/w for 100g of dispersion): HPMC; WPI; HPMC/1WPI-0.5-SDS; HPMC/1WPI-1; HPMC/2WPI-0.5; HPMC/2WPI-1-SDS. Physical properties of films were evaluated. The results showed no statistical differences (p>0.05) between the thicknesses of EFs (0.156 ± 0.004 mm). The effect of oil content and incorporation of SDS showed the inverse trend for WI and ΔE, the increasing order of change, for WI and ΔE, among the formulation evaluated was: HPMC/1WPI-1>HPMC/2WPI-0.5>HPMC/2WPI-1.0-SDS≈HPMC/1WPI-0.5-SDS≈WPI>HPMC for WI and HPMC/1WPI-0.5-SDS>HPMC/2WPI-1.0-SDS>HPMC/2WPI-0.5>HPMC/1WPI-1 for ΔE, respectively. The addition of oil and SDS decreased the TS and EB, because oil addition into EF induces the development of structural discontinuities, producing an EF with less chain mobility, and consequently, with less flexibility and resistance to fracture.

  17. Succinic Acid Production from Cheese Whey using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Xiu, Shuangning

    Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z was used to produce succinic acid from cheese whey in this study. At the presence of external CO2 supply, the effects of initial cheese whey concentration, pH, and inoculum size on the succinic acid production were studied. The by-product formation during the fermentation process was also analyzed. The highest succinic acid yield of 0.57 was obtained at initial cheese whey concentration of 50 g/L, while the highest succinic acid productivity of 0.58 g h-1 L-1 was obtained at initial cheese whey concentration of 100 g/L. Increase in pH and inoculum size caused higher succinic acid yield and productivity. At the preferred fermentation condition of pH 6.8, inoculum size of 5% and initial cheese whey concentration of 50 g/L, succinic acid yield of 0.57, and productivity of 0.44 g h-1 L-1 were obtained. Acetic acid and formic acid were the main by-products throughout the fermentation run of 48 h. It is feasible to produce succinic acid using lactose from cheese whey as carbon resource by A. succinogenes 130 Z.

  18. Cheese whey: A cost-effective alternative for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabel R; Vázquez, José A; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Teixeira, José A

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the optimisation of cheese whey formulated media for the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Culture media containing whey (W; 2.1g/L) or whey hydrolysate (WH; 2.4 g/L) gave the highest HA productions. Both W and WH produced high yields on protein consumed, suggesting cheese whey is a good nitrogen source for S. zooepidemicus production of HA. Polysaccharide concentrations of 4.0 g/L and 3.2g/L were produced in W and WH in a further scale-up to 5L bioreactors, confirming the suitability of the low-cost nitrogen source. Cheese whey culture media provided high molecular weight (>3000 kDa) HA products. This study revealed replacing the commercial peptone by the low-cost alternative could reduce HA production costs by up to a 70% compared to synthetic media.

  19. Fermentation of lactose in direct-acid-set cottage cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Demott, B.J.; Draughon, F.A.; Herald, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Kluyveromyces fragilis was more suitable than Candida pseudotropicalis or K. lactis for production of EtOH from whey. Direct-acid-set cottage cheese whey and the supernatant fluid resulting from heat treatment of the whey at 95 degrees for 20 min showed similar rates of fermentation when inoculated with K. fragilis. Inoculation rates of 10, 12 and 14 mL of active K. fragilis culture/100 mL of media were not different in rate of EtOH production. Samples incubated with K. fragilis at 35, 37, 40 and 42 degrees showed more rapid reduction in specific gravity than samples incubated at room temperature or 30 degrees. Lactose conversion in whey was 83% complete and in whey supernatant fluid, 77%.

  20. Short communication: Conversion of lactose and whey into lactic acid by engineered yeast.

    PubMed

    Turner, Timothy L; Kim, Eunbee; Hwang, ChangHoon; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Liu, Jing-Jing; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-01-01

    Lactose is often considered an unwanted and wasted byproduct, particularly lactose trapped in acid whey from yogurt production. But using specialized microbial fermentation, the surplus wasted acid whey could be converted into value-added chemicals. The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly used for industrial fermentation, cannot natively ferment lactose. The present study describes how an engineered S. cerevisiae yeast was constructed to produce lactic acid from purified lactose, whey, or dairy milk. Lactic acid is an excellent proof-of-concept chemical to produce from lactose, because lactic acid has many food, pharmaceutical, and industrial uses, and over 250,000 t are produced for industrial use annually. To ferment the milk sugar lactose, a cellodextrin transporter (CDT-1, which also transports lactose) and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1, which also acts as a β-galactosidase) from Neurospora crassa were expressed in a S. cerevisiae strain. A heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (encoded by ldhA) from the fungus Rhizopus oryzae was integrated into the CDT-1/GH1-1-expressing strain of S. cerevisiae. As a result, the engineered strain was able to produce lactic acid from purified lactose, whey, and store-bought milk. A lactic acid yield of 0.358g/g of lactose was achieved from whey fermentation, providing an initial proof of concept for the production of value-added chemicals from excess industrial whey using engineered yeast.

  1. Influence of biopolymer emulsifier type on formation and stability of rice bran oil-in-water emulsions: whey protein, gum arabic, and modified starch.

    PubMed

    Charoen, Ratchanee; Jangchud, Anuvat; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Harnsilawat, Thepkunya; Naivikul, Onanong; McClements, David Julian

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health, flavor, and functional attributes. We investigated the effects of biopolymer emulsifier type and environmental stresses on the stability of RBO emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions (5% RBO, 10 mM citrate buffer) stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI), gum arabic (GA), or modified starch (MS) were prepared using high-pressure homogenization. The new MS used had a higher number of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) groups per starch molecule than conventional MS. The droplet diameters produced by WPI and MS were considerably smaller (d < 300 nm) than those produced by GA (d > 1000 nm). The influence of pH (3 to 8), ionic strength (0 to 500 mM NaCl), and thermal treatment (30 to 90 °C) on the physical stability of the emulsions was examined. Extensive droplet aggregation occurred in WPI-stabilized emulsions around their isoelectric point (4 < pH < 6), at high salt (> 200 mM, pH 7), and at high temperatures (>70 °C, pH 7, 150 mM NaCl), which was attributed to changes in electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between droplets. There was little effect of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on emulsions stabilized by GA or MS, which was attributed to strong steric stabilization. In summary: WPI produced small droplets at low concentrations, but they had poor stability to environmental stress; GA produced large droplets and needed high concentrations, but they had good stability to stress; new MS produced small droplets at low concentrations, with good stability to stress. Practical Application: This study showed that stable rice bran oil-in-water emulsions can be formed using biopolymer emulsifiers. These emulsions could be used to incorporate RBO into a wide range of food products. We compared the relative performance of whey protein, GA, and a new MS at forming and stabilizing the emulsions. The new OSA MS was capable of forming small stable droplets at relatively low

  2. Application of infrared portable sensor technology for predicting perceived astringency of acidic whey protein beverages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Tan, Siow-Ying; Mutilangi, William; Plans, Marcal; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Formulating whey protein beverages at acidic pH provides better clarity but the beverages typically develop an unpleasant and astringent flavor. Our aim was to evaluate the application of infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in predicting astringency of acidic whey protein beverages. Whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) from different manufacturers were used to formulate beverages at pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.9. Trained panelists using the spectrum method of descriptive analysis tested the beverages providing astringency scores. A portable Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy attenuated total reflectance spectrometer was used for spectra collection that was analyzed by multivariate regression analysis (partial least squares regression) to build calibration models with the sensory astringency scores. Beverage astringency scores fluctuated from 1.9 to 5.2 units and were explained by pH, protein type (WPC, WPI, or WPH), source (manufacturer), and their interactions, revealing the complexity of astringency development in acidic whey protein beverages. The WPC and WPH beverages showed an increase in astringency as the pH of the solution was lowered, but no relationship was found for WPI beverages. The partial least squares regression analysis showed strong relationship between the reference astringency scores and the infrared predicted values (correlation coefficient >0.94), giving standard error of cross-validation ranging from 0.08 to 0.12 units, depending on whey protein type. Major absorption bands explaining astringency scores were associated with carboxylic groups and amide regions of proteins. The portable infrared technique allowed rapid prediction of astringency of acidic whey protein beverages, providing the industry a novel tool for monitoring sensory characteristics of whey-containing beverages.

  3. Molecular evolution of monotreme and marsupial whey acidic protein genes.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julie A; Lefèvre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    Whey acidic protein (WAP), a major whey protein present in milk of a number of mammalian species has characteristic cysteine-rich domains known as four-disulfide cores (4-DSC). Eutherian WAP, expressed in the mammary gland throughout lactation, has two 4-DSC domains, (DI-DII) whereas marsupial WAP, expressed only during mid-late lactation, contains an additional 4-DSC (DIII), and has a DIII-D1-DII configuration. We report the expression and evolution of echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and platypus (Onithorhynchus anatinus) WAP cDNAs. Predicted translation of monotreme cDNAs showed echidna WAP contains two 4-DSC domains corresponding to DIII-DII, whereas platypus WAP contains an additional domain at the C-terminus with homology to DII and has the configuration DIII-DII-DII. Both monotreme WAPs represent new WAP protein configurations. We propose models for evolution of the WAP gene in the mammalian lineage either through exon loss from an ancient ancestor or by rapid evolution via the process of exon shuffling. This evolutionary outcome may reflect differences in lactation strategy between marsupials, monotremes, and eutherians, and give insight to biological function of the gene products. WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (WFDC2) proteins were also identified in echidna, platypus and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) lactating mammary cells. WFDC2 proteins are secreted proteins not previously associated with lactation. Mammary gland expression of tammar WFDC2 during the course of lactation showed WFDC2 was elevated during pregnancy, reduced in early lactation and absent in mid-late lactation.

  4. Whey fermentation by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria: evolution of carbohydrates and protein content.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2008-05-01

    Whey, a by-product of the cheese industry usually disposed as waste, is a source of biological and functional valuable proteins. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potentiality of three lactic acid bacteria strains to design a starter culture for developing functional whey-based drinks. Fermentations were performed at 37 and 42 degrees C for 24h in reconstituted whey powder (RW). Carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids concentrations during fermentation were evaluated by RP-HPLC. Proteolytic activity was measured by the o-phthaldialdehyde test and hydrolysis of whey proteins was analyzed by Tricine SDS-PAGE. The studied strains grew well (2-3log cfu/ml) independently of the temperature used. Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 804 consumed 12% of the initial lactose concentration and produced the highest amount of lactic acid (45 mmol/l) at 24h. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 was the most proteolytic (91 microg Leu/ml) strain and released the branched chain amino acids Leu and Val. In contrast, Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636 and S. thermophilus CRL 804 consumed most of the amino acids present in whey. The studied strains were able to degrade the major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin being degraded in a greater extent (2.2-3.4-fold) than beta-lactoglobulin. Two starter cultures were evaluated for their metabolic and proteolytic activities in RW. Both cultures acidified and reduced the lactose content in whey in a greater extent than the strains alone. The amino acid release was higher (86 microg/ml) for the starter SLb (strains CRL 804+CRL 454) than for SLa (strains CRL 804+CRL 636, 37 microg/ml). Regarding alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin degradation, no differences were observed as compared to the values obtained with the single cultures. The starter culture SLb showed high potential to be used for developing fermented whey-based beverages.

  5. Whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized oil powders for topical application-release and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid from oil powders compared to redispersed powders.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Magdalena; Otto, Anja; Jordaan, Anine; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-08-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are commonly converted into solid-like powders in order to improve their physical and chemical stabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized o/w emulsions could be converted into stable oil powders by means of freeze-drying. Moreover, during this study, the effects of pH and polymer type on release and trans(dermal) delivery of salicylic acid, a model drug, from these oil powders were investigated and compared to those of the respective template emulsions and redispersed oil powders. Physical characterization of the various formulations was performed, such as droplet size analysis and oil leakage, and relationships drawn with regards to release and trans(dermal) delivery. The experimental outcomes revealed that the oil powders could be redispersed in water without changing the release characteristics of salicylic acid. pH and polymer type affected the release of salicylic acid from the oil powders, template emulsions, and redispersed powders similarly. Contrary, the transdermal delivery from the oil powders and from their respective redispersed oil powders was differently affected by pH and polymer type. It was hypothesized that the release had been influenced by the electrostatic interactions between salicylic acid and emulsifiers, whereas the transdermal performance could have been determined by the particle or aggregate sizes of the formulations.

  6. Engineering of acidic O/W emulsions with pectin.

    PubMed

    Alba, K; Sagis, L M C; Kontogiorgos, V

    2016-09-01

    Pectins with distinct molecular design were isolated by aqueous extraction at pH 2.0 or 6.0 and were examined in terms of their formation and stabilisation capacity of model n-alkane-in-water emulsions at acidic pH (pH 2.0). The properties and stability of the resulting emulsions were examined by means of droplet size distribution analysis, Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner modelling, bulk rheology, interfacial composition analysis, large-amplitude oscillatory surface dilatational rheology, electrokinetic analysis and fluorescence microscopy. Both pectin preparations were able to emulsify alkanes in water but exhibited distinct ageing characteristics. Emulsions prepared using pectin isolated at pH 6.0 were remarkably stable with respect to droplet growth after thirty days of ageing, while those prepared with pectin isolated at pH 2.0 destabilised rapidly. Examination of chemical composition of interfacial layers indicated multi-layered adsorption of pectins at the oil-water interface. The higher long-term stability of emulsions prepared with pectin isolated at high pH is attributed to mechanically stronger interfaces, the highly branched nature and the low hydrodynamic volume of the chains that result in effective steric stabilisation whereas acetyl and methyl contents do not contribute to the long-term stability. The present work shows that it is possible by tailoring the fine structure of pectin to engineer emulsions that operate in acidic environments.

  7. Peptides released from acid goat whey by a yeast-lactobacillus association isolated from cheese microflora.

    PubMed

    Didelot, Sandrine; Bordenave-Juchereau, Stephanie; Rosenfeld, Eric; Piot, Jean-Marie; Sannier, Frederic

    2006-05-01

    Seven lactobacilli and a variety of microflora extracted from twenty five commercial cheeses were grown on unsupplemented acid goat whey and screened for their capacity to hydrolyse whey proteins [alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-la) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg)] and to generate peptides. Fermentations were performed aerobically or anaerobically at 37 degrees C using crude or pre-heated whey (10 min at 65, 75 or 85 degrees C). Under aerobic conditions, growth of lactobacilli was poor and protein hydrolysis did not occur. Anaerobic conditions slightly increased lactobacilli growth but neither beta-lg hydrolysis nor peptide generation were observed. More than 50% of alpha-la was digested into a truncated form of alpha-la (+/- 12 kDa) in crude whey and whey pre-heated at 65 degrees C. Twenty-five microflora extracted from raw milk cheeses were screened for their proteolytic activities on acid goat whey under the conditions previously described. Eight of them were able to hydrolyse up to 50% of alpha-la mainly during aerobic growth on crude or pre-heated whey. The corresponding hydrolysates were enriched in peptides. The hydrolysate involving microflora extracted from Comté cheese after or at 18 months ripening was the only one to exhibit hydrolysis of both alpha-la and beta-lg. Microbiological analysis showed that microorganisms originating from Comté cheese and capable of growth on unsupplemented whey consisted of Candida parapsilosis and Lactobacillus paracasei. Fermentation kinetic profiles suggested that peptides were released from alpha-la hydrolysis. The co-culture of both microorganisms was required for alpha-la hydrolysis that occurred concomitantly with the pH decrease. During whey fermentation, Cand. parapsilosis excrete at least one protease responsible for alpha-la hydrolysis, and Lb. paracasei is responsible for medium acidification that is required for protease activation.

  8. Physical and oxidative stability of functional olive oil-in-water emulsions formulated using olive mill wastewater biophenols and whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Róisín; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated by analysing the creaming rate, mean particle size distribution and mean droplet size, viscosity and rheological properties, while chemical stability was assessed through the measurement of primary and secondary oxidation products. The rheological behaviour and creaming stability of the emulsions were dramatically improved by using xanthan gum, whereas the concentration of WPI and the addition of encapsulated OMW phenolics did not result in a significant improvement of physical stability. The formation of oxidation products was higher when higher concentrations of encapsulated polyphenols were used, indicating a possible binding with the WPI added in the system as a natural emulsifier. This paper might help in solving the issue of using the olive mill wastewater from olive processing in formulating functional food products with high antioxidant activity and improved health properties.

  9. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA in WP-USA supplements, as compared to the WP-BRA supplements; however, there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  10. Use of acid whey and mustard seed to replace nitrites during cooked sausage production.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of sea salt, acid whey, native and autoclaved mustard seed on the physico-chemical properties, especially colour formation, microbial stability and sensory evaluation of non-nitrite cooked sausage during chilling storage. The cooked pork sausages were divided into 4 groups (group I--control sausages with curing salt (2.8%) and water (5%) added; group II--sausages with sea salt (2.8%) and acid whey (5%) added; group III--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and mustard seed (1%) added; group IV--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and autoclaved mustard seed (1%) added). Instrumental colour (L*, a*, b*), oxygenation index (ΔR), 650/570 nm ratio, heme iron, pH value and water activity (aw) were determined 1 day after production and after 10, 20 and 30 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). Sensory analysis was conducted immediately after production (day 1). Microbial analysis (lactic acid bacteria, total viable count, Clostridium spp.) was determinated at the end of storage (30 days). The autoclaved mustard with acid whey can be used at 1.0% (w/w) of model cooked sausages with beneficial effect on physico-chemical and sensory qualities of no-nitrite sausage. This product can be stored at refrigeration temperature for up to 30 days, in vacuum, with good acceptability. The colour, visual appearance and overall quality of samples with autoclaved mustard seed and acid whey were similar to the control with curing agent.

  11. [Linoleic acid and the immune system. Controversies about lipid emulsions].

    PubMed

    García de Lorenzo, A; Culebras, J M

    1992-01-01

    The selection of a given lipidic function for nutritional backup requires not only knowledge of the metabolism of the different existing lipidic emulsions and of their specific therapeutic indications, but also of their contraindications and controversies because, apart from their calorific value, the contribution of liposoluble vitamins and their function in preventing essential fatty acid deficiencies, we know that they are powerful metabolic modulators. This in associated with the fact that manipulation of dietary lipids (enteral or parenteral) can affect and modulate the response to the disease, attack or infection by improving or impairing the different immune functions. This review is focused on the scientific publications which have examined the varying effects of lipidic emulsions, in quantity and in quality (particularly linoleic acid) on the immune system, on the fatty acid composition of the cellular membranes and on the production of and prostaglandins and leukotrienes. An update is given of the known interrelation between lipids and immunity, with appraisal of triglycerides and long-medium -- and short-chain fatty acids, mixtures of medium -- and long-chain triglycerides, the proportions between infinity-3/infinity-6, and structured lipids.

  12. Semicontinuous Production of Lactic Acid From Cheese Whey Using Integrated Membrane Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yebo; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Coulibaly, Sekou; Mims, Michele M.

    Semicontinuous production of lactic acid from cheese whey using free cells of Bifidobacterium longum with and without nanofiltration was studied. For the semicontinuous fermentation without membrane separation, the lactic acid productivity of the second and third runs is much lower than the first run. The semicontinuous fermentation with nanoseparation was run semicontinuously for 72 h with lactic acid to be harvested every 24 h using a nanofiltration membrane unit. The cells and unutilized lactose were kept in the reactor and mixed with newly added cheese whey in the subsequent runs. Slight increase in the lactic acid productivity was observed in the second and third runs during the semicontinuous fermentation with nanofiltration. It can be concluded that nanoseparation could improve the lactic acid productivity of the semicontinuous fermentation process.

  13. Efficient lactobionic acid production from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens under pH-shift conditions.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2011-10-01

    Lactobionic acid finds applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and medicine. The production of lactobionic acid from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens was studied in shake-flasks and in a bioreactor. Shake-flask experiments showed that lactobionic acid was a non-growth associated product. A two-stage pH-shift bioconversion strategy with a pH-uncontrolled above 6.5 during the growth phase and maintained at 6.5 during cumulative production was adopted in bioreactor batch cultures. An inoculation level of 30% promoted high cell culture densities that triggered lactobionic acid production at a rate of 1.12 g/Lh. This methodology displayed efficient bioconversion with cheese whey as an inexpensive substrate for lactobionic acid production.

  14. High internal phase emulsions stabilized solely by whey protein isolate-low methoxyl pectin complexes: effect of pH and polymer concentration.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, Wahyu; Van der Meeren, Paul; Wijaya, Christofora Hanny; Patel, Ashok R

    2017-02-22

    In recent years, there has been significant progress in edible emulsion technology especially with respect to creating and stabilizing surfactant-free emulsion systems for food applications. In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of high internal phase emulsions (HIPE) (φoil = 0.82) stabilized using colloidal complexes of non-gelling biopolymers (at concentrations as low as 0.3 wt%). The colloidal complexes were pre-formed by combining whey protein isolate (WPI) and low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) at three different pH values (i.e. pH 3.5, 4.5, 5.5) and used further for fabricating stable HIPEs. In addition to the effect of pH, the influence of total biopolymer concentration on the formation and properties of HIPEs was also evaluated. Depending on the total concentration of biopolymers used, the WPI-LMP complexes (formed at pH 4.5) showed a Z-average diameter in the range of 250-350 nm. It was found that the formation of HIPEs was strongly influenced by the pH of the colloidal complexes. At a pH close to the isoelectric point of WPI (≈pH 4.8) and WPI-LMP complexes (≈pH 3.4), severe aggregation of colloidal particles occurred, resulting in poor formation and stability of HIPEs. On comparing the stabilization behaviour of the complexes with the uncomplexed protein, it was noticed that the former provided comparatively better stabilization to the HIPEs against coalescence at pH 4.5 and 5.5. Based on the rheological data (low amplitude oscillatory shear rheology and flow measurements), all HIPE samples showed viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviour. We believe that such viscoelastic gel-like systems could find potential commercial applications in the development of label-friendly novel food products with interesting textures.

  15. Effect of temperature and concentration on benzoyl peroxide bleaching efficacy and benzoic acid levels in whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2015-11-01

    Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey

  16. Effect of emulsifier on oxidation properties of fish oil-based structured lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Fomuso, Lydia B; Corredig, Milena; Akoh, Casimir C

    2002-05-08

    The effects of the emulsifiers lecithin, Tween 20, whey protein isolate, mono-/diacylglycerols, and sucrose fatty acid ester on oxidation stability of a model oil-in-water emulsion prepared with enzymatically synthesized menhaden oil-caprylic acid structured lipid were evaluated. Oxidation was monitored by measuring lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and the ratio of combined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) contents to palmitic acid in the emulsion. After high-pressure homogenization, all emulsions, except those prepared with lecithin, had similar droplet size distributions. All structured lipid emulsions, except for the lecithin-stabilized emulsions, were stable to creaming over the 48-day period studied. Emulsifier type and concentration affected oxidation rate, with 0.25% emulsifier concentration generally having a higher oxidation rate than 1% emulsifier concentration. Overall, oxidation did not progress significantly enough in 48 days of storage to affect DHA and EPA levels in the emulsion.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1979 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the coagulum from milk, cream, or skim milk in cheesemaking. Whey obtained from a procedure, in which... acidification of milk, is known as acid whey. Whey obtained from a procedure in which there is insignificant... from milk that has been pasteurized, or the whey and modified whey product must be subjected...

  18. Purification and identification of bovine cheese whey fatty acids exhibiting in vitro antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Clément, M; Tremblay, J; Lange, M; Thibodeau, J; Belhumeur, P

    2008-07-01

    Milk lipids contain several bioactive factors exhibiting antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In the present study, we demonstrate that free fatty acids (FFA) derived from the saponification of bovine whey cream lipids are active in vitro at inhibiting the germination of Candida albicans, a morphological transition associated with pathogenicity. This activity was found to be significantly increased when bovine FFA were enriched in non-straight-chain FFA. At low cell density, this non-straight-chain FFA-enriched fraction was also found to inhibit in a dose-dependant manner the growth of both developmental forms of C. albicans as well as the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus. Using an assay-guided fractionation, the main components responsible for these activities were isolated. On the basis of mass spectroscopic and gas chromatographic analysis, antifungal compounds were identified as capric acid (C10:0), lauroleic acid (C12:1), 11-methyldodecanoic acid (iso-C13:0), myristoleic acid (C14:1n-5), and gamma-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6). The most potent compound was gamma-linolenic acid, with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 5.4 mg/L for C. albicans and 1.3 mg/L for A. fumigatus, in standardized conditions. The results of this study indicate that bovine whey contains bioactive fatty acids exhibiting antifungal activity in vitro against 2 important human fungal pathogens.

  19. Kinetic modeling of lactic acid production from batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Tango, M.S.A.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1999-12-01

    A kinetic model for the production of lactic acid through batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey using Lactobacillus helveticus was developed. The model accounts for the effect of substrate limitation, substrate inhibition, lactic acid inhibition, maintenance energy and cell death on the cell growth, substrate utilization, and lactic acid production during the fermentation process. The model was evaluated using experimental data from Tango and Ghaly (1999). The predicted results obtained from the model compared well with experimental (R{sup 2} = 0.92--0.98). The model was also used to investigate the effect of the initial substrate concentration on the lag period, fermentation time, specific growth rate, and cell productivity during batch fermentation. The maximum specific growth rate ({micro}{sub m}), the saturation constant (K{sub S}), the substrate inhibition constant (K{sub IS}), and the lactic acid inhibition constant (K{sub IP}) were found to be 0.25h{sup {minus}1}, 0.9 g/L, 250.0 g/L, and 60.0 g/L, respectively. High initial lactose concentration in cheese whey reduced both the specific growth rate and substrate utilization rate due to the substrate inhibition phenomenon. The maximum lactic acid production occurred at about 100 g/L initial lactose concentration after 40 h of fermentation. The maximum lactic acid concentration above which Lactobacillus helveticus did not grow was found to be 80.0 g/L.

  20. Acid-induced gelation behavior of casein/whey protein solutions assessed by oscillatory rheology.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahboubeh; Madadlou, Ashkan; Khosrowshahi, Asghar; Mohammadifar, Mohammadamin

    2014-09-01

    Gelation process of acid-induced casein gels was studied using response surface method (RSM). Ratio of casein to whey proteins, incubation and heating temperatures were independent variables. Final storage modulus (G') measured 200 min after the addition of glucono-δ-lactone and the gelation time i.e. the time at which G' of gels became greater than 1 Pa were the parameters studied. Incubation temperature strongly affected both parameters. The higher the incubation temperature, the lower was the G' and the shorter the gelation time. Increased heating temperature however, increased the G' but again shortened the gelation time. Increase in G' was attributed to the formation of disulphide cross-linkages between denatured whey proteins and casein chains; whilst the latter was legitimized by considering the higher isoelectric pH of whey proteins. Maximum response (G' = 268.93 Pa) was obtained at 2.7 % w/w, 25 °C and 90 °C for casein content, incubation and heating temperatures, respectively.

  1. Properties of whey protein isolates extruded under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Onwulata, C I; Isobe, S; Tomasula, P M; Cooke, P H

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins have wide acceptance and use in many products due to their beneficial nutritional properties. To further increase the amount of whey protein isolates (WPI) that may be added to products such as extruded snacks and meats, texturization of WPI is necessary. Texturization changes the folding of globular proteins to improve interaction with other ingredients and create new functional ingredients. In this study, WPI pastes (60% solids) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder at 100 degrees C with 4 pH-adjusted water streams: acidic (pH 2.0 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 12.4 +/- 0.4) streams from 2 N HCl and 2 N NaOH, respectively, and acidic (pH 2.5 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 11.5 +/- 0.4) electrolyzed water streams; these were compared with WPI extruded with deionized water. The effects of water acidity on WPI solubility at pH 7, color, microstructure, Rapid Visco Analyzer pasting properties, and physical structure were determined. Alkaline conditions increased insolubility caused yellowing and increased pasting properties significantly. Acidic conditions increased solubility and decreased WPI pasting properties. Subtle structural changes occurred under acidic conditions, but were more pronounced under alkaline conditions. Overall, alkaline conditions increased denaturation in the extruded WPI resulting in stringy texturized WPI products, which could be used in meat applications.

  2. Formation of elastic whey protein gels at low pH by acid equilibration.

    PubMed

    Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh; Khayankan, Worarat; Foegeding, E Allen

    2010-06-01

    Whey protein gels have a weak/brittle texture when formed at pH acid solutions caused gel swelling and lowered pH because of the diffusion of water and H(+) into the gels. The type and concentration of acid, and presence of other ions, in the equilibrating solutions influenced pH, swelling ratio, and fracture properties of the gels. Swelling of gels decreased fracture stress (because of decreased protein network density) but caused little change to fracture strain, thus maintaining a desirable strong/elastic fracture pattern. We have shown that whey protein isolate gels can be made at pH acid type, acid concentration, pH of equilibrating solution, and equilibrating time.

  3. Feeding strategies for enhanced lactobionic acid production from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2013-04-01

    High-level production of lactobionic acid from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens under fed-batch fermentation was achieved in this study. Different feeding strategies were evaluated according to the physiological status and fermentation performance of P. taetrolens. A lactobionic acid titer of 164 g/L was obtained under co-feeding conditions affording specific and volumetric productivities of 1.4 g/g h and 2.05 g/L h, respectively. Flow cytometry assessment revealed that P. taetrolens cells exhibited a robust physiological status, which makes them particularly well-suited for employing concentrated nutrient solutions to further prolong the growth and production phases. Such detailed knowledge of the physiological status has been revealed to be a key issue to further support the development of high-yield lactobionic acid production processes under feeding strategies. The present study has demonstrated the feasibility of P. taetrolens to achieve high-level bio-production of lactobionic acid from whey through fed-batch cultivation, suggesting its major potential for industrial-scale implementation.

  4. Properties of acid whey as a function of pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Duke, Mikel C; Gray, Stephen R; Zisu, Bogdan; Weeks, Mike; Palmer, Martin; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2015-07-01

    Compositional differences of acid whey (AW) in comparison with other whey types limit its processability and application of conventional membrane processing. Hence, the present study aimed to identify chemical and physical properties of AW solutions as a function of pH (3 to 10.5) at 4 different temperatures (15, 25, 40, or 90°C) to propose appropriate membrane-processing conditions for efficient use of AW streams. The concentration of minerals, mainly calcium and phosphate, and proteins in centrifuged supernatants was significantly lowered with increase in either pH or temperature. Lactic acid content decreased with pH decline and rose at higher temperatures. Calcium appeared to form complexes with phosphates and lactates mainly, which in turn may have induced molecular attractions with the proteins. An increase in pH led to more soluble protein aggregates with large particle sizes. Surface hydrophobicity of these particles increased significantly with temperature up to 40°C and decreased with further heating to 90°C. Surface charge was clearly pH dependent. High lactic acid concentrations appeared to hinder protein aggregation by hydrophobic interactions and may also indirectly influence protein denaturation. Processing conditions such as pH and temperature need to be optimized to manipulate composition, state, and surface characteristics of components of AW systems to achieve an efficient separation and concentration of lactic acid and lactose.

  5. Capillary zone electrophoresis for fatty acids with chemometrics for the determination of milk adulteration by whey addition.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Mendes, Thiago; Porto, Brenda Lee Simas; Bell, Maria José Valenzuela; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2016-12-15

    Adulteration of milk with whey is difficult to detect because these two have similar physical and chemical characteristics. The traditional methodologies to monitor this fraud are based on the analysis of caseinomacropeptide. The present study proposes a new approach to detect and quantify this fraud using the fatty acid profiles of milk and whey. Fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were selected by gas chromatography associated with discriminant analysis to differentiate milk and whey, as they are present in quite different amounts. These six fatty acids were quantified within a short time by capillary zone electrophoresis in a set of adulterated milk samples. The correlation coefficient between the true values of whey addition and the experimental values obtained by this technique was 0.973. The technique is thus useful for the evaluation of milk adulteration with whey, contributing to the quality control of milk in the dairy industry.

  6. Dose response of whey protein isolate in addition to a typical mixed meal on blood amino acids and hormonal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Scott C; McCargar, Linda; Jelen, Paul; Bell, Gordon J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effects of a controlled typical 1-day diet supplemented with two different doses of whey protein isolate on blood amino acid profiles and hormonal concentrations following the final meal. Nine males (age: 29.6 ± 6.3 yrs) completed four conditions in random order: a control (C) condition of a typical mixed diet containing ~10% protein (0.8 g·kg1), 65% carbohydrate, and 25% fat; a placebo (P) condition calorically matched with carbohydrate to the whey protein conditions; a low-dose condition of 0.8 grams of whey protein isolate per kilogram body mass per day (g·kg1·d1; W1) in addition to the typical mixed diet; or a high-dose condition of 1.6 g·kg1·d1 (W2) of supplemental whey protein in addition to the typical mixed diet. Following the final meal, significant (p < .05) increases in total amino acids, essential amino acids (EAA), branch-chained amino acids (BCAA), and leucine were observed in plasma with whey protein supplementation while no changes were observed in the control and placebo conditions. There was no significant group difference for glucose, insulin, testosterone, cortisol, or growth hormone. In conclusion, supplementing a typical daily food intake consisting of 0.8 g of protein·kg1·d1 with a whey protein isolate (an additional 0.8 or 1.6 g·kg1·d1) significantly elevated total amino acids, EAA, BCAA, and leucine but had no effect on glucose, insulin, testosterone, cortisol, or growth hormone following the final meal. Future acute and chronic supplementation research examining the physiological and health outcomes associated with elevated amino acid profiles is warranted.

  7. Glycation inhibits trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced whey protein precipitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four different WPI saccharide conjugates were successfully prepared to test whether glycation could inhibit WPI precipitation induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Conjugates molecular weights after glycation were analyzed with SDS-PAGE. No significant secondary structure change due to glycation wa...

  8. Urinary loss of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates as revealed by metabolomics studies: an underlying mechanism to reduce lipid accretion by whey protein ingestion?

    PubMed

    Lillefosse, Haldis H; Clausen, Morten R; Yde, Christian C; Ditlev, Ditte B; Zhang, Xumin; Du, Zhen-Yu; Bertram, Hanne C; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2014-05-02

    Whey protein intake is associated with the modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. We fed obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF casein) or whey (HF whey) for 6 weeks. At equal energy intake and apparent fat and nitrogen digestibility, mice fed HF whey stored less energy as lipids, evident both as lower white adipose tissue mass and as reduced liver lipids, compared with HF-casein-fed mice. Explorative analyses of 48 h urine, both by (1)H NMR and LC-MS metabolomic platforms, demonstrated higher urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citric acid and succinic acid (identified by both platforms), and cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid (identified by LC-MS platform) in the HF whey, relative to in the HF-casein-fed mice. Targeted LC-MS analyses revealed higher citric acid and cis-aconitic acid concentrations in fed state plasma, but not in liver of HF-whey-fed mice. We propose that enhanced urinary loss of TCA cycle metabolites drain available substrates for anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, thereby leading to reduced lipid accretion in HF-whey-fed compared to HF-casein-fed mice.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1979 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1979 Whey. (a)(1) Whey. Whey is the liquid substance obtained by separating the coagulum from milk, cream, or skim milk in cheesemaking. Whey obtained from a procedure, in which a significant amount of lactose is converted to lactic acid, or from the curd formation by direct acidification of milk, is...

  10. Heat-induced aggregation of whey proteins: comparison of cheese WPC with acid WPC and relevance of mineral composition.

    PubMed

    Havea, Palatasa; Singh, Harjinder; Creamer, Lawrence K

    2002-07-31

    Heat-induced aggregation of whey proteins in solutions made from two commercial whey protein concentrates (WPCs), one derived from mineral acid whey (acid WPC) and the other from cheese whey (cheese WPC), was studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Heat treatment (75 degrees C) of acid WPC solutions (12.0%, w/w, pH 6.9) resulted in formation of relatively small "soluble" aggregates that were predominantly disulfide-linked. By contrast, heat treatment of the cheese WPC solutions (under the same conditions) caused formation of relatively large aggregates, containing high proportions of aggregates linked by noncovalent associations. The rate of aggregation of both beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin at 75 degrees C, measured as the loss of native proteins by PAGE, was higher in the cheese WPC solution than in the acid WPC solution. Cross dialysis of the two WPC solutions resulted in alteration of the mineral composition of each WPC solution and reversing their heat-induced aggregation behavior. The results demonstrated that the mineral composition is very important in controlling the aggregation behavior of WPC products.

  11. Enhanced enteral bioavailability of vancomycin using water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion incorporating highly purified unsaturated fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Kajita, M; Morishita, M; Takayama, K; Chiba, Y; Tokiwa, S; Nagai, T

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of an emulsion incorporating unsaturated fatty acids to improve the mucosal absorption of poorly absorbed drugs from rat intestinal loops in situ, using a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion. Vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) was used as a model drug with low oral bioavailability. The entrapment efficiency of VCM in the emulsion was approximately 60% and remained constant over storage for 1 month at 4 degrees C. The emulsion incorporating C18 unsaturated fatty acids or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) markedly enhanced VCM absorption after colonic and rectal dosing. The effectiveness of DHA on VCM colonic absorption improvement was the same as that of oleic acid, and less than that of linoleic and linolenic acids. For rectal dosing, bioavailability was similar among various emulsions, in the range 40-50%. The effect of the emulsion incorporating oleic acid or DHA on improving VCM enteral bioavailability was not increased proportional to the incorporated amount. The electrical resistance of membranes was not changed by the incorporation of various fatty acids in emulsions. Our results indicated that W/O/W emulsions incorporating C18 unsaturated fatty acid or DHA were useful carriers for improving the absorption of poorly absorbable drugs via the intestinal tract without gross changes to tight junction function.

  12. Effect of degree of hydrolysis of whey protein on in vivo plasma amino acid appearance in humans.

    PubMed

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Storm, Adam C; Klitgaard, Søren; Jørgensen, Henry; Bibby, Bo M; Serena, Anja; Vissing, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein is generally found to be faster digested and to promote faster and higher increases in plasma amino acid concentrations during the immediate ~60 min following protein ingestion compared to casein. The aim of the present study was to compare three different whey protein hydrolysates with varying degrees of hydrolysis (DH, % cleaved peptide bonds) to evaluate if the degree of whey protein hydrolysis influences the rate of amino acid plasma appearance in humans. A casein protein was included as reference. The three differentially hydrolysed whey proteins investigated were: High degree of hydrolysis (DH, DH = 48 %), Medium DH (DH = 27 %), and Low DH (DH = 23 %). The casein protein was intact. Additionally, since manufacturing of protein products may render some amino acids unavailable for utilisation in the body the digestibility and the biological value of all four protein fractions were evaluated in a rat study. A two-compartment model for the description of the postprandial plasma amino acid kinetics was applied to investigate the rate of postprandial total amino acid plasma appearance of the four protein products. The plasma amino acid appearance rates of the three whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) were all significantly higher than for the casein protein, however, the degree of hydrolysis of the WPH products did not influence plasma total amino acid appearance rate (estimates of DH and 95 % confidence intervals [CI] (mol L(-1) min(-1)): High DH 0.0585 [0.0454, 0.0754], Medium DH 0.0594 [0.0495, 0.0768], Low DH 0.0560 [0.0429, 0.0732], Casein 0.0194 [0.0129, 0.0291]). The four protein products were all highly digestible, while the biological value decreased with increasing degree of hydrolysis. In conclusion, the current study does not provide evidence that the degree of whey protein hydrolysis is a strong determinant for plasma amino acid appearance rate within the studied range of hydrolysis and protein dose.

  13. Production of propionic acid from whey permeate by sequential fermentation, ultrafiltration, and cell recycling.

    PubMed

    Colomban, A; Roger, L; Boyaval, P

    1993-11-05

    This article deals with the production by fermentation of a mycostatic and aromatic food additive based on propionic acid. Membrane bioreactors have been used from laboratory scale up to pilot and industrial production plants. Due to the high cell densities achieved by the sequential recycling mode of operation, a mixed acids solution was rapidly produced from whey permeate. The sterile fermented broth obtained was subsequently concentrated at different levels by evaporation and spray drying according to the projected use. Concentrated Propionibacterium cells (200 g x L(-1) DW) were obtained from the process by periodic bleeds and could be used to good effect as cheese starters, silage preservatives, or probiotics. Propionic acid concentrations from 30 to 40 g x L(-1) were easily achieved with no residual lactose. The highest volumetric productivity was 1.6 g x L(-1) x h(-1) for total acid and 1.2 g x L(-1) x h(-1) for propionic acid with a specific productivity of 0.035 h(-1).

  14. Effect of acid whey and freeze-dried cranberries on lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of nitrite-/nitrate-free fermented sausage made from deer meat

    PubMed Central

    Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of acid whey and freeze-dried cranberries on the physicochemical characteristics, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of nitrite-free fermented sausage made from deer meat and pork fat. Antioxidant interactions between acid whey and cranberry compounds were also explored. Methods Four formulations of fermented venison sausage were prepared: F1 (control), F2 (with 5% liquid acid whey), F3 (with 0.06% of freeze-dried cranberries), and F4 (with 5% liquid acid whey and 0.06% of freeze-dried cranberries). Each sample was analyzed for pH, water activity (aw), heme iron content, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value and conjugated dienes at the end of the manufacturing process and at 30 and 90 days of refrigerated storage. Fatty acid composition was measured once at the end of the manufacturing process. Results At the end of ripening, all samples presented statistically different values for a pH range of 4.47 to pH 4.59. The sum of the unsaturated fatty acids was higher, while the conjugated diene and the TBARS values were lower in sausages with freeze-dried cranberries as compared to the control sausage. The highest content of heme iron (21.52 mg/kg) at day 90 was found in the sausage formulation with the addition of freeze-dried cranberries, which suggests that the addition of cranberries stabilized the porphyrin ring of the heme molecule during storage and thereby reduced the release of iron. The use of liquid acid whey in combination with cranberries appears to not be justified in view of the oxidative stability of the obtained products. Conclusion The results suggest that the application of freeze-dried cranberries can lower the intensity of oxidative changes during the storage of nitrite-free fermented sausage made from deer meat. PMID:27165018

  15. Ammonium salts of polymaleic acids and use as corrosion inhibitors in water-in-oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenlaender, K.; Barthold, K.; Stork, K.

    1984-03-13

    The subject invention relates to salts of polymaleic acids having a molecular weight between 200 and 1500 and to their use in preventing the corrosion of metal caused by hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in water-in-oil emulsions such as crude oil.

  16. Physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions stabilized by chlorogenic acid-lactoferrin-glucose/polydextrose conjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuguo; Wang, Di; Xu, Honggao; Sun, Cuixia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of chlorogenic acid (CA)-lactoferrin (LF)-glucose (Glc) conjugate and CA-LF-polydextrose (PD) conjugate on the physicochemical characteristics of β-carotene emulsions was investigated. Novel emulsifiers were formed during Maillard reaction between CA-LF conjugate and Glc/PD. The physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions were characterized by droplet size, ζ-potential, rheological behavior, transmission changes during centrifugal sedimentation and β-carotene degradation. Results showed that the covalent attachment of Glc or PD to CA-LF conjugate effectively increased the hydrophilicity of the oil droplets surfaces and strengthened the steric repulsion between the oil droplets. Glucose was better than polydextrose for the conjugation with CA-LF conjugate to stabilize β-carotene emulsions. In comparison with LF and CA-LF-Glc/PD mixtures, CA-LF-Glc/PD ternary conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties and improved physical stability of β-carotene emulsions during the freeze-thaw treatment. In addition, CA-LF-Glc/PD conjugates significantly enhanced chemical stability of β-carotene in the emulsions against ultraviolet light exposure.

  17. Chemistry of natural fuel: Use of wastes of synthetic fatty acid production for obtaining water-bitumen emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Syroezhko, A.M.; Antipova, E.I.; Paukku, A.N.

    1995-12-10

    The possibility of producing water-emulsion waterproofing mastic and waterproofing coating based on bitumen, rubber crumb, and bottoms from production of synthetic fatty acids was studied. The physicochemical properties (softening point, ductility, sorptive properties, and friability) of the waterproofing coating based on a water-emulsion mastic were measured.

  18. Preparation of finely dispersed O/W emulsion from fatty acid solubilized in subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Kimura, Yukitaka; Matsuno, Ryuichi; Adachi, Shuji

    2004-10-01

    A novel method for preparing a finely dispersed oil-in-water emulsion is proposed. Octanoic acid dissolved in water at a high temperature of 220 or 230 degrees C at 15 MPa was combined with an aqueous solution of a surfactant and then the mixture was cooled. When a nonionic surfactant, decaglycerol monolaurate (ML-750) or polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20), was used, fine emulsions with a median oil droplet diameter of 100 nm or less were successfully prepared at ML-750 and Tween 20 concentrations of 0.083% (w/v) and 0.042%, respectively, or higher. The diameters were much smaller than those of oil droplets prepared by the conventional homogenization method using a rotor/stator homogenizer. However, an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, was not adequate for the preparation of such fine emulsions by the proposed method. Although the interfacial tensions between octanoic acid and the surfactant solutions were measured at different temperatures, they were not an indication for selecting a surfactant for the successful preparation of the fine emulsion by the proposed method.

  19. Acid-responsive properties of fibrils from heat-induced whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Hua; Wang, Jing; Dong, Shi-Rong; Cheng, Wen; Kong, Bao-Hua; Tan, Jun-Yan

    2016-08-01

    The heat-induced fibrils of whey protein concentrate (WPC) have demonstrated an acid-responsive property; that is, the fibrils went through formation-depolymerization-reformation as pH was adjusted to 1.8, 6.5, and back to 1.8. We investigated the microstructure, driving force, and thermal stability of 3.0% (wt) WPC nanofibrils adjusted between pH 6.5 and 1.8 twice. The results showed that the nanofibrils had acid-responsive properties and good thermal stability after reheating for 10h at 90°C and adjusting pH from 1.8 to 6.5 to 1.8. The content of WPC fibril aggregates was not much different with the prolongation of heating times during pH variation. Although the nanofibrils' structure could be destroyed only by changing the pH, the essence of this destruction might only form fiber fragments, polymers that would restore a fibrous structure upon returning to pH 1.8. A described model for the acid-responsive assembly of fibrils of WPC was proposed. The fibrils went through formation-depolymerization-reformation by weaker noncovalent interactions (surface hydrophobicity) as pH changed from 1.8 to 6.5 back to 1.8. However, the fibrils lost the acid-responsive properties because much more S-S (disulfide) formation occurred when the solution was adjusted to pH 6.5 and reheated. Meanwhile, fibrils still possessed acid-responsive properties when reheated at pH 1.8, and the content of fibrils slightly increased with a further reduction of α-helix structure.

  20. Physical and chemical stability of gum arabic-stabilized conjugated linoleic acid oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaolin; Xu, Qiong; Tian, Dazhi; Wang, Nana; Fang, Yapeng; Deng, Zhongyang; Phillips, Glyn O; Lu, Jiang

    2013-05-15

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions have been used as a delivery system to protect conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, from oxidation. Conventional gum arabic (GA) and two matured gum arabic samples (EM2 and EM10) were used as emulsifiers to prepare CLA-in-water emulsions. The emulsions have optimal physical and chemical stability at gum concentrations of 5% for all three gums. Emulsions with higher gum concentrations are more susceptible to lipid oxidation. This is attributed to reduced physical stability at higher gum concentrations because of the coalescence and depletion-induced flocculation of the emulsion droplets. The prooxidants iron and copper intrinsically contained in the gums could also contribute to this instability. Among the three gums, EM10 provides the most effective protection for CLA both physically and chemically, because of its superior interfacial properties over GA and EM2.

  1. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  2. Lymphatic absorption of α-linolenic acid in rats fed flaxseed oil-based emulsion.

    PubMed

    Couëdelo, Leslie; Boué-Vaysse, Carole; Fonseca, Laurence; Montesinos, Emeline; Djoukitch, Sandrine; Combe, Nicole; Cansell, Maud

    2011-04-01

    The bioavailability of α-linolenic acid (ALA) from flaxseed oil in an emulsified form v. a non-emulsified form was investigated by using two complementary approaches: the first one dealt with the characterisation of the flaxseed oil emulsion in in vitro gastrointestinal-like conditions; the second one compared the intestinal absorption of ALA in rats fed the two forms of the oil. The in vitro study on emulsified flaxseed oil showed that decreasing the pH from 7·3 to 1·5 at the physiological temperature (37°C) induced instantaneous oil globule coalescence. Some phase separation was observed under acidic conditions that vanished after further neutralisation. The lecithin used to stabilise the emulsions inhibited TAG hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase. In contrast, lipid solubilisation by bile salts (after lipase and phospholipase hydrolysis) was favoured by preliminary oil emulsification. The in vivo absorption of ALA in thoracic lymph duct-cannulated rats fed flaxseed oil, emulsified or non-emulsified, was quantified. Oil emulsification significantly favoured the rate and extent of ALA recovery as measured by the maximum ALA concentration in the lymph (Cmax = 14 mg/ml at 3 h in the emulsion group v. 9 mg/ml at 5 h in the oil group; P < 0·05). Likewise, the area under the curve of the kinetics was significantly higher in the emulsion group (48 mg × h/ml for rats fed emulsion v. 26 mg × h/ml for rats fed oil; P < 0·05). On the whole, ALA bioavailability was improved with flaxseed oil ingested in an emulsified state. Data obtained from the in vitro studies helped to partly interpret the physiological results.

  3. Conversion of beet molasses and cheese whey into fatty acid methyl esters by the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, Naoya; Saito, Katsuichi

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one yeast isolates from raw milk were surveyed for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Only one species, identified as Cryptococcus curvatus, produced FAME at a detectable level. Cr. curvatus TYC-19 produced more FAME from beet molasses and cheese whey medium than other strains of the same species. In both media, the major FAME produced were linoleic and oleic acid methyl esters. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA indicated that TYC-19 diverged from the same species.

  4. Highly unsaturated fatty acid might act as an antioxidant in emulsion system oxidized by azo compound.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Noguchi, Yosuke; Ishihara, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Kaita; Mizobe, Hoyo; Nagai, Toshiharu; Otake, Ikuko; Ichioka, Kenji; Wada, Shun

    2010-01-01

    Now it is recognized that DHA is oxidatively stable fatty acid compared with linoleic acid (LA) in emulsified system, although DHA is oxidatively unstable in a bulk system. In fact, an emulsified mixture of DHA and LA behaves as in a bulk system, namely the oxidative stability of DHA becomes lower than that of LA. Therefore, in this study, tridocosahexaenoate (DDD) and glycerol trilinoleate (LLL) were separately emulsified using TritonX-100 as an emulsifier and DDD emulsion was mixed with the oxidizing LLL emulsion using a water-soluble radical initiator, 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride. As a result, DHA suppressed the oxidation of LA, while DHA was not significantly oxidized. This suppression ability was examined using glycerol trieicosapentaenoate, glycerol trilinolenate, or glycerol trioleate instead of DDD and it was found that this activity was increased with the increasing number of double bonds in the structure. Furthermore, the same type of experiment was carried out using a lipid-soluble radical initiator, 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile and the similar result was obtained. These results indicated that a highly polyunsaturated fatty acid might act as an antioxidant in an emulsion system oxidized by an azo compound.

  5. Simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid from cheese whey: optimization of fermentation conditions through statistically based experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanbin; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei; Wen, Zhiyou; Chen, Shulin

    2004-01-01

    A biorefinery process that utilizes cheese whey as substrate to simultaneously produce nisin, a natural food preservative, and lactic acid, a raw material for biopolymer production, was studied. The conditions for nisin biosynthesis and lactic acid coproduction by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454) in a whey-based medium were optimized using statistically based experimental designs. A Plackett-Burman design was applied to screen seven parameters for significant factors for the production of nisin and lactic acid. Nutrient supplements, including yeast extract, MgSO4, and KH2PO4, were found to be the significant factors affecting nisin and lactic acid formation. As a follow-up, a central-composite design was applied to optimize these factors. Second-order polynomial models were developed to quantify the relationship between nisin and lactic acid production and the variables. The optimal values of these variables were also determined. Finally, a verification experiment was performed to confirm the optimal values that were predicted by the models. The experimented results agreed well with the model prediction, giving a similar production of 19.3 g/L of lactic acid and 92.9 mg/L of nisin.

  6. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  7. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-03-29

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes.

  8. Production and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) generated by Alcaligenes latus using lactose and whey after acid protein precipitation process.

    PubMed

    Berwig, Karina Hammel; Baldasso, Camila; Dettmer, Aline

    2016-10-01

    Whey after acid protein precipitation was used as substrate for PHB production in orbital shaker using Alcaligenes latus. Statistical analysis determined the most appropriate hydroxide for pH neutralization of whey after protein precipitation among NH4OH, KOH and NaOH 10%w/v. The results were compared to those of commercial lactose. A scale-up test in a 4L bioreactor was done at 35°C, 750rpm, 7L/min air flow, and 6.5 pH. The PHB was characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. NH4OH provided the best results for productivity (p), 0.11g/L.h, and for polymer yield, (YP/S), 1.08g/g. The bioreactor experiment resulted in lower p and YP/S. PHB showed maximum degradation temperature (291°C), melting temperature (169°C), and chemical properties similar to those of standard PHB. The use of whey as a substrate for PHB production did not affect significantly the final product quality.

  9. Effects of soybean oil emulsion and eicosapentaenoic acid on stress response and immune function after a severely stressful operation.

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, K; Tashiro, T; Yamamori, H; Takagi, K; Morishima, Y; Sugiura, T; Otsubo, Y; Hayashi, N; Itabashi, T; Sano, W; Toyoda, Y; Nitta, H; Nakajima, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of soybean oil emulsion and oral or enteral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on stress response, cytokine production, protein metabolism, and immune function after surgery for esophageal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: It has been reported that safflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA), affects the survival rate of septic animals and decreases the immune function. It has also been reported that the administration of fish oil, in contrast, reduces these stress responses and stress-induced immunosuppression. In humans, the effects of soybean oil emulsion and the administration of EPA on stress response and immune function after surgery have not been established. METHODS: Patients who underwent esophagectomy with thoracotomy were divided into three groups. Seven patients were fed by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with soybean oil emulsion, which accounted for 20% of total calories. Seven patients were given oral or enteral administration of 1.8 g/day EPA, in addition to TPN with soybean oil emulsion. Nine patients served as the control group; these patients received fat-free TPN. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein, concanavalin A (con A)- or phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and stress hormones were measured. RESULTS: The postoperative level of serum IL-6 was significantly higher in the group receiving soybean oil emulsion than in the fat-free group. Oral or enteral supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly reduced the level of serum IL-6 compared with the patients receiving soybean oil emulsion. Con A- or PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation decreased significantly on postoperative day 7 in all groups of patients. The supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly improved the lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity on postoperative day 21 compared with the group

  10. Effects of processing conditions on structural and functional parameters of whipped dairy emulsions containing various fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Bazmi, A; Relkin, P

    2009-08-01

    An understanding of the effects of processing parameters can be applied to formulate emulsions with higher unsaturated fatty acid content. Emulsions using the typical ice cream formulation were produced by anhydrous milk fat alone or in a mixture with either olein or stearin at a 2:1 weight ratio. Effects of both pasteurization holding time (40 or 120 s at 80 degrees C) and aging time (ranging from 2 to 24 h) on the structural and whipping properties of the emulsions were studied. Effects of these processing conditions on emulsion structural characteristics were determined using laser light-scattering measurements, rheological properties, microscopic observations, and image analyses of the whipped emulsions. Furthermore, foaming properties of these emulsions were compared and discussed with regard to effects of both processing and composition on properties of the emulsions, such as thixotropy and sensitivity to shearing. We observed changes in fat globules when different pasteurization holding times were applied, but no changes in either apparent viscosity values or sensitivity to shearing were traceable. However, enrichment of milk fat with the olein fraction increased the whipping ability of the emulsions, as evaluated in terms of overrun and the homogeneity of air bubbles, whatever the aging time. The lowest monodispersity of air bubbles was observed in the formulation rich in stearin. After 24 h of aging, this formulation showed the same overrun as the emulsion made with anhydrous milk fat. Increasing the aging time decreased the overrun by approximately 30%, and increasing the pasteurization holding times decreased it by approximately 20%. In general, in our conditions, increasing the aging time and unsaturated fatty acid content reduced changes in the dynamic rheological and structural properties observed just after production of the emulsions, whatever the pasteurization holding time or fat composition applied.

  11. Therapeutic applications of whey protein.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Keri

    2004-06-01

    Whey, a protein complex derived from milk, is being touted as a functional food with a number of health benefits. The biological components of whey, including lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, glycomacropeptide, and immunoglobulins, demonstrate a range of immune-enhancing properties. In addition, whey has the ability to act as an antioxidant, antihypertensive, antitumor, hypolipidemic, antiviral, antibacterial, and chelating agent. The primary mechanism by which whey is thought to exert its effects is by intracellular conversion of the amino acid cysteine to glutathione, a potent intracellular antioxidant. A number of clinical trials have successfully been performed using whey in the treatment of cancer, HIV, hepatitis B, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and as an antimicrobial agent. Whey protein has also exhibited benefit in the arena of exercise performance and enhancement.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1979 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the coagulum from milk, cream, or skim milk in cheesemaking. Whey obtained from a procedure, in which... acidification of milk, is known as acid whey. Whey obtained from a procedure in which there is insignificant....archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (i) Protein content, 10 to...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1979 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the coagulum from milk, cream, or skim milk in cheesemaking. Whey obtained from a procedure, in which... acidification of milk, is known as acid whey. Whey obtained from a procedure in which there is insignificant....archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (i) Protein content, 10 to...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1979 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the coagulum from milk, cream, or skim milk in cheesemaking. Whey obtained from a procedure, in which... acidification of milk, is known as acid whey. Whey obtained from a procedure in which there is insignificant....archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (i) Protein content, 10 to...

  15. Stable emulsions prepared by self-assembly of hyaluronic acid and chitosan for papain loading.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Donghua; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Ye; Sun, Jianhua; Hu, Qiong; Liu, Xiaoya

    2015-04-01

    A simple, green and effective process is developed to fabricate hyaluronic acid (HA)/chitosan (CS) complex colloidal particles through electrostatic interactions. The obtained complexes can be used as biocompatible emulsifiers and novel potential carriers for papain loading. An HA/CS mass ratio of 2 is the optimal condition leading to the smallest Dh (420.9 nm). The complexes with eight different mass ratios are used to stabilize white oil/water emulsions. The structure of the complexes at the oil-water interface varies in response to the mass ratio and can be classified into two typical structures, similar to typical polymeric surfactants and solid particulate emulsifiers. Furthermore, papain is introduced into the complex systems. Formation of the papain/HA/CS complexes in a compact form can protect the enzyme. Here, a novel strategy is introduced to fabricate a biocompatible emulsion from the HA/CS complexes and demonstrate that the stable complex is a suitable enzyme delivery system.

  16. Enhancement of intragastric acid stability of a fat emulsion meal delays gastric emptying and increases cholecystokinin release and gallbladder contraction.

    PubMed

    Marciani, Luca; Wickham, Martin; Singh, Gulzar; Bush, Debbie; Pick, Barbara; Cox, Eleanor; Fillery-Travis, Annette; Faulks, Richard; Marsden, Charles; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2007-06-01

    Preprocessed fatty foods often contain calories added as a fat emulsion stabilized by emulsifiers. Emulsion stability in the acidic gastric environment can readily be manipulated by altering emulsifier chemistry. We tested the hypothesis that it would be possible to control gastric emptying, CCK release, and satiety by varying intragastric fat emulsion stability. Nine healthy volunteers received a test meal on two occasions, comprising a 500-ml 15% oil emulsion with 2.5% of one of two emulsifiers that produced emulsions that were either stable (meal A) or unstable (meal B) in the acid gastric environment. Gastric emptying and gallbladder volume changes were assessed by MRI. CCK plasma levels were measured and satiety scores were recorded. Meal B layered rapidly owing to fat emulsion breakdown. The gastric half-emptying time of the aqueous phase was faster for meal B (72 +/- 13 min) than for meal A (171 +/- 35 min, P < 0.008). Meal A released more CCK than meal B (integrated areas, respectively 1,095 +/- 244 and 531 +/- 111 pmol.min.l(-1), P < 0.02), induced a greater gallbladder contraction (P < 0.02), and decreased postprandial appetite (P < 0.05), although no significant differences were observed in fullness and hunger. We conclude that acid-stable emulsions delayed gastric emptying and increased postprandial CCK levels and gallbladder contraction, whereas acid-instability led to rapid layering of fat in the gastric lumen with accelerated gastric emptying, lower CCK levels, and reduced gallbladder contraction. Manipulation of the acid stability of fat emulsion added to preprocessed foods could maximize satiety signaling and, in turn, help to reduce overconsumption of calories.

  17. Role of naphthenic acids in stabilizing water-in-diluted model oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Moran, Kevin; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob

    2010-06-17

    The need for alkaline conditions in oil sands processing is, in part, to produce natural surfactants from bitumen. Previous studies have shown that the produced surfactants are primarily carboxylic salts of naphthenic acids with the possibility of sulfonic salts as well. The role of these natural surfactants, particularly those in the naphthenate class, is to provide a physicochemical basis for several subprocesses in bitumen extraction. In this study, it was found that the content of indigenous naphthenic acids in bitumen can destabilize, to some extent, the water-in-oil emulsion by lowering the interfacial tension, reducing the rigidity and promoting the coalescence of water droplets.

  18. Simultaneous production of lactobionic and gluconic acid in cheese whey/glucose co-fermentation by Pseudomonas taetrolens.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Substrate versatility of Pseudomonas taetrolens was evaluated for the first time in a co-fermentation system combining cheese whey and glucose, glycerol or lactose as co-substrates. Results showed that P. taetrolens displayed different production patterns depending on the co-substrate supplied. Whereas the presence of glucose led to a simultaneous co-production of lactobionic (78g/L) and gluconic acid (8.8g/L), lactose feeding stimulated the overproduction of lactobionic acid from whey with a high specific productivity (1.4g/gh) and yield (100%). Co-substrate supply of glycerol conversely led to reduced lactobionic acid yield (82%) but higher cell densities (1.8g/L), channelling the carbon source towards cell growth and maintenance. Higher carbon availability impaired the metabolic activity as well as membrane integrity, whereas lactose feeding improved the cellular functionality of P. taetrolens. Insights into these mixed carbon source strategies open up the possibility of co-producing lactobionic and gluconic acid into an integrated single-cell biorefinery.

  19. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of crude N-acetylneuraminic acid isolated from glycomacropeptide of whey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Min-Jung; Choi, Jin-A; Na, Dae-Seung; Kim, Jin-Beom; Na, Chun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of about half of the world's population, causing chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. An increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori arouses demand on alternative non-antibiotic-based therapies. In this study, we freshly prepared crude N-acetylneuraminic acid obtained from glycomacropeptide (G-NANA) of whey through a neuraminidase-mediated reaction and evaluated its antibacterial ability against H. pylori and H. felis. Overnight cultures of the H. pylori were diluted with fresh media and different concentrations (1-150 mg/mL) of crude G-NANA were added directly to the culture tube. Bacterial growth was evaluated by measuring the optical density of the culture medium and the number of viable bacteria was determined by a direct count of the colony forming units (CFU) on agar plates. For the in vivo study, mice were orally infected with 100 µL (5×108 cfu/mL) of H. felis four times at a day's interval, accompanied by a daily administration of crude G-NANA or vehicle. A day after the last infection, the mice were daily administered the crude G-NANA (0, 75, and 300 mg/mL) for 10 days and euthanized. Their stomachs were collected and bacterial colonization was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Crude G-NANA inhibited H. pylori's growth and reduced the number of viable bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, crude G-NANA inhibited bacterial colonization in the mice. These results showed that crude G-NANA has antibacterial activity against Helicobacter and demonstrated its therapeutic potential for the prevention of chronic gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis induced by Helicobacter infection in humans. PMID:27382378

  20. Aluminum contamination of parenteral nutrition additives, amino acid solutions, and lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Popińska, K; Kierkuś, J; Lyszkowska, M; Socha, J; Pietraszek, E; Kmiotek, W; Ksiazyk, J

    1999-09-01

    Contamination of parenteral nutrition solutions with aluminum may result in accumulation of this element in bones and, in premature infants, may inhibit bone calcium uptake and induce cholestasis. We measured the aluminum concentration of small-volume parenterals, amino acid solutions, lipid emulsions, and special solutions containing glucose, amino acids, electrolytes, and trace elements (standard I for children with a body weight of 3-5 kg, standard II for children with a body weight of 5-10 kg). The method used was graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry GTA-AAS (SpectrAA-400 Plus, Varian, PtY Ltd., Mulgrave, Australia). Quality control was run with the use of control serum (Seronorm, Nycomed, Oslo, Norway). The aluminum contents of parenterally administered solutions were: pediatric trace elements, 130 micrograms/L, and pediatric trace elements, 3000 micrograms/L; phosphorus salts: K-phosphates, 9800 micrograms/L, and Na/K phosphates, 13,000 micrograms/L; 10% calcium gluconate, 4400 micrograms/L; 6.5% amino acids, 30 micrograms/L; 10% amino acids, 120 micrograms/L; 12.5% amino acids, 121 micrograms/L; 20% lipid emulsion, 30 micrograms/L; 20% lipid emulsion, 180 micrograms/L; water-soluble vitamins, 12 micrograms/L; lipid soluble vitamins, 360 micrograms/L; standard I, 55 micrograms/L; standard II, 90 micrograms/L; The aluminum intake from parenteral nutrition was 6.6-10.8 micrograms.kg-1.d-1--a dose exceeding the safety limit of 2 micrograms.kg-1.d-1. The possible association of aluminum not only with metabolic bone disease, but also with encephalopathy, dictates caution when dealing with the pediatric population on long-term parenteral nutrition. In the absence of reliable label information, it seems proper to monitor the aluminum concentration in parenteral nutrition products and to report it in professional journals.

  1. Comparison of simple, double and gelled double emulsions as hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acid delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Flaiz, Linda; Freire, María; Cofrades, Susana; Mateos, Raquel; Weiss, Jochen; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Bou, Ricard

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different emulsion-based systems, namely simple emulsion, double emulsion and gelled double emulsion, for delivery of n-3 fatty acids (perilla oil at 300g/kg) and hydroxytyrosol (300mg/kg). Considering that their structural differences may affect their physical and oxidative stability, this was studied by storing them at 4°C for 22days in the dark. The results showed that the oxidative status was maintained in all systems by the addition of hydroxytyrosol. However, there was some loss of hydroxytyrosol, mainly during sample storage and during preparation of the gelled double emulsion. Moreover, the antioxidant loss was more pronounced in more compartmentalized systems, which was attributed to their increased surface area. However, the double emulsion was found to be less stable than the gelled emulsion. Overall, the encapsulation of labile compounds in more complex systems needs to be carefully studied and adapted to specific technological and/or nutritional requirements.

  2. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  3. Emulsion polymerization of polystyrene-co-acrylic acid with Cu2O incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmiati, Sri; Harmami, Sri Budi; Meliana, Yenny; Haryono, Agus

    2017-01-01

    In this research, poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid-Cu) was prepared via emulsion polymerization.Cu contents were varied as 10%, 15% and 20% and mol ratio of styrene to acrylic acid as 1:1 and 2:1. Structure and surface of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid-Cu) were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transformed Infra Red), NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), and SEM/EDX (Scanning Electron Microcope/ Energy Dispersive X-Ray) spectroscopy. The NMR spectra showed that the polymer was formed, however FTIR spectra showed that there were still unreacted monomers. SEM-EDX confirmed that copper (Cu) was dispersed uniformly on poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid-Cu) matrix.

  4. Whey Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation (polymyalgia rheumatica). Taking whey protein in a dairy product twice daily for 8 weeks does not improve muscle function, walking speed, or other movement tests in people with polymyalgia rheumatica. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate whey protein for these uses.

  5. Fuel alcohol production from whey and grain mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Shahani, K.M.; Friend, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Fermentation of sweet whey and acid whey into alcohol is discussed. The fermentation efficiency of Kluyvermyces and Saccharomyces is compared. Costs for producing ethanol from dried whey powder is determined. Ethanol production by Kluyvermyces frazilis with various types of whey in a 20% reduced grain system is described. Results indicate that up to 24% of the grain requirements can be replaced with the whey with no apparent loss in fermentation efficiency. (DMC)

  6. Recovery of organic extractant from secondary emulsions formed in the extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Korchnak, J.D.; Fett, R.H.G.

    1984-01-03

    Uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid is extracted with an organic extractant. The pregnant extractant is then centrifuged to separate contaminants from the extractant. Secondary emulsions obtained by separating the contaminants following centrifugation are mixed with water or an acid leaching solution. After mixing, the mixture is centrifuged to separate and recover extractant which is recycled for stripping.

  7. Purification and characterisation of a glutamic acid-containing peptide with calcium-binding capacity from whey protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shun-Li; Zhao, Li-Na; Cai, Xixi; Wang, Shao-Yun; Huang, Yi-Fan; Hong, Jing; Rao, Ping-Fan

    2015-02-01

    The bioavailability of dietary ionised calcium is affected by intestinal basic environment. Calcium-binding peptides can form complexes with calcium to improve its absorption and bioavailability. The aim of this study was focused on isolation and characterisation of a calcium-binding peptide from whey protein hydrolysates. Whey protein was hydrolysed using Flavourzyme and Protamex with substrate to enzyme ratio of 25:1 (w/w) at 49 °C for 7 h. The calcium-binding peptide was isolated by DEAE anion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A purified peptide of molecular mass 204 Da with strong calcium binding ability was identified on chromatography/electrospray ionisation (LC/ESI) tandem mass spectrum to be Glu-Gly (EG) after analysis and alignment in database. The calcium binding capacity of EG reached 67·81 μg/mg, and the amount increased by 95% compared with whey protein hydrolysate complex. The UV and infrared spectrometer analysis demonstrated that the principal sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups and carbonyl groups of glutamic acid. In addition, the amino group and peptide amino are also the related groups in the interaction between EG and calcium ion. Meanwhile, the sequestered calcium percentage experiment has proved that EG-Ca is significantly more stable than CaCl2 in human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. The findings suggest that the purified dipeptide has the potential to be used as ion-binding ingredient in dietary supplements.

  8. In vitro assessment of the bioaccessibility of tocopherol and fatty acids from sunflower seed oil bodies.

    PubMed

    White, Daniel A; Fisk, Ian D; Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Gray, David A

    2009-07-08

    The in vitro digestibility (proteolytic and lipolytic) and bioaccessibility of nutritionally important compounds (alpha-tocopherol and fatty acids) have been studied for natural sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) oil body suspensions in comparison to artificial emulsions emulsified with polyoxyethylene-20-sorbitan-monolaurate (Tween 20) or whey protein isolate. Proteolytic digestion of emulsions with pepsin (pH 2) promoted significant increases in mean particle size of the whey protein isolate stabilized emulsion (1.8-2.9 mum) and oil bodies (2.3-22.5 mum) but not the Tween 20 stabilized emulsions. SDS-PAGE of proteolytic digestion products suggested degradation of the stabilizing oleosin protein (ca. 18-21 kDa) in oil bodies. The rate of oil body hydrolysis with lipase was significantly slower than the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the artificial emulsions and exhibited a prolonged lag phase. Results from simulated human digestion in vitro suggested that the mean bioaccessibility of alpha-tocopherol and total fatty acids from oil bodies (0.6 and 8.4%, respectively) was significantly lower than that from the Tween 20 stabilized emulsion (35 and 52%, respectively) and the whey protein isolate stabilized emulsion (17 and 33%, respectively). These in vitro results suggest that oil bodies could provide a natural emulsion in food that is digested at a relatively slow rate, the physiological consequence of which may be increased satiety.

  9. Removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates by emulsion liquid membrane with organophosphorus extractants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Selective removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates containing xylose and sulfuric acid was attempted in a batch emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system with organophosphorus extractants. Various experimental variables were used to develop a more energy-efficient ELM process. Total operation time of an ELM run with a very small quantity of trioctylphosphine oxide as the extractant was reduced to about a third of those required to attain almost the same extraction efficiency as obtained in previous ELM works without any extractant. Under specific conditions, acetic acid was selectively separated with a high degree of extraction and insignificant loss of xylose, and its purity and enrichment ratio in the stripping phase were higher than 92% and 6, respectively. Also, reused organic membrane solutions exhibited the extraction efficiency as high as fresh organic solutions did. These results showed that the current ELM process would be quite practical.

  10. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE.

  11. Development of a multiplex real time PCR to detect thermophilic lactic acid bacteria in natural whey starters.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Benedetta; Agrimonti, Caterina; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A multiplex real time PCR (mRealT-PCR) useful to rapidly screen microbial composition of thermophilic starter cultures for hard cooked cheeses and to compare samples with potentially different technological properties was developed. Novel primers directed toward pheS gene were designed and optimized for multiple detection of Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum. The assay was based on SYBR Green chemistry followed by melting curves analysis. The method was then evaluated for applications in the specific detection of the 4 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in 29 different natural whey starters for Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production. The results obtained by mRealT-PCR were also compared with those obtained on the same samples by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Length-Heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The mRealT-PCR developed in this study, was found to be effective for analyzing species present in the samples with an average sensitivity down to less than 600 copies of DNA and therefore sensitive enough to detect even minor LAB community members of thermophilic starter cultures. The assay was able to describe the microbial population of all the different natural whey starter samples analyzed, despite their natural variability. A higher number of whey starter samples with S. thermophilus and L. fermentum present in their microbial community were revealed, suggesting that these species could be more frequent in Parmigiano Reggiano natural whey starter samples than previously shown. The method was more effective than LH-PCR and FISH and, considering that these two techniques have to be used in combination to detect the less abundant species, the mRealT-PCR was also faster. Providing a single step sensitive detection of L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii, S. thermophilus and L. fermentum, the developed mRealT-PCR could be used for screening thermophilic starter cultures and to follow the presence of

  12. Protein-based emulsion electrosprayed micro- and submicroparticles for the encapsulation and stabilization of thermosensitive hydrophobic bioactives.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2016-03-01

    This work shows the potential of emulsion electrospraying of proteins using food-grade emulsions for the microencapsulation and enhanced protection of a model thermosensitive hydrophobic bioactive. Specifically, gelatin, a whey protein concentrate (WPC) and a soy protein isolate (SPI) were compared as emulsion stabilizers and wall matrices for encapsulation of α-linolenic acid. In a preliminary stage, soy bean oil was used as the hydrophobic component for the implementation of the emulsion electrospraying process, investigating the effect of protein type and emulsion protocol used (i.e. with or without ultrasound treatment) on colloidal stability. This oil was then substituted by the ω-3 fatty acid and the emulsions were processed by electrospraying and spray-drying, comparing both techniques. While the latter resulted in massive bioactive degradation, electrospraying proved to be a suitable alternative, achieving microencapsulation efficiencies (MEE) of up to ∼70%. Although gelatin yielded low MEEs due to the need of employing acetic acid for its processing by electrospraying, SPI and WPC achieved MEEs over 60% for the non-sonicated emulsions. Moreover, the degradation of α-linolenic acid at 80°C was significantly delayed when encapsulated within both matrices. Whilst less than an 8% of its alkene groups were detected after 27h of thermal treatment for free α-linolenic acid, up to 43% and 67% still remained intact within the electrosprayed SPI and WPC capsules, respectively.

  13. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Douglas S

    2014-06-30

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  14. Yeasts that utilize lactose in sweet whey

    SciTech Connect

    Gholson, J.H.; Gough, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Since processing costs are usually higher for whey than for other available food or feed nutrients, only about one-third of whey produced in the US is used by food and feed industries. As a result whey disposal costs are a problem. Further; when whey is disposed of through municipal sewerage systems, the lactose present is changed by bacteria to lactic acid which tends to act as a preservative and retards further oxidation of whey constituents. This article describes a method of utilizing lactose-fermenting yeasts to produce large quantities of yeast cells, single-cell protein. Kluveromyces fragilis was found to be the most effective yeast species and the yeast cells produced could be used as a natural food or feed additive. Results of this study determined that certain methods and yeast strains could reduce whey-related pollution and thus help reduce costs of whey disposal.

  15. Pickering Emulsion Gels Prepared by Hydrogen-Bonded Zein/Tannic Acid Complex Colloidal Particles.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-08-26

    Food-grade colloidal particles and complexes, which are formed via modulation of the noncovalent interactions between macromolecules and natural small molecules, can be developed as novel functional ingredients in a safe and sustainable way. For this study was prepared a novel zein/tannic acid (TA) complex colloidal particle (ZTP) based on the hydrogen-bonding interaction between zein and TA in aqueous ethanol solution by using a simple antisolvent approach. Pickering emulsion gels with high oil volume fraction (φ(oil) > 50%) were successfully fabricated via one-step homogenization. Circular dichroism (CD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, which were used to characterize the structure of zein/TA complexes in ethanol solution, clearly showed that TA binding generated a conformational change of zein without altering their supramolecular structure at pH 5.0 and intermediate TA concentrations. Consequently, the resultant ZTP had tuned near neutral wettability (θ(ow) ∼ 86°) and enhanced interfacial reactivity, but without significantly decreased surface charge. These allowed the ZTP to stabilize the oil droplets and further triggered cross-linking to form a continuous network among and around the oil droplets and protein particles, leading to the formation of stable Pickering emulsion gels. Layer-by-layer (LbL) interfacial architecture on the oil-water surface of the droplets was observed, which implied a possibility to fabricate hierarchical interface microstructure via modulation of the noncovalent interaction between hydrophobic protein and natural polyphenol.

  16. Conversion of dried Aspergillus candidus mycelia grown on waste whey to biodiesel by in situ acid transesterification.

    PubMed

    Kakkad, Hardik; Khot, Mahesh; Zinjarde, Smita; RaviKumar, Ameeta; Ravi Kumar, V; Kulkarni, B D

    2015-12-01

    This study reports optimization of the transesterification reaction step on dried biomass of an oleaginous fungus Aspergillus candidus grown on agro-dairy waste, whey. Acid catalyzed transesterification was performed and variables affecting esterification, viz., catalyst methanol and chloroform concentrations, temperature, time, and biomass were investigated. Statistical optimization of the transesterification reaction using Plackett-Burman Design showed biomass to be the predominant factor with a 12.5-fold increase in total FAME from 25.6 to 320mg. Studies indicate that the transesterification efficiency in terms of conversion is favored by employing lower biomass loadings. A. candidus exhibited FAME profiles containing desirable saturated (30.2%), monounsaturated (31.5%) and polyunsaturated methyl esters (38.3%). The predicted and experimentally determined biodiesel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, cetane number, TAN, water content, total and free glycerol) were in accordance with international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) standards.

  17. Physicochemical behaviour of WPI-stabilized emulsions in in vitro gastric and intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jessie; Ye, Aiqian; Lee, Sung Je; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-11-01

    Most studies on the in vitro lipid digestion of protein-stabilized emulsions have been carried out under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. In this study, the digestion behaviour of whey protein isolate (WPI)-stabilized emulsions was examined under simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) conditions (pH 7.5, 2.5mg bile salts/mL and 0.8 mg pancreatin/mL) after the emulsions had been digested in a model simulated gastric fluid (SGF) containing pepsin (pH 1.6 and 3.2mg pepsin/mL) for different times. The droplet size, ζ-potential, microstructure, surface protein and amount of free fatty acids released were examined. The results indicated that WPI emulsions did not undergo pronounced changes in droplet size and microstructure during SGF digestion followed by coalescence during the subsequent SIF digestion. When WPI emulsions were treated with SGF, α-lactalbumin and a portion of β-lactoglobulin proteins adsorbed at the interface were hydrolysed by pepsin, resulting in small peptides being produced as characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In general, digestion in SGF containing pepsin accelerated coalescence of the emulsion droplets during subsequent digestion in SIF containing pancreatic lipase. However, the changes in the size, the microstructure and the proteolysis of the interfacial proteins of the emulsions under gastric conditions did not influence the rate and the extent of lipid digestion in the subsequent intestinal environment.

  18. Development of a Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane System for Propionic Acid Separation in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jin; Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Wiencek, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Perstractive fermentation is a good way to increase the productivity of bioreactors. Using Propionibacteria as the model system, the feasibility of using supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) for perstractive fermentation is assessed in this study. Five industrial solvents were considered as the solvent for preparing the SELM. The more polar a solvent is, the higher the partition coefficient. However, toxicity of a solvent also increases with its polarity. CO-1055 (industrial decanol/octanol blend) has the highest partition coefficient toward propionic acid among the solvents that has no molecular toxicity toward Propionibacteria. A preliminary extraction study was conducted using tetradecane as solvent in a hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. The result confirmed that SELM eliminates the equilibrium limitation of conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and allows the use of a non-toxic solvent with low partition coefficient.

  19. Comparing the moisturizing effects of ascorbic acid and calcium ascorbate against that of tocopherol in emulsions.

    PubMed

    Gönüllü, U; Sensoy, D; Uner, M; Yener, G; Altinkurt, T

    2006-01-01

    Calcium ascorbate (CAAS), which is a hydrophilic and stable derivative of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) (AA), is commonly used in foods as an antioxidative agent. There are very limited reports on its dermatological use in the literature. In this paper, it is reported that CAAS could be used in place of ascorbic acid, which has chemical stability problems in topicals due to degradation by oxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the skin-hydrating effect of CAAS compared to those of ascorbic acid and tocopherol (vitamin E) (T), which is a potential skin moisturizer and commonly used in dermocosmetics. Vitamins are incorporated into two kinds of base creams (o/w and w/o emulsion creams), alone and in combinations. Formulations were applied to the inner forearms of volunteers, and skin conductance was measured by using a corneometer. Data obtained were statistically evaluated. It was found that the skin-hydrating effect of CAAS was higher than that of AA and lower than that of T. However, its effect was very close to that of T.

  20. Validation of HPLC-UV Assay of Caffeic Acid in Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Spagnol, Caroline Magnani; Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2016-03-01

    An accurate, sensitive, precise and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was successfully developed and validated for the determination of caffeic acid (CA) in emulsions. The best separation was achieved on a 250 × 4.6 mm, 5.0 µm particle size RP18 XDB Waters column using ethanol and purified water (40:60 v/v) adjusted to pH 2.5 with acetic acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. Ultraviolet detection was performed at 325 nm at ambient column temperature (25°C). The method was linear over the concentration range of 10-60 µg/mL (r(2) = 0.9999) with limits of detection and quantification of 1.44 and 4.38 µg/mL, respectively. CA was subjected to oxidation, acid, base and neutral degradation, as well as photolysis and heat as stress conditions. There were no interfering peaks at or near the retention time of CA. The method was applied to the determination of CA in standard and pharmaceutical products with excellent recoveries. The method is applicable in the quality control of CA.

  1. Conversion of cheese whey into a fucose- and glucuronic acid-rich extracellular polysaccharide by Enterobacter A47.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Sílvia; Freitas, Filomena; Alves, Vítor D; Grandfils, Christian; Reis, Maria A M

    2015-09-20

    Cheese whey was used as the sole substrate for the production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by Enterobacter A47. An EPS concentration of 6.40 g L(-1) was reached within 3.2 days of cultivation, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 2.00 g L(-1) d(-1). The produced EPS was mainly composed of glucuronic acid (29 mol%) and fucose (29 mol%), with lower contents of glucose and galactose (21 mol% each) and a total acyl groups content of 32 wt.%. The polymer had an average molecular weight of 1.8×10(6) Da, with a polydispersity index of 1.2, and an intrinsic viscosity of 8.0 dL g(-1). EPS aqueous solutions (1.0 wt.% in 0.01 M NaCl, at pH 8.0) presented a shear thinning behavior with a viscosity of the first Newtonian plateau approaching 0.1 Pas. This novel glucuronic acid-rich polymer possesses interesting rheological properties, which, together with its high content of glucuronic acid and fucose, two bioactive sugar monomers, confers it a great potential for use in high-value applications, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Soy-dairy protein blend and whey protein ingestion after resistance exercise increases amino acid transport and transporter expression in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Reidy, P T; Walker, D K; Dickinson, J M; Gundermann, D M; Drummond, M J; Timmerman, K L; Cope, M B; Mukherjea, R; Jennings, K; Volpi, E; Rasmussen, B B

    2014-06-01

    Increasing amino acid availability (via infusion or ingestion) at rest or postexercise enhances amino acid transport into human skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether alterations in amino acid availability, from ingesting different dietary proteins, can enhance amino acid transport rates and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA expression. We hypothesized that the prolonged hyperaminoacidemia from ingesting a blend of proteins with different digestion rates postexercise would enhance amino acid transport into muscle and AAT expression compared with the ingestion of a rapidly digested protein. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we studied 16 young adults at rest and after acute resistance exercise coupled with postexercise (1 h) ingestion of either a (soy-dairy) protein blend or whey protein. Phenylalanine net balance and transport rate into skeletal muscle were measured using stable isotopic methods in combination with femoral arteriovenous blood sampling and muscle biopsies obtained at rest and 3 and 5 h postexercise. Phenylalanine transport into muscle and mRNA expression of select AATs [system L amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, system A amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1] increased to a similar extent in both groups (P < 0.05). However, the ingestion of the protein blend resulted in a prolonged and positive net phenylalanine balance during postexercise recovery compared with whey protein (P < 0.05). Postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis increased similarly between groups. We conclude that, while both protein sources enhanced postexercise AAT expression, transport into muscle, and myofibrillar protein synthesis, postexercise ingestion of a protein blend results in a slightly prolonged net amino acid balance across the leg compared with whey protein.

  3. The impact of antioxidant addition on flavor of cheddar and mozzarella whey and cheddar whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Liaw, I W; Eshpari, H; Tong, P S; Drake, M A

    2010-08-01

    Lipid oxidation products are primary contributors to whey ingredient off-flavors. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of antioxidant addition in prevention of flavor deterioration of fluid whey and spray-dried whey protein. Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses were manufactured in triplicate. Fresh whey was collected, pasteurized, and defatted by centrifugal separation. Subsequently, 0.05% (w/w) ascorbic acid or 0.5% (w/w) whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) were added to the pasteurized whey. A control with no antioxidant addition was also evaluated. Wheys were stored at 3 degrees C and evaluated after 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 d. In a subsequent experiment, selected treatments were then incorporated into liquid Cheddar whey and processed into whey protein concentrate (WPC). Whey and WPC flavors were documented by descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile components were evaluated by solid phase micro-extraction with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Cardboard flavors increased in fluid wheys with storage. Liquid wheys with ascorbic acid or WPH had lower cardboard flavor across storage compared to control whey. Lipid oxidation products, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal increased in liquid whey during storage, but liquid whey with added ascorbic acid or WPH had lower concentrations of these products compared to untreated controls. Mozzarella liquid whey had lower flavor intensities than Cheddar whey initially and after refrigerated storage. WPC with added ascorbic acid or WPH had lower cardboard flavor and lower concentrations of pentanal, heptanal, and nonanal compared to control WPC. These results suggest that addition of an antioxidant to liquid whey prior to further processing may be beneficial to flavor of spray-dried whey protein. Practical Application: Lipid oxidation products are primary contributors to whey ingredient off-flavors. Flavor plays a critical and limiting role in widespread use of dried whey ingredients, and enhanced understanding

  4. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages.

  5. Pharmacopeial compliance of fish oil-containing parenteral lipid emulsion mixtures: Globule size distribution (GSD) and fatty acid analyses.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, David F; Ling, Pei-Ra; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2009-09-08

    Recently, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has established Chapter 729 with GSD limits for all lipid emulsions where the mean droplet size (MDS) must be <500 nm and the percent of fat larger than 5 microm (PFAT(5)) must be <0.05%, irrespective of the final lipid concentration. As well, the European Pharmacopeia (EP) Monograph no. 1352 specifies n3-fatty acid (FA) limits (EPA+DHA> or =45%; total n3 or T-n3> or =60%) for fish oil. We assessed compliance with USP physical and EP chemical limits of two fish oil-containing lipid emulsion mixtures. All lipid emulsions passed USP 729 limits. No samples tested had an MDS >302 nm or a PFAT(5) value >0.011%. Only one product met EP limits while the other failed. All emulsions tested were extremely fine dispersions and easily met USP 729 GSD limits. The n3-FAs profiles were lower in one, despite being labeled to contain 50% more fish oil than the other product. This latter finding suggests the n3-FA content of the fish oil source and/or the applied manufacturing processes in these products is different.

  6. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Yu, Ming; Ma, Hongjuan; Wang, Ziqiang; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2014-01-01

    A pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization method was used to introduce acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a PE nonwoven fabric. The use of acrylic acid is meant to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified fabric. The kinetics of co-graft polymerization were studied. The existence of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) graft chains was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The existence of the nitrile groups in the graft chains indicates that they are ready for further amidoximation and adsorption of heavy metal ions.

  7. Determination of whey protein content in bovine milk-based infant formula finished products using amino acids calculation method: AOAC First Action 2012.08.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ping; Baugh, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A method for the calculation of the whey protein fraction was developed for milk-based infant formula products based upon amino acid ratio calculated from asparaginelaspartic acid, alanine, proline, and phenylalanine amino acid data. Historical and literature amino acid data were combined to establish the reference amino acid values used in the validation study. This method has been evaluated for accuracy versus label claim for 12 products, with results from 90 to 107.5% of label claim and an overall average of 98.7%. Repeatability and intermediate precision were determined over 4 different days. Repeatability results were 4.75, 2.06, 4.18, and 2.44% RSD, respectively, with an overall intermediate precision of 3.68% RSD. Since the amino acid profile of infant formula finished products depends on the amino acid profile of ingredients used, the applicability of the method needs to be confirmed for specific types of infant formula, for which data will be gathered. Additional reference material data are being gathered for better estimation of milk and whey reference values, which are based on being normalized to total amino acid content, during the two year AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official Methods of Analysis method approval process.

  8. Study of O/W micro- and nano-emulsions based on propylene glycol diester as a vehicle for geranic acid.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Małgorzata; Sikora, Elżbieta; Ogonowski, Jan; Konieczna, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Nano- and microemulsions containing as the oil phase caprylic/capric propylene glycol diesters (Crodamol PC) were investigated as potential vehicle for controlled release of geranic acid. The influence of emulsifiers and co-surfactants on stability of the emulsions was investigated. Different kind of polysorbates (ethoxylated esters of sorbitan and fatty acids) were applied as the emulsifiers. The short-chain alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol) were used as co-surfactants. The emulsions were prepared at ambient temperature (25°C), by the phase inversion composition method (PIC). The stable O/W high dispersed emulsion systems based on Crodamol PC, of mean droplets size less than 200 nm, were prepared. Microemulsions stabilized by the mixture of Polisorbat 80 and 1-butanol were characterized by the largest degree of dispersion (137 nm) and the lowest PDI value (0.094), at surfactant/co-surfactant: oil weight ratio 90:10. The stable nano-emulsion (mean droplet size of 33 nm) was obtained for surfactant: oil (S:O) weight ratio 90:10, without co-surfactant addition. This nano-emulsion was chosen to release studies. The obtained results showed that the prepared stable nano-emulsion can be used as a carrier for controlled release of geranic acid. The active substance release from the nano-emulsion and the oil solution, after 24 hours was 22%.

  9. Effect of milk pretreatment on the whey composition and whey powder functionality.

    PubMed

    Outinen, M; Rantamäki, P; Heino, A

    2010-01-01

    Changes in cheese production processes may have a significant effect on subsequent whey composition and functionality. To control these changes is important since whey is commonly processed into ingredients used in numerous applications in the food industry. In this study, the characteristics of 4 demineralized whey powders (DWPs) were studied. DWPs were produced from partially high-temperature heat-treated (HH), ultrafiltered (UF), or ultrafiltered high-temperature heat-treated (UFHH) milk. DWP produced from pasteurized milk was used as a reference (REF). All experiments were carried out on industrial scale. The quantity of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) in total protein (TP) was elevated by HH, and reduced by UF treatment. Whey protein content of whey was significantly elevated by UF, but reduced when HH treatment was applied. The volume and total solids of UFHH whey were significantly reduced compared to REF and HH wheys, but the chemical composition was comparable. There were no significant differences in the degree of denaturation, viscosity, water-binding capacity, emulsifying capacity, or emulsion stability of the DWPs, but heat stability was significantly elevated by UF treatment.

  10. Whey acidic protein (WAP) depresses the proliferation of mouse (MMT) and human (MCF-7) mammary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Nukumi, Naoko; Iwamori, Tokuko; Naito, Kunihiko; Tojo, Hideaki

    2005-10-01

    We previously reported that the enforced expression of exogenous whey acidic protein (WAP) significantly inhibited the proliferation of mouse mammary epithelial cells (HC11 and EpH4/H6 cells). This paper presents the first evidence that WAP also depresses the proliferation of mammary tumor cells from mouse (MMT cells) and human (MCF-7 cells). We established WAP-clonal MMT and MCF-7 cell lines, and confirmed the secretion of WAP from the WAP-clonal cells into culture medium. The enforced expression of WAP significantly inhibited the proliferation of MMT and MCF-7 cells in in vitro culture. FACScan analyses revealed that G0/G1 phase cell-cycle progression was disordered and elongated in the WAP-clonal MMT and MCF-7 cells compared to that of the control cells. The expression of cyclin D1 was significantly decreased in the WAP-clonal MMT and MCF-7 cells, suggesting that progression from the G1 to the S phase was delayed in the WAP-clonal cells. The present results indicate that WAP plays a negative regulatory role in the cell-cycle progression of mammary tumor cells via a paracrine mechanism.

  11. Pro-oxidant/antioxidant behaviours of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and plant extracts in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid rich oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Chamila; Gotoh, Naohiro; Wada, Shun

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the oxidative stability of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 HUFA) rich (35% n-3 HUFA) oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt% oil) with commercial antioxidants and natural plant extracts. Ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and the extracts of Indian gooseberry fruit (Emblica officinalis) (IGFE) and sweet basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) (SBLE) were used for the study as antioxidants. The progress of oxidation in the systems was evaluated at 35 °C over 120 h against a control (without antioxidant) by monitoring the formation of primary (conjugated dienes) and secondary (volatile carbonyl compounds) oxidation products. Volatile carbonyl compounds were trapped as derivatives of pentafluorophenyl hydrazine and quantified by headspace solid-phase microextraction analysis. About 40 volatile carbonyls were successfully identified by this method. trans,trans-2,4-Heptadienal, trans,cis-2,4-heptadienal, 3,5-octadien-2-one, and 1-penten-3-ol were predominant. The volatile carbonyl compounds and conjugated dienes were formed at low rates in emulsion systems in which α-tocopherol and natural plant extracts had been introduced, compared to the control. Emulsion systems containing ascorbic acid showed low stability, as indicated by the oxidation products that were formed at high rates compared to the control. These results indicated that ascorbic acid activated the oxidation reactions in n-3 HUFA rich water emulsions, while natural plant extracts that were rich in polyphenols and α-tocopherol were active as antioxidants. The present study further demonstrated the applicability of the polar paradox theory in the determination of stability for n-3 HUFA rich water emulsions with commercial antioxidants and natural plant extracts.

  12. Biocompatible water-in-oil emulsion as a model to study ascorbic acid effect on lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Monica; Ceglie, Andrea; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2008-04-17

    A biocompatible water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion has been used as a model to study the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on the oxidation of the oil (glycerol trioleate, GTO) continuous phase. The model system consisted of 3 wt % water dispersed in GTO containing 0.5 wt % sodium oleate (NaO)/oleic acid (OA) mixture (NaO/OA = 20/80 mol/mol %) as a stabilizer. To study the ascorbic acid effect on GTO light-promoted oxidation, we added aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid to GTO in place of distilled water. Results obtained as peroxide values show that ascorbic acid activity depends on its concentration and it is affected by the characteristics of the W/O interface. In the presence of ascorbyl palmitate (AP) or sorbitan trioleate (Span 85) in the continuous phase, ascorbic acid activity increases in the first few hours of oxidation. The effect of ascorbic acid has been related to emulsion structure by calculating characteristic parameters of the droplet size distributions by means of optical microscopy.

  13. Effect of emulsifiers and their liquid crystalline structures in emulsions on dermal and transdermal delivery of hydroquinone, salicylic acid and octadecenedioic acid.

    PubMed

    Otto, A; Wiechers, J W; Kelly, C L; Dederen, J C; Hadgraft, J; du Plessis, J

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of emulsifiers and their liquid crystalline structures on the dermal and transdermal delivery of hydroquinone (HQ), salicylic acid (SA) and octadecenedioic acid (DIOIC). Emulsions containing liquid crystalline phases were compared with an emulsion without liquid crystals. Skin permeation experiments were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells and human abdominal skin dermatomed to a thickness of 400 mum. The results indicate that emulsifiers arranging in liquid crystalline structures in the water phase of the emulsion enhanced the skin penetration of the active ingredients with the exception of SA. SA showed a different pattern of percutaneous absorption, and no difference in dermal and transdermal delivery was observed between the emulsions with and without liquid crystalline phases. The increase in skin penetration of HQ and DIOIC could be attributed to an increased partitioning of the actives into the skin. It was hypothesized that the interaction between the different emulsifiers and active ingredients in the formulations varied and, therefore, the solubilization capacities of the various emulsifiers and their association structures.

  14. Synthesis of some glucose-fatty acid esters by lipase from Candida antarctica and their emulsion functions.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kangzi; Lamsal, Buddhi P

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of glucose esters with palmitic acid, lauric acid and hexanoic acid using lipase enzyme was studied and their emulsion functionality in oil-in-water system were compared. Reactions at 3:1M ratio of fatty acids-to-glucose had the highest conversion percentages (over 90% for each of the fatty acid). Initial conversion rate increased as substrate solubility increased. Ester bond formation was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance technique that the chemical shifts of glucose H-6 and α-carbon protons of fatty acids in the ester molecules shifted to the higher fields. Contact angle of water on esters' pelleted surface increased as the hydrophobicity increased. Glucose esters' and commercial sucrose esters' functionality as emulsifiers were compared. Glucose esters delayed, but did not prevent coalescence, because the oil droplets diameter doubled during 7days. Sucrose esters prevented coalescence during 7days since the droplets diameter did not have significant change.

  15. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits.

  16. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  17. Whey protein fractionation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated whey protein products from cheese whey, such as whey protein concentrate (WPC) and whey protein isolate (WPI), contain more than seven different types of proteins: alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), immunoglobulins (Igs), lactoferrin ...

  18. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) inhibition by tienilic acid produces hepatic injury: Antioxidant protection by fennel extract and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahhab, Khaled G; Fawzi, Heba; Mannaa, Fathia A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC) or fennel seed extract (FSE) on paraoxonase-1 activity (PON1) and oxidative stress in liver of tienilic acid (TA) treated rats. Six groups of rats were treated for six weeks as follows: control; WPC (0.5g/kg/day); FSE (200mg/ kg/day); TA (1g/kg/twice a week); TA (1g/kg/twice a week) plus WPC (0.5g/kg/day); TA (1g/kg/twice a week) plus FSE (200mg/kg/day). TA administration significantly increased ALT and AST besides to total- and direct bilirubin levels. Also, serum tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels were significantly increased. Furthermore, serum PON1, and hepatic reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase values were diminished matched with a significant rise in the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation. Also, triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly elevated while HDL-cholesterol was unchanged. The administration of either WPC or FSE to TA-treated animals significantly protected the liver against the injurious effects of tienilic acid. This appeared from the improvement of hepatic functions, atherogenic markers, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity, endogenous antioxidants and hepatic lipid peroxidation level; where WPC showed the strongest protection effect. In conclusion, the present study indicated that WPC and FSE improve PON1 activity and attenuate liver dysfunction induced by TA. This may be attributed to the high content of antioxidant compounds in WPC and fennel extract.

  19. Post-exercise whey protein hydrolysate supplementation induces a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than its constituent amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Koga, Jinichiro; Kanegae, Minoru; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-09-28

    It is well known that ingestion of a protein source is effective in stimulating muscle protein synthesis after exercise. In addition, there are numerous reports on the impact of leucine and leucine-rich whey protein on muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. However, there is only limited information on the effects of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) on muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signalling. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of WPH and amino acids on muscle protein synthesis and the initiation of translation in skeletal muscle during the post-exercise phase. Male Sprague–Dawley rats swam for 2 h to depress muscle protein synthesis. Immediately after exercise, the animals were administered either carbohydrate (CHO), CHO plus an amino acid mixture (AA) or CHO plus WPH. At 1 h after exercise, the supplements containing whey-based protein (AA and WPH) caused a significant increase in the fractional rate of protein synthesis (FSR) compared with CHO. WPH also caused a significant increase in FSR compared with AA. Post-exercise ingestion of WPH caused a significant increase in the phosphorylation of mTOR levels compared with AA or CHO. In addition, WPH caused greater phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 than AA and CHO. In contrast, there was no difference in plasma amino acid levels following supplementation with either AA or WPH. These results indicate that WPH may include active components that are superior to amino acids for stimulating muscle protein synthesis and initiating translation.

  20. One-step formation of multiple Pickering emulsions stabilized by self-assembled poly(dodecyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ye; Sun, Jianhua; Yi, Chenglin; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xiaoya

    2016-09-13

    In this study, a one-step generation of stable multiple Pickering emulsions using pH-responsive polymeric nanoparticles as the only emulsifier was reported. The polymeric nanoparticles were self-assembled from an amphiphilic random copolymer poly(dodecyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PDAA), and the effect of the copolymer content on the size and morphology of PDAA nanoparticles was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The emulsification study of PDAA nanoparticles revealed that multiple Pickering emulsions could be generated through a one-step phase inversion process by using PDAA nanoparticles as the stabilizer. Moreover, the emulsification performance of PDAA nanoparticles at different pH values demonstrated that multiple emulsions with long-time stability could only be stabilized by PDAA nanoparticles at pH 5.5, indicating that the surface wettability of PDAA nanoparticles plays a crucial role in determining the type and stability of the prepared Pickering emulsions. Additionally, the polarity of oil does not affect the emulsification performance of PDAA nanoparticles, and a wide range of oils could be used as the oil phase to prepare multiple emulsions. These results demonstrated that multiple Pickering emulsions could be generated via the one-step emulsification process using self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles as the stabilizer, and the prepared multiple emulsions have promising potential to be applied in the cosmetic, medical, and food industries.

  1. Phylogeny of whey acidic protein (WAP) four-disulfide core proteins and their role in lower vertebrates and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie J

    2011-10-01

    Proteins containing WAP (whey acidic protein) domains with a characteristic WFDC (WAP four-disulfide core) occur not only in mammals (including marsupials and monotremes) but also in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. In addition, they are present in numerous invertebrates, from cnidarians to urochordates. Many of those from non-mammalian groups are poorly understood with respect to function or phylogeny. Those well characterized so far are waprins from snakes, perlwapins from bivalves and crustins from decapod crustaceans. Waprins are venom proteins with a single WAP domain at the C-terminus. They display antimicrobial, rather than proteinase inhibitory, activities. Perlwapins, in contrast, possess three WAP domains at the C-terminus and are expressed in the shell nacre of abalones. They participate in shell formation by inhibiting the growth of calcium crystals in the shell. The crustin group is the largest of all WFDC-containing proteins in invertebrates with the vast majority being highly expressed in the haemocytes. Most have a single WAP domain at the C-terminus. The presence and type of the domains between the signal sequence and the C-terminus WAP domain separate the different crustin types. Most of the Type I and II crustins are antimicrobial towards Gram-positive bacteria, whereas the Type III crustins tend to display protease inhibition. Expression studies show that at least some crustins have other important biological effects, as levels change with physiological stress, wound repair, tissue regeneration or ecdysis. Thus WAP domains are widely distributed and highly conserved, serving in diverse physiological processes (proteinase inhibition, bacterial killing or inhibition of calcium transport).

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Waterborne Fluoropolymers Prepared by the One-Step Semi-Continuous Emulsion Polymerization of Chlorotrifluoroethylene, Vinyl Acetate, Butyl Acrylate, Veova 10 and Acrylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongzhu; Bian, Jiming; Wang, Zhonggang; Hou, Chuan-Jin

    2017-01-22

    Waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were synthesized using the one-step semi-continuous seed emulsion polymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), vinyl acetate (VAc), n-butyl acrylate (BA), Veova 10, and acrylic acid (AA). The main physical parameters of the polymer emulsions were tested and analyzed. Characteristics of the polymer films such as thermal stability, glass transition temperature, film-forming properties, and IR spectrum were studied. Meanwhile, the weatherability of fluoride coatings formulated by the waterborne fluoropolymer and other coatings were evaluated by the quick ultraviolet (QUV) accelerated weathering test, and the results showed that the fluoropolymer with more than 12% fluoride content possessed outstanding weather resistance. Moreover, scale-up and industrial-scale experiments of waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were also performed and investigated.

  3. Phase behavior and formation of o/w nano-emulsion in vegetable oil/ mixture of polyglycerol polyricinoleate and polyglycerin fatty acid ester/water systems.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Masami; Gohtani, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    It is reported that mixing polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and polyglycerol laurilester has a great emulsifying capacity, and consequently fine oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions can be formed. However, the role of PGPR is not clear. The objective of this research is to investigate the phase behavior of vegetable oil/mixture of PGPR and polyglycerol fatty acid ester/water systems, and to clarify the role of PGPR in making a fine emulsion. Phase diagrams were constructed to elucidate the optimal process for preparing fine emulsions. In all the systems examined in this study, the phases, including the liquid crystal phase (L(c)) and sponge phase (L(3)), spread widely in the phase diagrams. We examined droplet size of the emulsions prepared from each phase and found that o/w nano-emulsions with droplet sizes as small as 50 nm were formed by emulsifying either from a single L(3) phase or a two-phase region, L(c) + L(3). These results indicate that a sponge phase L(3) or liquid crystal phase L(c) or both is necessary to form an o/w nano-emulsion whose average droplet diameter is less than 50 nm for PGPR and polyglycerin fatty acid ester mixtures used as surfactant.

  4. Modeling of facilitated transport of phenylalanine by emulsion liquid membranes with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid as a carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Liu, D.

    1998-12-01

    A mathematical model is developed in this paper to simulate the facilitated transport of phenylalanine (Phe) in emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid as a carrier. The model takes into account the mass transfer in both the external aqueous phase and the organic membrane phase interfacial reaction as well as membrane breakage during agitation. The model is tested by comparing theoretical predications with experimental results using Phe extraction by ELM processes. It is found that the model is valid for simulating the facilitated transport of Phe with ELM under various experimental conditions.

  5. Influence of interfacial properties on Ostwald ripening in crosslinked multilayered oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Benjamin; Gibis, Monika; Fischer, Lutz; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    The influence of interfacial crosslinking, layer thickness and layer density on the kinetics of Ostwald ripening in multilayered emulsions at different temperatures was investigated. Growth rates of droplets were measured by monitoring changes in the droplet size distributions of 0.5% (w/w) n-octane, n-decane, and n-dodecane oil-in-water emulsions using static light scattering. Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory was used to calculate Ostwald ripening rates. A sequential two step process, based on electrostatic deposition of sugar beet pectin onto fish gelatin or whey protein isolate (WPI) interfacial membranes, was used to manipulate the interfacial properties of the oil droplets. Laccase was added to the fish gelatin-beet pectin emulsions to promote crosslinking of adsorbed pectin molecules via ferulic acid groups, whereas heat was induced to promote crosslinking of WPI and helix coil transitions of fish gelatin. Ripening rates of single-layered, double-layered and crosslinked emulsions increased as the chain length of the n-alkanes decreased. Emulsions containing crosslinked fish gelatin-beet pectin coated droplets had lower droplet growth rates (3.1±0.3×10(-26) m(3)/s) than fish gelatin-stabilized droplets (7.3±0.2×10(-26) m(3)/s), which was attributed to the formation of a protective network. Results suggest that physical or enzymatic biopolymer-crosslinking of interfaces may reduce the molecular transport of alkanes between the droplets in the continuous phase.

  6. Kinetics, aggregation behavior and optimization of the fractionation of whey protein isolate with hydrochloric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated WPI solutions (10% (w/w)) containing approximately 30% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 60% beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) were fractionated with HCl at acidic pH and moderate temperatures to denature alpha-LA and recover the alpha-LA aggregates via centrifugation. Aggregation behavior an...

  7. Functionalities of chitosan conjugated with stearic acid and gallic acid and application of the modified chitosan in stabilizing labile aroma compounds in an oil-in-water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Shi; Liu, Tai-Ti; Lin, I-Hwa

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this research were to conjugate chitosan (CT) with stearic acid (SA) and gallic acid (GA), and apply the modified chitosan to stabilize labile aroma compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and limonene in oil-in-water emulsions. Generally, the antioxidant activity of CT-SA-GA increased as the GA content in the conjugate increased. In most assays, GA had a lower IC50 value than that of CT-SA-GA; however, CT-SA-GA exhibited better performance than GA in the Fe(2+)-chelating activity. In accelerated tests (heating or illumination) for evaluating the chemical stability of AITC and limonene during storage, CT-SA and CT-SA-GA were used to prepare AITC and limonene O/W emulsions, respectively. Tween 80 and Span 80 (T-S-80), an emulsifier mixture, were used as a control in both emulsions for comparison. The results show that CT-SA or CT-SA-GA could protect AITC or limonene from degradation or oxidation more effectively than T-S-80.

  8. Influences of fatty acid moiety and esterification of polyglycerol fatty acid esters on the crystallization of palm mid fraction in oil-in-water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mitsuhiro; Ohba, Azusa; Kuriyama, Juhei; Maruo, Kouichi; Ueno, Satoru; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2004-08-15

    We examined the crystallization of palm mid fraction (PMF) in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, after adding polyglycerol fatty acid esters (PGFEs). We employed ultrasonic velocity measurements and DSC techniques, with special emphases on the influences of fatty acid moiety and esterification of PGFE. Twelve types of PGFEs were examined as additives. PGFEs have a large hydrophilic moiety composed of 10 glycerol molecules to which palmitic, stearic and behenic acids were esterified as the fatty acid moiety with different degrees of esterification. Crystallization temperature (T(c)) of PMF remarkably increased with increasing concentrations of the PGFEs as the chain length of the fatty acid moiety increased, and the PGFE became more hydrophobic in accordance with increasing degree of esterification. We observed that the heterogeneous nucleation of PMF in the O/W emulsion was activated at the oil-water interface, where the template effect of very hydrophobic long saturated fatty acid chains of the PGFE might play the main role of heterogeneous nucleation.

  9. The influence of alkali fatty acids on the properties and the stability of parenteral O/W emulsions modified with solutol HS 15.

    PubMed

    Buszello, K; Harnisch, S; Müller, R H; Müller, B W

    2000-03-01

    Arachis oil based parenteral O/W emulsions were prepared using soya bean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and different combinations of co-emulsifiers containing polyethylene glycol fatty acid esters (Solutol HS 15) and alkali fatty acids (sodium laurate, sodium stearate). The parameters measured were droplet size (both by photon correlation spectroscopy and laser diffractometry), pH and zeta potential. All emulsions were subjected to autoclaving. The addition of polyethylene glycol 12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS 15) led to a significant decrease of mean oil droplet size. For long-term stability the amount added turned out to be the most important factor. With increased amounts of Solutol HS 15 the packing density of the emulsifier layer and the zeta potential decreased leading to instability. The optimum load of Solutol HS 15 was found to be 15 micromol/ml. Alkali fatty acids markedly improved the physical stability of the emulsions. Improved stability properties conferred to emulsions by alkali fatty acids could be attributed to the zeta potential increase even in the presence of Solutol HS 15. Consequently a mixed emulsifier film was established in which the ionized fatty acids determined the interface charge. In addition to this a strengthening of the molecular interactions occurring between phospholipid and Solutol HS 15 emulsifier in the presence of ionized fatty acids at the O/W interface can be assumed (L. Rydhag, The importance of the phase behaviour of phospholipids for emulsion stability, Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 81 (1979) 168-173). Different co-emulsifier mixtures were shown to have a pronounced impact on the plasma protein adsorption onto emulsion droplets.

  10. Functional properties of ultrasonically generated flaxseed oil-dairy emulsions.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Akalya; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2014-09-01

    This study reports on the functional properties of 7% flaxseed oil/milk emulsion obtained by sonication (OM) using 20 kHz ultrasound (US) at 176 W for 1-8 min in two different delivery formulae, viz., ready-to-drink (RTD) and lactic acid gel. The RTD emulsions showed no change in viscosity after sonication for up to 8 min followed by storage up to a minimum of 9 days at 4±2 °C. Similarly, the oxidative stability of the RTD emulsion was studied by measuring the conjugated diene hydroperoxides (CD). The CD was unaffected after 8 min of ultrasonic processing. The safety aspect of US processing was evaluated by measuring the formation of CD at different power levels. The functional properties of OM gels were evaluated by small and large scale deformation studies. The sonication process improved the gelation characteristics, viz., decreased gelation time, increased elastic nature, decreased syneresis and increased gel strength. The presence of finer sono-emulsified oil globules, stabilized by partially denatured whey proteins, contributed to the improvements in the gel structure in comparison to sonicated and unsonicated pasteurized homogenized skim milk (PHSM) gels. A sono-emulsification process of 5 min followed by gelation for about 11 min can produce gels of highest textural attibutes.

  11. Stable concentrated emulsions of the 1-monoglyceride of capric acid (monocaprin) with microbicidal activities against the food-borne bacteria Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thormar, Halldor; Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2006-01-01

    Of 11 fatty acids and monoglycerides tested against Campylobacter jejuni, the 1-monoglyceride of capric acid (monocaprin) was the most active in killing the bacterium. Various monocaprin-in-water emulsions were prepared which were stable after storage at room temperature for many months and which retained their microbicidal activity. A procedure was developed to manufacture up to 500 ml of 200 mM preconcentrated emulsions of monocaprin in tap water. The concentrates were clear and remained stable for at least 12 months. They were active against C. jejuni upon 160- to 200-fold dilution in tap water and caused a >6- to 7-log(10) reduction in viable bacterial count in 1 min at room temperature. The addition of 0.8% Tween 40 to the concentrates as an emulsifying agent did not change the microbicidal activity. Emulsions of monocaprin killed a variety of Campylobacter isolates from humans and poultry and also killed strains of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, indicating a broad anticampylobacter activity. Emulsions of 1.25 mM monocaprin in citrate-lactate buffer at pH 4 to 5 caused a >6- to 7-log(10) reduction in viable bacterial counts of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in 10 min. C. jejuni was also more susceptible to monocaprin emulsions at low pH. The addition of 5 and 10 mM monocaprin emulsions to Campylobacter-spiked chicken feed significantly reduced the bacterial contamination. These results are discussed in view of the possible utilization of monocaprin emulsions in controlling the spread of food-borne bacteria from poultry to humans.

  12. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    PubMed

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  13. In vitro digestion of fish oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids studied in emulsion and at the oil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Marze, Sébastien; Meynier, Anne; Anton, Marc

    2013-02-01

    The in vitro digestion of β-lactoglobulin stabilized emulsions rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was studied using several physicochemical techniques. Artificial media for the mouth, stomach and small intestine were used in a sequential static in vitro digestion method. Different sizing techniques were compared to follow the droplet size during the digestion steps, including diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) which allowed direct measurements on undiluted emulsions. Titration of fatty acids confirmed that the digestion of such emulsified fish oils is partial. The study of the digestion at the oil-water interface using tensiometry revealed specific affinities between lipids and proteins. These could explain the emulsion and the single droplet lipolysis. Nevertheless, by comparing our results to a previous study on fish oil lipolysis, we identified two other important factors. Those were the aqueous solubility and the rate of hydrolysis of the individual fatty acids, the emulsion with the most soluble and hydrolysable ones being digested more quickly.

  14. Food Products Made With Glycomacropeptide, a Low Phenylalanine Whey Protein, Provide a New Alternative to Amino Acid-Based Medical Foods for Nutrition Management of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Van Calcar, Sandra C.; Ney, Denise M.

    2012-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error in phenylalanine (phe) metabolism, requires lifelong nutrition management with a low-phe diet, which includes a phe-free amino acid-based medical formula to provide the majority of an individual’s protein needs. Compliance with this diet is often difficult for older children, adolescents and adults with PKU. The whey protein glycomacropeptide (GMP) is ideally suited for the PKU diet since it is naturally low in phe. Nutritionally complete, acceptable medical foods and beverages can be made with GMP to increase the variety of protein sources for the PKU diet. As an intact protein, GMP improves protein utilization and increases satiety compared with amino acids. Thus, GMP provides a new, more physiologic source of low-phe dietary protein for those with PKU. PMID:22818728

  15. Impact of Lipid and Protein Co-oxidation on Digestibility of Dairy Proteins in Oil-in-Water (O/W) Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Obando, Mónica; Papastergiadis, Antonios; Li, Shanshan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2015-11-11

    Enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a growing trend in the food industry. However, PUFAs are known to be susceptible to lipid oxidation. It has been shown that oxidizing lipids react with proteins present in the food and that as a result polymeric protein complexes are produced. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the impact of lipid and protein co-oxidation on protein digestibility. Casein and whey protein (6 mg/mL) based emulsions with 1% oil with different levels of PUFAs were subjected to respectively autoxidation and photo-oxidation. Upon autoxidation at 70 °C, protein digestibility of whey protein based emulsions containing fish oil decreased to 47.7 ± 0.8% after 48 h, whereas in the controls without oil 67.8 ± 0.7% was observed. Upon photo-oxidation at 4 °C during 30 days, mainly casein-based emulsions containing fish oil were affected: the digestibility amounted to 43.9 ± 1.2%, whereas in the control casein solutions without oil, 72.6 ± 0.2% of the proteins were digestible. Emulsions containing oils with high PUFA levels were more prone to lipid oxidation and thus upon progressive oxidation showed a higher impact on protein digestibility.

  16. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Edwin N; Satué-Gracia, Teresa; Meyer, Anne S; German, J Bruce

    2002-03-27

    The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants, and the presence and activity of transition metals. Fish and algal oils were initially much more stable to oxidation in bulk systems than in the corresponding oil-in-water emulsions. The oxidative stability of emulsions cannot, therefore, be predicted on the basis of stability data obtained with bulk long-chain PUFA-containing fish oils and DHA-containing algal oils. The relatively high oxidative stability of an algal oil containing 42% DHA was completely lost after chromatographic purification to remove tocopherols and other antioxidants. Therefore, this evidence does not support the claim that DHA-rich oils from algae are unusually stable to oxidation. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prevented oxidation of both fish and algal oil emulsions without added iron and at low iron:EDTA molar concentrations. EDTA, however, promoted the oxidation of the corresponding emulsions that contained high iron:EDTA ratios. Therefore, to be effective as a metal chelator, EDTA must be added at molar concentrations higher than that of iron to inhibit oxidation of foods containing long-chain PUFA from either fish or algae and fortified with iron.

  17. Differential molecular regulation of bile acid homeostasis by soy lipid induced phytosterolemia and fish oil lipid emulsions in TPN-fed preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged total parenteral nutrition (PN) may lead to cholestasis and liver disease (PNALD). The soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid) and its constituent phytosterols have been implicated in PNALD. Phytosterols may induce cholestasis by antagonism of the nuclear bile-acid receptor, FXR, lea...

  18. Cell-free supernatants obtained from fermentation of cheese whey hydrolyzates and phenylpyruvic acid by Lactobacillus plantarum as a source of antimicrobial compounds, bacteriocins, and natural aromas.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pazo, Noelia; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés-Diéguez, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Cheese whey hydrolyzates supplemented with phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) and commercial nutrients can be efficiently metabolized by Lactobacillus plantarum CECT-221 to biosynthesize some compounds with attractive applications in the food market. The main metabolites of cell-free extracts were antimicrobial compounds such as phenyllactic acid (PLA) and lactic acid (LA). The production of PLA by L. plantarum CECT-221 was evaluated in the Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth supplemented with two biosynthetic precursors: phenylalanine or PPA. Using 30.5 mM PPA, the microorganism increased sevenfold the concentration of PLA producing 16.4 mM PLA in 46 h. A concentration of 40 mM PPA was a threshold to avoid substrate inhibition. The biosynthesis of whey hydrolyzates as a carbon source was enhanced by fed-batch fermentation of PPA; the average productivity of PLA increased up to 45.4 ± 3.02 mM after 120 h with a product yield of 0.244 mM mM(-1); meanwhile, LA reached 26.1 ± 1.3 g L(-1) with a product yield of 0.72 g g(-1). Cell-free fed-batch extracts charged in wells showed bacteriocin activity with halos of 7.49 ± 1.44 mm in plates inoculated with Carnobacterium piscicola and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (11.54 ± 1.14 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.17 ± 2.46 mm), Listeria monocytogenes (7.75 ± 1.31 mm), and Salmonella enterica (3.60 ± 1.52 mm). Additionally, the analysis of the volatile composition of the headspace of this cell-free extract revealed that L. plantarum is a potential producer for natural aromas, such as acetophenone, with high price in the market. This is the first report of PLA production from cheese whey and PPA. The extracts showed bacteriocin activity and potential to be applied as an antimicrobial in the elaboration of safer foods.

  19. Fabrication of Silica Nanospheres Coated Membranes: towards the Effective Separation of Oil-in-Water Emulsion in Extremely Acidic and Concentrated Salty Environments

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuning; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Lin, Xin; Xu, Liangxin; Zhang, Weifeng; Wei, Yen; Feng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    A superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic surface is fabricated by simply coating silica nanospheres onto a glass fiber membrane through a sol-gel process. Such membrane has a complex framework with micro and nano structures covering and presents a high efficiency (more than 98%) of oil-in-water emulsion separation under harsh environments including strong acidic and concentrated salty conditions. This membrane also possesses outstanding stability since no obvious decline in efficiency is observed after different kinds of oil-in-water emulsions separation, which provides it candidate for comprehensive applicability. PMID:27597570

  20. Fabrication of Silica Nanospheres Coated Membranes: towards the Effective Separation of Oil-in-Water Emulsion in Extremely Acidic and Concentrated Salty Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuning; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Lin, Xin; Xu, Liangxin; Zhang, Weifeng; Wei, Yen; Feng, Lin

    2016-09-01

    A superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic surface is fabricated by simply coating silica nanospheres onto a glass fiber membrane through a sol-gel process. Such membrane has a complex framework with micro and nano structures covering and presents a high efficiency (more than 98%) of oil-in-water emulsion separation under harsh environments including strong acidic and concentrated salty conditions. This membrane also possesses outstanding stability since no obvious decline in efficiency is observed after different kinds of oil-in-water emulsions separation, which provides it candidate for comprehensive applicability.

  1. Physicochemical characterisation of β-carotene emulsion stabilised by covalent complexes of α-lactalbumin with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate or chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoya; Liu, Fuguo; Liu, Lei; Wei, Zihao; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-04-15

    In this study the impact of covalent complexes of α-lactalbumin (α-La) with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) or chlorogenic acid (CA) was investigated on the physicochemical properties of β-carotene oil-in-water emulsions. EGCG, or CA, was covalently linked to α-La at pH 8.0, as evidenced by increased total phenolic content and declined fluorescence intensity. Compared with those stabilised by α-La alone and α-La-CA or EGCG mixture, the emulsion stabilised by the α-La-EGCG covalent complex exhibited the least changes in particle size and transmission profiles, using a novel centrifugal sedimentation technique, indicating an improvement in the physical stability. The least degradation of β-carotene occurred in the emulsion stabilised with the α-La-EGCG covalent complex when stored at 25 °C. These results implied that protein-polyphenol covalent complexes were able to enhance the physical stability of β-carotene emulsion and inhibit the degradation of β-carotene in oil-in-water emulsion, and the effect was influenced by the types of the phenolic compounds.

  2. Anti-obesity Effect of Fermented Whey Beverage using Lactic Acid Bacteria in Diet-induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High-protein fermented whey beverage (FWB) was manufactured using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of FWB in male rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups (n=8 per group). The three groups differed in their diet; one group received a normal diet (ND), another, a high-fat diet (HD), and the third, a HD plus fermented whey beverage (HDFWB), for 4 wk. Supplementation with FWB (the HDFWB group) prevented weight gain and body fat accumulation. The food intake in the HDWFB group was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the HD group. The HDWFB group also showed a significant decrease in organ weights (p<0.05), except for the weight of the testis. There was a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the HDFWB group compared with the HD group (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in serum HDL-cholesterol levels among the experimental groups. Rats ingesting FWB (the HDFWB group) also showed a significant decrease in blood glucose levels, and plasma levels of insulin, leptin, and ghrelin compared to HD group (p<0.05). These results indicate that FWB has beneficial effects on dietary control, weight control, and reduction in fat composition and serum lipid level; consequently, it may provide antiobesity and hypolipidemic activity against high fat diet-induced obesity in rats. PMID:26761894

  3. Processing of whey modulates proliferative and immune functions in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Sangild, Per T; Li, Yanqi; Bering, Stine B; Chatterton, Dereck E W

    2016-02-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is often subjected to heat treatment during industrial processing, resulting in protein denaturation and loss of protein bioactivity. We hypothesized that WPC samples subjected to different degrees of thermal processing are associated with different levels of bioactive proteins and effects on proliferation and immune response in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). The results showed that low-heat-treated WPC had elevated levels of lactoferrin and transforming growth factor-β2 compared with that of standard WPC. The level of aggregates depended on the source of whey, with the lowest level being found in WPC derived from acid whey. Following acid activation, WPC from acid whey enhanced IEC proliferation compared with WPC from sweet whey or nonactivated WPC. Low-heat-treated WPC from acid whey induced greater secretion of IL-8 in IEC than either standard WPC from acid whey or low-heat-treated WPC from sweet whey. Following acid activation (to activate growth factors), low-heat-treated WPC from sweet whey induced higher IL-8 levels in IEC compared with standard WPC from sweet whey. In conclusion, higher levels of bioactive proteins in low-heat-treated WPC, especially from acid whey, may enhance proliferation and cytokine responses of IEC. These considerations could be important to maintain optimal bioactivity of infant formulas, including their maturational and immunological effects on the developing intestine.

  4. Effects of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and soy isoflavones on lipid oxidation of structured lipid-based emulsions.

    PubMed

    Osborn-Barnes, Hannah T; Akoh, Casimir C

    2003-11-05

    Structured lipids (SLs) are triacylglycerols that have been modified to change the fatty acid composition and/or positional distribution in the glycerol backbone by chemically and/or enzymatically catalyzed reactions and/or genetic engineering. Ten percent oil-in-water emulsions were formulated with a canola oil/caprylic acid SL and stabilized with 0.5% whey protein isolate (WPI) or sucrose fatty acid ester (SFE). The effects of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, genistein, and daidzein (added at 0.02 wt % of oil) on lipid oxidation were evaluated over a 15-day period in emulsion samples. Significantly (p < 0.05) less total oxidation (calculated from peroxide value and anisidine value measurements) occurred in the WPI emulsions compared to their SFE counterparts. In this study, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and both soy isoflavones exhibited prooxidant activities in SFE emulsions. Because of their ability to exhibit prooxidant activity under certain conditions, manufacturers must experiment with these compounds before adding them to SL-based products as functional ingredients.

  5. Production of a high gel strength whey protein concentrate from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Veith, P D; Reynolds, E C

    2004-04-01

    In order to develop a process for the production of a whey protein concentrate (WPC) with high gel strength and water-holding capacity from cheese whey, we analyzed 10 commercially available WPC with different functional properties. Protein composition and modification were analyzed using electrophoresis, HPLC, and mass spectrometry. The analyses of the WPC revealed that the factors closely associated with gel strength and water-holding capacity were solubility and composition of the protein and the ionic environment. To maintain whey protein solubility, it is necessary to minimize heat exposure of the whey during pretreatment and processing. The presence of the caseinomacropeptide (CMP) in the WPC was found to be detrimental to gel strength and water-holding capacity. All of the commercial WPC that produced high-strength gels exhibited ionic compositions that were consistent with acidic processing to remove divalent cations with subsequent neutralization with sodium hydroxide. We have shown that ultrafiltration/diafiltration of cheese whey, adjusted to pH 2.5, through a membrane with a nominal molecular weight cut-off of 30,000 at 15 degrees C substantially reduced the level of CMP, lactose, and minerals in the whey with retention of the whey proteins. The resulting WPC formed from this process was suitable for the inclusion of sodium polyphosphate to produce superior functional properties in terms of gelation and water-holding capacity.

  6. Perlwapin, an Abalone Nacre Protein with Three Four-Disulfide Core (Whey Acidic Protein) Domains, Inhibits the Growth of Calcium Carbonate Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Treccani, Laura; Mann, Karlheinz; Heinemann, Fabian; Fritz, Monika

    2006-01-01

    We have isolated a new protein from the nacreous layer of the shell of the sea snail Haliotis laevigata (abalone). Amino acid sequence analysis showed the protein to consist of 134 amino acids and to contain three sequence repeats of ∼40 amino acids which were very similar to the well-known whey acidic protein domains of other proteins. The new protein was therefore named perlwapin. In addition to the major sequence, we identified several minor variants. Atomic force microscopy was used to explore the interaction of perlwapin with calcite crystals. Monomolecular layers of calcite crystals dissolve very slowly in deionized water and recrystallize in supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. When perlwapin was dissolved in the supersaturated calcium carbonate solution, growth of the crystal was inhibited immediately. Perlwapin molecules bound tightly to distinct step edges, preventing the crystal layers from growing. Using lower concentrations of perlwapin in a saturated calcium carbonate solution, we could distinguish native, active perlwapin molecules from denaturated ones. These observations showed that perlwapin can act as a growth inhibitor for calcium carbonate crystals in saturated calcium carbonate solution. The function of perlwapin in nacre growth may be to inhibit the growth of certain crystallographic planes in the mineral phase of the polymer/mineral composite nacre. PMID:16861275

  7. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid stability in o/w emulsions for cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Moyano, M A; Segall, A

    2011-01-01

    Skin becomes thin, dry, pale, and finely wrinkled with age. Retinoids are a large class of compounds that are important in modern therapy for dermatological treatment of wrinkled skin. Of the retinoids, retinol and vitamin A palmitate are thought to induce thickening of the epidermis and to be effective for treatment of skin diseases. Accordingly, α-lipoic acid or the reduced form, dihydrolipoate, are potent scavengers of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, and nitric oxide with anti-inflammatory properties (1). Cosmetic ingredient stability prediction relies on kinetic quantitative chemical analysis of active components at different temperatures. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid, are known to be unstable to light or heat (2). The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate in the presence of vitamin E (acetate) and other antioxidants in lipophilic/hydrophilic medium (O/W emulsions) at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. The formulations that were investigated contained 0.12% (w/w) vitamin A palmitate, 0.4% (w/w) vitamin E acetate, and 0.5 % α-lipoic acid (formulation A), supplemented with ascorbyl palmitate, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, and vitamin C (formulation B) or with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT, formulation C) or ascorbyl palmitate (formulation D). The chemical analyses of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate were carried out by HPLC. Formulations C and D at pH 7.0 were selected as the most stable for these components. The purpose of this paper is the selection of the most stable formulations for their application in in vivo studies.

  8. Cheese whey management: a review.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier

    2012-11-15

    Cheese whey is simultaneously an effluent with nutritional value and a strong organic and saline content. Cheese whey management has been focused in the development of biological treatments without valorization; biological treatments with valorization; physicochemical treatments and direct land application. In the first case, aerobic digestion is reported. In the second case, six main processes are described in the literature: anaerobic digestion, lactose hydrolysis, fermentation to ethanol, hydrogen or lactic acid and direct production of electricity through microbial fuel cells. Thermal and isoelectric precipitation, thermocalcic precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, acid precipitation, electrochemical and membrane technologies have been considered as possible and attractive physicochemical processes to valorize or treat cheese whey. The direct land application is a common and longstanding practice, although some precautions are required. In this review, these different solutions are analyzed. The paper describes the main reactors used, the influence of the main operating variables, the microorganisms or reagents employed and the characterizations of the final effluent principally in terms of chemical oxygen demand. In addition, the experimental conditions and the main results reported in the literature are compiled. Finally, the comparison between the different treatment alternatives and the presentation of potential treatment lines are postulated.

  9. Citric acid production from partly deproteinized whey under non-sterile culture conditions using immobilized cells of lactose-positive and cold-adapted Yarrowia lipolytica B9.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Nazli Pinar; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-10

    The present study was performed to produce citric acid (CA) from partly deproteinized cheese whey (DPCW) under non-sterile culture conditions using immobilized cells of the cold-adapted and lactose-positive yeast Yarrowia lipolytica B9. DPCW was prepared using the temperature treatment of 90°C for 15min. Sodium alginate was used as entrapping agent for cell immobilization. Optimum conditions for the maximum CA production (33.3g/L) in non-sterile DPCW medium were the temperature of 20°C, pH 5.5, additional lactose concentration of 20g/L, sodium alginate concentration of 2%, number of 150 beads/100mL and incubation time of 120h. Similarly, maximum citric acid/isocitric acid (CA/ICA) ratio (6.79) could be reached under these optimal conditions. Additional nitrogen and phosphorus sources decreased CA concentration and CA/ICA ratio. Immobilized cells were reused in three continuous reaction cycles without any loss in the maximum CA concentration. The unique combination of low pH and temperature values as well as cell immobilization procedure could prevent undesired microbial contaminants during CA production. This is the first work on CA production by cold-adapted microorganisms under non-sterile culture conditions. Besides, CA production using a lactose-positive strain of the yeast Y. lipolytica was investigated for the first time in the present study.

  10. Comparative study on heat stability and functionality of camel and bovine milk whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Laleye, L C; Jobe, B; Wasesa, A A H

    2008-12-01

    sensitivity to pH resulted in partial denaturation and increased tendency to aggregate, which caused poor and unstable emulsion at pH 5. Both bovine and camel whey proteins have demonstrated good foaming properties; however, the magnitudes of these properties were considerably greater in bovine milk for all of the conditions studied.

  11. Functional Foods Containing Whey Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey proteins, modified whey proteins, and whey components are useful as nutrients or supplements for health maintenance. Extrusion modified whey proteins can easily fit into new products such as beverages, confectionery items (e.g., candies), convenience foods, desserts, baked goods, sauces, and in...

  12. Whey Texturization for Snacks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion processing is used to modify the physical texture (texturization) of whey proteins, expanding their potential use in snack foods. Texturization changes the globular folding of proteins improving their interaction with other ingredients, and is the basis for creating new whey enriched snack...

  13. Plasma fatty acids in premature infants with hyperbilirubinemia: before-and-after nutrition support with fish oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Klein, Catherine J; Havranek, Thomas G; Revenis, Mary E; Hassanali, Zahra; Scavo, Louis M

    2013-02-01

    Infants who are dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) sometimes develop PN-associated cholestasis (PNAC). A compassionate use protocol, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the institutional review board, guided enrollment of hospitalized infants with PNAC (<1 year of age, PN dependence for >3 weeks). Plasma concentrations of essential fatty acids were monitored before and after a soybean-based PN lipid, infused at 3 g/kg body weight/d, was replaced by an experimental fish oil-based intravenous fat emulsion (FO-IVFE) at 1.0 g/kg/d. All participants were born premature (n = 10; 20% male). At enrollment, infants were (mean ± SD) 86.5 ± 53.5 days of life and weighed 2.24 ± 0.87 kg; direct bilirubin was 5.5 ± 1.3 mg/dL. After treatment, blood concentrations significantly increased from baseline (P < .017) for circulating eicosapentaenoic acid (6.3 ± 3.0 to 147.8 ± 53.1 µg/mL), docosahexaenoic acid (20.7 ± 6.5 to 163.7 ± 43.4 µg/mL), pristanic acid (0.01 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.03 µg/mL), and phytanic acid (0.06 ± 0.03 to 0.64 ± 0.15 µg/mL). In contrast, total plasma ω-6 fatty acids (including linoleic acid) decreased (P < .017). The triene/tetraene ratio remained below the threshold value of 0.2 that defines ω-6 deficiency. No adverse effects were observed attributable to FO-IVFE. Discontinuation of FO-IVFE was typically due to infants (body weight 3.76 ± 1.68 kg) transitioning to enteral feeding rather than for resolution of hyperbilirubinemia (direct bilirubin 7.9 ± 4.8 mg/dL). These exploratory results suggest that FO-IVFE raises circulating ω-3 fatty acids in premature infants without development of ω-6 deficiency in the 8.3 ± 5.8-week time frame of this study.

  14. Determination of whey adulteration in milk powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Gonca; Sezer, Banu; Eseller, Kemal Efe; Berberoglu, Halil; Topcu, Ali; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-12-01

    A rapid and in situ method has been developed to detect and quantify adulterated milk powder through adding whey powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The methodology is based on elemental composition differences between milk and whey products. Milk powder, sweet and acid whey powders were produced as standard samples, and milk powder was adulterated with whey powders. Based on LIBS spectra of standard samples and commercial products, species was identified using principle component analysis (PCA) method, and discrimination rate of milk and whey powders was found as 80.5%. Calibration curves were obtained with partial least squares regression (PLS). Correlation coefficient (R(2)) and limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.981 and 1.55% for adulteration with sweet whey powder, and 0.985 and 0.55% for adulteration with acid whey powder, respectively. The results were found to be consistent with the data from inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) method.

  15. Oil production by Mortierella isabellina from whey treated with lactase.

    PubMed

    Demir, Muammer; Turhan, Irfan; Kucukcetin, Ahmet; Alpkent, Zafer

    2013-01-01

    Whey, a by-product of cheese manufacturing is rich in nutrients such as lactose, proteins, and mineral salts. The fungus Mortierella isabellina was used for production of oil containing γ-linoleic acid (GLA) during fermentation on deproteinized whey permeate (DP-WP) with and without lactase addition. The maximum oil concentration was 3.65 g/L in DP-whey (16.0% lactose) without enzyme treatment. Treatment of DP-WP with lactase resulted in an increase in oil content to 17.13 g/L. Palmitic (22.50-25.80%) and oleic acids (37.60-48.56%) were the major fatty acids along with GLA (2.18-5.48%), linoleic (16.21-22.43%) and stearic acid (3.20-10.08%). This study suggests that whey can be utilized as a feedstock for production of microbial oil.

  16. The effect of feeding fermented liquid whey plus dextrose inoculated with specific lactic acid bacteria of pig origin to weanling pigs challenged with Escherichia coli O149:K91:F4.

    PubMed

    Amezcua, M D R; Friendship, R; Dewey, C; Weese, S; de Lange, C F M

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of using fermented liquid whey inoculated with specific lactic acid bacteria of pig origin to reduce the severity and progression of postweaning enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea in weanling pigs challenged with E. coli O149:K91:F4. Based on two trials, it was determined that feeding inoculated fermented whey in a liquid diet did not affect growth performance or the severity or duration of postweaning diarrhea compared with a conventional dry feed containing an antibiotic. Because this study is one of very few examining the use of liquid feed and co-products inoculated with probiotics to control postweaning E. coli diarrhea, more studies are needed to confirm these results.

  17. Rheology as a Tool to Predict the Release of Alpha-Lipoic Acid from Emulsions Used for the Prevention of Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges; Chiari-Andréo, Bruna Galdorfini; Marto, Joana Marques; Moraes, Jemima Daniela Dias; Leone, Beatriz Alves; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The availability of an active substance through the skin depends basically on two consecutive steps: the release of this substance from the vehicle and its subsequent permeation through the skin. Hence, studies on the specific properties of vehicles, such as their rheological behavior, are of great interest in the field of dermatological products. Recent studies have shown the influence of the rheological features of a vehicle on the release of drugs and active compounds from the formulation. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the rheological features of two different emulsion formulations on the release of alpha-lipoic acid. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) was chosen for this study because of its antioxidant characteristics, which could be useful for the prevention of skin diseases and aging. The rheological and mechanical behavior and the in vitro release profile were assayed. The results showed that rheological features, such as viscosity, thixotropy, and compliance, strongly influenced the release of ALA from the emulsion and that the presence of a hydrophilic polymer in one of the emulsions was an important factor affecting the rheology and, therefore, the release of ALA. PMID:26788510

  18. Rheology as a Tool to Predict the Release of Alpha-Lipoic Acid from Emulsions Used for the Prevention of Skin Aging.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges; Chiari-Andréo, Bruna Galdorfini; Marto, Joana Marques; Moraes, Jemima Daniela Dias; Leone, Beatriz Alves; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The availability of an active substance through the skin depends basically on two consecutive steps: the release of this substance from the vehicle and its subsequent permeation through the skin. Hence, studies on the specific properties of vehicles, such as their rheological behavior, are of great interest in the field of dermatological products. Recent studies have shown the influence of the rheological features of a vehicle on the release of drugs and active compounds from the formulation. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the rheological features of two different emulsion formulations on the release of alpha-lipoic acid. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) was chosen for this study because of its antioxidant characteristics, which could be useful for the prevention of skin diseases and aging. The rheological and mechanical behavior and the in vitro release profile were assayed. The results showed that rheological features, such as viscosity, thixotropy, and compliance, strongly influenced the release of ALA from the emulsion and that the presence of a hydrophilic polymer in one of the emulsions was an important factor affecting the rheology and, therefore, the release of ALA.

  19. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.

  20. Evaluation of whey, milk, and delactosed permeates as salt substitutes.

    PubMed

    Smith, S T; Metzger, L; Drake, M A

    2016-11-01

    Whey and milk permeates are by-products of high-protein dairy powder manufacture. Previous work has shown that these permeates contribute to salty taste without contributing significantly to sodium content. The objective of this study was to explore the sensory characteristics and compositional analysis of permeates from different milk and whey streams and a low-sodium product application made from them. Skim milk, Cheddar, cottage, and Mozzarella cheese whey permeates were manufactured in triplicate, and delactosed whey permeate was obtained in triplicate. Composition (protein, fat, solids, minerals) was conducted on permeates. Organic acid composition was determined using HPLC. Volatile compounds were extracted from permeates by solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A trained sensory panel documented sensory attributes of permeates and cream of broccoli soups with and without salt or permeates followed by consumer acceptance testing (n=105) on the soups. Cottage cheese whey permeate contained a higher lactic acid content than other permeates, which has been shown to contribute to a higher salty taste. Cottage cheese whey permeate also contained potato or brothy and caramel flavors and sour and salty tastes, whereas delactosed whey permeate had high intensities of cardboard and beefy or brothy flavors and salty taste. Milk, Cheddar, and Mozzarella cheese whey permeates were characterized by sweet taste and cooked milky flavor. Permeates with higher cardboard flavor had higher levels of aldehydes. All permeates contributed to salty taste and to salty taste perception in soups; although the control soup with added salt was perceived as saltier and was preferred by consumers over permeate soups. Soup with permeate from cottage cheese was the least liked of all soups, likely due to its sour taste. All other permeate soups scored at parity for liking. These results demonstrate the potential for milk, whey, and delactosed permeates from

  1. Plasma Free Amino Acid Responses to Intraduodenal Whey Protein, and Relationships with Insulin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Energy Intake in Lean Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D.; Hutchison, Amy T.; Soenen, Stijn; Steinert, Robert E.; Clifton, Peter M.; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the effects of increasing loads of intraduodenal (ID) dairy protein on plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, and their relationships with serum insulin, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and energy intake. Sixteen healthy men had concentrations of AAs, GLP-1 and insulin measured in response to 60-min ID infusions of hydrolysed whey protein administered, in double-blinded and randomised order, at 2.1 (P2.1), 6.3 (P6.3) or 12.5 (P12.5) kJ/min (encompassing the range of nutrient emptying from the stomach), or saline control (C). Energy intake was quantified immediately afterwards. Compared with C, the concentrations of 19/20 AAs, the exception being cysteine, were increased, and this was dependent on the protein load. The relationship between AA concentrations in the infusions and the area under the curve from 0 to 60 min (AUC0–60 min) of each AA profile was strong for essential AAs (R2 range, 0.61–0.67), but more variable for non-essential (0.02–0.54) and conditional (0.006–0.64) AAs. The AUC0–60 min for each AA was correlated directly with the AUC0–60 min of insulin (R2 range 0.3–0.6), GLP-1 (0.2–0.6) and energy intake (0.09–0.3) (p < 0.05, for all), with the strongest correlations being for branched-chain AAs, lysine, methionine and tyrosine. These findings indicate that ID whey protein infused at loads encompassing the normal range of gastric emptying increases plasma concentrations of 19/20 AAs in a load-dependent manner, and provide novel information on the close relationships between the essential AAs, leucine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, and the conditionally-essential AA, tyrosine, with energy intake, insulin and GLP-1. PMID:26742062

  2. Effect of inclusion of hydroxycinnamic and chlorogenic acids from green coffee bean in β-cyclodextrin on their interactions with whey, egg white and soy protein isolates.

    PubMed

    Budryn, Grażyna; Pałecz, Bartłomiej; Rachwał-Rosiak, Danuta; Oracz, Joanna; Zaczyńska, Donata; Belica, Sylwia; Navarro-González, Inmaculada; Meseguer, Josefina María Vegara; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise the interactions of hydroxycinnamic and chlorogenic acids (CHAs) from green coffee, with isolates of proteins from egg white (EWP), whey (WPC) and soy (SPI), depending on pH and temperature. The binding degree was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and an ultrahigh resolution hybrid quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometer with ESI source (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). As a result of binding, the concentration of CHAs in proteins ranged from 9.44-12.2, 11.8-13.1 and 12.1-14.4g/100g for SPI, WPC and EWP, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters of protein-ligand interactions were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and energetics of interactions at the atomic level by molecular modelling. The amount of CHAs released during proteolytic digestion was in the range 0.33-2.67g/100g. Inclusion of CHAs with β-cyclodextrin strongly limited these interactions to a level of 0.03-0.06g/100g.

  3. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of whey protein isolate coating incorporated with nisin, grape seed extract, malic acid, and EDTA on a Turkey frankfurter system.

    PubMed

    Gadang, V P; Hettiarachchy, N S; Johnson, M G; Owens, C

    2008-10-01

    The effectiveness of whey protein isolate (WPI) coatings incorporated with grape seed extract (GSE), nisin (N), malic acid (MA), and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and their combinations to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in a turkey frankfurter system through surface inoculation (approximately 10(6) CFU/g) of pathogens. The inoculated frankfurters were dipped into WPI film forming solutions both with and without the addition of antimicrobial agents (GSE, MA, or N and EDTA, or combinations). Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for 28 d. The L. monocytogenes population (5.5 log/g) decreased to 2.3 log/g after 28 d at 4 degrees C in the samples containing nisin (6000 IU/g) combined with GSE (0.5%) and MA (1.0%). The S. typhimurium population (6.0 log/g) was decreased to approximately 1 log cycles after 28 d at 4 degrees C in the samples coated with WPI containing a combination of N, MA, GSE, and EDTA. The E. coli O157:H7 population (6.15 log/g) was decreased by 4.6 log cycles after 28 d in samples containing WPI coating incorporated with N, MA, and EDTA. These findings demonstrated that the use of an edible film coating containing nisin, organic acids, and natural extracts is a promising means of controlling the growth and recontamination of L. monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 in ready-to-eat poultry products.

  4. Chitosan-whey protein isolate composite films for encapsulation and stabilization of fish oil containing ultra pure omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jingyun; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan (1.5%, w/v)-whey protein isolate (WPI, 5% w/v) composite films were developed for encapsulating and stabilizing fish oil (FO) containing 93.7% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Chitosan-WPI film-forming solutions (FFS) were incorporated with 1.5% or 2% FO (w/v), 2% (w/v) glycerol, Tween 80 (3 times weight of FO), and 0.5% (w/v) oregano or rosemary essential oil (EO), and cast for films at room conditions. Dried films were stored at 2 °C for 30 d for evaluating encapsulation efficiency (EE), lipid stability, and film functionality. Total oil contents in films from FFS incorporating 1.5% or 2% FO were 28.1% to 32.5% and 33.4% to 37.3%, respectively, and free oil contents were 13.5% to 14.7% and 15.5% to 16.3%, respectively. EE, moisture content, and water activity of the films were 47.8% to 66%, 18.7% to 24.9%, and 0.42% to 0.50%, respectively, without significant difference among differently formulated films. Increasing FO concentration from 1.5% to 2% in FFS decreased tensile strength of the films from 0.57-0.73 to 0.34-0.44 MPa, but not the film elongation. Addition of oregano EO in FFS retarded lipid oxidation of the fish oil encapsulated in the films, in which a 43% to 53% reduction in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value and 39% to 51% reduction in peroxide value were achieved. Chitosan-WPI composite films with incorporation of oregano essential oil could be applied as a simple and economic means for encapsulating and stabilizing fish oil for fortifying omega-3 fatty acids in various applications.

  5. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    According to the 'Report on alcohol fuels policy review', published in 1979 by the US Department of Energy, cheese whey had a very low net feedstock cost/gal of ethanol produced ($0.22) and the production potential in the USA is 90 million gal ethanol/yr. Three processes are described, i.e. the Milbrew whey fermentation process using Kluyveromyces fragilis with whey of 10-15% TS under sterile or non-sterile conditions and in batch, semi-continuous or continuous operation (primarily, designed for the production of single-cell protein), the continuous Carbery process in commercial operation in Ireland (DSA 42, 7856) and the Danish process (Dansk Gaerings-industri, Copenhagen) producing edible alcohol from whey permeate, and methane from distillation wastes for use as fuel for heating the distillation units.

  6. Fatty Acid Oxidation and Calcium Homeostasis are Involved in the Rescue of Bupivacaine Induced Cardiotoxicity by Lipid Emulsion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Partownavid, Parisa; Umar, Soban; Li, Jingyuan; Rahman, Siamak; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Lipid Emulsion (LE) has been shown to be effective in resuscitating bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest but its mechanism of action is not clear. Here we investigated whether fatty acid oxidation is required for rescue of bupivacaine induced cardiotoxicity by LE in rats. We also compared the mitochondrial function and calcium threshold for triggering of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest before and after resuscitation with LE. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, animal study. SETTING University Research Laboratory. SUBJECTS Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Asystole was achieved with a single dose of bupivacaine (10mg/kg over 20seconds, i.v.) and 20% LE infusion (5ml/kg bolus, and 0.5ml/kg/min maintenance) with cardiac massage started immediately. The rats in CVT group were pretreated with a single dose of fatty acid oxidation inhibitor CVT (0.5, 0.25, 0.125 or 0.0625mg/kg bolus i.v.) 5min prior to inducing asystole by bupivacaine overdose. Heart rate (HR), ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), the threshold for opening of mPTP, oxygen consumption and membrane potential were measured. The values are Mean±SEM. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Administration of bupivacaine resulted in asystole. ILP infusion improved the cardiac function gradually as the EF was fully recovered within 5min (EF=64±4% and FS=36±3%, n=6) and heart rate increased to 239±9 beats/min (71% recovery, n=6) within 10min. LE was only able to rescue rats pretreated with low dose of CVT (0.0625mg/kg) (HR=~181±11 beats/min at 10 min, recovery of 56%; EF=50±1%; FS=26±0.6% at 5min, n=3) but was unable to resuscitate rats pretreated with higher doses of CVT (0.5, 0.25 or 0.125mg/kg). The calcium retention capacity in response to Ca2+ overload was significantly higher in cardiac mitochondria isolated from rats resuscitated with 20% LE compared to the group that did not receive ILP after bupivacaine

  7. Characterization of whey cheese packaged under vacuum.

    PubMed

    Pintado, M E; Malcata, F X

    2000-02-01

    Vacuum packaging was assayed at 4 degrees C and was tested in comparison to unpackaged counterparts, in both microbiological and physicochemical terms, in studies pertaining to the preservation of Requeijão, a traditional Portuguese whey cheese. Bacteria were absent (i.e., <10 CFU/g) in whey cheeses on the day of manufacture as a result of thermal processing. After storage, both unpackaged and packaged cheeses exhibited high viable counts of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria (especially lactococci). Yeasts, staphylococci, enterococci, and spore-forming clostridia were severely inhibited by the package vacuum combined with the increasing acidification developed therein. Whey cheeses packaged under vacuum underwent substantial acidification, slight depletion of lactose, and no significant variation in moisture content or texture; conversely, unpackaged whey cheeses exhibited substantial loss of water and a concomitant increase in rigidity. Vacuum packaging strongly inhibited lipolysis (even if viable counts of some microbial groups were high); saturated fatty acids (mainly C16:0 and C14:0) accounted for ca. 73% of the total free-fatty acid content, whereas the most concentrated unsaturated fatty acids were C18:1 and C18:2 (ca. 14% each). The conclusions generated in our study are, in general, useful for a wide range of whey cheeses worldwide: i.e., Requéson (Spain), Ricotta (Italy), Broccio (France), and Anthotyro (Greece). In addition, our conclusions are particularly helpful in terms of improving the safety of Requeijão, a widely acclaimed dairy specialty.

  8. Treatability of cheese whey for single-cell protein production in nonsterile systems: Part I. Optimal condition for lactic acid fermentation using a microaerobic sequencing batch reactor (microaerobic SBR) with immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 2265 and microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Monkoondee, Sarawut; Kuntiya, Ampin; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Techapun, Charin; Kawee-Ai, Arthitaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit

    2016-05-18

    Cheese whey contains a high organic content and causes serious problems if it is released into the environment when untreated. This study aimed to investigate the optimum condition of lactic acid production using the microaerobic sequencing batch reactor (microaerobic SBR) in a nonsterile system. The high production of lactic acid was achieved by immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 2265 to generate an acidic pH condition below 4.5 and then to support single-cell protein (SCP) production in the second aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR). A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days and a whey concentration of 80% feeding gave a high lactic acid yield of 12.58 g/L, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 62.38%, and lactose utilization of 61.54%. The microbial communities in the nonsterile system were dominated by members of lactic acid bacteria, and it was shown that the inoculum remained in the system up to 330 days.

  9. Review: elimination of bacteriophages in whey and whey products.

    PubMed

    Atamer, Zeynep; Samtlebe, Meike; Neve, Horst; J Heller, Knut; Hinrichs, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    As the cheese market faces strong international competition, the optimization of production processes becomes more important for the economic success of dairy companies. In dairy productions, whey from former cheese batches is frequently re-used to increase the yield, to improve the texture and to increase the nutrient value of the final product. Recycling of whey cream and particulated whey proteins is also routinely performed. Most bacteriophages, however, survive pasteurization and may re-enter the cheese manufacturing process. There is a risk that phages multiply to high numbers during the production. Contamination of whey samples with bacteriophages may cause problems in cheese factories because whey separation often leads to aerosol-borne phages and thus contamination of the factory environment. Furthermore, whey cream or whey proteins used for recycling into cheese matrices may contain thermo-resistant phages. Drained cheese whey can be contaminated with phages as high as 10(9) phages mL(-1). When whey batches are concentrated, phage titers can increase significantly by a factor of 10 hindering a complete elimination of phages. To eliminate the risk of fermentation failure during recycling of whey, whey treatments assuring an efficient reduction of phages are indispensable. This review focuses on inactivation of phages in whey by thermal treatment, ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, and membrane filtration. Inactivation by heat is the most common procedure. However, application of heat for inactivation of thermo-resistant phages in whey is restricted due to negative effects on the functional properties of native whey proteins. Therefore an alternative strategy applying combined treatments should be favored - rather than heating the dairy product at extreme temperature/time combinations. By using membrane filtration or UV treatment in combination with thermal treatment, phage numbers in whey can be reduced sufficiently to prevent subsequent phage

  10. Review: elimination of bacteriophages in whey and whey products

    PubMed Central

    Atamer, Zeynep; Samtlebe, Meike; Neve, Horst; J. Heller, Knut; Hinrichs, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    As the cheese market faces strong international competition, the optimization of production processes becomes more important for the economic success of dairy companies. In dairy productions, whey from former cheese batches is frequently re-used to increase the yield, to improve the texture and to increase the nutrient value of the final product. Recycling of whey cream and particulated whey proteins is also routinely performed. Most bacteriophages, however, survive pasteurization and may re-enter the cheese manufacturing process. There is a risk that phages multiply to high numbers during the production. Contamination of whey samples with bacteriophages may cause problems in cheese factories because whey separation often leads to aerosol-borne phages and thus contamination of the factory environment. Furthermore, whey cream or whey proteins used for recycling into cheese matrices may contain thermo-resistant phages. Drained cheese whey can be contaminated with phages as high as 109 phages mL-1. When whey batches are concentrated, phage titers can increase significantly by a factor of 10 hindering a complete elimination of phages. To eliminate the risk of fermentation failure during recycling of whey, whey treatments assuring an efficient reduction of phages are indispensable. This review focuses on inactivation of phages in whey by thermal treatment, ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, and membrane filtration. Inactivation by heat is the most common procedure. However, application of heat for inactivation of thermo-resistant phages in whey is restricted due to negative effects on the functional properties of native whey proteins. Therefore an alternative strategy applying combined treatments should be favored – rather than heating the dairy product at extreme temperature/time combinations. By using membrane filtration or UV treatment in combination with thermal treatment, phage numbers in whey can be reduced sufficiently to prevent subsequent phage accumulations

  11. Whey drying on porous carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitura, E.; Kaminski, W.

    1996-05-01

    Whey is treated very often as a waste which pollutes the natural environment. Whey which is a valuable source of protein, lacrose, vitamins and mineral salts should be utilized completely. The present paper is a proposal of whey drying on porous carriers. It is proved experimentally that the proposed drying method guarantees good product quality.

  12. Effects of various whey protein hydrolysates on the emulsifying and surface properties of hydrolysed lecithin.

    PubMed

    Scherze, I; Muschiolik, G

    2001-07-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions (30 wt% sunflower oil) containing various concentrations of commercial whey protein hydrolysates (0-4 wt%) and hydrolysed lecithin (0.4-1.8 wt%) were prepared by means of a high pressure homogeniser. The degrees of hydrolysis used ranged from 10 to 27%. The individual and interactive effects of these factors on the particle size distribution, emulsion stability, consistency and interfacial tension were investigated using a three-level factorial design according to the principle of response surface methodology. The properties of the emulsions containing both hydrolysed lecithin and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) were significantly influenced by the degree of hydrolysis of WPH, the protein content and the second-order interaction between both. Addition of WPH, with a 10-20% degree of hydrolysis, improved the stability of lecithin-stabilised emulsions and slightly decreased the average droplet size, compared to those emulsions with only protein or hydrolysed lecithin. However, when extensively hydrolysed WPH (DH=27%) was mixed with hydrolysed lecithin, rapid coalescence and oiling-off of the emulsion droplets resulted, suggesting competition between the surface active components of this WPH and the hydrolysed lecithin. High amounts of such an extensively hydrolysed WPH, together with low lecithin concentrations, were found to be especially detrimental. The different behaviour of partially and extensively hydrolysed WPH in oil-in-water emulsions containing hydrolysed lecithin, was in good agreement with their interfacial activity, as measured by the drop volume method.

  13. Biomass and lipids from lactose or whey by Trichosporon beigelii

    SciTech Connect

    Tahoun, M.K.; El-Merheb, Z.; Salem, A.; Youssef, A.

    1987-02-20

    The yeast Trichosporon beigelii produced the highest amount of biomass when grown in chemical-defined medium with a ratio of carbon source to nitrogen source of 30:1. On the other hand, carbon-limited medium (C-N ratio 2:1) enhanced unsaturated fatty acids synthesis. The yeast efficiently converted unsalted whey lactose to biomass, while sodium chloride in whey raised lactose assimilation to single-cell oil (SCO). 20 references.

  14. Effects of parenteral infusion with fish-oil or safflower-oil emulsion on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acids, and inflammatory mediators in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Chao, C Y; Yeh, S L; Lin, M T; Chen, W J

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of preinfusion with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) using fish-oil (FO) versus safflower-oil (SO) emulsion as fat sources on hepatic lipids, plasma amino-acid profiles, and inflammatory-related mediators in septic rats. Normal rats, with internal jugular catheters, were assigned to two different groups and received TPN. TPN provided 300 kcal. kg(-1). d(-1), with 40% of the non-protein energy as fat. All TPN solutions were isonitrogenous and identical in nutrient composition except for the fat emulsion, which was made of SO or FO. After receiving TPN for 6 d, each group of rats was further divided into control and sepsis subgroups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture; control rats received sham operation. All rats were classified into four groups as follows: FO control group (FOC; n = 7), FO sepsis group (FOS; n = 8), SO control group (SOC; n = 8), and SO sepsis group (SOS; n = 9). The results of the study demonstrated that plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acids did not differ between the FO and SO groups, regardless of whether the animals were septic. SOS had significantly higher total lipids and cholesterol content in the liver than did the SOC group. The FOS group, however, showed no difference from the FOC group. Plasma leucine and isoleucine levels were significantly lower in the SOS group than in the SOC group, whereas no difference in these two amino acids was observed between the FOC and FOS groups. Plasma arginine levels were significantly lower in both septic groups than in the groups without sepsis when either FO or SO was infused. Plasma glutamine levels, however, did not differ across groups. No differences in interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or leukotriene B(4) concentrations in peritoneal lavage fluid were observed between the two septic groups. These results suggest that catabolic reaction in septic rats preinfused with FO

  15. Facile fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate/hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds based on Pickering emulsion templates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Ma, Shanshan; Yang, Zhuohong; Zhou, Wuyi; Du, Zhengshan; Huang, Jian; Yi, Huan; Wang, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a facile one-pot approach to the fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate (ALG-Ca)/hydroxyapatite (HAp) porous scaffolds based on HAp nanoparticle-stabilized oil-in-water Pickering emulsion templates, which contain alginate in the aqueous phase and PLLA in the oil phase. The emulsion aqueous phase is solidified by in situ gelation of alginate with Ca(2+) released from HAp by decreasing pH with slow hydrolysis of D-gluconic acid δ-lactone (GDL) to produce emulsion droplet-incorporated gels, followed by freeze-drying to form porous scaffolds containing microspheres. The pore structure of porous scaffolds can be adjusted by varying the HAp or GDL concentration. The compressive tests show that the increase of HAp or GDL concentration is beneficial to improve the compressive property of porous scaffolds, while the excessive HAp can lead to the decrease in compressive property. Moreover, the swelling behavior studies display that the swelling ratios of porous scaffolds reduce with increasing HAp or GDL concentration. Furthermore, hydrophobic drug ibuprofen (IBU) and hydrophilic drug bovine serum albumin (BSA) are loaded into the microspheres and scaffold matrix, respectively. In vitro drug release results indicate that BSA has a rapid release while IBU has a sustained release in the dual drug-loaded scaffolds. In vitro cell culture experiments verify that mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells can proliferate on the porous scaffolds well, indicating the good biocompatibility of porous scaffolds. All these results demonstrate that the PLLA microsphere-incorporated ALG-Ca/HAp porous scaffolds have a promising potential for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.

  16. Intravenous Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition123

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Gillian L; Nandivada, Prathima; Gura, Kathleen M; Puder, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Fat is an important macronutrient in the human diet. For patients with intestinal failure who are unable to absorb nutrients via the enteral route, intravenous lipid emulsions play a critical role in providing an energy-dense source of calories and supplying the essential fatty acids that cannot be endogenously synthesized. Over the last 50 y, lipid emulsions have been an important component of parenteral nutrition (PN), and over the last 10–15 y many new lipid emulsions have been manufactured with the goal of improving safety and efficacy profiles and achieving physiologically optimal formulations. The purpose of this review is to provide a background on the components of lipid emulsions, their role in PN, and to discuss the lipid emulsions available for intravenous use. Finally, the role of parenteral fat emulsions in the pathogenesis and management of PN-associated liver disease in PN-dependent pediatric patients is reviewed. PMID:26374182

  17. Effects on hemodynamics and gas exchange of omega-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Sabater, Joan; Masclans, Joan Ramon; Sacanell, Judit; Chacon, Pilar; Sabin, Pilar; Planas, Merce

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the effects on hemodynamics and gas exchange of a lipid emulsion enriched with omega-3 fatty acids in patients with ARDS. Methods The design was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study in our Intensive Medicine Department of Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona-Spain). We studied 16 consecutive patients with ARDS and intolerance to enteral nutrition (14 men and 2 women; mean age: 58 ± 13 years; APACHE II score: 17.8 ± 2.3; Lung Injury Score: 3.1 ± 0.5; baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 149 ± 40). Patients were randomized into 2 groups: Group A (n = 8) received the study emulsion Lipoplus® 20%, B.Braun Medical (50% MCT, 40% LCT, 10% ω-3); Group B (n = 8) received the control emulsion Intralipid® Fresenius Kabi (100% LCT). Lipid emulsions were administered during 12 h at a dose of 0.12 g/kg/h. Measurements of the main hemodynamic and gas exchange parameters were made at baseline (immediately before administration of the lipid emulsions), every hour during the lipid infusion, at the end of administration, and six hours after the end of administration lipid infusion. Results No statistically significant changes were observed in the different hemodynamic values analyzed. Likewise, the gas exchange parameters did not show statistically significant differences during the study. No adverse effect attributable to the lipid emulsions was seen in the patients analyzed. Conclusion The lipid emulsion enriched with omega-3 fatty acids was safe and well tolerated in short-term administration to patients with ARDS. It did not cause any significant changes in hemodynamic and gas exchange parameters. Trial registration ISRCTN63673813 PMID:18947396

  18. Utilization of Condensed Distillers Solubles as Nutrient Supplement for Production of Nisin and Lactic Acid from Whey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W.

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  19. Utilization of condensed distillers solubles as nutrient supplement for production of nisin and lactic acid from whey.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W

    2007-04-01

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  20. Supercritical carbon dioxide fractionation of whey protein isolate for new food-grade ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new, environmentally benign whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical CO2 (SCO2) as an acid aggregating agent to separate a-lactalbumin (a-LA) aggregates from soluble beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) protein in concentrated whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions. The process e...

  1. Fractionation of whey protein isolate with supercritical carbon dioxide – process modeling and cost estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-La) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) from a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI) containing 55% ...

  2. Inhibitory activity of chlorogenic acids in decaffeinated green coffee beans against porcine pancreas lipase and effect of a decaffeinated green coffee bean extract on an emulsion of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yusaku; Iwai, Kazuya; Fukunaga, Taiji; Nakagiri, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A decaffeinated green coffee bean extract (DGCBE) inhibited porcine pancreas lipase (PPL) activity with an IC50 value of 1.98 mg/mL. Six different chlorogenic acids in DGCBE contributed to this PPL inhibition, accounting for 91.8% of the inhibitory activity. DGCBE increased the droplet size and decreased the specific surface area of an olive oil emulsion.

  3. Characterization of dried whey protein concentrate and isolate flavor.

    PubMed

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Croissant, A E; Drake, M A

    2005-11-01

    The flavor of whey protein concentrates (WPC 80) and whey protein isolates (WPI) was studied using instrumental and sensory techniques. Four WPC 80 and 4 WPI, less than 3 mo old, were collected in duplicate from 6 manufacturers in the United States. Samples were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Duplicate samples with internal standards were extracted with diethyl ether. Extracts were then distilled to remove nonvolatile material using high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/olfactometry with post peak intensity analysis and aroma extract dilution analysis. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry against reference standards. Whey proteins exhibited sweet aromatic, cardboard/wet paper, animal/wet dog, soapy, brothy, cucumber, and cooked/milky flavors, along with the basic taste bitter, and the feeling factor astringency. Key volatile flavor compounds in WPC 80 and WPI were butanoic acid (cheesy), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (brothy/burnt), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone (maple/spicy), 2-nonenal (fatty/old books), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber), and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal (fatty/oxidized). This baseline data on flavor and flavor sources in whey proteins will aid ongoing and future research and will help to identify the most appropriate whey ingredients to use to control or minimize flavor variability in whey enhanced products.

  4. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    Whey disposal has become a serious environmental problem and loss of revenue to the cheese industry. The U.S. Dept. of Energy has indicated that cheese whey has one of the lowest net feedstock costs per gallon of ethanol. The manufacture of ethanol is accomplished by specially selected yeast fermentation of lactose via the glycolytic pathway. Three commercial processes are described, the Milbrew process which produces single cell protein and alcohol, and the Carbery and Denmark processes which produce potable alcohol. Selected strains of Kluveromyces fragilis are used in all processes and in the latter process, effluents are treated under anaerobic conditions to produce methane, which replaces 17-20% of the fuel oil required by the distillation plant.

  5. Rheology and stability of acidified food emulsions treated with high pressure.

    PubMed

    Arora, Akshay; Chism, Grady W; Shellhammer, Thomas H

    2003-04-23

    The stability and rheology of acidified model oil-in-water emulsions (pH 3.6 +/- 0.1) were evaluated before and after high-pressure treatments. Varying concentrations of canola oil (0-50% w/w), whey protein isolate, polysorbate 60, soy lecithin (0.1-1.5% w/w each), and xanthan (0.0-0.2% w/w) were chosen. Exposure to high pressures (up to 800 MPa for 5 min at 30 degrees C) did not significantly affect the equivalent surface mean diameter D[3,2], flow behavior, and viscoelasticity of the whey protein isolate and polysorbate 60-stabilized emulsions. Pressure treatments had negligible effects on emulsion stability in these systems, except when xanthan (0.2% w/w) was present in which pressure improved the stability of polysorbate 60-stabilized emulsions. Soy lecithin-stabilized emulsions had larger mean particles sizes and lower emulsion volume indices than the others, indicating potential instability, and application of pressure further destabilized these emulsions.

  6. Physicochemical Properties of Biosurfactant Produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens Grown on Whey Tofu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, V.; Handayani, D. S.; Marliyana, S. D.; Suratmi, S.

    2017-02-01

    The research aims to examine the physicochemical properties of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Biosurfactant was produced in whey tofu media containing 8 g/L nutrient broth and 5 g/L NaCl which was fermented for 2 days at room temperature. Biosurfactant was identified as rhamnolipids which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 638 mg/L and surface tension of 54 mN/m. The biosurfactant had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. The biosurfactant was able to decrease the interfacial tension more than 40% for emulsion of water with hexane, pentane, benzene, lubricants or kerosene. The stable emulsions were reached up to 30 days with the E24 value of about 50% when paraffin, toluene, lubricants or palm oil was used as an immiscible compound. Commercial surfactants, such as Triton X-100 and Tween-80 were investigated to compare their emulsification activities and emulsion stabilities with the produced biosurfactant.

  7. 7 CFR 58.813 - Dry whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whey. 58.813 Section 58.813 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.813 Dry whey. The quality requirements for dry whey shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Dry Whey. Supplemental Specifications for...

  8. 7 CFR 58.717 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey. 58.717 Section 58.717 Agriculture Regulations of....717 Whey. Whey used in cheese products should meet the requirements equivalent to USDA Extra Grade except that the moisture requirement for dry whey may be waived....

  9. The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

    2011-03-01

    The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey.

  10. Effectiveness of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Based Lipid Emulsions for Treatment of Patients after Hepatectomy: A Prospective Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yuanfeng; Liu, Zhaohui; Liao, Yadi; Mai, Cong; Chen, Tiejun; Tang, Hui; Tang, Yunqiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of parenteral nutritional support with ω-3 PUFAs–based lipid emulsions in patients after liver resection. Methods: A total of 119 patients were randomly assigned to the immunonutrition (IM) group (n = 59) and control group (n = 60). The IM group was continuously given Omegaven® 10% 100 mL/day rather than regular nutrition for five days postoperatively. Venous blood samples were obtained from all subjects before surgery and D1, D3 and D7 after surgery. Results: No significant difference was found in baseline characteristics of the two groups. On D1 after surgery, no statistically significant differences were observed in the blood sample tests between the two groups. On D3 after surgery, the levels of white blood cell count (WBC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBil) were dramatically decreased in the IM group (t = 3.065, p = 0.003; t = 2.149, p = 0.034; t = 5.313, p= 0.001; and t = 2.419, p = 0.017, respectively). Furthermore, on D7 after surgery, not only could a significant decrease be observed in the IM group concerning the levels of WBC, ALT and TBil (t = 3.025, p = 0.003; t = 2.094, p = 0.038; and t = 2.046, p = 0.043, respectively), but it was also seen in the level of Δprothrombintime (PT) (t = 2.450, p = 0.016). An increase in the level of prealbumin (Pre-Alb) in the IM group was observed on D7 after surgery (t = 2.237, p = 0.027). The frequency of total complications in the IM group were significantly lower than in the control group (χ2 = 4.225, p = 0.040 and χ2 = 3.174, p = 0.075). The trend favored the IM group in reducing the total infective complications rate (χ2 = 3.174, p = 0.075). A significant decrease in the duration of the hospital stay after surgery was also observed in the IM group (t = 2.012, p = 0.047).Conclusion: ω-3 PUFAs–based lipid emulsions for treatment of patients after hepatectomy are safe and effective in

  11. Effects of an omega-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion on eicosanoid synthesis in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of lipid emulsions has been associated with changes in lung function and gas exchange which may be mediated by biologically active metabolites derived from arachidonic acid. The type and quantity of the lipid emulsions used could modulate this response, which is mediated by the eicosanoids. This study investigates the use of omega-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsions in ARDS patients and their effects on eicosanoid values. Methods Prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study carried out at the Intensive Medicine Department of Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona-Spain). We studied 16 consecutive patients with ARDS and intolerance to enteral nutrition (14 men; age: 58 ± 13 years; APACHE II score 17.8 ± 2.3; Lung Injury Score: 3.1 ± 0.5; baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 149 ± 40). Patients were randomized into two groups: Group A (n = 8) received the study emulsion Lipoplus® 20%, B. Braun Medical (50% MCT, 40% LCT, 10% fish oil (FO)); Group B (n = 8) received the control emulsion Intralipid® Fresenius Kabi (100% LCT). Lipid emulsions were administered for 12 h at a dose of 0.12 g/kg/h. We measured LTB4, TXB2, and 6-keto prostaglandin F1α values at baseline [immediately before the administration of the lipid emulsions (T-0)], at the end of the administration (T-12) and 24 hours after the beginning of the infusion (T 24) in arterial and mixed venous blood samples. Results In group A (FO) LTB4, TXB2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1α levels fell during omega-3 administration (T12). After discontinuation (T24), levels of inflammatory markers (both systemic and pulmonary) behaved erratically. In group B (LCT) all systemic and pulmonary mediators increased during lipid administration and returned to baseline levels after discontinuation, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. There was a clear interaction between the treatment in group A (fish oil) and changes in LTB4 over time. Conclusions Infusion of lipids enriched

  12. Characteristic of milk whey culture with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ET-3 and its application to the inflammatory bowel disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Uchida, M; Mogami, O; Matsueda, K

    2007-06-01

    After the screening of microorganism culture, the culture of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ET-3 in the milk whey (milk whey culture) was found to stimulate the growth of our own Bifidobacteria in the colon but not the growth of other microorganisms. One of the active substances was identified as 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA).In healthy volunteers, the ingestion containing milk whey culture significantly increased the population of Bifidobacteria to total fecal bacterium. In the TNBS-induced colitis model of rats, milk whey culture significantly accelerated the healing of the colitis in a dose-dependent manner. It has been reported that DHNA inhibited the lymphocyte infiltration through reduction of MAdCAM-1 in DSS colitis model of mice and that the ingestion of milk whey culture was effective in the treatment of ulcerative colitis in human pilot study. These findings suggest that milk whey culture is a useful prebiotic for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Thermal drying of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and its efficient use as starter for whey fermentation and unsalted cheese making.

    PubMed

    Katechaki, Eleftheria; Solomonidis, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2010-11-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus grown on whey was dried by a simple thermal drying method at the range 35-55 degrees C and its efficiency for lactic acid fermentation of whey was evaluated. Drying of cells in whey suspension in the examined temperature range did not affect significantly their viability (82-87% survival), indicating a protective effect of whey as both growth and drying medium. The kinetics of fermentation of whey and mixtures of whey/molasses using the dried culture were comparable to those of non-dried cells, and only low pH had a detrimental effect on the fermentation ability of the dried cells. Furthermore, dried L. bulgaricus, free or immobilized on casein coagulates, was used as starter for the production of unsalted hard-type cheese. The effects of the amount of starter culture and the immobilization technique, the evolution of microbial counts, and the sensory properties of the produced cheeses were evaluated during ripening at various temperatures.

  14. Trends in whey protein fractionation.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mayyada M H; Chase, Howard A

    2011-08-01

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacture that is normally treated as a waste. However, it contains a mixture of proteins with important nutritional and biological attributes. To extract these valuable proteins, whey fractionation has been developed using three main techniques; namely chromatographic (e.g., ion-exchange and hydrophobic adsorption), membrane (e.g., traditional pressure-driven and electro-separation)-, or combined methods. Recently, new promising techniques have been introduced such as aqueous two-phase separation (ATPS) and magnetic fishing. This article reviews the use of these techniques together with an evaluation of their performance regarding the yield and purity of two major proteins in whey.

  15. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2016-05-15

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology.

  16. Biobutanol from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Manuel; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2015-03-05

    At present, due to environmental and economic concerns, it is urgent to evolve efficient, clean and secure systems for the production of advanced biofuels from sustainable cheap sources. Biobutanol has proved better characteristics than the more widely used bioethanol, however the main disadvantage of biobutanol is that it is produced in low yield and titer by ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, this process being not competitive from the economic point of view. In this review we summarize the natural metabolic pathways for biobutanol production by Clostridia and yeasts, together with the metabolic engineering efforts performed up to date with the aim of either enhancing the yield of the natural producer Clostridia or transferring the butanol production ability to other hosts with better attributes for industrial use and facilities for genetic manipulation. Molasses and starch-based feedstocks are main sources for biobutanol production at industrial scale hitherto. We also review herewith (and for the first time up to our knowledge) the research performed for the use of whey, the subproduct of cheese making, as another sustainable source for biobutanol production. This represents a promising alternative that still needs further research. The use of an abundant waste material like cheese whey, that would otherwise be considered an environmental pollutant, for biobutanol production, makes economy of the process more profitable.

  17. Effects of parenteral infusion with medium-chain triglycerides and safflower oil emulsions on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acids and inflammatory mediators in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, S; Chao, C; Lin, M; Chen, W

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of preinfusion with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) versus safflower oil (SO) emulsion as fat sources on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acid profiles, and inflammatory-related mediators in septic rats. Normal rats, with internal jugular catheters, were divided into two groups and received TPN. TPN provided 300kcal/kg/day with 40% of the non-protein energy provided as fat. All TPN solutions were isonitrogenous and identical in nutrient composition except for the fat emulsion, which was made of SO or a mixture of MCT and soybean oil (9:1) (MO). After receiving TPN for 6 days, each group of rats was further divided into control and sepsis subgroups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture, whereas control rats received sham operation. All rats were classified into four groups as follows: MCT control group (MOC, n= 8), MCT sepsis group (MOS, n= 8), safflower oil control group (SOC, n= 8), and safflower oil sepsis group (SOS, n= 11). The results of the study demonstrated that the MOS group had lower hepatic lipids than did the SOS group. Plasma leucine and isoleucine levels were significantly lower in the SOS than in the SOC group, but no differences in these two amino acids were observed between the MOC and MOS groups. Plasma arginine levels were significantly lower in septic groups than in those without sepsis despite whether MCT or safflower oil was infused. Plasma glutamine and alanine levels, however, did not differ between septic and non-septic groups either in the SO or MO groups. No differences in interleukin-1b, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and leukotriene B(4)concentrations in peritoneal lavage fluid were observed between the two septic groups. These results suggest that catabolic reaction is septic rats preinfused MCT is not as obvious as those preinfused safflower oil. Compared with safflower oil, TPN with MCT administration has better effects on

  18. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in whey powder, whey permeate, and low-ash whey permeate fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Lee, J W; Stein, H H

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P, and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in whey powder (3,646 kcal/kg), whey permeate (3,426 kcal/kg), and low-ash whey permeate (3,657 kcal/kg) fed to weanling pigs. The DE and ME in the 3 whey products were determined using 32 barrows (9.2 ± 0.4 kg of BW). A basal diet based on corn, soybean meal, and fish meal and 3 diets containing 70% of the basal diet and 30% of each whey product were prepared. Each diet was fed to 8 pigs that were housed individually in metabolism cages. The total collection method was used for fecal and urine collections with 5-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods, and the difference procedure was used to calculate DE and ME in the 3 whey products. The concentrations of DE in whey powder and low-ash whey permeate were greater (P < 0.001) than in whey permeate (3,646 and 3,683 vs. 3,253 kcal/kg of DM). The concentrations of ME in whey powder and low-ash whey permeate were also greater (P < 0.001) than in whey permeate (3,462 and 3,593 vs. 3,081 kcal/kg of DM). The ATTD and STTD of P in the 3 whey products were determined using 32 barrows (11.0 ± 0.81 kg of BW). Three cornstarch-sucrose-based diets containing 30% of each whey product as the sole source of P were prepared. A P-free diet that was used to estimate the basal endogenous losses of P was also formulated. The ATTD of P in whey powder and in whey permeate was greater (P < 0.001) than in low-ash whey permeate (84.3 and 86.1 vs. 55.9%), but the STTD values for P were not different among the 3 ingredients (91.2, 93.1, and 91.8% in whey powder, whey permeate, and low-ash whey permeate, respectively). In conclusion, whey permeate contains less GE, DE, and ME than whey powder and low-ash whey permeate, but all 3 ingredients have an excellent digestibility of P.

  19. Manufacture of a beverage from cheese whey using a "tea fungus" fermentation.

    PubMed

    Belloso-Morales, Genette; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Kombucha is a sour beverage reported to have potential health effects prepared from the fermentation of black tea and sugar with a "tea fungus", a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Although black tea is the preferred substrate for Kombucha fermentation, other beverages have also been tested as substrates with fair results. Cheese whey is a by-product with a good amount of fermentable lactose that has been used before in the production of beverages, so the objective of this study was to test three types of whey (fresh sweet, fresh acid and reconstituted sweet) in the elaboration of a fermented beverage using a kombucha culture as inoculum. The isolation and identification of bacteria and yeasts from the fermented tea and wheys was done along with the study of the rates of change in sugar consumption, acid production and pH decrease. Several species of acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter aceti subsp. aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans subsp. industrius, subsp. oxydans and Gluconoacetobacter xylinus) were isolated from the different kombuchas along with the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Brettanomyces bruxelensis. The main metabolic products in the fermented wheys included ethanol, lactic and acetic acids. A good growth was obtained in both sweet wheys in which a pH of 3.3 and a total acid content (mainly lactic and acetic acids) of 0.07 mol/l was reached after 96 h. The sweet whey fermented beverages contained a relatively low lactose concentration (< 12 g/l). The final ethanol content was low (5 g/l) in all the fermented wheys. The whey products were strongly sour and salty non sparkling beverages.

  20. Surface-active properties of lipophilic antioxidants tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters: a potential explanation for the nonlinear hypothesis of the antioxidant activity in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ricardo; Comelles, Francisco; Alcántara, David; Maldonado, Olivia S; Curcuroze, Melanie; Parra, Jose L; Morales, Juan C

    2010-07-14

    Our group has recently observed a nonlinear tendency in antioxidant capacity of different hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters in fish oil-in-water emulsions, where a maximum of antioxidant efficiency appeared for hydroxytyrosol octanoate. These results appear to disagree with the antioxidant polar paradox. Because the physical location of the antioxidants in an oil-water interface has been postulated as an important factor in explaining this behavior, we have prepared a series of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters with different chain length and studied their surface-active properties in water, because these physicochemical parameters could be directly related to the preferential placement at the interface. We have found that tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters are relevant surfactants when the right hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is attained and, in some cases, as efficient as emulsifiers commonly used in industry, such as Brij 30 or Tween 20. Moreover, a nonlinear dependency of surfactant effectiveness is observed with the increase in chain length of the lipophilic antioxidants. This tendency seems to fit quite well with the reported antioxidant activity in emulsions, and the best antioxidant of the series (hydroxytyrosol octanoate) is also a very effective surfactant. This potential explanation of the nonlinear hypothesis will help in the rational design of antioxidants used in oil-in-water emulsions.

  1. Changes in physical, chemical and functional properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) conjugates formed by controlled dry-heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Maillard type reaction in the dry state was utilized to create conjugates between whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) to achieve improved functional properties including solubility, colloidal stability and oil-in-water emulsion stability. To optimize the reaction conditions, mi...

  2. Production of bioethanol from organic whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anne Deen; Kádár, Zsófia; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2011-02-01

    Ethanol production by K. marxianus in whey from organic cheese production was examined in batch and continuous mode. The results showed that no pasteurization or freezing of the whey was necessary and that K. marxianus was able to compete with the lactic acid bacteria added during cheese production. The results also showed that, even though some lactic acid fermentation had taken place prior to ethanol fermentation, K. marxianus was able to take over and produce ethanol from the remaining lactose, since a significant amount of lactic acid was not produced (1-2 g/l). Batch fermentations showed high ethanol yield (~0.50 g ethanol/g lactose) at both 30°C and 40°C using low pH (4.5) or no pH control. Continuous fermentation of nonsterilized whey was performed using Ca-alginate-immobilized K. marxianus. High ethanol productivity (2.5-4.5 g/l/h) was achieved at dilution rate of 0.2/h, and it was concluded that K. marxianus is very suitable for industrial ethanol production from whey.

  3. Effect of pectins on the mass transfer kinetics of monosaccharides, amino acids, and a corn oil-in-water emulsion in a Franz diffusion cell.

    PubMed

    Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz-Patricia; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo

    2016-10-15

    The effect of high (HMP) and low (LMP) methoxylated pectins (2%w/w) on the rate and extent of the mass transfer of monosaccharides, amino acids, and a corn oil-in-water emulsion across a cellulose membrane was evaluated. A sigmoidal response kinetic analysis was used to calculate both the diffusion coefficients (rate) and the amount of nutrients transferred through the membrane (extent). In all cases, except for lysine, HMP was more effective than LMP in inhibiting both the rate and extent of the mass transfer of nutrients through the membrane. LMP and HMP, e.g., reduced 1.3 and 3.0times, respectively, the mass transfer rate of glucose, as compared to control (containing no pectin), and 1.3 and 1.5times, respectively, the amount of glucose transferred through the membrane. Viscosity, molecular interactions, and flocculation were the most important parameters controlling the mass transfer of electrically neutral nutrients, electrically charged nutrients, and emulsified lipids, respectively.

  4. Oil emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, J. W.

    1985-08-27

    Emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids in mineral oil are disclosed. These emulsions are stabilized by a polydimethylsiloxane-polybutadiene copolymer or a polydimethylsiloxane-hydrogenated polybutadiene copplymer. The emulsions are an effective foam suppressant for organic liquids, especially crude petroleum.

  5. Evaluation of the Physicochemical Parameters of Functional Whey Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Liutkevičius, Algirdas; Sekmokienė, Dalia; Zaborskienė, Gintarė; Šlapkauskaitė, Jūratė

    2015-01-01

    Summary The objective of this study is to determine the impact of the key technological parameters on the quality indices of functional beverages produced from whey and enriched with 0.2% of cold-pressed flaxseed oil, rich in ω-3 fatty acids. The amount of fatty acids, peroxide and anisidine values, fatty acidity, sedimentation and sensory parameters of whey beverages were estimated. It was found that the addition of flaxseed oil affected the sensory, physical and chemical properties of the beverages. High quantities of oleic and α-linolenic fatty acids (18.97 and 54.82%, respectively) and negligible amounts of palmitic and myristic acids (4.79 and 0.04%, respectively) were found in the product. On the basis of the obtained results, the beverages from whey enriched with flaxseed oil had a favourable ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The addition of a stabiliser and the pasteurisation of whey beverages with flaxseed oil did not affect the sensory parameters and the acidity of the products. The highest peroxide value (2.36 meq O2/kg) and acidity (0.34%) were found in the samples with pH=4.0 after 30-day storage at (6±1) °С. A strong negative correlation was estimated between the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids and anisidine value (R=–0.871; p<0.05), peroxide value (R=–0.728; p<0.05) and fatty acidity (R=–0.948; p<0.05). PMID:27904340

  6. Evaluation of Dairy Whey as a Subsurface Reactive Barrier Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkiw, E.; Barcelona, M.; Kim, M.

    2006-05-01

    Subsurface permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) in remediation of contaminated ground water are currently being utilized and refined as an alternative/supplement to costly pump-and-treat remediation. Identification of efficient reactive materials that are effective in the long-term is essential for the ultimate success of PRBs in ground water remediation. A variety of enhancements have been used: oxidants, reductants or sorbents. Electron donors create/strengthen reducing conditions that are favorable for microbial degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Inexpensive, food-grade electron donors effectively enhance dechlorination activity, and those that are solids that can be slurried and then pressure grouted are the best candidates for maintaining an active biobarrier at low cost. Dried dairy whey (~70% alpha-lactose), a slowly dissolving solid, is a prime candidate. To determine the efficiency of whey in promoting dechlorination, it is essential to identify the aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways and perform quantitative analysis of breakdown products. We hypothesize that dissolved whey will undergo microbial degradation (aerobic and anaerobic) to form carboxylic acids, and that in a suboxic/reducing environment the anaerobic products will stimulate the microbial dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons PCE, TCE, and DCE. Analysis of the breakdown products in the absence as well as the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbons will result in the calculation of rate constants. Kinetics will, in turn, provide us with residence time, loading (whey mass), and projected lifetime of the whey PRB under estimated loads of total chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination. Early results from our field-scale effort to treat a TCE-contaminated site show increased concentrations of cis- DCE and VC downgradient from the whey PRBs, indicative of enhanced TCE dechlorination. Results from an initial microcosm experiment show complete disappearance of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the

  7. Milk Whey Processes: Current and Future Trends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced whey processing technologies are yielding a wealth of quality ingredients with recognized positive health benefits. Processes such as ultrafiltration and extrusion are providing potential advancements in functional properties and enabling creation of healthy products containing whey protein...

  8. Double emulsion solvent evaporation techniques used for drug encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2015-12-30

    Double emulsions are complex systems, also called "emulsions of emulsions", in which the droplets of the dispersed phase contain one or more types of smaller dispersed droplets themselves. Double emulsions have the potential for encapsulation of both hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic drugs, cosmetics, foods and other high value products. Techniques based on double emulsions are commonly used for the encapsulation of hydrophilic molecules, which suffer from low encapsulation efficiency because of rapid drug partitioning into the external aqueous phase when using single emulsions. The main issue when using double emulsions is their production in a well-controlled manner, with homogeneous droplet size by optimizing different process variables. In this review special attention has been paid to the application of double emulsion techniques for the encapsulation of various hydrophilic and hydrophobic anticancer drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotic drugs, proteins and amino acids and their applications in theranostics. Moreover, the optimized ratio of the different phases and other process parameters of double emulsions are discussed. Finally, the results published regarding various types of solvents, stabilizers and polymers used for the encapsulation of several active substances via double emulsion processes are reported.

  9. Effects of emulsion droplet sizes on the crystallisation of milk fat.

    PubMed

    Truong, Tuyen; Bansal, Nidhi; Sharma, Ranjan; Palmer, Martin; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2014-02-15

    The crystallisation properties of milk fat emulsions containing dairy-based ingredients as functions of emulsion droplet size, cooling rate, and emulsifier type were investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Anhydrous milk fat and its fractions (stearin and olein) were emulsified with whey protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, and Tween80 by homogenisation to produce emulsions in various size ranges (0.13-3.10 μm). Particle size, cooling rate, and types of emulsifier all had an influence on the crystallisation properties of fat in the emulsions. In general, the crystallisation temperature of emulsified fats decreased with decreasing average droplet size and was of an exponent function of size, indicating that the influence of particle size on crystallisation temperature is more pronounced in the sub-micron range. This particle size effect was also verified by electron microscopy.

  10. Emulsion stability measurements by single electrode capacitance probe (SeCaP) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüller, R. B.; Løkra, S.; Salas-Bringas, C.; Egelandsdal, B.; Engebretsen, B.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes a new and novel method for the determination of the stability of emulsions. The method is based on the single electrode capacitance technology (SeCaP). A measuring system consisting of eight individual measuring cells, each with a volume of approximately 10 ml, is described in detail. The system has been tested on an emulsion system based on whey proteins (WPC80), oil and water. Xanthan was added to modify the emulsion stability. The results show that the new measuring system is able to quantify the stability of the emulsion in terms of a differential variable. The whole separation process is observed much faster in the SeCaP system than in a conventional separation column. The complete separation process observed visually over 30 h is seen in less than 1.4 h in the SeCaP system.

  11. Impact of extra virgin olive oil and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the oxidative stability of fish oil emulsions and spray-dried microcapsules stabilized by sugar beet pectin.

    PubMed

    Polavarapu, Sudheera; Oliver, Christine M; Ajlouni, Said; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2012-01-11

    The influence of EDTA on lipid oxidation in sugar beet pectin-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions (pH 6, 15% oil, wet basis), prepared from fish oil (FO) and fish oil-extra virgin olive oil (FO-EVOO) (1:1 w/w), as well as the spray-dried microcapsules (50% oil, dry basis) prepared from these emulsions, was investigated. Under accelerated conditions (80 °C, 5 bar oxygen pressure) the oxidative stability was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for FO and FO-EVOO formulated with EDTA, in comparison to corresponding emulsions and spray-dried microcapsules formulated without EDTA. The EDTA effect was greater in emulsions than in spray-dried microcapsules, with the greatest protective effect obtained in FO-EVOO emulsions. EDTA enhanced the oxidative stability of the spray-dried microcapsules during ambient storage (~25 °C, a(w) = 0.5), as demonstrated by their lower concentration of headspace volatile oxidation products, propanal and hexanal. These results show that the addition of EDTA is an effective strategy to maximize the oxidative stability of both FO emulsions and spray-dried microcapsules in which sugar beet pectin is used as the encapsulant material.

  12. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions.

    PubMed

    Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping

    2014-07-01

    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  13. Clinical Potential of Hyperbaric Pressure-Treated Whey Protein

    PubMed Central

    Piccolomini, André F.; Kubow, Stan; Lands, Larry C.

    2015-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) from cow’s milk is a rich source of essential and branched chain amino acids. Whey protein isolates (WPI) has been demonstrated to support muscle accretion, antioxidant activity, and immune modulation. However, whey is not readily digestible due to its tight conformational structure. Treatment of WPI with hyperbaric pressure results in protein unfolding. This enhances protein digestion, and results in an altered spectrum of released peptides, and greater release of essential and branched chain amino acids. Pressurized whey protein isolates (pWPI), through a series of cell culture, animal models and clinical studies, have been demonstrated to enhance muscle accretion, reduce inflammation, improve immunity, and decrease fatigue. It is also conceivable that pWPI would be more accessible to digestive enzymes, which would allow for a more rapid proteolysis of the proteins and an increased or altered release of small bioactive peptides. The altered profile of peptides released from WP digestion could thus play a role in the modulation of the immune response and tissue glutathione (GSH) concentrations. The research to date presents potentially interesting applications for the development of new functional foods based on hyperbaric treatment of WPI to produce products with more potent nutritional and nutraceutical properties. PMID:27417773

  14. Clinical Potential of Hyperbaric Pressure-Treated Whey Protein.

    PubMed

    Piccolomini, André F; Kubow, Stan; Lands, Larry C

    2015-06-19

    Whey protein (WP) from cow's milk is a rich source of essential and branched chain amino acids. Whey protein isolates (WPI) has been demonstrated to support muscle accretion, antioxidant activity, and immune modulation. However, whey is not readily digestible due to its tight conformational structure. Treatment of WPI with hyperbaric pressure results in protein unfolding. This enhances protein digestion, and results in an altered spectrum of released peptides, and greater release of essential and branched chain amino acids. Pressurized whey protein isolates (pWPI), through a series of cell culture, animal models and clinical studies, have been demonstrated to enhance muscle accretion, reduce inflammation, improve immunity, and decrease fatigue. It is also conceivable that pWPI would be more accessible to digestive enzymes, which would allow for a more rapid proteolysis of the proteins and an increased or altered release of small bioactive peptides. The altered profile of peptides released from WP digestion could thus play a role in the modulation of the immune response and tissue glutathione (GSH) concentrations. The research to date presents potentially interesting applications for the development of new functional foods based on hyperbaric treatment of WPI to produce products with more potent nutritional and nutraceutical properties.

  15. The effects of emulsifying agents on disposition of lipid-soluble drugs included in fat emulsion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Masumitsu, Yasushi; Okudaira, Kazuho; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2004-02-01

    The uses for drug delivery systems of two soybean oil fat emulsions prepared with an emulsifying agent, phosphatidyl choline (PC) or Pluronic F-127 (PLU), were examined comparatively in vivo and in vitro. In the presence of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in vitro, the mean particle size of the PLU emulsion changed less than that of the PC emulsion. The production of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) from the PLU emulsion in the presence of LPL was smaller than that from the PC emulsion. These in vitro results indicate that the PLU emulsion is more stable than the PC emulsion. Plasma NEFA concentration following intravenous administration of the emulsions decreased with time for the PC emulsion, but was kept lower and constant for the PLU emulsion, supporting the in vitro stability data. The order of plasma cyclosporine A (CsA) concentration following intravenous administration in the above two emulsions and the mixed solution of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) and dimethylamide (DMA) in rats was PLU emulsion>PC emulsion>PEG/DMA solution. The plasma concentration was maintained higher and tissue distribution lower for the PLU emulsion than for other formulations. The uptake of oil violet (OV) into the rat parenchymal cells from the PLU emulsion was approximately half that from the PC emulsion, but the uptake into the Kupffer cells was almost equal in both emulsions. In conclusion, these emulsifying agents can control plasma elimination and tissue distribution of lipophilic drugs included in the emulsion. The use of the emulsion formulation makes it possible to avoid side effects through the reduction of drug uptake into non-targeted tissues.

  16. Whey protein fractionation using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet whey, a coproduct of the cheesemaking process, can be concentrated using ultrafiltration and ion-exchange to produce whey protein isolates (WPI). WPI contains approximately 32% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 61% beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), plus a small amount of minor whey proteins. Whil...

  17. 7 CFR 58.808 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey. 58.808 Section 58.808 Agriculture Regulations of....808 Whey. Whey for processing shall be fresh and originate from the processing of products made from milk meeting the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138. Only those ingredients...

  18. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of whey. If outside, necessary precautions shall be taken to minimize flies, insects and development...

  19. Kinetics of hydration properties of meat emulsions containing various fillers during smokehouse cooking.

    PubMed

    Correia, L R; Mittal, G S

    1991-01-01

    The cooking kinetics of meat emulsions containing various fillers was determined by monitoring changes in hydration properties such as cooking loss and water-holding capacity during smokehouse cooking. Press juice, consumer cook test and emulsion stability of cooked product were also determined. The fillers used were buttermilk powder, corn starch, microcrystalline cellulose, modified corn starch, modified wheat flour, soy-protein concentrate and whey-protein concentrate. The cooking process was modelled using reaction kinetics and Eyring's absolute reaction rate theory. Enthalpy and entropy changes of activation were calculated for various properties and fillers.

  20. Sensory characteristics and related volatile flavor compound profiles of different types of whey.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Escamilla, F J; Kelly, A L; Delahunty, C M

    2005-08-01

    To characterize the flavor of liquid whey, 11 samples of whey representing a wide range of types were sourced from cheese and casein-making procedures, either industrial or from pilot-plant facilities. Whey samples were assessed for flavor by descriptive sensory evaluation and analyzed for headspace volatile composition by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The sensory data clearly distinguished between the samples in relation to the processes of manufacture; that is, significant differences were apparent between cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. For Mozzarella and Quarg wheys, in which fermentation progressed to low pH values, the starter cultures used for cheese making had a significant influence on flavor. In comparison, Cheddar and Gouda wheys were described by milk-like flavors, and rennet casein wheys were described by "sweet" (oat-like and "sweet") and thermally induced flavors. The volatile compound data obtained by PTR-MS differentiated the samples as distinctive and reproducible "chemical fingerprints". On applying partial least squares regression to determine relationships between sensory and volatile composition data, sensory characteristics such as "rancid" and cheese-like odors and "caramelized milk," yogurt-like, "sweet," and oat-like flavors were found to be related to the presence and absence of specific volatile compounds.

  1. The Influence of 8-Weeks of Whey Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    extension resistance training than did a carbohydrate placebo (22%). Protein and branched chain amino acids ( BCAA ) supplementation may also improve... BCAAs scored better on both mood levels and 2 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited, Public Affairs Case File No. 09-189, 27 April 2009...supplemented subjects with whey and casein (WC), whey and BCAAs (WBC), or placebo (P) over 10 weeks of resistance training (RT). They observed a significant

  2. Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-16

    It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

  3. Kinetics of pH and colour of meat emulsions containing various fillers during smokehouse cooking.

    PubMed

    Correia, L R; Mittal, G S

    1991-01-01

    The cooking kinetics of meat emulsions containing various fillers was determined by monitoring changes in pH and colour during smokehouse cooking. The fillers used were buttermilk powder, corn starch, microcrystallline cellulose, modified corn starch, modified wheat flour, soy-protein concentrate and whey-protein concentrate. The cooking process was modelled using reaction kinetics and Eyring's absolute reaction rate theory. Enthalpy and entropy changes of activation were calculated for various properties and fillers.

  4. An exclusively based parenteral fish-oil emulsion reverses cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Triana Junco, Miryam; García Vázquez, Natalia; Zozaya, Carlos; Ybarra Zabala, Marta; Abrams, Steven; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo; Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos, Miguel

    2014-10-25

    Prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to liver damage. Recent interest has focused on the lipid component of PN. A lipid emulsion based on w-3 fatty acids decrease conjugated bilirubin. A mixed lipid emulsion derived from soybean, coconut, olive, and fish oils reverses jaundice. Here we report the reversal of cholestasis and the improvement of enteral feeding tolerance in 1 infant with intestinal failure-associated liver disease. Treatment involved the substitution of a mixed lipid emulsion with one containing primarily omega-3 fatty acids during 37 days. Growth and biochemical tests of liver function improved significantly. This suggests that fat emulsions made from fish oils may be more effective means of treating this condition compared with an intravenous lipid emulsion containing soybean oil, medium -chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil.

  5. Whey protein mouth drying influenced by thermal denaturation.

    PubMed

    Bull, Stephanie P; Hong, Yuchun; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Parker, Jane K; Faka, Marianthi; Methven, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    Whey proteins are becoming an increasingly popular functional food ingredient. There are, however, sensory properties associated with whey protein beverages that may hinder the consumption of quantities sufficient to gain the desired nutritional benefits. One such property is mouth drying. The influence of protein structure on the mouthfeel properties of milk proteins has been previously reported. This paper investigates the effect of thermal denaturation of whey proteins on physicochemical properties (viscosity, particle size, zeta-potential, pH), and relates this to the observed sensory properties measured by qualitative descriptive analysis and sequential profiling. Mouthcoating, drying and chalky attributes built up over repeated consumption, with higher intensities for samples subjected to longer heating times (p < 0.05). Viscosity, pH, and zeta-potential were found to be similar for all samples, however particle size increased with longer heating times. As the pH of all samples was close to neutral, this implies that neither the precipitation of whey proteins at low pH, nor their acidity, as reported in previous literature, can be the drying mechanisms in this case. The increase in mouth drying with increased heating time suggests that protein denaturation is a contributing factor and a possible mucoadhesive mechanism is discussed.

  6. Use of immobilised biocatalysts in the processing of cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R; Panesar, Parmjit S; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kennedy, John F

    2009-12-01

    Food processing industry operations need to comply with increasingly more stringent environmental regulations related to the disposal or utilisation of by-products and wastes. These include growing restrictions on land spraying with agro-industrial wastes, and on disposal within landfill operations, and the requirements to produce end products that are stabilised and hygienic. Much of the material generated as wastes by the dairy processing industries contains components that could be utilised as substrates and nutrients in a variety of microbial/enzymatic processes, to give rise to added-value products. A good example of a waste that has received considerable attention as a source of added-value products is cheese whey. The carbohydrate reservoir of lactose (4-5%) in whey and the presence of other essential nutrients make it a good natural medium for the growth of microorganisms and a potential substrate for bioprocessing through microbial fermentation. Immobilised cell and enzyme technology has also been applied to whey bioconversion processes to improve the economics of such processes. This review focuses upon the elaboration of a range of immobilisation techniques that have been applied to produce valuable whey-based products. A comprehensive literature survey is also provided to illustrate numerous immobilisation procedures with particular emphasis upon lactose hydrolysis, and ethanol and lactic acid production using immobilised biocatalysts.

  7. Rapid and medium setting high float bituminous emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, P.; Schreuders, H.G.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a rapid set high float aqueous bituminous emulsion-comprising bitumen, water, and from about 0.4% to about 0.6%, based on the weight of the emulsion, of an anionic emulsifier comprised of an alkaline solution of a combination of (1) 20% to 80% fatty acids selected from the group consisting of tall oil fatty acids, tallow fatty acids, and mixtures. (2) 20% to 80% of a product of the reaction of the fatty acids with a member of the group consists of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic anhydride.

  8. Behavior of protein in the presence of calcium during heating of whey protein concentrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Riou, Emmanuelle; Havea, Palatasa; McCarthy, Owen; Watkinson, Philip; Singh, Harjinder

    2011-12-28

    The effect of added CaCl(2) on heat-induced changes in whey protein (WP) solutions prepared from whey protein isolate (WP1), acid whey protein concentrate (WP2), and cheese whey protein concentrate (WP3) was investigated. The loss of native-like, proteins, aggregation, and gel firmness of WP were maximum at certain levels of added CaCl(2). These levels were different for different WP products. The effect of added CaCl(2) on these changes appeared to be related to the initial calcium concentrations of these solutions. The higher the calcium content of the product, the less available sites for added CaCl(2) to bind. It was considered that addition of CaCl(2) changed the types of protein interactions that formed the protein aggregates during heating. Added calcium caused dramatic decreases in fracture stress of WP gels due to the formation of large protein aggregates.

  9. Acne located on the trunk, whey protein supplementation: Is there any association?

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Emiroglu, Nazan; Gulsel Bahali, Anil; Onsun, Nahide

    2017-01-01

    Whey protein is a source of protein that was isolated from milk. Whey proteins are composed of higher levels of essential amino acids. The role of diet in acne etiology has been investigated for several years. It was established that milk and milk products can trigger acneiform lesions, and recent evidence supports the role of whey protein supplements in acne. Herein, we report 6 healthy male adolescent patients developing acne located only to the trunk after the consumption of whey protein supplements for faster bodybuilding. This is the first observation which specified the location of acneiform lesions among bodybuilders. In our opinion, a trendy and common health problem is beginning among adolescents in the gyms. PMID:28326292

  10. Direct capture of lactoferrin from cheese whey on supermacroporous column of polyacrylamide cryogel with copper ions.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, B M A; Carvalho, L M; Silva, W F; Minim, L A; Soares, A M; Carvalho, G G P; da Silva, S L

    2014-07-01

    Lactoferrin is a protein that is present in cheese whey (a waste product from the dairy industry) and has several biological activities. However, its production from whey must have a high yield and low cost for industrial applications. As such, this study reports the use of polyacrylamide cryogel, loaded with Cu(2+) (through the bond with iminodiacetic acid (IDA)), as an adsorbent for the chromatographic process to capture lactoferrin whey. Ultrafiltered cheese whey was passed through the cryogel-IDA-Cu(2+) system. The eluates were subjected to analysis of total protein, SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography. The results showed an axial dispersion coefficients, at different superficial velocities of liquid, in a range of 10(-6)-10(-5)m(2)/s. The cryogel demonstrated good hydraulic permeability (4.7086×10(-13)m(2)) and a porosity of approximately 78.2%. The IDA-Cu(2+) cryogel system was also able to capture lactoferrin in high purity.

  11. Effect of whey storage on biogas produced by co-digestion of sewage sludge and whey.

    PubMed

    Powell, N; Broughton, A; Pratt, C; Shilton, A

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production from municipal anaerobic digesters could potentially be boosted via co-digestion with organic wastes such as whey. The challenge is that whey production is seasonal. This research examined the effect of storing whey at ambient temperature on: (1) whey composition; (2) biogas production from co-digestion of the stored whey with municipal primary sludge. Whey storage resulted in acidification with formation of acetate, propionate and butyrate and a 9% reduction in total chemical oxygen demand (COD) over the 9-month trial. A control digester fed with primary sludge produced 0.18-0.23 m3 CH4/kgCOD(added). Co-digestion of fresh whey and sludge increased biogas production and the methane contribution from the whey was 0.29 m3CH4/kgCOD(added). When the fresh whey was substituted with stored whey, methane production by the whey remained at 0.29 m3CH4/kgCOD(added). The ability to store whey at ambient temperature and allow co-digestion year round will significantly improve the economics of biogas production from whey.

  12. Microbial fuel cell coupled to biohydrogen reactor: a feasible technology to increase energy yield from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, J; Fuentes, L; Cabezas, A; Etchebehere, C

    2017-02-20

    An important pollutant produced during the cheese making process is cheese whey which is a liquid by-product with high content of organic matter, composed mainly by lactose and proteins. Hydrogen can be produced from cheese whey by dark fermentation but, organic matter is not completely removed producing an effluent rich in volatile fatty acids. Here we demonstrate that this effluent can be further used to produce energy in microbial fuel cells. Moreover, current production was not feasible when using raw cheese whey directly to feed the microbial fuel cell. A maximal power density of 439 mW/m(2) was obtained from the reactor effluent which was 1000 times more than when using raw cheese whey as substrate. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that potential electroactive populations (Geobacter, Pseudomonas and Thauera) were enriched on anodes of MFCs fed with reactor effluent while fermentative populations (Clostridium and Lactobacillus) were predominant on the MFC anode fed directly with raw cheese whey. This result was further demonstrated using culture techniques. A total of 45 strains were isolated belonging to 10 different genera including known electrogenic populations like Geobacter (in MFC with reactor effluent) and known fermentative populations like Lactobacillus (in MFC with cheese whey). Our results show that microbial fuel cells are an attractive technology to gain extra energy from cheese whey as a second stage process during raw cheese whey treatment by dark fermentation process.

  13. Casein addition to a whey-based formula has limited effects on gut function in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Thymann, T; Støy, C A F; Bering, S B; Mølbak, L; Sangild, P T

    2012-12-01

    Preterm infants are susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Using preterm pigs, we determined whether a whey-casein-based formula would be superior to a formula based on whey protein alone. Twenty cesarean-derived preterm pigs (92% gestation) were given total parenteral nutrition for 36 h followed by 30 h of enteral feeding with whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on whey (WHEY); n = 11] or casein and/or whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on a combination of casein and whey (CASEIN); n = 9]-based formulas. Sugar absorptive function was investigated at 6 and 30 h after initiation of enteral feeding using bolus feedings with galactose and mannitol. Pigs were killed after the last in vivo sugar absorption test and evaluated for NEC and the mid intestine was used for ex vivo measurements of hexose absorption. Microbiota profile and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were studied in gut contents. Severity of NEC lesions was similar between diet groups but galactose absorption was markedly higher in CASEIN than in WHEY (P < 0.01) although only 6 h after the start of the enteral feeding period. There were no differences in ex vivo (14)C-D-glucose uptake, digestive enzymes, microbiota profile, or SCFA concentration. Casein may transiently stimulate intestinal sugar absorption but has limited effects on gut structure, microbiota, and NEC in preterm pigs.

  14. Production of low-cost calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) as an environmentally friendly deicer from cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Zhu, H.; Li, Y.; Tang, I.C.

    1993-12-31

    About 28 billion lbs of cheese whey are being wasted in the US because of the high biological oxygen demand (BOD) of whey, disposing of surplus whey is a pollution problem. An innovative, wide-scale solution to the whey disposal problem is to use whey as a zero- or low-cost feedstock for the production of an environmentally safe, noncorrosive, road deicer-calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). CMA can be used to replace some of the 10 to 14 million tons road salt used in the North America for deicing. A novel anaerobic fermentation process is developed to produce calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) from whey permeate. A co-culture consisting of homolactic (S. lactis) and homoacetic (C. formicoaceticum) bacteria was used to convert whey lactose to lactate and then to acetate in continuous, immobilized cell bioreactors. The acetate yield from lactose was {approximately}95% (wt/wt), and the final concentration of acetic acid was 4%. The acetic acid present in the fermentation broth can be recovered by solvent-extraction with a tertiary amine and reacted with dolomitic lime (Ca/MgO) to form a concentrated (>25%) CMA solution. About 25 tons CMA can be produced from a plant processing 1 million lbs whey permeate (4.5% lactose) per day. The production costs are estimated at {approximately}$220/ton CMA, which is only about one third of the present market price for CMA deicer. Therefore, about 0.8 million tons/yr CMA deicer can be produced from the currently unused whey. This will partially fulfill market demand for economically and environmentally sound chemicals for roadway deicing. This also will provide a viable solution to the whey disposal problem currently facing many dairies in the North America.

  15. Alkaline subcritical water gasification of dairy industry waste (Whey).

    PubMed

    Muangrat, Rattana; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2011-05-01

    The near-critical water gasification of dairy industry waste in the form of Whey, a product composed of mixtures of carbohydrates (mainly lactose) and amino acids such as glycine and glutamic acid, has been studied. The gasification process involved partial oxidation with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of NaOH. The reactions were studied over the temperature range from 300°C to 390°C, corresponding pressures of 9.5-24.5 MPa and reaction times from 0 min to 120 min. Hydrogen production was affected by the presence of NaOH, the concentration of H(2)O(2), temperature, reaction time and feed concentration. Up to 40% of the theoretical hydrogen gas production was achieved at 390°C. Over 80% of the Whey nitrogen content was found as ammonia, mainly in the liquid effluent.

  16. Optimization of a gelled emulsion intended to supply ω-3 fatty acids into meat products by means of response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Poyato, Candelaria; Ansorena, Diana; Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2014-12-01

    The optimization of a gelled oil-in-water emulsion was performed for use as fat replacer in the formulation of ω-3 PUFA-enriched cooked meat products. The linseed oil content, carrageenan concentration and surfactant-oil ratio were properly combined in a surface response design for maximizing the hardness and minimizing the syneresis of the PUFA delivery system. The optimal formulation resulted in a gelled emulsion containing 40% of oil and 1.5% of carrageenan, keeping a surfactant-oil ratio of 0.003. The gel was applied as a partial fat replacer in a Bologna-type sausage and compared to the use of an O/W emulsion also enriched in ω-3. Both experimental sausages contributed with higher ω-3 PUFA content than the control. No sensory differences were found among formulations. The selected optimized gelled oil-in-water emulsion was demonstrated to be a suitable lipophilic delivery system for ω-3 PUFA compounds and applicable in food formulations as fat replacer.

  17. Use of an omega-3 fatty acid-based emulsion in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-induced cholestasis in patients with microvillous inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Julie; Fallon, Erica M; Gura, Kathleen M; Puder, Mark

    2011-12-01

    Microvillous inclusion disease is a congenital intestinal epithelial cell disorder leading to lifelong intestinal failure. In this report, we discuss the use of a fish oil-based lipid emulsion in the treatment of 3 patients with microvillous inclusion disease who developed parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.

  18. Grana Padano cheese whey starters: microbial composition and strain distribution.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Lia; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Gatti, Monica; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2008-09-30

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the species composition and the genotypic strain heterogeneity of dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from whey starter cultures used to manufacture Grana Padano cheese. Twenty-four Grana Padano cheese whey starters collected from dairies located over a wide geographic production area in the north of Italy were analyzed. Total thermophilic LAB streptococci and lactobacilli were quantified by agar plate counting. Population structure of the dominant and metabolically active LAB species present in the starters was profiled by reverse transcriptase, length heterogeneity-PCR (RT-LH-PCR), a culture-independent technique successfully applied to study whey starter ecosystems. The dominant bacterial species were Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus fermentum. Diversity in the species composition allowed the whey cultures to be grouped into four main typologies, the one containing L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, and S. thermophilus being the most frequent one (45% of the cultures analyzed), followed by that containing only the two lactobacilli (40%). Only a minor fraction of the cultures contained L. helveticus alone (4%) or all the four LAB species (11%). Five hundred and twelve strains were isolated from the 24 cultures and identified by M13-PCR fingerprinting coupled with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Most of the strains were L. helveticus (190 strains; 37% of the total), L delbrueckii subsp. lactis (90 strains; 18%) and S. thermophilus (215 strains; 42%). This result was in good agreement with the qualitative whey starter composition observed by RT-LH-PCR. M13-PCR fingerprinting indicated a markedly low infra-species diversity, i.e. the same biotypes were often found in more than one culture. The distribution of the biotypes into the different cultures was mainly dairy plant-specific rather than correlated with the different production areas.

  19. Effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on surface morphology, water sorption, and glass transition temperature of a model infant formula.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Grace M; O'Mahony, James A; Kelly, Alan L; O'Callaghan, Donal J

    2016-09-01

    Physical properties of spray-dried dairy powders depend on their composition and physical characteristics. This study investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on the microstructure and physical stability of dried model infant formula. Model infant formulas were produced containing either intact (DH 0) or hydrolyzed (DH 12) whey protein, where DH=degree of hydrolysis (%). Before spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 55°C) at a shear rate of 500 s(-1) were 3.02 and 3.85 mPa·s for intact and hydrolyzed infant formulas, respectively. On reconstitution, powders with hydrolyzed whey protein had a significantly higher fat globule size and lower emulsion stability than intact whey protein powder. Lactose crystallization in powders occurred at higher relative humidity for hydrolyzed formula. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation, fitted to sorption isotherms, showed increased monolayer moisture when intact protein was present. As expected, glass transition decreased significantly with increasing water content. Partial hydrolysis of whey protein in model infant formula resulted in altered powder particle surface morphology, lactose crystallization properties, and storage stability.

  20. Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, was used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improve the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study were: (1) Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems. (2) Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system. (3) Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit. (4) Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system. and (5) Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts (not completed due to lack of funds)

  1. Fractionation of whey protein isolate with supercritical carbon dioxide to produce enriched alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin food ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potentially economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of alpha-lactalbumin (a-LA) and beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) from whey protein isolate. To prepare the fractions, so...

  2. Comparative real-time study of cellular uptake of a formulated conjugated linolenic acid rich nano and conventional macro emulsions and their bioactivity in ex vivo models for parenteral applications.

    PubMed

    Paul, Debjyoti; Mukherjee, Sayani; Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Dhar, Pubali

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to fabricate and monitor real-time, impact of a stable conjugated linolenic acid, α-eleostearic acid (ESA) rich nanoemulsion (NE) formulation (d < 200 nm) vis-à-vis ESA conventional emulsion (CE) system in ex vivo systems against both endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accordingly, stable nanoemulsion formulation of ESA was engineered with the aid of bitter melon seed oil and non-toxic excipients. Morphology and particle size of the emulsion formulations were studied to validate stability. The real-time rapid uptake of the ESA NE and its increased prophylactic efficacy against induced endogenous and exogenous ROS in terms of cell viability and membrane integrity was evaluated flow-cytometrically and with fluorescence microscopic analysis of different primary cells. It was found that the fabricated non-toxic ESA NE had stable parameters (hydrodynamic mean diameter, particle size distribution and zeta potential) for over 12 weeks. Further, ESA NE at a concentration of ∼ 70 μM exhibited maximum efficacy in protecting cells from oxidative damage against both endogenous and exogenous ROS in lymphocytes and hepatocytes as compared to its corresponding presence in the CE formulation. This study provides a real-time empirical evidence on the influence of nano formulation in enhancing bioavailability and antioxidative properties of ESA.

  3. Effects of lactoferrin, phytic acid, and EDTA on oxidation in two food emulsions enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nina S; Petersen, Arni; Meyer, Anne S; Timm-Heinrich, Maike; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2004-12-15

    The influence of the addition of metal chelators on oxidative stability was studied in a milk drink and in a mayonnaise system containing highly polyunsaturated lipids. Milk drinks containing 5% (w/w) of specific structured lipid were supplemented with lactoferrin (6-24 muM) and stored at 2 degrees C for up to 9 weeks. Mayonnaise samples with 16% fish oil and 64% rapeseed oil (w/w) were supplemented with either lactoferrin (8-32 muM), phytic acid (16-124 muM), or EDTA (16-64 muM) and were stored at 20 degrees C for up to 4 weeks. The effect of the metal chelators was evaluated by determination of peroxide values, secondary volatile oxidation products, and sensory analysis. Lactoferrin reduced the oxidation when added in concentrations of 12 muM in the milk drink and 8 muM in the mayonnaise, whereas it was a prooxidant at higher concentrations in both systems. In mayonnaise, EDTA was an effective metal chelator even at 16 muM, whereas phytic acid did not exert a distinct protective effect against oxidation. The differences in the equimolar effects of the metal chelators are proposed to be due to differences in their binding constants to iron and their different stabilities toward heat and low pH.

  4. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    SciTech Connect

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  5. Data on the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zalazar, Aldana L; Gliemmo, María F; Campos, Carmen A

    2016-12-01

    This article contains experimental data and images for the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions. Mentioned data are related to the research article "Effect of stabilizers, oil level and structure on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces bailii and on physical stability of model systems simulating acid sauces" (A.L. Zalazar, M.F. Gliemmo, C.A. Campos, 2016) [1]. Physical characterization of emulsions was performed through the evaluation of Span and Specific Surface Area (SSA) determined by light scattering using a Mastersizer. Furthermore, microscopy images were recorded by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The latter are presented to collaborate in the analysis of emulsion microstructure.

  6. Effects of the conjugation of whey proteins with gellan polysaccharides on surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Cai, B; Ikeda, S

    2016-08-01

    Whey proteins can be used to stabilize foams and emulsions against coalescence because of their ability to form viscoelastic films at the interface that resist film rupture on collision between colloidal particles. However, whey proteins are competitively displaced from the interface if small-molecule surfactants are added, leading to destabilization of the entire system. This is because surfactants are more effective in molecular packing at the interface, and they lower interfacial tension to a greater degree than whey proteins do, but their interfacial films are poor in viscoelasticity. We hypothesized that whey proteins would become more resistant to surfactant-induced competitive displacement if they were conjugated with network-forming polysaccharides. The protein moiety of the conjugate would be expected to enable its adsorption to the interface, and the polysaccharide moiety would be expected to form self-assembled networks, strengthening the interfacial film as a whole. In this study, whey proteins were conjugated with gellan polysaccharides using the Maillard reaction. Atomic force microscopy images of interfacial films formed by the whey protein-gellan conjugate at the air-water interface and transferred onto mica sheets using the Langmuir-Blodgett method revealed that gellan did form self-assembled networks at the interface and that interfacial films also contained a large number of unconjugated whey protein molecules. Following the addition of a small-molecule surfactant (Tween 20) to the sub-phase, surface pressure increased, indicating spontaneous adsorption of surfactants to the interface. Atomic force microscopy images showed decreases in interfacial area coverage by whey proteins as surface pressure increased. At a given surface pressure, the interfacial area coverage by whey protein-gellan conjugates was greater than coverage by unconjugated whey proteins, confirming that whey proteins became more resistant to surfactant-induced displacement after

  7. Impact of ultrasound treatment on lipid oxidation of Cheddar cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Torkamani, Amir Ehsan; Juliano, Pablo; Ajlouni, Said; Singh, Tanoj Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasound (US) has been suggested for many whey processing applications. This study examined the effects of ultrasound treatment on the oxidation of lipids in Cheddar cheese whey. Freshly pasteurized whey (0.86 L) was ultrasonicated in a contained environment at the same range of frequencies and energies for 10 and 30 min at 37°C. The US reactor used was characterized by measuring the generation of free radicals in deionized water at different frequencies (20-2000 kHz) and specific energies (8.0-390 kJ/kg). Polar lipid (PL), free and bound fatty acids and lipid oxidation derived compounds were identified and quantified before and after US processing using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD), methylation followed by gas chromatography flame ionized detector (GC-FID) and solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS), respectively. The highest concentration of hydroxyl radical formation in the sonicated whey was found between 400 and 1000 kHz. There were no changes in phospholipid composition after US processing at 20, 400, 1000 and 2000 kHz compared to non-sonicated samples. Lipid oxidation volatile compounds were detected in both non-sonicated and sonicated whey. Lipid oxidation was not promoted at any tested frequency or specific energy. Free fatty acid concentration was not affected by US treatment per se. Results revealed that US can be utilized in whey processing applications with no negative impact on whey lipid chemistry.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... derived from milk that has been pasteurized, or the whey protein concentrate shall be subjected to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979c Whey protein concentrate. (a) Whey...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... derived from milk that has been pasteurized, or the whey protein concentrate shall be subjected to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979c Whey protein concentrate. (a) Whey...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... derived from milk that has been pasteurized, or the whey protein concentrate shall be subjected to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979c Whey protein concentrate. (a) Whey...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..._locations.html. (3) The whey protein concentrate shall be derived from milk that has been pasteurized, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... as GRAS § 184.1979c Whey protein concentrate. (a) Whey protein concentrate is the substance...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... derived from milk that has been pasteurized, or the whey protein concentrate shall be subjected to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979c Whey protein concentrate. (a) Whey...

  13. Health Benefits of Texturized Whey Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey proteins are an important class of food ingredients used in many functional foods to boost protein content. Using the extrusion texturization process to partially open the native globular structures of whey proteins changed their conformation to the molten globular state, resulting in a new cla...

  14. RHEOLOGY OF EXTRUDED WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein isolate (WPI), a high-quality protein used to fortify a number of foods, may be texturized with a twin-screw extruder. Since extrusion of food is commonly performed above 70°C, which causes whey protein to denature, cold extrusion below 70°C was investigated to determine the effects on...

  15. Strawberry-flavored yogurts and whey beverages: What is the sensory profile of the ideal product?

    PubMed

    Janiaski, D R; Pimentel, T C; Cruz, A G; Prudencio, S H

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sensory profile and Brazilian consumers' liking of strawberry-flavored yogurts and whey beverages (fermented or nonfermented) with different fat contents that were sweetened with sugar or nonsugar sweeteners. We also determined the influence of sensory attributes on consumer preferences and the profile of the ideal product. Nonfermented whey beverages (NFWB) and "light" yogurt were less liked. The NFWB were less acidic, less viscous, and with lower smoothness of mouthcoating, sweeter and with a more intense artificial strawberry aroma (ASA) than the fermented products. Low-fat yogurts were more liked, more viscous, and had higher smoothness of mouthcoating than nonfat yogurts. Fermented-whey beverages were as liked as yogurts. Viscosity and smoothness of mouthcoating positively influenced consumer liking. The ideal product had higher levels of brightness, artificial strawberry taste, artificial strawberry aroma, and sweet taste; intermediate smoothness of mouthcoating, color, and viscosity; and low particles, acid taste, and aroma.

  16. Roles of charge interactions on astringency of whey proteins at low pH.

    PubMed

    Vardhanabhuti, B; Kelly, M A; Luck, P J; Drake, M A; Foegeding, E A

    2010-05-01

    Whey proteins are a major ingredient in sports drink and functional beverages. At low pH, whey proteins are astringent, which may be undesirable in some applications. Understanding the astringency mechanism of whey proteins at low pH could lead to developing ways to minimize the astringency. This study compared the astringency of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) at low pH with phosphate buffer controls having the same amount of phosphate and at similar pH. Results showed that beta-LG samples were more astringent than phosphate buffers, indicating that astringency was not caused by acid alone and that proteins contribute to astringency. When comparing among various whey protein isolates (WPI) and lactoferrin at pH 3.5, 4.5, and 7.0, lactoferrin was astringent at pH 7.0 where no acid was added. In contrast, astringency of all WPI decreased at pH 7.0. This can be explained by lactoferrin remaining positively charged at pH 7.0 and able to interact with negatively charged saliva proteins, whereas the negatively charged WPI would not interact. Charge interactions were further supported by beta-LG or lactoferrin and salivary proteins precipitating when mixed at conditions where beta-LG, lactoferrin, or saliva themselves did not precipitate. It can be concluded that interactions between positively charged whey proteins and salivary proteins play a role in astringency of proteins at low pH.

  17. Emulsifying properties of legume proteins compared to β-lactoglobulin and Tween 20 and the volatile release from oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, O; Silcock, P; Beauchamp, J; Buettner, A; Everett, D W

    2014-10-01

    The emulsifying properties of plant legume protein isolates (soy, pea, and lupin) were compared to a milk whey protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), and a nonionic surfactant (Tween 20). The protein fractional composition was characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The following emulsion properties were measured: particle diameter, shear surface ζ-potential, interfacial tension (IT), and creaming velocity. The effect of protein preheat treatment (90 °C for 10 min) on the emulsifying behavior and the release of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from emulsions under oral conditions was also investigated in real time using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. The legume proteins showed comparable results to β-lg and Tween 20, forming stable, negatively charged emulsions with particle diameter d3,2 < 0.4 μm, and maintained stability over 50 d. The relatively lower stability of lupin emulsions was significantly correlated with the low protein surface hydrophobicity and IT of the emulsion. After heating the proteins, the droplet size of pea and lupin emulsions decreased. The VOC release profile was similar between the protein-stabilized emulsions, and greater retention was observed for Tween 20-stabilized emulsions. This study demonstrates the potential application of legume proteins as alternative emulsifiers to milk proteins in emulsion products.

  18. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Bounous, G

    2000-01-01

    The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system is foremost among the cellular protective mechanisms. Depletion of this small molecule is a common consequence of increased formation of reactive oxygen species during increased cellular activities. This phenomenon can occur in the lymphocytes during the development of the immune response and in the muscular cells during strenuous exercise. It is not surprising that so much research has been done, and is still being done on this small tripeptide molecule. Whey protein concentrate has been shown to represent an effective and safe cysteine donor for GSH replenishment during GSH depletion in immune deficiency states. Cysteine is the crucial limiting amino acid for intracellular GSH synthesis. Animal experiments showed that the concentrates of whey proteins also exhibit anti-carcinogenesis and anticancer activity. They do this via their effect on increasing GSH concentration in relevant tissues, and may have anti-tumor effect on low volume of tumor via stimulation of immunity through the GSH pathway. It is considered that oxygen radical generation is frequently a critical step in carcinogenesis, hence the effect of GSH on free radicals as well as carcinogen detoxification, could be important in inhibiting carcinogenesis induced by a number of different mechanisms. Case reports are presented which strongly suggest an anti-tumor effect of a whey protein dietary supplement in some urogenital cancers. This non toxic dietary intervention, which is not based on the principles of current cancer chemotherapy, will hopefully attract the attention of laboratory and clinical oncologists.

  19. Characterization of Chemically and Thermally Treated Oil-in-Water Heteroaggregates and Comparison to Conventional Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Maier, Christiane; Reichert, Corina L; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    Heteroaggregated oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions formed by targeted combination of oppositely charged emulsion droplets were proposed to be used for the modulation of physical properties of food systems, ideally achieving the formation of a particulate 3-dimensional network at comparably low-fat content. In this study, rheological properties of Quillaja saponins (QS), sugar beet pectin (SBP), and whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized conventional and heteroaggregated O/W emulsions at oil contents of 10% to 60% (w/w) were investigated. Selected systems having an oil content of 30% (w/w) and different particle sizes (d43 ≤ 1.1 or ≥16.7 μm) were additionally subjected to chemical (genipin or glutaraldehyde) and thermal treatments, aiming to increase network stability. Subsequently, their rheological properties and stability were assessed. Yield stresses (τ0 ) of both conventional and heteroaggregated O/W emulsions were found to depend on emulsifier type, oil content, and initial droplet size. For conventional emulsions, high yield stresses were only observed for SBP-based emulsions (τ0 ,SBP approximately 157 Pa). Highest yield stresses of heteroaggregates were observed when using small droplets stabilized by SBP/WPI (approximately 15.4 Pa), being higher than those of QS/WPI (approximately 1.6 Pa). Subsequent treatments led to significant alterations in rheological properties for SBP/WPI systems, with yield stresses increasing 29-fold (glutaraldehyde) and 2-fold (thermal treatment) compared to untreated heteroaggregates, thereby surpassing yield stresses of similarly treated conventional SBP emulsions. Genipin-driven treatments proved to be ineffective. Results should be of interest to food manufacturers wishing to design viscoelastic food emulsion based systems at lower oil droplet contents.

  20. Rational use of intravenous fat emulsions.

    PubMed

    Pelham, L D

    1981-02-01

    The composition, effect on blood components, relative value compared with intravenous dextrose, clinical applications as a caloric and fatty acid source, adverse reactions, limitations, and administration of intravenous fat emulsions are reviewed. Fat emulsions provide essential fatty acids and calories and are primarily used to supplement of parenteral nutrition regimens. Their use as a major source of calories remains limited because of cost. However, the trend toward aligning intravenous nutrition to that of the normal diet and the increased demand for peripherally administered parenteral nutrition have increased demand for use. The advantages and disadvantages presented may be used by clinicians to assist in establishing the role of intravenous fat therapy in nutritional support services.

  1. Short communication: The influence of solids concentration and bleaching agent on bleaching efficacy and flavor of sweet whey powder.

    PubMed

    Jervis, M G; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effect of bleaching conditions and bleaching agent on flavor and functional properties of whey protein ingredients. Solids concentration at bleaching significantly affected bleaching efficacy and flavor effects of different bleaching agents. It is not known if these parameters influence quality of sweet whey powder (SWP). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of solids concentration and bleaching agent on the flavor and bleaching efficacy of SWP. Colored cheddar whey was manufactured, fat separated, and pasteurized. Subsequently, the whey (6.7% solids) was bleached, concentrated using reverse osmosis (RO) to 14% solids, and then spray dried, or whey was concentrated before bleaching and then spray dried. Bleaching treatments included a control (no bleaching, 50 °C, 60 min), hydrogen peroxide (HP; 250 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), lactoperoxidase (20 mg/kg of HP, 50 °C, 30 min), and external peroxidase (MaxiBright, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands; 2 dairy bleaching units/mL, 50 °C, 30 min). The experiment was repeated in triplicate. Sensory properties and volatile compounds of SWP were evaluated by a trained panel and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Bleaching efficacy (norbixin destruction) and benzoic acid were measured by HPLC. Differences in bleaching efficacy, sensory and volatile compound profiles, and benzoic acid were observed with different bleaching agents, consistent with previous studies. Solids concentration affected bleaching efficacy of HP, but not other bleaching agents. The SWP from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase following RO had increased cardboard and fatty flavors and higher concentrations of lipid oxidation compounds compared with SWP from whey bleached before RO. The SWP bleached with benzoyl peroxide after RO contained less benzoic acid than SWP from whey bleached before RO. These results indicate that

  2. The effect of prime emulsion components as a function of equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop flavor compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Perceptions of food products start when flavor compounds are released from foods, transported and appropriate senses in the oral and nose are triggered. However, the long-term stability of flavor compounds in food product has been a major concern in the food industry due to the complex interactions between key food ingredients (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins). Hence, this study was conducted to formulate emulsion-based beverage using natural food emulsifiers and to understand the interactions between emulsion compositions and flavor compounds. Results The influences of modified starch (x 1 ), whey protein isolate (x 2 ), soursop flavor oil (x 3 ) and deionized water (x 4 ) on the equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop volatile flavor compounds were evaluated using a four-component with constrained extreme vertices mixture design. The results indicated that the equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop flavor compounds were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the matrix and structural compositions of the beverage emulsions. Interface formed using modified starch and whey protein isolate (WPI) proved to be capable of inhibiting the release of volatile flavor compounds from the oil to the aqueous phase. Modified starch could retard the overall flavor release through its hydrophobic interactions with volatile flavor compounds and viscosity enhancement effect. Excessive amount of modified starch was also shown to be detrimental to the stability of emulsion system. However, both modified starch and WPI showed to be a much more effective barrier in inhibiting the flavor release of flavor compounds when used as individual emulsifier than as a mixture. Conclusions Overall, the mixture design can be practical in elucidating the complex interactions between key food components and volatile flavor compounds in an emulsion system. These studies will be useful for the manufacturers for the formulation of an optimum beverage emulsion with

  3. Anaerobic in situ biodegradation of TNT using whey as an electron donor: a case study.

    PubMed

    Innemanová, Petra; Velebová, Radka; Filipová, Alena; Čvančarová, Monika; Pokorný, Petr; Němeček, Jan; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2015-12-25

    Contamination by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), an explosive extensively used by the military, represents a serious environmental problem. In this study, whey has been selected as the most technologically and economically suitable primary substrate for anaerobic in situ biodegradation of TNT. Under laboratory conditions, various additions of whey, molasses, acetate and activated sludge as an inoculant were tested and the process was monitored using numerous chemical analyses including phospholipid fatty acid analysis. The addition of whey resulted in the removal of more than 90% of the TNT in real contaminated soil (7 mg kg(-1) and 12 mg kg(-1) of TNT). The final bioremediation strategy was suggested on the basis of the laboratory results and tested under real conditions at a TNT contaminated site in the Czech Republic. During the pilot test, three repeated injections of whey suspension into the sandy aquifer were performed over a 10-month period. In total, approximately 5m(3) of whey were used. A substantial decrease in the TNT groundwater concentration from the original levels (equalling 1.49 mg l(-1) to 8.58 mg l(-1)) was observed in most of the injection wells, while the concentrations of the TNT biotransformation products were found to be elevated. Pilot-scale application results showed that the anoxic and/or anaerobic conditions in the aquifer were sufficient for TNT bio-reduction by autochthonous microorganisms. Whey application was not accompanied by undesirable effects such as a substantial decrease in the pH or clogging of the wells. The results of the study document the suitability of application of whey to bioremediate TNT contaminated sites in situ.

  4. Whey protein mucoadhesive properties for oral drug delivery: Mucin-whey protein interaction and mucoadhesive bond strength.

    PubMed

    Hsein, Hassana; Garrait, Ghislain; Beyssac, Eric; Hoffart, Valérie

    2015-12-01

    Whey protein is a natural polymer recently used as an excipient in buccoadhesive tablets but its mucoadhesive properties were barely studied. In this work, we characterize mucoadhesion of whey protein in order to determine the mechanisms and optimal conditions for use as excipient in oral drug delivery. Thus, native and denatured whey protein (NWP and DWP) were investigated and the effect of concentration and pH were also studied. Many methods of characterization were selected to allow the study of chemical and physical interactions with mucin and then the results were bound with an ex vivo experiments. Turbidity of WP-mucin mixture increased at acidic pH 1.2 till 4.5 indicating interaction with mucin but not at pH 6.8. No interaction with mucin was also found by ITC method at pH 6.8 for native and denatured whey protein used at 1% (w/w). Forces of bioadhesion evaluated by viscosity measurements were the best for high concentrated (10.8%) DWP solutions at pH 6.8 and were low at pH 1.2 for NWP and DWP solutions. Addition of chemical blockers indicated that hydrogen bondings and disulfide bridges were the main mechanisms of interactions with mucin. Reticulation of DWP with calcium ions to obtain microparticles (MP) did not influence the ability of interaction with mucin as shown by FTIR analysis. These results correlated with ex vivo study on rat tissue demonstrating important adhesion (75%) of WP MP on the intestine and null on the stomach after 2h of deposit.

  5. Use of epichlorohydrin-treated chitosan resin as an adsorbent to isolate kappa-casein glycomacropeptide from sweet whey.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takuo; Ikawa, Noriaki; Ozimek, Lech

    2004-12-15

    This study was undertaken to develop a method to isolate glycomacropeptide (GMP), a bioactive compound, from sweet whey by using chitosan resins as anion exchangers. Shrimp shells were used to prepare two chitosan (polyglucosamine) resins, one with the primary amine (-NH(2)) (resin A) and the other with the secondary amine (-NH-) (resin B) as the major functional group. These resins were tested as adsorbents for the isolation of GMP from sweet whey, and the results obtained were compared with those obtained with commercial anion exchangers. The most important finding in this experiment was that the GMP binding capacity of resin A was much higher than that of resin B. Resin A may be the anion exchanger to be tested for industrial scale production of GMP. Amino acid analysis of the GMP-depleted whey fraction suggests that this product can replace sweet whey as an ingredient in various food products including infant formulas, bakery products, and beverages.

  6. Continuous propionate production from whey permeate using a novel fibrous bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, S T; Zhu, H; Li, Y; Hong, G

    1994-05-01

    Continuous production of propionate from whey lactose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici immobilized in a novel fibrous bed bioreactor was studied. In conventional batch propionic acid fermentation, whey permeate without nutrient supplementation was unable to support cell growth and failed to give satisfactory fermentation results for over 7 days. However, with the fibrous bed bioreactor, a high fermentation rate and high conversion were obtained with plain whey permeate and de-lactose whey permeate. About 2% (wt/vol) propionic acid was obtained from a 4.2% lactose feed at a retention time of 35 to 45 h. The propionic acid yield was approximately 46% (wt/vol) from lactose. The optimal pH for fementation was 6.5, and lower fermentation rates and yields were obtained at lower pH values. The optimal temperature was 30 degrees C, but the temperature effect was not dramatic in the range of 25 to 35 degrees C. Addition of yeast extract and trypticase to whey permeate hastened reactor startup and increased the fermentation rate and product yields, but the addition was not required for long-term reactor performance. The improved fermentation results with the immobilized cell bioreactor can be attributed to the high cell density, approximately 50 g/L, attained in the bioreactor, Cells were immobilized by loose attachement to fiber surfaces and entrapment in the void spaces within the fibrous matrix, thus allowing constant renewal of cells. Consequently, this bioreactor was able to operate continuously for 6 months without encountering any clogging, degeneration, or contamination problems. Compared to conventional batch fermentors, the new bioreactor offers many advantages for industrial fermentation, including a more than 10-fold increase in productivity, acceptance of low-nutrient feedstocks such as whey permeate, and resistance to contamination. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. The composition and functional properties of whey protein concentrates produced from buttermilk are comparable with those of whey protein concentrates produced from skimmed milk.

    PubMed

    Svanborg, Sigrid; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Skeie, Siv B

    2015-09-01

    The demand for whey protein is increasing in the food industry. Traditionally, whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates are produced from cheese whey. At present, microfiltration (MF) enables the utilization of whey from skim milk (SM) through milk protein fractionation. This study demonstrates that buttermilk (BM) can be a potential source for the production of a WPC with a comparable composition and functional properties to a WPC obtained by MF of SM. Through the production of WPC powder and a casein- and phospholipid (PL)-rich fraction by the MF of BM, sweet BM may be used in a more optimal and economical way. Sweet cream BM from industrial churning was skimmed before MF with 0.2-µm ceramic membranes at 55 to 58°C. The fractionations of BM and SM were performed under the same conditions using the same process, and the whey protein fractions from BM and SM were concentrated by ultrafiltration and diafiltration. The ultrafiltration and diafiltration was performed at 50°C using pasteurized tap water and a membrane with a 20-kDa cut-off to retain as little lactose as possible in the final WPC powders. The ultrafiltrates were subsequently spray dried, and their functional properties and chemical compositions were compared. The amounts of whey protein and PL in the WPC powder from BM (BMWPC) were comparable to the amounts found in the WPC from SM (SMWPC); however, the composition of the PL classes differed. The BMWPC contained less total protein, casein, and lactose compared with SMWPC, as well as higher contents of fat and citric acid. No difference in protein solubility was observed at pH values of 4.6 and 7.0, and the overrun was the same for BMWPC and SMWPC; however, the BMWPC made less stable foam than SMWPC.

  8. Incorporation of whey permeate, a dairy effluent, in ethanol fermentation to provide a zero waste solution for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Archana; Jin, Yiqiong; Mason, Beth; Chae, Michael; Bressler, David C

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes a novel alternative for utilization of whey permeate, a by-product stream from the dairy industry, in wheat fermentation for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whey permeates were hydrolyzed using enzymes to release fermentable sugars. Hydrolyzed whey permeates were integrated into wheat fermentation as a co-substrate or to partially replace process water. Cold starch hydrolysis-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was done as per the current industrial protocol for commercial wheat-to-ethanol production. Ethanol production was not affected; ethanol yield efficiency did not change when up to 10% of process water was replaced. Lactic acid bacteria in whey permeate did not negatively affect the co-fermentation or reduce ethanol yield. Whey permeate could be effectively stored for up to 4 wk at 4 °C with little change in lactose and lactic acid content. Considering the global abundance and nutrient value of whey permeate, the proposed strategy could improve economics of the dairy and biofuel sectors, and reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, our research may be applied to fermentation strategies designed to produce value-added products other than ethanol.

  9. Holographic DESA emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duenkel, Lothar; Eichler, Juergen; Schneeweiss, Claudia; Ackermann, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    The DESA material is an ultra-fine grained silver bromide emulsion referring to the name of its four inventors (D)uenkel, (E)ichler, (S)chneeweiss, (A)ckermann of the University of Applied Sciences in Berlin, Germany. The thickness of the dried layer is between 5 and 7.5 μm, and the mean grain size is by about 15 nm, as determined by TEM. During manufacturing, emulsion precipitation and coating are separated strictly from spectral and chemical sensitization. Thus, a high performance could be obtained. Resolution is estimated higher than 8000 lp/mm. Sensitivity amounts to 80 up to 120 μJoules/cm2 for maximum diffraction efficiency by recording Denisyuk white-light reflection holograms at 632,8 nm (HeNe laser). The paper provides an insight into fundamentals of the ultra-fine grained silver halide technology together with new challenges for further developments under theoretical and practical aspects.

  10. FINE GRAIN NUCLEAR EMULSION

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, A.J.

    1962-04-24

    A method of preparing nuclear track emulsions having mean grain sizes less than 0.1 microns is described. The method comprises adding silver nitrate to potassium bromide at a rate at which there is always a constant, critical excess of silver ions. For minimum size grains, the silver ion concentration is maintained at the critical level of about pAg 2.0 to 5.0 during prectpitation, pAg being defined as the negative logarithm of the silver ion concentration. It is preferred to eliminate the excess silver at the conclusion of the precipitation steps. The emulsion is processed by methods in all other respects generally similar to the methods of the prior art. (AEC)

  11. Emerging trends in nutraceutical applications of whey protein and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-11-01

    The looming food insecurity demands the utilization of nutrient-rich residues from food industries as value-added products. Whey, a dairy industry waste has been characterized to be excellent nourishment with an array of bioactive components. Whey protein comprises 20 % of total milk protein and it is rich in branched and essential amino acids, functional peptides, antioxidants and immunoglobulins. It confers benefits against a wide range of metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular complications, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, cancer and phenylketonuria. The protein has been validated to boost recovery from resistance exercise-injuries, stimulate gut physiology and protect skin against detrimental radiations. Apart from health invigoration, whey protein has proved its suitability as fat replacer and emulsifier. Further, its edible and antimicrobial packaging potential renders its highly desirable in food as well as pharmaceutical sectors. Considering the enormous nutraceutical worth of whey protein, this review emphasizes on its established and emerging biological roles. Present and future scopes in food processing and dietary supplement formulation are discussed. Associated hurdles are identified and how technical advancement might augment its applications are explored. This review is expected to provide valuable insight on whey protein-fortified functional foods, associated technical hurdles and scopes of improvement.

  12. Microbial ecophysiology of whey biomethanation

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrain, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The biodegradation of lactose into methane was investigated in a chemostat ecosystem under steady state conditions in order to understand the intermediary metabolism and the responsible bacterial species; and, to model the anaerobic digestion of whey in a continuous contact process. Radioactive carbon tracer studies showed that lactose biomethanation occurred in three distinct but simultaneous metabolic steps with lactate, acetate and hydrogen/carbon dioxide as the major intermediary metabolites. Mixed culture studies on the ecosystem composition demonstrated that multiple species of well described anaerobic bacteria were participating in each of three trophic groups: hydrolytic, acetogenic, and methanogenic. Biomethanation performance studies analyzed the dynamics of bacterial species composition and competition in relation to dilution rate. These results demonstrated that the hydrolytic and acetogenic bacteria were coupled to the methanogenic bacteria by interspecies hydrogen transfer; that species competition and dominance for a given carbon metabolite or for hydrogen was related to specific substrate transformation kinetic properties; and that the data was useful for describing biomethanation with a mechanistic model. Starter cultures were developed by employing freeze drying techniques to preserve either a defined culture comprised of four prevalent digestor species or an adapted chemostat sludge. Both of these starter cultures were shown to effectively degrade lactose using either a defined medium or raw whey as biomethanation starting substrate.

  13. Self-emulsification of alkaline-dissolved clove bud oil by whey protein, gum arabic, lecithin, and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yangchao; Zhang, Yue; Pan, Kang; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-05-14

    Low-cost emulsification technologies using food ingredients are critical to various applications. In the present study, a novel self-emulsification technique was studied to prepare clove bud oil (CBO) emulsions, without specialized equipment or organic solvents. CBO was first dissolved in hot alkaline solutions, added at 1% v/v into neutral solutions with 1% w/v emulsifier composed of whey protein concentrate (WPC), gum arabic, lecithin, or their equal mass mixtures, and adjusted to pH 7.0. The self-emulsification process did not affect UV-vis absorption spectrum, reversed-phase HPLC chromatogram, or antimicrobial activity of CBO against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, and Salmonella Enteritidis. The entrapment efficiency after extraction by petroleum ether was determined to be about 80%. Most emulsions were stable during 7 days of storage. Emulsions prepared with WPC had smaller particles, whereas emulsions prepared with emulsifier mixtures had more stable particle dimensions. The studied self-emulsification technique may find numerous applications in the preparation of low-cost food emulsions.

  14. Supplemental protein in support of muscle mass and health: advantage whey.

    PubMed

    Devries, Michaela C; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is an integral body tissue playing key roles in strength, performance, physical function, and metabolic regulation. It is essential for athletes to ensure that they have optimal amounts of muscle mass to ensure peak performance in their given sport. However, the role of maintaining muscle mass during weight loss and as we age is an emerging concept, having implications in chronic disease prevention, functional capacity, and quality of life. Higher-protein diets have been shown to: (1) promote gains in muscle mass, especially when paired with resistance training; (2) spare muscle mass loss during caloric restriction; and (3) attenuate the natural loss of muscle mass that accompanies aging. Protein quality is important to the gain and maintenance of muscle mass. Protein quality is a function of protein digestibility, amino acid content, and the resulting amino acid availability to support metabolic function. Whey protein is one of the highest-quality proteins given its amino acid content (high essential, branched-chain, and leucine amino acid content) and rapid digestibility. Consumption of whey protein has a robust ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. In fact, whey protein has been found to stimulate muscle protein synthesis to a greater degree than other proteins such as casein and soy. This review examines the existing data supporting the role for protein consumption, with an emphasis on whey protein, in the regulation of muscle mass and body composition in response to resistance training, caloric restriction, and aging.

  15. Direct identification and characterization of llama (Lama glama L.) whey proteins by microsequencing after western blotting.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, A; Napolitano, L; Giuffrida, M G; Conti, A

    1990-01-01

    Amino acid sequence determination is the most reliable and powerful tool to identify a protein or to classify a new one by comparison of its primary structure with already known sequences. A rapid and simple purification procedure is an essential pre-requisite for routine sequence determination. Structural characterization of llama whey proteins was undertaken for evolutionary as well as economic purposes. N-terminal sequence analyses directly on an immobilon polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane, following Western blotting of both native and SDS-denatured llama whey proteins after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, revealed three different forms of glycosylated alpha-lactalbumin, and a protein with a high degree of homology with a camel whey protein of unknown function. Furthermore, by immunoblotting techniques, the electrophoretic band corresponding to serum albumin was identified.

  16. Changes and roles of secondary structures of whey protein for the formation of protein membrane at soy oil/water interface under high-pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Lefèvre, Thiery; Subirade, Muriel; Paquin, Paul

    2007-12-26

    The conformational changes of whey proteins upon adsorption at the soy oil/water interface were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Significant changes were observed in the bands assigned to beta-sheets and alpha-helix structures following the adsorption of proteins at the oil/water interface. The remaining interfacial proteins after Tween 20 desorption revealed small changes in beta-sheet and alpha-helical structures, whereas in the desorbed whey proteins the unordered structures largely increased, and beta-sheet structures almost disappeared. These FT-IR results provide important knowledge about the conformational modifications in whey proteins occurring upon adsorption at the oil/water interface. Finally, specific conformational changes are necessary to stabilize emulsions: adsorption-induced unfolding, increase in alpha-helical structures to establish interactions with the oil phase, and aggregation between adsorbed whey proteins to form protein membranes. Moreover, the structural changes in whey protein adsorbed at the oil/water interface under high-pressure homogenization are irreversible.

  17. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Summary The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90). Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆E) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg’s equation (R2≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased. PMID:27904396

  18. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil.

    PubMed

    Galus, Sabina; Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90). Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆E) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg's equation (R(2)≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  19. Preparation of protein concentrates from whey and seed products

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, R.M.; Kohler, G.O.

    1980-01-01

    Whey is mixed with a seed product (e.g., cereal, legumes, oil seeds, flour, etc.) and the pH of the mixture adjusted to 9-10. The resultant mixture is treated to separate a juice from the fibrous residue; in a preferred embodiment of the subsequent process, a protein concentrate is recovered from the juice by adding an acid to it to adjust the pH to 3-4 and subsequently adding sodium hexametaphosphate in an amount sufficient to precipitate the protein product. After adjustment of the pH to 7, a protein concentrate may be obtained by drying the alkaline extract.

  20. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and high dynamic pressure on stability and rheological properties of model oil-in-water emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigikocin, Erman; Mert, Behic; Alpas, Hami

    2011-09-01

    Both static and dynamic high pressure applications provide interesting modifications in food structures which lead to new product formulations. In this study, the effects of two different treatments, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and high dynamic pressure (HDP), on oil-in-water emulsions were identified and compared. Microfluidization was selected from among the HDP homogenization techniques. The performance of each process was analyzed in terms of rheological modifications and emulsion stability improvements compared with the coarse emulsions. The stability of the emulsions was determined comparatively by using an analytical photo-centrifuge device employing novel analysis technology. Whey protein isolate (WPI) in combination with a food polysaccharide (xanthan gum, guar gum or locust bean gum) were used as emulsifying and stabilizing ingredients. The effective disruption of oil droplets and the degradation of polysaccharides by the shear forces under high pressure in HDP microfluidization yielded finer emulsions with lower viscosities, leading to distinctive improvements in emulsion stability. On the other hand, improvements in stability obtained with HHP treatment were due to the thickening of the emulsions mainly induced by protein unfolding. The corresponding increases in viscosity were intensified in emulsion formulations containing higher oil content. Apart from these, HHP treatment was found to be relatively more contributive to the enhancements in viscoelastic properties.

  1. Invited review: spray-dried dairy and dairy-like emulsions--compositional considerations.

    PubMed

    Vega, C; Roos, Y H

    2006-02-01

    Milk constituents [caseins, whey proteins (WP), lactose, and anhydrous milk fat] are used widely in the manufacture of dehydrated dairy and dairy-like emulsions. When sodium caseinate- (NaCas) and WP-stabilized emulsions with an oil-to-protein ratio ranging from 0.25 to 5 are dehydrated, NaCas is a more effective encapsulant than WP because of its superior emulsifying properties and resistance to heat denaturation. Denaturation degree of WP during drying has been associated with increased powder surface fat and larger droplet size after reconstitution. Encapsulation of NaCas-stabilized emulsions improves in the presence of lactose; powder surface fat was reduced from 30 to <5% when lactose was added at a 1:1 ratio to NaCas in an emulsion containing 30% (wt/wt) oil. This has been related to the ability of lactose to form solid-like (or glassy) capsules during sudden dehydration. Encapsulation of WP-stabilized emulsions is not improved by addition of lactose, although there are conflicting reports in the literature. Storage stability of dehydrated dairy-like emulsions is strongly linked to lactose crystallization as release of encapsulated material occurs during storage at high relative humidities (e.g., 75%). The use of alternative carbohydrates as "matrix-forming" materials (such as maltodextrins or gum arabic) improves storage stability but compromises the emulsion droplet size after reconstitution. The composition of the powder surface has been recognized as a key parameter in dehydrated emulsion quality. It is the chemical composition of the powder surface that dictates the behavior of the bulk in terms of wettability, flowability, and stability. Analyses, using electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis of the surface of industrial milk powders and dehydrated emulsions that mimicked the composition of milk, showed that powder surface is covered mainly by fat, even when the fat content is very low (18 and 99% surface fat coverage for skim milk and whole milk

  2. Cold enzymatic bleaching of fluid whey.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Drake, M A

    2013-01-01

    Chemical bleaching of fluid whey and retentate with hydrogen peroxide (HP) alone requires high concentrations (100-500 mg of HP/kg) and recent studies have demonstrated that off-flavors are generated during chemical bleaching that carry through to spray-dried whey proteins. Bleaching of fluid whey and retentate with enzymes such as naturally present lactoperoxidase or an exogenous commercial peroxidase (EP) at cold temperatures (4°C) may be a viable alternative to traditional chemical bleaching of whey. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum level of HP for enzymatic bleaching (both lactoperoxidase and EP) at 4°C and to compare bleaching efficacy and sensory characteristics to HP chemical bleaching at 4°C. Selected treatments were subsequently applied for whey protein concentrate with 80% protein (WPC80) manufacture. Fluid Cheddar whey and retentate (80% protein) were manufactured in triplicate from pasteurized whole milk. The optimum concentration of HP (0 to 250 mg/kg) to activate enzymatic bleaching at 4°C was determined by quantifying the loss of norbixin. In subsequent experiments, bleaching efficacy, descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile compounds were monitored at selected time points. A control with no bleaching was also evaluated. Enzymatic bleaching of fluid whey and retentate at 4°C resulted in faster bleaching and higher bleaching efficacy (color loss) than bleaching with HP alone at 250 mg/kg. Due to concentrated levels of naturally present lactoperoxidase, retentate bleached to completion (>80% norbixin destruction in 30 min) faster than fluid whey at 4°C (>80% norbixin destruction in 12h). In fluid whey, the addition of EP decreased bleaching time. Spray-dried WPC80 from bleached wheys, regardless of bleaching treatment, were characterized by a lack of sweet aromatic and buttery flavors, and the presence of cardboard flavor concurrent with higher relative abundance of 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octen-3-one. Among enzymatically

  3. Cyclodextrin stabilised emulsions and cyclodextrinosomes.

    PubMed

    Mathapa, Baghali G; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2013-11-07

    We report the preparation of o/w emulsions stabilised by microcrystals of cyclodextrin-oil inclusion complexes. The inclusion complexes are formed by threading cyclodextrins from the aqueous phase on n-tetradecane or silicone oil molecules from the emulsion drop surface which grow further into microrods and microplatelets depending on the type of cyclodextrin (CD) used. These microcrystals remain attached on the surface of the emulsion drops and form densely packed layers which resemble Pickering emulsions. The novelty of this emulsion stabilisation mechanism is that molecularly dissolved cyclodextrin from the continuous aqueous phase is assembled into colloid particles directly onto the emulsion drop surface, i.e. molecular adsorption leads to effective Pickering stabilisation. The β-CD stabilised tetradecane-in-water emulsions were so stable that we used this system as a template for preparation of cyclodextrinosomes. These structures were produced solely through formation of cyclodextrin-oil inclusion complexes and their assembly into a crystalline phase on the drop surface retained its stability after the removal of the core oil. The structures of CD-stabilised tetradecane-in-water emulsions were characterised using optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, cross-polarised light microscopy and WETSEM while the cyclodextrinosomes were characterised by SEM. We also report the preparation of CD-stabilised emulsions with a range of other oils, including tricaprylin, silicone oil, isopropyl myristate and sunflower oil. We studied the effect of the salt concentration in the aqueous phase, the type of CD and the oil volume fraction on the type of emulsion formed. The CD-stabilised emulsions can be applied in a range of surfactant-free formulations with possible applications in cosmetics, home and personal care. Cyclodextrinosomes could find applications in pharmaceutical formulations as microencapsulation and drug delivery vehicles.

  4. Estimation of lactose hydrolysis by freezing point measurements in milk and whey substrates treated with lactases from various microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, S L; Frank, J F; Loewenstein, M

    1981-11-01

    beta-Galactosidase concentrates obtained from several microorganisms were used to hydrolyze skim milk, low fat (2%) milk, sweet whey, acid whey, acid whey permeate, and acid whey concentrate. Among acid substrates, the freezing point depression for each 1% lactose hydrolyzed was the greatest with the lactase from Aspergillus niger (0.0501 degrees H); among neutral substrates, the depression was greater in sweet whey (0.0495 degree H) and lesser in low fat milk (0.0445 degrees H). All data were statistically significant. The average freezing point depression for each 1% lactose hydrolyzed wa s0.0468 degrees H (range 0.0436-0.0501 degrees H). Oligosaccharides formed in the lactose hydrolysis inconsistent freezing point readings of the cryoscope at the low freezing points measured, and protease contamination in some lactases may affect the precision of freezing point determination. Hydration and volume of non-protein components in commercial enzymes, unstable color complex formed by lactose and methylamine solution, and difficulty in the use of methylamine solution might cause variations in determination of lactose by the analytical procedure. These factors can be eliminated or minimized. This method is the simplest and quickest estimation of lactose hydrolysis, and it offers great accuracy and consistency.

  5. Impact of parenteral lipid emulsions on the metabolomic phenotype in preterm TPN-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids in parenteral nutrition provide essential fatty acids and are a major source of energy for hospitalized neonates. Intralipid (IL) is the only approved lipid emulsion in the U.S, but new generation emulsions include Omegaven (OV) and SMOFlipid (SL). There are no studies describing the metaboli...

  6. Impact of parenteral lipid emulsions on metabolomic phenotype in preterm TPN-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids in parenteral nutrition provide essential fatty acids and are a major source of energy for hospitalized neonates. Intralipid (IL) is the only approved lipid emulsion in the US, but new generation emulsions include Omegaven (OV) and SMOFlipid (SL). There are no studies describing the metabolit...

  7. Whey as a brewing material. III. Fermentation of wort containing hydrolyzed whey permeate

    SciTech Connect

    Tenney, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrafiltration of whey removes most of the protein, leaving lactose and minerals in the permeate. Salinity may be controlled by demineralization, resulting in a product that ferments easily, yielding beers of normal and controllable composition and character. Up to 30% extracts may be derived from whey. Several strains of yeast isolated from breweries are capable of the fermentation.

  8. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2015-12-01

    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats.

  9. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. PMID:26367331

  10. Rubberized asphalt emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, E.

    1986-09-02

    A method is described of making a rubberized asphalt composition which comprises the steps of: (a) combining asphalt with a hydrocarbon oil having a flash point of 300/sup 0/F. or more to provide a homogenous asphalt-oil mixture or solution, (b) then combining the asphalt-oil mixture with a particulate rubber at a temperature sufficient to provide a homogenous asphalt-rubber-oil gel, and (c) emulsifying the asphalt-rubber-oil gel by passing the gel, water, and an emulsifying agent through a colloid mill to provide an emulsion.

  11. Effectiveness of partially hydrolyzed rice glutelin as a food emulsifier: Comparison to whey protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingfeng; Zhong, Junzhen; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Liping; Luo, Shunjing; Wu, Lixin; McClements, David Julian

    2016-12-15

    The emulsifying properties of partially hydrolyzed rice glutelin (H-RG, 2% degree of hydrolysis) were compared to those of whey isolate protein (WPI), a commonly used protein-based emulsifier. The surface load of WPI (1% emulsifier, d32=167.5nm) was 2.8 times lower than that of H-RG (3% emulsifier, d32=159.0nm). Emulsions containing WPI-coated lipid droplets had better stability to pH changes (2-8), NaCl addition (0-500mM) and thermal processing (30-90°C, 0 or 200mM NaCl). Nevertheless, H-RG emulsions were stable over a range of conditions: pH 6-8; NaCl≤200 (pH 7); temperatures≤90°C in the absence of salt (pH 7); and temperatures≤50°C in the presence of 200mM NaCl (pH 7). This study indicates that H-RG may be utilized as a natural emulsifier in the development of label-friendly emulsion-based food products, but that further work is needed to increase the range of applications.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and morphology study of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)-grafted-poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) "raspberry"-shape like structure microgels by pre-emulsified semi-batch emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Ros Azlinawati; Hashim, Shahrir; Laftah, Waham Ashaier

    2013-02-01

    A novel microgels were polymerized using styrene (St), methyl methacrylate (MMA), acrylamide (AAm), and acrylic acid (AAc) monomers in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) cross-linker. Pre-emulsified monomer was first prepared followed by polymerizing monomers using semi-batch emulsion polymerization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were used to determine the chemical structure and to indentify the related functional group. Grafting and cross-linking of poly(acrylamide-co-acrilic acid)-grafted-poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) [poly(AAm-co-AAc)-g-poly(St-co-MMA)] microgels are approved by the disappearance of band at 1300 cm(-1), 1200 cm(-1) and 1163 cm(-1) of FTIR spectrum and the appearance of CH peaks at 5.5-5.7 ppm in (1)H NMR spectrum. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images indicated that poly(St-co-MMA) particle was lobed morphology coated by cross-linked poly(AAm-co-AAc) shell. Furthermore, SEM results revealed that poly(AAm-co-AAc)-g-poly(St-co-MMA) is composite particle that consist of "raspberry"-shape like structure core. Internal structures of the microgels showed homogeneous network of pores, an extensive interconnection among pores, thicker pore walls, and open network structures. Water absorbency test indicated that the sample with particle size 0.43 μm had lower equilibrium water content, % than the sample with particle size 7.39 μm.

  13. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p < 0.05; 120 consumers). This study shows a promising new approach for sodium reduction in liquid and semi-liquid emulsion based foods.

  14. [Multiple emulsions; bioactive compounds and functional foods].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The continued appearance of scientific evidence about the role of diet and/or its components in health and wellness, has favored the emergence of functional foods which currently constitute one of the chief factors driving the development of new products. The application of multiple emulsions opens new possibilities in the design and development of functional foods. Multiple emulsions can be used as an intermediate product (food ingredient) into technological strategies normally used in the optimization of the presence of bioactive compounds in healthy and functional foods. This paper presents a summary of the types, characteristics and formation of multiple emulsions, possible location of bioactive compounds and their potential application in the design and preparation of healthy and functional foods. Such applications are manifested particularly relevant in relation to quantitative and qualitative aspects of lipid material (reduced fat/calories and optimization of fatty acid profile), encapsulation of bioactive compounds mainly hydrophilic and sodium reduction. This strategy offers interesting possibilities regarding masking flavours and improving sensory characteristics of foods.

  15. Microbial bioproducts from cheese whey through fermentation with wastewater sludge Clostridium isolates.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Joshua T; Sims, Ronald C; Miller, Charles D

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrated the production of hydrogen, ethanol, and a variety of acids by several Clostridium species using cheese whey as substrate. These species were isolated from the anaerobic sediments of a municipal wastewater stabilization pond. Eight isolates were obtained and all were classified taxonomically as Clostridium spp. based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Sludge isolates showed maximum bioproduct production yields and productivities after approximately 24 h of batch cultivation with 6% (m/v) cheese whey. Fermentation byproducts measured included hydrogen, ethanol, acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid. The maximum yields of bioproducts were 0.59 mol H(2)/mol lactose, 0.071 g ethanol/g, 0.204 g acetic acid/g, 0.218 g butyric acid/g, and 0.144 g lactic acid/g. The production of these high value biofuels and biofuel intermediates from cheese whey could have significant implications for conversion of waste to high value bioproducts to enhance domestic energy economies.

  16. The effect of bleaching agent on the flavor of liquid whey and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Croissant, A E; Kang, E J; Campbell, R E; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2009-12-01

    The increasing use and demand for whey protein as an ingredient requires a bland-tasting, neutral-colored final product. The bleaching of colored Cheddar whey is necessary to achieve this goal. Currently, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) are utilized for bleaching liquid whey before spray drying. There is no current information on the effect of the bleaching process on the flavor of spray-dried whey protein concentrate (WPC). The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of bleaching on the flavor of liquid and spray-dried Cheddar whey. Cheddar cheeses colored with water-soluble annatto were manufactured in duplicate. Four bleaching treatments (HP, 250 and 500 mg/kg and BPO, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were applied to liquid whey for 1.5 h at 60 degrees C followed by cooling to 5 degrees C. A control whey with no bleach was also evaluated. Flavor of the liquid wheys was evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analysis. One HP treatment and one BPO treatment were subsequently selected and incorporated into liquid whey along with an unbleached control that was processed into spray-dried WPC. These trials were conducted in triplicate. The WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses as well as color and proximate analyses. The HP-bleached liquid whey and WPC contained higher concentrations of oxidation reaction products, including the compounds heptanal, hexanal, octanal, and nonanal, compared with unbleached or BPO-bleached liquid whey or WPC. The HP products were higher in overall oxidation products compared with BPO samples. The HP liquid whey and WPC were higher in fatty and cardboard flavors compared with the control or BPO samples. Hunter CIE Lab color values (L*, a*, b*) of WPC powders were distinct on all 3 color scale parameters, with HP-bleached WPC having the highest L* values. Hydrogen peroxide resulted in a whiter WPC and higher off-flavor intensities; however, there was no difference in norbixin recovery between HP

  17. Conversion of cheese whey into poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Pais, Joana; Serafim, Luísa S; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-01-25

    Haloferax mediterranei was cultivated in highly saline medium using cheese whey as the substrate for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), P(3HB-co-3HV). Acid hydrolysis provided a simple inexpensive method to obtain a cheese whey hydrolysate that was used for cultivation of H. mediterranei. Batch bioreactor cultivation of H. mediterranei resulted in the production of an active biomass concentration of 7.54 g L(-1) with a polymer content of 53%, and a volumetric productivity of 4.04 g L(-1) day(-1). Supplementation of the cultivation medium with micronutrients favored galactose consumption that was used for polymer synthesis after exhaustion of the available glucose. P(3HB-co-3HV) with a 3-hydroxyvalerate content of 1.5 mol% was extracted from the biomass by hypo-osmotic shock. The polymer presented a molecular mass of 4.4×10(5), with a polydispersity index of 1.5. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using cheese whey for the production of a value-added biopolymer with high volumetric productivity, by using a glucose- and galactose-rich substrate obtained by acid hydrolysis of cheese whey. The use of H. mediterranei as the producing strain avoids the need for strict sterility due to the culture's high salinity requirements and, also, allows for polymer extraction by simply contacting the biomass with water.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be derived from milk that has been pasteurized, or the reduced lactose whey shall be subjected to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reduced lactose whey. 184.1979a Section 184.1979a... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979a Reduced lactose whey. (a) Reduced lactose...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1979b - Reduced minerals whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be derived from milk that has been pasteurized, or the reduced minerals whey shall be subjected to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reduced minerals whey. 184.1979b Section 184.1979b... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979b Reduced minerals whey. (a) Reduced...

  20. Development of food-grade nanoemulsions and emulsions for delivery of omega-3 fatty acids: opportunities and obstacles in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebecca; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David Julian

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of biologically active amounts of omega-3 fatty acids is linked to improved human health, which has partly been attributed to their important role in brain development and cardiovascular health. Western diets are relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and many consumers turn to supplements or functional foods to increase their intake of these healthy lipids. Fish oil is one of the most widely used sources of omega-3 fatty acid for supplementation and has greater health benefits than plant sources because of its higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into foods and beverages is often challenging due to their low water-solubility, poor oxidative stability, and variable bioavailability. Nanoemulsions offer a promising way to incorporate omega-3 fatty acids into liquid food systems like beverages, dressing, sauces, and dips. Nanoemulsions are colloidal dispersions that contain small oil droplets (r<100 nm) that may be able to overcome many of the challenges of fortifying foods and beverages with omega-3 fatty acids. The composition and fabrication of nanoemulsions can be optimized to increase the chemical and physical stability of oil droplets, as well as to increase the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids.

  1. Bilayers at High pH in the Fatty Acid Soap Systems and the Applications for the Formation of Foams and Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenlong; Zhang, Heng; Zhong, Yingping; Jiang, Liwen; Xu, Mengxin; Zhu, Xionglu; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-08-20

    In our previous work, we reported bilayers at high pH in the stearic acid/CsOH/H2O system, which was against the traditional viewpoint that fatty acid (FA) bilayers must be formed at the pKa of the fatty acid. Herein, the microstructures at high pH of several fatty acid soap systems were investigated systematically. We found that palmitic acid/KOH/H2O, palmitic acid/CsOH/H2O, stearic acid/KOH/H2O, and stearic acid/CsOH/H2O systems can form bilayers at high pH. The bilayer structure was demonstrated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)H NMR), and molecular dynamics simulation was used to confirm the formation of bilayers. The influence of fatty acids with different chain lengths (n = 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) and different counterions including Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cs(+), (CH3)4N(+), (C2H5)4N(+), (C3H7)4N(+), and (C4H9)4N(+) on the formation of bilayers was discussed. The stability of foam and emulsification properties were compared between bilayers and micelles, drawing the conclusion that bilayer structures possess a much stronger ability to foam and stronger emulsification properties than micelles do.

  2. Cellulose Nanocrystals as Water in Water Emulsion Stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddireddy, Karthik Reddy; Capron, Isabelle; Nicolai, Taco; Benyahia, Lazhar

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer on the earth. Thus, it is very much desirable to find as many practical applications as possible for it. Cellulose, in its original form, contains both amorphous and crystalline parts. It is possible to separate both parts by dissolving the amorphous part in concentrated sulfuric acid. The remaining crystalline cellulose part exist in the form of rod-like particles. The dimensions of the particles depend on the source. We produce the particles from the acid hydrolysis of cotton cellulose fibers. It results in cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with dimensions of ~150 nm x 6 nm x 6 nm. It is well known that CNCs could very efficiently stabilize oil in water (O/W) emulsions by forming very dense monolayers of CNCs at O-W interfaces. However, it is not yet known whether they could also stabilize water in water (W/W) emulsions. The W/W emulsions can be produced by any two incompatible polymers. It is challenging to find effective stabilizers for W/W emulsions due to ultralow interfacial tension and large interfacial thickness. In this talk, I will show the efficiency and effectiveness of these one-dimensional rods as W/W emulsion stabilizers.

  3. Milk and growth in children: effects of whey and casein.

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of cow's milk is recommended in many countries. Observational and intervention studies show that cow's milk most likely has a positive influence on growth in children. The strongest evidence comes from observational studies and intervention studies in low-income countries, but there are also observational studies from high-income countries showing positive associations between milk intake and growth. Milk seems thus to have a specific stimulating effect on linear growth, not only in developing countries with high rates of malnutrition, but also in industrialized countries. However, it is not known which components in milk stimulate growth. Possible components are proteins, minerals, vitamins or combinations of these. Cow's milk proteins have a high protein quality, and whey has a slightly higher quality than casein, according to some indices based on amino acid composition. Studies, mainly from sport medicine, have suggested that whey protein also has the potential to increase muscle mass. Whether whey improves body composition to a larger extent than other milk proteins is not clear. The mechanism behind a possible growth-stimulating effect of milk and milk components is likely to be through a stimulation of insulin-like growth factor-I synthesis and maybe insulin secretion. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that milk stimulates linear growth. The mechanism is not yet clear, and more intervention studies are needed to understand which components in milk are responsible for the growth stimulation. The effects of milk on linear growth and adult height may have both positive and negative long-term implications.

  4. Factors influencing the stability and type of hydroxyapatite stabilized Pickering emulsion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Ai-Juan; Li, Jun-Ming; Song, Na; Song, Yang; He, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle stabilized Pickering emulsion was fabricated with poly(l-lactic acid) dissolved in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) solution as oil phase and HAp aqueous dispersion as aqueous phase. Pickering emulsion was cured via in situ solvent evaporation method. Effect of PLLA concentrations, pH value, HAp concentrations, oil-water ratio, emulsification rates and times were studied on emulsion stability and emulsion type, etc. The results indicated emulsion stability increased with the increase of HAp concentration, emulsification rate and time; it is very stable when pH value of aqueous phase was adjusted to 10. Stable W/O and O/W emulsions were fabricated successfully using as-received HAp particles as stabilizer by adjusting the fabricating parameters. The interaction between HAp and PLLA played an important role to stabilize Pickering emulsions. SEM results indicated that both microsphere and porous materials were fabricated using emulsion stabilized by unmodified HAp nanoparticles, implying that both W/O and O/W emulsion type were obtained.

  5. In vitro skin permeation of sunscreen agents from O/W emulsions.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, L; Carbone, C; Paolino, D; Drago, R; Stancampiano, A H; Puglisi, G

    2008-02-01

    The effects of different emulsifiers on the in vitro permeation through human skin of two sunscreen agents [octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM)] were investigated from O/W emulsions. The test formulations were prepared using the same oil and aqueous phase ingredients and the following emulsifier and coemulsifier systems: Emulgade SE((R)) (ceteareth-12 and ceteareth-20 and cetearyl alcohol and cetyl palmitate) and glycerylmonostearate (emulsion 1); Brij 72((R)) (steareth-2), Brij 721((R)) (steareth-21) and cetearyl alcohol (emulsion 2); Phytocream((R)) (potassium palmitoyl-hydrolysed wheat protein and glyceryl stearate and cetearyl alcohol) and glycerylmonostearate (emulsion 3); Montanov 68((R)) (cetearyl glucoside and cetearyl alcohol) (emulsion 4); Xalifin-15((R)) (C(15-20) acid PEG-8 ester) and cetearyl alcohol (emulsion 5). The cumulative amount of OMC that permeated in vitro through human skin after 22 h from the formulations being tested decreased in the order 3 > 1 congruent with 4 > 5 > 2 and was about nine-fold higher from emulsion 3 compared with that from emulsion 2. As regards BMBM, no significant difference was observed as regards its skin permeation from emulsions 1, 3, 4 and 5, whereas formulation 2 allowed significantly lower amounts of BMBM to permeate the skin. In vitro release experiments of OMC and BMBM from emulsions 1-6 through cellulose acetate membranes showed that only emulsions 4 and 5 provided pseudo-first-order release rates only for OMC. The results of this study suggest that the type of emulsifying systems used to prepare an O/W emulsion may strongly affect sunscreen skin permeation from these formulations. Therefore, the vehicle effects should be carefully considered in the formulation of sunscreen products.

  6. Structural changes in emulsion-bound bovine beta-lactoglobulin affect its proteolysis and immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Mauro; Miriani, Matteo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barbiroli, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption on the surface of sub-micrometric oil droplets resulted in significant changes in the tertiary structure of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a whey protein broadly used as a food ingredient and a major food allergen. The adsorbed protein had increased sensitivity to trypsin, and increased immunoreactivity towards specific monoclonal antibodies. In spite of the extensive tryptic breakdown of emulsion-bound BLG, some sequence stretches in BLG became trypsin-insensitive upon absorption of the protein on the fat droplets. As a consequence - at contrast with free BLG - proteolysis of emulsion-bound BLG did not decrease the immunoreactivity of the protein, and some of the large peptides generated by trypsinolysis of emulsion-bound BLG were still recognizable by specific monoclonal antibodies. Structural changes occurring in emulsion-bound BLG and their consequences are discussed in comparison with those occurring when the tertiary structure of BLG is modified by lipophilic salts, by urea, or upon interaction with solid hydrophobic surfaces. Such a comparison highlights the relevance of situation-specific structural modifications, that in turn may affect physiologically relevant features of the protein.

  7. Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

    2013-02-15

    Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems.

  8. Preparation and characterization of water/oil and water/oil/water emulsions containing biopolymer-gelled water droplets.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Vladisavljevi Cacute, Goran T; Mun, Saehun; McClements, D Julian

    2007-01-10

    The purpose of this study was to create water-in-oil (W/O) and water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions containing gelled internal water droplets. Twenty weight percent W/O emulsions stabilized by a nonionic surfactant (6.4 wt % polyglycerol polyricinoleate, PGPR) were prepared that contained either 0 or 15 wt % whey protein isolate (WPI) in the aqueous phase, with the WPI-containing emulsions being either unheated or heated (80 degrees C for 20 min) to gel the protein. Optical microscopy and sedimentation tests did not indicate any significant changes in droplet characteristics of the W/O emulsions depending on WPI content (0 or 15%), shearing (0-7 min at constant shear), thermal processing (30-90 degrees C for 30 min), or storage at room temperature (up to 3 weeks). W/O/W emulsions were produced by homogenizing the W/O emulsions with an aqueous Tween 20 solution using either a membrane homogenizer (MH) or a high-pressure valve homogenizer (HPVH). For the MH the mean oil droplet size decreased with increasing number of passes, whereas for the HPVH it decreased with increasing number of passes and increasing homogenization pressure. The HPVH produced smaller droplets than the MH, but the MH produced a narrower particle size distribution. All W/O/W emulsions had a high retention of water droplets (>95%) within the larger oil droplets after homogenization. This study shows that W/O/W emulsions containing oil droplets with gelled water droplets inside can be produced by using MH or HPVH.

  9. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin and pectin.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Marly S; McClements, D J; Miglioranza, Lucia H S; Decker, Eric A

    2008-07-23

    The oxidation of fatty acids can be inhibited by engineering the surface of oil-in-water emulsion droplets to decrease interactions between aqueous phase prooxidants and lipids. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether emulsions stabilized by a multilayer emulsifier systems consisting of beta-lactoglobulin and citrus or sugar beet pectin could produce fish oil-in-water emulsions that had good physical and oxidative stability. Sugar beet pectin was compared to citrus pectin because the sugar beet pectin contains the known antioxidant, ferulic acid. A primary Menhaden oil-in-water emulsion was prepared with beta-lactoglobulin upon which the pectins were electrostatically deposited at pH 3.5. Emulsions prepared with 1% oil, 0.05% beta-lactoglobulin, and 0.06% pectins were physically stable for up to 16 days. As determined by monitoring lipid hydroperoxide and headspace propanal formation, emulsions prepared with the multilayer system of beta-lactoglobulin and citrus pectin were more stable than emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin alone. Emulsions prepared with the multilayer system of beta-lactoglobulin and sugar beet pectin were less stable than emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin alone despite the presence of ferulic acid in the sugar beet pectin. The lower oxidative stability of the emulsions with the sugar beet pectin could be due to its higher iron and copper concentrations which would produce oxidative stress that would overcome the antioxidant capacity of ferulic acid. These data suggest that the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions containing omega-3 fatty acids could be improved by the use of multilayer emulsion systems containing pectins with low metal concentrations.

  10. Complete sequence analysis of cDNA clones encoding rat whey phosphoprotein: homology to a protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, A M; Robinson, E A; Appella, E; Qasba, P K

    1982-07-01

    Lactoprotein clones have been isolated from a rat mammary gland recombinant library of cDNA plasmids. Clones p-Wp 52 and p-Wp 47 were shown by hybrid selection, in vitro translation, and immunoprecipitation to represent a cloned DNA sequence encoding rat whey phosphoprotein. We report here the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA insert of p-Wp 52 and shows that it encodes the complete whey phosphoprotein sequence. The encoded sequence shows a high content of half-cystine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and serine but an absence of tyrosine. The half-cystines appear in unique arrangements and are repeated in two domains of the protein. The second domain has striking similarities with the second domain of the red sea turtle protease inhibitor. Clone p-Wp 52 has allowed the study of expression of whey phosphoprotein mRNA during functional differentiation of rat mammary gland and in mammary tumors. The whey phosphoprotein mRNA is detected during midpregnancy and lactation in the rat mammary gland but is barely detected in mammary tumors in which other milk protein mRNAs are expressed. The whey phosphoprotein gene in these tumors is hypermethylated, correlating with the reduced expression of this gene.

  11. Investigation of the protective effect of whey proteins on lactococcal phages during heat treatment at various pH.

    PubMed

    Geagea, Hany; Gomaa, Ahmed I; Remondetto, Gabriel; Moineau, Sylvain; Subirade, Muriel

    2015-10-01

    The incorporation of whey protein concentrates (WPC) into cheese is a risky process due to the potential contamination with thermo-resistant phages of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Furthermore, whey proteins can protect phages during heat treatment, thereby increasing the above risk. The main objective of this work was to understand this protective effect in order to better control LAB phages and maximize whey recycling in the cheese industry. First, the inactivation of a previously characterized thermo-resistant lactococcal virulent phage (P1532) was investigated at 95 °C in WPC, in individual whey components β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and bovine serum albumin as well as under different heat and pH conditions. The structural changes of the tested proteins were also monitored by transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Phage inactivation results indicated that the protective effect of whey proteins was pH and time dependent at 95 °C and was not restricted to one component. FTIR spectra suggest that the protection is related to protein molecular structures and to the level of protein aggregates, which was more pronounced in acidic conditions. Moreover, the molecular structure of the three proteins tested was differently influenced by pH and the duration of the heat treatment. This work confirms the protective effect of WPC on phages during heat treatment and offers the first hint to explain such phenomenon. Finding the appropriate treatment of WPC to reduce the phage risk is one of the keys to improving the cheese manufacturing process.

  12. Process steps for the preparation of purified fractions of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin from whey protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Gésan-Guiziou, G; Daufin, G; Timmer, M; Allersma, D; van der Horst, C

    1999-05-01

    Fractions enriched with alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-la) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) were produced by a process comprising the following successive steps: clarification-defatting of whey protein concentrate, precipitation of alpha-lactalbumin, separation of soluble beta-lactoglobulin, washing the precipitate, solubilization of the precipitate, concentration and purification of alpha-la. The present study evaluated the performance of the process, firstly on a laboratory scale with acid whey and then on a pilot scale with Gouda cheese whey. In both cases soluble beta-lg was separated from the precipitate using diafiltration or microfiltration and the purities of alpha-la and beta-lg were in the range 52-83 and 85-94% respectively. The purity of the beta-lg fraction was higher using acid whey, which does not contain caseinomacropeptide, than using sweet whey. With the pilot scale plant, the recoveries (6% for alpha-la; 51% for beta-lg) were disappointing, but ways of improving each step in the process are discussed.

  13. Review of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous fat emulsion (IVFE) is an important source of calories and essential fatty acids for patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). Administered as an individual infusion or combined with PN, the fats provided by IVFE are vital for cellular structural function and metabolism. The affinity of some medications to lipids has led to the use of IVFE as a treatment for any lipophilic drug overdose. This article will explain the available formulations of IVFE, administration, and maintenance issues, as well as the risks and benefits for various applications. PMID:27828934

  14. Determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 as emulsifier by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei-Fei; Yu, Jing; Hu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Meng-Xia; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Hai-Ling; Han, Jie

    2011-06-03

    A novel approach for identification and determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 (sorbitol mono-oleate) as the emulsifier and their postblast residues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed. 24 kinds of emulsion explosives collected have been processed by transesterification reaction with metholic KOH solution and the emulsifier has turned into methyl esters of fatty acids. From the peak area ratios of their methyl esters, most of these emulsion explosives can be differentiated. In order to detect the postblast residues of emulsion explosives, the sorbitols in the emulsifier Span-80 obtained after transesterification reaction have been further derivatized by silylation reaction with N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) as the derivatizing reagent. The derivatization conditions were optimized and the derivatives were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the silylation derivatives of sorbitol and it isomers, combined with hydrocarbon compounds and methyl esters of fatty acids, were the characteristic components for identification of the emulsion explosives. The established approach was applied to analyze the postblast residues of emulsion explosives. It has been found that the method was sensitive and specific, especially when detecting the derivatives of sorbitol and its isomers by GC-MS in selecting ion mode. The information of the characteristic components can help probe the origin of the emulsion explosives and providing scientific evidences and clues for solving the crimes of the emulsion explosive explosion.

  15. Alcohol from membrane processed concentrated cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopalan, K.; Kosikowskik, F.V.

    1982-01-01

    A fermentable whey substrate in the form of a high solids permeate was obtained by reconstituting spray-dried whey powder to 36% total solids followed by ultrafiltration to separate the protein. The high solids permeate was demineralized to permit rapid yeast growth. The final permeate with 24% lactose and at pH 4.8 gave high yields of EtOH rapidly upon inoculation with lactose-fermenting yeasts. One yeast species, Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415, yielded 108.8 g of EtOH/L, giving 84.3% of the theoretical maximum. Batch EtOH productivity was 3.2 g/L/h. The cost analysis of the ultrafiltration-fermentation process is highly favorable, if evaporation instead of the widely used reverse osmosis is employed for preconcentration of whey.

  16. To Model Chemical Reactivity in Heterogeneous Emulsions, Think Homogeneous Microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Romsted, Laurence Stuart; Liu, Changyao; Losada-Barreiro, Sonia; Pastoriza-Gallego, Maria José; Gao, Xiang; Gu, Qing; Krishnan, Gunaseelan; Sánchez-Paz, Verónica; Zhang, Yongliang; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad

    2015-08-25

    Two important and unsolved problems in the food industry and also fundamental questions in colloid chemistry are how to measure molecular distributions, especially antioxidants (AOs), and how to model chemical reactivity, including AO efficiency in opaque emulsions. The key to understanding reactivity in organized surfactant media is that reaction mechanisms are consistent with a discrete structures-separate continuous regions duality. Aggregate structures in emulsions are determined by highly cooperative but weak organizing forces that allow reactants to diffuse at rates approaching their diffusion-controlled limit. Reactant distributions for slow thermal bimolecular reactions are in dynamic equilibrium, and their distributions are proportional to their relative solubilities in the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions. Our chemical kinetic method is grounded in thermodynamics and combines a pseudophase model with methods for monitoring the reactions of AOs with a hydrophobic arenediazonium ion probe in opaque emulsions. We introduce (a) the logic and basic assumptions of the pseudophase model used to define the distributions of AOs among the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions in microemulsions and emulsions and (b) the dye derivatization and linear sweep voltammetry methods for monitoring the rates of reaction in opaque emulsions. Our results show that this approach provides a unique, versatile, and robust method for obtaining quantitative estimates of AO partition coefficients or partition constants and distributions and interfacial rate constants in emulsions. The examples provided illustrate the effects of various emulsion properties on AO distributions such as oil hydrophobicity, emulsifier structure and HLB, temperature, droplet size, surfactant charge, and acidity on reactant distributions. Finally, we show that the chemical kinetic method provides a natural explanation for the cut-off effect, a maximum followed by a sharp reduction in AO efficiency with

  17. Effects of Additions of Monascus and Laccaic acid on the Color and Quality Properties of Nitrite-Free Emulsion Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung-Sil

    2017-01-01

    This effect of Monascus and Laccaic acid on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Eight treatments (T) of sausage such as T1 (12 ppm sodium nitrite), while T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 were formulated with different ratios of Monascus/Laccaic acid: 63/7.0, 108/12, 135/15, 59.5/10.5, 102/18 and 127.5/22.5 ppm, respectively. The batch formulated without nitrite or Monascus and laccaic acid was served as control (C). The control sausages had higher pH values compared to the treated ones at 3, 10 and 28 d storage (p<0.05). After 10 d storage, the pH values decreased in treated sausage samples (p<0.05). The T1 and T4 presented the lowest yellowness and lightness values, respectively over the storage period. The redness values were increased as increasing Monascus and Laccaic acid amounts (T2-T4, T5-T7). The addition of Monascus and Laccaic acid had significantly higher hardness and springiness values (p<0.05) compared with the control in 3, 19 or 28 d storage. The results indicated that the addition of Monascus and Laccaic acid could improve the redness of the products. PMID:28316466

  18. Hydrolysis of whey lactose using CTAB-permeabilized yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Panesar, Parmjit S; Bera, Manav B; Kumar, Harish

    2009-01-01

    Disposal of lactose in whey and whey permeates is one of the most significant problems with regard to economics and environmental impact faced by the dairy industries. The enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose and galactose by beta-galactosidase constitutes the basis of the most biotechnological processes currently developed to exploit the sugar content of whey. Keeping this in view, lactose hydrolysis in whey was performed using CTAB permeabilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells. Permeabilization of K. marxianus cells in relation to beta-galactosidase activity was carried out using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to avoid the problem of enzyme extraction. Different process parameters (biomass load, pH, temperature, and incubation time) were optimized to enhance the lactose hydrolysis in whey. Maximum hydrolysis (90.5%) of whey lactose was observed with 200 mg DW yeast biomass after 90 min of incubation period at optimum pH of 6.5 and temperature of 40 degrees C.

  19. Cheese whey: A potential resource to transform into bioprotein, functional/nutritional proteins and bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jay Shankar Singh; Yan, Song; Pilli, Sridhar; Kumar, Lalit; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2015-11-01

    The byproduct of cheese-producing industries, cheese whey, is considered as an environmental pollutant due to its high BOD and COD concentrations. The high organic load of whey arises from the presence of residual milk nutrients. As demand for milk-derived products is increasing, it leads to increased production of whey, which poses a serious management problem. To overcome this problem, various technological approaches have been employed to convert whey into value-added products. These technological advancements have enhanced whey utilization and about 50% of the total produced whey is now transformed into value-added products such as whey powder, whey protein, whey permeate, bioethanol, biopolymers, hydrogen, methane, electricity bioprotein (single cell protein) and probiotics. Among various value-added products, the transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is attractive and demanding. The main important factor which is attractive for transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory status of whey. Whey and whey permeate are biotransformed into proteinaceous feed and food-grade bioprotein/single cell protein through fermentation. On the other hand, whey can be directly processed to obtain whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, and individual whey proteins. Further, whey proteins are also transformed into bioactive peptides via enzymatic or fermentation processes. The proteinaceous products have applications as functional, nutritional and therapeutic commodities. Whey characteristics, and its transformation processes for proteinaceous products such as bioproteins, functional/nutritional protein and bioactive peptides are covered in this review.

  20. Affinity chromatography matrices for depletion and purification of casein glycomacropeptide from bovine whey.

    PubMed

    Baieli, María F; Urtasun, Nicolás; Martinez, María J; Hirsch, Daniela B; Pilosof, Ana M R; Miranda, María V; Cascone, Osvaldo; Wolman, Federico J

    2017-01-01

    Casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) is a 64- amino acid peptide found in cheese whey, which is released after κ-casein specific cleavage by chymosin. CMP lacks aromatic amino acids, a characteristic that makes it usable as a nutritional supplement for people with phenylketonuria. CMP consists of two nonglycosylated isoforms (aCMP A and aCMP B) and its different glycosylated forms (gCMP A and gCMP B). The most predominant carbohydrate of gCMP is N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid). Here, we developed a CMP purification process based on the affinity of sialic acid for wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). After formation of chitosan beads and adsorption of WGA, the agglutinin was covalently attached with glutaraldehyde. Two matrices with different WGA density were assayed for CMP adsorption. Maximum adsorption capacities were calculated according to the Langmuir model from adsorption isotherms developed at pH 7.0, being 137.0 mg/g for the matrix with the best performance. In CMP reduction from whey, maximum removal percentage was 79% (specifically 33.7% of gCMP A and B, 75.8% of aCMP A, and 93.9% of aCMP B). The CMP was recovered as an aggregate with an overall yield of 64%. Therefore, the matrices developed are promising for CMP purification from cheese whey. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:171-180, 2017.

  1. Electromagnetic Scale Models Using Emulsions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    microwave range; the solutions have a nearly constant permittivity and a conductivity that is adjustable by varying the salt concentration. Mixtures of...emulsion. At this point, complete demulsification has occurred. The emulsion can then be reformed only by subjecting it to the process (homogenization...130-137, June 1986. [17] A. Stogryn, "Equations for calculating the dielectric constant of saline water," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech

  2. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. PMID:27110237

  3. Whey powders are a rich source and excellent storage matrix for dairy bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Natalia; Brinks, Erik; Samtlebe, Meike; Hinrichs, Jörg; Atamer, Zeynep; Kot, Witold; Franz, Charles M A P; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J

    2017-01-16

    Thirteen whey powders and 5 whey powder formulations were screened for the presence of dairy bacteriophages using a representative set of 8 acid-producing Lactococcus lactis and 5 Streptococcus thermophilus, and 8 flavour-producing Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains. Lytic L. lactis phages were detected in all samples, while S. thermophilus and Leuconostoc phages were present in 50% or 40% of the samples, respectively. Maximal phage titers were 6×10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu)/g of whey powder for L. lactis phages, 1×10(7)pfu/g for Leuconostoc phages and 1×10(5)pfu/g for S. thermophilus phages. In total, 55 phages were isolated and characterized. Thirty one of the 33 lactococcal phages tested belonged to the wide-spread 936 phage group. In the course of this study, a PCR detection method for Leuconostoc phages (Ali et al., 2013) was adapted to new phage isolates. Furthermore, a remarkably high stability of phages in whey powder samples was documented during a long-term storage period of 4 years.

  4. Cheese whey protein recovery by ultrafiltration through transglutaminase (TG) catalysis whey protein cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Wen-Qiong, Wang; Lan-Wei, Zhang; Xue, Han; Yi, Lu

    2017-01-15

    In whey ultrafiltration (UF) production, two main problems are whey protein recovery and membrane fouling. In this study, membrane coupling protein transglutaminase (TG) catalysis protein cross-linking was investigated under different conditions to find out the best treatment. We found that the optimal conditions for protein recovery involved catalyzing whey protein cross-linking with TG (40U/g whey proteins) at 40°C for 60min at pH 5.0. Under these conditions, the recovery rate was increased 15-20%, lactose rejection rate was decreased by 10%, and relative permeate flux was increase 30-40% compared to the sample without enzyme treatment (control). It was noticeable that the total resistance and cake resistance were decreased after enzyme catalysis. This was mainly due to the increased particle size and decreased zeta potential. Therefore, membrane coupling enzyme catalysis protein cross-linking is a potential means for further use.

  5. Fat emulsion for intravenous administration: clinical experience with intralipid 10%.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L M; Hardie, B S; Hidalgo, J

    1976-01-01

    A 10% soybean oil emulsion (Intralipid 10%), used extensively in Europe for intravenous alimentation, has now been clinically evaluated in the United States. Controlled studies have shown that the soybean oil emulsion can be substituted for glucose to supply one-third to two-thirds of the total calories, and can be administered peripherally without significant vein irritation. Essential fatty acid deficiencies, frequently encountered in patients dependent on parenteral alimentation with fat-free solutions, are prevented and corrected by use of this preparation. Data on long-term tolerance to Intralipid 10% infusions are presented for 292 patients treated for more than 6,000 patient days. The soybean oil emulsion was usually well tolerated. Side effects were reported in two of 133 adults and 12 of 159 pediatric patients. PMID:820291

  6. Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, is used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improving the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study are: Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems; Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system; Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit; Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system; Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts; Work for the coming year will focus on the determination of toxicity of various solvents, selection of the emulsifying agents, as well as characterizing the mass transfer of hollow-fiber contactors.

  7. Effects of a fish oil containing lipid emulsion on plasma phospholipid fatty acids, inflammatory markers, and clinical outcomes in septic patients: a randomized, controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The effect of parenteral fish oil in septic patients is not widely studied. This study investigated the effects of parenteral fish oil on plasma phospholipid fatty acids, inflammatory mediators, and clinical outcomes. Methods Twenty-five patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis, and predicted to need parenteral nutrition were randomized to receive either a 50:50 mixture of medium-chain fatty acids and soybean oil or a 50:40:10 mixture of medium-chain fatty acids, soybean oil and fish oil. Parenteral nutrition was administrated continuously for five days from admission. Cytokines and eicosanoids were measured in plasma and in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood culture supernatants. Fatty acids were measured in plasma phosphatidylcholine. Results Fish oil increased eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma phosphatidylcholine (P < 0.001). Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration decreased significantly more, and IL-10 significantly less, in the fish oil group (both P < 0.001). At Day 6 the ratio PO2/FiO2 was significantly higher in the fish oil group (P = 0.047) and there were fewer patients with PO2/FiO2 <200 and <300 in the fish oil group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.015, respectively). Days of ventilation, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mortality were not different between the two groups. The fish oil group tended to have a shorter length of hospital stay (22 ± 7 vs. 55 ± 16 days; P = 0.079) which became significant (28 ± 9 vs. 82 ± 19 days; P = 0.044) when only surviving patients were included. Conclusions Inclusion of fish oil in parenteral nutrition provided to septic ICU patients increases plasma eicosapentaenoic acid, modifies inflammatory cytokine concentrations and improves gas exchange. These changes are associated with a tendency towards shorter length of hospital stay. Trials Registration Clinical Trials Registration Number ISRCTN89432944 PMID:20085628

  8. Composition and functionality of whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate.

    PubMed

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underused. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to 1 WPPC supplier. The objective of this research was to fully characterize a range of WPPC. Four WPPC samples and 1 DLP sample were analyzed for chemical composition and functionality. This analysis showed that WPPC composition was highly variable between suppliers and lots. In addition, the functionality of the WPPC varies depending on the supplier and testing pH, and cannot be correlated with fat or protein content because of differences in processing. The addition of DLP to WPPC affects functionality. In general, WPPC has a high water-holding capacity, is relatively heat stable, has low foamability, and does not aid in emulsion stability. The gel strength and texture are highly dependent on the amount of protein. To be able to use these 2 dairy products, the composition and functionality must be fully understood.

  9. Physicochemical Property and Oxidative Stability of Whey Protein Concentrate Multiple Nanoemulsion Containing Fish Oil.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Young; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Mee-Ryung; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Won-Jae

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to produce whey protein concentrate (WPC) multiple nanoemulsion (MNE) and to study how whey protein concentration level and antioxidant type affected the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE. The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of MNE were investigated by using transmission electron microscopy and particle size analyzer, respectively. The oxidative stability of fish oil in MNEs was assessed by measuring peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value, and volatile compounds. The spherical forms of emulsions with size ranging from 190 to 210 nm were observed indicating the successful production of MNE. Compared with free fish oil, fish oil in MNE exhibited lower PV, p-anisidine value, and formation of maker of oxidation of fish oil indicating the oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE was enhanced. PV, p-anisidine value, and makers of oxidation of fish oil were decreased with increased WPC concentration level. The combined use of Vitamin C and E in MNE resulted in a reduction in PV and p-anisidine value, and development of maker of oxidation. In conclusion, WPC concentration level and antioxidant type are key factors affecting the droplet size of MNE and oxidative stability of fish oil.

  10. Recovery of Whey Proteins and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lactose Derived from Casein Whey Using a Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bipasha; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-09-01

    In this study, ultrafiltration (UF) of pretreated casein whey was carried out in a cross-flow module fitted with 5 kDa molecular weight cut-off polyethersulfone membrane to recover whey proteins in the retentate and lactose in the permeate. Effects of processing conditions, like transmembrane pressure and pH on permeate flux and rejection were investigated and reported. The polarised layer resistance was found to increase with time during UF even in this high shear device. The lactose concentration in the permeate was measured using dinitro salicylic acid method. Enzymatic kinetic study for lactose hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C using β-galactosidase enzyme. The glucose formed during lactose hydrolysis was analyzed using glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose solution was found to follow Michaelis-Menten model and the model parameters were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The hydrolysis rate was found to be maximum (with Vmax = 5.5091 mmol/L/min) at 30 °C.

  11. Influence of formulation on the oxidative stability of water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Dridi, Wafa; Essafi, Wafa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Cansell, Maud

    2016-07-01

    The oxidation of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions was investigated, emphasizing the impact of compositional parameters. The emulsions had approximately the same average droplet size and did not show any physical destabilization throughout the study. In the absence of pro-oxidant ions in the aqueous phase, lipid oxidation of the W/O emulsions was moderate at 60°C and was in the same range as that measured for the neat oils. Oxidation was significantly promoted by iron encapsulation in the aqueous phase, even at 25°C. However, iron chelation reduced the oxidation rate. Emulsions based on triglycerides rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were more prone to oxidation, whether the aqueous phase encapsulated iron or not. The emulsions were stabilized by high- and low-molecular weight surfactants. Increased relative fractions of high molecular weight components reduced the oxidation rate when iron was present.

  12. Insecticidal activity of caffeine aqueous solutions and caffeine oleate emulsions against Drosophila melanogaster and Hypothenemus hampei.

    PubMed

    Araque, Pedronel; Casanova, Herley; Ortiz, Carlos; Henao, Beatriz; Pelaez, Carlos

    2007-08-22

    The bioactivity of caffeine aqueous solutions (0.20-2.00 wt %) and caffeine oleate emulsions (20 vol % oil, 2.00 wt % surfactant, 0.04 wt % caffeine, 0.05 wt % oleic acid) was assessed against two biological models: Drosophila melanogaster and Hypothenemus hampei. The caffeine aqueous solutions showed no insecticidal activity, whereas caffeine oleate emulsions had high bioactivity against both D. melanogaster and H. hampei. By preparing the caffeine oleate emulsions with anionic surfactants (i.e., sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureate, and sodium oleate), we obtained a lethal time 50 (LT50) of 23 min. In the case of caffeine oleate emulsions prepared with nonionic surfactants (i.e., Tween 20 and Tween 80), a LT50 of approximately 17 min was observed. The high bioactivity of the caffeine oleate emulsion against H. hampei opens the possibility of using this insecticide formulation as an effective way to control this pest that greatly affects coffee plantations around the world.

  13. Innovative Applications Of Food Related Emulsions.

    PubMed

    S, Kiokias; T, Varzakas

    2016-02-06

    Research on oxidative stability of multiple emulsions is very scarce. Given that this is a relevant topic that must be ascertained before the successful application of multiple emulsions in foods (especially when a combination of highly unsaturated oils is used as a lipid phase), this review mainly focus on various aspects of the multiple emulsions. Fat replacement in meat products using emulsions is critically discussed along with innovative applications of natural antioxidants in food based emulsions and multiple emulsions based on bioactive compounds/encapsulation as well as confectionery products.

  14. Farm and factory production of goat cheese whey results in distinct chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Assunção, P; Capote, J; Argüello, A

    2009-10-01

    To analyze differences in fat and protein content in cheese whey (CW) manufactured in cheese-making factories and farms, goat CW samples were obtained from 60 cheese-making farms and 20 cheese factories. Gross composition of samples was analyzed by using an MIRIS device (MIRIS Inc., Uppsala, Sweden), whey protein composition was subjected to electrophoretic analysis, and fatty acid composition was analyzed via gas chromatography. Goat CW from farms contained higher dry matter content (70.6 vs. 50.8 g/L, farms vs. cheese factories, respectively) and a higher fat percentage (10.5 vs. 1.2% over dry matter, farms vs. cheese factories, respectively) than CW from cheese factories. Analysis of individual proteins showed that CW from farms contained higher concentrations of lactoferrin (0.4 vs. 0.2 mg/mL of CW, farms vs. cheese factories, respectively) and caprine serum albumin (0.6 vs. 0.4 mg/mL of whey, farms vs. cheese factories, respectively) than CW from cheese factories. No differences were observed in the fatty acid profile. The main fatty acids present in goat CW were C16:0, C18:1, C14:0, and C18:0. Thus, the origin of CW affects gross composition and the protein profile, but not the fatty acid profile.

  15. Advances in extrusion for texturized whey proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy proteins like whey proteins play an important role in human nutrition because of their characteristic structure and associated numerous benefits such as ease of digestion, in- vivo assimilation, creating new or maintaining the muscle mass and the unique ability of boosting immune functions. W...

  16. Optimizing organoclay stabilized Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yannan; Threlfall, Mhairi; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen S

    2011-04-15

    Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using montmorillonite clay platelets, pre-treated with quaternary amine surfactants. In previous work, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been used. In this study, two more hydrophilic quaternary amine surfactants, Berol R648 and Ethoquad C/12, were used and formed Pickering emulsions, which were more stable than the emulsions prepared using CTAB coated clay. The droplets were also more mono-disperse. The most hydrophilic surfactant Berol R648 stabilizes the emulsions best. Salt also plays an important role in forming a stable emulsion. The droplet size decreases with surfactant concentration and relatively mono-disperse droplets can be obtained at moderate surfactant concentrations. The time evolution of the droplet size indicates a good stability to coalescence in the presence of Berol R648. Using polarizing microscopy, the clay platelets were found to be lying flat at the water oil interface. However, a significant fraction (about 90%) of clay stayed in the water phase and the clay particles at the water-oil interface formed stacks, each consisting of four clay platelets on average.

  17. Impact of new-generation parenteral lipid emulsions in pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Steven A

    2013-09-01

    Advancements in the care of premature infants and infants with severe bowel disease have occurred in which long-term use of i.v. nutrition is a cornerstone of successful therapy. Concern about the role of i.v. lipid emulsions in causing severe liver damage to high-risk infants receiving long-term i.v. nutrition has led to a variety of intervention strategies. These have had relatively limited success until the recent introduction of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid-containing forms of lipid emulsions in place of the current omega-6 fatty acid-predominant lipid emulsions currently exclusively used in the United States. Preliminary data based on nonrandomized trials performed using compassionate-use protocols in the United States suggest very high rates of resolution of cholestasis with the use of an omega-3 fatty acid-predominant lipid emulsion. This result is supported by animal models of liver disease that demonstrate decreased liver damage when animals are provided omega-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions compared with those primarily omega-6 fatty acid based. However, human trials are limited at this time and further research is needed to establish the best approach to preventing liver damage in infants receiving i.v. nutrition and the optimal dose and timing of intervention with novel lipid emulsions.

  18. Effects of trans-4-(aminomethyl) cyclohexanecarboxylic acid/potassium azeloyl diglycinate/niacinamide topical emulsion in Thai adults with melasma: a single-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Viyoch, Jarupa; Tengamnuay, Isaree; Phetdee, Khemjira; Tuntijarukorn, Punpimol; Waranuch, Neti

    2010-01-01

    Background: Melasma is an acquired hyperpigmentary disorder characterized by dark patches or macules located on the cheeks, forehead, upper lip, chin, and neck. Treatment of melasma involves the use of topical hypopigmenting agents such as hydroquinone, tretinoin, and azelaic acid and its derivatives. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a formulation containing a combination of trans-4-(aminomethyl) cyclohexanecarboxylic acid/potassium azeloyl diglycinate/niacinamide compared with an emulsion-based control in the treatment of melasma in Thai adults. Methods: In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled study, Thai patients with mild to moderate facial melasma (relative melanin value [RMV] in range of 20–120) were randomized for the application of either the test or the emulsion-based (control) product in the morning and before bedtime for 8 weeks. The supplemental sunscreen product with sun protection factor 30 was distributed to all patients. Subjects were assessed for the intensity of their hyperpigmented skin area by measuring the difference in the absolute melanin value between hyperpigmented skin and normal skin (RMV). This parameter was used as a primary outcome of this study. Additionally, the severity of melasma was determined visually using the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scored independently by 3 investigators. The assessments of melasma intensity and other skin properties were performed before administration (week 0) and every 2 weeks thereafter for up to 8 weeks. Other skin properties, including moisture content, pH, and redness (erythema value), were measured. Adverse events (AEs), including erythema, scaling, and edema, were also assessed by a dermatologist using the visual grading scale of Frosch and Kligman and COLIPA. Results: The resulting primary intent-to-treat (ITT) population included 33 patients in the test group and 34 patients in the control group. Sixty patients completed all 8

  19. Comparison of bifidogenic growth stimulation activities of fermented whey prototypes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Gi-Seong

    2013-12-01

    Fermented whey solution presenting bifidogenic growth stimulation (BGS) activity was processed as prototypes such as sterilized fermented whey (SFW), spray-dried fermented whey (SDFW), and freeze-dried fermented whey (FDFW) and their BGS activities were compared. In optical density (OD600) test, the BGS activity of three prototypes, which showed similar activities, were significantly different with non-fermented whey solution adjusted to pH 4.5 as a control (P<0.05). In viable cell count test, SDFW had the most positive influence than other prototypes on the BGS activity even though the difference was not significant. However, the activities of all prototypes were significantly different than the negative control (no addition). These results indicate that the processed prototypes of fermented whey solution show BGS activities and might be commercialized, with further evidences, in animal or human studies.

  20. Identification of whey proteins in tradional Bulgarian yougurt.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, I; Antonova-Nikolova, S; Iliev, I

    2001-01-01

    Functional foods hold a great promise for future trends in human nutrition. Consumption of milk and milk products have a pronounced probiotic effects together with the expected modification of allergenic properties of milk due to the process of fermentation. The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria consists a cell wall bound proteinase and several intracellular peptidases, and can contribute to the liberation of bioactive peptides. Food-derived bioactive peptides are claimed to be health enhancing components which can be used for functional food. In our study we focused our attention on beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin in early stages of yogurt fermentation of traditional Bulgarian products. Biochemical techniques were used to measure the concentration of these two whey proteins during fermentation. At a result of the done study alteration in the concentration of beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin were detected. The studied proteolytic activity of the strains, used in the fermentation process confirmed the received results.

  1. Identification of bitter peptides in whey protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2014-06-25

    Bitterness of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) can negatively affect product quality and limit utilization in food and pharmaceutical applications. Four main bitter peptides were identified in a commercial WPH by means of sensory-guided fractionation techniques that included ultrafiltration and offline two-dimensional reverse phase chromatography. LC-TOF-MS/MS analysis revealed the amino acid sequences of the bitter peptides were YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN that originated from α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin, and β-casein, respectively. Quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis reported the concentrations of YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN to be 0.66, 0.58, 1.33, and 2.64 g/kg powder, respectively. Taste recombination analysis of an aqueous model consisting of all four peptides was reported to explain 88% of the bitterness intensity of the 10% WPH solution.

  2. Dynamics of Polydisperse Coarsening Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirenda, Nic; Hicock, Harry; Feitosa, Klebert; Crocker, John

    2014-03-01

    Soft glassy materials display complex fluid behavior characterized by a yield stress and distinctive elastic and viscous moduli. The complexity emerges from the disordered structure and interactions between the athermal particles. Here we study the dynamics of an optically clear and neutrally buoyantly emulsion whose droplets coarsen driven by Laplace pressure induced diffusion. The emulsion displays an anomalous loss modulus typical of coarsening foam systems. We use confocal microscopy to image the droplets, measure their size and centroid location, and track their evolution in time. The relaxation process of the coarsening emulsion is found to be marked by a continuous, slow structural evolution interspersed by sudden droplet swaps. We characterize the time scales of each process and the statistics of droplet rearrangements. We acknowledge support from Research Corporation and NSF-DMR-1229383.

  3. Effects of emulsion gels containing bioactive compounds on sensorial, technological, and structural properties of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Pintado, T; Herrero, A M; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Triki, M; Carmona, P; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2016-03-01

    Emulsion gels prepared with olive oil, chia, and cold gelling agents (transglutaminase, alginate, or gelatin) were used as fat replacers in reduced-fat frankfurter formulation. Nutritional advantages, sensory analysis, technological properties, and microbiological populations of frankfurters were evaluated along with their lipid structural characteristics over chilled storage. Frankfurters with emulsion gels showed significant improvements in fat content (lower saturated fatty acid, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents) and had good fat and water-binding properties. The presence of an emulsion gel reduced lightness and redness, but increased yellowness. Textural behavior of samples was significantly affected by the presence of emulsion gels and by storage. Sensory properties were not affected by the incorporation of emulsion gels, and all frankfurters were judged acceptable. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that samples with emulsion gels involve more lipid-protein interactions. Frankfurters with emulsion gels showed good stability to oxidation during storage and contained lower levels of microorganism than reduced-fat control at 85 days.

  4. Quantification of unadsorbed protein and surfactant emulsifiers in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Berton, Claire; Genot, Claude; Ropers, Marie-Hélène

    2011-02-15

    Unadsorbed emulsifiers affect the physical and chemical behaviour of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. A simple methodology to quantify unadsorbed emulsifiers in the aqueous phase of O/W emulsions has been developed. Emulsions were centrifuged and filtered to separate the aqueous phase from the oil droplets and the concentration of unadsorbed emulsifiers in the aqueous phase determined. The quantification of unadsorbed surfactants based on the direct transesterification of their fatty acids was validated for Tween 20, Tween 80, citric acid ester (Citrem), Span 20 and monolauroyl glycerol. To determine unadsorbed proteins, results obtained with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent or UV-spectrophotometry were compared on emulsions stabilized by β-lactoglobulin (BLG), β-casein (BCN) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). The first method gave more accurate results especially during aging of emulsions in oxidative conditions. The whole methodology was applied to emulsions stabilized with single or mixed emulsifiers. This approach enables optimization of emulsion formulations and could be useful to follow changes in the levels of unadsorbed emulsifiers during physical or chemical aging processes.

  5. Lipid emulsions – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 6

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, M.; Heller, A. R.; Koch, T.; Koletzko, B.; Kreymann, K. G.; Krohn, K.; Pscheidl, E.; Senkal, M.

    2009-01-01

    The infusion of lipid emulsions allows a high energy supply, facilitates the prevention of high glucose infusion rates and is indispensable for the supply with essential fatty acids. The administration of lipid emulsions is recommended within ≤7 days after starting PN (parenteral nutrition) to avoid deficiency of essential fatty acids. Low-fat PN with a high glucose intake increases the risk of hyperglycaemia. In parenterally fed patients with a tendency to hyperglycaemia, an increase in the lipid-glucose ratio should be considered. In critically ill patients the glucose infusion should not exceed 50% of energy intake. The use of lipid emulsions with a low phospholipid/triglyceride ratio is recommended and should be provided with the usual PN to prevent depletion of essential fatty acids, lower the risk of hyperglycaemia, and prevent hepatic steatosis. Biologically active vitamin E (α-tocopherol) should continuously be administered along with lipid emulsions to reduce lipid peroxidation. Parenteral lipids should provide about 25–40% of the parenteral non-protein energy supply. In certain situations (i.e. critically ill, respiratory insufficiency) a lipid intake of up to 50 or 60% of non-protein energy may be reasonable. The recommended daily dose for parenteral lipids in adults is 0.7–1.3 g triglycerides/kg body weight. Serum triglyceride concentrations should be monitored regularly with dosage reduction at levels >400 mg/dl (>4.6 mmol/l) and interruption of lipid infusion at levels >1000 mg/dl (>11.4 mmol/l). There is little evidence at this time that the choice of different available lipid emulsions affects clinical endpoints. PMID:20049078

  6. Chemical and functional properties of glycomacropeptide (GMP) and its role in the detection of cheese whey adulteration in milk: a review.

    PubMed

    Neelima; Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir Singh; Mann, Bimlesh

    2013-01-01

    Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a C-terminal part (f 106-169) of kappa-casein which is released in whey during cheese making by the action of chymosin. GMP being a biologically active component has gained much attention in the past decade. It also has unique chemical and functional properties. Many of the biological properties have been ascribed to the carbohydrate moieties attached to the peptide. The unique set of amino acids in GMP makes it a sought-after ingredient with nutraceutical properties. Besides its biological activity, GMP has several interesting techno-functional properties such as wide pH range solubility, emulsifying properties as well as foaming abilities which are shown to be promising for applications in food and nutrition industry. These properties of GMP have given new dimension for the profitable utilization of cheese whey to the dairy industry. A number of protocols for isolation of GMP from cheese whey have been reported. Moreover, its role in detection of sweet/rennet whey adulteration in milk and milk products has also attracted attention of various researchers, and many GMP-specific analytical methods have been proposed. This review discusses the chemico-functional properties of GMP and its role in the detection methods for checking cheese or sweet whey adulteration in milk. Recent concepts used in the isolation of GMP from cheese whey have also been discussed.

  7. Sensory, functional, and analytical comparisons of whey butter with other butters.

    PubMed

    Jinjarak, S; Olabi, A; Jiménez-Flores, R; Walker, J H

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the sensory attributes of whey (WB), cultured (CB), and regular sweet cream (SB) unsalted butters produced at the Dairy Products Technology Center (experimental; n = 3) or obtained from commercial sources (n = 6). Nine judges were trained for nine 1-h sessions; they then rated samples on a 15-cm line scale in triplicate using descriptive analysis. Data obtained were analyzed using SAS statistical software. Significant differences between the 3 types of butters were obtained on yellow, shiny, acidic odor, melt rate, porous, hard, spreadable, cheese odor, mouthcoating, nutty, cardboard odors, acidic, nutty, diacetyl, and grassy flavors. Cultured butter and SB were significantly shinier than WB. Whey butter was more yellow than CB, which in turn was more yellow than SB. Whey butter was more porous, and had higher scores on nutty flavor and cardboard odor than SB and CB. Sweet cream butter was significantly harder than CB but not WB. Cultured butter had more mouthcoating, acidic odor and flavor, and grassy flavor than SB and WB. The commercial samples were more porous, crumbly, and had significantly more artificial butter odor, rancid odor, and flavor. Results from principal component analysis indicated that experimental WB and SB were similar and were characterized by a sweet taste. Whey butter's characteristics compared favorably with commercial CB and were very similar to sweet cream butter. No major significant differences were obtained for triangle tests, with the exception of that for WB and CB in pound cake. No significant differences were obtained for the acceptability of the different versions of any of the 3 foods.

  8. Effect of inorganic additives on solutions of nonionic surfactants V: Emulsion stability.

    PubMed

    Schott, H; Royce, A E

    1983-12-01

    Electrolytes often break emulsions to which they were added as active ingredients, adjuvants, or impurities. The stability of oil-in-water emulsions containing octoxynol 9 NF as the emulsifier and various added electrolytes was investigated by measuring droplet size, turbidity, and oil separation on storage at various temperatures and in a centrifugal field at 25 degrees. Electrolytes were added to hexadecane emulsions after emulsification (direct addition); alternatively, hexadecane was emulsified in octoxynol 9-electrolyte mixtures (reverse addition). Xylene emulsions were prepared by direct addition only. Hexadecane emulsions containing 0.10% octoxynol 9 were considerably more stable than xylene emulsions containing 0.60% because the surfactant is practically insoluble in hexadecane, but miscible in all proportions with xylene. An emulsifier soluble in the disperse phase as well as the continuous phase evidently forms less stable interfacial films. The electrolytes investigated were sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, magnesium nitrate, and aluminum nitrate, which salt octoxynol 9 in by complexation between its ether groups and their cations; sodium thiocyanate, which salts the surfactant in by destructuring water; and sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, which salt octoxynol 9 out. The addition of these electrolytes at concentrations up to 2 or 3 m to hexadecane emulsions produced fast and extensive creaming, little or no flocculation, no coalescence, and only minor changes in droplet size or turbidity on storage at room temperature. The extent of coalescence during centrifugation was actually reduced by the additives. Such stability is unusual. Droplet size and turbidity depended mainly on octoxynol 9 concentration. The greatest decrease in the former and increase in the latter occurred when the concentration was increased from 0.10 to approximately 0.4%. All emulsions became slightly coarser on storage at 25 degrees. Stability at 50 degrees was impaired by

  9. Analysis of materials in a scaled-up, pilot plant fermentation of cheese whey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulah, Seraj; Fairbrother, P.; George, William O.; Williams, Jill M.

    1994-01-01

    A series of batch fermentations of cheese whey using Lactobacillus helveticus 8652 were monitored both off-line and on-line by FT-IR using a CIRCLE cell (Spectra-Tech, Warrington). The levels of substrate (lactose) and product (lactic acid) were continuously measured over a period of 48 h. Measurements were made on a Perkin Elmer 1760 FT-IR spectrometer using the QUANT software. Fifteen calibration solutions of lactose and lactic acid were used and the method tested with validation solutions of known composition. Mean errors of 1.1% and 0.9% w/v were calculated for lactose and lactic acid respectively.

  10. Emulsion Droplet Combustion in Microgravity: Water/Heptane Emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    This presentation reviews a series of experiments to further examine parametric effects on sooting processes of droplet flames in microgravity. The particular focus is on a fuel droplet emulsified with water, specifically emulsions of n-heptane as the fuel-phase and water as the dispersed phase. Water was selected as the additive because of its anticipated effect on soot formation, and the heptane fuel phase was chosen to theoretically reduce the likelihood of microexplosions because its boiling point is nearly the same as that of water: 100 C for water and 98 C for heptane. The water content was varied while the initial droplet diameter was kept within a small range. The experiments were carried out in microgravity to reduce the effects of buoyancy and to promote spherical symmetry in the burning process. Spherically symmetric droplet burning is a convenient starting point for analysis, but experimental data are difficult to obtain for this situation as evidenced by the fact that no quantitative data have been reported on unsupported emulsion droplet combustion in a convection-free environment. The present study improves upon past work carried out on emulsion droplet combustion in microgravity which employed emulsion droplets suspended from a fiber. The fiber can be instrusive to the emulsion droplet burning process as it can promote coalescence of the dispersed water phase and heterogeneous nucleation on the fiber. Prior work has shown that the presence of water in liquid hydrocarbons can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the combustion process. Water is known to reduce soot formation and radiation heat transfer to combustor walls Gollahalli (1979) reduce flame temperatures and thereby NOx emissions, and encourage secondary droplet atomization or microexplosion. Water also tends to retard ignition and and promote early extinction. The former effect restricted the range of water volume fractions as discussed below.

  11. Whey protein concentrate market enhancement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, L.

    1982-09-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was studied to see whether or not there was sufficient depth in the marketplace to accommodate increased WPC production in the event more whey was converted into alcohol. It was concluded that the current market for WPC is still immature and ample room exists in the marketplace to produce and dispose of WPC. In addition, WPC literature was reviewed so as to evaluate the current state of the art producing WPC. Considerable evidence suggests that more product formulation work is needed to move WPC into the general marketplace. Concurrent to the market and ltierature study WPC was incorporated into select categories of foods where finished goods were enhanced by having WPC incorporated in their formulations. Formulations were produced to demonstrate the fact that products such as ice cream, breedings and batters for fish sticks, and orange juice can be enhanced by using WPC.

  12. Purification of RNA from milk whey.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hirohisa; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Shimizu, Takashi; Sekine, Kazunori; Ochiya, Takahiro; Takase, Mitsunori

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNA molecules that modulate specific target mRNAs and play very important roles in physiological processes. They were recently detected in body fluids such as blood, urine, saliva, and milk. These body fluid miRNAs have been studied thoroughly as potential diagnostic biomarkers. However, there have been few studies of milk miRNAs, and their roles are not clearly understood. Milk is the only nutritional source for newborn infants, and bovine milk is used widely as a dairy product. Thus, it is important to study milk miRNAs. In general, body fluid RNA concentrations are extremely low and of diverse existence types. In this chapter, we compare two silica membrane column-based RNA purification kits, and also compare RNA obtained directly from whey with that isolated from whey-derived exosomes.

  13. Whey fermentation by anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens for production of a succinate-based animal feed additive

    PubMed

    Samuelov; Datta; Jain; Zeikus

    1999-05-01

    Anaerobic fermentation processes for the production of a succinate-rich animal feed supplement from raw whey were investigated with batch, continuous, and variable-volume fed-batch cultures with Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens. The highest succinate yield, 90%, was obtained in a variable-volume fed-batch process in comparison to 80% yield in a batch cultivation mode. In continuous culture, succinate productivity was 3 g/liter/h, and the yield was 60%. Under conditions of excess CO2, more than 90% of the whey-lactose was consumed, with an end product ratio of 4 succinate to 1 acetate. Under conditions of limited CO2, lactose was only partially consumed and lactate was the major end product, with lower levels of ethanol, succinate, and acetate. When the succinic acid in this fermentation product was added to rumen fluid, it was completely consumed by a mixed rumen population and was 90% decarboxylated to propionate on a molar basis. The whey fermentation product formed under excess CO2, which contained mainly organic acids and cells, could potentially be used as an animal feed supplement.

  14. Whey fermentation by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens for production of a succinate-based animal feed additive

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelov, N.S.; Datta, R.; Jain, M.K. |; Zeikus, J.G. |

    1999-05-01

    Anaerobic fermentation processes for the production of a succinate-rich animal feed supplement from raw whey were investigated with batch, continuous, and variable-volume fed-batch cultures with Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens. The highest succinate yield, 90%, was obtained in a variable-volume fed-batch process in comparison to 80% yield in a batch cultivation mode. In continuous culture, succinate productivity was 3 g/liter/h, and the yield was 60%. Under conditions of excess CO{sub 2}, more than 90% of the whey-lactose was consumed, with an end product ratio of 4 succinate to 1 acetate. Under conditions of limited CO{sub 2}, lactose was only partially consumed and lactate was the major end product, with lower levels of ethanol, succinate, and acetate. When the succinic acid in this fermentation product was added to rumen fluid, it was completely consumed by a mixed rumen population and was 90% decarboxylated to propionate on a molar basis. The whey fermentation product formed under excess CO{sub 2}, which contained mainly organic acids and cells, could potentially be used as an animal feed supplement.

  15. Preparation and characterization of whey protein hydrolysates: applications in industrial whey bioconversion processes.

    PubMed

    Perea, A; Ugalde, U; Rodriguez, I; Serra, J L

    1993-05-01

    A whey protein hydrolysate was prepared by incubation of reconstituted whey or a whey protein concentrate with Alcalase 0.6L. The proteolytic degradation of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin initially resulted in 6-kDa and, later, 2.5-kDa degradation products, quickly followed by the appearance of multiple peptides of 1 kDa or smaller. The hydrolysate showed a steady increase in solubility and a biphasic change in foaming characteristics with decreasing peptide size. At the highest degree of hydrolysis achieved (22%), the majority of the peptides were smaller than 1 kDa and could be efficiently assimilated by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus growing in a defined medium.

  16. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  17. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  18. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of ‘minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions. PMID:26797564

  19. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of `minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions.

  20. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Bassan, Juliana C.; Goulart, Antonio J.; Nasser, Ana L. M.; Bezerra, Thaís M. S.; Garrido, Saulo S.; Rustiguel, Cynthia B.; Guimarães, Luis H. S.; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey. PMID:26465145

  1. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bassan, Juliana C; Goulart, Antonio J; Nasser, Ana L M; Bezerra, Thaís M S; Garrido, Saulo S; Rustiguel, Cynthia B; Guimarães, Luis H S; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey.

  2. Flavor and Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Isolates from Different Whey Sources.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated flavor and functional characteristics of whey protein isolates (WPIs) from Cheddar, Mozzarella, Cottage cheese, and rennet casein whey. WPIs were manufactured in triplicate. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Functional properties were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, heat stability, and protein solubility. WPI from Cheddar and Cottage cheese whey had the highest cardboard flavor, whereas sweet aromatic flavor was highest in Mozzarella WPI, and rennet casein WPI had the lowest overall flavor and aroma. Distinct sour taste and brothy/potato flavor were also noted in WPI from Cottage cheese whey. Consistent with sensory results, aldehyde concentrations were also highest in Cheddar and Cottage cheese WPI. Overrun, yield stress, and foam stability were not different (P > 0.05) among Cheddar, Mozzarella, and rennet casein WPI, but WPI foams from Cottage cheese whey had a lower overrun and air-phase fraction (P < 0.05). Cottage cheese WPI was more heat stable at pH 7 (P < 0.05) than other WPI in 4% protein solutions, and was the only WPI to not gel at 10% protein. Cottage cheese WPI was less soluble at pH 4.6 compared to other WPI (P < 0.05) and also exhibited higher turbidity loss at pH 3 to 7 compared to other WPI (P < 0.05). This study suggests that WPI produced from nontraditional whey sources could be used in new applications due to distinct functional and flavor characteristics.

  3. Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin-Gelatin Colloidal Complexes on Stability and in Vitro Digestion of Fish Oil Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Chao, An-Chong; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Tsai, Min-Lang; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2015-11-25

    The colloidal complexes composed of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) and gelatin (GLT), as natural antioxidants to improve stability and inhibit lipid oxidation in menhaden fish oil emulsions, were evaluated. The interactions between GSP and GLT, and the chemical structures of GSP/GLT self-assembled colloidal complexes, were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Fish oil was emulsified with GLT to obtain an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. After formation of the emulsion, GLT was fixed by GSP to obtain the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes stabilized fish oil emulsion. Menhaden oil emulsified by GSP/GLT(0.4 wt %) colloidal complexes yielded an emulsion with smaller particles and higher emulsion stability as compared to its GLT emulsified counterpart. The GSP/GLT colloidal complexes inhibited the lipid oxidation in fish oil emulsions more effectively than free GLT because the emulsified fish oil was surrounded by the antioxidant GSP/GLT colloidal complexes. The digestion rate of the fish oil emulsified with the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes was reduced as compared to that emulsified with free GLT. The extent of free fatty acids released from the GSP/GLT complexes stabilized fish oil emulsions was 63.3% under simulated digestion condition, indicating that the fish oil emulsion was considerably hydrolyzed with lipase.

  4. Gelling properties of microparticulated whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Muditha; Kelly, Alan L; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2010-06-09

    Subjecting whey proteins to high-pressure shearing with or without heating, commonly termed microparticulation, results in novel ingredients with modulated functionalities. Gelling properties of microparticulated whey proteins (MWP) were specifically assessed in this study. MWP powders were produced from commercial cheese whey retentate, standardized to 10% (w/w) protein, and subjected to microfluidization (MFZ) at 140 MPa either with or without prior heat-induced denaturation, followed by spray-drying. Gels were created from aqueous MWP dispersions either by heating at 90 degrees C for 20 min or by allowing gels to form at ambient temperature through addition of glucano-delta-lactone and/or NaCl. MWP powders produced from unheated WP dispersions created firm gels upon heating, whereas those produced from denatured WP gave only cold-set gels. Covalent and noncovalent protein-protein interactions were involved during both heat- and cold-induced gelation. Hydrophobic interactions were more pronounced during aggregation of bovine serum albumin. In conclusion, microparticulation of WP resulted in heat- and cold-set gels with different molecular and physical characteristics from those of untreated controls.

  5. The emulsion chamber technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Photographic emulsion has the unique property of recording tracks of ionizing particles with a spatial precision of 1 micron, while also being capable of deployment over detector areas of square meters or 10's of square meters. Detectors are passive, their cost to fly in Space is a fraction of that of instruments of similar collecting. A major problem in their continued use has been the labor intensiveness of data retrieval by traditional microscope methods. Two factors changing the acceptability of emulsion technology in space are the astronomical costs of flying large electronic instruments such as ionization calorimeters in Space, and the power and low cost of computers, a small revolution in the laboratory microscope data-taking. Our group at UAH made measurements of the high energy composition and spectra of cosmic rays. The Marshall group has also specialized in space radiation dosimetry. Ionization calorimeters, using alternating layers of lead and photographic emulsion, to measure particle energies up to 10(exp 15) eV were developed. Ten balloon flights were performed with them. No such calorimeters have ever flown in orbit. In the ECT program, a small emulsion chamber was developed and will be flown on the Shuttle mission OAST-2 to resolve the principal technological questions concerning space exposures. These include assessments of: (1) pre-flight and orbital exposure to background radiation, including both self-shielding and secondary particle generation; the practical limit to exposure time in space can then be determined; (2) dynamics of stack to optimize design for launch and weightlessness; and (3) thermal and vacuum constraints on emulsion performance. All these effects are cumulative and affect our ability to perform scientific measurements but cannot be adequately predicted by available methods.

  6. Proteolysis on Reggianito Argentino cheeses manufactured with natural whey cultures and selected strains of Lactobacillus helveticus.

    PubMed

    Hynes, E R; Bergamini, C V; Suárez, V B; Zalazar, C A

    2003-12-01

    Reggianito Argentino cheese is traditionally manufactured with whey starter cultures that provide typical and intense flavor but can cause poor quality standardization. In this study, the influence of natural and selected starters on Reggianito Argentino cheese proteolysis was investigated. Cheeses were manufactured with three strains of Lactobacillus helveticus (SF133, SF138 and SF209) cultured individually in sterile whey and used as single or mixed starters. Control cheeses were made with natural whey starter culture. Cheeses were analyzed to determine gross composition, as well as total thermophilic lactic flora. Proteolysis was assessed by N fractions, electrophoresis and liquid chromatography. Gross composition of the cheeses did not significantly differ, while viable starter cell counts were lower for cheeses made with strain SF209 alone or combined with other strains. Soluble N at pH 4.6 was the same for cheeses made with natural or selected starters, but soluble N in 12% trichloroacetic acid and 2.5% phosphotungstic acid was significantly higher in cheeses made with starters containing strain SF209. Nitrogen fractions results indicated that natural whey starter cultures could be replaced by several starters composed of the selected strains without significant changes to proteolysis patterns. Starter cultures prepared only with SF209 or with the three selected L. helveticus strains produced cheese products with significantly more proteolysis than control cheeses. Chromatographic profiles analyzed by principal components showed that three main peaks on chromatograms, presumptively identified as Tyr, Phe, and Trp, explained most of variability. Principal component scores indicated that cheese samples were grouped by ripening time, which was confirmed by linear discriminant analysis. On the contrary, samples did not cluster by Lactobacillus strain or type of starter.

  7. Effect of bleaching whey on sensory and functional properties of 80% whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Jervis, S; Campbell, R; Wojciechowski, K L; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2012-06-01

    Whey is a highly functional food that has found widespread use in a variety of food and beverage applications. A large amount of the whey proteins produced in the United States is derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Color from annatto is undesirable in whey and must be bleached. The objective of this study was to compare 2 commercially approved bleaching agents, benzoyl peroxide (BP) and hydrogen peroxide (HP), and their effects on the flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). Colored and uncolored liquid wheys were bleached with BP or HP, and then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried; WPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored Cheddar whey were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. The WPC80 were then assessed by sensory, instrumental, functionality, color, and proximate analysis techniques. The HP-bleached WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (specifically hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, dimethyl disulfide, and 1-octen-3-one) and had higher fatty and cardboard flavors compared with the other unbleached and BP-bleached WPC80. The WPC80 bleached with BP had lower norbixin concentrations compared with WPC80 bleached with HP. The WPC powders differed in Hunter color values (L, a, b), with bleached powders being more white, less red, and less yellow than unbleached powders. Bleaching with BP under the conditions used in this study resulted in larger reductions in yellowness of the powders made from whey with annatto color than did bleaching with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that whey bleached with HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10 min of heating at 90°C at pH 4.6 and pH 7 than the no-bleach and BP treatments, regardless of additional color. Overall, HP bleaching caused more lipid oxidation products and subsequent off-flavors compared with BP bleaching. However, heat stability of WPC80 was enhanced by HP bleaching compared with control or BP

  8. Influence of Bovine Whey Protein Concentrate and Hydrolysate Preparation Methods on Motility in the Isolated Rat Distal Colon.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Julie E; Anderson, Rachel C; Bassett, Shalome A; Lloyd-West, Catherine M; Haggarty, Neill W; Roy, Nicole C

    2016-12-14

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response.

  9. Influence of Bovine Whey Protein Concentrate and Hydrolysate Preparation Methods on Motility in the Isolated Rat Distal Colon

    PubMed Central

    Dalziel, Julie E.; Anderson, Rachel C.; Bassett, Shalome A.; Lloyd-West, Catherine M.; Haggarty, Neill W.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response. PMID:27983629

  10. Effects of visible and UV light on the characteristics and properties of crude oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions.

    PubMed

    Genuino, Homer C; Horvath, Dayton T; King'ondu, Cecil K; Hoag, George E; Collins, John B; Suib, Steven L

    2012-04-01

    The effects of visible and UV light on the characteristics and properties of Prudhoe Bay (PB) and South Louisiana (SL) emulsions were investigated to better understand the role of sunlight on the fate of spilled crude oils that form emulsions with a dispersant in the aquatic environment. Before irradiation, crude oil emulsions showed the presence of dispersed crude oil micelles in a continuous water phase and crude oil components floating on the surface. The crude oil micelles decreased in size with irradiation, but emulsions retained their high degree of polydispersity. UV irradiation reduced the stability of emulsions more effectively than visible light. The reduction of micelles size caused the viscosity of emulsions to increase and melting point to decrease. Further, irradiation increased acid concentrations and induced ion formation which lowered the pH and increased the conductivity of emulsions, respectively. Ni and Fe in PB emulsions were extracted from crude oil with UV irradiation, which may provide an efficient process for metal removal. The emulsions were stable toward freeze/thaw cycles and their melting temperatures generally decreased with irradiation. Evidence of ˙OH production existed when emulsions were exposed to UV but not to visible light. The presence of H(2)O(2) enhanced the photodegradation of crude oil. Overall, the changes in emulsion properties were attributed to direct photodegradation and photooxidation of crude oil components.

  11. Properties and stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by coconut skim milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Onsaard, Ekasit; Vittayanont, Manee; Srigam, Sukoncheun; McClements, D Julian

    2005-07-13

    Protein fractions were isolated from coconut: coconut skim milk protein isolate (CSPI) and coconut skim milk protein concentrate (CSPC). The ability of these proteins to form and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions was compared with that of whey protein isolate (WPI). The solubility of the proteins in CSPI, CSPC, and WPI was determined in aqueous solutions containing 0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl from pH 3 to 8. In the absence of salt, the minimum protein solubility occurred between pH 4 and 5 for CSPI and CSPC and around pH 5 for WPI. In the presence of salt (100 and 200 mM NaCl), all proteins had a higher solubility than in distilled water. Corn oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt %) with relatively small droplet diameters (d32 approximately 0.46, 1.0, and 0.5 mum for CSPI, CSPC, and WPI, respectively) could be produced using 0.2 wt % protein fraction. Emulsions were prepared with different pH values (3-8), salt concentrations (0-500 mM NaCl), and thermal treatments (30-90 degrees C for 30 min), and the mean particle diameter, particle size distribution, zeta-potential, and creaming stability were measured. Considerable droplet flocculation occurred in the emulsions near the isoelectric point of the proteins: CSPI, pH approximately 4.0; CSPC, pH approximately 4.5; WPI, pH approximately 4.8. Emulsions with monomodal particle size distributions, small mean droplet diameters, and good creaming stability could be produced at pH 7 for CSPI and WPI, whereas CSPC produced bimodal distributions. The CSPI and WPI emulsions remained relatively stable to droplet aggregation and creaming at NaCl concentrations of < or =50 and < or =100 mM, respectively. In the absence salt, the CSPI and WPI emulsions were also stable to thermal treatments at < or =80 and < or =90 degrees C for 30 min, respectively. These results suggest that CSPI may be suitable for use as an emulsifier in the food industry.

  12. Treatment of acid mine drainage with anaerobic solid-substrate reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, W.J.

    1999-10-01

    Anaerobic solid-substrate reactors were used in a laboratory study of acid mine drainage treatment. Parallel systems were run continuously for 23 months, both containing a solid substrate of 2:1 (weight) cow manure and sawdust. One system had cheese whey added with the mine drainage to provide an additional electron donor source to simulate sulfate-reducing bacteria activity. Effluent pH from the reactor with whey addition was relatively constant at 6.5. Effluent pH from the reactor without whey addition dropped over time from 6.7 to approximately 5.5. Whey addition increased effluent alkalinity [550 to 700 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) versus 50 to 300 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}] and sulfate removal (98 to 80% versus 60 to 40%). Sulfate removal rate with whey addition decreased over time from 250 to 120 mmol/m{sup 3}{center{underscore}dot}d, whereas it decreased from 250 to 40 mmol/m{sup 3}{center{underscore}dot}d without whey addition. Whey addition increased removal of dissolved iron, dissolved manganese, and dissolved zinc in the second part of the experiment. Copper and cadmium removals were greater than 99%, and arsenic removal was 84% without whey addition and 89% with whey addition. Effluent sulfide concentrations were approximately 1 order of magnitude greater with whey addition. A 63-day period of excessive loading permanently decreased treatment efficiency without whey addition.

  13. Pharmaceutical emulsions: a new approach for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Verissimo, Lourena Mafra; Lima, Lucymara Fassarela Agnez; Egito, Lucila Carmem Monte; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, E Sócrates Tabosa

    2010-06-01

    The concept of gene therapy involves the experimental transfer of a therapeutic gene into an individual's cells and tissues to replace an abnormal gene aiming to treat a disease, or to use the gene to treat a disease just like a medicine, improving the clinical status of a patient. The achievement of a foreigner nucleic acid into a population of cells requires its transfer to the target. Therefore, it is essential to create carriers (vectors) that transfer and protect the nucleic acid until it reaches the target. The obvious disadvantages of the use of viral vectors have directed the research for the development of a nonviral organized system such as emulsions. In fact, recently, there has been an increase of interest in its use in biotechnology as a nonviral vector for gene therapy. This review focuses on the progress of cationic emulsions and the improvement of the formulations, as a potential delivery system for gene therapy.

  14. Folate ligand anchored liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion for in vitro detection of KB cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong H; Gupta, Kailash C; Borah, Jyoti S; Park, Soo-Young; Kim, Young-Kyoo; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-09-09

    A KB cancer cell-selective, liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion is prepared using folic acid-conjugated block copolymers (PS-b-PAA-FA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a mediator to induce configurational transitions in 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion. The prepared liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion has shown a configurational transition from radial to bipolar on interacting with KB cancer cells, but no transition from radial to bipolar configuration is observed when liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion was allowed to interact with other normal cells such as fibroblast and osteoblast. The KB cancer cell selectivity of liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion has been considered due to the presence of KB cancer cell folate receptor-specific ligand (FA) at the surface of liquid crystal microdroplets, which allowed liquid crystal microdroplets to interact specifically with KB cancer cells. The ligand-receptor interactions have been considered responsible for triggering the configurational transitions from radial to bipolar in liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion. Thus, folate ligand anchored liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion has shown a potential to be used for in vitro detection of KB cancer cells in the early stage of tumor development.

  15. Effects of intravenous triacylglycerol emulsions on hepatic metabolism and blood metabolites in fasted dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mashek, D G; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of intravenous infusion of triacylglycerol (TAG) emulsions derived from different lipid sources on energy metabolism during a 4-d fast. Six nonpregnant, nonlactating multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square design. Treatments included intravenous infusion of tallow, linseed oil, or fish oil emulsions at a rate of 0.54 g of TAG/kg of body weight per day; infusions were concurrent with a 4-d fast. The emulsions were administered for 20 to 30 min every 4 h throughout the 4-d fast. Cows were fed ad libitum for 24 d between the fast/infusion periods. Infusion of tallow, linseed oil, or fish oil emulsions increased plasma concentrations of palmitic acid, linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, respectively. Infusion of linseed oil emulsion decreased plasma TAG concentrations compared with tallow and fish oil treatments, which were similar. Infusion of the tallow emulsion resulted in the highest concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), insulin, and glucose, whereas the infusion derived from linseed oil had the lowest NEFA and beta-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations. The different TAG emulsions had no effect on total or peroxisomal oxidation of [1-(14C)]oleic acid in liver homogenates. Liver TAG content increased 12.0, 7.8, and 14.1 microg/microg of DNA during the fast for tallow, linseed oil, and fish oil treatments, respectively; linseed oil was different from fish oil and tended to be different from tallow.

  16. Biofilm Formation in Microscopic Double Emulsion Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Connie; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    In natural, medical, and industrial settings, there exist surface-associated communities of bacteria known as biofilms. These highly structured films are composed of bacterial cells embedded within self-produced extracellular matrix, usually composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids; this matrix serves to protect the bacterial community from antibiotics and environmental stressors. Here, we form biofilms encapsulated within monodisperse, microscopically-sized double emulsion droplets using microfluidics. The bacteria self-organize at the inner liquid-liquid droplet interfaces, multiply, and differentiate into extracellular matrix-producing cells, forming manifold three-dimensional shell-within-a-shell structures of biofilms, templated upon the inner core of spherical liquid droplets. By using microfluidics to encapsulate bacterial cells, we have the ability to view individual cells multiplying in microscopically-sized droplets, which allows for high-throughput analysis in studying the genetic program leading to biofilm development, or cell signaling that induces differentiation.

  17. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  18. Analysis of emulsion stability in acrylic dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2012-02-01

    Emulsions either micro or nano permit transport or solubilization of hydrophobic substances within a water-based phase. Different methods have been introduced at laboratory and industrial scales: mechanical stirring, high-pressure homogenization, or ultrasonics. In digital imaging, toners may be formed by aggregating a colorant with a latex polymer formed by batch or semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. Latex emulsions are prepared by making a monomer emulsion with monomer like Beta-carboxy ethyl acrylate (β-CEA) and stirring at high speed with an anionic surfactant like branched sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonates , aqueous solution until an emulsion is formed. Initiator for emulsion polymerization is 2-2'- azobis isobutyramide dehydrate with chain transfer agent are used to make the latex. If the latex emulsion is unstable, the resulting latexes produce a toner with larger particle size, broader particle size distribution with relatively higher latex sedimentation, and broader molecular weight distribution. Oswald ripening and coalescence cause droplet size to increase and can result in destabilization of emulsions. Shear thinning and elasticity of emulsions are applied to determine emulsion stability.

  19. Dynamic modeling of in vitro lipid digestion: individual fatty acid release and bioaccessibility kinetics.

    PubMed

    Giang, T M; Gaucel, S; Brestaz, P; Anton, M; Meynier, A; Trelea, I C; Le Feunteun, S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the role of triacylglycerol (TAG) composition in fatty acids (FA) of o/w emulsions on both the pancreatic lipolysis kinetics and the bioaccessibility of released products (i.e. contained within the bile salt micellar phase). A mathematical model was developed and its predictions were compared to a set of experimental data obtained during an in vitro digestion of a whey protein stabilized emulsion. Modeling results show that FA residues of TAG were hydrolyzed at specific rates, inducing different bioaccessibility kinetics. The estimated lipolysis rate constants of the studied FA (C8:0, C10:0≫C18:1 n-9≫C12:0>C14:0>C16:0≈C16:1 n-7>C22:6 n-3) were in close agreement with the available literature on the substrate specificity of pancreatic lipase. Results also suggest that lipolysis products are very rapidly solubilized in the bile salt mixed micelles with no fractionation according to the FA carbon chain.

  20. Effect of pH and lactose concentration on solvent production from whey permeate using Clostridium acetobutylicum

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, B.M.; Maddox, I.S.

    1987-02-20

    A study was performed to optimize the production of solvents from whey permeate in batch fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. Fermentations performed at relatively low pH values resulted in high solvent yields and productivities, but lactose utilization was incomplete. At higher pH values, lactose-utilization was improved but acid production dominated over solvent production. When operating at the higher pH values, an increase in the initial lactose concentration of the whey permeate resulted in lower rates of lactose utilization, and this was accompanied by increased solvent production and decreased acid production. Analysis of data from several experiments revealed a strong inverse relationship between solvent yield and lactose utilization rate. Thus, conditions which minimize the lactose utilization rate such as low culture pH values or high initial lactose concentrations, favor solventogenesis at the expense of acid production. 12 references.

  1. Compartmentalization of incompatible reagents within Pickering emulsion droplets for one-pot cascade reactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hengquan; Fu, Luman; Wei, Lijuan; Liang, Jifen; Binks, Bernard P

    2015-01-28

    It is a dream that future synthetic chemistry can mimic living systems to process multistep cascade reactions in a one-pot fashion. One of the key challenges is the mutual destruction of incompatible or opposing reagents, for example, acid and base, oxidants and reductants. A conceptually novel strategy is developed here to address this challenge. This strategy is based on a layered Pickering emulsion system, which is obtained through lamination of Pickering emulsions. In this working Pickering emulsion, the dispersed phase can separately compartmentalize the incompatible reagents to avoid their mutual destruction, while the continuous phase allows other reagent molecules to diffuse freely to access the compartmentalized reagents for chemical reactions. The compartmentalization effects and molecular transport ability of the Pickering emulsion were investigated. The deacetalization-reduction, deacetalization-Knoevenagel, deacetalization-Henry and diazotization-iodization cascade reactions demonstrate well the versatility and flexibility of our strategy in processing the one-pot cascade reactions involving mutually destructive reagents.

  2. Preparation and characterization of narrow sized (o/w) magnetic emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagne, F.; Mondain-Monval, O.; Pichot, C.; Mozzanega, H.; Elaı̈ssari, A.

    2002-09-01

    The preparation of well-defined (o/w) magnetic emulsions from an organic ferrofluid is reported. The ferrofluid synthesis is first described and a complete characterization is achieved by using numerous techniques. The ferrofluid is found to be composed of superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles, with a diameter below 10 nm, stabilized in octane by a surrounding oleic acid layer. This magnetic fluid is then emulsified in aqueous media in order to obtain stable ferrofluid droplets. The use of a couette mixer and a size sorting step under magnetic field allowed to produce magnetic emulsion with a narrow size distribution. Morphology and chemical composition of the magnetic emulsion are investigated. Magnetic properties of both ferrofluid and magnetic emulsion are also compared and discussed. In particular, it is showed that the superparamagnetic behavior is still observed after the emulsification process.

  3. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  4. Partial Molecular Characterization of Arctium minus Aspartylendopeptidase and Preparation of Bioactive Peptides by Whey Protein Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Cecilia V; Colombo, María Laura; Liggieri, Constanza; Bruno, Mariela; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we report the cloning of an aspartic protease (AP) from flowers of Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. (Asteraceae) along with the use of depigmented aqueous flower extracts, as a source of APs, for the hydrolysis of whey proteins. The isolated cDNA encoded a protein product with 509 amino acids called arctiumisin, with the characteristic primary structure organization of typical plant APs. Bovine whey protein hydrolysates, obtained employing the enzyme extracts of A. minus flowers, displayed inhibitory angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and antioxidant activities. Hydrolysates after 3 and 5 h of reaction (degree of hydrolysis 2.4 and 5.6, respectively) and the associated peptide fraction with molecular weight below 3 kDa were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry, and reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the viability of using proteases from A. minus to increase the antioxidant and inhibitory ACE capacity of whey proteins.

  5. [Production and partial characterization of beta-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis grown in deproteinized whey].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Rivas, Nilo

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to optimize the beta-galactosidase production by Kluyveromyces lactis, applying the Surface Response Methodology (SRM) and using deproteinized whey as fermentation medium. An Orthogonal Central Compound Design (OCCD) was used without repetition, with four factors: temperature, pH, agitation speed and fermentation time. Then, enzyme activity (U/ml) as response variable was used. Thirty trials in twenty-five treatments, with six repetitions at the central point, were carried out, in a New Brunswick Bioflo 2000 fermentor with a volume of 2 liters. The deproteinized whey obtained by thermocoagulation was chemically analyzed. The results were: moisture 93.83%, total solids 6.17%, protein 0.44%, lactose 4.85%, acidity 0.43% and pH 4.58. The best conditions in the enzyme production were: temperature 30.3 degrees C, pH 4.68, agitation speed 191 r.p.m. and fermentation time 18.5 h. with an enzyme production of 8.3 U/ml. The degree of purification obtained was 7.4 times and the yield was 50.8%. The purified enzyme had an optimum temperature of 60 degrees C and a pH of 6.2. This work shows that the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis grown in deproteinized whey is able to produce the enzyme beta-galactosidase and SRM can be used in the fermentology processes, specifically in determining the best suitable operation conditions.

  6. Novel Functional Whey-Based Drinks with Great Potential in the Dairy Industry.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carlos; Henriques, Marta; Gomes, David; Gomez-Zavaglia, Andrea; de Antoni, Graciela

    2015-09-01

    This work focuses on the production of liquid whey protein concentrates by ultrafiltration followed by thermal denaturation and homogenization of the ultrafiltrated concentrate, as well as on the production of ultrafiltrated permeates concentrated by reverse osmosis. Kefir grains (fresh and thawed) and/or commercial probiotic bacteria were inoculated in both liquid whey protein concentrates and concentrated ultrafiltrated permeates and grown at 25 °C for 24 h for the manufacture of fermented drinks. The physicochemical characterization (pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, and content of total solids, ash, fat and proteins) of the obtained drinks was then assessed and compared. Enumeration of viable microorganisms was carried out immediately after inoculation (at 0 h), during the fermentation period (at 12 and 24 h) and during refrigerated storage (at 48, 168 and 336 h). The fermented drinks showed acceptable physicochemical and sensorial properties, and contained above 7 log CFU/mL of lactococci and lactobacilli and 6 log CFU/mL of yeasts after 14 days of refrigerated storage, which is in agreement with the standards required by international organizations like European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for products containing probiotics. In summary, the strategy developed in this work contributes to the expansion of the applications of products derived from whey fractionation for the design of novel functional foods.

  7. Novel Functional Whey-Based Drinks with Great Potential in the Dairy Industry

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos; Gomes, David; Gomez-Zavaglia, Andrea; de Antoni, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Summary This work focuses on the production of liquid whey protein concentrates by ultrafiltration followed by thermal denaturation and homogenization of the ultrafiltrated concentrate, as well as on the production of ultrafiltrated permeates concentrated by reverse osmosis. Kefir grains (fresh and thawed) and/or commercial probiotic bacteria were inoculated in both liquid whey protein concentrates and concentrated ultrafiltrated permeates and grown at 25 °C for 24 h for the manufacture of fermented drinks. The physicochemical characterization (pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, and content of total solids, ash, fat and proteins) of the obtained drinks was then assessed and compared. Enumeration of viable microorganisms was carried out immediately after inoculation (at 0 h), during the fermentation period (at 12 and 24 h) and during refrigerated storage (at 48, 168 and 336 h). The fermented drinks showed acceptable physicochemical and sensorial properties, and contained above 7 log CFU/mL of lactococci and lactobacilli and 6 log CFU/mL of yeasts after 14 days of refrigerated storage, which is in agreement with the standards required by international organizations like European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for products containing probiotics. In summary, the strategy developed in this work contributes to the expansion of the applications of products derived from whey fractionation for the design of novel functional foods. PMID:27904362

  8. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE.

  9. Nisin production in realkalized fed-batch cultures in whey with feeding with lactose- or glucose-containing substrates.

    PubMed

    Costas Malvido, Mónica; Alonso González, Elisa; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

    2016-09-01

    Nisin production by Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 was followed in batch cultures in whey supplemented with different concentrations of glucose and in two realkalized fed-batch fermentations in unsupplemented whey, which were fed, respectively, with concentrated solutions of lactose and glucose. In the batch fermentations, supplementation of whey with glucose inhibited both the growth and bacteriocin production. However, fed-batch cultures were characterized with high productions of biomass (1.34 and 1.51 g l(-1)) and nisin (50.6 and 60.3 BU ml(-1)) in comparison to the batch fermentations in unsupplemented whey (0.48 g l(-1) and 22.5 BU ml(-1)) and MRS broth (1.59 g l(-1) and 50.0 BU ml(-1)). In the two realkalized fed-batch fermentations, the increase in bacteriocin production parallels both the biomass production and pH drop generated in each realkalization and feeding cycle, suggesting that nisin was synthesized as a pH-dependent primary metabolite. A shift from homolactic to heterolactic fermentation was observed at the 108 h of incubation, and other metabolites (acetic acid and butane-2,3-diol) in addition to lactic acid accumulated in the medium. On the other hand, the feeding with glucose improved the efficiencies in glucose, nitrogen, and phosphorus consumption as compared to the batch cultures. The realkalized fed-batch fermentations showed to be an effective strategy to enhance nisin production in whey by using an appropriate feeding strategy to avoid the substrate inhibition.

  10. Impact of acoustic cavitation on food emulsions.

    PubMed

    Krasulya, Olga; Bogush, Vladimir; Trishina, Victoria; Potoroko, Irina; Khmelev, Sergey; Sivashanmugam, Palani; Anandan, Sambandam

    2016-05-01

    The work explores the experimental and theoretical aspects of emulsification capability of ultrasound to deliver stable emulsions of sunflower oil in water and meat sausages. In order to determine optimal parameters for direct ultrasonic emulsification of food emulsions, a model was developed based on the stability of emulsion droplets in acoustic cavitation field. The study is further extended to investigate the ultrasound induced changes to the inherent properties of raw materials under the experimental conditions of sono-emulsification.

  11. Estimation of whey protein in casein coprecipitate and milk powder by high-performance liquid chromatography quantification of cysteine.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Nicolai Z

    2006-06-14

    An analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence method for indirect measuring of whey protein in casein coprecipitate and milk powder was developed. Samples were hydrolyzed with HCl, and cysteyl residues were derivatized with 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid and 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. The cysteine content was used to calculate the percentage of whey protein in commercial samples with use of European Union Regulation cysteine reference values in both casein and whey protein. Method validation studies were performed for caseinates and milk powder, and results indicate that the present HPLC approach can be applied as a fast method with a standard deviation of repeatability between 3.3 and 9.5%. Applicability was studied by analysis of 40 commercial caseinate samples, and all complied to European legislation with a content of whey protein not exceeding 5%. Finally, an approach used to estimate the cysteine amount in pure casein by comparison of calculated and experimental values questions the generally accepted cysteine reference value in casein, which is most likely an overestimation.

  12. Recent Studies of Pickering Emulsions: Particles Make the Difference.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Ma, Guang-Hui

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, emulsions stabilized by micro- or nanoparticles (known as Pickering emulsions) have attracted much attention. Micro- or nanoparticles, as the main components of the emulsion, play a key role in the preparation and application of Pickering emulsions. The existence of particles at the interface between the oil and aqueous phases affects not only the preparation, but also the properties of Pickering emulsions, affording superior stability, low toxicity, and stimuli-responsiveness compared to classical emulsions stabilized by surfactants. These advantages of Pickering emulsions make them attractive, especially in biomedicine. In this review, the effects of the characteristics of micro- and nanoparticles on the preparation and properties of Pickering emulsions are introduced. In particular, the preparation methods of Pickering emulsions, especially uniform-sized emulsions, are listed. Uniform Pickering emulsions are convenient for both mechanistic research and applications. Furthermore, some biomedical applications of Pickering emulsions are discussed and the problems hindering their clinical application are identified.

  13. Influence of olive oil phenolic compounds on headspace aroma release by interaction with whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; De Luca, Lucia; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-04-22

    The release of volatile compounds in an oil-in-water model system obtained from olive oil-whey protein (WP) pairing was investigated by considering the effect of phenolic compounds. Human saliva was used to simulate mouth conditions by retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) analysis. Twelve aroma compounds were quantified in the dynamic headspace by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed significant influences of saliva on the aroma release of virgin olive oil (VOO) volatiles also in the presence of WP. The interaction between WP and saliva leads to lower headspace release of ethyl esters and hexanal. Salivary components caused lower decrease of the release of acetates and alcohols. A lower release of volatile compounds was found in the RAS essay in comparison to that in orthonasal simulation of only refined olive oil (without addition of saliva or WP), with the exception of hexanal and 1-penten-3-one, where a significantly higher release was found. Our results suggest that the extent of retronasal odor (green, pungent) of these two volatile compounds is higher than orthonasal odor. An extra VOO was used to verify the release in model systems, indicating that WP affected aroma release more than model systems, while saliva seems to exert an opposite trend. A significant increase in aroma release was found when phenolic compounds were added to the system, probably due to the contrasting effects of binding of volatile compounds caused by WP, for the polyphenol-protein interaction phenomenon. Our study could be applied to the formulation of new functional foods to enhance flavor release and modulate the presence and concentrations of phenolics and whey proteins in food emulsions/dispersions.

  14. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the emulsion sausages prepared with irradiated pork. The volatile basic nitrogen value of the emulsion sausage prepared with kimchi powder was the highest, whereas that of the emulsion sausage prepared with onion peel extract was the lowest. The treatment without kimchi powder or onion peel extract and the treatments prepared with onion peel extract showed lower microbial populations than the other treatment. Sensory evaluations indicated that a higher acceptability was attained when kimchi powder was added to the emulsion sausages manufactured with irradiated pork. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined use of kimchi powder and onion peel extract could improve quality characteristics and shelf stability of the emulsion sausage formulated with irradiated pork during chilled storage. PMID:26761840

  15. Effects of salts on oxidative stability of lipids in Tween-20 stabilized oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Leqi; Cho, Hyung Taek; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-04-15

    Lipid oxidation in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is an important factor determining the shelf life of food products. Salts are often present in many types of emulsion based food products. However, there is limited information on influence of salts on lipid oxidation in O/W emulsions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sodium and potassium chloride on lipid oxidation in O/W emulsions. Tween 20 stabilized corn O/W emulsions at pH 7.0 were prepared with different concentrations of sodium chloride with or without the metal chelators. NaCl did not cause any changes in emulsion droplet size. NaCl dose-dependently promoted lipid oxidation as measured by the lipid oxidation product, hexanal. Both deferoxamine (DFO) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) reduced lipid oxidation in emulsions with NaCl, with EDTA being more effective. Potassium chloride showed similar impact on lipid oxidation as sodium chloride. These results suggest that salts are able to promote lipid oxidation in emulsions and this effect can be controlled by metal chelators.

  16. Presence of adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12, ghrelins and salusins peptides in the milk, cheese whey and plasma of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suleyman

    2013-05-01

    Biological fluids (milk and serum/plasma) and cheese whey milk-derived fluid contain numerous molecules, especially amino acids and proteins. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find out whether cheese whey (n:6), cow milk (n:6) and its blood (n=6) have adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12, ghrelins and salusin peptides. Adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12 concentrations were measured by ELISA, whereas ghrelin and salusin concentrations were measured by EIA methods. It was found that adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12, des-acylated ghrelin and salusins in cheese whey were higher than in the corresponding milk peptides and plasma of dairy cows, with the exception of salusin alpha and acylated ghrelin in milk being the same than that of the corresponding cheese whey concentration and plasma of dairy cows. A correlation was also found between milk peptides and cheese whey, as also with plasma of dairy cows. The data suggest that peptides in cow milk might be an important and nutritious food for (neonatal) calves and human diet due to their biological and physiological properties.

  17. In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of caprine cheese whey oligosaccharides in batch culture systems.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diana L; Costabile, Adele; Wilbey, R Andrew; Grandison, Alistair S; Duarte, Luis C; Roseiro, Luisa B

    2012-01-01

    The prebiotic effect of oligosaccharides recovered and purified from caprine whey, was evaluated by in vitro fermentation under anaerobic conditions using batch cultures at 37°C with human faeces. Effects on key gut bacterial groups were monitored over 24 h by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which was used to determine a quantitative prebiotic index score. Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as fermentation end products was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Growth of Bifidobacterium spp was significantly higher (P ≥ 0.05) with the purified oligosaccharides compared to the negative control. Lactic and propionic acids were the main SCFAs produced. Antimicrobial activity of the oligosaccharides was also tested, revealing no inhibition though a decrease in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli growth. These findings indicate that naturally extracted oligosaccharides from caprine whey could be used as new and valuable source of prebiotics.

  18. Determining flavor and flavor variability in commercially produced liquid cheddar whey.

    PubMed

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Parker, J D; Drake, M A; Larick, D K

    2003-02-01

    Dried whey and whey protein are important food ingredients. Functionality of whey products has been studied extensively. Flavor inconsistency and flavors which may carry through to the finished product can limit whey ingredient applications in dairy and nondairy foods. The goal of this research was to determine the flavor and flavor variability of commercially produced liquid Cheddar cheese whey. Liquid Cheddar cheese whey from five culture blends from two different stirred-curd Cheddar cheese manufacturing facilities was collected. Whey flavor was characterized using instrumental and sensory methods. Wide variation in whey headspace volatiles was observed between different manufacturing facilities (P < 0.05). Hexanal and diacetyl were two key volatiles that varied widely (P < 0.05). FFA profiles determined by solid-phase microextraction and degree of proteolysis of the whey samples were also different (P < 0.05). Differences in whey flavor profiles were also confirmed by descriptive sensory analysis (P < 0.05). Differences in liquid whey flavor were attributed to differences in milk source, processing and handling and starter culture blend. The flavor of liquid Cheddar cheese whey is variable and impacted by milk source and starter culture rotation. Results from this study will aid future studies that address the impact of liquid whey flavor variability on flavor of dried whey ingredients.

  19. Preparation of stable Pickering emulsions with short, medium and long chain fats and starch nanocrystals and their in vitro digestion properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pickering emulsions are receiving more attention as delivery systems in food and pharmaceuticals because they can be formulated with nontoxic food ingredients to form stable emulsions. In this study, 40-100 nm starch nanocrystals (SNCs) prepared from acid hydrolysis of waxy maize starches were used ...

  20. Real-time measurements to characterize dynamics of emulsion interface during simulated intestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanjie; Nitin, N

    2016-05-01

    Efficient delivery of bioactives remains a critical challenge due to their limited bioavailability and solubility. While many encapsulation systems are designed to modulate the digestion and release of bioactives within the human gastrointestinal tract, there is limited understanding of how engineered structures influence the delivery of bioactives. The objective of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative method to measure structural changes in emulsion interface during simulated intestinal digestion and to correlate these changes with the release of free fatty acids (FFAs). Fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) was used for rapid in-situ measurement of the structural changes in emulsion interface during simulated intestinal digestion. By using FRET, changes in the intermolecular spacing between the two different fluorescent probes labeled emulsifier were characterized. Changes in FRET measurements were compared with the release of FFAs. The results showed that bile salts and pancreatic lipase interacted immediately with the emulsion droplets and disrupted the emulsion interface as evidenced by reduction in FRET efficacy compared to the control. Similarly, a significant amount of FFAs was released during digestion. Moreover, addition of a second layer of polymers at emulsion interface decreased the extent of interface disruption by bile salts and pancreatic lipase and impacted the amount or rate of FFA release during digestion. These results were consistent with the lower donor/acceptor ratio of the labeled probes from the FRET result. Overall, this study provides a novel approach to analyze the dynamics of emulsion interface during digestion and their relationship with the release of FFAs.

  1. Formation of whey protein-polyphenol meso-structures as a natural means of creating functional particles.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Margaret; Esposito, Debora; Lila, Mary Ann; Foegeding, E Allen

    2016-03-01

    Whey proteins provide structure and nutritional properties in food, while berry juices are thought to have biological activity that can impart anti-inflammatory health effects. In combination, the two could be an excellent source of necessary and supplemental nutrients as well as expand the functionality of whey proteins in food structures. The objectives of this investigation were to (1) develop an approach for particle formation between whey protein and cranberry, blackcurrant, or muscadine grape juices, (2) determine resulting particle composition and physical characteristics, and (3) evaluate properties related to food structure stability and maintenance of phytochemical bioactivity. Particles were formed by combining 20% w/w whey protein with juice containing 50, 250, or 500 μg g(-1) total phenolics, adjusting pH to 4.5, and centrifuging to collect aggregated particles. Particles had an approximate molar ratio of 9-50 proteins per polyphenol, and the ratio increased with increasing phenolic content of the juice used to create the particles. Particle size ranged from 1-100 μm at pH 4.5, compared to 10 μm particles that formed when whey protein isolate alone was precipitated at pH 4.5. Polyphenols and other juice components, such as acids and sugars appeared to be involved in particle formation. Particles improved foam stability, and the anti-inflammatory properties of entrapped polyphenols were maintained in the particles. Highly functional protein-polyphenol particles can be designed to stabilize food structures and simultaneously deliver polyphenols associated with health benefits.

  2. Suppression of Ostwald ripening in active emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable since they coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Stability of emulsions is relevant not only in complex fluids but also in biological cells, which contain liquidlike compartments, e.g., germ granules, Cajal bodies, and centrosomes. Such cellular systems are driven away from equilibrium, e.g., by chemical reactions, and thus can be called active emulsions. In this paper, we study such active emulsions by developing a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics, which we analyze for two different chemical reaction schemes. We first consider the simple case of first-order reactions, which leads to stable, monodisperse emulsions in which Ostwald ripening is suppressed within a range of chemical reaction rates. We then consider autocatalytic droplets, which catalyze the production of their own droplet material. Spontaneous nucleation of autocatalytic droplets is strongly suppressed and their emulsions are typically unstable. We show that autocatalytic droplets can be nucleated reliably and their emulsions stabilized by the help of chemically active cores, which catalyze the production of droplet material. In summary, different reaction schemes and catalytic cores can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties.

  3. Metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Haorong; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Medforth, Craig J

    2013-10-29

    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  4. Kinetics of crosslinking in emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Ghielmi, A.; Fiorentino, S.; Morbidelli, M.

    1996-12-31

    A mathematical model for evaluating the chain length distribution of nonlinear polymers produced in emulsions is presented. The heterogeneous emulsion polymerization process is described. The aim of the analysis is the distribution of active polymer chains and pairs of chains with a given growth time in latex particles in state.

  5. Flows of Wet Foamsand Concentrated Emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemer, Martin B.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was is to advance a microstructural understanding of foam and emulsion flows. The dynamics of individual surfactant-covered drops and well as the collective behavior of dilute and concentrated was explored using numerical simulations. The long-range goal of this work is the formulation of reliable microphysically-based statistical models of emulsion flows.

  6. Altering Emulsion Stability with Heterogeneous Surface Wettability

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qiang; Zhang, Yali; Li, Jiang; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Chen, Haosheng; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions–liquid droplets dispersed in another immiscible liquid–are widely used in a broad spectrum of applications, including food, personal care, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical products. Emulsions are also commonly present in natural crude oil, hampering the production and quality of petroleum fuels. The stability of emulsions plays a crucial role in their applications, but controlling the stability without external driving forces has been proven to be difficult. Here we show how heterogeneous surface wettability can alter the stability and dynamics of oil-in-water emulsions, generated by a co-flow microfluidic device. We designed a useful methodology that can modify a micro-capillary of desired heterogeneous wettability (e.g., alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions) without changing the hydraulic diameter. We subsequently investigated the effects of flow rates and heterogeneous wettability on the emulsion morphology and motion. The experimental data revealed a universal critical timescale of advective emulsions, above which the microfluidic emulsions remain stable and intact, whereas below they become adhesive or inverse. A simple theoretical model based on a force balance can be used to explain this critical transition of emulsion dynamics, depending on the droplet size and the Capillary number–the ratio of viscous to surface effects. These results give insight into how to control the stability and dynamics of emulsions in microfluidics with flow velocity and different wettability. PMID:27256703

  7. Altering Emulsion Stability with Heterogeneous Surface Wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qiang; Zhang, Yali; Li, Jiang; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Chen, Haosheng; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2016-06-01

    Emulsions–liquid droplets dispersed in another immiscible liquid–are widely used in a broad spectrum of applications, including food, personal care, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical products. Emulsions are also commonly present in natural crude oil, hampering the production and quality of petroleum fuels. The stability of emulsions plays a crucial role in their applications, but controlling the stability without external driving forces has been proven to be difficult. Here we show how heterogeneous surface wettability can alter the stability and dynamics of oil-in-water emulsions, generated by a co-flow microfluidic device. We designed a useful methodology that can modify a micro-capillary of desired heterogeneous wettability (e.g., alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions) without changing the hydraulic diameter. We subsequently investigated the effects of flow rates and heterogeneous wettability on the emulsion morphology and motion. The experimental data revealed a universal critical timescale of advective emulsions, above which the microfluidic emulsions remain stable and intact, whereas below they become adhesive or inverse. A simple theoretical model based on a force balance can be used to explain this critical transition of emulsion dynamics, depending on the droplet size and the Capillary number–the ratio of viscous to surface effects. These results give insight into how to control the stability and dynamics of emulsions in microfluidics with flow velocity and different wettability.

  8. Fed-batch pediocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B-5627 on whey.

    PubMed

    Pérez Guerra, Nelson; Bernárdez, Paula Fajardo; Agrasar, Ana Torrado; López Macías, Cristina; Castro, Lorenzo Pastrana

    2005-08-01

    Cell growth and pediocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B-5627 on whey were compared by using batch fermentation and re-alkalized fed-batch fermentation. The batch fermentations were performed on DWG [DW (diluted whey) supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose], DWYE [DW supplemented with 2% (w/v) yeast extract] and DWGYE (DW supplemented with 1% glucose plus 2% yeast extract) media. The fed-batch culture on DWYE medium was fed with a mixture of concentrated whey (48 g of total sugars/l) supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 400 g/l concentrated glucose. The re-alkalized fed-batch culture was characterized by higher biomass (6.57 g/l) and pediocin [517.6 BU (bacteriocin activity units)/ml] concentrations compared with the batch processes on MRS (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe) broth (1.76 g/l and 493.2 BU/ml), DW (0.17 g/l and 57.7 BU/ml), DWG (0.14 g/l and 53.6 BU/ml), DWYE (1.43 g/l and 187.6 BU/ml) and DWGYE (1.28 g/l and 167.3 BU/ml) media. A mixed acid fermentation was observed during the growth of P. acidilactici NRRL B-5627 in the fed-batch culture on DWYE medium, and other products (acetic acid and ethanol) in addition to lactic acid accumulated in the medium. Mathematical models were set up to describe fed-batch production of biomass and pediocin by P. acidilactici. The models developed offer a better fit and a more realistic description of the experimental biomass and pediocin production data when compared with the logistic and Luedeking and Piret model.

  9. Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Nick J.

    The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to

  10. Evaluation of HLB values of mixed non-ionic surfactants on the stability of oil-in-water emulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nursakinah, I.; Ismail, A. R.; Rahimi, M. Y.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    Emulsion oil-in-water was prepared with combination of emulsifiers (non-ionic surfactants) following the HLB (hydrophylic-lipophylic balance) method developed by Griffin. The emulsions were prepared at HLB 10, 11, 12, 13 and 13.6 consisting blend of non-ionic emulsifiers fatty acid ethoxylate with 20 moles bound ethylene oxide and Dehydol LS 1 with 1 mole bound ethylene oxide. A mixture of palm-based methyl ester consisting of C6-10 and C12-18 fatty acid composition was used as palm-based solvent. The physicochemical parameters of the emulsion were characterized by accelerate stability tested at 45°C for two months, measurement of particle size and viscosity test. The result of accelerate test showed that all the emulsion at different HLB were found to be stable in the 2 months observation which assumed to be stable in 1 year of storage. Meanwhile, the particle size measurement data showed that the optimum stable particle size of the emulsion was HLB 12±1. The viscosity test of the emulsion tends to support the data from the particle size and have maximum viscosity 189.89 cP at HLB 12. The obtained results indicate that the optimum stable emulsions can be formulated by a combination of emulsifiers with HLB 12±1 which is compatible with that of required HLB of the oil phase.

  11. Non-aqueous Isorefractive Pickering Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Non-aqueous Pickering emulsions of 16–240 μm diameter have been prepared using diblock copolymer worms with ethylene glycol as the droplet phase and an n-alkane as the continuous phase. Initial studies using n-dodecane resulted in stable emulsions that were significantly less turbid than conventional water-in-oil emulsions. This is attributed to the rather similar refractive indices of the latter two phases. By utilizing n-tetradecane as an alternative oil that almost precisely matches the refractive index of ethylene glycol, almost isorefractive ethylene glycol-in-n-tetradecane Pickering emulsions can be prepared. The droplet diameter and transparency of such emulsions can be systematically varied by adjusting the worm copolymer concentration. PMID:25844544

  12. Aging mechanism in model Pickering emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilloux, Sarah; Malloggi, Florent; Daillant, Jean; Thill, Antoine

    We study the stability of a model Pickering emulsion system. A special counter-flow microfluidics set-up was used to prepare monodisperse Pickering emulsions, with oil droplets in water. The wettability of the monodisperse silica nanoparticles (NPs) could be tuned by surface grafting and the surface coverage of the droplets was controlled using the microfluidics setup. A surface coverage as low as 23$\\%$ is enough to stabilize the emulsions and we evidence a new regime of Pickering emulsion stability where the surface coverage of emulsion droplets of constant size increases in time, in coexistence with a large amount of dispersed phase. Our results demonstrate that the previously observed limited coalescence regime where surface coverage tends to control the average size of the final droplets must be put in a broader perspective.

  13. Destabilization of emulsions by natural minerals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Tong, Man; Wu, Gaoming

    2011-09-15

    This study developed a novel method to destabilize emulsions and recycle oils, particularly for emulsified wastewater treatment. Natural minerals were used as demulsifying agents, two kinds of emulsions collected from medical and steel industry were treated. The addition of natural minerals, including artificial zeolite, natural zeolite, diatomite, bentonite and natural soil, could effectively destabilize both emulsions at pH 1 and 60 °C. Over 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be removed after treatment. Medical emulsion can be even destabilized by artificial zeolite at ambient temperature. The mechanism for emulsion destabilization by minerals was suggested as the decreased electrostatic repulsion at low pH, the enhanced gathering of oil microdroplets at elevated temperature, and the further decreased surface potential by the addition of minerals. Both flocculation and coalescence were enhanced by the addition of minerals at low pH and elevated temperature.

  14. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  15. Aggregation of Whey Protein Hydrolysate Using Alcalase 2.4 L

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunhong; Liu, Wen; Feng, Zhibiao; Li, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe peptide aggregation, which is also known as enzymatic protein resynthesis. Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is the starting material for assembling peptides. Analyses of the involved amino acids, intrinsic fluorescence, fluorescence phase diagram, secondary structure, turbidity, and surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the reaction process. The aggregation mechanism consists of two parts: 1) formation and 2) aggregation of the building blocks that form the ordered secondary β-sheet structure. Constructing the building blocks requires at least one intermediate state, which is formed after 0.5 hours. Non-synergistic changes in the secondary and tertiary structures then allow the intermediate state to emerge. PMID:25290460

  16. Short communication: Development of a novel method for the extraction of norbixin from whey and its subsequent quantification via high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Boogers, I A L A; Drake, M A

    2014-03-01

    Norbixin is the primary carotenoid in annatto coloring, which imparts the desired orange color in Cheddar cheese. However, a portion of the colorant remains in the cheese whey and is undesirable; therefore, a bleaching step is often applied. Restrictions exist for norbixin concentrations in products destined for infant formula. As such, evaluation of norbixin concentrations in whey and whey ingredients is desirable. Current extraction methods are laborious and require solvents that are banned in many countries. The objective of this study was to develop a fast and inexpensive norbixin extraction and quantitation technique using approved solvents with similar sensitivity to current established methods. Instead of solvent extraction and column purification, acetonitrile was added directly to fluid wheys, retentates, and rehydrated whey protein concentrates. An isocratic mobile phase [70% acetonitrile and 30% water with 0.1% (wt/vol) formic acid] was used and, to increase sensitivity, a large volume (50 μL) was injected onto the column. The column used was a C18 column with a particle size of 2.6 μm and column length of 10 cm. The column inner diameter was 4.6mm and the pore size was 100 Ǻ. All of the previously described conditions allowed the run time to be only 4 min. The sample was sent through a photodiode array detector and quantified at 482 nm. Norbixin was quantified using external standard curves. The developed method had a >90% norbixin recovery in both milk and whey (9.39 μg/L-2.35 mg/L). The limit of detection of norbixin in fluid whey was 2.7 μg/kg and the limit of quantitation was 3.5 μg/kg, both of which are significantly lower than in previously described methods. The extracts were stable over 30 min at 21°C and stable over 24h at 4°C. Repeatability and precision of the method had relative standard deviations of less than 13%. The developed method provides time and cost savings for evaluation of norbixin concentration in whey and whey products.

  17. Fractionation and recovery of whey proteins by hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria João; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2011-03-01

    A method for the recovery and fractionation of whey proteins from a whey protein concentrate (80%, w/w) by hydrophobic interaction chromatography is proposed. Standard proteins and WPC 80 dissolved in phosphate buffer with ammonium sulfate 1 M were loaded in a HiPrep Octyl Sepharose FF column coupled to a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system and eluted by decreasing the ionic strength of the buffer using a salt gradient. The results showed that the most hydrophobic protein from whey is α-lactalbumin and the less hydrophobic is lactoferrin. It was possible to recover 45.2% of β-lactoglobulin using the HiPrep Octyl Sepharose FF column from the whey protein concentrate mixture with 99.6% purity on total protein basis.

  18. Use of whey protein beads as a new carrier system for recombinant yeasts in human digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Hébrard, Géraldine; Blanquet, Stéphanie; Beyssac, Eric; Remondetto, Gabriel; Subirade, Muriel; Alric, Monique

    2006-12-15

    A new immobilizing protocol using whey protein isolates was developed to entrap recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The model yeast strain expresses the heterologous P45073A1 that converts trans-cinnamic acid into p-coumaric acid. Beads resulted from a cold-induced gelation of a whey protein solution (10%) containing yeasts (7.5 x 10(7)cells ml(-1)) into 0.1M CaCl(2). The viability and growth capability of yeasts were not altered by our entrapment process. The release and activity of immobilized yeasts were studied in simulated human gastric conditions. During the first 60 min of digestion, 2.2+/-0.9% (n=3) of initial entrapped yeasts were recovered in the gastric medium suggesting that beads should cross the gastric barrier in human. The P45073A1 activity of entrapped yeasts remained significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of free ones throughout digestion (trans-cinnamic acid conversion rate of 63.4+/-1.6% versus 51.5+/-1.8% (n=3) at 120 min). The protein matrix seemed to create a microenvironment favoring the activity of yeasts in the stringent gastric conditions. These results open up new opportunities for the development of drug delivery system using recombinant yeasts entrapped in whey protein beads. The main potential medical applications include biodetoxication or the correction of digestive enzyme deficiencies.

  19. Exopolysaccharides modify functional properties of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Deep, G; Hassan, A N; Metzger, L

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research was to produce whey protein concentrate (WPC) with modified functionality using exopolysaccharide- (EPS) producing cultures. Two different EPS-producing cultures, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris JFR and Streptococcus thermophilus, producing EPS1 and EPS2 respectively, were used in this study. One EPS-nonproducing commercial cheese culture (DVS 850; Chr. Hansen, Milwaukee, WI) was used as the control. Reconstituted sweet whey powder was used in this study to eliminate variations from fresh whey. Cultures grown overnight in reconstituted WPC (10% wt/vol) were added, directly or after overnight cooling (cooled EPS), at 2% (wt/vol) to 6% (wt/wt) solution of reconstituted whey. Whey was then high-temperature, short-time pasteurized at 75 °C for 35s and ultrafiltered to a volume reduction factor of 5. Ultrafiltered whey (retentate) was spray dried at inlet and outlet air temperatures of 200 and 90 °C, respectively, to obtain WPC. In general, the solubility of WPC was higher at pH 7 than at pH 3. Whey protein concentrate containing EPS2 exhibited higher protein solubility than did WPC containing no EPS. Also, the presence of EPS in WPC decreased protein denaturation. The emulsifying ability of WPC containing EPS was higher than that in control. Addition of EPS to WPC significantly enhanced its gelling ability. Foam overrun and hydrophobicity of WPC were not affected by addition of EPS. In conclusion, data obtained from this study show that EPS modify WPC functionality. The extent of modification depends on the type of EPS. Cooling of culture containing EPS before its addition to whey further reduced WPC protein denaturation and increased its solubility at pH 7 and gel hardness.

  20. Two firms to win three products from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-14

    A joint venture between Corning Glass Works and Kroger Co. is reported that will convert whey into hydrolyzed lactose. Part of the sweet syrup will be converted into bakers' yeast while the rest of the syrup will be used by Kroger as-such, and so will a byproduct, whey-protein concentrate. A 35,000 sq. ft. plant will be built at Winchester, Ky and is due for operation in 1983.

  1. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  2. [On bitumen emulsions in water].

    PubMed

    Rivas, Hercilio; Gutierrez, Xiomara; Silva, Felix; Chirinos, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The most important factors, controlling the process of emulsification of highly viscous hydrocarbons in water, which are responsible for keeping the stability and other properties of these systems, are discused in this article. The effect of non-ionic surfactants, such as nonil phenol ethoxilated compounds on the interfacial behavior of bitumen/water systems is analyzed. The effect of the natural surfactants in presence or in absence of electrolytes is also analyzed. The procedures followed in order to obtain the optimal conditions of formulation and formation of bitumen in water emulsions, are discussed and the effect of some parameters on the mean droplet diameter and distribution are also considered. It was found that keeping constant mixing speed and time of mixing, the mean droplet diameter decreases as the bitumen concentration increases. Emulsion stability, which can be monitored by following the changes in mean droplet diameters and viscosity as a function of the storage time, is deeply affected by the type and concentration of surfactant.

  3. Whey protein supplementation does not alter plasma branched-chained amino acid profiles but results in unique metabolomics patterns in obese women enrolled in an 8-week weight loss trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Elevations of plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are correlated with insulin resistance. Reduction in the activity of branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) activity and impaired complete mitochondrial BCAA catabolism may contribute to this phenoty...

  4. Whey protein supplementation does not alter plasma branched-chained amino acid profiles but results in unique metabolomics patterns in obese women enrolled in an 8-week weight loss trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: It has been suggested that perturbations in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism are associated with insulin resistance and contribute to elevated systemic BCAAs. Evidence in rodents suggests dietary protein rich in BCAAs can increase BCAA catabolism, but there is limited evidence...

  5. Functional Biomaterials: Solution Electrospinning and Gelation of Whey Protein and Pullulan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Stephanie Tolstedt

    Utilizing biomaterials that are biodegradable, biocompatible and edible serve well for food products as well as biomedical applications. Biomaterials whey protein and pullulan both have these characteristics. Whey proteins (WP) have been used in food products for many years and more recently in pharmaceutical products. They have the ability to form both gels and stable foams. Pullulan (PULL) has also been used in both food and pharmaceutical products, and is a highly water soluble, non-gelling polysaccharide and has been used primarily as a film former. Herein, we investigate the ability of whey protein and pullulan to form nanofibers and gels. Combining their distinct properties allows the ability to uniquely manipulate nanofiber and gel characteristics and behavior for a variety of applications, from food to even tissue scaffolding. First, we determined the electrospinnability of aqueous whey protein solutions. Both whey protein isolate (WPI) and one of its major components beta--lactoglobulin (BLG), either in native or denatured form, yielded interesting micro and nanostructures when electrosprayed; while nanofiber production required blending with a spinnable polymer, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). WP:PEO solutions were also successfully electrospun at acidic pH (2≤pH≤3), which could improve shelf life. Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectance (FTIR) analysis of WP:PEO fiber mat indicated some variation in WP secondary structure with varying WPI concentration (as WPI increased, % alpha-helix increased and beta-turn decreased) and pH (as pH decreased from neutral (7.5) to acidic (2), % beta-sheet decreased and alpha-helix increased). X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) also confirmed the presence of WP on the surface of the blend fibers, augmenting the FTIR analysis. Interestingly, WP:PEO composite nanofibers maintained its fibrous morphology at temperatures as high as 100 °C, above the 60 °C PEO melting point. Further, we show that the blend mats retained a

  6. Plasma lipid levels in preterm neonates receiving parenteral fat emulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, J L; Shannon, D L; Hunter, M A; Brans, Y W

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of various plasma lipid fractions were determined during 96 hours of continuous parenteral infusions of lipid emulsions in 10 normally-grown neonates whose birth-weights ranged from 960 to 1760 g and whose gestational ages ranged from 26 to 32 weeks. Total lipid, triglyceride, free glycerol, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured. During lipid infusions, mean plasma concentrations of all lipid fractions increased above the mean preinfusion values if 2 g/kg a day or more of lipid emulsion was used. There were no further significant increases in mean plasma lipid levels if the infused dosage was increased to 3 or 4 g/kg a day. At these higher infusion rates however, there were considerable individual variations. The only neonate less than 27 weeks of gestation had plasma lipid levels severalfold higher than any of his peers, his plasma was frankly creamy on visual inspection, and the study had to be stopped. Further investigations are needed to determine the optimal modalities of parenteral nutrition with fat emulsions. PMID:6402989

  7. Phase holograms in silver halide emulsions without a bleaching step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belendez, Augusto; Madrigal, Roque F.; Pascual, Inmaculada V.; Fimia, Antonio

    2000-03-01

    Phase holograms in holographic emulsions are usually obtained by two bath processes (developing and bleaching). In this work we present a one step method to reach phase holograms with silver-halide emulsions. Which is based on the variation of the conditions of the typical developing processes of amplitude holograms. For this, we have used the well-known chemical developer, AAC, which is composed by ascorbic acid as a developing agent and sodium carbonate anhydrous as accelerator. Agfa 8E75 HD and BB-640 plates were used to obtain these phase gratings, whose colors are between yellow and brown. In function of the parameters of this developing method the resulting diffraction efficiency and optical density of the diffraction gratings were studied. One of these parameters studied is the influence of the grain size. In the case of Agfa plates diffraction efficiency around 18% with density < 1 has been reached, whilst with the BB-640 emulsion, whose grain is smaller than that of the Agfa, diffraction efficiency near 30% has been obtained. The resulting gratings were analyzed through X-ray spectroscopy showing the differences of the structure of the developed silver when amplitude and transmission gratings are obtained. The angular response of both (transmission and amplitude) gratings were studied, where minimal transmission is showed at the Braggs angle in phase holograms, whilst a maximal value is obtained in amplitude gratings.

  8. Formation and stabilization of nanoemulsion-based vitamin E delivery systems using natural biopolymers: Whey protein isolate and gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Bengu; Argin, Sanem; Ozilgen, Mustafa; McClements, David Julian

    2015-12-01

    Natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum arabic (GA), were used to fabricate emulsion-based delivery systems for vitamin E-acetate. Stable delivery systems could be formed when vitamin E-acetate was mixed with sufficient orange oil prior to high pressure homogenization. WPI (d32=0.11 μm, 1% emulsifier) was better than GA (d32=0.38 μm, 10% emulsifier) at producing small droplets at low emulsifier concentrations. However, WPI-stabilized nanoemulsions were unstable to flocculation near the protein isoelectric point (pH 5.0), at high ionic strength (>100mM), and at elevated temperatures (>60 °C), whereas GA-stabilized emulsions were stable. This difference was attributed to differences in emulsifier stabilization mechanisms: WPI by electrostatic repulsion; GA by steric repulsion. These results provide useful information about the emulsifying and stabilizing capacities of natural biopolymers for forming food-grade vitamin-enriched delivery systems.

  9. Production of Lactase by Candida pseudotropicalis Grown in Whey.

    PubMed

    de Bales, S A; Castillo, F J

    1979-06-01

    Lactase (beta-d-galactosidase) was produced by Candida pseudotropicalis grown in deproteinized whey. Maximum enzyme production in 2% whey was obtained by supplementation with 0.15% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and 0.05% KH(2)PO(4) (wt/vol). Highest enzyme values (4.35 U/mg of cells and 68 U/ml) were obtained with 10 to 12% whey, while enzyme yield was maximal in 2% whey (0.87 U/mg of whey). Optimal initial pH for cultivation was 3.5. The best conditions for extraction included 2% (wt/vol) chloroform, 10 h of treatment, pH 6.6 and higher, and 30 to 37 degrees C. Optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 6.2 and 47 degrees C. The enzyme had a K(m) for O-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside of 3.06 x 10 M and the initial V(max) was estimated as 6.63 x 10 M per min. It hydrolized 50 and 100% of the lactose in whey and milk within 4 and 5 h, respectively, at 37 degrees C. The lyophilized enzyme retained 95% of activity for 3 months when stored at -20 degrees C.

  10. Decolorization of Cheddar cheese whey by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Campbell, Rachel; Drake, MaryAnne; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-05-01

    Colored Cheddar whey is a source for whey protein recovery and is decolorized conventionally by bleaching, which affects whey protein quality. Two activated carbons were studied in the present work as physical means of removing annatto (norbixin) in Cheddar cheese whey. The color and residual norbixin content of Cheddar whey were reduced by a higher level of activated carbon at a higher temperature between 25 and 55°C and a longer time. Activated carbon applied at 40g/L for 2h at 30°C was more effective than bleaching by 500mg/L of hydrogen peroxide at 68°C. The lowered temperature in activated-carbon treatments had less effect on protein structure as investigated for fluorescence spectroscopy and volatile compounds, particularly oxidation products, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Activated carbon was also reusable, removing more than 50% norbixin even after 10 times of regeneration, which showed great potential for decolorizing cheese whey.

  11. Optimizing alcohol production from whey using computer technology.

    PubMed

    Zertuche, L; Zall, R R

    1985-04-01

    This study was undertaken with the major goal of optimizing the ethanol production from whey using computer technology. To reach this goal, a mathematical model that would describe the fermentation and that could be used for the optimization was developed. Kluyveromyces fragilis was the microorganism used to ferment the lactose in the whey into ethanol. Preliminary studies showed that K. fragilis produced about 90% of the theoretical ethanol yield when grown in whey-complemented media. However, when this yeast is grown in nonsupplemented whey media, it does not produce more than 32% of that yield. Comparative batch fermentations of lactose and whey-complemented media showed that whey possibly contains enhancing components for yeast growth and ethanol production. To obtain the mathematical model, the one-to-one effect of the process variables (lactose and yeast extract concentrations, air flowrate, pH, and dilution rate) on the ethanol production were first investigated. Experiments on the pH effect showed that a decrease in pH from 7 to 4 produced an increase in ethanol concentration from 16.5 to 26.5 g/L (50 g/L initial lactose). The results obtained from modeling of the continuous fermentation using the previously listed variables showed that air flowrate, pH, and dilution rate were the process variables that most influence the production of ethanol.

  12. Optimizing alcohol production from whey using computer technology. [Kluyveromyces fragilis

    SciTech Connect

    Zertuche, L.; Zall, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the major goal of optimizing the ethanol production from whey using computer technology. To reach this goal, a mathematical model that would describe the fermentation and that could be used for the optimization was developed. Kluyveromyces fragilis was the microorganism used to ferment the lactose in the whey into ethanol. Preliminary studies showed that K. fragilis produced about 90% of the theoretical ethanol yield when grown in whey-complemented media. However, when this yeast is grown in nonsupplemented whey media, it does not produce more than 32% of that yield. Comparative batch fermentations of lactose and whey-complemented media showed that whey possibly contains enhancing components for yeast growth and ethanol production. To obtain the mathematical model, the one-to-one effect of the process variables (lactose and yeast extract concentrations, air flow rate, pH, and dilution rate) on the ethanol production were first investigated. Experiments on the pH effect showed that a decrease in pH from 7 to 4 produced an increase in ethanol concentration from 16.5 to 26.5 g/L (50 g/L initial lactose). The results obtained from modeling of the continuous fermentation using the previously listed variables showed that air flow rate, pH, and dilution rate were the process variables that most influence the production of ethanol.

  13. Fenton-like application to pretreated cheese whey wastewater.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier

    2013-11-15

    Cheese whey wastewater has been treated by the Fenton-like oxidation system after being pre-processed through a coagulation - flocculation stage with FeCl3 or alternatively, through a sedimentation step with Ca(OH)2 plus aerobic digestion. In the first case, Fenton-like oxidation is capable of reducing the initial COD (chemical oxygen demand) to 80% of the initial value, 20% of COD shows recalcitrance to chemical oxidation regardless of the operating conditions used. In the second case, the oxidation system is capable of removing almost the total COD present in the pretreated effluent. Given the lower values of initial COD, complete COD conversion is achieved at short reaction times within minutes depending on the initial reagent concentration. Removal of Fe(III) from the oxidation treatment can be achieved by Ca(OH)2 addition. Sedimentation pH significantly affects the observed settling rate. Hence, neutral conditions lead to better results than slightly acidic pHs.

  14. Antioxidant Effects of Sheep Whey Protein on Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kerasioti, Efthalia; Stagos, Dimitrios; Georgatzi, Vasiliki; Bregou, Erinda; Priftis, Alexandros; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause endothelial dysfunction and consequently vascular disease. In the present study, the possible protective effects of sheep whey protein (SWP) from tert-butyl hydroperoxide- (tBHP-) induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells (EA.hy926) were assessed using oxidative stress biomarkers. These oxidative stress biomarkers were glutathione (GSH) and ROS levels determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (CARB), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were determined spectrophotometrically. The results showed that SWP at 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, and 6.24 mg of protein mL−1 increased GSH up to 141%, while it decreased GSSG to 46.7%, ROS to 58.5%, TBARS to 52.5%, and CARB to 49.0%. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that SWP protected endothelial cells from oxidative stress. Thus, SWP may be used for developing food supplements or biofunctional foods to attenuate vascular disturbances associated with oxidative stress. PMID:27127549

  15. Hydrolysis of whey protein isolate using subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Ashley D; Morawicki, Rubén O; Hager, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (WPI) is used in the food industry for protein enrichment and modification of functional properties. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) on WPI and to determine the temperature and reaction time effects on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the production of peptides and free amino acids (AAs). Effects of temperature (150 to 320 °C) and time (0 to 20 min) were initially studied with a central composite rotatable design followed by a completely randomized factorial design with temperature (250 and 300 °C) and time (0 to 50 min) as factors. SWH was conducted in an electrically heated, 100-mL batch, high pressure vessel. The DH was determined by a spectrophotometric method after derivatization. The peptide molecular weights (MWs) were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and AAs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromotography. An interaction of temperature and time significantly affected the DH and AA concentration. As the DH increased, the accumulation of lower MW peptides also increased following SWH (and above 10% DH, the majority of peptides were <1000 Da). Hydrolysis at 300 °C for 40 min generated the highest total AA concentration, especially of lysine (8.894 mg/g WPI). Therefore, WPI was successfully hydrolyzed by subcritical water, and with adjustment of treatment parameters there is reasonable control of the end-products.

  16. Integrated process for microbial solvent production from whey permeate. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Acetone and butanol were historically produced through fermentation of carbohydrate raw materials. Conventional feedstocks such as grain and molasses, and the energy required to recover products by distillation, are too costly for traditional batch fermentation to compete with petrochemical synthesis. The authors proposed to evaluate an acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of acid whey permeate, a cheap carbohydrate source, using up-to-date bioreactor technology continuous fermentation with cell recycle and in-situ butanol recovery by gas stripping. Clostridium acetobutylicum P262 was the strain chosen, as it assimilates both the lactose and lactic acid in acid whey. Single-stage continuous culture proved unsuitable for butanol production, since productivity is low and cultures degenerated quickly. Two-stage culture improved productivity by a factor of two over batch runs. All continuous cultures showed major oscillations in cell density, substrate concentration and products formed. Under these conditions, cell recycle did not affect productivity in two-stage culture. Gas stripping with fermentor off-gases recovered a clean condensate of butanol and acetone at 70--90% yield and with purification factors of 14 to 35. Stripping maintained solvent concentrations in the range of 2--4 g/l even at the peak of solventogenesis, eliminating product inhibition. Gas stripping produced a 50% improvement in substrate uptake and a 10--20% improvement in solvent productivity.

  17. Optimized batch fermentation of cheese whey. Supplemented feedlot waste filtrate to produce a nitrogen-rich feed supplement for ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Reddy, C.A.

    1986-03-01

    An optimized batch fermentation process for the conversion of cattle feedlot waste filtrate, supplemented with cheese whey, into a nitrogenous feed supplement for ruminants is described. Feedlot waste filtrate supplemented with cheese whey (5 g of whey per 100 ml) was fermented by the indigenous microbial flora in the feedlot waste filtrate. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the fermentation not only to maintain a constant pH but also to produce ammonium salts of organic acids, which have been shown to be valuable as nitrogenous feed supplements for ruminants. The utilization of substrate carbohydrate at pH 7.0 and 43 degrees C was greater than 94% within 8 h, and the crude protein (total N X 6.25) content of the product was 70 to 78% (dry weight basis). About 66 to 69% of the crude protein was in the form of ammonia nitrogen. Lactate and acetate were the predominant acids during the first 6 to 8 hours of fermentation, but after 24 hours, appreciable levels of propionate and butyrate were also present. The rate of fermentation and the crude protein content of the product were optimal at pH 7.0 and decreased at a lower pH. For example, fermentation did not go to completion even after 24 hours at pH 4.5. Fermentation proceeded optimally at 43 degrees C, less so at 37 degrees C, and considerably more slowly at 23 and 50 degrees C. Concentrations of up to 15 g of cheese whey per 100 ml of feedlot waste filtrate were fermented efficiently. Fermentation of feedlot waste filtrate obtained from animals fed low silage-high grain, high silage-low grain, or dairy rations resulted in similar products in terms of total nitrogen and organic acid composition.

  18. Biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides by two strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in whey-based media.

    PubMed

    Iliev, I; Radoilska, E; Ivanova, I; Enikova, R

    2001-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides /EPS/ produced by lactic acid bacteria /LAB/ play a role in the rheology and texture of fermented milks (Cerning 1990) and could also provide a new source of safe additives for use in various food products. The physical properties of EPS, such as rheology and behaviour, depend on several factors, including sugar composition, type of sugar linkages, the presence of organic or inorganic substituents, the degree of polymerization and the length of the side chains. On the other hand certain physiological properties of lactic bacteria are of particular importance in the mechanism of their probiotic functioning: metabolism leading to accumulation of organic acids and other fermentation products in the media; resistance to those metabolites; competitive assimilation of the major nutrients of the media. The significant antimicrobial effect of probiotics towards pathogens and potentially pathogenic microorganisms is outlined in this context. This study was conducted on LAB strains with experimentally established preventive effect in control of chemical carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine, heavy metals and nitrites. The present study reports the biosynthesis of EPS by strains with proved anticancer effect Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB3 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus LBs on whey-based media. A study on the action of different nitrogen sources (yeast extract and peptone) on the productivity of EPS and the rheological properties of medium was done. When whey-based medium was used the highest production of EPS was determined at 1% peptone--145 mg/g(-1). The carbohydrate substrate influenced the EPS composition. Not only the concentration but also the structure of the EPS is important for its thickening effect. The functional properties of the EPS produced could be modified by influencing the growth conditions. The influence of the different content of glucose on the fermentation process and the viscosity of the whey was performed.

  19. Emulsion package and method of mixing the emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.G.; Brenneman, S.; Clancy, J.J.

    1984-08-28

    A coal tar emulsion driveway sealer is packaged in a sealed bag. The volume of sealer is less than half the capacity of the bag and the bag is substantially completely evacuated but for the sealer. The separated sealer is mixed by compressing the sides of the bag to induce turbulent flow of the paste and liquid for hydraulic mixing thereof. The sealer may be dispensed at a controlled rate without spattering by cutting a corner from the bag to provide a pour spout. The bag with the sealer may be contained in a carton. The bag membrane comprises an aluminum layer vapor deposited on polyester. Those two layers are sandwiched between layers of EVA copolymer.

  20. Latest Developments in Nuclear Emulsion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishima, Kunihiro

    Nuclear emulsion is high sensitive photographic film used for detection of three-dimensional trajectory of charged particles. These trajectories are recorded as tracks consist of a lot of silver grains. The size of silver grain is about 1 μm, so that nuclear emulsion has submicron three-dimensional spatial resolution, which gives us a few mrad three-dimensional angular resolution. The important technical progress was speed-up of the read-out technique of nuclear emulsions built with optical microscope system. We succeeded in developing a high-speed three-dimensional read-out system named Super Ultra Track Selector (S-UTS) with the operating read-out speed of approximately 50 cm2/h. Nowadays we are developing the nuclear emulsion gel independently in Nagoya University by introducing emulsion gel production machine. Moreover, we are developing nuclear emulsion production technologies (gel production, poring and mass production). In this paper, development of nuclear emulsion technologies for the OPERA experiment, applications by the technologies and current development are described.

  1. Ethylcellulose: a new type of emulsion stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Eva; Kreuter, Jörg; Daniels, Rolf

    2003-07-01

    Cellulose ethers, in particular hypromellose, represent an interesting alternative when emulsions have to be stabilized avoiding conventional low molecular weight surfactants. So far this option has been only described for the formulation of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. Since surfactant-free water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions seem to be also attractive as drug carriers, ethyl cellulose, an oil-soluble cellulose derivative, was studied for its ability to stabilize w/o emulsions. Measurements of the interfacial tension confirmed that ethylcellulose was positively adsorbed at the water/oil interface with diverse lipids. Appearance of model emulsions was dependent on the processing temperature. At low temperatures (15 degrees C) cream-like o/w emulsions were obtained. Processing at 30 degrees C yielded fluid w/o-lotions. Investigation of the microstructure showed that the surface of the emulsion droplets was covered with particles which formed a mechanical barrier. These colloidal particles were shown to be a precipitate of ethylcellulose which forms when the polymer which was dissolved in the lipid phase comes into contact with water. Thus, ethylcellulose was demonstrated to represent a new type of particulate polymeric emulsifier.

  2. High acyl gellan as an emulsion stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Joice Aline Pires; da Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

    2016-03-30

    High acyl gellan (0.01-0.2% w/w) was used as stabilizer in oil in water emulsions containing 30% (w/w) of sunflower oil and prepared under different process conditions. Stable emulsions to phase separation could be obtained using high acyl gellan (HA) content above 0.05% (w/w), while low acyl gellan (LA) prepared at the same conditions could not stabilize emulsions. Emulsions properties depended on the process used to mix the oil and gellan dispersion since high pressure homogenization favored stabilization while very high energy density applied by ultrasound led to systems destabilization. Emulsions prepared using high pressure homogenization showed zeta potential values ranging from -50 up to -59 mV, suggesting that electrostatic repulsion could be contributing to the systems stability. Rheological properties of continuous phase were also responsible for emulsions stabilization, since HA gellan dispersions showed high viscosity and gel-like behavior. The high viscosity of the continuous phase could be associated to the presence of high acyl gellan microgels/aggregates. Disentanglement of these aggregates performed by ultrasound strongly decreased the viscosity and consequently affected the emulsions behavior, reducing the stability to phase separation.

  3. Using emulsion inversion in industrial processes.

    PubMed

    Salager, Jean-Louis; Forgiarini, Ana; Márquez, Laura; Peña, Alejandro; Pizzino, Aldo; Rodriguez, María P; Rondón-González, Marianna

    2004-05-20

    Emulsion inversion is a complex phenomenon, often perceived as an instability that is essentially uncontrollable, although many industrial processes make use of it. A research effort that started 2 decades ago has provided the two-dimensional and three-dimensional description, the categorization and the theoretical interpretation of the different kinds of emulsion inversion. A clear-cut phenomenological approach is currently available for understanding its characteristics, the factors that influence it and control it, the importance of fine-tuning the emulsification protocol, and the crucial occurrence of organized structures such as liquid crystals or multiple emulsions. The current know-how is used to analyze some industrial processes involving emulsion inversion, e.g. the attainment of a fine nutrient or cosmetic emulsion by temperature or formulation-induced transitional inversion, the preparation of a silicone oil emulsion by catastrophic phase inversion, the manufacture of a viscous polymer latex by combined inversion and the spontaneous but enigmatic inversion of emulsions used in metal working operations such as lathing or lamination.

  4. Effect of spray nozzle design on fish oil-whey protein microcapsule properties.

    PubMed

    Legako, Jerrad; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut

    2010-08-01

    Microencapsulation improves oxidative stability and shelf life of fish oil. Spray and freeze drying are widely used to produce microcapsules. Newer spray-nozzles utilize multiple fluid channels allowing for mixing of wall and core materials at the point of atomization. Sonic energy has also been employed as a means of atomization. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nozzle type and design on fish oil encapsulation efficiency and microcapsule properties. A total of 3 nozzle types, a pressure nozzle with 1 liquid channel, a pressure nozzle with 2 liquid channels, and a sonic atomizer with 2 liquid channels were examined for their suitability to encapsulate fish oil in whey protein isolate. Physical and chemical properties of freeze dried microcapsules were compared to those of microcapsules produced by spray drying. The 2-fluid pressure and ultrasonic nozzles had the highest (91.6%) and the lowest microencapsulation efficiencies (76%), respectively. There was no significant difference in bulk density of microcapsules produced by ultrasonic and 3-fluid pressure nozzles. The ultrasonic nozzle showed a significantly narrower particle size distribution than the other nozzles. This study demonstrated that new nozzle designs that eliminate emulsion preparation prior to spray drying can be beneficial for microencapsulation applications. However, there is still a need for research to improve microencapsulation efficiency of multiple channel spray nozzles. Practical Application: Since this research evaluates new spray nozzle designs for oil microencapsulation, the information presented in this article could be an interest to fish oil producers and food industry.

  5. Functional properties of whey proteins affected by heat treatment and hydrodynamic high-pressure shearing.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, M; Vasiljevic, T

    2009-04-01

    Two batches of native whey proteins (WP) were subjected to microfluidization or heat denaturation accompanied by microfluidization, followed by spray drying. Powders were assessed for their solubility, heat stability, coagulation time, and emulsifying and foaming properties. Effects of denaturation and shearing were examined by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, reducing and nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and size exclusion-HPLC. Heat treatment significantly decreased solubility, whereas the number of microfluidization passes markedly improved solubility. The combined effect of heat and pressure significantly increased heat coagulation time. Emulsifying activity index substantially increased upon heat denaturation and was further enhanced by microfluidization. Emulsion stability appeared unaffected by the combined treatment, but the concentration of adsorbed protein on fat droplets was significantly increased. Foaming properties were diminished by heating. Particle size distribution patterns, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and size exclusion-HPLC revealed disappearance of major WP and creation of relatively higher, as well as smaller, molecular weight aggregates as a result of the 2 treatments. The use of heat and microfluidization in combination could be used to stabilize WP against heat by producing microparticulated species that have different surface and colloidal properties compared with native WP. These results have implications for the use of WP as an additive in heat-processed foods.

  6. Fabrication of Concentrated Fish Oil Emulsions Using Dual-Channel Microfluidization: Impact of Droplet Concentration on Physical Properties and Lipid Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuguo; Zhu, Zhenbao; Ma, Cuicui; Luo, Xiang; Bai, Long; Decker, Eric Andrew; Gao, Yanxiang; McClements, David Julian

    2016-12-21

    Chemically unstable lipophilic bioactives, such as polyunsaturated lipids, often have to be encapsulated in emulsion-based delivery systems before they can be incorporated into foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to develop highly concentrated emulsion-based fish oil delivery systems using natural emulsifiers. Fish oil-in-water emulsions were fabricated using a highly efficient dual-channel high-pressure microfluidizer. The impact of oil concentration on the formation, physical properties, and oxidative stability of fish oil emulsions prepared using two natural emulsifiers (quillaja saponins and rhamnolipids) and one synthetic emulsifier (Tween-80) was examined. The mean droplet size, polydispersity, and apparent viscosity of the fish oil emulsions increased with increasing oil content. However, physically stable emulsions with high fish oil levels (30 or 40 wt %) could be produced using all three emulsifiers, with rhamnolipids giving the smallest droplet size (d < 160 nm). The stability of the emulsions to lipid oxidation increased as the oil content increased. The oxidative stability of the emulsions also depended on the nature of the emulsifier coating the lipid droplets, with the oxidative stability decreasing in the following order: rhamnolipids > saponins ≈ Tween-80. These results suggest that rhamnolipids may be particularly effective at producing emulsions containing high concentrations of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil.

  7. Comparing serum responses to acute feedings of an extensively hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate versus a native whey protein concentrate in rats: a metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Lockwood, Christopher M; Pappan, Kirk; Childs, Thomas E; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Booth, Frank W

    2014-02-01

    We examined how gavage feeding extensively hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH) versus a native whey protein concentrate (WPC) transiently affected serum biochemical profiles in rodents. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were 8 h fasted and subsequently fed isonitrogenous amounts of WPH or WPC, or remained unfed (control). Animals were sacrificed 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min post-gavage for serum extraction, and serum was analyzed using untargeted global metabolic profiling via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography/MS/MS platforms. We detected 333 serum metabolites amongst the experimental and control groups. Both WPH and WPC generally increased amino acids (1.2-2.8-fold), branched-chain amino acids (1.2-1.7-fold), and serum di- and oligo-peptides (1.1-2.7-fold) over the 60 min time course compared with control (q < 0.05). However, WPH increased lysine (false discovery rate using a q-value <0.05) and tended to increase isoleucine and valine 15 min post-feeding (q < 0.10) as well as aspartylleucine 30 min post-feeding compared with WPC (q < 0.05). While both protein sources led to a dramatic increase in free fatty acids compared with control (up to 6-fold increases, q < 0.05), WPH also uniquely resulted in a 30 min post-feeding elevation in free fatty acids compared with WPC (q < 0.05), an effect which may be due to the robust 30 min postprandial increase in epinephrine in the WPH cohort. These data provide a unique postprandial time-course perspective on how WPH versus WPC feedings affect circulating biochemicals and will guide future research comparing these 2 protein sources.

  8. Pump safety tests regarding emulsion explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perlid, H.

    1996-12-31

    In the handling of emulsion explosives pumping is a key operation. A number of serious accidents has shown that pumping can be a risky operation and should be carefully considered and investigated. This is the background behind a series of pump tests carried out by Nitro Nobel. This paper refers to pump safety tests with an eccentric screw pump (progressive cavity) and emulsion explosives. A selection of emulsions unsensitized as well as sensitized were tested. The tests were performed in a circulation system against dead head and as dry pumping.

  9. Enhanced incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid in serum, heart, and brain of rats given microemulsions of fish oil.

    PubMed

    Sugasini, D; Lokesh, B R

    2013-10-01

    Long-chain n-3 fatty acids are essential for the development of cognitive functions and reducing the risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study was undertaken to prepare fish oil (FO) microemulsion and explore the possibility of enhancing the enrichment of long-chain n-3 PUFA in the heart and brain lipids. The bioavailability of encapsulated FO was compared with that of native oil in rats by utilizing the intestinal sac method and by an in vivo study giving microemulsions of FO through intubation for a period of 30 days. Microemulsions were prepared using chitosan, gum acacia, whey protein, and lipoid. The bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from FO encapsulated in chitosan, gum acacia, whey protein, and lipoid was increased by 7, 9, 23, and 68%, respectively, as compared to oil given without encapsulation in the everted intestinal sacs model. The DHA levels in serum lipids when FO was given as lipoid emulsion to rats were found to be 56 μg/ml, while rats given FO without encapsulation had a DHA level of 22 μg/ml. In the heart and brain lipids, the DHA levels were increased by 77 and 41%, respectively, in rats given FO encapsulated with lipoid compared to those given native oil. These studies indicated that DHA from FO was taken up in a more efficient manner when given in an encapsulated form with lipoid. Thus, phospholipid-based binding materials such as Lipoid provide a good delivery system for FO and significantly enhance DHA levels in the serum, liver, heart, and brain tissues.

  10. Acetate production from whey lactose using co-immobilized cells of homolactic and homoacetic bacteria in a fibrous-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Yang, S.T.

    1998-11-20

    Acetate was produced from whey lactose in batch and fed-batch fermentations using co-immobilized cells of Clostridium formicoaceticum and Lactococcus lactis. The cells were immobilized in a spirally wound fibrous sheet packed in a 0.45-L column reactor, with liquid circulated through a 5-L stirred-tank fermentor. Industrial-grade nitrogen sources, including corn steep liquor, casein hydrolysate, and yeast hydrolysate, were studied as inexpensive nutrient supplements to whey permeate and acid whey. Supplementation with either 2.5% (v/v) corn steep liquor or 1.5 g/L casein hydrolysate was adequate for the cocultured fermentation. The overall acetic acid yield from lactose was 0.9 g/g, and the productivity was 0.25 g/(L h). Both lactate and acetate at high concentrations inhibited the homoacetic fermentation. To overcome these inhibitions, fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentation was 75 g/L, which was the highest acetate concentration ever produced by C. formicoaceticum. Even at this high acetate concentration, the overall productivity was 0.18 g/(L h) based on the total medium volume and 1.23 g/(L h) based on the fibrous-bed reactor volume. The cells isolated from the fibrous-bed bioreactor at the end of this study were more tolerant to acetic acid than the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, indicating that adaptation and natural selection of acetate-tolerant strains occurred. This cocultured fermentation process could be used to produce a low-cost acetate deicer from whey permeate and acid whey.

  11. Using the pseudophase kinetic model to interpret chemical reactivity in ionic emulsions: determining antioxidant partition constants and interfacial rate constants.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Romsted, Laurence S

    2013-06-15

    Kinetic results obtained in cationic and anionic emulsions show for the first time that pseudophase kinetic models give reasonable estimates of the partition constants of reactants, here t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) between the oil and interfacial region, P(O)(I), and the water and interfacial region, P(W)(I), and of the interfacial rate constant, k(I), for the reaction with an arenediazonium ion in emulsions containing a 1:1 volume ratio of a medium chain length triglyceride, MCT, and aqueous acid or buffer. The results provide: (a) an explanation for the large difference in pH, >4 pH units, required to run the reaction in CTAB (pH 1.54, added HBr) and SDS (pH 5.71, acetate buffer) emulsions; (b) reasonable estimates of PO(I) and k(I) in the CTAB emulsions; (c) a sensible interpretation of added counterion effects based on ion exchange in SDS emulsions (Na(+)/H3O(+) ion exchange in the interfacial region) and Donnan equilibrium in CTAB emulsions (Br(-) increasing the interfacial H3O(+)); and (d) the significance of the effect of the much greater solubility of TBHQ in MCT versus octane, 1000/1, as the oil. These results should aid in interpreting the effects of ionic surfactants on chemical reactivity in emulsions in general and in selecting the most efficient antioxidant for particular food applications.

  12. Decompressing Emulsion Droplets Favors Coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremond, Nicolas; Thiam, Abdou R.; Bibette, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    The destabilization process of an emulsion under flow is investigated in a microfluidic device. The experimental approach enables us to generate a periodic train of droplet pairs, and thus to isolate and analyze the basic step of the destabilization, namely, the coalescence of two droplets which collide. We demonstrate a counterintuitive phenomenon: coalescence occurs during the separation phase and not during the impact. Separation induces the formation of two facing nipples in the contact area that hastens the connection of the interfaces prior to fusion. Moreover, droplet pairs initially stabilized by surfactants can be destabilized by forcing the separation. Finally, we note that the fusion mechanism is responsible for a cascade of coalescence events in a compact system of droplets where the separation is driven by surface tension.

  13. Dielectrophoresis of reverse phase emulsions.

    PubMed

    Flores-Rodriguez, N; Bryning, Z; Markx, G H

    2005-08-01

    Reverse miniemulsions, emulsions of droplets of size 200 nm-1 microm of a polar liquid dispersed in an apolar continuous liquid phase, exhibit strong electrokinetic responses in low-frequency electric fields. The electrokinetic behaviour of a reverse miniemulsion, previously developed for use as electronic paper, has been investigated under static and flow conditions, in uniform and non-uniform electric fields. Results reveal that when using frequencies lower than 10 Hz strong aggregation of the droplets occurs. In uniform electric fields, under static conditions, droplets reversibly aggregate into honeycomb-like or irregular aggregates. Under flow conditions, droplets aggregate into approximately equidistant streams. In non-uniform electric fields the droplets reversibly aggregate in high-field regions, and can be guided along regions of high field strength in a flow. The potential of the technique for the formation of structured materials is discussed.

  14. Stability assessment of injectable castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion containing cationic droplets stabilized by poloxamer-chitosan emulsifier films.

    PubMed

    Tamilvanan, S; Kumar, B Ajith; Senthilkumar, S R; Baskar, Raj; Sekharan, T Raja

    2010-06-01

    The objectives of the present work were to prepare castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion containing cationic droplets stabilized by poloxamer-chitosan emulgator film and to assess the kinetic stability of the prepared cationic emulsion after subjecting it to thermal processing and freeze-thaw cycling. Presence of cryoprotectants (5%, w/w, sucrose +5%, w/w, sorbitol) improved the stability of emulsions to droplet aggregation during freeze-thaw cycling. After storing the emulsion at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 37 degrees C over a period of up to 6 months, no significant change was noted in mean diameter of the dispersed oil droplets. However, the emulsion stored at the highest temperature did show a progressive decrease in the pH and zeta potential values, whereas the emulsion kept at the lowest temperatures did not. This indicates that at 37 degrees C, free fatty acids were formed from the castor oil, and consequently, the liberated free fatty acids were responsible for the reduction in the emulsion pH and zeta potential values. Thus, the injectable castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion could be useful for incorporating various active pharmaceutical ingredients that are in size from small molecular drugs to large macromolecules such as oligonucleotides.

  15. Spruce galactoglucomannans inhibit the lipid oxidation in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil-in-water emulsions are functional and industrially valuable systems, whose large interfacial area makes them prone to deterioration, due in part to as the oxidation and oligomerization of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM), wood biomacromolecules abundantly available f...

  16. Effects of fructooligosaccharide and whey protein concentrate on the viability of starter culture in reduced-fat probiotic yogurt during storage.

    PubMed

    Akalin, A S; Gönç, S; Unal, G; Fenderya, S

    2007-09-01

    Viability of yogurt starter cultures and Bifidobacterium animalis was assessed during 28 d storage in reduced-fat yogurts containing 1.5% milk fat supplemented with 1.5% fructooligosaccharide or whey protein concentrate. These properties were examined in comparison with control yogurts containing 1.5% and 3% milk fat and no supplement. Although fructooligosaccharide improved the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium animalis, the highest growth was obtained when milk was supplemented with whey protein concentrate in reduced-fat yogurt (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1.5% whey protein concentrate in reduced-fat yogurt increased the viable counts of S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus, and B. animalis by 1 log cycle in the 1st week of storage when compared to control sample. Similar improvement in the growth of both yogurt bacteria and B. animalis was also obtained in the full-fat yogurt containing 3% milk fat and no supplement. Addition of whey protein concentrate also resulted in the highest content of lactic and acetic acids (P < 0.05). A gradual increase was obtained in organic acid contents during the storage.

  17. Effect of different hydrolysates of whey protein on hepatic glutathione content in mice.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Maria Teresa Bertoldo; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of diets prepared with enzymatic hydrolysate of a whey protein concentrate (WPC) by pancreatin, protamex (Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark), and alcalase proteases on the hepatic glutathione content in mice. The undenatured WPC was produced in a pilot plant by membrane technology (microfiltration/diafiltration) after separation of the casein clot through a conventional process. All three hydrolysates with 20% degree of hydrolysis showed an amino acid profile similar to WPC. Male A/J mice were fed on diets containing 20% WPC or hydrolysates. Commercial casein was used as a reference protein in the biological assays. The glutathione content was determined after liver extraction through high-performance capillary electrophoresis. WPC and its pancreatin and protamex hydrolysates showed higher ability to stimulate liver glutathione synthesis than alcalase hydrolysate. This difference was probably related to an amino acid sequence in the peptides that were formed during hydrolysis of whey proteins. Commercial casein and WPC alcalase hydrolysate produced lower stimulation of liver glutathione synthesis (7.09 and 5.66 micromol/g of wet weight) compared with WPC and pancreatin and protamex hydrolysates (8.72, 8.71, and 8.45 micromol/g of wet weight, respectively). These results indicate that the hydrolysates obtained by treatment with pancreatin and protamex are good sources of peptides with activity to stimulate glutathione synthesis.

  18. Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

    1984-01-01

    Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

  19. Multi-body coalescence in Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Wang, Haitao; Jing, Benxin; Liu, Fang; Burns, Peter C; Na, Chongzheng

    2015-01-12

    Particle-stabilized Pickering emulsions have shown unusual behaviours such as the formation of non-spherical droplets and the sudden halt of coalescence between individual droplets. Here we report another unusual behaviour of Pickering emulsions-the simultaneous coalescence of multiple droplets in a single event. Using latex particles, silica particles and carbon nanotubes as model stabilizers, we show that multi-body coalescence can occur in both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. The number of droplets involved in the nth coalscence event equals four times the corresponding number of the tetrahedral sequence in close packing. Furthermore, coalescence is promoted by repulsive latex and silica particles but inhibited by attractive carbon nanotubes. The revelation of multi-body coalescence is expected to help better understand Pickering emulsions in natural systems and improve their designs in engineering applications.

  20. Scanning microbeam small-angle X-ray diffraction study of interfacial heterogeneous crystallization of fat crystals in oil-in-water emulsion droplets.

    PubMed

    Arima, S; Ueno, S; Ogawa, A; Sato, K

    2009-09-01

    We performed scanning microbeam small-angle X-ray diffraction (micro-SAXD) experiments, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and optical microscopic observation of palm mid fraction (PMF) crystals in oil-in-water emulsion droplets. The scanning micro-SAXD experiment was performed by irradiating a synchrotron radiation X-ray microbeam having an area of 5 x 5 microm(2) onto different positions on a 50 microm diameter emulsion droplet after the crystallization of PMF by chilling the emulsion at 5 degrees C. The micro-SAXD patterns were recorded with a two-dimensional (2D) detector, which enabled spatial analysis of polymorphic structures and the orientation of lamella planes of PMF crystals at different positions inside the emulsion droplet. Particular attention was paid to compare the crystallization of PMF in two types of emulsion droplets, hydrophilic polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate (Tween 80) alone (Tween 80 emulsion) and Tween 80 and hydrophobic sucrose palmitic acid oligoester (P-170) (Tween 80+P-170 emulsion). The DSC study revealed that the PMF crystallization temperature in the Tween 80+P-170 emulsion droplets increased by 3 degrees C compared to that of the Tween 80 emulsion because of the effects of the P-170 additive in promoting PMF crystallization. The micro-SAXD studies revealed the following results. (1) The lamella planes of PMF crystals near the outer edges of the droplet in the Tween 80+P-170 emulsion were mostly parallel to an oil-water interface, whereas the lamella planes of PMF crystals were not always aligned with the oil-water interface in the Tween 80 emulsion droplet. (2) The degree of orientation of the lamellar planes of PMF crystals, which was evaluated from the values of full width at half-maximum of 2D micro-SAXD patterns with respect to azimuthal angle extension, was remarkably higher in the Tween 80+P-170 emulsion than in the Tween 80 emulsion. (3) Polymorphic transformation of PMF from alpha to beta' in the Tween 80

  1. Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D

    2015-02-01

    The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials.

  2. Shear-stabilized emulsion flooding process

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C.W.; Reed, R.L.

    1982-06-29

    Additional amounts of crude oil are recovered from a subterranean formation by flooding with a translucent emulsion comprising an upper- or middle-phase microemulsion as an external phase and a polymer-containing brine solution as an internal phase. The translucent emulsion tends to coalesce into its component phases under conditions of no shear, but is stabilized by low shears such as those imposed on fluids flowing through a subterranean formation.

  3. Tunable Pickering Emulsions with Environmentally Responsive Hairy Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Chen, Xiaoli; Yang, Zongpeng; Xu, Zhou; Hong, Liangzhi; Ngai, To

    2016-11-30

    Surface modification of the nanoparticles using surface anchoring of amphiphilic polymers offers considerable scope for the design of a wide range of brush-coated hybrid nanoparticles with tunable surface wettability that may serve as new class of efficient Pickering emulsifiers. In the present study, we prepared mixed polymer brush-coated nanoparticles by grafting ABC miktoarm star terpolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol), polystyrene, and poly[(3-triisopropyloxysilyl)propyl methacrylate] (μ-PEG-b-PS-b-PIPSMA) on the surface of silica nanoparticles. The wettability of the as-prepared nanoparticles can be precisely tuned by a change of solvent or host-guest complexation. (1)H NMR result confirmed that such wettability change is due to the reorganization of the polymer chain at the grafted layer. We show that this behavior can be used for stabilization and switching between water-in-oil (W/O) and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. For hairy particles initially dispersed in oil, W/O emulsions were always obtained with collapsed PEG chains and mobile PS chains at the grafted layer. However, initially dispersing the hairy particles in water resulted in O/W emulsions with collapsed PS chains and mobile PEG chains. When a good solvent for both PS and PEG blocks such as toluene was used, W/O emulsions were always obtained no matter where the hairy particles were dispersed. The wettability of the mixed polymer brush-coated silica particles can also be tuned by host-guest complexation between PEG block and α-CD. More importantly, our result showed that surprisingly the resultant mixed brush-coated hairy nanoparticles can be employed for the one-step production of O/W/O multiple emulsions that are not attainable from conventional Pickering emulsifiers. The functionalized hairy silica nanoparticles at the oil-water interface can be further linked together utilizing poly(acrylic acid) as the reversible linker to form supramolecular colloidosomes, which show p

  4. The complexity of prescribing intravenous lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsions (LEs) are relevant for patients receiving parenteral nutrition because they prevent the depletion of essential fatty acids (FAs) and, as a highly dense energy source, enable the reduction of glucose provision, thereby decreasing the risks of hyperglycemia and hepatic impairment. The prescription of LEs is complex, due mainly to their distinct FA components, which may alter the immune response in different ways and distinctly influence inflammation, oxidative stress and blood coagulation according to their biochemical properties. In addition, an excess of other LE components, such as phospholipids and phytosterols, may be associated with hepatic steatosis and dysfunction. These associations do not represent direct risks or obstacles to LE use in metabolically stable patients but can render the choice of the best LE for hypermetabolic patients difficult. The infusion of LEs according to the available guidelines provides more benefit than harm and should be part of exclusive parenteral nutrition regimens or complement enteral nutrition when appropriate. The patient's metabolic profile should guide the type of FA and amount of lipids that are provided. For critically ill hypermetabolic patients, growing evidence indicates that standard LEs based solely on soybean oil should be avoided in favor of new LEs containing medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, or fish oil to decrease the provision of potentially oxidative, inflammatory/immunosuppressive, and prothrombotic n-6 FAs. In addition, as sources of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, LEs containing fish oil may be important for critically ill patients because they allow better modulation of the immune response and likely reduce the length of intensive care unity stay. However, current evidence precludes the recommendation of a specific LE for clinical use in this patient population.

  5. Whey starter for Grana Padano cheese: effect of technological parameters on viability and composition of the microbial community.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, M; Gatti, M; Lazzi, C; Bernini, V; Zapparoli, G A; Neviani, E

    2008-03-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effects of thermal treatments and yeast extract addition on the composition of the microbial community of natural whey starters for Grana Padano cheese. Different natural whey starter samples were held at 4 degrees C for 24 h (cooling treatment), or at -20 degrees C for 24 h (freezing treatment) to evaluate the possibility of conservation, or at 54 degrees C for 1 h (heat treatment) to evaluate the effect of the temperature commonly used during curd cooking. Separately, another set of samples was enriched with 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0% (wt/vol) of yeast extract to study its effect on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the starter. The new approach in this study is the use of 2 culture-independent methods: length heterogeneity (LH)-reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and fluorescence microscopy. These techniques allowed us to easily, quickly, and reproducibly assess metabolically active LAB in the control and treated samples. The LH-RT-PCR technique distinguished microorganisms based on natural variations in the length of 16S rRNA amplified by RT-PCR, as analyzed by using an automatic gene sequencer. Fluorescence microscopy counts were performed by using a Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit. The repeatability of LH-RT-PCR showed that this technique has great potential to reveal changes in the microbial community of natural whey starters for Grana Padano cheese. All species showed low sensitivity to cold (4 degrees C). However, after the freezing (-20 degrees C) and heating (54 degrees C) treatments, different behaviors of the species were reported, with significant changes in their viability and relative composition. Heating treatment during curd cooking profoundly affected the viability and composition of the community that remained in the cheese and that consequently modified the microbial population. At the same time, this treatment produced the selection of LAB in whey and could be considered as the first step in natural

  6. Hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion): formation and rheology.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Mydul; Aramaki, Kenji

    2008-11-04

    The formation, stability, and rheological behavior of a hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion) have been studied in water/C12EO8/hydrocarbon oil systems. A partial phase behavior study indicates that the oil nature has no effect on the phase sequences in the ternary phase diagram of water/C12EO8/oil systems but the domain size of the phases or the oil solubilization capacity considerably changes with oil nature. Excess oil is in equilibrium with the hexagonal phase (H1) in the ternary phase diagram in the H1+O region. The O/H1 gel-emulsion was prepared (formation) and kept at 25 degrees C to check stability. It has been found that the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion depends on the oil nature. After 2 min observation (formation), the results show that short chain linear hydrocarbon oils (heptane, octane) are more apt to form a O/H1 gel-emulsion compared to long chain linear hydrocarbon oils (tetradecane, hexadecane), though the stability is not good enough in either system, that is, oil separates within 24 h. Nevertheless, the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion is appreciably increased in squalane and liquid paraffin. It is surmised that the high transition temperature of the H1+O phase and the presence of a bicontinuous cubic phase (V1) might hamper the formation of a gel-emulsion. It has been pointed out that the solubilization of oil in the H1 phase could be related to emulsion stability. On the other hand, the oil nature has little or no effect on the formation and stability of a cubic phase based gel-emulsion (O/I1 gel-emulsion). From rheological measurements, it has found that the rheogram of the O/H1 gel-emulsion indicates gel-type structure and shows shear thinning behavior similar to the case of the O/I1 gel-emulsion. Rheological data infer that the O/I1 gel-emulsion is more viscous than the O/H1 gel-emulsion at room temperature but the O/H1 gel-emulsion shows consistency at elevated temperature.

  7. Pickering emulsions stabilized by charged nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ridel, Laure; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Gilon-Delepine, Nicole; Dugas, Pierre-Yves; Chevalier, Yves

    2016-09-28

    The stabilization of o/w Pickering emulsions in cases of weak adsorption of solid particles at the surface of oil droplets is addressed. Though the adsorption is usually very strong and irreversible when partial wetting conditions are fulfilled, electrostatic repulsions between charged solid particles act against the adsorption. The regime of weak adsorption was reached using charged silica nanoparticles at high pH and low ionic strength. O/w Pickering emulsions of the diisopropyl adipate oil were stabilized by colloidal nanoparticles of Ludox® AS40 consisting of non-aggregated particles of bare silica (hydrophilic). The combination of stability assessment, droplet size and electrokinetic potential measurements at various pH values, adsorption isotherms and cryo-SEM observations of the adsorbed layers disclosed the specificities of the stabilization of Pickering emulsions by adsorption of solid nanoparticles against strong electrostatic repulsions. Not only the long-term stability of emulsions was poor under strong electrostatic repulsions at high pH, but emulsification failed since full dispersion of oil could not be achieved. Emulsion stability was ensured by decreasing electrostatic repulsions by lowering the pH from 9 to 3. Stable emulsions were stabilized by a monolayer of silica particles at 54% coverage of the oil droplet surface at low silica content and an adsorption regime as multilayers was reached at higher concentrations of silica although there was no aggregation of silica in the bulk aqueous phase.

  8. Conditions for equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Daniela J; de Folter, Julius W J; Luigjes, Bob; Castillo, Sonja I R; Sacanna, Stefano; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2010-08-19

    Particular types of solid-stabilized emulsions can be thermodynamically stable as evidenced by their spontaneous formation and monodisperse droplet size, which only depends on system parameters. Here, we investigate the generality of these equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions with respect to the basic constituents: aqueous phase with ions, oil, and stabilizing particles. From systematic variations of these constituents, we identify general conditions for the spontaneous formation of monodisperse solid-stabilized emulsions droplets. We conclude that emulsion stability is achieved by a combination of solid particles as well as amphiphilic ions adsorbed at the droplet surface, and low interfacial tensions of the bare oil-water interface of order 10 mN/m or below. Furthermore, preferential wetting of the colloidal particles by the oil phase is necessary for thermodynamic stability. We demonstrate the sufficiency of these basic requirements by extending the observed thermodynamic stability to emulsions of different compositions. Our findings point to a new class of colloid-stabilized meso-emulsions with a potentially high impact on industrial emulsification processes due to the associated large energy savings.

  9. Production of aroma compounds from whey using Wickerhamomyces pijperi.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Naoki; Kudo, Miyuki; Nakamura, Yukako; Mizukoshi, Harumi; Kitada, Takahiro; Sone, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    The production of aroma compounds by the microbial fermentation of whey was studied. Seven strains of the yeast Wickerhamomyces pijperi were used for the fermentation of glucose-added whey (whey-g). Twelve aroma compounds (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl benzoate) were identified in the fermented broth using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The major components were ethyl acetate (several tens to hundreds ppm), acetaldehyde (several tens ppm) and isoamyl alcohol (about 10 ppm). The strong fruity odor of ethyl benzoate (about 1 ppm) was detected in the broth of W. pijperi YIT 8095 and YIT 12779. The balance of aroma compounds produced was varied depending on the media used, and ethyl benzoate was only produced when using whey-g. The variation in the production of the aroma compounds over time using W. pijperi YIT 12779 at various culture temperatures (from 15-30°C) was also studied. From the results we propose that W. pijperi could be used as a novel microorganism for production of aroma compounds from whey.

  10. Comparison of the physicochemical properties of MCT-containing fat emulsions in total nutrient admixtures.

    PubMed

    Télessy, I G; Balogh, J; Csempesz, F; Szente, V; Dredán, J; Zelkó, R

    2009-08-01

    The physical stability of two types of MCT-emulsions made by different technologies - physical mixture vs. structured lipids - was studied as a function of storage time and temperature. Particle size analysis, zeta potential and dynamic surface tension measurements were carried out to evaluate the possible changes in the kinetic stability of the emulsions. Our results indicate that the physical mixture technology of MCT-emulsions resulted in impaired physicochemical stability compared to the ones containing structured triglycerides. In the case of structured lipids, both medium and long chain fatty acids can be found in one triglyceride molecule, leading to a favorable interfacial location of structured triglycerides. Besides the advantageous metabolic effects of structured triglycerides, their application is recommended to improve the physical stability of TPN admixtures.

  11. Controlled release behaviour of protein-loaded microparticles prepared via coaxial or emulsion electrospray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Xiaoping; Liu, Wentao; Zhang, Feng; Cai, Qing; Deng, Xuliang

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles are an effective way to achieve sustained