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Sample records for acid writhing test

  1. Tipepidine enhances the antinociceptive-like action of carbamazepine in the acetic acid writhing test.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Miki, Risa; Urashima, Yuri; Honda, Sokichi; Shehata, Ahmed M; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2011-01-25

    Several antidepressants have been used to treat severe pain in clinics. Recently, we reported that the centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive (cough suppressant drug), tipepidine produces an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test, although the mechanism of action appears to be quite different from that of known antidepressants. In the present study, we investigated whether a combination of tipepidine and carbamazepine acts synergistically to induce an antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Prior to studying the combination of tipepidine and carbamazepine, the analgesic action of tipepidine alone was also examined in mice. Tipepidine at 5-40mg/kg i.p. significantly reduced the number of writhes induced by acetic acid in mice. Carbamazepine at 20mg/kg i.p. also significantly reduced the writhing reaction. Furthermore, co-administration of carbamazepine (5 and 10mg/kg, i.p.) and tipepidine (2.5mg/kg i.p.) significantly decreased the number of writhes induced by acetic acid. This finding suggests that a combination of carbamazepine and tipepidine may be a new strategy for the treatment of neuropathic pain such as what occurs in trigeminal neuralgia, because the use of carbamazepine is often limited by its adverse effects and by reduction of its analgesic efficacy by microsomal enzyme induction. PMID:21114989

  2. Isobolographic analysis of interaction between cyclooxygenase inhibitors and tramadol in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, Padi S V; Jain, Naveen K; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Shrinivas K

    2004-07-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids are the most commonly used analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain. Combined use of NSAIDs and opioids has been indicated for achieving better analgesia with reduced side effects. The present study was aimed at evaluating the combination of different NSAIDs, which inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and tramadol against acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The expected beneficial effect of combination regimen was analyzed by isobolographic analysis. The oral and intrathecally administered tramadol, a mu-opioid and naproxen, a nonselective COX inhibitor produced dose-dependent antinociception, however, rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor lacked analgesic efficacy in writhing test. Isobolographic analysis showed synergistic or supra-additive interactions for the combinations of naproxen and tramadol after oral and intrathecal administration. However, similar interaction was not observed when tramadol was combined with rofecoxib. Pretreatment with naloxone partially reversed the antinociceptive effect of tramadol per se and its combination with naproxen without modifying the per se effect of NSAID. The results demonstrated marked synergistic interaction between naproxen and tramadol and such interaction involved opioid as well as non-opioid mechanisms of tramadol and inhibition of COX-1 but not COX-2 by naproxen.

  3. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Parasar, Devraj; Sagar, Amin; Choudhary, Vikas; Chopra, Bhupinder Singh; Garg, Renu; Ashish; Khatri, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg)] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histo-pathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model. PMID:26426535

  4. Aconitine-induced writhing as a method for assessing aspirin-like analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, T N; Bhargava, K P

    1980-01-01

    A painful writhing syndrome is produced by aconitine when given intraperitoneally. It is similar to that induced by other chemical agent viz. phenylquinone, acetic acid, and bradykinin. Aconitine writhing is quick to appear, shows greater frequency and longer duration than that induced by other agents. The nonnarcotic analgesics more selectively antagonize the aconitine writhing than orally-administered narcotic analgesics. Thus the aconitine writhing method is a very suitable method for the selective screening of the aspirin type of analgesic agent.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Pyeongwisan on LPS-Stimulated Murine Macrophages and Mouse Models of Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing Response and Xylene-Induced Ear Edema

    PubMed Central

    Oh, You-Chang; Jeong, Yun Hee; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ha, Jeong-Ho; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Pyeongwisan (PW) is an herbal medication used in traditional East Asian medicine to treat anorexia, abdominal distension, borborygmus and diarrhea caused by gastric catarrh, atony and dilatation. However, its effects on inflammation-related diseases are unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of PW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in macrophages and on local inflammation in vivo. We investigated the biological effects of PW on the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines and related products as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, we evaluated the analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the inhibitory activity on xylene-induced ear edema in mice. PW showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In addition, PW strongly suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a NO synthesis enzyme, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and inhibited NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation. Also, PW suppressed TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophage cells. Furthermore, PW showed an analgesic effect on the writhing response and an inhibitory effect on mice ear edema. We demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects and inhibitory mechanism in macrophages as well as inhibitory activity of PW in vivo for the first time. Our results suggest the potential value of PW as an inflammatory therapeutic agent developed from a natural substance. PMID:25569097

  6. Coupling of twist and writhe in short DNA loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medalion, Shlomi; Rappaport, Shay M.; Rabin, Yitzhak

    2010-01-01

    While bending and twist can be treated as independent degrees of freedom for linear DNA molecules, the loop closure constraint introduces a coupling between these variables in circular DNA. We performed Monte Carlo simulations of wormlike rods with both bending and twist rigidity in order to study the coupling between the writhe and twist distributions for various DNA lengths. We find that for sufficiently short DNA, the writhe distribution differs from that of a model with bending energy only. We show that the factorization approximation introduced by previous researchers coincides, within numerical accuracy, with our simulation results, and conclude that the closure constraint is fully accounted for by the White-Fuller relation. Experimental tests of our results for short DNA plasmids are proposed.

  7. The Writhe of Helical Structures in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toeroek, T.; Berger, M. A.; Kliem, B.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Helicity is a fundamental property of magnetic fields, conserved in ideal MHD. In flux rope topology, it consists of twist and writhe helicity. Despite the common occurrence of helical structures in the solar atmosphere, little is known about how their shape relates to the writhe, which fraction of helicity is contained in writhe, and how much helicity is exchanged between twist and writhe when they erupt. Aims. Here we perform a quantitative investigation of these questions relevant for coronal flux ropes. Methods. The decomposition of the writhe of a curve into local and nonlocal components greatly facilitates its computation. We use it to study the relation between writhe and projected S shape of helical curves and to measure writhe and twist in numerical simulations of flux rope instabilities. The results are discussed with regard to filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Results. (1) We demonstrate that the relation between writhe and projected S shape is not unique in principle, but that the ambiguity does not affect low-lying structures, thus supporting the established empirical rule which associates stable forward (reverse) S shaped structures low in the corona with positive (negative) helicity. (2) Kink-unstable erupting flux ropes are found to transform a far smaller fraction of their twist helicity into writhe helicity than often assumed. (3) Confined flux rope eruptions tend to show stronger writhe at low heights than ejective eruptions (CMEs). This argues against suggestions that the writhing facilitates the rise of the rope through the overlying field. (4) Erupting filaments which are S shaped already before the eruption and keep the sign of their axis writhe (which is expected if field of one chirality dominates the source volume of the eruption), must reverse their S shape in the course of the rise. Implications for the occurrence of the helical kink instability in such events are discussed.

  8. Twisting and Writhing with George Ellery Hale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    2013-06-01

    Early in his productive career in astronomy, George Ellery Hale developed innovative solar instrumentation that allowed him to make narrow-band images. Among the solar phenomena he discovered were sunspot vortices, which he attributed to storms akin to cyclones in our own atmosphere. Using the concept of magnetic helicity, physicists and mathematicians describe the topology of magnetic fields, including twisting and writhing. Our contemporary understanding of Hale's vortices as a consequence of large-scale twist in sunspot magnetic fields hinges on a key property of helicity: conservation. I will describe the critical role that this property plays, when applied to twist and writhe, in a fundamental aspect of global solar magnetism: the hemispheric and solar cycle dependences of active region electric currents with respect to magnetic fields. With the advent of unbroken sequences of high-resolution magnetic images, such as those presently available from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on Solar Dynamics Observatory, the flux of magnetic helicity through the photosphere can be observed quantitatively. As magnetic flux tubes buoy up through the convection zone, buffeted and shredded by turbulence, they break up into fragments by repeated random bifurcation. We track these rising flux fragments in the photosphere, and calculate the flux of energy and magnetic helicity there. Using a quantitative model of coronal currents, we also track connections between these fragments to calculate the energy and magnetic helicity stored at topological interfaces that are in some ways analogous to the storage of stress at faults in the Earth's crust. Comparison of these values to solar flares and interplanetary coronal mass ejections implies that this is the primary storage mechanism for energy and magnetic helicity released in those phenomena, and suggests a useful tool for quantitative prediction of geomagnetic storms.

  9. The extended polar writhe: a tool for open curves mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Christopher B.; Neukirch, Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    A measure of the writhing of a curve is introduced and is used to extend the Călugăreanu decomposition for closed curves, as well as the polar decomposition for curves bound between planes. The new writhe measure is also shown to be able to assess changes in linking due to belt-trick and knotting type deformations, and further its utility is illustrated on examples taken from elastic rod parameter-continuation studies. Finally C++ and mathematica codes are made available and shown to be faster than existing algorithms for the numerical computation of the writhe.

  10. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  11. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  12. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  13. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  14. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  15. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The test is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The ... level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...

  16. Conservation of writhe helicity under anti-parallel reconnection

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Christian E.; Ricca, Renzo L.; Sumners, De Witt L.

    2015-01-01

    Reconnection is a fundamental event in many areas of science, from the interaction of vortices in classical and quantum fluids, and magnetic flux tubes in magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics, to the recombination in polymer physics and DNA biology. By using fundamental results in topological fluid mechanics, the helicity of a flux tube can be calculated in terms of writhe and twist contributions. Here we show that the writhe is conserved under anti-parallel reconnection. Hence, for a pair of interacting flux tubes of equal flux, if the twist of the reconnected tube is the sum of the original twists of the interacting tubes, then helicity is conserved during reconnection. Thus, any deviation from helicity conservation is entirely due to the intrinsic twist inserted or deleted locally at the reconnection site. This result has important implications for helicity and energy considerations in various physical contexts. PMID:25820408

  17. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  18. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  19. The evolution of writhe in kink-unstable flux ropes and erupting filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, T.; Kliem, B.; Berger, M. A.; Linton, M. G.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.

    2014-06-01

    The helical kink instability of a twisted magnetic flux tube has been suggested as a trigger mechanism for solar filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In order to investigate if estimations of the pre-emptive twist can be obtained from observations of writhe in such events, we quantitatively analyze the conversion of twist into writhe in the course of the instability, using numerical simulations. We consider the line tied, cylindrically symmetric Gold-Hoyle flux rope model and measure the writhe using the formulae by Berger and Prior which express the quantity as a single integral in space. We find that the amount of twist converted into writhe does not simply scale with the initial flux rope twist, but depends mainly on the growth rates of the instability eigenmodes of higher longitudinal order than the basic mode. The saturation levels of the writhe, as well as the shapes of the kinked flux ropes, are very similar for considerable ranges of initial flux rope twists, which essentially precludes estimations of pre-eruptive twist from measurements of writhe. However, our simulations suggest an upper twist limit of ˜6π for the majority of filaments prior to their eruption.

  20. TWIST, WRITHE, AND HELICITY IN THE INNER PENUMBRA OF A SUNSPOT

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz Cobo, B.; Puschmann, K. G. E-mail: kgp@aip.de

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this work is the determination of the twist, writhe, and self-magnetic helicity of penumbral filaments located in an inner sunspot penumbra. For this purpose, we inverted data taken with the spectropolarimeter on board Hinode with the SIR (Stokes Inversion based on Response function) code. For the construction of a three-dimensional geometrical model we applied a genetic algorithm minimizing the divergence of B-vector and the net magnetohydrodynamic force, consequently a force-free solution would be reached if possible. We estimated two proxies to the magnetic helicity frequently used in literature: the force-free parameter {alpha}{sub z} and the current helicity term h{sub c{sub z}}. We show that both proxies are only qualitative indicators of the local twist as the magnetic field in the area under study significantly departs from a force-free configuration. The local twist shows significant values only at the borders of bright penumbral filaments with opposite signs on each side. These locations are precisely correlated to large electric currents. The average twist (and writhe) of penumbral structures is very small. The spines (dark filaments in the background) show a nearly zero writhe. The writhe per unit length of the intraspines diminishes with increasing length of the tube axes. Thus, the axes of tubes related to intraspines are less wrung when the tubes are more horizontal. As the writhe of the spines is very small, we can conclude that the writhe reaches only significant values when the tube includes the border of an intraspine.

  1. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  2. The influence of neuropeptides on Malpighian tubule writhing and its significance for excretion.

    PubMed

    Coast, G M

    1998-01-01

    Diuretic peptides (locustakinin and Locusta-DH) increase the spontaneous contractile activity of visceral muscle fibers associated with Malpighian tubules from the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) at concentrations that increase urine production. Muscle activity is shown to assist the flow of material in the tubule lumen, but is not essential for diuresis. Tubule writhing also serves to reduce unstirred layers (USLs) at the basolateral surface of the epithelium and thereby facilitates the excretion of solutes entering the lumen by passive diffusion. PMID:9533634

  3. Acid Tests and Basic Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores acids and bases using different indicators, such as turmeric, purple grape juice, and lichens. Because some of these indicators are not as sensitive as cabbage juice or litmus paper, determining to which acids and bases each indicator is sensitive presents an enjoyable, problem-solving challenge for students. Presents directions for…

  4. Testing of organic acids in engine coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, T.W.

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of 30 organic acids as inhibitors in engine coolants is reported. Tests include glassware corrosion of coupled and uncoupled metals. FORD galvanostatic and cyclic polarization electrochemistry for aluminum pitting, and reserve alkalinity (RA) measurements. Details of each test are discussed as well as some general conclusions. For example, benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In general, the organic acids provide little RA when titrated to a pH of 5.5, titration to a pH of 4.5 can result in precipitation of the acid. Trends with respect to acid chain length are reported also.

  5. Dynamics of Bacillus subtilis helical macrofiber morphogenesis: writhing, folding, close packing, and contraction.

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, N H

    1982-01-01

    Helical Bacillus subtilis macrofibers are highly ordered structures consisting of individual cells packed in a geometry remarkably similar to that found in helically twisted yarns (G. A. Carnaby, in J. W. S. Hearle et al., ed., The Mechanics of Flexible Fibre Assemblies, p. 99-112, 1980; N. H. Mendelson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:2478-2482, 1978). The growth and formation of macrofibers were studied with time-lapse microscopy methods. The basic growth mode consisted of fiber elongation, folding, and the helical wrapping together of the folded portion into a tight helical fiber. This sequence was reiterated at both ends of the structure, resulting in terminal loops. Macrofiber growth was accompanied by the helical turning of the structure along its long axis. Right-handed structures turned clockwise and left-handed ones turned counterclockwise when viewed along the length of a fiber looking toward a loop end. Helical turning forced the individual cellular filaments into a close-packing arrangement during growth. Tension was evident within the structures and they writhed as they elongated. Tension was relieved by folding, which occurred when writhing became so violent that the structure touched itself, forming a loop. When the multistranded structure produced by repeated folding cycles became too rigid for additional folding, the morphogenesis of a ball-like structure began. The dynamics of helical macrofiber formation was interpreted in terms of stress-strain deformations. In view of the similarities between macrofiber structures and those found in multifilament yarns and cables, the physics of helical macrofiber structure and also growth may be suitable for analysis developed in these fields concerning the mechanics of flexible fiber assemblies (C. P. Buckley; J. W. S. Hearle; and J. J. Thwaites, in J. W. S. Hearle et al., ed., The Mechanics of Flexible Fibre Assemblies, p. 1-97, 1980). Images PMID:6806245

  6. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base status... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base status... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base status... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base status... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295....1295 Folic acid test system. (a) Identification. A folic acid test system is a device intended to measure the vitamin folic acid in plasma and serum. Folic acid measurements are used in the diagnosis...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Test Systems § 862.1509 Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify methylmalonic acid in urine... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Test Systems § 862.1509 Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify methylmalonic acid in urine... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Test Systems § 862.1509 Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify methylmalonic acid in urine... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1795 - Vanilmandelic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilmandelic acid test system. 862.1795 Section... Systems § 862.1795 Vanilmandelic acid test system. (a) Identification. A vanilmandelic acid test system is a device intended to measure vanilmandelic acid in urine. Measurements of vanilmandelic...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775....1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to measure uric acid in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775....1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to measure uric acid in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to...

  20. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a... solution of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) by mixing 853 ml of water with 199 ml of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) with...

  1. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a... solution of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) by mixing 853 ml of water with 199 ml of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) with...

  2. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a... solution of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) by mixing 853 ml of water with 199 ml of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) with...

  3. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a... solution of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) by mixing 853 ml of water with 199 ml of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) with...

  4. OBSERVATIONS FROM SDO, HINODE, AND STEREO OF A TWISTING AND WRITHING START TO A SOLAR-FILAMENT-ERUPTION CASCADE

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Hara, Hirohisa E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.gov

    2012-12-10

    We analyze data from SDO (AIA, HMI), Hinode (SOT, XRT, EIS), and STEREO (EUVI) of a solar eruption sequence of 2011 June 1 near 16:00 UT, with an emphasis on the early evolution toward eruption. Ultimately, the sequence consisted of three emission bursts and two filament ejections. SDO/AIA 304 A images show absorbing-material strands initially in close proximity which over {approx}20 minutes form a twisted structure, presumably a flux rope with {approx}10{sup 29} erg of free energy that triggers the resulting evolution. A jump in the filament/flux rope's displacement (average velocity {approx}20 km s{sup -1}) and the first burst of emission accompanies the flux-rope formation. After {approx}20 more minutes, the flux rope/filament kinks and writhes, followed by a semi-steady state where the flux rope/filament rises at ({approx}5 km s{sup -1}) for {approx}10 minutes. Then the writhed flux rope/filament again becomes MHD unstable and violently erupts, along with rapid (50 km s{sup -1}) ejection of the filament and the second burst of emission. That ejection removed a field that had been restraining a second filament, which subsequently erupts as the second filament ejection accompanied by the third (final) burst of emission. Magnetograms from SDO/HMI and Hinode/SOT, and other data, reveal several possible causes for initiating the flux-rope-building reconnection, but we are not able to say which is dominant. Our observations are consistent with magnetic reconnection initiating the first burst and the flux-rope formation, with MHD processes initiating the further dynamics. Both filament ejections are consistent with the standard model for solar eruptions.

  5. Ursolic acid plays a role in Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham CNS depressing effects.

    PubMed

    Taviano, M F; Miceli, N; Monforte, M T; Tzakou, O; Galati, E M

    2007-04-01

    The sedative, anticonvulsant and analgesic activity of ursolic acid, a terpenoid bioassay-isolated from Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham, was evaluated in mice. The oral administration of ursolic acid (2.3 mg/kg) produced a significant depressant effect on CNS by reducing spontaneous motor activity and the number and lethality of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Two models of nociception, the writhing test and the hot plate test, were also used to examine the analgesic effect of ursolic acid. At a dose of 2.3 mg/kg, ursolic acid caused an inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, but was inactive in the hot plate test. Treatment at a higher dose (20 mg/kg) significantly increased the reaction time in the hot plate test. This effect, reversed by naloxone, evidently involves opioid receptors, but the analgesic activity of ursolic acid may be related also to the antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties of this compound.

  6. Acid Test For Annealing Of Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deese, Gary E.; Ellgass, Joseph P.

    1989-01-01

    Solution changes color if heat-treated condition lost. Simple test indicates whether welded joint retained its postweld heat-treated condition after reworking including rewelding and grinding. Test used instead of Rockwell or Brinell hardness tests when reworked surface inaccessible to hardness-testing apparatus or when small surface imperfections created by apparatus unacceptable.

  7. Pharmacology of 4-benzyol-1-indancarboxylic acid (TAI-901) and 4-(4-methylbenzoyl)-1-indancarboxylic acid (TAI-908).

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Tamura, S; Morimoto, S; Ishii, H; Kuzuna, S

    1982-01-01

    Pharmacological studies on the derivatives of 1-indancarboxylic acid yielded 4-benzoyl-1-indancarboxylic acid (TAI-901) and 4-(4-methylbenzoyl)-1-indancarboxylic acid (TAI-908). The relative potency (R.P.) of TAI-901 and TAI-908 assessed in parallel line assays (indomethacin - 1) demonstrated that both compounds were highly analgesic against various noxious stimuli induced in experimental animals. R.P. values of TAI-901 were 1.0, 1.7, 4.4 and 2.8 in the phenylquinone writhing, acetic acid writhing, adjuvant arthritic pain and urate arthritic pain tests, respectively. R.P. values of TAI-908 were 1.6, 2.0, 4.7 and 7.0, respectively, in these tests. Both compounds were more inhibitory than indomethacin against acute inflammation, but less inhibitory against chronic inflammation. The inhibitory activities of TAI-901 and TAI-908 on the prostaglandin biosynthesis by microsomes of rabbit renal medulla were 2.2 and 2.6 times that of indomethacin. TAI-901 was 1/3.8 1/7.1, and TAI-908 was 1/16.7 and 1/12.5 as toxic as indomethacin in male rats and mice, respectively. PMID:6978140

  8. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  9. Observations from Hinode and SDO of a Twisting and Writhing Start to a Solar-filament-eruption Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Hara, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Active region eruption of 1 June 2011. Ejective eruption. GOES class C4.1 flare. SDO/AIA, various filters (94, 131, 171, 193, 211, 304, 335 Ang.) High time cadence (24 s) and high spatial resolution (0 .6 pixels). SDO/HMI line-of-sight magnetograms. Hinode observed the onset, and the later decay phase. There are two filament eruptions (filament 1 and filament 2). Filament 1 has slow rise with steps, as in several previous cases. GOES "episodes" play role of "microflares" in other events; that is, filament jumps <=> intensity peaks. Episode 1 brightening: Accompanied by filament 1 s initial motions. (Rest of talk.) Filament 1 becomes unstable, and.. Episode 2 brightening: Flare ribbons following filament 1 s fast liftoff. This destabilizes neighboring filament 2, and... Episode 3 brightening: Flare ribbons of whole system following filament 2 s eruption.Something leads to reconnection; not totally clear what. Reconnection -> twisted flux rope in approx.20 min; episode 1 microflare (flare ribbons; TC) and filament jump. Twist -> writhe, via kink instability; filament-trajectory plateau, approx. 20 min. Writhe -> jump and eruption of filament 1, via instability; episode 2 microflare (flare ribbons; TC). (E.g., Williams et al.) First eruption -> second filament eruption (episode 3 flare ribbons; TC). (E.g., Sterling, Moore; Liu et al.; Torok et al.; Schrijver & Title.). Estimate amount of free energy in newly-twisted field (cf. Moore 1988): where we have taken L and r = 50, 3 arcsec. Energy of the total system is likely 1030 ergs or more. So "no" is answer to question. Additional energy comes from remainder of sheared large loop, shear (free energy) of second filament, etc. (Normally assumed situation.) Some history of twist-induced instability in filament eruptions: e.g., Sakurai, Torok & Kliem, Fan & Gibson, Gilbert et al., van Driel-Gesztelyi et al. Criterion : Kink instability for line-tied tube (Hood & Priest): 2.5pi; for Titov & Demoulin loop (Torok et al

  10. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing of ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, P C; Jones, R N; Barry, A L; Thornsberry, C

    1984-01-01

    Disk diffusion susceptibility testing of ticarcillin plus the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid was performed on 489 clinical isolates, and the results were compared with reference broth microdilution susceptibilities. Four different disks containing 75 micrograms of ticarcillin plus 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 micrograms of clavulanic acid were evaluated. Based on test performance and clavulanic acid stability, the 75-10-micrograms disk is recommended. Interpretive criteria for ticarcillin as published by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards appear to be satisfactory for the combination drug, but because the number of ticarcillin-clavulanic acid-resistant isolates was small, this proposal must be considered only tentative. PMID:6715524

  11. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Prepare one sample each of the insulated surfaces of the battery box and of the... insulation plus the battery cover or box material. The insulation thickness shall be representative of...

  12. An isobolographic analysis of the antinociceptive effect of xylopic acid in combination with morphine or diclofenac

    PubMed Central

    Woode, Eric; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Abotsi, Wonder Kofi Mensah; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: A common practice of managing pain globally is the combination of analgesics and this is aimed at facilitating patient compliance, simplifying prescription, and improving efficacy without increasing adverse effects. Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders and xylopic acid (XA) present in the fruit extract have been shown to possess analgesic properties in animals. There is the likelihood of concomitant use of XA and the commonly used analgesics in traditional settings. This study, therefore, evaluated the pharmacologic interaction between XA/morphine and xylopic/diclofenac combinations. Methods: The formalin test and acetic acid writhing test were used to study the antinociceptive activity of XA, morphine, and diclofenac. The isobolographic analysis was used to study the antinociceptive interactions between XA co-administered with morphine or diclofenac. Results: Results obtained revealed that XA (10–100 mg/kg), morphine (1–10 mg/kg), and diclofenac (1–10 mg/kg) produced dose-related antinociception with different potencies in the formalin and acetic acid writhing tests. Isobolographic analysis of XA/morphine and XA/diclofenac combinations revealed potentiation of their antinociceptive effects. The degree of potentiation calculated as interaction index showed synergism for both combinations in all the nociceptive tests. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study demonstrated synergism for the co-administration of XA with morphine or diclofenac. PMID:26692735

  13. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  14. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862.1320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862.1320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pyruvic acid test system. 862.1655 Section 862.1655 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pyruvic acid test system. 862.1655 Section 862.1655 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  11. Abuse tests on sealed lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    LOESCHER,DOUGLAS H.; CRAFTS,CHRIS C.; UNKELHAEUSER,TERRY M.

    2000-03-01

    Abuse tests were conducted on the lead-acid batteries used to power electrical testers used at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant. Batteries were subjected to short circuits, crushes, penetrations, and drops. None of the observed responses would be a threat to nuclear explosive safety in a bay or cell at Pantex. Temperatures, currents, and damage were measured and recorded during the tests.

  12. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  13. Positive direct antiglobulin tests due to clavulanic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, M E; Thomas, D; Harman, C P; Mintz, P D; Donowitz, G R

    1985-01-01

    Clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, was found to be associated with the development of a positive direct antiglobulin test. Of 23 antibiotic courses in patients treated with ticarcillin, clavulanic acid, and tobramycin, 10 (43.5%) developed positive direct antiglobulin tests versus 2 of 26 (7.7%) patients treated with piperacillin and tobramycin (P = 0.0044). In vitro immunohematological studies showed that clavulanic acid caused a nonimmunologic adsorption of plasma proteins onto the erythrocyte surface. Hemolysis was not associated with such nonimmunologic adsorption. However, the resulting positive antiglobulin test might delay cross matching of blood products for transfusions or interfere with the evaluation of true immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. PMID:3872623

  14. Innovative role of statistics in acid rain performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Warren-Hicks, W.; Etchison, T.; Lieberman, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) of 1990 mandated that affected electric utilities reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, the primary precursors of acidic deposition, and included an innovative market-based SO{sub 2} regulatory program. A central element of the Acid Rain Program is the requirement that affected utility units install CEMS. This paper describes how the Acid Rain Regulations incorporated statistical procedures in the performance tests for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) and how statistical analysis was used to assess the appropriateness, stringency, and potential impact of various performance tests and standards that were considered for inclusion in the Acid Rain Regulations. Described here is the statistical analysis that was used to set a relative accuracy standard, establish the calculation procedures for filling in missing data when a monitor malfunctions, and evaluate the performance tests applied to petitions for alternative monitoring systems. The paper concludes that the statistical evaluations of proposed provisions of the Acid Rain Regulations resulted in the adoption of performance tests and standards that were scientifically substantiated, workable, and effective.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1509 Section 862.1509 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... methylmalonic aciduria, a heritable metabolic disorder which, if untreated, may cause mental retardation....

  16. Operation of the radioactive acid digestion test unit

    SciTech Connect

    Blasewitz, A.G.; Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Ely, P.C.; Richardson, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to demonstrate the application of the Acid Digestion Process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. The RADTU with its original tray digestion vessel has recently completed a six-month campaign processing potentially contaminated nonglovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During this campaign, it processed 2100 kg of largely cellulosic wastes at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h as limited by the water boiloff rate from the acid feeds. The on-line operating efficiency was nearly 50% on a twelve hour/day, five day/week basis. Following this campaign, a new annular high rate digester has been installed for testing. In preliminary tests with simulated wastes, the new digester demonstrated a sustained capacity of 10 kg/h with greatly improved intimacy of contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new design also doubles the heat transfer surface, which with reduced heat loss area, is expected to provide at least three times the water boiloff rate of the previous tray digester design. Following shakedown testing with simulated and low-level wastes, the new unit will be used to process combustible plutonium scrap and waste from Hanford plutonium facilities for the purposes of volume reduction, plutonium recovery, and stabilization of the final waste form.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1305 - Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) test system. 862.1305 Section 862.1305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1305 - Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) test system. 862.1305 Section 862.1305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1305 - Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) test system. 862.1305 Section 862.1305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  20. 21 CFR 862.3580 - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3580 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. (a) Identification. A lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system is a device intended to measure lysergic acid diethylamide,...

  1. 21 CFR 862.3580 - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3580 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. (a) Identification. A lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system is a device intended to measure lysergic acid diethylamide,...

  2. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing: Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Canister Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.: Schmidt, A.J.; Bredt, P.R.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-01

    This report describes tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) as part of the overall activities for the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. These tests were conducted to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin canister sludge composite in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M, 7.8 M and 10 M and temperatures of 25 C and boiling. Assuming that the sludge was 100% uranium metal, a 4X stoichiometric excess of nitric acid was used for all testing, except that conducted at 4 M. In the 4 M nitric acid dissolution test, 50% excess nitric acid was used resulting in a dissolver solution with a significantly higher solids loading. The boiling tests were conducted for 11 hr, the 25 C dissolution tests were conducted from 24 hr to 2 weeks. For the 25 C dissolution testing, the weight percent residual solids was determined, however, chemical and radiochemical analyses were not performed.

  3. Activated carbon passes tests for acid-gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J.

    1996-06-24

    Use of activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid-gas feed to Claus sulfur-recovery units has been successfully pilot tested in Saudi Arabia. Pilot plant results are discussed here along with issues involved in scale-up to commercial size. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}+s from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated by use of low-pressure steam. A post-regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. The paper discusses feed contaminants, vapor-phase cleanup, testing design, test parameters and results, bed drying after regeneration, regeneration conditions, basic flow, system control, and full-scale installation.

  4. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  8. Assessment of the 14C-Glycocholic Acid Breath Test

    PubMed Central

    James, O. F. W.; Agnew, J. E.; Bouchier, I. A. D.

    1973-01-01

    The 1-(14C)-glycine-glycocholic-acid breath test has been performed on 104 subjects and a normal range established. Abnormal results due to bacterial deconjugation of bile salts were found not only in patients with the “contaminated bowel” syndrome and in those with ileal resection but also in a third group, patients with cholangitis. Abnormal results were also found in patients with gastrocolic fistula and staphylococcal enterocolitis, while mildly abnormal results were also found in some patients with liver disease. PMID:4718834

  9. Synthesis and degradation test of hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sei Kwang; Park, Jung Kyu; Tomimatsu, Takashi; Shimoboji, Tsuyoshi

    2007-03-10

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels prepared with three different crosslinking reagents were assessed by in vitro and in vivo degradation tests for various tissue engineering applications. Adipic acid dihydrazide grafted HA (HA-ADH) was synthesized and used for the preparation of methacrylated HA (HA-MA) with methacrylic anhydride and thiolated HA (HA-SH) with Traut's reagent (imminothiolane). (1)H NMR analysis showed that the degrees of HA-ADH, HA-MA, and HA-SH modification were 69, 29, and 56 mol%, respectively. HA-ADH hydrogel was prepared by the crosslinking with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS(3)), HA-MA hydrogel with dithiothreitol (DTT) by Michael addition, and HA-SH hydrogel with sodium tetrathionate by disulfide bond formation. According to in vitro degradation tests, HA-SH hydrogel was degraded very fast, compared to HA-ADH and HA-MA hydrogels. HA-ADH hydrogel was degraded slightly faster than HA-MA hydrogel. Based on these results, HA-MA hydrogels and HA-SH hydrogels were implanted in the back of SD rats and their degradation was assessed according to the pre-determined time schedule. As expected from the in vitro degradation test results, HA-SH hydrogel was in vivo degraded completely only in 2 weeks, whereas HA-MA hydrogels were degraded only partially even in 29 days. The degradation rate of HA hydrogels were thought to be controlled by changing the crosslinking reagents and the functional group of HA derivatives. In addition, the state of HA hydrogel was another factor in controlling the degradation rate. Dried HA hydrogel at 37 degrees C for a day resulted in relatively slow degradation compared to the bulk HA hydrogel. There was no adverse effect during the in vivo tests. PMID:17101173

  10. System for portable nucleic acid testing in low resource settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Roskos, Kristina; Hickerson, Anna I.; Carey, Thomas; Niemz, Angelika

    2013-03-01

    Our overall goal is to enable timely diagnosis of infectious diseases through nucleic acid testing at the point-of-care and in low resource settings, via a compact system that integrates nucleic acid sample preparation, isothermal DNA amplification, and nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF) detection. We herein present an interim milestone, the design of the amplification and detection subsystem, and the characterization of thermal and fluidic control and assay execution within this system. Using an earlier prototype of the amplification and detection unit, comprised of a disposable cartridge containing flexible pouches, passive valves, and electrolysis-driven pumps, in conjunction with a small heater, we have demonstrated successful execution of an established and clinically validated isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) reaction targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) DNA, coupled to NALF detection. The refined design presented herein incorporates miniaturized and integrated electrolytic pumps, novel passive valves, overall design changes to facilitate integration with an upstream sample preparation unit, and a refined instrument design that automates pumping, heating, and timing. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that facilitates fluid handling and appropriate thermal control. The disposable cartridge is manufactured using low-cost and scalable techniques and forms a closed system to prevent workplace contamination by amplicons. In a parallel effort, we are developing a sample preparation unit based on similar design principles, which performs mechanical lysis of mycobacteria and DNA extraction from liquefied and disinfected sputum. Our next step is to combine sample preparation, amplification, and detection in a final integrated cartridge and device, to enable fully automated sample-in to answer-out diagnosis of active tuberculosis in primary care facilities of low-resource and high-burden countries.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  14. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  16. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intended to measure the acidity of gastric fluid. Measurements of gastric acidity are used in the diagnosis...-secreting tumor of the pancreas), and related gastric disorders. (b) Classification. Class I...

  17. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    SciTech Connect

    G. G. Loomis; A. P. Zdinak; M. A. Ewanic; J. J. Jessmore

    1998-01-01

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity characteristic leach ing

  18. Antinociceptive Effect of Tephrosia sinapou Extract in the Acetic Acid, Phenyl-p-benzoquinone, Formalin, and Complete Freund's Adjuvant Models of Overt Pain-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Renata M.; Zarpelon, Ana C.; Domiciano, Talita P.; Georgetti, Sandra R.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Moreira, Isabel C.; Andrei, Cesar C.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Casagrande, Rubia

    2016-01-01

    Tephrosia toxicaria, which is currently known as Tephrosia sinapou (Buc'hoz) A. Chev. (Fabaceae), is a source of compounds such as flavonoids. T. sinapou has been used in Amazonian countries traditional medicine to alleviate pain and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract in overt pain-like behavior models in mice by using writhing response and flinching/licking tests. We demonstrated in this study that T. sinapou extract inhibited, in a dose (1–100 mg/kg) dependent manner, acetic acid- and phenyl-p-benzoquinone- (PBQ-) induced writhing response. Furthermore, it was active via intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and peroral routes of administration. T. sinapou extract also inhibited formalin- and complete Freund's adjuvant- (CFA-) induced flinching/licking at 100 mg/kg dose. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract reduces inflammatory pain in the acetic acid, PBQ, formalin, and CFA models of overt pain-like behavior. Therefore, the potential of analgesic activity of T. sinapou indicates that it deserves further investigation. PMID:27293981

  19. Assessment of electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests to qualify stainless steel for nitric acid service

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, A.R.; Dillon, J.J.; Peters, A.H.; Clift, T.L.

    1986-12-31

    To minimize the costs and delivery time delays associated with purchasing type 304L stainless steel materials for service in nitric-acid-containing media, an alternative to the current Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant requirement of testing in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A 262, Practice C (the boiling nitric acid test), is being sought. A possible candidate is the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test being developed for the nuclear industry and under consideration for acceptance as an ASTM standard. Based on a review of the literature and some limited screening tests, this test, as currently proposed, is not a suitable substitute for the nitric acid test. However, with additional development the EPR test is a likely candidate for providing a quantitative substitute for the current qualitative oxalic acid etching (ASTM A 282, Practice A) often used to accept, but not reject, materials for use in a nitric acid medium.

  20. Transient changes in thyroid functions tests after zoledronic acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Karga, Helen; Giagourta, Irene; Papaioannou, Garyphallia; Katsichti, Paraskevi; Pardalakis, Argyris; Kassi, Georgia; Zagoreou, Apostolia; Triantaphyllopoulou, Maria; Zerva, Cherry

    2011-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) induces an acute phase response in association with elevation of serum cytokines, which possibly alter the 3 types of iodothyronine deiodinase activity. We therefore studied the possible alteration in thyroid function tests by ZA. We investigated the acute changes in serum thyroid hormones, TSH, cortisol, white blood cells, CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), before (0) and 1, 2 and 3 days after iv infusion of 5 mg ZA in 24 asymptomatic postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (ZA group) in comparison with a placebo group. In the majority of patients the ZA infusion was associated with acute phase response and fever within 24h after infusion which became attenuated on day three. Concurrently with increase in serum cortisol, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α, on day 1 and 2, total serum T3 (TT3), free T3 (fT3), total T4 (TT4) and fT4 decreased with a nadir on day 2 in association with an increase in the fT4/fT3 ratio and reverse T3 (rT3) levels. All thyroid function changes returned to the baseline levels on day 3, with cytokines still at higher levels, although lower than those on day 2. Serum TSH remained essentially unchanged throughout the study. The changes in thyroid hormones were at least in part explained by the increased TNF-α, but not by IL-6. ZA induces short term changes in thyroid hormones, characteristic of nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), in association with an increase in TNF-α and IL-6.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... measure pyruvic acid (an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrate) in plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the evaluation of electrolyte metabolism and in the diagnosis...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... measure pyruvic acid (an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrate) in plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the evaluation of electrolyte metabolism and in the diagnosis...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... measure pyruvic acid (an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrate) in plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the evaluation of electrolyte metabolism and in the diagnosis...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1795 - Vanilmandelic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test... certain hypertensive conditions. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1795 - Vanilmandelic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test... certain hypertensive conditions. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...-secreting tumor of the pancreas), and related gastric disorders. (b) Classification. Class I...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...-secreting tumor of the pancreas), and related gastric disorders. (b) Classification. Class I...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1795 - Vanilmandelic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test... certain hypertensive conditions. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... and treatment of numerous renal and metabolic disorders, including renal failure, gout,...

  11. An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Hairul Hisham; Yusof, Nor Azah; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Bakar, Fatimah Abu

    2011-01-01

    Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10). The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD) of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki) is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products. PMID:22164018

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, Lalit; Tongia, Sudheer K; Pal, Veerendra S; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Nyati, Prem; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Forced swimming test is used to induce a characteristic behavior of immobility in rats, which resembles depression in humans to some extent. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids alone as well as compared it with the standard antidepressant therapy with fluoxetine in both acute and chronic studies. In both the studies, rats were divided into 4 groups and subjected to the following drug interventions - Group 1- control: Group 2- fluoxetine in dose of 10 mg/kg subcutaneously 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test: Group 3- omega-3 fatty acids in dose of 500 mg/kg orally; Group 4- fluoxetine plus omega-3 fatty acids both. In acute study, omega-3 fatty acids were given in single dose 2 h prior to the test while in chronic study omega-3 fatty acids were given daily for a period of 28 days. All animals were subjected to a 15-min pretest followed 24 h later by a 5-min test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. The results revealed that in acute study, omega-3 fatty acids do not have any significant effect in forced swimming test. However, in chronic study, omega-3 fatty acids affect the immobility and swimming behavior significantly when compared with control (p < 0.01) without any significant effect on climbing behavior and the efficacy of combination of omega-3 fatty acids and fluoxetine is significantly more than that of fluoxetine alone in changing the behavioral activity of rats in forced swimming test. It leads to the conclusion that omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity per se, and the combination of fluoxetine and omega-3 fatty acids has more antidepressant efficacy than fluoxetine alone in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

  13. 78 FR 63476 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Nucleic Acid Tests To Reduce the Risk of Transmission of West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Nucleic Acid Tests To... ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Nucleic Acid Tests to Reduce the Risk of Transmission of West Nile Virus From... donor screening test. The guidance recommends the use of an FDA-licensed nucleic acid test ] (NAT)...

  14. A simple screening test for fatty acid oxidation defects using whole-blood palmitate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Seargeant, L E; Balachandra, K; Mallory, C; Dilling, L A; Greenberg, C R

    1999-08-01

    We report that measurement of whole-blood palmitate oxidation is a rapid and inexpensive screening test for fatty acid oxidation defects. The assay has been adapted from published assays using cultured fibroblasts or isolated white blood cells. Micro whole-blood samples are incubated with tritiated palmitic acid as substrate. The tritiated water produced is proportional to the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of palmitic acid. Patients with confirmed beta-oxidation defects show low whole-blood palmitate oxidation.

  15. Preparation of acid-fast microscopy smears for proficiency testing and quality control.

    PubMed Central

    Smithwick, R W; Stratigos, C B

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for preparing smears for proficiency testing and quality control in acid-fast microscopy. The work was prompted by the increased demand for acid-fast bacilli positive smears with characteristic microscopic appearance and among-smear uniformity. PMID:353070

  16. Experimentally Testing the Hypothesis of a Limited Amino Acid Repertoire in Primitive Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanuma, S.; Nakajima, Y.; Yokobori, S.; Yamagishi, A.

    2013-11-01

    It has been argued that a fewer amino acids were used in primitive proteins and later the repertoire increased up to 20. To test this hypothesis experimentally, we restricted the amino acid usage of a reconstructed, ancestral protein to reduced sets.

  17. Hands-On Science: Is It an Acid or a Base? These Colorful Tests Tell All!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Two hands-on science activities for K-6 students teach them how to determine if something is an acid or a base. The activities require acid/base indicator juice, testing strips, and a base solution. A recipe for making them in the classroom using red cabbage and baking soda is provided. (SM)

  18. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the siaresinolic acid, a triterpene isolated from the leaves of Sabicea grisea Cham. & Schltdl. var. grisea.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Anderson Marques; de Araújo, Almair Ferreira; Lyra Lemos, Rosangela P; Conserva, Lucia M; de Souza Ferro, Jamylle Nunes; Barreto, Emiliano

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, siaresinolic acid (siaresinol, SA) was isolated from the leaves of Sabicea grisea and studied to evaluate its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. The antinociceptive effect of SA was investigated in mice using different animal models to study pain. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of SA (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before a pain stimulus significantly reduced the nociceptive response (by 42.3, 68.2, and 70.9 %, respectively). Pretreatment with glibenclamide, but not with yohimbine, metoclopramide, ketanserin, or naloxone, restored the antinociceptive effect induced by SA in the writhing test, suggesting that the K(+)ATP channel pathway might be involved in its mechanism of action. In the formalin test, SA (1 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased licking time in the second phase only, thereby indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. In the hot plate test, there was no significant difference in nociceptive behavior. In the rota-rod test, it was verified that a high dose of SA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect the locomotor activity of mice. In the pleurisy model, induced by carrageenan, treatment with SA inhibited important events involved in inflammatory responses, namely leukocyte influx, plasma leakage, and increased inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and chemokine CXCL1), in the pleural exudate. Additionally, SA itself was not cytotoxic when evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in macrophages cultured for 24 h at concentrations ranging from 1 to 200 μg/mL. These results suggest, for the first time, that SA attenuates nociceptive behavior through mechanisms involving receptors for ATP-dependent potassium channels, in addition to suppressing acute inflammatory responses.

  19. Non-carboxylic analogues of aryl propionic acid: synthesis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Eissa, S I; Farrag, A M; Galeel, A A A

    2014-09-01

    As a part of ongoing studies in developing new potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents, a series of novel 6-methoxy naphthalene derivatives was efficiently synthesized and characterized by spectral and elemental analyses. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities using carrageenin-induced rat paw edema model, analgesic activities using acetic acid induced writhing model in mice and anti-pyretic activity using yeast induced hyperpyrexia method as well as ulcerogenic effects. Among the synthesized compounds, thiourea derivative (6a, e) exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activity than the standard drug naproxen in reduction of the rat paw edema (88.71, 89.77%) respectively. All of the non-carboxylic tested compounds were found to have promising anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity, while were devoid of any ulcerogenic effects. PMID:24446206

  20. A new test procedure for biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete

    PubMed

    Vincke; Verstichel; Monteny; Verstraete

    1999-01-01

    A new test method is described for biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete, more specifically in sewer conditions. The aim of the new test method is the development of an accelerated and reproducible procedure for monitoring the resistance of different types of concrete with regard to biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion. This experimental procedure reflects worst case conditions by providing besides H2S, also an enrichment of thiobacilli and biologically produced sulfur. By simulating the cyclic processes occurring in sewer pipes, significant differences between concrete mixtures could be detected after 51 days. Concrete modified by a styrene-acrylic ester polymer demonstrated a higher resistance against biogenic sulfuric acid attack. PMID:11068828

  1. A new test procedure for biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete

    PubMed

    Vincke; Verstichel; Monteny; Verstraete

    1999-01-01

    A new test method is described for biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete, more specifically in sewer conditions. The aim of the new test method is the development of an accelerated and reproducible procedure for monitoring the resistance of different types of concrete with regard to biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion. This experimental procedure reflects worst case conditions by providing besides H2S, also an enrichment of thiobacilli and biologically produced sulfur. By simulating the cyclic processes occurring in sewer pipes, significant differences between concrete mixtures could be detected after 51 days. Concrete modified by a styrene-acrylic ester polymer demonstrated a higher resistance against biogenic sulfuric acid attack.

  2. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  7. An investigation into the stability and sterility of citric acid solutions used for cough reflex testing.

    PubMed

    Falconer, James R; Wu, Zimei; Lau, Hugo; Suen, Joanna; Wang, Lucy; Pottinger, Sarah; Lee, Elaine; Alazawi, Nawar; Kallesen, Molly; Gargiulo, Derryn A; Swift, Simon; Svirskis, Darren

    2014-10-01

    Citric acid is used in cough reflex testing in clinical and research settings to assess reflexive cough in patients at risk of swallowing disorders. To address a lack of knowledge in this area, this study investigated the stability and sterility of citric acid solutions. Triplicate solutions of citric acid (0.8 M) in isotonic saline were stored at 4 ± 2 °C for up to 28 days and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbiological sterility of freshly prepared samples and bulk samples previously used for 2 weeks within the hospital was determined using a pour plate technique. Microbial survival in citric acid was determined by inoculating Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Candida albicans into citric acid solution and monitoring the number of colony-forming units/mL over 40 min. Citric acid solutions remained stable at 4 °C for 28 days (98.4 ± 1.8 % remained). The freshly prepared and clinical samples tested were sterile. However, viability studies revealed that citric acid solution allows for the survival of C. albicans but not for S. aureus or E. coli. The microbial survival study showed that citric acid kills S. aureus and E. coli but has no marked effect on C. albicans after 40 min. Citric acid samples at 0.8 M remained stable over the 4-week testing period, with viable microbial cells absent from samples tested. However, C. albicans has the ability to survive in citric acid solution if inadvertently introduced in practice. For this reason, in clinical and research practice it is suggested to use single-use aliquots prepared aseptically which can be stored for up to 28 days at 4 °C.

  8. Testing the role of silicic acid and bioorganic materials in the formation of rock coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Philip, Ajish I.; Perry, Randall S.

    2004-11-01

    Silica, amino acids, and DNA were recently discovered in desert varnish. In this work we experimentally test the proposed role of silicic acid and bio-chemicals in the formation of desert varnish and other rock coatings. We have developed a protocol in which the rocks were treated with a mixture of silicic acid, sugars, amino acids, metals and clays, under the influence of heat and UV light. This protocol reflects the proposed mechanism of the polymerization of silicic acid with the biooganic materials, and the laboratory model for the natural conditions under which the desert varnish is formed. Our experiments produced coatings with a hardness and morphology that resemble the natural ones. These results provide a support for the role of silicic acid in the formation of rock coatings. Since the hard silica-based coatings preserve organic compounds in them, they may serve as a biosignature for life, here or possibly on Mars.

  9. Testing the Role of Silicic Acid and Bioorganic Materials in the Formation of Rock Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, Vera; Philip, Ajish I.; Perry, Randall S.

    2004-12-01

    Silica, amino acids, and DNA were recently discovered in desert varnish. In this work we experimentally test the proposed role of silicic acid and bio-chemicals in the formation of desert varnish and other rock coatings. We have developed a protocol in which hte rocks were treated with a mixture of silicic acid, sugars, amino acids, metals and clays, under the influence of heat and UV light. This protocol reflects the proposed mechanism of hte polymerization of silicic acid with the bioorganic materials, and the laboratory model for the natural conditions under which the desert varnish is formed. Our experiments produced coatings with a hardness and morphology that resemble the nature ones. These results provide a support for the role of silicic acid in the formation of rock coatings. Since the hard silica-based coatings preserve organic compounds in them, they may serve as a biosignature for life, here or possibly Mars.

  10. Ascorbic acid protects against cadmium-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and germ cell apoptosis in testes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a testicular toxicant which induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and germ cell apoptosis in testes. This study investigated the effects of ascorbic acid on Cd-evoked ER stress and germ cell apoptosis in testes. Male mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl(2) (2.0 mg/kg). As expected, a single dose of Cd induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Interestingly, Cd-triggered testicular germ cell apoptosis was almost completely inhibited in mice treated with ascorbic acid. Interestingly, ascorbic acid significantly attenuated Cd-induced upregulation of GRP78 in testes. In addition, ascorbic acid significantly attenuated Cd-triggered testicular IRE1α and eIF2α phosphorylation and XBP-1 activation, indicating that this antioxidant counteracts Cd-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) in testes. Finally, ascorbic acid significantly attenuated Cd-evoked upregulation of CHOP and JNK phosphorylation, two components in ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, ascorbic acid protects mice from Cd-triggered germ cell apoptosis via inhibiting ER stress and UPR in testes. PMID:22569276

  11. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Area Sludge Composite, Small- and Large-Scale Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.; Schmidt, A.J.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to support the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. For this work, testing was performed to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite, referred to as K East area sludge composite, in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M and 7.8 M. With the exception of one high solids loading test the nitric acid was added at 4X the stoichiometric requirement (assuming 100% of the sludge was uranium metal). The dissolution tests were conducted at boiling temperatures for 24 hours. Most of the tests were conducted with {approximately}2.5 g of sludge (dry basis). The high solids loading test was conducted with {approximately}7 g of sludge. A large-scale dissolution test was conducted with 26.5 g of sludge and 620 mL of 6 M nitric acid. The objectives of this test were to (1) generate a sufficient quantity of acid-insoluble residual solids for use in leaching studies, and (2) examine the dissolution behavior of the sludge composite at a larger scale.

  12. Antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, V; Dehdashti, Kh

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate has a key role in pain perception and also development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. It has been reported that clavulanic acid affects glutamatergic transmission via activation of glutamate transporter. Therefore the present study was aimed to evaluate the possible antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models. Male Swiss mice (25-30 g) were used in this study. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test and hot plate method were used to assess the antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid. Morphine (30 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to the mice two times a day (8 AM and 4 PM) for 3 days in order to produce tolerance. To develop morphine dependence, morphine sulfate (50, 50 and 75 mg/kg) was injected at 8 and 12 AM and 16 PM respectively and for 3 consecutive days. Naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p) was used to induce morphine withdrawal syndrome and the number of jumps and presence of ptosis, piloerection, tremor, sniffing and diarrhea were recorded and compared with control group. Clavulanic acid at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg inhibited abdominal constriction and licking behavior of acetic acid and formalin-induced pain respectively. Clavulanic acid was not able to show any antinociception in hot plate model and could not prevent development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. Clavulanic acid has considerable antinociceptive activity and further studies are needed to clarify its exact mechanism.

  13. A SIMPLE ASSAY FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID USING COATED TEST-STRIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassay test strips utilizing ascending chromatography has been devised for the detection of 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). This test requires no instrumentation, inexpensive reagents and relies on the application of antibodies to 2,4-D adsorbed onto colloidal gol...

  14. Vibration test methods and their experimental research on the performance of the lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Baoxiang; Wang, Hua; He, Xie

    2014-12-01

    As we know, Lead-acid battery is difficult to balance many factors such as the accuracy and the on-line testing requirement. The detecting system, as stated in this article, is based on the vibration test procedure, dynamically following the electrochemical process of the Lead-acid Battery, and collects the real-time state parameters for calculation, analysis and judgment. It also quantizes precisely the degradation and chargeability of the battery and therefore self-adapts to the ideal target values. During the test, it has not charged and discharged large current to the lead-acid battery, it only plus a smaller and shorter time of impulse voltage signal on both ends of lead-acid battery, so the battery measured is damage free, and the system energy consumption is small; Using the load compensation technology, it has solved the influence of load on the test results. What's more, the load characteristics are improved at the same time, it realized the online detection. The vibration detection is based on the adaptive fuzzy inference model which has taken various factors into account, concerning the choices of input aspects which may influence the output value. It realized a number of Lead-acid Battery voltage self-adaption and accomplished a variety of high-precise tests.

  15. A field test of the effect of acidic rain on ion balance in a woodland salamander

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, M.P.; Wyman, R.L. )

    1994-06-01

    Earlier laboratory studies demonstrated that red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, are susceptible to osmotic disruption by low pH substrates. In natural systems, however, acidic input from precipitation may be mediated by soils before it impacts salamanders. We tested the effect of acidic rain on sodium balance in salamanders by confining individuals in enclosure in two forest types (hemlock, beech) for 34 d. Enclosures received artificial rain of either pH 3 or 5 every 3-4 d. Soils inside enclosures in the hemlock forest were more acidic than those in the beech forest at the outset. At termination, [H[sup +

  16. Characterizing Corrosion Effects of Weak Organic Acids Using a Modified Bono Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuqin; Turbini, Laura J.; Ramjattan, Deepchand; Christian, Bev; Pritzker, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To meet environmental requirements and achieve benefits of cost-effective manufacturing, no-clean fluxes (NCFs) or low-solids fluxes have become popular in present electronic manufacturing processes. Weak organic acids (WOAs) as the activation ingredients in NCFs play an important role, especially in the current lead-free and halogen-free soldering technology era. However, no standard or uniform method exists to characterize the corrosion effects of WOAs on actual metallic circuits of printed wiring boards (PWBs). Hence, the development of an effective quantitative test method for evaluating the corrosion effects of WOAs on the PWB's metallic circuits is imperative. In this paper, the modified Bono test, which was developed to quantitatively examine the corrosion properties of flux residues, is used to characterize the corrosion effects of five WOAs (i.e., abietic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, and malic acid) on PWB metallic circuits. Experiments were performed under three temperature/humidity conditions (85°C/85% RH, 60°C/93% RH, and 40°C/93% RH) using two WOA solution concentrations. The different corrosion effects among the various WOAs were best reflected in the testing results at 40°C and 60°C. Optical microscopy was used to observe the morphology of the corroded copper tracks, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) characterization was performed to determine the dendrite composition.

  17. Commercially available folic acid supplements and their compliance with the British Pharmacopoeia test for dissolution.

    PubMed

    Sculthorpe, N F; Davies, B; Ashton, T; Allison, S; McGuire, D N; Malhi, J S

    2001-09-01

    A recent report suggested that some folic acid preparations available in the United States failed to meet the specifications for dissolution specified by the US Pharmacopoeia (USP), of 70 per cent drug release in the first hour of testing. The Teratology Society recommends that women of childbearing age should take a daily supplement of 400 microg folic acid when they are trying to conceive, to reduce the risk of foetal neural tube defects. The consequence of this failure to meet the USP requirements may be that an inadequate dose of folate may be absorbed and thus the expected level of protection against neural tube defects not afforded. The purpose of the present study was to examine a number of brands of folic acid (400 microg), available commercially in the United Kingdom, for compliance with the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) test for dissolution. Ten tablets (or capsules) from each of 11 brands were tested using dissolution apparatus compliant with BP requirements, using 0.1 M sodium hydroxide as the dissolution medium. The results indicated that four of the brands failed to release 70 per cent of the nominal drug content in the first hour of test and thus did not comply with the test. Two of the seven brands that passed the test went on to release more than 150 per cent of the nominal 400 microg drug content. These results highlight the problems of dose uniformity and the potential health risks of slow dissolution and under-dosing in commercially available folic acid dosage forms.

  18. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., DG-1269 ``Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear... lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by May 13, 2013....

  19. [Bicycle test: measure of anaerobic power, heart rate and blood lactic acid].

    PubMed

    Faye, J; Fall, A; Seck, D; Badji, L; Faye, E M; Cisse, F

    2002-01-01

    Seven sportsmen, 100 meters and 400 meters runners are submitted to an effort test of 30 seconds. The subjects are on average 23.7 +/-2 years old. The purpose of our work is to study on the one hand the evlution of the anaerobic power. the heart rate and the lactic acid in blood during and after a bicycle test. and their relation, and on the other hand. to know the suitable pratical importance of the heart rate and the lactic acid in blood in connection with the intermittent efforts recovery aiming the anaerobic power developpement. These physiological parameters have been measured by a Monark bicycle 864, a sport-tester PE 3000 and a spectrophotometer JASCO 7800 UV/VIS. The power and the heart rate increase quickly in the 5 first seconds. Our subjects reach their average maximal anaerobic power at the 10th second, and then this power decreases progressively, while the heart rate continues to increase, without being maximal at the end of te test. Five minutes later it decreases in a half, while the lactic acid level calculated at the 30th second is continuing significantly. We have not found a significant relation between the measured parameters at the test stopping and during the recovery period (except between the lactic acid and the recovery index of the heart rate at the 25th minute). The lactic acid in blood would inform better about a good recovery during an interval training effort.

  20. Genotoxicity is modulated by ascorbic acid. Studies using the wing spot test in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Bülent; Creus, Amadeu; Velázquez, Antonia; Yanikoğlu, Atila; Marcos, Ricardo

    2002-09-26

    The ability of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) to modulate the genotoxic action of several mutagens was investigated in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster. In this assay, 3-day-old transheterozygous larvae for the multiple wing hairs (mwh, 3-0.3) and flare (flr, 3-38.8) genes were treated with three reference mutagenic compounds, namely cobalt chloride (CoCl2), 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). The results obtained show that the three reference mutagens tested were clearly genotoxic in the Drosophila wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART). None of the three concentrations tested of ascorbic acid (25, 75 and 250mM) induced significant increases in the frequency of the mutant clones recorded. When co-treatment experiments with ascorbic acid were carried out, different results were found. Thus, ascorbic acid was effective in reducing the genotoxicity of K2Cr2O7 virtually to the control level; on the contrary, it did not show any antigenotoxic effect on the genotoxicity of 4-NQO. Finally, co-treatments with CoCl2 and ascorbic acid show a significant increase in the frequency of mutant clones over the values obtained with CoCl2 alone. PMID:12297148

  1. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-oedematous effects of Lafoensia pacari extract and ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Rogerio, Alexandre P; Fontanari, Caroline; Melo, Mirian C C; Ambrosio, Sérgio R; de Souza, Glória E P; Pereira, Paulo S; França, Suzelei C; da Costa, Fernando B; Albuquerque, Deijanira A; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2006-09-01

    Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (Lythraceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect that the ethanolic extract of L. pacari has in Toxocara canis infection (a model of systemic eosinophilia). In this study, we tested the anti-inflammatory activity of the same L. pacari extract in mice injected intraperitoneally with beta-glucan present in fraction 1 (F1) of the Histoplasma capsulatum cell wall (a model of acute eosinophilic inflammation). We also determined the anti-oedematous, analgesic and anti-pyretic effects of L. pacari extract in carrageenan-induced paw oedema, acetic acid writhing and LPS-induced fever, respectively. L. pacari extract significantly inhibited leucocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity induced by beta-glucan. In addition, the L. pacari extract presented significant analgesic, anti-oedematous and anti-pyretic effects. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the L. pacari extract in the F1 model led us to identify ellagic acid. As did the extract, ellagic acid presented anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and analgesic effects. However, ellagic acid had no anti-pyretic effect, suggesting that other compounds present in the plant stem are responsible for this effect. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate potential therapeutic effects of L. pacari extract and ellagic acid, providing new prospects for the development of drugs to treat pain, oedema and inflammation. PMID:16945186

  2. Isolated etioplasts as test system for inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaler, H.K.; Kobek, K. )

    1989-04-01

    Isolated intact chloroplasts of mono- and dicotyledonous plants possess the capacity for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, starting from {sup 14}C-acetate. These can be taken as test system for herbicides affecting fatty acid biosynthesis as shown earlier in our laboratory. The incorporation rates of acetate into the total fatty acids depend on the photosynthetic cofactors ATP and NADPH and amount in the light to 33 kBq (oat) and 39 kBq (pea) per mg chlorophyll x h, whereas in the dark only ca. 10% of these rates are obtained. In order to establish a test system, which is fully independent of light, we isolated and characterized etioplast fractions from oat and pea seedlings with a very high capacity of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis (500 and 400 kBq per mg carotenoids in a 20 min period). This activity was blocked by herbicides such as cycloxydim, sethoxydim and diclofop in a dose-dependent manner. This new test system has the great advantage that one can verify whether inhibitors of photosynthesis affect fatty acid biosynthesis.

  3. Acid rain program: CEMS submission instructions for monitoring plans, certification test notifications, and quarterly reports

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-12

    The Acid Rain Program regulations require all affected utility units to continuously measure, record and report SO2, NOx, volumetric flow data and CO2 emissions. All affected units also must continuously measure and record opacity, and must report opacity exceedances to the appropriate State or Local Agency. To ensure that your CEMS and fuel flowmeters are performing at an acceptable level, and providing quality assured data, you are required under 40 CFR 75.53, 75.62 (a) to submit a monitoring plan and certification test data for acid rain CEM certificaton. The purpose of this handbook is to help you fulfill your requirements under the Acid Rain Program. This handbook will walk you through the necessary steps for gaining CEMS certification, including filling out and mailing the proper forms, administering the required tests, and applying for certification and sending in electronic data to EPA.

  4. Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Doye, I.; Duchesne, J.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

  5. Testing for departures from additivity in mixtures of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is a follow-up to a paper by Carr, et al. that determined a design structure to optimally test for departures from additivity in a fixed ratio mixture of four perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) using an in vitro transiently-transfected COS- 1 PPARa reporter model with an NHA...

  6. Decomposition of hydroxy amino acids in foraminiferal tests; kinetics, mechanism and geochronological implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bada, J.L.; Shou, M.-Y.; Man, E.H.; Schroeder, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The diagenesis of the hydroxy amino acids serine and threonine in foraminiferal tests has been investigated. The decomposition pathways of these amino acids are complex; the principal reactions appear to be dehydration, aldol cleavage and decarboxylation. Stereochemical studies indicate that the ??-amino-n-butyric acid (ABA) detected in foraminiferal tests is the end product of threonine dehydration pathway. Decomposition of serine and threonine in foraminiferal tests from two well-dated Caribbean deep-sea cores, P6304-8 and -9, has been found to follow irreversible first-order kinetics. Three empirical equations were derived for the disappearance of serine and threonine and the appearance of ABA. These equations can be used as a new geochronological method for dating foraminiferal tests from other deep-sea sediments. Preliminary results suggest that ages deduced from the ABA kinetics equation are most reliable because "species effect" and contamination problems are not important for this nonbiological amino acid. Because of the variable serine and threonine contents of modern foraminiferal species, it is likely that the accurate age estimates can be obtained from the serine and threonine decomposition equations only if a homogeneous species assemblage or single species sample isolated from mixed natural assemblages is used. ?? 1978.

  7. Classroom Demonstration of a Spot Test for Pbenylpyruvic Acid and Its Relationship to Phenylketonuria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halkides, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    Classical phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by a lack activity in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, leading to elevated concentrations of phenylalanine in the blood. A simple demonstration and three advanced demonstrations of a spot test for phenylpyruvic acid and its relationship to phenylketonuria are given.

  8. 21 CFR 862.3580 - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hallucinogenic drug, in serum, urine, and gastric contents. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. 862.3580 Section 862.3580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3580 - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hallucinogenic drug, in serum, urine, and gastric contents. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. 862.3580 Section 862.3580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3580 - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hallucinogenic drug, in serum, urine, and gastric contents. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. 862.3580 Section 862.3580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1060 - Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system. 862.1060 Section 862.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. 862.1390 Section 862.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1060 - Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system. 862.1060 Section 862.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1060 - Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system. 862.1060 Section 862.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1060 - Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system. 862.1060 Section 862.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1060 - Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system. 862.1060 Section 862.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  6. 76 FR 72950 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Nucleic Acid Tests on Pooled and Individual Samples From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and recommendations for product testing and disposition, donor...- licensed NAT to screen blood donors for HBV DNA. FDA is also providing these blood establishments...

  7. Effects of chlorpheniramine and ranitidine on the visceral nociception induced by acetic acid in rats: role of opioid system.

    PubMed

    Zanboori, A; Tamaddonfard, E; Mojtahedein, A

    2008-10-15

    In this study, effects of chlorpheniramine (H1-receptor blocker), ranitidine (H2-receptor blocker), morphine (an opioid agonist) and naloxone (an opioid antagonist) in separate and combined treatments were investigated on the visceral nociception in rats. Visceral nociception was induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (1 mL, 1%). The latency time to the beginning of the first abdominal wall contraction (first writhe) was measured and the numbers of writhes were counted for 1 h after acetic acid injection. Intraperitoneal injections of chlorpheniramine and ranitidine significantly (p < 0.05) increased the latency time to the beginning of the first writhe and also significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the numbers of writhes. The same results were obtained after subcutaneous injection of morphine. Subcutaneous injection of naloxone did not change the intensity of visceral nociception, but significantly (p < 0.05) prevented the morphine-induced antinociception. Intraperitoneal injection of chlorpheniramine significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the morphine-induced analgesia, but did not reverse the effect of naloxone on nociceptive responses. Intraperitoneal injection of ranitidine, with no effect on the morphine-induced antinociception, significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the effect of naloxone on pain responses. These results suggest that both chlorpheniramine and ranitidine exert antinociceptive effect in the visceral nociception. In addition, morphine through a naloxone-dependent mechanism produces visceral antinociception. Moreover, the endogenous opioid system may participate in the chlorpheniramine- but not in the ranitidine-induced antinociception.

  8. Standardization of formulations for the acute amino acid depletion and loading tests.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-04-01

    The acute tryptophan depletion and loading and the acute tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of cerebral monoamines in behaviour and symptoms related to various disorders. The tests use either amino acid mixtures or proteins. Current amino acid mixtures lack specificity in humans, but not in rodents, because of the faster disposal of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) by the latter. The high content of BCAA (30-60%) is responsible for the poor specificity in humans and we recommend, in a 50g dose, a control formulation with a lowered BCAA content (18%) as a common control for the above tests. With protein-based formulations, α-lactalbumin is specific for acute tryptophan loading, whereas gelatine is only partially effective for acute tryptophan depletion. We recommend the use of the whey protein fraction glycomacropeptide as an alternative protein. Its BCAA content is ideal for specificity and the absence of tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine render it suitable as a template for seven formulations (separate and combined depletion or loading and a truly balanced control). We invite the research community to participate in standardization of the depletion and loading methodologies by using our recommended amino acid formulation and developing those based on glycomacropeptide.

  9. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) – inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing – administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion – but not saccharin preference – in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference – but not in locomotion – was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be

  10. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice.

    PubMed

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) - inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing - administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion - but not saccharin preference - in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference - but not in locomotion - was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be used as a more

  11. TESTING OF 304L STAINLESS STEEL IN NITRIC ACID ENVIRONMENTS WITH FLUORIDES AND CHLORIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2010-10-04

    Impure radioactive material processed in nitric acid solutions resulted in the presence of chlorides in a dissolver fabricated from 304L stainless steel. An experimental program was conducted to study the effects of chloride in nitric acid/fluoride solutions on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel. The test variables included temperature (80, 95, and 110 C) and the concentrations of nitric acid (6, 12, and 14 M), fluoride (0.01, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and chloride (100, 350, 1000, and 2000 ppm). The impact of welding was also investigated. Results showed that the chloride concentration alone was not a dominant variable affecting the corrosion, but rather the interaction of chloride with fluoride significantly affected corrosion.

  12. Skin testing of gallic acid-based hair dye in paraphenylenediamine/paratoluenediamine-reactive patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yunseok; Lee, Joon Ho; Kwon, Hyok Bu; An, Susun; Lee, Ai-Young

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to para-phenylenediamine (PPD)/paratoluenediamine (PTD) hair dyes is increasing. Hair dyes utilizing gallic acid (GA) may be a safe alternative. However, pretesting is recommended. We investigated the contact sensitivity to ingredients of a dye product; GA, monoethanolamine thioglycolate (MT), l-cystein and ferrous sulfate, and an appropriate pretest method in 31 patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. An open test was performed with the test dye following the patch test. Subsequently, a use test was performed twice, with a 4-week interval. One subject showed a positive reaction to ferrous sulfate in the patch test. Another subject reacted to the first compound alone in the open test. Thirteen subjects manifesting cutaneous lesions from previous regular hair dyeing, showed reactions at the first use of the test dye; and six had reactions with reduced severity at the second test. GA and MT are safe for use in ACD patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. For predicting contact allergy to hair dyes, the open test appeared to be a better pretest method than the patch test. PMID:26663148

  13. Integrated sample-to-detection chip for nucleic acid test assays.

    PubMed

    Prakash, R; Pabbaraju, K; Wong, S; Tellier, R; Kaler, K V I S

    2016-06-01

    Nucleic acid based diagnostic techniques are routinely used for the detection of infectious agents. Most of these assays rely on nucleic acid extraction platforms for the extraction and purification of nucleic acids and a separate real-time PCR platform for quantitative nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). Several microfluidic lab on chip (LOC) technologies have been developed, where mechanical and chemical methods are used for the extraction and purification of nucleic acids. Microfluidic technologies have also been effectively utilized for chip based real-time PCR assays. However, there are few examples of microfluidic systems which have successfully integrated these two key processes. In this study, we have implemented an electro-actuation based LOC micro-device that leverages multi-frequency actuation of samples and reagents droplets for chip based nucleic acid extraction and real-time, reverse transcription (RT) PCR (qRT-PCR) amplification from clinical samples. Our prototype micro-device combines chemical lysis with electric field assisted isolation of nucleic acid in a four channel parallel processing scheme. Furthermore, a four channel parallel qRT-PCR amplification and detection assay is integrated to deliver the sample-to-detection NAT chip. The NAT chip combines dielectrophoresis and electrostatic/electrowetting actuation methods with resistive micro-heaters and temperature sensors to perform chip based integrated NATs. The two chip modules have been validated using different panels of clinical samples and their performance compared with standard platforms. This study has established that our integrated NAT chip system has a sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the standard platforms while providing up to 10 fold reduction in sample/reagent volumes.

  14. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... identification as Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1269, in the Federal Register on March 12, 2013 (78 FR 15753), for a... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The...

  15. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  16. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    PubMed Central

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  17. Multiplex Nucleic Acid Amplification Test for Diagnosis of Dengue Fever, Malaria, and Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Abeynayake, Janaki; Balassiano, Ilana; Lefterova, Martina; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Banaei, Niaz

    2014-01-01

    Dengue, leptospirosis, and malaria are among the most common etiologies of systemic undifferentiated febrile illness (UFI) among travelers to the developing world, and these pathogens all have the potential to cause life-threatening illness in returned travelers. The current study describes the development of an internally controlled multiplex nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) and Leptospira and Plasmodium species, with a specific callout for Plasmodium falciparum (referred to as the UFI assay). During analytical evaluation, the UFI assay displayed a wide dynamic range and a sensitive limit of detection for each target, including all four DENV serotypes. In a clinical evaluation including 210 previously tested samples, the sensitivities of the UFI assay were 98% for DENV (58/59 samples detected) and 100% for Leptospira and malaria (65/65 and 20/20 samples, respectively). Malaria samples included all five Plasmodium species known to cause human disease. The specificity of the UFI assay was 100% when evaluated with a panel of 66 negative clinical samples. Furthermore, no amplification was observed when extracted nucleic acids from related pathogens were tested. Compared with whole-blood samples, the UFI assay remained positive for Plasmodium in 11 plasma samples from patients with malaria (parasitemia levels of 0.0037 to 3.4%). The syndrome-based design of the UFI assay, combined with the sensitivities of the component tests, represents a significant improvement over the individual diagnostic tests available for these pathogens. PMID:24671788

  18. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  19. Clavulanic acid does not affect convulsions in acute seizure tests in mice.

    PubMed

    Gasior, Maciej; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLAV) inhibits bacterial β-lactamases and is commonly used to aid antibiotic therapy. Prompted by the initial evidence suggestive of the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of CLAV, the present study was undertaken to systematically evaluate its acute effects on seizure thresholds in seizure tests typically used in primary screening of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the present study, 6-Hz seizure threshold, maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests were used to determine anticonvulsant effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered CLAV in mice. Acute effects on motor coordination and muscle strength were assessed in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. Doses of CLAV studied in the present study were either comparable or extended the doses reported in the literature to be effective against kainic acid-induced convulsions in mice or behaviorally active in rodents and monkeys. CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz (64 ng/kg to 1 mg/kg) and MEST (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) seizure tests. Similarly, CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds for i.v. PTZ-induced myoclonic twitch, clonic convulsions, and tonic convulsions (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg). Finally, CLAV (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor performance and muscle strength in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. In summary, CLAV failed to affect seizure thresholds in three seizure tests in mice. Although the results of the present study do not support further development of CLAV as an AED, its beneficial effects in chronic epilepsy models warrant further evaluation owing to its, for example, potential neuroprotective properties.

  20. Development and validation of dissolution testings in acidic media for rabeprazole sodium delayed-release capsules.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinhe; Si, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Lulu; Feng, Xin; Yang, Xinmin; Huang, Min; Wu, Chuanbin

    2016-10-01

    Rabeprazole sodium (RAB) dissolved in acidic media is accompanied by its degradation in the course of dissolution testing. To develop and establish the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle (RAB) delayed-release capsules (ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle) in acidic media using USP apparatus 2 (paddle apparatus) as a dissolution tester, the issues of determination of accumulative release amount of RAB in these acidic media and interference of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose phthalate were solved by adding appropriate hydrochloric acid (HCl) into dissolution samples coupled with centrifugation so as to remove the interference and form a solution of degradation products of RAB, which is of a considerably stable ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at the wavelength of 298 nm within 2.0 h. Therefore, the accumulative release amount of RAB in dissolution samples at each sample time points could be determined by UV-spectrophotometry, and the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle in the media of pH 1.0, pH 6.0, and pH 6.8 could be established. The method was validated per as the ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines and demonstrated to be adequate for quality control of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle and the accumulative release profiles can be used as a tool to guide the formulation development and quality control of a generic drug for ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle. PMID:27066697

  1. Anxiogenic activity of quinolinic acid and kynurenine in the social interaction test in mice.

    PubMed

    Lapin, I P; Mutovkina, L G; Ryzov, I V; Mirzaev, S

    1996-01-01

    Quinolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophan on the kynurenine pathway, shortened the duration of social contacts (sniffings) in C57BL/6 mice which had been previously isolated for 24 h. This effect was observed at the following time intervals after i.c.v. administration: 2-6, 22-26 and 32-36 min. Locomotion was significantly less inhibited and only during the first interval. L-Kynurenine sulphate was less active. It shortened the duration of contacts only during the 32-36 min interval after i.c.v. administration. Grooming was significantly reduced by quinolinic acid at 7-11, 12-16 and 17-21 min after administration. These effects of quinolinic acid in the social interaction test are similar to those of standard anxiogens and suggest that quinolinic acid belongs to the putative endogenous anxiogens (and not only to the endogenous convulsants). The same assumption about L-kynurenine based on data in other models of anxiety has been made previously.

  2. Rapid Bedside Inactivation of Ebola Virus for Safe Nucleic Acid Tests.

    PubMed

    Rosenstierne, Maiken Worsøe; Karlberg, Helen; Bragstad, Karoline; Lindegren, Gunnel; Stoltz, Malin Lundahl; Salata, Cristiano; Kran, Anne-Marte Bakken; Dudman, Susanne Gjeruldsen; Mirazimi, Ali; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2016-10-01

    Rapid bedside inactivation of Ebola virus would be a solution for the safety of medical and technical staff, risk containment, sample transport, and high-throughput or rapid diagnostic testing during an outbreak. We show that the commercially available Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer used for nucleic acid extraction inactivates Ebola virus. A rapid bedside inactivation method for nucleic acid tests is obtained by simply adding Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer directly into vacuum blood collection EDTA tubes using a thin needle and syringe prior to sampling. The ready-to-use inactivation vacuum tubes are stable for more than 4 months, and Ebola virus RNA is preserved in the Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer for at least 5 weeks independent of the storage temperature. We also show that Ebola virus RNA can be manually extracted from Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer-inactivated samples using the QIAamp viral RNA minikit. We present an easy and convenient method for bedside inactivation using available blood collection vacuum tubes and reagents. We propose to use this simple method for fast, safe, and easy bedside inactivation of Ebola virus for safe transport and routine nucleic acid detection. PMID:27466385

  3. Sequence Design for a Test Tube of Interacting Nucleic Acid Strands.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Brian R; Pierce, Niles A

    2015-10-16

    We describe an algorithm for designing the equilibrium base-pairing properties of a test tube of interacting nucleic acid strands. A target test tube is specified as a set of desired "on-target" complexes, each with a target secondary structure and target concentration, and a set of undesired "off-target" complexes, each with vanishing target concentration. Sequence design is performed by optimizing the test tube ensemble defect, corresponding to the concentration of incorrectly paired nucleotides at equilibrium evaluated over the ensemble of the test tube. To reduce the computational cost of accepting or rejecting mutations to a random initial sequence, the structural ensemble of each on-target complex is hierarchically decomposed into a tree of conditional subensembles, yielding a forest of decomposition trees. Candidate sequences are evaluated efficiently at the leaf level of the decomposition forest by estimating the test tube ensemble defect from conditional physical properties calculated over the leaf subensembles. As optimized subsequences are merged toward the root level of the forest, any emergent defects are eliminated via ensemble redecomposition and sequence reoptimization. After successfully merging subsequences to the root level, the exact test tube ensemble defect is calculated for the first time, explicitly checking for the effect of the previously neglected off-target complexes. Any off-target complexes that form at appreciable concentration are hierarchically decomposed, added to the decomposition forest, and actively destabilized during subsequent forest reoptimization. For target test tubes representative of design challenges in the molecular programming and synthetic biology communities, our test tube design algorithm typically succeeds in achieving a normalized test tube ensemble defect ≤1% at a design cost within an order of magnitude of the cost of test tube analysis.

  4. Evaluation of a semiquantitative SNAP test for measurement of bile acids in dogs.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Rachel L; Tobias, Karen M; Reed, Ann; Snyder, Karl R

    2014-01-01

    Background. Serum bile acids (SBA) are used as a routine screening tool of liver function in dogs. Serum samples are usually shipped to a referral laboratory for quantitative analysis with an enzymatic chemistry analyzer. The canine SNAP Bile Acids Test (SNAP-BAT) provides an immediate, semi-quantitative measurement of bile acid concentrations in-house. With the SNAP-BAT, bile acids concentrations of 5-30 µmol/L are quantified, and results outside of that range are classified as <5 or >30 µmol/L. Agreement of the SNAP-BAT with the enzymatic method has not been extensively investigated. Objectives. The purposes of this prospective clinical study were to assess the precision of the SNAP-BAT and determine agreement of SNAP-BAT with results from an in-house chemistry analyzer. Methods. After verifying intra-assay precision of the SNAP-BAT, a prospective analysis was performed using blood samples collected from 56 dogs suspected to have liver disease. Each sample was analyzed with an enzymatic, in-house chemistry analyzer and the SNAP-BAT. Agreement between the two methods was statistically assessed using the κ index of agreement. Results. Intra-assay variability was minimal. The κ index for agreement between the SNAP-BAT and routine chemistry analyzer was between 0.752 and 0.819, indicating substantial to near perfect agreement. Conclusions. The SNAP-BAT is a highly accurate, semi-quantitative test that yields immediate results, and has very little intra-assay variability, particularly for results >30 µmol/L.

  5. Individual donor nucleic acid amplification testing for detection of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Mathew, John; Pfahler, Wolfram; Ma, Dongling; Valinsky, Jay; Prince, Alfred M; Andrus, Linda

    2005-10-01

    We have developed an economical, high-throughput nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) for blood-borne viruses, suitable for use in the screening of plasma samples from individual blood donors. This assay system includes a semiautomated procedure, using 96-well glass fiber plates for the extraction of viral nucleic acids from plasma and "universal beacon" technology which permits the detection of all genotypes of highly variable viruses (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus). In this detection system, two fluorescent- detection technologies were employed successfully in a single tube: molecular beacon for West Nile virus (WNV) detection using a 6-carboxyfluorescein fluorophore and TaqMan for internal control detection using a VIC fluorophore. To establish proof of concept, we focused on the development of a robust individual donor NAT for WNV. The assay showed no reactivity to 15 other viruses tested or to 420 blood donor samples from the WNV pre-epidemic season. No cross-contamination was observed on an alternating positive-/negative-well test. The sensitivity (limit of detection, 95%) of the assay for WNV is between 3.79 and 16.3 RNA copies/ml, depending on which material was used as a standard. The assay detected all positive blood donation samples identified by the Roche WNV NAT. The assay can be performed qualitatively for screening and quantitatively for confirmation.

  6. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver

  7. Antibody and Viral Nucleic Acid Testing of Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, David C.; Howard, John J.; Oliver, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis diagnostic serum antibody can appear 6 days after the onset of symptoms, and its numbers can increase 4-fold in 4 days, arguing for early and frequent serum testing. In populations where cerebrospinal fluid viral nucleic acid testing sensitivity and specificity remain undetermined, cerebrospinal antibody testing should also be performed. PMID:26063852

  8. Nucleic acid-amplification testing for hepatitis B in cornea donors.

    PubMed

    Fornés, Maria Gema; Jiménez, Maria Angustias; Eisman, Marcela; Gómez Villagrán, Jose Luis; Villalba, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Careful donor selection and implementation of tests of appropriate sensitivity and specificity are of paramount importance for minimizing the risk of transmitting infectious diseases from donors to corneal allograft recipients. Reported cases of viral transmission with corneal grafts are very unusual. Nevertheless potential virus transmission through the engraftment cannot be ruled out. According to European Guideline 2006/17/EC, screening for antibodies for Hepatitis B core antigen (anti HBc) is mandatory, and when this test is positive, some criteria must be established before using corneas. Despite the continuous progress in screening tests, donors carrying an occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) can cause transplant-transmitted hepatitis B. To date, Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) is not an obligatory assay in corneal tissue setting neither in our country nor in the rest of European countries. Herein, we report three cornea donors that were rejected with the diagnosis of OBI through the testing of sensitive NAT and the serological profile of Hepatitis B virus. The aim of this report is to emphasize the need to include NAT in new reviews of EU Tissues and Cells Directives in order to increase level of security in tissue donation as well as not to reject a high number of donors with isolated profile of anti HBc in geographical areas with high prevalence of Hepatitis B, that could be rejected without a true criterion of Hepatitis B infection. PMID:26685699

  9. Inhibition of spinal N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase produces an antinociceptive effect in the rat formalin test.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Nozaki-Taguchi, N; Sakashita, Y; Inagaki, T

    2001-01-01

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate is a putative neurotransmitter and acts as a weak agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate also acts as an agonist at the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate is hydrolyzed by N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase to liberate N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Recently, a specific inhibitor of N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase, 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid, has been reported. In the present study, we examined the effect of i.t. administered 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid in the rat formalin test (a model of inflammatory pain) and the rat hot plate test. In the formalin test, drugs were administered 10min before (pre-treatment study) or 7min after (post-treatment study) the formalin injection. The paw formalin injection induces biphasic flinching (phase 1: 0-2min; phase 2: 10-60min) of the injected paw. In the pre-treatment study, i.t. administered 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid depressed both phases 1 and 2 flinching behavior in a dose-dependent manner but 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid had no effect on the flinching behavior in the post-treatment study. In the pre-treatment study, the potency of 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid in depressing the phase 2 response is greater than that in depressing the phase 1 response. Intrathecal injection of 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid had no effect in the hot plate test. We suggest that N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase plays an important role in spinal nociceptive transmission and that inhibition of spinal N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase produces an antinociceptive effect during the rat formalin test but not during the hot plate test.

  10. CORROSION TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN OXALIC ACID CHEMICAL CLEANING SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Mickalonis, J.; Subramanian, K.; Ketusky, E.

    2011-10-14

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid has been selected for this purpose because it is an effective chelating agent for the solids and is not as corrosive as other acids. Electrochemical and immersion studies were conducted to investigate the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in simulated chemical cleaning environments. The effects of temperature, agitation, and the presence of sludge solids in the oxalic acid on the corrosion rate and the likelihood of hydrogen evolution were determined. The testing showed that the corrosion rates decreased significantly in the presence of the sludge solids. Corrosion rates increased with agitation, however, the changes were less noticeable.

  11. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, Gustav K. H. E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk

    2015-02-15

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  12. Teichoic acid antibody test: its use in patients with coagulase-positive staphylococcal bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Larinkari, U M; Valtonen, M V; Sarvas, M; Valtonen, V V

    1977-11-01

    We have studied the occurrence and specificity of teichoic acid antibodies (TAAs), measured by double diffusion in agar, in 114 patients with bacteremia of whom 47 had coagulase-positive staphylococcal bacteremia. A total of 30% of the 47 patients with coagulase-positive staphylococcal bacteremia had a TAA titer of 1:8 or more, and an additional 30% had a titer of 1:2 or 1:4. High TAA titers were most often connected with coagulase-positive staphylococcal endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and deep wound infections. None of the six coagulase-negative patients with staphylococcal bacteremia nor any of the 92 controls had titers exceeding 1:1. A total of 10% of the other patients with bacteremia showed positive results on the TAA test at low titer levels. Compared to the antistaphylolysin value, the TAA test was about equally specific but more sensitive.

  13. Corrosion Testing of Carbon Steel in Oxalic Acid that Contains Dissolved Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, Bruce J.; Mickalonis, John I.; Subramanian, Karthik H.

    2012-10-11

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid (OA) will be used to chemically clean the tanks after waste retrieval is completed. The waste tanks at SRS were constructed from carbon steel materials and thus are vulnerable to corrosion in acidic media. In addition to structural impacts, the impact of corrosion on the hydrogen generated during the process must be assessed. Electrochemical and coupon immersion tests were used to investigate the corrosion mechanism at anticipated process conditions. The testing showed that the corrosion rates were dependent upon the reduction of the iron species that had dissolved in solution. Initial corrosion rates were elevated due to the reduction of the ferric species to ferrous species. At later times, as the ferric species depleted, the corrosion rate decreased. On the other hand, the hydrogen evolution reaction became more dominant.

  14. Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort; J. Argueta; M. Wehrey; D. Karner; L. Tyree

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.

  15. Bile Acid Metabolome after an Oral Lipid Tolerance Test by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas; Neumann, Hannah; Karrasch, Thomas; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schäffler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Context Besides their role in intestinal resorption of lipids, bile acids are regarded as endocrine and metabolic signaling molecules. The detailed profile of bile acid species in peripheral blood after an oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT) is unknown. Objective We quantified the regulation of 18 bile acids after OLTT in healthy individuals. Material and methods 100 volunteers were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters and underwent OLTT. Venous blood was drawn in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2h, 4h, and 6 h after OLTT. Serum concentrations of 18 bile acids were measured by LC-MS/MS. Results All of the 6 taurine-conjugated bile acids (TUDCA, THDCA, TCA, TCDCA, TDCA, TLCA) and all of the 6 glycine-conjugated bile acids (GUDCA, GHDCA, GCA, GCDCA, GDCA, GLCA) rose significantly at 2h and remained elevated during OLTT. Of the primary bile acids, CA remained unchanged, whereas CDCA significantly decreased at 4h. Of the secondary bile acids, DCA, UDCA and HDCA were not altered, whereas LCA decreased. There was a significant positive correlation between the intestinal feed-back regulator of bile acid synthesis FGF-19 and bile acids. This correlation seems to depend on all of the six taurine-conjugated bile acids and on GCA, GDCA, and GCDCA. Females and users of hormonal contraception displayed higher levels of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Conclusions The novelty of the study is based on the identification of single bile acids during OLTT. LC-MS/MS-based quantification of bile acids in serum provides a reliable tool for future investigation of endocrine and metabolic effects of bile acids. PMID:26863103

  16. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited β-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes

  17. Nicotinic acid test in the diagnosis of Gilbert's syndrome: correlation with bilirubin clearance.

    PubMed Central

    Röllinghoff, W; Paumgartner, G; Preisig, R

    1981-01-01

    A provocation test with nicotinic acid (50 mg intravenously) was performed in 13 patients with Gilbert's syndrome and seven healthy volunteers to investigate the diagnostic value of several test parameters and to correlate them with the bilirubin clearance. The maximal increment of unconjugated serum bilirubin, the retention at four hours, and the area under the bilirubin concentration time curve. (AUC) were measured. Significant differences between patients and controls were found with regard to the AUC (7.95 +/- SD, 3.29 mmol/min/l vs. 3.08 +/- 0.57; P less than 0.001), the increment of unconjugated bilirubin (24.1 +/- 7.1 mumol/l vs. 10.2 +/- 3.2; P less than 0.001) and the retention (77.7 +/- 8.9% vs. 45.8 +/- 27.4%; P less than 0.02). Of those, the AUC discriminated best between patients and controls. Five patients with Gilbert's syndrome had normal serum bilirubin concentrations (less than 17.1 mumol/l = 1 mg%) at the time of the study, but abnormal AUC and bilirubin increment. A significant correlation was found between the bilirubin clearance and the retention (r = -0.96; P less than 0.001) as well as the AUC (r = -0.82; P less than 0.05) but not with the bilirubin increment. This simple test may be used to assess the disturbance of bilirubin clearance in Gilbert's syndrome. PMID:7286783

  18. Sildenafil enhances the peripheral antinociceptive effect of ellagic acid in the rat formalin test

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Ellagic acid (EA), a major polyphenolic compound of pomegranate juice, produces antinociceptive effects, which are mediated through opioidergic and nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathways. The present study was conducted to elucidate the peripheral antinociceptive effect of EA alone and in combination with sildenafil in the rat formalin test. Materials and Methods: Pain was produced by intraplantar injection of formalin (2.5%) in rats and nociceptive behavior was measured as the number of flinches every 5 min in 60 min after injection. Results: Local administration of EA and sildenafil dose-dependently increased the nociception threshold in both phases of the test. Moreover, sub-effective doses of sildenafil (25 or 50 mcg/paw, i.p.) significantly and dose-dependently enhanced the antinociception induced by a sub-effective dose of EA (60 mcg/paw, i.pl.) in both phases of the test. The antinociception produced by these drugs alone, or in combination, was due to a peripheral site of action, since the administration in the contralateral paw was ineffective. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EA has local peripheral antinociceptive activity, and enhancement of this effect with sildenafil probably occurs through the inhibition of cGMP metabolism. PMID:25097278

  19. Nucleic Acid Dipstick Test for Molecular Diagnosis of Pandemic H1N1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang-Ta; Curran, Martin D.; Ellis, Joanna S.; Parmar, Surendra; Ritchie, Allyson V.; Sharma, Pia I.; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Jalal, Hamid; Zambon, Maria; Lee, Helen H.

    2010-01-01

    A new nucleic acid amplification-based rapid test for diagnosis of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 virus was developed. The molecular test for pandemic H1N1, SAMBA (simple amplification-based assay), is based on isothermal amplification and visual detection on a dipstick characterized by high sensitivity, high specificity, a short turnaround time, and minimal technical requirements. The amplification step is monitored with an internal control to ensure correct interpretation of test results. The clinical performance of this assay was evaluated using blinded RNA samples extracted from nasal/throat swab specimens from 262 patients exhibiting influenza-like illness. Compared with the United Kingdom National Standard Method, based on quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the new assay were 95.3% (95% confidence interval, 88.5 to 98.7%), 99.4% (95% confidence interval, 96.9 to 99.9%), 98.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.5 to 99.9%), and 97.8% (95% confidence interval, 94.4 to 99.4%), respectively. The SAMBA for pandemic H1N1 provides a new technology that could potentially facilitate timely diagnosis and management of infected individuals, thereby informing decision making with regard to patient isolation during a pandemic outbreak. PMID:20668123

  20. Beyond the "acid test": a conceptual review and reformulation of outcome evaluation in clinical supervision.

    PubMed

    Milne, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models abound within clinical supervision, but these rarely have been applied to supervision evaluation. Instead, it appears that reviewers and researchers have simply transferred to supervision the conceptual frameworks used within medicine, especially the idea that clinical outcomes are the "acid test" of supervisory effectiveness or quality. Following a careful examination of the key literature, in this paper I argue that this has led to an over-emphasis on clinical outcomes, with the net effect of reducing scientific confidence, understanding, and the effectiveness of supervision. To begin to rectify this bias, an augmented fidelity framework is used to reformulate evaluation, drawing on some of the key concepts guiding evaluation within related fields (i.e. service evaluation; staff development; psychotherapy; applied research). The resulting evaluation model is specific to clinical supervision and can help to increase our understanding, enhance our practice, re-prioritise research, and inspire confidence in supervision.

  1. Beyond the "acid test": a conceptual review and reformulation of outcome evaluation in clinical supervision.

    PubMed

    Milne, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models abound within clinical supervision, but these rarely have been applied to supervision evaluation. Instead, it appears that reviewers and researchers have simply transferred to supervision the conceptual frameworks used within medicine, especially the idea that clinical outcomes are the "acid test" of supervisory effectiveness or quality. Following a careful examination of the key literature, in this paper I argue that this has led to an over-emphasis on clinical outcomes, with the net effect of reducing scientific confidence, understanding, and the effectiveness of supervision. To begin to rectify this bias, an augmented fidelity framework is used to reformulate evaluation, drawing on some of the key concepts guiding evaluation within related fields (i.e. service evaluation; staff development; psychotherapy; applied research). The resulting evaluation model is specific to clinical supervision and can help to increase our understanding, enhance our practice, re-prioritise research, and inspire confidence in supervision. PMID:25122986

  2. Underestimation of pyruvic acid concentrations by fructose and cysteine in 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-mediated onion pungency test.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-10-01

    Onion pungency has been routinely measured by determining pyruvic acid concentration in onion juice by reacting with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) since 1961. However, the absorbency of the color adduct of the reaction rapidly decreased in onion samples as compared to that of the pyruvic acid standards, resulting in underestimations of the pyruvic acid concentrations. By measuring the absorbency at 1 min, we have demonstrated that accuracy could be substantially improved. As a continuation, the causes of degradation of the color adduct after the reaction and pyruvic acid itself before the reaction were examined in this study. Alliinase action in juice (fresh or cooked) and bulb colors did not influence the degradation. Some organic acids indigenously found in onion, such as ascorbic acid, proline, and glutamic acid, did not reduce the absorbency. However, fructose within the onion juice or supplemented caused the degradation of the color adduct, whereas sucrose and glucose had a lesser effect. Degradation rates increased proportionally as fructose concentrations increased up to 70 mg/mL. Cysteine was found to degrade the pyruvic acid itself before the pyruvic acid could react with DNPH. Approximately 90% of the pyruvic acid was degraded after 60 min in samples of 7 mM pyruvic acid supplemented with 10 mg/mL cysteine. Spectral comparisons of onion juice containing fructose naturally and pyruvic acid solution with supplemented fructose indicated identical patterns and confirmed that the color-adduct degradation was caused by fructose. Our study elucidated that fructose, a major sugar in onion juice, caused the degradation of color adduct in the onion pungency test and resulted in underestimation of the pyruvic acid concentration.

  3. Linoleic and docosahexaenoic acids in human milk have opposite relationships with cognitive test performance in a sample of 28 countries.

    PubMed

    Lassek, W D; Gaulin, S J C

    2014-11-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play critical roles in brain development and function, and their levels in human breast milk closely reflect the long-term diet. The fatty acid contents of human milk samples from 28 countries were used to predict averaged 2009 and 2012 test scores in mathematics, reading, and science from the Program for International Student Assessment. All test scores were positively related to milk docosahexaenoic acid (r=0.48 to 0.55), and negatively related to linoleic acid (r=-0.28 to -0.56). Together, these two human milk fatty acids explained 46% to 48% of the variance in scores, with no improvement in predictive power when socioeconomic variables were added to the regression. The (log) ratio of linoleic to arachidonic acid was negatively related to scores (r=-0.45 to -0.48). Statistical effects were similar for the two sexes. In a separate US sample, estimated dietary linoleic was negatively related to the levels of all long-chain n-3 and n-6 plasma fatty acids. High levels of dietary linoleic may impair cognition by decreasing both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in the brain.

  4. Antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, V.; Dehdashti, Kh.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate has a key role in pain perception and also development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. It has been reported that clavulanic acid affects glutamatergic transmission via activation of glutamate transporter. Therefore the present study was aimed to evaluate the possible antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models. Male Swiss mice (25-30 g) were used in this study. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test and hot plate method were used to assess the antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid. Morphine (30 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to the mice two times a day (8 AM and 4 PM) for 3 days in order to produce tolerance. To develop morphine dependence, morphine sulfate (50, 50 and 75 mg/kg) was injected at 8 and 12 AM and 16 PM respectively and for 3 consecutive days. Naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p) was used to induce morphine withdrawal syndrome and the number of jumps and presence of ptosis, piloerection, tremor, sniffing and diarrhea were recorded and compared with control group. Clavulanic acid at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg inhibited abdominal constriction and licking behavior of acetic acid and formalin-induced pain respectively. Clavulanic acid was not able to show any antinociception in hot plate model and could not prevent development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. Clavulanic acid has considerable antinociceptive activity and further studies are needed to clarify its exact mechanism. PMID:25657803

  5. Twisting and Writhing with George Ellery Hale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    2013-07-01

    Early in his productive career in astronomy, George Ellery Hale developed innovative instrumentation that allowed him to image the magnetically-dominated solar chromosphere. Among the solar phenomena he discovered were sunspot vortices, which he attributed to storms akin to cyclones in our own atmosphere. Much more recently, physicists discovered a quantity that is very well conserved in ideal magnetohydrodynamics: magnetic helicity. Our contemporary understanding of Hale's vortices as a consequence of large-scale twist in sunspot magnetic fields hinges on this conservation. I will review the crucial role that this property plays in the hemispheric and solar cycle dependences of Hales vortices, as well as solar flares and CMEs.

  6. In vitro testing of commercial and potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Hanne; Grimmer, Stine; Naterstad, Kristine; Axelsson, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of selected commercial and potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria using common in vitro screening assays such as transit tolerance in the upper human gastrointestinal tract, adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines and effect on epithelial barrier function. The selected bacteria include strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Viable counts after simulated gastric transit tolerance showed that L. reuteri strains and P. pentosaceus tolerate gastric juice well, with no reduction of viability, whereas L. pentosus, L. farciminis and L. sakei strains lost viability over 180min. All strains tested tolerate the simulated small intestinal juice well. The bacterial adhesion capacity to human intestinal cells revealed major species and strain differences. Overall, L. plantarum MF1298 and three L. reuteri strains had a significant higher adhesion capacity compared to the other strains tested. All strains, both living and UV-inactivated, had little effect on the epithelial barrier function. However, living L. reuteri strains revealed a tendency to increase the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) from 6 to 24h. This work demonstrates the diversity of 18 potential probiotic bacteria, with major species and strain specific effects in the in vitro screening assays applied. Overall, L. reuteri strains reveal some interesting characteristics compared to the other strains investigated.

  7. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium: 2-hydroxy-5-selenocyanatobenzoic acid as an anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive compound.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Pietro Maria; Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Sari, Marcel Henrique Marcondes; Oliveira, Carla Elena Sartori; Canto, Rômulo Faria Santos; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Braga, Antonio Luiz; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of per oral (p.o.) administration of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium compounds in chemical models of nociception in mice. The compounds (50 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered 30 and 60 min before the nociceptive behavior and compared to the positive-control, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 200 mg/kg; p.o.). In addition, a dose-response curve (25-100 mg/kg) for compounds was carried out in the formalin test. When assessed in the chemical models, acetic acid-induced writhing behavior, formalin and glutamate tests, the compounds showed the following antinociceptive profile 1B>2B>1A>2A, suggesting a chemical structure-dependent relationship. Then, the anti-inflammatory properties and toxicological potential of compound 1B were investigated. Compound 1B, similar to the positive-control, ASA, diminished the edema formation and decreased the myeloperoxidase activity induced by croton oil (2.5%) in the ear tissue. The results also indicate that a single oral administration of 1B caused neither signs of acute toxicity nor those of gastrointestinal injury. The administration of 1B did not alter the water and food intakes, plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities or urea levels and cerebral or hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity. Salicylic acid-derivative organoseleniums, mainly compound 1B, have been found to be novel compounds with antinociceptive/anti-inflammatory properties; nevertheless, more studies are required to examine their therapeutic potential for pain treatment.

  8. Plasma amino acid response to single test meals in humans. V. Ethiopian preschool children given lowcost protein supplements.

    PubMed

    Ljungqvist, B G; Björnesjö, K B; Gebre-Medhin, M; Habte, D; Meeuwisse, G W; Mellander, O; Svanberg, U S

    1979-02-01

    The plasma amino acid response to single test meals was studied in preschool children, aged 9 months--5 years. The amount of protein given in each test meal was 1 g per kg body weight, which represented one-third of the daily intake of the children who were recovering from protein-energy malnutrition. The test meals given was gruels made from wheat mixed with a supplementary weaning food (Faffa or Superamin) or fish protein concentrate (FPC). The plasma amino acid responses were evaluated both as PAA ratios (a modification of the Longenecker and Hause method), and as deltaMR% (percentage change in the postprandial essential amino acid molar ratios according to Graham and Placko). Both evaluation models indicated that lysine, threonine and methionine were the limiting amino acids in the Faffa/wheat diet, and that lysine and threonine were limiting in the Superamin/wheat diet. All essential amino acids seemed to be supplied in adequate amounts in the FPC/wheat diet. These results were in close agreement with the amino acid score of the diets (based on chemical analysis). PMID:424653

  9. Microscopic changes with acetic acid and sodium hydroxide in the rabbit low-volume eye test.

    PubMed

    Maurer, J K; Parker, R D

    2000-01-01

    Differences in ocular irritancy have been hypothesized to reflect differences in the extent of initial injury. Although differences in the processes leading to tissue damage may exist, extent of injury is believed to be the principal factor determining final outcome of ocular irritation. Previous studies characterizing the pathology of surfactant-induced ocular irritation support this premise. The purpose of this study was to begin to determine the applicability of this premise in terms of nonsurfactants; we planned to accomplish this by assessing the ocular irritancy of different concentrations of an acid and an alkali. Ten microliters of 3 or 10% acetic acid (C2H4O2) or 2 or 8% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were directly applied to the cornea of the right eye of each test rabbit. Untreated left eyes served as the controls. Eyes and eyelids were macroscopically examined for signs of irritation beginning 3 hours after dosing and periodically until recovery or day 35. Eyes and eyelids from animals in each group were collected for microscopic examination after 3 hours and on days 1, 3, and 35. The macroscopic and microscopic changes were consistent with slight (3% C2H4O2), mild (2% NaOH, 10% C2H4O2), and severe (8% NaOH) irritancy. The spectra of changes were similar to those previously reported for surfactants of differing types and irritancies. As with surfactants, as the extent of initial injury increased, the intensity and duration of the subsequent responses increased. These results indicate that our hypothesis also applies to nonsurfactants. The results also support our belief that the initial extent of injury associated with ocular irritation may be used to predict the subsequent responses and final outcome. Finally, our results further indicate that such an approach may be applicable to the development of alternative assays that are based on either injury to ex vivo eyes or injury to an in vitro corneal equivalent system.

  10. Isobolographic analysis of the antinociceptive interaction between ursolic acid and diclofenac or tramadol in mice.

    PubMed

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Cortés, Alejandra; Pellicer, Francisco; Díaz-Reval, Irene; González-Trujano, María Eva

    2014-02-01

    It is considered that natural products used in folk medicine can potentiate the effect of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological interaction between ursolic acid, a triterpene isolated from herbal medicines to treat pain, and the analgesics diclofenac or tramadol. Individual dose-response curves of the antinociceptive effect of these compounds were built to calculate the ED50, as well as the pharmacological interaction, by using isobolographic analysis. All treatments decreased significantly and in a dose-dependent manner the writhing behavior with ED50 values of 103.50 ± 19.66, 20.54 ± 6.05, and 9.60 ± 1.69 mg/kg, for ursolic acid, diclofenac, and tramadol, respectively. An isobolographic analysis allowed the characterization of the pharmacological interaction produced by a fixed ratio combination of 1 : 1 and 1 : 3 of equi-effective doses of these compounds. Theoretical antinociceptive ED50 values of ursolic acid-diclofenac were 62.12 ± 10.28 and 41.43 ± 6.69 mg/kg, respectively, not statistically different from those obtained experimentally (44.52 ± 5.25 and 44.89 ± 49.05 mg/kg, respectively), reporting an additive interaction. Theoretical antinociceptive ED50 values of ursolic acid-tramadol (56.56 ± 9.87 and 33.08 ± 5.07 mg/kg, respectively) were significantly lower than those observed experimentally (138.36 ± 49.05 and 67.34 ± 18.98 mg/kg, respectively) reporting antagonism in this interaction. Antinociceptive response obtained from isobolograms in the writhing test was corroborated by using formalin test in mice. Adverse effects such as gastric damage in the ursolic acid-diclofenac combination did not increase in an additive form similarly as with antinociception. Conversely, sedative response was significantly increased in the ursolic acid-tramadol combination. As observed in the formalin test, the antagonism on the antinociceptive response between ursolic acid

  11. Dietary fatty acid composition affects aminopeptidase activities in the testes of mice.

    PubMed

    Arechaga, Garbiñe; Prieto, Isabel; Segarra, Ana B; Alba, Francisco; Ruiz-Larrea, María B; Ruiz-Sanz, José I; de Gasparo, Marc; Ramirez, Manuel

    2002-04-01

    The autocrine/paracrine control mechanisms of local factors, such as the renin-angiotensin system and the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), seem to play a relevant role in testicular physiology. It has been proposed that dietary fat composition influences male reproductive function modifying the cholesterol-phospholipid composition of testicular plasma membranes. Modifications in the composition and physical properties of the membranes may lead to alterations in the activities of membrane-bound (M-B) enzymes. We have previously demonstrated that cholesterol and steroid hormones affect aminopeptidase (AP) activities. Dietary fatty acids with different degrees of saturation modified AP activities in the serum of mice and an olive oil supplemented diet influenced the AP activities in the testes of mice. We hypothesized that the modification of dietary fat composition may affect angiotensin- [glutamyl-AP (GluAP), aspartyl-AP (AspAP)] and TRH- [pyroglutamyl-AP (pGluAP)] degrading activities in the testis. In this study, we investigated the effect of diets supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO), fish oil (FO), olive oil (OO), lard (L) or coconut oil (CO) on soluble (Sol) and M-B GluAP, AspAP and pGluAP in mice testis, using arylamides as substrates. Sol GluAP activity did not show differences among groups. However, Sol AspAP and Sol pGluAP progressively decreased with the degree of saturation of the fatty acid used in the diet. In contrast, M-B GluAP progressively increased with the degree of saturation of the fatty acid used in the diet. For M-B AspAP activity, mice fed diets containing FO showed significantly higher levels than those fed diets containing SFO, OO and L but not those containing CO. For M-B pGluAP activity, the highest levels were observed for mice fed diets containing FO and OO. The present data suggest that the type of fat used in the diet may influence the autocrine/paracrine functions of locally synthesized angiotensin peptides and TRH in the testis

  12. Folic acid absorption determined by a single stool sample test--a double-isotope technique. The folic acid absorption capacity in children

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelt, K. )

    1989-10-01

    The fractional folic acid absorption (FAFol) was determined in 66 patients with various gastrointestinal diseases by a double-isotope technique, employing a single stool sample test (SSST) as well as a complete stool collection. The age of the patients ranged from 2.5 months to 16.8 years (mean 6.3 years). The test dose was administered orally and consisted of 50 micrograms of (3H)folic acid (monoglutamate) (approximately 20 muCi), carmine powder, and 2 mg 51CrCl3 (approximately 1.25 muCi) as the unabsorbable tracer. The whole-body radiation given to a 1-year-old child averaged 4.8 mrad only. The stool and napkin contents were collected and homogenized by the addition of 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid. A 300-ml sample of the homogenized stool and napkin contents, as well as 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid (75% vol/vol) containing the standards, were counted for the content of 51Cr in a broad-based well counter. The quantity of (3H)folic acid was determined by liquid scintillation, after duplicate distillation. Estimated by SSST, the FAFol, which employs the stool with the highest content of 51Cr corresponding to the most carmine-colored stool, correlated closely with the FAFol based on complete stool collection (r = 0.96, n = 39, p less than 0.0001). The reproducibility of FAFol determined by SSST was assessed from repeated tests in 18 patients. For a mean of 81%, the SD was 4.6%, which corresponded to a coefficient of variation of 5.7%.

  13. Role of opioid system in modulation of pain sensitivity under conditons of low and high environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Kolotilova, A B; Guzevatikh, L S; Valujskikh, D V; Emel'yanova, T G

    2008-06-01

    The dependence of pain sensitivity in acetic acid-induced writhing test on environmental temperature was described by a bell-shaped curve. The maximum number of writhings was observed in thermoneutral environment and minimum in hot and cold environment. Under conditions of opioid receptor blockade with naloxone, naltrindole, norbinaltorphimine, analgesia is partially mediated by micro-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors.

  14. New strategies for blood donor screening for hepatitis B virus: nucleic acid testing versus immunoassay methods.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Mary C; Busch, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Serologic testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) has historically been the foundation of blood screening, while HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) was recently developed to detect HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative blood units donated during early acute infection. Comparison data on seroconversion panels using HBsAg assays of varying sensitivities and pooled- or single-sample NAT, along with viral load estimates corresponding to HBsAg assay detection limits, have provided information on the theoretical benefits of NAT relative to HBsAg. Model-derived estimates have generally been predictive of the yields of DNA-positive, HBsAg-negative window period blood units detected in a number of studies from Europe, Japan, and the US. Studies indicate that the added benefit of pooled-sample NAT is relatively small in areas of low endemicity, with greater yields in areas highly endemic for HBV. Single-sample NAT would offer more significant early window period closure and could prevent a moderate number of residual HBV transmissions not detected by HBsAg assays; however, no fully automated single-sample HBV NAT systems are currently available.Even single-sample HBV NAT may not substitute for anti-HBc screening, as indicated by studies of donors with isolated anti-HBc who have extremely low DNA levels undetectable by standard single-sample NAT and who have been associated with transfusion-transmitted HBV. Moreover, HBsAg testing may still be needed even in the setting of combined anti-HBc and NAT screening. HBsAg-positive units from donors in the chronic stage of infection may contain very low or intermittently detectable DNA levels that single-sample NAT would miss. Although such donors are usually anti-HBc reactive and would be interdicted by anti-HBc screening, some lack anti-HBc. Extensive parallel testing will be needed to determine whether single-sample NAT in combination with anti-HBc might be sufficient to

  15. [Aspiration biopsy-nucleic acid diagnosis for widely used preparative testing].

    PubMed

    Takano, Toru

    2012-02-01

    Cancer is believed to be generated from normal cells via multi-step carcinogenesis. This hypothesis led researchers to perform studies utilizing genetic alternations in cancer cells in pre or post operative diagnostic tests. However, such an approach has not led to the establishment of widely used molecular-based diagnostic methods, which shows a clear contrast to conventional tumor markers. Although fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most accurate tool for preoperative diagnosis of thyroid malignancy, differential diagnosis between thyroid follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas is quite difficult. Thus, a preoperative diagnostic method for follicular tumor has been anticipated for a long time. We tried to find a molecular marker to distinguish benign and malignant thyroid nodules based on a gene expression which can be used in Aspiration Biopsy-Nucleic Acid Diagnosis (ABND), and found that the decreased expression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA is a promising marker of thyroid malignancies, including follicular carcinoma. Furthermore, we established a novel method to separate thyroid tumor cells from blood cells using mesh filtration in order to avoid interference with peripheral blood cells that are aspirated simultaneously by FNAB. Using this method, we started a clinical trial and measured TFF3 mRNA in aspirates obtained from patients with a thyroid nodule. All preoperative aspirates diagnosed as malignant by cytology showed a low TFF3 mRNA expression. The preoperative aspirates diagnosed as benign by cytology showed extremely varied TFF3 mRNA expressions and about 20% showed a low TFF3 mRNA expression. Since ABND measuring TFF3 mRNA in aspirates covers the majority of thyroid malignancies and thyroid nodule is a very common clinical problem, it is expected to be the first widely used molecular-based screening test of cancer.

  16. Gintonin enhances performance of mice in rotarod test: Involvement of lysophosphatidic acid receptors and catecholamine release.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Jisu; Lee, Ra Mi; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lee, Myung Koo; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewon; Lim, Kiwon; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2016-01-26

    Ginseng has a long history of use as a tonic for restoration of vigor. One example of ginseng-derived tonic effect is that it can improve physical stamina under conditions of stress. However, the active ingredient and the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the ergogenic effect are unknown. Recent studies show that ginseng contains a novel ingredient, gintonin, which consists of a unique class of herbal-medicine lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs). Gintonin activates G protein-coupled LPA receptors to produce a transient [Ca(2+)]i signal, which is coupled to diverse intra- and inter-cellular signal transduction pathways that stimulate hormone or neurotransmitter release. However, relatively little is known about how gintonin-mediated cellular modulation is linked to physical endurance. In the present study, systemic administration of gintonin, but not ginsenosides, in fasted mice increased blood glucose concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Gintonin treatment elevated blood glucose to a maximum level after 30min. This elevation in blood glucose level could be abrogated by the LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, Ki16425, or the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol. Furthermore, gintonin-dependent enhanced performance of fasted mice in rotarod test was likewise abrogated by Ki16425. Gintonin also elevated plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. The present study shows that gintonin mediates catecholamine release through activation of the LPA receptor and that activation of the β-adrenergic receptor is coupled to liver glycogenolysis, thereby increasing the supply of glucose and enhancing performance in the rotarod test. Thus, gintonin acts via the LPA-catecholamine-glycogenolysis axis, representing a candidate mechanism that can explain how ginseng treatment enhances physical stamina. PMID:26706688

  17. Examination of the cervix with the naked eye using acetic acid test.

    PubMed

    Ottaviano, M; La Torre, P

    1982-05-15

    Examination of the cervix was carried out on 2,400 patients, by use of acetic acid test with the naked eye and the colposcope. The physiologic transformation zone was clearly identified both with the naked eye and the colposcope in 1,568 of 1,594 (99%) cases. Colposcopic examination was unsatisfactory in 108 of the 264 (41%) patients in whom the cervix was completely covered by normal squamous epithelium. An atypical transformation zone (ATZ) was identified with the naked eye as white epithelium in 98.4% and as "suspicious" in 1.6% of 312 colposcopically controlled cases. An unsatisfactory colposcopic examination occurred in 39 of the 312 (12.5%) patients with an ATZ. Final histologic diagnosis for 312 ATZs was benign lesion in 169 of 312 (54.2%), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 1 and 2 in 81 of 312 (26%), grade 3 CIN in 56 of 312 (17.9%), and preclinical invasive carcinoma in 6 of 312 (1.9%). The detection of intraepithelial or preclinical invasive cervical neoplasias should not depend on the possession of a colposcope. On the other hand, the use of a colposcope is essential for the selection of CIN that can be treated with ultraconservative therapy or with colposcopically directed conization.

  18. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease.

  19. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease. PMID:25988157

  20. Development of techniques to test crop species and cultivars for relative sensitivity to acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Dubay, D.T.; Ferreli, R.E.; Heagle, A.S.; Heck, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop a screening procedure to identify sensitive species and cultivars and to determine whether levels of rain acidity which occur in agricultural areas can suppress yield. The screening procedure consists of three stages. In the first stage, young plants are exposed for 1 h to simulated rain at pH 5.5 or 2.5. Cultivars are ranked for percentage foliar injury 2 d after exposure. In the second stage, plants are exposed to 15 1-h simulated rain treatments at pH 5.5, 3.5, or 2.5 over a 3-wk period; Plant shoots are harvested 2 d after the final exposure and dried to a constant weight. Cultivars are ranked on the percentage change in biomass in the pH 3.5 and 2.5 treatments compared to biomass in the pH 5.5 treatment. Relative cultivar sensitivity rankings from stage one and two are then compared. The third stage will consist of field tests with species identified as sensitive in stage two. Relatively sensitive and resistant cultivars will be exposed to simulated rain at a range of pH levels from the seedling stage until maturity. Dose-yield response relationships will be determined.

  1. Analysis of organic acids in fruit juices by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: an enhanced tool for authenticity testing.

    PubMed

    Ehling, Stefan; Cole, Shannon

    2011-03-23

    Organic acid analysis plays a fundamental role in the testing of authenticity of fruit juices. Analytical methods used routinely for organic acids suffer from poor reproducibility, often give false positives/negatives for tartaric acid, and do not offer the possibility of analyte confirmation. There are conflicting reports in the literature on the presence/absence of tartaric acid in pomegranate juice, a potential indicator of adulteration with grape juice. In this work, a method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described for citric, malic, quinic, and tartaric acid in fruit juices. Validation data including precision and recovery in six types of juice are presented. Tartaric and quinic acids were confirmed in pomegranate juice at concentrations of 1-5 and ∼1 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations are much lower than those resulting from adulteration with grape juice and apple juice, respectively, at the 5% level. A separate method for isocitric acid in orange juice based on the single standard addition method is also described.

  2. Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models

    PubMed Central

    Woode, Eric; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and xylopic acid (XA), in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1, p.o.) inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory), thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.), used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid. PMID:23248562

  3. Molecular Assay for Detection of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Cultures and Clinical Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Specimens.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S W; Martin, I; Demczuk, W; Bharat, A; Hoang, L; Wylie, J; Allen, V; Lefebvre, B; Tyrrell, G; Horsman, G; Haldane, D; Garceau, R; Wong, T; Mulvey, M R

    2015-11-01

    We developed a real-time PCR assay to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ciprofloxacin resistance in specimens submitted for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). All three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) targets produced high sensitivity and specificity values. The presence of ≥2 SNPs was sufficient to predict ciprofloxacin resistance in an organism. PMID:26292300

  4. Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayrak, Beyza Karadeniz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify primary students' conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions in acid-base. For this reason, a 15 items two-tier multiple choice test administered 56 eighth grade students in spring semester 2009-2010. Data for this study were collected using a conceptual understanding scale prepared to include…

  5. 77 FR 68133 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Nucleic Acid Tests on Pooled and Individual Samples From Donors of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... November 28, 2011 (76 FR 72950), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance of the same title...) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and recommendations for product testing and disposition, donor management, methods for... screen blood donors for HBV DNA. FDA is also providing these blood establishments with...

  6. Molecular Assay for Detection of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Cultures and Clinical Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, S. W.; Martin, I.; Demczuk, W.; Bharat, A.; Hoang, L.; Wylie, J.; Allen, V.; Lefebvre, B.; Tyrrell, G.; Horsman, G.; Haldane, D.; Garceau, R.; Wong, T.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a real-time PCR assay to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ciprofloxacin resistance in specimens submitted for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). All three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) targets produced high sensitivity and specificity values. The presence of ≥2 SNPs was sufficient to predict ciprofloxacin resistance in an organism. PMID:26292300

  7. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  8. Successful Combination of Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Diagnostics and Targeted Deferred Neisseria gonorrhoeae Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wind, Carolien M.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Unemo, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are recommended for the diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infections because of their superior sensitivity. Increasing NAAT use causes a decline in crucial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance data, which rely on culture. We analyzed the suitability of the ESwab system for NAAT diagnostics and deferred targeted N. gonorrhoeae culture to allow selective and efficient culture based on NAAT results. We included patients visiting the STI Clinic Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in 2013. Patient characteristics and urogenital and rectal samples for direct N. gonorrhoeae culture, standard NAAT, and ESwab were collected. Standard NAAT and NAAT on ESwab samples were performed using the Aptima Combo 2 assay for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. Two deferred N. gonorrhoeae cultures were performed on NAAT-positive ESwab samples after storage at 4°C for 1 to 3 days. We included 2,452 samples from 1,893 patients. In the standard NAAT, 107 samples were N. gonorrhoeae positive and 284 were C. trachomatis positive. The sensitivities of NAAT on ESwab samples were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75 to 90%) and 87% (95% CI, 82 to 90%), respectively. ESwab samples were available for 98 of the gonorrhea-positive samples. Of these, 82% were positive in direct culture and 69% and 56% were positive in the 1st and 2nd deferred cultures, respectively (median storage times, 27 and 48 h, respectively). Deferred culture was more often successful in urogenital samples or when the patient had symptoms at the sampling site. Deferred N. gonorrhoeae culture of stored ESwab samples is feasible and enables AMR surveillance. To limit the loss in NAAT sensitivity, we recommend obtaining separate samples for NAAT and deferred culture. PMID:25832300

  9. Testing the Potential for Computational Chemistry to Quantify Biophysical Properties of the Non-Proteinaceous Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Freeland, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Although most proteins of most living organisms are constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids, all indications are that this standard alphabet represents a mere subset of what was available to life during early evolution. However, we currently lack an appropriate quantitative framework with which to test the qualitative hypotheses that have been offered to date as explanations for nature's "choices." Specifically, although many indices have been developed to describe the 20 standard amino acids, few or no comparable data extend to prebiotically plausible alternatives because of the costly and time-consuming bench experiments that would be required. Computational chemistry (specifically quantitative structure property relationship methods) offers a potentially fast, cost-effective remedy for this knowledge gap by predicting such molecular properties in silico. Thus, we investigated the use of various freely accessible programs to predict three key amino acid properties (hydrophobicity, charge, and size). We assessed the accuracy of these predictions by comparisons with experimentally determined counterparts for appropriate test data sets. In light of these results, and factors of software accessibility and transparency, we suggest a method for further computational assessments of prebiotically plausible amino acids. The results serve as a starting point for future quantitative analysis of amino acid alphabet evolution.

  10. Surviving the Acid Test: Responses of Gram-Positive Bacteria to Low pH

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria possess a myriad of acid resistance systems that can help them to overcome the challenge posed by different acidic environments. In this review the most common mechanisms are described: i.e., the use of proton pumps, the protection or repair of macromolecules, cell membrane changes, production of alkali, induction of pathways by transcriptional regulators, alteration of metabolism, and the role of cell density and cell signaling. We also discuss the reponses of Listeria monocytogenes, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, oral streptococci, and lactic acid bacteria to acidic environments and outline ways in which this knowledge has been or may be used to either aid or prevent bacterial survival in low-pH environments. PMID:12966143

  11. Field test of four methods for gas-phase ambient nitric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Hartsell, Benjamin E.; Luke, Winston T.; Rahmat Ullah, S. M.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Greg Huey, L.; Tate, Paul

    Three semi-continuous methods for detecting nitric acid (HNO 3) were tested against the annular denuder + filter pack (ADS) integrated collection technique at the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) Sydney research station ˜20km downwind of the Tampa, Florida, urban core. The semi-continuous instruments included: two slightly differing implementations of the NOY-NO (total oxides of nitrogen minus that total denuded of HNO 3) denuder difference technique, one from the NOAA Air Resources Lab (ARL), and one from Atmospheric Research and Analysis, Inc. (ARA); the parallel plate wet diffusion scrubber + online ion chromatography technique from Texas Tech University (TTU); and the chemical ionization mass spectrometer from the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT). Twelve hour ADS samples were collected by the University of South Florida (USF). Results for 10 min samples computed from the various higher sampling frequencies of each semi-continuous instrument showed good agreement (R2>0.7) for afternoon periods of the highest production and accumulation of HNO 3. Further, agreement was within ±30% for these instruments even at HNO 3 concentrations <0.30ppb. The USF ADS results were biased low, however, by 44%, on average, compared to the corporate 12 h aggregated means from the semi-continuous methods, and by >60% for the nighttime samples; ADS results were below the corporate mean maximum HNO 3 concentration by >30% as well. The four instruments using semi-continuous methods, by contrast, were all within 10% of each other's 12 h mean mixing ratios. While only ARA employed a formal minimum detection limit at 0.050 ppb, error analysis with the other techniques established that at the same level of precision, TTU's effective limit was approximately the same as ARA's and that ARL's limit was 0.030 ppb; analysis for GIT showed no apparent effective limit at the levels of HNO 3 encountered in this field study. The importance of sample inlet height for

  12. [Optimization of extraction technology for salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid in Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma with orthogonal test].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Xue-jing; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The extracting technology of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma was optimized. With extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid as indexes, orthogonal test was used to evaluate effect of 4 factors on extracting technology, including concentration of solvent, the dosage of solvent, duration of extraction, and frequency of extraction. The results showed that, the best extracting technology was to extract in 70% alcohol with 8 times the weight of herbal medicine for 2 times, with 3 hours once. High extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid were obtained with the present technology. The extracting technology was stable and feasible with high extraction rate of four compounds from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma, it was suitable for industrial production.

  13. The selenium-75-homocholic acid taurine test reevaluated: combined measurement of fecal selenium-75 activity and 3 alpha-hydroxy bile acids in 211 patients

    SciTech Connect

    van Tilburg, A.J.; de Rooij, F.W.; van den Berg, J.W.; Kooij, P.P.; van Blankenstein, M. )

    1991-06-01

    The recommended reference values for the selenium-75-homocholic acid taurine (75SeHCAT) test, used in the analysis of chronic diarrhea, were evaluated in 211 patients by comparing simultaneous measurements of 3 alpha-hydroxy bile acids and 75Se activity in daily collected stools. An initial evaluation in 11 patients showed that the fecal collection method, which allows inspection and additional analysis of stools, was equivalent to the abdominal retention method. Selenium-75-HCAT whole-body retention half-life (WBR50) was greater than 2.8 days in less than 10% of the patients with bile acid malabsorption and less than 1.7 days in less than 10% of the normals. We recommend that a 75SeHCAT WBR50 less than 1.7 days is abnormal, a WBR50 greater than 2.8 days is normal, and a WBR50 in the range 1.7-2.8 days is equivocal, which was the case in 48% (94/195) of the patients in this study.

  14. Reactivity of Hontomín carbonate rocks to acidic solution injection: reactive "push-pull" tracer tests results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gaspari, Francesca; Cabeza, Yoar; Luquot, Linda; Rötting, Tobias; Saaltink, Maarten W.; Carrera, Jesus

    2014-05-01

    Several field tests will be carried out in order to characterize the reservoir for CO2 injection in Hontomín (Burgos, Spain) as part of the Compostilla project of "Fundación Ciudad de la Energía" (CIUDEN). Once injected, the dissolution of the CO2 in the resident brine will increase the acidity of the water and lead to the dissolution of the rocks, constituted mainly by carbonates. This mechanism will cause changes in the aquifer properties such as porosity and permeability. To reproduce the effect of the CO2 injection, a reactive solution with 2% of acetic acid is going to be injected in the reservoir and extracted from the same well (reactive "push-pull" tracer tests) to identify and quantify the geochemical reactions occurring into the aquifer. The reactivity of the rock will allow us also to evaluate the changes of its properties. Previously, theoretical calculations of Damkhöler numbers were done to determine the acid concentrations and injection flow rates needed to generate ramified-wormholes patterns, during theses "push-pull" experiments. The aim of this work is to present the results and a preliminary interpretation of the field tests.

  15. Test for antioxidant ability by scavenging long-lived mutagenic radicals in mammalian cells and by blood test with intentional radicals: an application of gallic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Jun; Kawaura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Prost, Michel; Prost, Emmanuelle; Watanabe, Masami; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant ability of gallic acid (GA) are determined both by electron spin resonance measurement of long-lived radicals produced in γ-ray irradiated Syrian golden hamster embryo cells with GA and by hemolysis measurement with GA when blood cells are submitted to radicals. Scavenging properties of GA are determined by the reaction rate constant with long-lived mutagenic radicals in the cells while the blood test allows to analyze the global effects of this compound: radical scavenger+metal ion chelator+regeneration of intra- and extra-cellular antioxidant.

  16. REPRODUCTIVE AND GENOMIC EFFECTS IN TESTES FROM MICE EXPOSED TO THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    A byproduct of drinking water disinfection, bromochloroacetic acid (BCA), acts as a reproductive toxicant in rats. To determine if BCA produces similar reproductive toxicity in mice, juvenile and adult C57BL/6 males were exposed to 0, 8, 24, 72 or 216 mg/kg of BC...

  17. Chitosan-based nanoparticles for rosmarinic acid ocular delivery--In vitro tests.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sara Baptista; Ferreira, Domingos; Pintado, Manuela; Sarmento, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were used to encapsulate antioxidant rosmarinic acid, Salvia officinalis (sage) and Satureja montana (savory) extracts as rosmarinic acid natural vehicles. The nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) in a mass ratio of 7:1, at pH 5.8. Particle size distribution analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the size ranging from 200 to 300 nm, while surface charge of nanoparticles ranged from 20 to 30 mV. Nanoparticles demonstrate to be safe without relevant cytotoxicity against retina pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) and human cornea cell line (HCE-T). The permeability study in HCE monolayer cell line showed an apparent permeability coefficient Papp of 3.41±0.99×10(-5) and 3.24±0.79×10(-5) cm/s for rosmarinic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles and free in solution, respectively. In ARPE-19 monolayer cell line the Papp was 3.39±0.18×10(-5) and 3.60±0.05×10(-5) cm/s for rosmarinic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles and free in solution, respectively. Considering the mucin interaction method, nanoparticles indicate mucoadhesive proprieties suggesting an increased retention time over the ocular mucosa after instillation. These nanoparticles may be promising drug delivery systems for ocular application in oxidative eye conditions.

  18. Comparison of phenotypic and molecular tests to identify lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Paula Mendonça; Perin, Luana Martins; Júnior, Abelardo Silva; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-nine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were submitted for identification using Biolog, API50CHL, 16S rDNA sequencing, and species-specific PCR reactions. The identification results were compared, and it was concluded that a polyphasic approach is necessary for proper LAB identification, being the molecular analyzes the most reliable. PMID:24159291

  19. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of 3,4-oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Yao; You, Cui-Yu; Dong, Kai; You, Hai-Sheng; Xing, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Context 3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid (ISA) is an analog of shikimic acid (SA). SA is extracted from the dry fruit of Illicium verum Hook. f. (Magnoliaceae), which has been used for treating stomachaches, skin inflammation and rheumatic pain. Objective To investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of ISA. Materials and methods Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ISA were evaluated using writhing, hot plate, xylene-induced ear oedema, carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellets-induced granuloma test, meanwhile the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed in the oedema paw tissue. ISA (60, 120 and 240 mg/kg in mice model and 50, 120 and 200 mg/kg in rat model) was administered orally, 30 min before induction of inflammation/pain. Additionally, ISA was administered for 12 d in rats from the day of cotton pellet implantation. The active oxygen species scavenging potencies of ISA (10(-3)-10(-5) M) were evaluated by the electron spin resonance spin-trapping technique. Results ISA caused a reduction of inflammation induced by xylene (18.1-31.4%), carrageenan (7.8-51.0%) and cotton pellets (11.4-24.0%). Furthermore, ISA decreased the production of PGE2 and MDA in the rat paw tissue by 1.0-15.6% and 6.3-27.6%, respectively. ISA also reduced pain induced by acetic acid (15.6-48.9%) and hot plate (10.5-28.5%). Finally, ISA exhibited moderate antioxidant activity by scavenging the superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical with IC50 values of 0.214 and 0.450 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion and conclusion Our findings confirmed the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of ISA. PMID:27609150

  20. Evaluation of boronic acid disk tests for differentiating KPC-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Tsakris, Athanassios; Kristo, Ioulia; Poulou, Aggeliki; Themeli-Digalaki, Katerina; Ikonomidis, Alexandros; Petropoulou, Dimitra; Pournaras, Spyros; Sofianou, Danai

    2009-02-01

    The worldwide increase in the occurrence and dissemination of KPC beta-lactamases among gram-negative pathogens makes critical the early detection of these enzymes. Boronic acid disk tests using different antibiotic substrates were evaluated for detection of KPC-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. A total of 57 genotypically confirmed KPC-possessing K. pneumoniae isolates with varying carbapenem MICs were examined. To measure the specificity of the tests, 106 non-KPC-possessing isolates (89 K. pneumoniae and 17 Escherichia coli isolates) were randomly selected among those exhibiting reduced susceptibility to cefoxitin, expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, or carbapenems. As many as 56, 53, and 40 of the non-KPC-possessing isolates harbored extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, metallo-beta-lactamases, and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases, respectively. By use of CLSI methodology and disks containing imipenem, meropenem, or cefepime, either alone or in combination with 400 microg of boronic acid, all 57 KPC producers gave positive results (sensitivity, 100%) whereas all 106 non-KPC producers were negative (specificity, 100%). The meropenem duplicate disk with or without boronic acid demonstrated the largest differences in inhibition zone diameters between KPC producers and non-KPC producers. By use of disks containing ertapenem, all isolates were correctly differentiated except for five AmpC producers that gave false-positive results (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 95.3%). These practical and simple boronic acid disk tests promise to be very helpful for the accurate differentiation of KPC-possessing K. pneumoniae isolates, even in regions where different broad-spectrum beta-lactamases are widespread.

  1. Evaluation of six commercial nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other Neisseria species.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Unemo, Magnus; Limnios, Athena E; Hogan, Tiffany R; Hjelmevoll, Stig-Ove; Garland, Susanne M; Tapsall, John

    2011-10-01

    Molecular detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in extragenital samples may result in false-positive results due to cross-reaction with commensal Neisseria species or Neisseria meningitidis. This study examined 450 characterized clinical culture isolates, comprising 216 N. gonorrhoeae isolates and 234 isolates of nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 218) and 16 isolates of other closely related bacteria, with six commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). The six NAATs tested were Gen-Probe APTIMA COMBO 2 and APTIMA GC, Roche COBAS Amplicor CT/NG and COBAS 4800 CT/NG tests, BD ProbeTec GC Qx amplified DNA assay, and Abbott RealTime CT/NG test. All assays except COBAS Amplicor CT/NG test where four (1.9%) isolates were not detected showed a positive result with all N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 216). Among the 234 nongonococcal isolates examined, initial results from all assays displayed some false-positive results due to cross-reactions. Specifically, the COBAS Amplicor and ProbeTec tests showed the highest number of false-positive results, detecting 33 (14.1%) and 26 (11%) nongonococcal Neisseria isolates, respectively. On the first testing, APTIMA COMBO 2, APTIMA GC, Abbott RealTime, and Roche COBAS 4800 showed lower level of cross-reactions with five (2.1%), four (1.7%), two (1%), and two (1%) of the isolates showing low-level positivity, respectively. Upon retesting of these nine nongonococcal isolates using freshly cultured colonies, none were positive by the APTIMA COMBO 2, Abbott RealTime, or COBAS 4800 test. In conclusion, the COBAS Amplicor and ProbeTec tests displayed high number of false-positive results, while the remaining NAATs showed only sporadic low-level false-positive results. Supplementary testing for confirmation of N. gonorrhoeae NAATs remains recommended with all samples tested, in particular those from extragenital sites.

  2. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test... the quality of stored blood. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  3. Molar ratio iron: zinc and folic acid in Brazilian biscuits and snacks and test for classification using principal component analyses.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Adriana Teixeira; Rebelatto, Ana Paula; Borin-Nogueira, Alessandra; Lima-Pallone, Juliana Azevedo

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate molar ratio iron: zinc and the levels of folic acid in biscuit and snacks commercialized in Brazil, prepared with folic acid and iron fortified flours. These nutrients are important for human nutrition; however, iron can have a negative effect on zinc absorption. Molar ratio iron:zinc can indicate if there will be any problems for absorption of these nutrients. The folic acid content varied from 58 to 433 μg/100 g and iron and zinc levels varied from 2.9 to 9.4 mg/100 g and from 0.2 to 1.3 mg/100 g, respectively, for 75 analyzed samples. The average iron contents observed in the products and molar ratio iron:zinc (in average 8:1 for biscuits and 12.8:1 for snacks) could result in problems with the zinc absorption. Moreover, principal compo- nent analyses (PCA) indicated low uniformity in the distribution of minerals and vitamin in the majority of the samples, mainly among brands. The results indicated that for the majority of the samples tested folic acid and iron content was higher than expected for flours and could be useful to governmental authorities in their evaluation program of flour fortification.

  4. Humic acid enhanced remediation of an emplaced diesel source in groundwater. 1. Laboratory-based pilot scale test.

    PubMed

    Van Stempvoort, D R; Lesage, S; Novakowski, K S; Millar, K; Brown, S; Lawrence, J R

    2002-02-01

    The enhanced solubility of petroleum-derived compounds in humic acid solutions is the basis for a new groundwater remediation technology. In this unique pilot-scale test, a stationary contaminant source consisting of diesel fuel was placed below the water table in a model sand aquifer (1.2 x 5.5 x 1.8-m deep) and flushed with water at a flow rate of 2 cm/h over 5 years. At 51 days, laboratory grade humic acid was added to the water and maintained at a level of approximately 0.8 g/l. The addition of humic acid had only a small impact on the aqueous transport of the BTEX components, which were rapidly dissolved from the diesel, but had a large effect on the flushing of PAHs, including methylated naphthalenes (MNs). Binding to aqueous humic acid enhanced the solubilization of MNs two- to tenfold. During aqueous transport, biodegradation of the BTEX and PAHs occurred, limiting the lateral and longitudinal extent of the diesel contaminant plume in the model aquifer. It appears that through enhanced solubilization, the overall biodegradation rate of the MNs was increased. As the various MNs were depleted from the diesel source, the MN plume shrank and then disappeared.

  5. Design, Synthesis, and Testing of a Molecular Truck for Colonic Delivery of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A molecular scaffold bearing eight terminal alkyne groups was synthesized from sucrose. Eight copies of an azide-terminated, azo-linked precursor to 5-aminosalicylic acid were attached to the scaffold via copper(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition. The resulting compound was evaluated in a DSS model of colitis in BALB/c mice against sulfasalazine as a control. Two independent studies verified that the novel pro-drug, administered in a dose calculated to result in an equimolar 5-ASA yield, outperformed sulfasalazine in terms of protection from mucosal inflammation and T cell activation. A separate study established that 5-ASA appeared in feces produced 24–48 h following administration of the pro-drug. Thus, a new, orally administered pro-drug form of 5-aminosalicylic acid has been developed and successfully demonstrated. PMID:23029601

  6. Testing and evaluation of an industrial lead-acid battery for utility load-leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.; Corp, D.; Folke, E.; Tillery, G.; Loutfy, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Constant-power/constant-voltage charging, as well as constant-current/constant-voltage charging, was investigated. Electrolyte stratification observed in the battery during cycling indicates discharge of the battery from the top down. Uneven concentration of acid during charge may be avoided by mixing. This study shows that a minimization in cycle time can be achieved by proper choice of charge/discharge parameters.

  7. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1981-01-15

    Charge efficiencies were determined for ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state-of-charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  8. Using the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST) to evaluate the embryotoxicity of haloacetic acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) is used to predict the embryotoxic potential of a test compound by combining the data from cytotoxicity assays in undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells and differentiated mouse cells with the data from a differentiation assay in mES ...

  9. Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Preservation Cards for West Nile Virus Testing in Dead Birds

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Leslie; Reisen, William K.; Fang, Ying; Kramer, Vicki; Padgett, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    The California West Nile virus (WNV) Dead Bird Surveillance Program (DBSP) is an important component of WNV surveillance in the state. We evaluated FTA™ and RNASound™ cards as an alternative method for sampling dead birds for WNV molecular testing as these cards allow for more cost effective, rapid, and safer diagnostic sampling than the shipment of bird carcasses. To evaluate accuracy of results among avian sampling regimes, Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) results from FTA™ and RNASound™ cards were compared with results from kidney tissue, brain tissue, or oral swabs in lysis buffer in 2012–2013. In addition, RT-PCR results were compared with results from oral swabs tested by rapid antigen tests (RAMP™ and VecTOR™). While test results from the cards were not as sensitive as kidney tissue testing, they were more likely to provide accurate results than rapid antigen tests, and detected WNV in corvids as well as in other passerines, raptors, and waterfowl. Overall, WNV RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) scores from the cards were higher than those from tissue testing, but both card products displayed high sensitivity and specificity. American Crow samples provided the highest sensitivity. The cards also proved to be easier and more convenient vehicles for collecting and shipping samples, and in 2014 our program launched use of RNASound™ cards in the DBSP. Both FTA™ and RNASound™ products displayed 96% agreement with tissue results and are an adequate alternative sampling method for WNV dead bird testing. PMID:27341492

  10. Freezing points and small-scale deicing tests for salts of levulinic acid made from grain sorghum.

    PubMed

    Ganjyal, G; Fang, Q; Hanna, M A

    2007-11-01

    Deicers from renewable resources are needed to overcome the disadvantages of using traditional deicers. Salts made from levulinic acid produced using grain sorghum as raw material were tested as road deicing agents. Freezing points of these salts viz., sodium levulinate, magnesium levulinate and calcium levulinate along with rock salt (sodium chloride) were determined according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 1177-94 standard at concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 % w/w. There were significant differences among the freezing points of the salts. Freezing points for rock salt, sodium levulinate, calcium levulinate and magnesium levulinate, for different concentrations, were in the ranges of -6.6 to -20.5, -2.9 to -15.0, -2.1 to -7.8 and -1.5 to -6.5 degrees C, respectively. Deicing effectiveness of the salts of levulinic acid were investigated by conducting small-scale deicing tests with aqueous solutions of various salt concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) in a laboratory freezer and by spraying the deicer on a graveled surface covered by ice and snow with the average temperature during the testing at -2.7 degrees C. Deicing capabilities of the three salts of levulinic acid differed. At -2.7 degrees C, all three salts caused melting of the ice. Among the different levulinates studied sodium levulinate was the most effective deicing agent. These salts of levulinates could be a viable replacement for traditional deicers and could help in reducing the disadvantages of traditional deicers.

  11. Mineralogical characterization of the Shelburne Marble and the Salem limestone: Test stones used to study the effects of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Salem Limestone and the Shelburne Marble are representative of limestones and marbles commonly used in buildings and monuments. Both stones are composed predominantly of calcite. The Salem Limestone is homogeneous in composition and mineralogic characteristics throughout the test block. The Shelburne Marble has compositionally homogeneous mineral phases, but the distribution of those phases within the test block is random. The mineralogy and physical characteristics of the Shelburne Marble and Salem Limestone test blocks described in the study provide a baseline for future studies of the weathering behavior of these stones. Because the Shelburne Marble and the Salem Limestone are representative of typical commercial marbles and limestones, they are likely to be useful in a consortium study of the effects of acid precipitation on these two types of building stones.

  12. Sensitivity during the forced swim test is a key factor in evaluating the antidepressant effects of abscisic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cong-Cong; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Fang-Han; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a crucial phytohormone, is distributed in the brains of mammals and has been shown to have antidepressant effects in the chronic unpredictable mild stress test. The forced swim test (FST) is another animal model that can be used to assess antidepressant-like behavior in rodents. Here, we report that the antidepressant effects of ABA are associated with sensitivities to the FST in mice. Based on mean immobility in the 5-min forced swim pre-test, ICR mice were divided into short immobility mice (SIM) and long immobility mice (LIM) substrains. FST was carried out 8 days after drug administration. Learned helplessness, as shown by increased immobility, was only observed in SIM substrain and could be prevented by an 8-day ABA treatment. Our results show that ABA has antidepressant effects in SIM substrain and suggest that mice with learned helplessness might be more suitable for screening potential antidepressant drugs.

  13. Handheld and portable test systems for immunodiagnostics, nucleic acid detection and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulstich, Konrad; Haberstroh, Klaus; Gruler, Roman; Eberhard, Michael; Wiest, Thomas; Lentzsch, Dirk

    2008-04-01

    Emergency Diagnostics, Homeland Security, Epidemiological Preparedness and the high cost of the Health Care Systems have increased demand for affordable and mobile point of care (POC) devices with highest sensitivity, specificity and rapid time to result. We have developed pocket sized systems for point of care and field based tests based on fluorescence read-out. The core consists of battery operated, 90 gram electro-optical units with optional wireless data transfer, which have been optimized to achieve highest accuracy and sensitivity paired with simplicity of use. The robust systems have been applied to molecular diagnostics such as DNA based testing, immunodiagnostics as well as environmental monitoring and agricultural testing. We will show examples of DNA testing, testing of drugs and toxins, cell based assays and water monitoring. We will discuss drivers and rationale for mobile testing platforms and address critical points such as sample preparation and sampling problems e.g. target delivery in small volumes. ESE's battery-operated handheld and mobile testing platforms have been shown to provide sensitive, accurate, and specific results, as well as rapid turnaround. The stand-alone devices demonstrate operational and physical robustness, and they can be manufactured to be affordable. Some underlying assays work directly from clinical samples such as urine or blood.

  14. An integrated paper-based sample-to-answer biosensor for nucleic acid testing at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jane Ru; Hu, Jie; Tang, Ruihua; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shangsheng; Ren, Hui; Wen, Ting; Li, XiuJun; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng

    2016-02-01

    With advances in point-of-care testing (POCT), lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been explored for nucleic acid detection. However, biological samples generally contain complex compositions and low amounts of target nucleic acids, and currently require laborious off-chip nucleic acid extraction and amplification processes (e.g., tube-based extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) prior to detection. To the best of our knowledge, even though the integration of DNA extraction and amplification into a paper-based biosensor has been reported, a combination of LFA with the aforementioned steps for simple colorimetric readout has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate for the first time an integrated paper-based biosensor incorporating nucleic acid extraction, amplification and visual detection or quantification using a smartphone. A handheld battery-powered heating device was specially developed for nucleic acid amplification in POC settings, which is coupled with this simple assay for rapid target detection. The biosensor can successfully detect Escherichia coli (as a model analyte) in spiked drinking water, milk, blood, and spinach with a detection limit of as low as 10-1000 CFU mL(-1), and Streptococcus pneumonia in clinical blood samples, highlighting its potential use in medical diagnostics, food safety analysis and environmental monitoring. As compared to the lengthy conventional assay, which requires more than 5 hours for the entire sample-to-answer process, it takes about 1 hour for our integrated biosensor. The integrated biosensor holds great potential for detection of various target analytes for wide applications in the near future.

  15. An integrated paper-based sample-to-answer biosensor for nucleic acid testing at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jane Ru; Hu, Jie; Tang, Ruihua; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shangsheng; Ren, Hui; Wen, Ting; Li, XiuJun; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng

    2016-02-01

    With advances in point-of-care testing (POCT), lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been explored for nucleic acid detection. However, biological samples generally contain complex compositions and low amounts of target nucleic acids, and currently require laborious off-chip nucleic acid extraction and amplification processes (e.g., tube-based extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) prior to detection. To the best of our knowledge, even though the integration of DNA extraction and amplification into a paper-based biosensor has been reported, a combination of LFA with the aforementioned steps for simple colorimetric readout has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate for the first time an integrated paper-based biosensor incorporating nucleic acid extraction, amplification and visual detection or quantification using a smartphone. A handheld battery-powered heating device was specially developed for nucleic acid amplification in POC settings, which is coupled with this simple assay for rapid target detection. The biosensor can successfully detect Escherichia coli (as a model analyte) in spiked drinking water, milk, blood, and spinach with a detection limit of as low as 10-1000 CFU mL(-1), and Streptococcus pneumonia in clinical blood samples, highlighting its potential use in medical diagnostics, food safety analysis and environmental monitoring. As compared to the lengthy conventional assay, which requires more than 5 hours for the entire sample-to-answer process, it takes about 1 hour for our integrated biosensor. The integrated biosensor holds great potential for detection of various target analytes for wide applications in the near future. PMID:26759062

  16. ERC nickel cadium battery performance tests and comparisons with lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumley, Robert L.; Hardin, Jasper E.; MacDowall, Randy D.; Burke, Andrew F.

    A battery pack consisting of eighteen 6-V, roll-bonded nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, manufactured by Energy Research Corporation (ERC), was evaluated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program for electric vehicle applications. The purpose of the testing was to determine the capacity and performance characteristics of the battery pack and to obtain data which would permit direct comparison with other selected EV application batteries. Laboratory charge/discharge characterization and vehicle dynamometer tests were performed with the NiCd battery pack in the Battery and Dynamometer Laboratories of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center. Testing was done in accordance with the Electric Vehicle Test Procedures of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J227).

  17. ERC nickel cadium battery performance tests and comparisons with lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Crumley, R.L.; Hardin, J.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A battery pack consisting of eighteen 6-V, roll-bonded nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, manufactured by Energy Research Corporation (ERC), was evaluated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program for electric vehicle applications. The purpose of the testing was to determine the capacity and performance characteristics of the battery pack and to obtain data which would permit direct comparison with other selected EV application batteries. Laboratory charge/discharge characterization and vehicle dynamometer tests were performed with the NiCd battery pack in the Battery and Dynamometer Laboratories of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center. Testing was done in accordance with the Electric Vehicle Test Procedures of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J227). 8 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Second-tier test for quantification of underivatized amino acids in dry blood spot for metabolic diseases in newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyan; Zhu, Hongbin; Zhang, Wenyan; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2013-02-01

    The quantitative analysis of amino acids (AAs) in single dry blood spot (DBS) samples is an important issue for metabolic diseases as a second-tier test in newborn screening. An analytical method for quantifying underivatized AAs in DBS was developed by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample preparation in this method is simple and ion-pairing agent is not used in the mobile phase that could avoid ion suppression, which happens in mass spectrometry and avoids damage to the column. Through chromatographic separation, some isomeric compounds could be identified and quantified, which cannot be solved through only appropriate multiple reactions monitoring transitions by MS/MS. The concentrations of the different AAs were determined using non-deuterated internal standard. All calibration curves showed excellent linearity within test ranges. For most of the amino acids the accuracy of extraction recovery was between 85.3 and 115 %, and the precision of relative standard deviation was <7.0 %. The 35 AAs could be identified in DBS specimens by the developed LC-MS/MS method in 17-19 min, and eventually 24 AAs in DBS were quantified. The results of the present study prove that this method as a second-tier test in newborn screening for metabolic diseases could be performed by the quantification of free AAs in DBS using the LC-MS/MS method. The assay has advantages of high sensitive, specific, and inexpensive merits because non-deuterated internal standard and acetic acid instead of ion-pairing agent in mobile phase are used in this protocol.

  19. Experimental test of the superheavy fission hypothesis in acid residues from the allende meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    A description of a series of experiments to find evidence to confirm or contradict the hypothesis that isotopically anomalous Xe (called CCF-Xe) in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites results from the fission decay of a superheavy element is given. The first two experiments were searches for fossil evidence - fission tracks and isotopic anomalies - of superheavy fission decay in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite. It was demonstrated that chromite, a mineral rich in CCF-Xe, records fission tracks, and a search for such tracks in Allende chromite was performed with negative results. It was also demonstrated in certain CCF-XE rich phases of Allende, isotopic anomalies like those seen in Xe should be detectable in Ba and the light rare earths. Preliminary results from a collaborative measurement (with the University of Paris) show the Ba isotopic ratios to be normal in a CCF-Xe rich Allende sample. The third experiment was motivated by reports of the detection of a live, fissioning superheavy element, using a neutron counting technique, in bulk Allende (Flerov, 1978). Since almost all of the allegedly fissiogenic Xe in Allende is concentrated in certain acid insoluble phases, we developed a technique to detect low-level fission activity in these phases. Allende acid insoluble residue (provided by the University of Chicago) was dispersed in a 1 mg/cm/sup 2/ layer, between two track recording detectors. An automatic track locating system was developed to allow large detector areas to be scanned for rate fission events.

  20. Nucleic-acid testing, new platforms and nanotechnology for point-of-decision diagnosis of animal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Teles, Fernando; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Accurate disease diagnosis in animals is crucial for animal well-being but also for preventing zoonosis transmission to humans. In particular, livestock diseases may constitute severe threats to humans due to the particularly high physical contact and exposure and, also, be the cause of important economic losses, even in non-endemic countries, where they often arise in the form of rapid and devastating epidemics. Rapid diagnostic tests have been used for a long time in field situations, particularly during outbreaks. However, they mostly rely on serological approaches, which may confirm the exposure to a particular pathogen but may be inappropriate for point-of-decision (point-of-care) settings when emergency responses supported on early and accurate diagnosis are required. Moreover, they often exhibit modest sensitivity and hence significantly depend on later result confirmation in central or reference laboratories. The impressive advances observed in recent years in materials sciences and in nanotechnology, as well as in nucleic-acid synthesis and engineering, have led to an outburst of new in-the-bench and prototype tests for nucleic-acid testing towards point-of-care diagnosis of genetic and infectious diseases. Manufacturing, commercial, regulatory, and technical nature issues for field applicability more likely have hindered their wider entrance into veterinary medicine and practice than have fundamental science gaps. This chapter begins by outlining the current situation, requirements, difficulties, and perspectives of point-of-care tests for diagnosing diseases of veterinary interest. Nucleic-acid testing, particularly for the point of care, is addressed subsequently. A range of valuable signal transduction mechanisms commonly employed in proof-of-concept schemes and techniques born on the analytical chemistry laboratories are also described. As the essential core of this chapter, sections dedicated to the principles and applications of microfluidics, lab

  1. Building, characterising and catalytic activity testing of Co-C-protected amino acid complexes covalently grafted onto chloropropylated silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, G.; Timár, Z.; Csendes, Z.; Bajnóczi, É. G.; Carlson, S.; Canton, S. E.; Bagi, L.; Sipos, P.; Pálinkó, I.

    2015-06-01

    Co-C-protected amino acid (C-protected L-histidine, L-tyrosine, L-cysteine and L-cystine) complexes were covalently grafted onto chloropropylated silica gel, and the materials thus obtained were structurally characterised by mid/far IR and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. The superoxide dismutase-like activities of the substances were determined via the Beauchamp-Fridovich test reaction. It was found that covalent grafting and the preparation of the anchored complexes were successful in most cases. The coordinating groups varied upon changing the conditions of the syntheses. All materials displayed catalytic activity, although catalytic activities differed widely.

  2. Implementation of Oral and Rectal Gonococcal and Chlamydial Nucleic Acid Amplification-Based Testing as a Component of Local Health Department Activities.

    PubMed

    Nall, Jennifer; Barr, Breona; McNeil, Candice J; Bachmann, Laura H

    2016-10-01

    From January 1, 2014, to May 31, 2015, 452 individuals received extragenital nucleic acid amplification-based Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis testing through public health venues. Seventy-four individuals (16%) tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and/or Chlamydia trachomatis at an extragenital site and 40 (54%) would not have been effectively diagnosed and treated in the absence of extragenital testing.

  3. Sensitivity of bile acid breath test in the diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine with and without the stagnant (blind) loop syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farivar, S; Fromm, H; Schindler, D; Schmidt, F W

    1979-01-01

    The bile acid breath test was studied to examine its sensitivity for establishing the diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth in comparison to that of the Schilling test and small-intestinal cultures in 12 patients with a stagnant (blind) loop syndrome, as well as in 38 patients who had other conditions with suspected bacterial contamination of the small intestine. The presence of bile acid malabsorption was excluded in all 50 patients by studies of fecal excretion of radioactively labeled bile acids. The bile acid breath test was positive in 100% (12/12) of the patients with a stagnant (blind) loop syndrome, whereas 92% (11/12) had a positive Schilling test and 75% (9/12) a positive small-intestinal culture. The abnormal tests improved only in 2 of 4 patients treated with tetracycline. In the group of 38 patients without demonstrable dilated or blind loops of small bowel who were suspected of having bacterial contamination of small bowel, the bile acid breath test was positive in 53% (20/38), the Schilling test in 39% (15/38), and the small-intestinal culture in 45% (17/38). The difference in the incidence of positive results between the tests in the two patient groups was statistically not significant. The findings of these studies have the following diagnostic implications: (1) Bile acid breath test, Schilling test, and cultures of aspirates from the upper small bowel are of comparable sensitivity in the detection of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine. (2) A negative bile acid breath test makes the diagnosis of a stagnant (blind) loop syndrome very unlikely.

  4. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants. PMID:25465511

  5. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants.

  6. Testing for ethanol markers in hair: discrepancies after simultaneous quantification of ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Nicholson, D

    2014-10-01

    The hair of 97 cases were analysed for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE, including ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate) according to the Society of Hair Testing guidelines to examine the role of both tests in documenting chronic excessive alcohol drinking, particularly when the results are in contradiction. 27 (27.8%) results were EtG negative and FAEE positive, when applying the SoHT cut-offs, probably due to the use of alcohol-containing hair products. Four cases (4.1%) were EtG positive and FAEE negative that were attributed to the use of herbal lotions containing EtG. PMID:24794020

  7. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, N. K.; Bharucha, Z. S.; Sonawane, Vandana; Ahmed, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory equipment are not calibrated and maintained, and validation of results is not carried out. Against the current scenario introducing NAT for screening of blood donors in India would pose a challenge. Aim: To study the prudence of universal NAT testing in India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 5 years from 2008-2012 was undertaken to study the true reactivity of donors using WHO strategy II and III and therefore the true seroprevalence of TTI infections in the donor populations. Results: The true reactivity of the donors was much less as compared to the initially reactive donors due to the use of a well designed testing algorithm. In addition having a total voluntary blood collection along with good pre-donation counseling program also reduces the transmission of infections. Conclusions: What India essentially needs to do is religiously implement the strategies outlined in the WHO Aide-memoire. The blood should be collected only from voluntary non remunerative and repeat donors, there should be stringent donor selection with pre-donation counseling instituted. Strict implementation of quality management system, development of well defined testing startegies and strong haemovigilance system could take us a step in the right direction. PMID:27011677

  8. Test meals rich in marine long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase postprandial chylomicron response.

    PubMed

    Griffo, E; Di Marino, L; Patti, L; Bozzetto, L; Annuzzi, G; Cipriano, P; Mangione, A; Della Pepa, G; Cocozza, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A

    2014-08-01

    Postprandial lipid abnormalities are considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Hence, it is important to find nutritional strategies that are able to positively influence these abnormalities. Since the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenols on postprandial lipids in humans is still under debate, we evaluated the acute response of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to test meals that are naturally rich in polyphenols and/or marine long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs. We hypothesized that LC n-3 PUFA would have a different effect on chylomicron and very low density lipoproteins when compared with polyphenols or their combination. We randomly assigned 78 individuals who were at high cardiometabolic risk to 4 isoenergetic diets. These diets only differed in amount of LC n-3 PUFA and/or polyphenols. Prior to starting the intervention, each subject underwent a test meal similar to the type of diet assigned: low in LC n-3 PUFA and polyphenols (control), rich in LC n-3 PUFA and low in polyphenols, rich in polyphenols and low in LC n-3 PUFA, or rich in both. Blood samples were taken before and up to 6 hours after the test meal in order to evaluate cholesterol and triglycerides (plasma and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein), apolipoprotein B-48 (large very low density lipoprotein), glucagon-like peptide-1, and free fatty acid plasma levels. The levels of chylomicron cholesterol and triglyceride in response to the test meal rich in LC n-3 PUFA were significantly higher than after the control meal (P = .037 and P = .018); there was no difference in the other variables. In conclusion, this study indicates that acute administration of marine LC n-3 PUFA increases postprandial chylomicron response in contrast with their lowering chronic effects. These differences underline the importance of understanding the acute and chronic effects of nutritional, as well as of other types of, interventions. PMID:25193793

  9. Effects of chronic administration of valproic acid to epileptic patients on coagulation tests and primary hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Zighetti, Maddalena L; Fontana, Gessica; Lussana, Federico; Chiesa, Valentina; Vignoli, Aglaia; Canevini, Maria Paola; Cattaneo, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug that has been associated with impaired hemostasis and increased risk for postsurgical bleeding. However, the published reports provide controversial results. We measured parameters of primary hemostasis in VPA-treated patients with epilepsy, focusing on adenosine nucleotide-dependent platelet responses, which play a central role in primary hemostasis. We enrolled 20 cases (epileptic patients receiving treatment with VPA) and 20 controls (12 epileptic patients receiving treatment with drugs different from VPA and 8 healthy subjects). Measurements included prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), platelet count, platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100 closure times, plasma von Willebrand factor levels, platelet content of ADP, ATP, and serotonin (all stored in platelet dense granules), and platelet shape change and aggregation induced by ADP and other platelet agonists, including the ATP analog α,β-methylene-ATP. The plasma concentration of VPA was in the therapeutic range in 17 patients and slightly above the upper limit in 3 patients. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the studied parameters in cases versus controls. Our thorough controlled study failed to show that chronic treatment with VPA induces significant abnormalities of coagulation and primary hemostasis. Therefore, VPA, when present in the circulation in the therapeutic range, does not impair hemostasis.

  10. A spheroid-based 3-D culture model for pancreatic cancer drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay.

    PubMed

    Wen, Z; Liao, Q; Hu, Y; You, L; Zhou, L; Zhao, Y

    2013-07-01

    Current therapy for pancreatic cancer is multimodal, involving surgery and chemotherapy. However, development of pancreatic cancer therapies requires a thorough evaluation of drug efficacy in vitro before animal testing and subsequent clinical trials. Compared to two-dimensional culture of cell monolayer, three-dimensional (3-D) models more closely mimic native tissues, since the tumor microenvironment established in 3-D models often plays a significant role in cancer progression and cellular responses to the drugs. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the benefits of 3-D in vitro models of various cancers. In the present study, we have developed a spheroid-based, 3-D culture of pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 for pancreatic drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay. Drug efficacy testing showed that spheroids had much higher drug resistance than monolayers. This model, which is characteristically reproducible and easy and offers rapid handling, is the preferred choice for filling the gap between monolayer cell cultures and in vivo models in the process of drug development and testing for pancreatic cancer.

  11. Pooled Nucleic Acid Testing to Detect Antiretroviral Treatment Failure in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Tilghman, Myres W.; Guerena, Don Diego; Licea, Alexei; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Richman, Douglas D.; May, Susanne; Smith, Davey M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Similar to other resource-limited settings, cost restricts availability of viral load monitoring for most patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Tijuana, Mexico. We evaluated if a pooling method could improve efficiency and reduce costs while maintaining accuracy. Methods We evaluated 700 patient blood plasma specimens at a reference laboratory in Tijuana for detectable viremia, individually and in 10 × 10 matrix pools. Thresholds for virologic failure were set at ≥500, ≥1000 and ≥1500 HIV RNA copies per milliliter. Detectable pools were deconvoluted using pre-set algorithms. Accuracy and efficiency of the pooling method were compared with individual testing. Quality assurance (QA) measures were evaluated after 1 matrix demonstrated low efficiency relative to individual testing. Results Twenty-two percent of the cohort had detectable HIV RNA (≥50 copies/mL). Pooling methods saved approximately one third of viral load assays over individual testing, while maintaining negative predictive values of >90% to detect samples with virologic failure (≥50 copies/mL). One matrix with low relative efficiency would have been detected earlier using the developed QA measures, but its exclusion would have only increased relative efficiency from 39% to 42%. These methods would have saved between $13,223 and $14,308 for monitoring this cohort. Conclusions Despite limited clinical data, high prevalence of detectable viral loads and a contaminated matrix, pooling greatly improved efficiency of virologic monitoring while maintaining accuracy. By improving cost-effectiveness, these methods could provide sustainability of virologic monitoring in resource-limited settings, and incorporation of developed QA measures will most likely maximize pooling efficiency in future uses. PMID:21124228

  12. Yeast vaginitis during pregnancy: susceptibility testing of 13 antifungal drugs and boric acid and the detection of four virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Kalkanci, Ayşe; Güzel, Ahmet Bariş; Khalil, Israa Ibrahim Jabban; Aydin, Merve; Ilkit, Macit; Kuştimur, Semra

    2012-08-01

    A higher prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is seen in pregnant women compared with those who are not pregnant. Recurrence is also more common in pregnant women, and therapeutic responses are reduced. In this investigation, 207 vaginal yeast isolates recovered from pregnant women were tested for susceptibility to 13 antifungal drugs and boric acid and through these studies four virulence factors were also determined. The isolates were recovered from vaginal samples of patients with acute VVC [AVVC, (n = 73)], symptomatic recurrent VVC [RVVC, (n = 89)], asymptomatic RVVC (n = 27), and those without signs and symptoms (n = 18). Candida albicans was the most common species found (59.9%), followed by C. glabrata (19.8%), other Candida spp., (19.8%), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.5%). Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed as described in CLSI document M27-A3. Additionally, we examined phospholipase and proteinase production, adhesion to vaginal epithelial cells and hemolytic activity. Notably, the MIC values of Candida spp. isolates derived from patients with VVC were no different from those of the controls (P > 0.05). In addition, Candida isolates derived from patients with AVVC or RVVC produced significantly higher amounts of phospholipase and proteinase compared with the controls (P < 0.05). Antifungal testing and the determination of virulence factors may lead to the effective and prompt treatment of VVC, particularly in pregnant women.

  13. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old) immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %), but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP), leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent) and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine. PMID:22691230

  14. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  15. Microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid for heavy metals and sulfated ash testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pluhácek, T; Hanzal, J; Hendrych, J; Milde, D

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of inorganic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients plays a crucial role in the quality control of the pharmaceutical production. The heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash methods employing microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid have been demonstrated as alternatives to inappropriate compendial methods recommended in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). The recoveries using the heavy metals method ranged between 89% and 122% for nearly all USP and Ph. Eur. restricted elements as well as the recoveries of sodium sulfate spikes were around 100% in all tested matrices. The proposed microwave-assisted digestion method allowed simultaneous decomposition of 15 different active pharmaceutical ingredients with sample weigh up to 1 g. The heavy metals and sulfated ash procedures were successfully applied to the determination of heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash content in mycophenolate mofetil, nicergoline and silymarin. PMID:27209695

  16. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  17. Half a decade of mini-pool nucleic acid testing: Cost-effective way for improving blood safety in India

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, Shivaram

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: It is well established that Nucleic acid testing (NAT) reduces window phase of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) and helps improve blood safety. NAT testing can be done individually or in pools. The objectives of this study were to determine the utility, feasibility and cost effectiveness of an in-house minipool-NAT(MP-NAT). Materials and Methods: Blood donors were screened by history, tested by ELISA and sero-negative samples were subjected to an in-house NAT by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Testing was done in mini-pools of size eight (8). Positive pools were repeated with individual samples. Results: During the study period of Oct 2005-Sept 2010 (5 years) all blood donors (n=53729) were screened by ELISA. Of which 469 (0.87%) were positive for HIV-1, HBV or HCV. Sero-negative samples (n=53260) were screened by in-house MP-NAT. HIV-NAT yield was 1/53260 (n=1) and HBV NAT yield (n=2) was 1/26630. Conclusion: NAT yield was lower than other India studies possibly due to the lower sero-reactivity amongst our donors. Nevertheless it intercepted 9 lives including the components prepared. The in-house assay met our objective of improving blood safety at nominal cost and showed that it is feasible to set up small molecular biology units in medium-large sized blood banks and deliver blood within 24-48 hours. The utility of NAT (NAT yield) will vary based on the donor population, the type of serological test used, the nature of kit employed and the sensitivity of NAT test used. The limitations of our in-house MP-NAT consisted of stringent sample preparation requirements, with labor and time involved. The benefits of our MP-NAT were that it acted as a second level of check for ELISA tests, was relatively inexpensive compared to ID-NAT and did not need sophisticated equipment. PMID:24678172

  18. Development Of Ion Chromatography Methods To Support Testing Of The Glycolic Acid Reductant Flowsheet In The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B. J.; White, T. L.; Mahannah, R. N.; Best, D. R.; Stone, M. E.; Click, D. R.; Lambert, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is the principal analytical method used to support studies of Sludge Reciept and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) chemistry at DWPF. A series of prior analytical ''Round Robin'' (RR) studies included both supernate and sludge samples from SRAT simulant, previously reported as memos, are tabulated in this report.2,3 From these studies it was determined to standardize IC column size to 4 mm diameter, eliminating the capillary column from use. As a follow on test, the DWPF laboratory, the PSAL laboratory, and the AD laboratory participated in the current analytical RR to determine a suite of anions in SRAT simulant by IC, results also are tabulated in this report. The particular goal was to confirm the laboratories ability to measure and quantitate glycolate ion. The target was + or - 20% inter-lab agreement of the analyte averages for the RR. Each of the three laboratories analyzed a batch of 12 samples. For each laboratory, the percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the averages on nitrate, glycolate, and oxalate, was 10% or less. The three laboratories all met the goal of 20% relative agreement for nitrate and glycolate. For oxalate, the PSAL laboratory reported an average value that was 20% higher than the average values reported by the DWPF laboratory and the AD laboratory. Because of this wider window of agreement, it was concluded to continue the practice of an additional acid digestion for total oxalate measurement. It should also be noted that large amounts of glycolate in the SRAT samples will have an impact on detection limits of near eluting peaks, namely Fluoride and Formate. A suite of scoping experiments are presented in the report to identify and isolate other potential interlaboratory disceprancies. Specific ion chromatography inter-laboratory method conditions and differences are tabulated. Most differences were minor but there are some temperature control equipment differences that are significant leading to a recommendation of

  19. Ingested acidic food and liquids may lead to misinterpretation of 24-hour ambulatory pH tests: focus on measurement of extra-esophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Koskenvuo, Juha W; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Hartiala, Jaakko J; Kinnunen, Ilpo; Peltola, Matti; Sala, Eeva

    2007-07-01

    Normal values of extra-esophageal reflux are difficult to determine owing to variation in the location of the proximal electrode, limited information on the ingestion of acidic food, different exclusion periods for meals, and poor reproducibility of measurement of extra-esophageal reflux. We studied whether ambulatory esophageal pH testing is disturbed by acidic food ingestion. Eighteen healthy subjects were enrolled in standard dual-channel esophageal pH tests (recorder 1). Ten subjects were equipped with another pH device (recorder 2), positioned to measure extra-esophageal reflux. The subjects were exposed to controlled ingestion of different acidic food or liquid for five 1-min periods. The present study showed that acidic food ingestion for 5 min has a significant effect on the outcome of standard dual-channel ambulatory pH testing. Reflux occurs equally on proximal channels during ingestion of acidic food, whether the proximal channel position is normal or 2 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. We recommend avoiding acidic food intake during esophageal pH testing.

  20. Rapid testing using the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test in combination with antimicrobial stewardship intervention against Gram-negative bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Bork, Jacqueline T; Leekha, Surbhi; Heil, Emily L; Zhao, LiCheng; Badamas, Rilwan; Johnson, J Kristie

    2015-03-01

    Rapid identification of microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance is paramount for targeted treatment in serious bloodstream infections (BSI). The Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test (BC-GN) is a multiplex, automated molecular diagnostic test for identification of eight Gram-negative (GN) organisms and resistance markers from blood culture with a turnaround time of approximately 2 h. Clinical isolates from adult patients at the University Maryland Medical Center with GN bacteremia from 1 January 2012 to 30 June 2012 were included in this study. Blood culture bottles were spiked with clinical isolates, allowed to incubate, and processed by BC-GN. A diagnostic evaluation was performed. In addition, a theoretical evaluation of time to effective and optimal antibiotic was performed, comparing actual antibiotic administration times from chart review ("control") to theoretical administration times based on BC-GN reporting and antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) review ("intervention"). For organisms detected by the assay, BC-GN correctly identified 95.6% (131/137), with a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7 to 98.4%) and a specificity of 99.5% (95% CI, 98.8 to 99.8%). CTX-M and OXA resistance determinants were both detected. Allowing 12 h from Gram stain for antibiotic implementation, the intervention group had a significantly shorter duration to both effective (3.3 versus 7.0 h; P < 0.01) and optimal (23.5 versus 41.8 h; P < 0.01) antibiotic therapy. BC-GN with AST intervention can potentially decrease time to both effective and optimal antibiotic therapy in GN BSI.

  1. Rapid Testing Using the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test in Combination with Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention against Gram-Negative Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Leekha, Surbhi; Heil, Emily L.; Zhao, LiCheng; Badamas, Rilwan; Johnson, J. Kristie

    2014-01-01

    Rapid identification of microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance is paramount for targeted treatment in serious bloodstream infections (BSI). The Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test (BC-GN) is a multiplex, automated molecular diagnostic test for identification of eight Gram-negative (GN) organisms and resistance markers from blood culture with a turnaround time of approximately 2 h. Clinical isolates from adult patients at the University Maryland Medical Center with GN bacteremia from 1 January 2012 to 30 June 2012 were included in this study. Blood culture bottles were spiked with clinical isolates, allowed to incubate, and processed by BC-GN. A diagnostic evaluation was performed. In addition, a theoretical evaluation of time to effective and optimal antibiotic was performed, comparing actual antibiotic administration times from chart review (“control”) to theoretical administration times based on BC-GN reporting and antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) review (“intervention”). For organisms detected by the assay, BC-GN correctly identified 95.6% (131/137), with a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7 to 98.4%) and a specificity of 99.5% (95% CI, 98.8 to 99.8%). CTX-M and OXA resistance determinants were both detected. Allowing 12 h from Gram stain for antibiotic implementation, the intervention group had a significantly shorter duration to both effective (3.3 versus 7.0 h; P < 0.01) and optimal (23.5 versus 41.8 h; P < 0.01) antibiotic therapy. BC-GN with AST intervention can potentially decrease time to both effective and optimal antibiotic therapy in GN BSI. PMID:25547353

  2. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants.

    PubMed

    Wojewoda, Christina M; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2013-07-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results.

  3. Design, Development, Validation, and Use of Synthetic Nucleic Acid Controls for Diagnostic Purposes and Application to Cystic Fibrosis Testing

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Todd M.; Jama, Mohamed; Ponek, Victor; Lyon, Elaine; Wilson, Jean Amos; Hoffmann, Marcy L.; Bejjani, Bassem A.

    2007-01-01

    We have designed, tested, and validated synthetic DNA molecules that may be used as reference standard controls in the simultaneous detection of mutations in one or more genes. These controls consist of a mixture of oligonucleotides (100 to 120 bases long) each designed for the detection of one or more disease-causing mutation(s), depending on the proximity of the mutations to one another. Each control molecule is identical to 80 to 100 bases that span the targeted mutations. In addition, each oligonucleotide is tagged at the 5′ and 3′ ends with distinct nucleic acid sequences that allow for the design of complementary primers for polymerase chain reaction amplification. We designed the tags to amplify control molecules comprising 32 CFTR mutations, including the American College of Medical Genetics minimum carrier screening panel of 23, with one pair of primers in a single tube. We tested the performance of these controls on many platforms including the Applied Biosystems/Celera oligonucleotide ligation assay and the Tm Bioscience Tag-It platforms. All 32 mutations were detected consistently. This simple methodology allows for maximum flexibility and rapid implementation. It has not escaped our notice that the design of these molecules makes possible the production of similar controls for virtually any mutation or sequence of interest. PMID:17591930

  4. Reducing infection transmission in solid organ transplantation through donor nucleic acid testing: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Lai, J C; Kahn, J G; Tavakol, M; Peters, M G; Roberts, J P

    2013-10-01

    For solid organ transplant (SOT) donors, nucleic acid-amplification testing (NAT) may reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission over antibody (Ab) testing given its shorter detection window period. We compared SOT donor NAT + Ab versus Ab alone using decision models to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs; cost per quality-adjusted life year [QALY] gained) from the societal perspective across a range of HIV/HCV prevalence values and NAT costs. The cost per QALY gained was calculated for two scenarios: (1) favorable: low cost ($150/donor)/high prevalence (HIV: 1.5%; HCV: 18.2%) and (2) unfavorable: high cost ($500/donor)/low prevalence (HIV: 0.1%; HCV: 1.5%). In the favorable scenario, adding NAT screening cost $161 013 per QALY gained for HIV was less costly) for HCV, and cost $86 653 per QALY gained for HIV/HCV combined. For the unfavorable scenario, the costs were $15 568 484, $221 006 and $10 077 599 per QALY gained, respectively. Universal HCV NAT + Ab for donors appears cost-effective to reduce infection transmission from SOT donors, while HIV NAT + Ab is not, except where HIV NAT is ≤$150/donor and prevalence is ≥1.5%. Our analyses provide important data to facilitate the decision to implement HIV and HCV NAT for deceased SOT donors and shape national policy regarding how to reduce infection transmission in SOT.

  5. Reducing Infection Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation Through Donor Nucleic Acid Testing: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, J. C.; Kahn, J. G.; Tavakol, M.; Peters, M. G.; Roberts, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    For solid organ transplant (SOT) donors, nucleic acid-amplification testing (NAT) may reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission over antibody (Ab) testing given its shorter detection window period. We compared SOT donor NAT + Ab versus Ab alone using decision models to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs; cost per quality-adjusted life year [QALY] gained) from the societal perspective across a range of HIV/HCV prevalence values and NAT costs. The cost per QALY gained was calculated for two scenarios: (1) favorable: low cost ($150/donor)/high prevalence (HIV: 1.5%; HCV: 18.2%) and (2) unfavorable: high cost ($500/donor)/low prevalence (HIV: 0.1%; HCV: 1.5%). In the favorable scenario, adding NAT screening cost $161 013 per QALY gained for HIV was less costly) for HCV, and cost $86 653 per QALY gained for HIV/HCV combined. For the unfavorable scenario, the costs were $15 568 484, $221 006 and $10 077 599 per QALY gained, respectively. Universal HCV NAT + Ab for donors appears cost-effective to reduce infection transmission from SOT donors, while HIV NAT + Ab is not, except where HIV NAT is ≤$150/donor and prevalence is ≥1.5%. Our analyses provide important data to facilitate the decision to implement HIV and HCV NAT for deceased SOT donors and shape national policy regarding how to reduce infection transmission in SOT. PMID:24034208

  6. Transcriptomic concentration-response evaluation of valproic acid, cyproconazole, and hexaconazole in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn).

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Peter T; Robinson, Joshua F; Pennings, Jeroen L A; de Jong, Esther; Claessen, Sandra M H; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Piersma, Aldert H

    2012-02-01

    Alternative developmental toxicity assays are urgently needed to reduce animal use in regulatory developmental toxicology. We previously designed an in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) as a model for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing (Theunissen et al., 2010). Toxicogenomic approaches have been suggested for incorporation into the ESTn to further increase predictivity and to provide mechanistic insights. Therefore, in this study, using a transcriptomic approach, we investigated the concentration-dependent effects of three known (neuro) developmental toxicants, two triazoles, cyproconazole (CYP) and hexaconazole (HEX), and the anticonvulsant valproic acid (VPA). Compound effects on gene expression during neural differentiation and corresponding regulated gene ontology (GO) terms were identified after 24 h of exposure in relation to morphological changes on day 11 of culture. Concentration-dependent responses on individual gene expression and on biological processes were determined for each compound, providing information on mechanism and concentration-response characteristics. All compounds caused enrichment of the embryonic development process. CYP and VPA but not HEX significantly enriched the neuron development process. Furthermore, specific responses for triazole compounds and VPA were observed within the GO-term sterol metabolic process. The incorporation of transcriptomics in the ESTn was shown to enable detection of effects, which precede morphological changes and provide a more sensitive measure of concentration-dependent effects as compared with classical morphological assessments. Furthermore, mechanistic insight can be instrumental in the extrapolation of effects in the ESTn to human hazard assessment.

  7. Gelatin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds with oriented pore channel architecture - From in vitro to in vivo testing.

    PubMed

    Thiem, A; Bagheri, M; Große-Siestrup, C; Zehbe, R

    2016-05-01

    A gelatin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, composite scaffold, featuring a highly oriented pore channel structure, was developed as a template for articular cartilage regeneration. As a design principle the composite scaffold was optimized to contain only medical grade educts and accordingly no chemical cross linking agents or other toxicological relevant substances or methods were used. Scaffolds were synthesized using a freeze structuring method combined with an electrochemical process followed by freeze-drying. Finally, cross linking was performed using dehydrothermal treatment, which was simultaneously used for sterilization purposes. These composite scaffolds were analyzed in regard to structural and biomechanical properties, and to their degradation behavior. Furthermore, cell culture performance was tested using chondrocytes originated from joint articular cartilage tissue from 6 to 10 months old domestic pigs. Finally, the scaffolds were tested for tissue biocompatibility and their ability for tissue integration in a rat model. The scaffolds showed both excellent functional performance and high biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. We expect that these gelatin-PLGA scaffolds can effectively support chondrogenesis in vivo demonstrating great potential for the use in cartilage defect treatment. PMID:26952462

  8. Changes in acid-base status of marathon runners during an incremental field test. Relationship to mean competitive marathon velocity.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, J A; Sargeant, A J; Emmerich, J; Stoklosa, J; Zychowski, A

    1993-01-01

    Four top-class runners who regularly performed marathon and long-distance races participated in this study. They performed a graded field test on an artificial running track within a few weeks of a competitive marathon. The test consisted of five separate bouts of running. Each period lasted 6 min with an intervening 2-min rest bout during which arterialized capillary blood samples were taken. Blood was analysed for pH, partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide (PO2 and PCO2) and lactate concentration ([la-]b). The values of base excess (BE) and bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3-]) were calculated. The exercise intensity during the test was regulated by the runners themselves. The subjects were asked to perform the first bout of running at a constant heart rate fc which was 50 beats.min-1 below their own maximal fc. Every subsequent bout, each of which lasted 6 min, was performed with an increment of 10 beats.min-1 as the target fc. Thus the last, the fifth run, was planned to be performed with fc amounting to 10 beats.min-1 less than their maximal fc. The results from these runners showed that the blood pH changed very little in the bouts performed at a running speed below 100% of mean marathon velocity (nu m). However, once nu m was exceeded, there were marked changes in acid-base status. In the bouts performed at a velocity above the nu m there was a marked increase in [la-]b and a significant decrease in pH, [HCO3-], BE and pCO2. The average marathon velocity (nu m) was 18.46 (SD 0.32) km.h-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8375370

  9. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was < 10%. Therefore, these chemicals were classified as moderate skin sensitizers in the LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE.

  10. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was < 10%. Therefore, these chemicals were classified as moderate skin sensitizers in the LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE. PMID:26558466

  11. Circulating unmetabolized folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive test performance among American seniors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folate deficiency has serious consequences for the fetus. Folic acid fortification of food addresses this problem. However, clinical consequences of vitamin B-12 deficiency may be worsened by high folic acid intakes, perhaps as a direct result of unmetabolized folic acid, which does not occur natura...

  12. Prediction of acid mine drainage generation potential of various lithologies using static tests: Etili coal mine (NW Turkey) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

    2016-08-01

    The Etili neighborhood in Can County (northwestern Turkey) has large reserves of coal and has been the site of many small- to medium-scale mining operations since the 1980s. Some of these have ceased working while others continue to operate. Once activities cease, the mining facilities and fields are usually abandoned without rehabilitation. The most significant environmental problem is acid mine drainage (AMD). This study was carried out to determine the acid generation potential of various lithological units in the Etili coal mine using static test methods. Seventeen samples were selected from areas with high acidic water concentrations: from different alteration zones belonging to volcanic rocks, from sedimentary rocks, and from coals and mine wastes. Static tests (paste pH, standard acid-base accounting, and net acid generation tests) were performed on these samples. The consistency of the static test results showed that oxidation of sulfide minerals, especially pyrite-which is widely found not only in the alteration zones of volcanic rocks but also in the coals and mine wastes-is the main factor controlling the generation of AMD in this mine. Lack of carbonate minerals in the region also increases the occurrence of AMD.

  13. [The effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives on obsessive-compulsive activity of mice in marble-burying test].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Miroshnichenko, I Iu; Rassokhina, L M; Faĭzullin, R M; Priakhina, K E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of domestic derivatives of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid (emoxipine, reamberin, and mexidol) on obsessive-compulsive behavior of mice was studied in the marble-burying test. Additionally the effect of these drugs on the behavior of animals was assessed in the open field test. Amitriptylin and alpha-lipoic acid were used as reference drugs. It was established that single administration of the investigated drugs in optimal doses, corresponding to therapeutic range in humans, inhibits obsessive-compulsive behavior of mice in the marble-burying test. Amitriptylin and alpha-lipoic acid produced similar effects. It is established that emoxipine stimulates the behavior of mice in the open field after single administration. An increase in the emoxipine dose led to decrease of stimulation and gradual development of sedative effect. Reamberin and mexidol, as well as alpha-lipoic acid and amitriptyline, caused sedation in mice tested in the open field. Inhibiting effect of emoxipine, reamberin, mexidol and alpha-lipoic acid on the obsessive-compulsive behavior in mice directly depended on sedative action of these drugs.

  14. Prediction of acid mine drainage generation potential of various lithologies using static tests: Etili coal mine (NW Turkey) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

    2016-08-01

    The Etili neighborhood in Can County (northwestern Turkey) has large reserves of coal and has been the site of many small- to medium-scale mining operations since the 1980s. Some of these have ceased working while others continue to operate. Once activities cease, the mining facilities and fields are usually abandoned without rehabilitation. The most significant environmental problem is acid mine drainage (AMD). This study was carried out to determine the acid generation potential of various lithological units in the Etili coal mine using static test methods. Seventeen samples were selected from areas with high acidic water concentrations: from different alteration zones belonging to volcanic rocks, from sedimentary rocks, and from coals and mine wastes. Static tests (paste pH, standard acid-base accounting, and net acid generation tests) were performed on these samples. The consistency of the static test results showed that oxidation of sulfide minerals, especially pyrite-which is widely found not only in the alteration zones of volcanic rocks but also in the coals and mine wastes-is the main factor controlling the generation of AMD in this mine. Lack of carbonate minerals in the region also increases the occurrence of AMD. PMID:27435620

  15. Uric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical features and treatment of gout. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, et al., eds. Kelly's Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 95. ...

  16. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Fate of PCBs During K Basin Sludge Dissolution in Nitric Acid and with Hydrogen Peroxide Addition

    SciTech Connect

    GM Mong; AJ Schmidt; EW Hoppe; KH Pool; KL Silvers; BM Thornton

    1999-01-04

    The work described in this report is part of the studies being performed to address the fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in K Basin sludge before the sludge can be transferred to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) double shell tanks. One set of tests examined the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the disposition of PCBs in a simulated K Basin dissolver solution containing 0.5 M nitric acid/1 M Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. A second series of tests examined the disposition of PCBs in a much stronger ({approx}10 M) nitric acid solution, similar to that likely to be encountered in the dissolution of the sludge.

  17. Design, synthesis and evaluation of antiinflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenicity studies of novel S-substituted phenacyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol and Schiff bases of diclofenac acid as nonulcerogenic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shashikant V; Bothara, Kailash G; Raut, Mayuresh K; Patil, Ajit A; Sarkate, Aniket P; Mokale, Vinod J

    2008-02-15

    Diclofenac sodium is being used for its anti-inflammatory actions since 28 years, but as all the NSAIDs are suffering from the deadlier GI toxicities, diclofenac sodium is also not an exception to these toxicities. The free -COOH group is thought to be responsible for the GI toxicity associated with all traditional NSAIDs. In the present research work, the main motto was to develop new chemical entities as potential anti-inflammatory agents with no GI toxicities. In this paper, the results of synthesis and pharmacological screening of a series of S-substituted phenacyl 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and Schiff bases derived from 2-[(2,6-dichloroanilino) phenyl] acetic acid (diclofenac acid) are described. The 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and diclofenac moieties are important because of their versatile biological actions. In the present studies, the oxadiazole system has been functionalized onto the diclofenac acid moiety and 18 compounds in this series were synthesized. The structures of new compounds are characterized by TLC, FTIR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data. These compounds were tested in vivo for their anti-inflammatory activity. The compounds, which showed significant activity (comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium), were screened for their analgesic activity and to check their ability to induce ulcers by ulcerogenicity and histopathology studies. Eight new compounds, out of 18, were found to have significant anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model, with significant analgesic activity in the acetic acid induced writhing model with no ulcerogenicity. The compounds, which showed negligible ulcerogenic action, also showed promising results in histopathology studies, that is, they were found to be causing no mucosal injury.

  18. Ham test

    MedlinePlus

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  19. Polydimethylsiloxane-Paper Hybrid Lateral Flow Assay for Highly Sensitive Point-of-Care Nucleic Acid Testing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jane Ru; Liu, Zhi; Hu, Jie; Tang, Ruihua; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shangsheng; Ren, Hui; Wen, Ting; Yang, Hui; Qu, Zhiguo; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng

    2016-06-21

    In nucleic acid testing (NAT), gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based lateral flow assays (LFAs) have received significant attention due to their cost-effectiveness, rapidity, and the ability to produce a simple colorimetric readout. However, the poor sensitivity of AuNP-based LFAs limits its widespread applications. Even though various efforts have been made to improve the assay sensitivity, most methods are inappropriate for integration into LFA for sample-to-answer NAT at the point-of-care (POC), usually due to the complicated fabrication processes or incompatible chemicals used. To address this, we propose a novel strategy of integrating a simple fluidic control strategy into LFA. The strategy involves incorporating a piece of paper-based shunt and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) barrier to the strip to achieve optimum fluidic delays for LFA signal enhancement, resulting in 10-fold signal enhancement over unmodified LFA. The phenomena of fluidic delay were also evaluated by mathematical simulation, through which we found the movement of fluid throughout the shunt and the tortuosity effects in the presence of PDMS barrier, which significantly affect the detection sensitivity. To demonstrate the potential of integrating this strategy into a LFA with sample-in-answer-out capability, we further applied this strategy into our prototype sample-to-answer LFA to sensitively detect the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in clinical blood samples. The proposed strategy offers great potential for highly sensitive detection of various targets for wide application in the near future. PMID:27012657

  20. Reverse Transcription Cross-Priming Amplification–Nucleic Acid Test Strip for Rapid Detection of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng-Xue; Yuan, Dan-Yi; Jin, Ya-Nan; Hu, Lin; Sun, Zhi-Yong; He, Qian; Zhao, Shi-Hua; Zhan, Shu-Bai; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly transmissible coronavirus that causes a severe enteric disease particularly in neonatal piglets. In this study, a rapid method for detecting PEDV was developed based on cross-priming amplification and nucleic acid test strip(CPA-NATS). Five primers specific for the N gene sequence of PEDV were used for the cross-priming amplification. Detection of amplification products based on labeled probe primers was conducted with strip binding antibody of labeled markers. The CPA method was evaluated and compared with a PCR method. The reverse transcription CPA system was further optimized for detecting PEDV RNA in clinical specimens. Results showed that the method was highly specific for the detection of PEDV, and had the same sensitivity as PCR, with detection limit of 10−6 diluted plasmid containing the target gene of PEDV. It was also successfully applied to detecting PEDV in clinical specimens. The reverse transcription CPA-NATS detection system established in this study offers a specific, sensitive, rapid, and simple detection tool for screening PEDV, which can contribute to strategies in the effective control of PEDV in swine. PMID:27090105

  1. Genomic detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by nucleic acid amplification test in a frequent platelet donor during the pre-seroconversion period.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida

    2011-11-01

    Since serological donor-screening tests for HIV were introduced in 1985, the safety of donated blood components has improved dramatically. However, these tests do not completely prevent the risk of transfusion-associated HIV infection related to the use of blood donated during the pre-seroconversion window period. Testing based on nucleic acid amplification is being implemented to screen for HIV-infected blood donated during this period, which has reduced the probability of transmitting HIV through transfusion by shortening the window period. This article describes a case of acute HIV-1 infection, detected using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) in a repeat blood donor who donated during the pre-seroconversion window period and whose antigen and anti-HIV antibody expression was observed after molecular marker detection. In addition, the possible route of infection is discussed based on the patient's history, and finally, the need for NAT technology for blood donor screening is emphasized.

  2. First European Report of Social Wasps Trapped in Response to Acetic acid, Isobutanol, 2-Methyl-2-propanol, and Heptyl butyrate in Tests Conducted in Hungary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of social wasps were captured in trapping tests in Hungary that evaluated the attractiveness of acetic acid, isobutanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, and heptyl butyrate to social wasps. Both Vespula vulgaris (L.) and Vespula germanica (Fabr.), were captured in traps baited with isobutanol, t...

  3. Development of a semipurified test diet for determining amino acid requirements of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus reared under low-salinity conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to develop a semipurified test diet for determining indispensable amino acid (IAA) requirements for Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus. The objective of the first trial was to evaluate casein and corn gluten meal as principal intact protein sources, and the ability of F...

  4. Testing the D / H ratio of alkenones and palmitic acid as salinity proxies in the Amazon Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggi, C.; Chiessi, C. M.; Schefuß, E.

    2015-12-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope composition of lipid biomarkers, such as alkenones, is a promising new tool for the improvement of palaeosalinity reconstructions. Laboratory studies confirmed the correlation between lipid biomarker δD composition (δDLipid), water δD composition (δDH2O) and salinity; yet there is limited insight into the applicability of this proxy in oceanic environments. To fill this gap, we test the use of the δD composition of alkenones (δDC37) and palmitic acid (δDPA) as salinity proxies using samples of surface suspended material along the distinct salinity gradient induced by the Amazon Plume. Our results indicate a positive correlation between salinity and δDH2O, while the relationship between δDH2O and δDLipid is more complex: δDPAM correlates strongly with δDH2O (r2 = 0.81) and shows a salinity-dependent isotopic fractionation factor. δDC37 only correlates with δDH2O in a small number (n = 8) of samples with alkenone concentrations > 10 ng L-1, while there is no correlation if all samples are taken into account. These findings are mirrored by alkenone-based temperature reconstructions, which are inaccurate for samples with low alkenone concentrations. Deviations in δDC37 and temperature are likely to be caused by limited haptophyte algae growth due to low salinity and light limitation imposed by the Amazon Plume. Our study confirms the applicability of δDLipid as a salinity proxy in oceanic environments. But it raises a note of caution concerning regions where low alkenone production can be expected due to low salinity and light limitation, for instance, under strong riverine discharge.

  5. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  6. Evaluation of human skin irritation by carboxylic acids, alcohols, esters and aldehydes, with nitrocellulose-replica method and closed patch testing.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Obata, K; Ikeda, Y; Ohkoshi, K; Okumura, H; Ozawa, N; Ogawa, T; Katsumura, Y; Kawai, J; Tatsumi, H; Honoki, S; Hiramatsu, I; Hiroyama, H; Okada, T; Kozuka, T

    1996-01-01

    Closed patch testing and the nitrocellulose-replica method are performed as useful clinical methods for the evaluation of human skin irritation by cosmetics and topical medicaments. Comparison of the sensitivity between microscopic scoring by nitrocellulose-replica method and visual scoring by closed patch test in the detection of skin irritation, however, has not been well studied with statistical analysis. Here, we evaluated human skin irritation by carboxylic acids, alcohols, esters and aldehydes, with different chain length (C8-C18), using both methods. The results of closed patch testing showed that, although the score of skin irritation for carboxylic acids (C8, C12), alcohols (C8) and aldehydes (C8), tested at a concentration of 0.5 m-2.0 m, significantly increased with increasing concentration of the test compounds, ester compounds scarcely caused any irritation on the surface of the skin occluded. In addition, an increase of carbon chain length in the test compounds made it impossible to detect skin irritation. In contrast, the nitrocellulose-replica method could evaluate skin reactions against very weak irritants that gave no macroscopic alterations on the skin surface in the closed patch test. However, the scoring system is somewhat subjective and should be improved to make the analysis more objective.

  7. Effect on morphology, oxidative stress and energy metabolism enzymes in the testes of mice after a 13-week oral administration of melamine and cyanuric acid combination.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yingjun; Liu, Zhijun; Tian, Yujie; Chen, Hongbo

    2013-03-01

    Cases of pet poisoning and infant renal calculus have attracted much attention to the toxicity of melamine and its derivatives, such as cyanuric acid. Although individually melamine and cyanuric acid have low toxicity, their simultaneous presence can cause severe damage. Little is known about their adverse effects on the reproductive system. In this study, mice were orally administrated 1, 5 or 25 mg/kg/d of both melamine and cyanuric acid for 13 weeks. Lethargy, rough hair, and reduction of food and water intake and of body and testis weight were found after exposure to the combination, and pathological changes were found in the morphology of the testes, such as disruption of the seminiferous tubule structure, decrease of the spermatogenic cell series and coagulation necrosis. Total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione concentration was lower and malondialdehyde concentration was higher than in control mice. The activities of malate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were also lower in combination treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that the combined exposure to both melamine and cyanuric acid damaged testes in mice by either a direct or indirect effect, which may be related to renal failure and secondary anorexia. Oxidative stress and lower energy production levels both contributed to the testicular damage.

  8. Bisphenol A Alters n-6 Fatty Acid Composition and Decreases Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in Rat Testes: A LC-QTOF-Based Metabolomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Shanlei; Hu, Nan; Hu, Yanhui; Wu, Wei; Qiu, Lianglin; Zhang, Ruyang; Wang, Yubang; Wang, Shoulin; Zhou, Zuomin; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2012-01-01

    Background Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF)-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as catalase (CAT) also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. Conclusions/Significance BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity. PMID:23024759

  9. Effect on morphology, oxidative stress and energy metabolism enzymes in the testes of mice after a 13-week oral administration of melamine and cyanuric acid combination.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yingjun; Liu, Zhijun; Tian, Yujie; Chen, Hongbo

    2013-03-01

    Cases of pet poisoning and infant renal calculus have attracted much attention to the toxicity of melamine and its derivatives, such as cyanuric acid. Although individually melamine and cyanuric acid have low toxicity, their simultaneous presence can cause severe damage. Little is known about their adverse effects on the reproductive system. In this study, mice were orally administrated 1, 5 or 25 mg/kg/d of both melamine and cyanuric acid for 13 weeks. Lethargy, rough hair, and reduction of food and water intake and of body and testis weight were found after exposure to the combination, and pathological changes were found in the morphology of the testes, such as disruption of the seminiferous tubule structure, decrease of the spermatogenic cell series and coagulation necrosis. Total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione concentration was lower and malondialdehyde concentration was higher than in control mice. The activities of malate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were also lower in combination treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that the combined exposure to both melamine and cyanuric acid damaged testes in mice by either a direct or indirect effect, which may be related to renal failure and secondary anorexia. Oxidative stress and lower energy production levels both contributed to the testicular damage. PMID:23220542

  10. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Summary of bench-scale tests for FY 1986 and FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.

    1987-09-01

    Processes to reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acid are being demonstrated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids such as HF-HNO/sub 3/, etch solutions containing Zr as a major metal impurity, and HNO/sub 3/ strip solution containing Cu as a major metal impurity are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ containing U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup -/ to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup -2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in a downstream precipitation step. 10 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  12. [The preparation procedure of tests for the gas chromatographic determination of fat acids without preliminary extraction of lipids].

    PubMed

    Aripovskiĭ, A V; Kolesnik, P O; Vezhdel, M I; Titov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The enhancement of the procedure of quantitative gas chromatographic determination of fit acids in biologic liquids samples is proposed. Instead of the conventional Folch procedure of extraction of lipids with subsequent ablution, concentration and methylation of extracts the direct saponification and methylation of vacuum dried liquid samples (50-200 mkl) can be applied. To compare the effectiveness of the proposed and conventional procedures both of them had been applied to evaluate how converge the results of determination of composition of fat acids in whole blood, blood plasma, packed red blood cells, homogenates of hepatic and muscular tissues. The proposed procedure is applied to determine the characteristics of fat acids composition inpatients with ischemic heart disease.

  13. Comparison of an rRNA‐based and DNA‐based nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in trachoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jon L; Schachter, Julius; Moncada, Jeanne; Habte, Dereje; Zerihun, Mulat; House, Jenafir I; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Hong, Kevin C; Maxey, Kathryn; Gaynor, Bruce D; Lietman, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim The World Health Organisation (WHO) hopes to achieve global elimination of trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, in part through mass antibiotic treatment. DNA‐based nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are currently used to evaluate the success of treatment programmes by measuring the prevalence of C trachomatis infection. Some believe that newer ribosomal RNA (rRNA)‐based tests may be much more sensitive since bacterial rRNA is present in amounts up to 10 000 times that of genomic DNA. Others believe that rRNA‐based tests are instead less sensitive but more specific, due to the presence of dead or subviable organisms that the test may not detect. This study compares an rRNA‐based test to a DNA‐based test for the detection of ocular C trachomatis infection in children living in trachoma‐endemic villages. Methods An rRNA‐based amplification test and DNA‐based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on swab specimens taken from the right upper tarsal conjunctiva of 56 children aged 0–10 years living in two villages in Amhara, Ethiopia. Results The rRNA‐based test detected ocular C trachomatis infection in 35 (63%) subjects compared with 22 (39%) detected by PCR (McNemar's test, p = 0.0002). The rRNA‐based test gave positive results for all subjects that were positive by PCR, and also detected infection in 13 (23%) additional subjects. Conclusion The rRNA‐based test appears to have significantly greater sensitivity than PCR for the detection of ocular chlamydial infection in children in trachoma‐endemic villages. Using the rRNA‐based test, we may be able to detect infection that was previously missed with PCR. Past studies using DNA‐based tests to assess prevalence of infectious trachoma following antibiotic treatment may have underestimated the true prevalence of infection. PMID:17050583

  14. Rapid selection of nonhotspot mutants among hisD+ revertants of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in Ames test by peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated PCR clamping.

    PubMed

    Takiya, Toshiyuki; Horie, Yoshiaki; Futo, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Kawai, Keiichi; Suzuki, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    Ames test is the most popular method of assessing mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium as an indicator. Recently, sequence analyses have been introduced for the investigation of mutation mechanisms. Most revertants (>70%) carry 2-bp deletion within an 8-bp CG repeat in hisD (hotspot mutation) in the Ames test using S. typhimurium TA98. We developed a new specific amplification method for nonhotspot mutants by peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated PCR clamping. It markedly reduces the labor and cost of this kind of studies. PMID:16233580

  15. Development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction of waste with acidic extraction fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.S.

    1993-08-01

    Subject is characterization of waste materials. Since acid rain is increasingly prevalent throughout the world, a sequential batch extraction method was developed which uses a dilute acid solution as the extraction fluid. A collaborative study was conducted in which the draft method was used to treat a spray dryer waste from a clean coal technology process and a composite mining waste. Effects of filter pore size and digestion vs nondigestion on analytical concentrations in extracts were also studied. Elements determined included Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Si, Na, Sr, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Zn. The draft method will be published as ASTM Method D5284-92.

  16. Algal toxins and reverse osmosis desalination operations: laboratory bench testing and field monitoring of domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin and okadaic acid.

    PubMed

    Seubert, Erica L; Trussell, Shane; Eagleton, John; Schnetzer, Astrid; Cetinić, Ivona; Lauri, Phil; Jones, Burton H; Caron, David A

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasing globally during the past few decades. The impact of these events on seawater desalination facilities has become an important topic in recent years due to enhanced societal interest and reliance on this technology for augmenting world water supplies. A variety of harmful bloom-forming species of microalgae occur in southern California, as well as many other locations throughout the world, and several of these species are known to produce potent neurotoxins. These algal toxins can cause a myriad of human health issues, including death, when ingested via contaminated seafood. This study was designed to investigate the impact that algal toxin presence may have on both the intake and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process; most importantly, whether or not the naturally occurring algal toxins can pass through the RO membrane and into the desalination product. Bench-scale RO experiments were conducted to explore the potential of extracellular algal toxins contaminating the RO product. Concentrations exceeding maximal values previously reported during natural blooms were used in the laboratory experiments, with treatments comprised of 50 μg/L of domoic acid (DA), 2 μg/L of saxitoxin (STX) and 20 μg/L of brevetoxin (PbTx). None of the algal toxins used in the bench-scale experiments were detectable in the desalinated product water. Monitoring for intracellular and extracellular concentrations of DA, STX, PbTx and okadaic acid (OA) within the intake and desalinated water from a pilot RO desalination plant in El Segundo, CA, was conducted from 2005 to 2009. During the five-year monitoring period, DA and STX were detected sporadically in the intake waters but never in the desalinated water. PbTx and OA were not detected in either the intake or desalinated water. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for HAB toxins to be inducted into coastal RO intake facilities, and the

  17. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  18. Using a lipidomics approach for nutritional phenotyping in response to a test meal containing gamma-linolenic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma fatty acids are derived from preformed sources in the diet and de novo synthesis through the action of desaturase and elongase enzymes. This study was designed to examine the elongation of 18:3n6 into 20:3n6 over an eight-hour period using both targeted gas chromatography–flame ionization det...

  19. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing

    PubMed Central

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA. PMID:27587826

  20. Determining a Robust D-Optimal Design for Testing for Departure from Additivity in a Mixture of Four Perfluoroalkyl Acids.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective is to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. PFAAs are widely used in consumer products and industrial applications. The presence and persistence of PFAAs, especially in ...

  1. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing.

    PubMed

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G; Baylis, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA. PMID:27587826

  2. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing.

    PubMed

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G; Baylis, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA.

  3. Testing models of fatty acid transfer and lipid synthesis in spinach leaf using in vivo oxygen-18 labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, M.; Ohlrogge, J.

    1999-12-01

    Oxygen-18 labeling has been applied to the study of plant lipid biosynthesis for the first time. [{sup 13}C{sub 2}{sup 18}O{sub 2}]Acetate was incubated with spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves and the {sup 18}O content in fatty acid methyl esters isolated from different lipid classes measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids isolated from lipids synthesized within the plastid, such as monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, show an {sup 18}O content consistent with the exogenous acetate undergoing a single activation step and with the direct utilization of acyl-acyl carrier protein by the acyl transferases of the chloroplast. In contrast, fatty acids isolated from lipids assembled in the cytosol, such as phosphatidylcholine, show a 50% reduction in the {sup 18}O content. This is indicative of export of the fatty acyl groups from the plastid via a free carboxylate anion, and is consistent with the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase:acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase mediated export mechanism. If this were not the case and the acyl group was transferred directly from acyl-acyl carrier protein to an acyl acceptor on the cytosolic side, there would be either complete retention of {sup 18}O or, less likely, complete loss of {sup 18}O, but not a 50% loss of {sup 18}O. Thus, existing models for fatty acid transfer from the plastid and for spatially separate synthesis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic lipids have both been confirmed.

  4. Detection of conspecific alarm cues by juvenile salmonids under neutral and weakly acidic conditions: laboratory and field tests.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Antoine O H C; Kelly, Jocelyn M; E Brown, Grant

    2004-04-01

    A variety of fishes possess damage-released chemical alarm cues, which play a critical role in the detection and avoidance of potential predation threats. Recently, we have demonstrated that the ability of fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and finescale dace ( Phoxinus neogaeus) to detect and respond to conspecific alarm cues is significantly reduced under weakly acidic conditions (pH 6.0). Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook charr ( Salvelinus fontinalis) possess an analogous alarm cue system. However, it is unknown if the trout alarm cue system is likewise affected by relatively small changes in pH. In addition, previous studies have not verified this phenomenon under natural conditions. We conducted laboratory and field trials to examine the potential effects of acute exposure to weakly acidic (pH 6.0) conditions on the detection and response of conspecific alarm cues by juvenile trout. Our laboratory results demonstrate that while juvenile rainbow trout exhibit significant increases in antipredator behaviour under normal pH conditions (pH 7.0-7.2), they do not respond to the presence of conspecific chemical alarm cues (i.e. response is not different from controls) under weakly acidic conditions. Similarly, a wild strain of brook charr in their natural streams near Sudbury, Ontario, failed to detect conspecific alarm cues in a weakly acidic stream (mean pH 6.11) while they responded to these cues in a neutral stream (mean pH of 6.88). This is the first demonstration that relatively small changes in ambient pH can influence alarm responses under natural conditions. These data suggest significant, sub-lethal effects of acid precipitation on natural waterways.

  5. Detection of conspecific alarm cues by juvenile salmonids under neutral and weakly acidic conditions: laboratory and field tests.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Antoine O H C; Kelly, Jocelyn M; E Brown, Grant

    2004-04-01

    A variety of fishes possess damage-released chemical alarm cues, which play a critical role in the detection and avoidance of potential predation threats. Recently, we have demonstrated that the ability of fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and finescale dace ( Phoxinus neogaeus) to detect and respond to conspecific alarm cues is significantly reduced under weakly acidic conditions (pH 6.0). Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook charr ( Salvelinus fontinalis) possess an analogous alarm cue system. However, it is unknown if the trout alarm cue system is likewise affected by relatively small changes in pH. In addition, previous studies have not verified this phenomenon under natural conditions. We conducted laboratory and field trials to examine the potential effects of acute exposure to weakly acidic (pH 6.0) conditions on the detection and response of conspecific alarm cues by juvenile trout. Our laboratory results demonstrate that while juvenile rainbow trout exhibit significant increases in antipredator behaviour under normal pH conditions (pH 7.0-7.2), they do not respond to the presence of conspecific chemical alarm cues (i.e. response is not different from controls) under weakly acidic conditions. Similarly, a wild strain of brook charr in their natural streams near Sudbury, Ontario, failed to detect conspecific alarm cues in a weakly acidic stream (mean pH 6.11) while they responded to these cues in a neutral stream (mean pH of 6.88). This is the first demonstration that relatively small changes in ambient pH can influence alarm responses under natural conditions. These data suggest significant, sub-lethal effects of acid precipitation on natural waterways. PMID:14758533

  6. Detection of KPC Carbapenemase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From Clinical Samples Using Modified Hodge Test and Boronic Acid Phenotypic Methods and Their Comparison With the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Falahat, Saeed; Shojapour, Mana; Sadeghi, Abdorrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become a major source of concern for public health. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains are important opportunistic pathogens. These bacteria have a high resistance to a wide range of existing antimicrobials and antibiotics. Objectives The present study was performed to evaluate the frequency of KPC in P. aeruginosa isolated from clinical samples of educational hospitals of Arak University of Medical Sciences, using the mentioned phenotypic and genotypic methods. Materials and Methods One hundred and eight non-duplicate clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from hospitals of Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. Antibacterial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method. KPC production was confirmed by the Modified Hodge Test (MHT), which is a phenotypic test, and combined-disk test with boronic acid and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results In the present study, 13 isolates (12%) of P. aeruginosa were positive for KPC, using PCR. Comparison of the two phenotypic methods used in this study showed that boronic acid is more sensitive than MHT in identification of KPC-producing strains (84.6% vs. 77%). Conclusions Utilization of reliable methods for identifying carbapenemase-producing strains and determining their antibiotic resistance pattern could have a very important role in treatment of infections caused by these strains. A substantial amount of P. aeruginosa isolated from clinical samples of hospitals in Arak (Iran) produce KPC carbapenemase. Due to their low specificity, MHT and boronic acid phenotypic methods could not completely identify KPC-producing P. aeruginosa. However, the sensitivity of boronic acid phenotypic method in detection of KPC was higher than MHT. PMID:27800140

  7. Rapid visual identification of PCR amplified nucleic acids by centrifugal gel separation: Potential use for molecular point-of-care tests.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Eun; Im, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Su-Jin; Lee, Do-Hoon; Son, Sang Jun

    2016-05-15

    Recently, nucleic acid amplification and detection techniques have progressed based on advances in in microfluidics, microelectronics, and optical systems. Nucleic acids amplification based point-of-care test (POCT) in resource-limited settings requires simple visual detection methods. Several biosensing methods including lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) were previously used to visually detect nucleic acids. However, prolonged assay time, several washing steps, and a need for specific antibodies limited their use. Here we developed a novel, rapid method to visualize amplified nucleic acids with naked eyes in clinical samples. First, we optimized conditions based on separation using very low centrifugal force and a density medium to detect human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 DNA in cervical specimens. After DNA extraction, HPV16 PCR was performed with biotin-labeled forward primer and Cy3-labeled reverse primer. PCR amplicon was mixed with streptavidin-magnetic beads, introduced into the density medium. After two-minute centrifugation, the result was visually identified. This system showed identical results with commercial HPV real-time PCR for 30 clinical samples and could detect up to 10(2)copies/mL of HPV DNA without any optical instruments. This robust and sensitive visual detection system is suitable for non-specialist personnel and point-of-care diagnosis in low-resource settings.

  8. Testing the interactive effects of carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids on ejaculate traits in the guppy Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Gasparini, C; Turchini, G M; Evans, J P

    2015-05-01

    Using the polyandrous livebearing guppy Poecilia reticulata, this study revealed no main effects of carotenoids in the diet on ejaculate traits, but significant main effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on sperm viability and weak but significant interacting effects of both nutrients on sperm length. Collectively, these findings not only add evidence that PUFAs are critical determinants of sperm quality, but also provide tentative evidence that for some traits these effects may be moderated by carotenoid intake.

  9. Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monfort-Pires, Milena; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, José; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea

    2016-01-01

    Whether the content of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG) is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs), in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 h, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 h a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95% CI −4.16, −0.41) and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95% CI −1.82, 0.04) were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 h may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation. PMID:27657122

  10. Performance evaluation of low cost microfluidic chips made using a digital craft cutter for point of care applications in nucleic acid tests.

    PubMed

    Ragavendar, M S; Jayaraman, Subhadra; Ramya, V M; Roy, Rohan; Manwani, Harsha

    2014-01-01

    A point of care (POC) diagnostic system development for nucleic acid testing (NAT) for developing countries faces several challenges and barriers among which affordability is a very critical one [1,4]. Hence a study was made to evaluate the effectiveness of microfluidic chips made from a digital craft cutter to be used as a disposable cartridge. Low cost materials like double sided tapes, transparent sheets and connectors were used to realize the microfluidic chip [2]. An in-house IVD sample preparation kit for nucleic acid extraction was used as a representative assay. Modifications were made to the assay workflow considering the feature sizes, design and volume of the microfluidic chip made from the paper cutter and other POC system requirements like turnaround time (TAT). The workflow was optimized by reducing overall TAT from 50min to 15min, sample volume from 150 μL to 12.5 μL and reduced reagent volumes. The method was also optimized to work at an isothermal condition. The results showed good correlation and yield in terms of both quality and quantity when compared to results obtained from the established baseline protocol. Thus microfluidic chips made using a digital craft cutter can very well be a low cost alternative to manufacture disposable chips for POC applications in nucleic acid tests.

  11. Impact of Gestational Bisphenol A on Oxidative Stress and Free Fatty Acids: Human Association and Interspecies Animal Testing Studies

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Patisaul, Heather B.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Zeng, Lixia

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical and an endocrine disruptor. Developmental exposures to BPA have been linked to adult metabolic pathologies, but the pathways through which these disruptions occur remain unknown. This is a comprehensive interspecies association vs causal study to evaluate risks posed by prenatal BPA exposure and to facilitate discovery of biomarkers of relevance to BPA toxicity. Samples from human pregnancies during the first trimester and at term, as well as fetal and/or adult samples from prenatally BPA-treated sheep, rats, and mice, were collected to assess the impact of BPA on free fatty acid and oxidative stress dynamics. Mothers exposed to higher BPA during early to midpregnancy and their matching term cord samples displayed increased 3-nitrotyrosine (NY), a marker of nitrosative stress. Maternal samples had increased palmitic acid, which was positively correlated with NY. Sheep fetuses and adult sheep and rats prenatally exposed to a human-relevant exposure dose of BPA showed increased systemic nitrosative stress. The strongest effect of BPA on circulating free fatty acids was observed in adult mice in the absence of increased oxidative stress. This is the first multispecies study that combines human association and animal causal studies assessing the risk posed by prenatal BPA exposure to metabolic health. This study provides evidence of the induction of nitrosative stress by prenatal BPA in both the mother and fetus at time of birth and is thus supportive of the use of maternal NY as a biomarker for offspring health. PMID:25603046

  12. Impact of gestational bisphenol A on oxidative stress and free fatty acids: Human association and interspecies animal testing studies.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Patisaul, Heather B; Dolinoy, Dana C; Zeng, Lixia; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical and an endocrine disruptor. Developmental exposures to BPA have been linked to adult metabolic pathologies, but the pathways through which these disruptions occur remain unknown. This is a comprehensive interspecies association vs causal study to evaluate risks posed by prenatal BPA exposure and to facilitate discovery of biomarkers of relevance to BPA toxicity. Samples from human pregnancies during the first trimester and at term, as well as fetal and/or adult samples from prenatally BPA-treated sheep, rats, and mice, were collected to assess the impact of BPA on free fatty acid and oxidative stress dynamics. Mothers exposed to higher BPA during early to midpregnancy and their matching term cord samples displayed increased 3-nitrotyrosine (NY), a marker of nitrosative stress. Maternal samples had increased palmitic acid, which was positively correlated with NY. Sheep fetuses and adult sheep and rats prenatally exposed to a human-relevant exposure dose of BPA showed increased systemic nitrosative stress. The strongest effect of BPA on circulating free fatty acids was observed in adult mice in the absence of increased oxidative stress. This is the first multispecies study that combines human association and animal causal studies assessing the risk posed by prenatal BPA exposure to metabolic health. This study provides evidence of the induction of nitrosative stress by prenatal BPA in both the mother and fetus at time of birth and is thus supportive of the use of maternal NY as a biomarker for offspring health.

  13. Physical Nature of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Interactions with Its Inhibitors: Testing a Simple Nonempirical Scoring Model.

    PubMed

    Giedroyć-Piasecka, Wiktoria; Dyguda-Kazimierowicz, Edyta; Beker, Wiktor; Mor, Marco; Lodola, Alessio; Sokalski, W Andrzej

    2014-12-26

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme responsible for the deactivating hydrolysis of fatty acid ethanolamide neuromodulators. FAAH inhibitors have gained considerable interest due to their possible application in the treatment of anxiety, inflammation, and pain. In the context of inhibitor design, the availability of reliable computational tools for predicting binding affinity is still a challenging task, and it is now well understood that empirical scoring functions have several limitations that in principle could be overcome by quantum mechanics. Herein, systematic ab initio analyses of FAAH interactions with a series of inhibitors belonging to the class of the N-alkylcarbamic acid aryl esters have been performed. In contrast to our earlier studies of other classes of enzyme-inhibitor complexes, reasonable correlation with experimental results required us to consider correlation effects along with electrostatic term. Therefore, the simplest comprehensive nonempirical model allowing for qualitative predictions of binding affinities for FAAH ligands consists of electrostatic multipole and second-order dispersion terms. Such a model has been validated against the relative stabilities of the benchmark S66 set of biomolecular complexes. As it does not involve parameters fitted to experimentally derived data, this model offers a unique opportunity for generally applicable inhibitor design and virtual screening. PMID:25420234

  14. Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Uno, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiromi; Yamada, Maiko; Yaguchi, Yuji; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Misawa, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN) is a microarray-based assay that enables rapid detection of 9 common Gram-negative bacteria and 6 resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures. We compared the performance of BC-GN with currently used automated systems, testing 141 clinical blood cultures and 205 spiked blood cultures. For identification of BC-GN target organisms in clinical and spiked blood cultures, the BC-GN assay showed 98.5% (130/132) and 98.9% (182/184) concordance, respectively. Of 140 resistance genes positively detected in clinical and spiked blood cultures with the BC-GN test, 139 (99.3%) were confirmed by PCR, and the detection results were consistent with the resistance phenotypes observed. The BC-GN assay, thus, can potentially improve care for sepsis patients by enabling timely detection and targeted antimicrobial therapy.

  15. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Christopher J.; King, William D.; Ketusky, Edward T.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  16. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  17. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  18. Synthesis, characterization and fuel cell performance tests of boric acid and boron phosphate doped, sulphonated and phosphonated poly(vinyl alcohol) based composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Alpay; Ar, İrfan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize a composite membrane having high proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. In order to achieve this aim, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based composite membranes are synthesized by using classic sol-gel method. Boric acid (H3BO3) and boron phosphate (BPO4) are added to the membrane matrix in different ratios in order to enhance the membrane properties. Characterization tests, i.e; FT-IR analysis, mechanical strength tests, water hold-up capacities, swelling properties, ion exchange capacities, proton conductivities and fuel cell performance tests of synthesized membranes are carried out. As a result of performance experiments highest performance values are obtained for the membrane containing 15% boron phosphate at 0.6 V and 750 mA/cm2. Water hold-up capacity, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of this membrane are found as 56%, 8%, 1.36 meq/g and 0.37 S/cm, respectively. These values are close to the values obtained ones for perfluorosulphonic acid membranes. Therefore this membrane can be regarded as a promising candidate for usage in fuel cells.

  19. The Parmotrema acid test: a look at species delineation in the P. perforatum group 40 y later.

    PubMed

    Lendemer, James C; Allen, Jessica L; Noell, Nastassja

    2015-01-01

    Parmotrema perforatum and its relatives form a morphologically distinctive group of species, most of which are common and endemic to eastern North America. Species delimitation in this ecologically important group was the subject of extensive inquiry before the advent of molecular systematics and computationally intensive niche modeling. As part of a large-scale lichen biodiversity inventory of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, we used ITS sequence data to examine the utility of characters (morphological, chemical, reproductive, ecological) in circumscribing four species in this group (P. hypoleucinum, P. hypotropum, P. perforatum, P. subrigidum). We found that P. hypoleucinum and P. subrigidum as currently circumscribed are monophyletic and the latter comprises two chemotypes differing in the presence or absence of norstictic acid in addition to alectoronic acid. The sequences of P. hypotropum and P. perforatum, which are chemically identical species and differ only in reproductive mode, were intermixed in a single, well-supported clade. The two chemotypes of P. subrigidum are partially allopatric and their sequences are >99% identical. Nonetheless, niche modeling suggests they occupy significantly different ecological niches. These results provide a new perspective on much-debated questions on species circumscription in lichens and suggest new avenues for genetic, ecological and systematic research. PMID:26354803

  20. DMPS-arsenic challenge test. II. Modulation of arsenic species, including monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), excreted in human urine.

    PubMed

    Aposhian, H V; Zheng, B; Aposhian, M M; Le, X C; Cebrian, M E; Cullen, W; Zakharyan, R A; Ma, M; Dart, R C; Cheng, Z; Andrewes, P; Yip, L; O'Malley, G F; Maiorino, R M; Van Voorhies, W; Healy, S M; Titcomb, A

    2000-05-15

    The administration of sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS) to humans chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic in their drinking water resulted in the increased urinary excretion of arsenic, the appearance and identification of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) in their urine, and a large decrease in the concentration and percentage of urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). This is the first time that MMA(III) has been detected in the urine. In vitro biochemical experiments were then designed and performed to understand the urinary appearance of MMA(III) and decrease of DMA. The DMPS-MMA(III) complex was not active as a substrate for the MMA(III) methyltransferase. The experimental results support the hypothesis that DMPS competes with endogenous ligands for MMA(III), forming a DMPS-MMA complex that is readily excreted in the urine and points out the need for studying the biochemical toxicology of MMA(III). It should be emphasized that MMA(III) was excreted in the urine only after DMPS administration. The results of these studies raise many questions about the potential central role of MMA(III) in the toxicity of inorganic arsenic and to the potential involvement of MMA(III) in the little-understood etiology of hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation, and cancer that can result from chronic inorganic arsenic exposure.

  1. Behavioural Effects of the Commonly Used Fish Anaesthetic Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS-222) on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Its Relevance for the Acetic Acid Pain Test

    PubMed Central

    Nordgreen, Janicke; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Janczak, Andrew M.; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2014-01-01

    The pros and cons of using anaesthesia when handling fish in connection with experiments are debated. A widely adopted practice is to wait thirty minutes after anaesthesia before behavioural observations are initiated, but information about immediate effects of a treatment is then lost. This is pertinent for responses to acute stressors, such as acid injection in the acetic acid pain test. However, omission of anaesthetics in order to obtain data on immediate responses will compromise the welfare of fish and contribute to experimental noise due to stress. We therefore tested the effect of tricaine methanesulfonate on the behaviour of zebrafish. We predicted that tricaine (MS 222) would decrease swimming velocity and that the control fish would show an increased level of anxiety- and stress-related behaviours compared to the tricaine group. Following acclimatization to the test tank, baseline behaviour was recorded before immersion in either tricaine (168 mg l−1, treatment group, N = 8) or tank water (control group, N = 7). Latencies to lose equilibrium and to lose response to touch were registered. The fish was then returned to the test tank, and the latency to regain equilibrium was registered in anaesthetized fish. When equilibrium was regained, and at five, thirty and sixty minutes after the fish had been returned to the test tank, behaviour was recorded. The tricaine fish showed the following responses (mean ± sd): latency to lose equilibrium 22.6 s±3.9; latency to lose response to touch 101.9 s±26.8; latency to regain equilibrium 92.0 s±54.4. Contrary to our predictions, neither treatment caused a change in any of the behaviours registered. This indicates that tricaine has no effect on several commonly used behavioural parameters, and that it may be unnecessary to postpone behavioural observations to 30 min after anaesthesia. PMID:24658262

  2. A simple test for the detection of KPC and metallo-β-lactamase carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with the use of meropenem disks supplemented with aminophenylboronic acid, dipicolinic acid and cloxacillin.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, F; Veliz, O; Faccone, D; Guerriero, L; Rapoport, M; Mendez, T; Corso, A

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the ability of the combination disk test (CDT) and the Modified Hodge Test (MHT) to discriminate between various carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (KPC, n = 36; metallo-β-lactamase (MBL), n = 38) and carbapenemase non-producers (n = 75). For the CDT, the optimal inhibitor concentrations and cut-off values were: 600 μg of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APB) per disk (an increment of ≥4 mm), 1000 μg of dipicolinic acid (DPA) per disk (an increment of ≥5 mm) and 3000 μg of cloxacillin per disk (an increment of ≥3 mm). APB had excellent sensitivity (97%) and specificity (97%) for the detection of KPC enzymes. DPA detected MBL enzymes with a sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 81%, respectively. The MHT resulted in a low sensitivity (78%) and specificity (57%). The CDT could be very useful in daily practice to provide fast and reliable detection of KPC and MBL carbapenemases among P. aeruginosa isolates.

  3. Decreased toxicity of Al to juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in acidic soft water containing natural organic matter: A test of the free-ion model

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.L.; Campbell, P.G.C.

    1997-09-01

    Toxicological experiments were designed to test the predictions of the free-ion model (FIM) in a soft, acidic water containing Al and a natural fulvic acid (FA). Juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to Al in either inorganic or organic acidic soft waters, at pH 5.0, and 50% lethal concentrations (LC50) values were determined for both exposure solutions. Contrary to the predictions of the FIM, the LC50s, expressed as inorganic Al (Al{sub i}), were significantly higher in the organic solution than in the inorganic medium. Preexposure of the fish to a 10-mg/L FA solution at pH 5.0, without Al, did not protect the animals from a subsequent Al challenge in solutions without FA. A regression model related mortality with Al{sub i} and total organic carbon (TOC) and was highly significant. The authors conclude that natural FA may play an independent protective role in solutions containing Al, in addition to that of decreasing Al toxicity by complexation of the metal and reducing the free Al{sup 3+} concentration.

  4. A Multicenter Prospective Study to Investigate the Diagnostic Accuracy of the SeHCAT Test in Measuring Bile Acid Malabsorption: Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Janet; Coker, Bola; McMillan, Viktoria; Lewis, Cornelius; Keevil, Stephen; Sherwood, Roy; Vivian, Gill; Logan, Robert; Summers, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is one possible explanation for chronic diarrhea. BAM may be idiopathic, or result from ileal resection or inflammation including Crohn’s disease, or may be secondary to other conditions, including cholecystectomy, peptic ulcer surgery, and chronic pancreatitis. No “gold standard” exists for clinical diagnosis of BAM, but response to treatment with a bile acid sequestrant (BAS) is often accepted as confirmation. The SeHCAT (tauroselcholic [selenium-75] acid) test uses a radiolabeled synthetic bile acid and provides a diagnostic test for BAM, but its performance against “trial of treatment” is unknown. Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) and 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) also offer potential new biomarkers of BAM. Objective This protocol describes a multicenter prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of SeHCAT and 2 biomarkers in predicting BAM as assessed by trial of treatment. Methods Participating gastroenterology centers should have a minimum workload of 30 SeHCAT patients per annum. Patients should not be pregnant, on medication that could confound follow-up, or have any severe comorbidity. All eligible patients attending a gastrointestinal appointment will be invited to participate. On attending the SeHCAT test, blood and fecal samples will be collected for analysis of FGF-19 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for C4 and fractionated bile acids by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. A capsule containing radiolabeled SeHCAT will be administered orally and a scan performed to measure SeHCAT activity. Patients will return on day 7 to undergo a second scan to measure percentage SeHCAT retention. The test result will be concealed from clinicians and patients. BAS will be dispensed to all patients, with a follow-up gastroenterologist appointment at 2 weeks for clinical assessment of treatment response and adherence. Patients responding positively will continue treatment for a

  5. [The influence of high pressure on the 3-indoleacetic-acid-induced curvature of Avena coleoptiles in the Went-test].

    PubMed

    Chrometzka, P

    1967-12-01

    1. High atmospheric pressure causes an increase of the 3-indoleacetic-acid-induced curvature of Avena coleoptiles in the Went-test, regardless of whether the applied gas is nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, or air. 2. The highest increase was caused by high pressure of oxygen, the lowest by lack of oxygen. 3. The high pressure effect was also observed with coleoptiles which were treated 20 hours prior to the test and which were then kept under normal pressure. 4. High pressure of oxygen for a long period (20 hours) had a poisonous effect on the coleoptiles. They ceased to grow. Preliminary studies have shown that the respiration is enhanced if the coleoptiles have been kept under high pressure. PMID:24554325

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency does not alter the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on central serotonin turnover or behavior in the forced swim test in female rats.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Lipton, Jack W

    2013-12-01

    While translational evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status is positively associated with the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, the neurochemical mechanisms mediating this interaction are not known. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid insufficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Female rats were fed diets with (CON, n=56) or without (DEF, n=40) the n-3 fatty acids during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90), and one half of each group was administered FLX (10mg/kg/day) for 30days (P60-P90) prior to testing. In adulthood (P90), regional brain serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) concentrations, presynaptic markers of 5-HT neurotransmission, behavioral responses in the forced swim test (FST), and plasma FLX and norfluoxetine (NFLX) concentrations were investigated. Peri-adolescent n-3 insufficiency led to significant reductions in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-25%, p≤0.0001) and DEF+FLX (-28%, p≤0.0001) rats. Untreated DEF rats exhibited significantly lower regional 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios compared with untreated CON rats, but exhibited similar behavioral responses in the FST. In both CON and DEF rats, chronic FLX treatment similarly and significantly decreased 5-HIAA concentrations and the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, brainstem tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA expression, and immobility in the FST. While the FLX-induced reduction in 5-HIAA concentrations in the prefrontal cortex was significantly blunted in DEF rats, the reduction in the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was similar to CON rats. Although plasma FLX and NFLX levels were not significantly different in DEF and CON rats, the NFLX/FLX ratio was significantly lower in DEF+FLX rats. These preclinical data demonstrate that n-3 fatty acid deficiency does not significantly reduce the effects of chronic

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency Does Not Alter the Effects of Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment on Central Serotonin Turnover or Behavior in the Forced Swim Test in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert K.; Able, Jessica A.; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Lipton, Jack W.

    2013-01-01

    While translational evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status is positively associated with the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, the neurochemical mechanisms mediating this interaction are not known. Here we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid insufficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Female rats were fed diets with (CON, n=56) or without (DEF, n=40) the n-3 fatty acids during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90), and one half of each group were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) for 30 d (P60-P90) prior to testing. In adulthood (P90), regional brain serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) concentrations, presynaptic markers of 5-HT neurotransmission, behavioral responses in the forced swim test (FST), and plasma FLX and norfluoxetine (NFLX) concentrations were investigated. Peri-adolescent n-3 insufficiency led to significant reductions in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (−25%, p≤0.0001) and DEF+FLX (−28%, p≤0.0001) rats. Untreated DEF rats exhibited significantly lower regional 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios compared with untreated CON rats, but exhibited similar behavioral responses in the FST. In both CON and DEF rats, chronic FLX treatment similarly and significantly decreased 5-HIAA concentrations and the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, brainstem tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA expression, and immobility in the FST. While the FLX-induced reduction in 5-HIAA concentrations in the prefrontal cortex was significantly blunted in DEF rats, the reduction in the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was similar to CON rats. Although plasma FLX and NFLX levels were not significantly different in DEF and CON rats, the NFLX/FLX ratio was significantly lower in DEF+FLX rats. These preclinical data demonstrate that n-3 fatty acid deficiency does not significantly reduce the effects of chronic

  8. HIV Screening via Fourth-Generation Immunoassay or Nucleic Acid Amplification Test in the United States: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elisa F.

    2011-01-01

    Background At least 10% of the 56,000 annual new HIV infections in the United States are caused by individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI). It unknown whether the health benefits and costs of routine nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) are justified, given the availability of newer fourth-generation immunoassay tests. Methods Using a dynamic HIV transmission model instantiated with U.S. epidemiologic, demographic, and behavioral data, I estimated the number of acute infections identified, HIV infections prevented, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, and the cost-effectiveness of alternative screening strategies. I varied the target population (everyone aged 15-64, injection drug users [IDUs] and men who have sex with men [MSM], or MSM only), screening frequency (annually, or every six months), and test(s) utilized (fourth-generation immunoassay only, or immunoassay followed by pooled NAAT). Results Annual immunoassay testing of MSM reduces incidence by 9.5% and costs <$10,000 per QALY gained. Adding pooled NAAT identifies 410 AHI per year, prevents 9.6% of new cases, costs $92,000 per QALY gained, and remains <$100,000 per QALY gained in settings where undiagnosed HIV prevalence exceeds 4%. Screening IDUs and MSM annually with fourth-generation immunoassay reduces incidence by 13% with cost-effectiveness <$10,000 per QALY gained. Increasing the screening frequency to every six months reduces incidence by 11% (MSM only) or 16% (MSM and IDUs) and costs <$20,000 per QALY gained. Conclusions Pooled NAAT testing every 12 months of MSM and IDUs in the United States prevents a modest number of infections, but may be cost-effective given sufficiently high HIV prevalence levels. However, testing via fourth-generation immunoassay every six months prevents a greater number of infections, is more economically efficient, and may obviate the benefits of acute HIV screening via NAAT. PMID:22110698

  9. Summary Report on Gamma Radiolysis of TBP/n-dodecane in the Presence of Nitric Acid Using the Radiolysis/Hydrolysis Test Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Dean R. Peterman; Bruce J. Mincher; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson

    2010-08-01

    Design and installation has been completed for a state-of-the-art radiolysis/hydrolysis test loop system. The system is used to evaluate the effects of gamma radiolysis and acid hydrolysis on the stability and performance of solvent extraction process solvents. The test loop is comprised of two main sections; the solvent irradiation and hydrolysis loop and the solvent reconditioning loop. In the solvent irradiation and hydrolysis loop, aqueous and organic phases are mixed and circulated through a gamma irradiator until the desired absorbed dose is achieved. Irradiation of the mixed phases is more representative of actual conditions in a solvent extraction process. Additionally, the contact of the organic phase with the aqueous phase will subject the solvent components to hydrolysis. This hydrolysis can be accelerated by controlling the system at an elevated temperature. At defined intervals, the organic from the irradiation/hydrolysis loop will be transferred to the solvent reconditioning loop where the solvent is contacted with scrub, strip, and solvent wash solutions which simulate process flowsheet conditions. These two processes are repeated until the total desired dose is achieved. Since all viable solvent extraction components in an advanced fuel cycle must exhibit high radiolytic and hydrolytic stability, this test loop is not limited to any one solvent system but is applicable to all systems of interest. Also, the test loop is not limited to testing of process flowsheets. It is also a valuable tool in support of fundamental research on newly identified extractants/modifiers and the impact of gamma radiation on their stability in a dynamic environment. The investigation of the radiolysis of a TBP/n-dodecane process solvent in contact with aqueous nitric acid has been performed. These studies were intended to confirm/optimize the operability of the test loop system. Additionally, these data are directly applicable to numerous other solvent extraction

  10. The role of ascorbic acid on titanium dioxide-induced genetic damage assessed by the comet assay and cytogenetic tests.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan

    2011-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is used in several commercial products such as cosmetics, sunscreen, toothpaste and pharmaceuticals. However, some recent investigations have revealed that titanium particles generate potential harmful effects on the environment and humans. Because of its strong antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (AA) is admitted to act as an anti-mutagenic agent. The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of AA against TiO(2)-induced genotoxicity. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronucleus (MN) and the comet assays were used to assess TiO(2)-induced genotoxicity and to establish the protective effects of AA. There were significant increases (P<0.05) in both SCE and MN frequencies of cultures treated with TiO(2) as compared to controls. However, co-application of AA (4.87 and 9.73 μM) and TiO(2) resulted in decreases of SCE and MN rates as compared to the group treated with titanium alone. Besides, significant reductions of primary DNA damage (comet assay) were determined when the AA was added to the cell culture medium simultaneously with TiO(2). In conclusion, the preventive role of AA in alleviating TiO(2)-induced DNA damage was indicated for the first time in the present study.

  11. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  12. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  13. Modular glass chip system measuring the electric activity and adhesion of neuronal cells--application and drug testing with sodium valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Koester, Philipp Julian; Buehler, Sebastian Moritz; Stubbe, Marco; Tautorat, Carsten; Niendorf, Mathias; Baumann, Werner; Gimsa, Jan

    2010-06-21

    We developed a modular neurochip system by combining a small (16x16 mm2) glass neurochip (GNC) with a homemade head stage and commercial data acquisition hardware and software. The system is designed for the detection of the electric activity of cultivated nerve or muscle cells by a 52-microelectrode array (MEA). In parallel, cell adhesion can be registered from the electric impedance of an interdigitated electrode structure (IDES). The GNC was tested with various cell lines and primary cells. It is fully autoclavable and re-useable. Murine embryonic primary cells were used as a model system to correlate the electric activity and adhesion of neuronal networks in a drug test with sodium valproic acid. The test showed the advantage of the parallel IDES and MEA measurements, i.e. the parallel detection of cytotoxic and neurotoxic effects. Toxic exposure of the cells during neuronal network formation allows for the characterization of developmental neurotoxic effects even at drug concentrations below the EC50-value for acute neurotoxic effects. At high drug concentrations, the degree of cytotoxic damage can still be assessed from the IDES data in the event that no electric activity develops. The GNC provides optimal cell culture conditions for up to months in combination with full microscopic observability. The 4'' glass wafer technology allows for a high precision of the GNC structures and an economic production of our new system that can be applied in general and developmental toxicity tests as well as in the search for neuro-active compounds.

  14. Parametric test of a zirconium (4) oxide-polyacrylic acid dual layer hyperfiltration membrane with spacecraft washwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, C. A.; Gaddis, J. L.; El-Nashar, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    Performance data consisting of solute rejections and product flux were measured, as dependent on the operation parameters. These parameters and ranges were pressure (500,000 n/m2 to 700,000 n/m2), temperature (74 C to 95 C), velocity (1.6 M/sec to 10 M/sec), and concentration (up to 14x). Tests were carried out on analog washwater. Data presented include rejections of organic materials, ammonia, urea, and an assortment of ions. The membrane used was deposited in situ on a porcelain ceramic substrate.

  15. Nucleic acid testing of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus 1, 2 in blood donors in the General University Hospital, Prague.

    PubMed

    Dušková, D; Darebníček, L

    2014-01-01

    The Roche Cobas TaqScreen MPX Test v1 - multiplex reverse transcription-real time (MPX RT-Real Time) PCR, performed on Cobas s201 for HCV RNA, HBV DNA, HIV-1 RNA /group M and O/, and HIV-2 RNA was introduced as a supplement to the currently used imunoanalysis method for blood donor´s testing (Abbott CMIA - chemiluminescent microparticle imunoassay, performed on Architect i2000 for anti-HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)), anti-HIV-1 /group M and O/, anti-HIV-2 and p24 HIV). The results of study could provide valuable arguments to support the discussion about the NAT implementation into the standards of blood donor´s testing in the Czech Republic. Two groups of samples were tested. In the first one, 5074 samples from consecutive blood donors, and in the second one, 5 repository preseroconverted samples from repeat blood donors, who were subsequently confirmed positive for Viral Hepatitis and/or HIV/AIDS by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL), were tested. One sample was found reactive by chemiluminescent microparticle immuno assay (CMIA) and nucleic acid test (NAT) (confirmed HBV-positive in NRL), 31 samples were CMIA-only reactive (15 anti-HCV, 4 HBsAg, 12 anti-HIV/p24, all confirmed negative in NRL) and one pool (6 samples) was found reactive (further individual NAT was negative for all samples) in the first group of samples. One sample was NAT-only reactive (confirmed HCV-positive in NRL) in the second group of samples. Our study confirmed that screening of infectious markers using NAT can reduce the risk of transmitting the monitored infections by blood transfusion in the Czech Republic, even as a country with currently good epidemiological situation.

  16. Nucleic acid testing of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus 1, 2 in blood donors in the General University Hospital, Prague.

    PubMed

    Dušková, D; Darebníček, L

    2014-01-01

    The Roche Cobas TaqScreen MPX Test v1 - multiplex reverse transcription-real time (MPX RT-Real Time) PCR, performed on Cobas s201 for HCV RNA, HBV DNA, HIV-1 RNA /group M and O/, and HIV-2 RNA was introduced as a supplement to the currently used imunoanalysis method for blood donor´s testing (Abbott CMIA - chemiluminescent microparticle imunoassay, performed on Architect i2000 for anti-HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)), anti-HIV-1 /group M and O/, anti-HIV-2 and p24 HIV). The results of study could provide valuable arguments to support the discussion about the NAT implementation into the standards of blood donor´s testing in the Czech Republic. Two groups of samples were tested. In the first one, 5074 samples from consecutive blood donors, and in the second one, 5 repository preseroconverted samples from repeat blood donors, who were subsequently confirmed positive for Viral Hepatitis and/or HIV/AIDS by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL), were tested. One sample was found reactive by chemiluminescent microparticle immuno assay (CMIA) and nucleic acid test (NAT) (confirmed HBV-positive in NRL), 31 samples were CMIA-only reactive (15 anti-HCV, 4 HBsAg, 12 anti-HIV/p24, all confirmed negative in NRL) and one pool (6 samples) was found reactive (further individual NAT was negative for all samples) in the first group of samples. One sample was NAT-only reactive (confirmed HCV-positive in NRL) in the second group of samples. Our study confirmed that screening of infectious markers using NAT can reduce the risk of transmitting the monitored infections by blood transfusion in the Czech Republic, even as a country with currently good epidemiological situation. PMID:24957719

  17. Disposable dry-reagent cotton thread-based point-of-care diagnosis devices for protein and nucleic acid test.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xun; Du, Ting-E; Wang, Yiyun; Meng, Lili

    2015-03-15

    We report here for the first time by using dry-reagent cotton thread-based point-of-care diagnosis devices for low-cost, sensitive and rapid detection of a lung cancer related biomarker, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) and a human genetic disease, hereditary tyrosinemia type I related DNA sequences. A model system comprising SCCA as an analyte and a pair of monoclonal antibodies is used to demonstrate the proof-of-concept on the dry-reagent cotton thread based immunoassay device. An enhancement protocol was employed by using two kinds of gold nanoparticle labels for SCCA test which greatly improved the sensitivity of the device. The assay avoids the multiple incubation and washing steps performed in most conventional protein analyses, which is similar with the lateral flow strip technology. Under optimal conditions, the thread based immunoassay device was capable of measuring 1ng/mL SCCA in 20min which meet the requirement for clinical diagnosis. DNA detection was successfully realized by using a novel adenosine based molecular beacon probe as reporter probes in the cotton thread based device, the linear range is 75-3000fmol which is suitable for quantitative test.

  18. Fluorescent studies on the interaction of DNA and ternary lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid-phenanthroline and antibacterial activities testing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui-Juan; Wang, Ai-Ling; Chu, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Yong-Liang

    2015-03-01

    Twelve lanthanide complexes with cinnamate (cin(-) ) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were synthesized and characterized. Their compositions were assumed to be RE(cin)3 phen (RE(3+)  = La(3+) , Pr(3+) , Nd(3+) , Sm(3+) , Eu(3+) , Gd(3+) , Tb(3+) , Dy(3+) , Ho(3+) , Tm(3+) , Yb(3+) , Lu(3+) ). The interaction mode between the complexes and DNA was investigated by fluorescence quenching experiment. The results indicated the complexes could bind to DNA and the main binding mode is intercalative binding. The fluorescence quenching constants of the complexes increased from La(cin)3 phen to Lu(cin)3 phen. Additionally, the antibacterial activity testing showed that the complexes exhibited excellent antibacterial ability against Escherichia coli, and the changes of antibacterial ability are in agreement with that of the fluorescence quenching constants.

  19. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent/chemiluminescence assays, recombinant immunoblot assays and nucleic acid tests in the diagnosis of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida

    2013-08-01

    The diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is defined according to the results obtained from screening assays, and confirmation made by supplemental tests, in order to exclude the possibility of false-positive and false-negative results and, therefore, a misdiagnosis. Identifying the patient's true clinical status is of crucial importance to direct an accurate course of therapy, but, often, the definition of this status is only possible after conjunctions and analysis of the results obtained from each methodology applied, considering the limitations of each assay. In this manuscript, it is discussed briefly the possible results obtained from the three methods most commonly applied in routine laboratory and their contribution in the diagnosis of HCV infection.

  20. Performance of visual inspection with acetic acid and human papillomavirus testing for detection of high-grade cervical lesions in HIV positive and HIV negative Tanzanian women.

    PubMed

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Iftner, Thomas; Kahesa, Crispin; Mwaiselage, Julius D; Junge, Jette; Gernow, Anne; Ejlersen, Sussi Funch; Munk, Christian; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV positive and HIV negative women who underwent cervical cancer screening, and to examine the ability of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), the standard detection method in Tanzania, and HPV-testing to detect cytologically diagnosed high grade lesions or cancer (HSIL+). Women from different areas in Tanzania were invited by public announcement to cervical cancer screening organized by Ocean Road Cancer Institute (Dar-es-Salaam). A total of 3,767 women were enrolled. Women underwent gynecological examination with collection of cervical cells for conventional cytological examination, and swab for HPV-DNA detection (Hybrid-Capture2) and genotyping (LiPAv2 test). Subsequently VIA was performed. The participants were also tested for HIV. HPV16, HPV52 and HPV18 were the three most common HR HPV types among women with HSIL+ cytology with prevalences of 42.9, 35.7 and 28.6%, respectively, in HIV positive women which was higher than among HIV negative women (30.2, 21.9 and 16.7%). A total of 4.5% of the women were VIA positive, and VIA showed a low sensitivity compared to HPV-testing for detection of HSIL+. The sensitivity of VIA varied with staff VIA experience, HIV status and age. Vaccines including HPV16, HPV52 and HPV18 will likely reduce the number of HSIL+ cases independently of HIV status. The frequency of HSIL+ was high among HIV positive women, emphasizing the importance of establishing a screening program which also reaches HIV positive women. Our results highlight the importance of continuous training of staff performing VIA, and also point to the need for other screening methods such as HPV-testing at low cost.

  1. Factors in enhancing blood safety by nucleic acid technology testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Shyamala, Venkatakrishna

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI), a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP) and occult HBV infections (OBI). Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT) testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID) format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases. PMID:24678167

  2. Point-Counterpoint: A Nucleic Acid Amplification Test for Streptococcus pyogenes Should Replace Antigen Detection and Culture for Detection of Bacterial Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Pritt, Bobbi S; Patel, Robin; Kirn, Thomas J; Thomson, Richard B

    2016-10-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have frequently been the standard diagnostic approach when specific infectious agents are sought in a clinic specimen. They can be applied for specific agents such as S. pyogenes, or commercial multiplex NAATs for detection of a variety of pathogens in gastrointestinal, bloodstream, and respiratory infections may be used. NAATs are both rapid and sensitive. For many years, S. pyogenes testing algorithms used a rapid and specific group A streptococcal antigen test to screen throat specimens, followed, in some clinical settings, by a throat culture for S. pyogenes to increase the sensitivity of its detection. Now S. pyogenes NAATs are being used with increasing frequency. Given their accuracy, rapidity, and ease of use, should they replace antigen detection and culture for the detection of bacterial pharyngitis? Bobbi Pritt and Robin Patel of the Mayo Clinic, where S. pyogenes NAATs have been used for well over a decade with great success, will explain the advantages of this approach, while Richard (Tom) Thomson and Tom Kirn of the NorthShore University HealthSystem will discuss their concerns about this approach to diagnosing bacterial pharyngitis.

  3. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase by URB597 attenuates the anxiolytic-like effect of acetaminophen in the mouse elevated plus-maze test.

    PubMed

    Zaitone, Sawsan A; El-Wakeil, Ahmed F; Abou-El-Ela, Soad H

    2012-08-01

    Acetaminophen is the most widely used analgesic/antipyretic drug. It is metabolized into N-arachidonoylphenolamine (AM404), which inhibits the reuptake of anandamide. In view of the role of endocannabinoids in the effect of acetaminophen, we tested its anxiolytic-like effect by observing the behavior of mice using the elevated plus-maze test. The results indicated that acetaminophen [100 and 200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] exerted an anxiolytic-like effect that was represented by higher percentage open-arm time, percentage open-arm entries, and total number of head dips compared with the vehicle control (P<0.05). Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase, an enzyme involved in the cerebral metabolism of acetaminophen into AM404, using URB597 (0.07 mg/kg, i.p.), attenuated the anxiolytic-like effect of acetaminophen. Pretreatment with the cannabinoid type-1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg, i.p.) antagonized the effect of acetaminophen. Remarkably, the selected doses of rimonabant or URB597 did not themselves induce any anxiolytic-like effect. Furthermore, the selected doses of acetaminophen (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) did not significantly alter the locomotor activity of mice in the open-field test. In conclusion, these findings confirmed that acetaminophen shows an anxiolytic-like effect in mice that involves, at least in part, AM404-mediated accumulation of anandamide in the brain and consequent activation of cannabinoid type-1 receptors.

  4. Design, characterization, teratogenicity testing, antibacterial, antifungal and DNA interaction of few high spin Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Rahman, Laila H.; El-Khatib, Rafat M.; Nassr, Lobna A. E.; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M.; Lashin, Fakhr El-Din

    2013-07-01

    In this study, new Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid chelates derived from the condensation of o-hydroxynaphthaldehyde with L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, L-histidine and L-arginine were synthesized and characterized via elemental, thermogravimetric analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic, mass spectra and magnetic moment measurements. The stoichiometry and the stability constants of the complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. Correlation of all spectroscopic data suggested that Schiff bases ligands exhibited tridentate with ONO sites coordinating to the metal ions via protonated phenolic-OH, azomethine-N and carboxylate-O with the general formulae [Fe(HL)2]·nH2O. But in case of L-histidine, the ligand acts as tetradentate via deprotonated phenolic-OH, azomethine-N, carboxylate-O and N-imidazole ring ([FeL(H2O)2]·2H2O), where HL = mono anion and L = dianion of the ligand. The structure of the prepared complexes is suggested to be octahedral. The prepared complexes were tested for their teratogenicity on chick embryos and found to be safe until a concentration of 100 μg/egg with full embryos formation. Moreover, the interaction between CT-DNA and the investigated complexes were followed by spectrophotometric and viscosity measurements. It was found that, the prepared complexes bind to DNA via classical intercalative mode and showed a different DNA activity with the sequence: nhi > nari > nali > nasi > nphali. Furthermore, the free ligands and their complexes are screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against three types of bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus and three types of anti fungal cultures, Penicillium purpurogenium, Aspergillus flavus and Trichotheium rosium in order to assess their antimicrobial potential. The results show that the metal complexes are more reactive with respect to their corresponding Schiff base amino acid ligands.

  5. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption produces neurobiological effects associated with prevention of depression in rats after the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongsoon; Moon, Hyoun-Jung; Kim, Seok-Hyeon

    2012-08-01

    Epidemiological data and clinical trials suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have preventive and therapeutic effects on depression; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The present study aimed to examine the behavioral effects and antidepressant mechanism of n-3 PUFA using a forced swimming test. Eleven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition-93M diet containing 0%, 0.5% or 1% EPA and DHA relative to the total energy intake in their diet for 12 weeks (n=8 per group). Total dietary intake, body weight and hippocampus weights were not significantly different among groups. The groups administered 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA diets had significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFA in their brain phospholipids compared to those in the control group. The immobility time was significantly decreased and the climbing time was significantly increased in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with those in the 0% EPA+DHA group. Plasma serotonin concentration and hippocampus c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) expression were significantly increased in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with those in the 0% EPA+DHA group. Conversely, interleukin (IL)-6 expression was significantly reduced in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with that in the 0% EPA+DHA group. However, there were no dose-dependent effects of n-3 PUFA and no significant differences in expressions of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor or phosphorylated CREB. In conclusion, long-term intake of EPA+DHA induced antidepressant-like effects in rats and overexpression of CREB via decreased IL-6 expression.

  6. Presence of UV filters in surface water and the effects of phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following a chronic toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Grabicova, Katerina; Fedorova, Ganna; Burkina, Viktoriia; Steinbach, Christoph; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Zlabek, Vladimir; Kocour Kroupova, Hana; Grabic, Roman; Randak, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    UV filters belong to a group of compounds that are used by humans and are present in municipal waste-waters, effluents from sewage treatment plants and surface waters. Current information regarding UV filters and their effects on fish is limited. In this study, the occurrence of three commonly used UV filters - 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (benzophenone-3, BP-3) and 5-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-benzenesulfonic acid (benzophenone-4, BP-4) - in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) surface waters is presented. PBSA concentrations (up to 13μgL(-1)) were significantly greater than BP-3 or BP-4 concentrations (up to 620 and 390ngL(-1), respectively). On the basis of these results, PBSA was selected for use in a toxicity test utilizing the common model organism rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to three concentrations of PBSA (1, 10 and 1000µgL(-1)) for 21 and 42 days. The PBSA concentrations in the fish plasma, liver and kidneys were elevated after 21 and 42 days of exposure. PBSA increased activity of certain P450 cytochromes. Exposure to PBSA also changed various biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in the fish plasma. However, no pathological changes were obvious in the liver or gonads.

  7. Assessment of the potential irritation and photoirritation of novel amino acid-based surfactants by in vitro methods as alternative to the animal tests.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Tomas; Martínez, Verónica; Mitjans, Montserrat; Infante, María Rosa; Moran, Carmen; Clapés, Pere; Clothier, Richard; Vinardell, María Pilar

    2004-09-01

    The ultraviolet-A radiation damage effects on skin and eyes will be increased by phototoxic compounds which could be present in pharmaceutical or cosmetic formulations. Great efforts have been made in the last years to find surfactants to replace those with phototoxic potential in commercial use. Series of different in vitro models for phototoxicity, included to validated neutral red uptake (NRU) 3T3 phototoxicity assay are useful screening tools. The phototoxic effects of a novel family of glycerol amino acid-based surfactant compounds were examined via these assays. Human red blood cells and two immortalised cell lines, murine fibroblast cell line 3T3, and one human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, were the in vitro models employed to predict potential photoirritation. The phototoxic end-points assessed were hemolysis (human red blood cell test) and resazurin transformation to resorufin and NRU in cell culture methods. The results suggest that no phototoxic effects by any new amino acid derived-surfactants, could be identified.

  8. Anaerobic biodegradation tests of poly(lactic acid) under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using a new evaluation system for methane fermentation in anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hisaaki; Ninomiya, Fumi; Funabashi, Masahiro; Kunioka, Masao

    2009-09-02

    Anaerobic biodegradation tests of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) powder were done at the thermophilic (55 degrees C) and mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C) under aquatic conditions [total solid concentrations of the used sludge were 2.07% (at 55 degrees C) and 2.24% (at 35 degrees C)] using a newly developed evaluation system. With this system, the evolved biogas is collected in a gas sampling bag at atmospheric pressure. This method is more convenient than using a pressure transducer or inverted graduated cylinder submerged in water. PLA was degraded about 60% in 30 days, about 80% in 40 days and about 90% in 60 days at 55 degrees C. On the other hand, the PLA degradation started in 55 days at 35 degrees C and degradation rate was much slower than at 55 degrees C.

  9. Anaerobic biodegradation tests of poly(lactic acid) under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using a new evaluation system for methane fermentation in anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hisaaki; Ninomiya, Fumi; Funabashi, Masahiro; Kunioka, Masao

    2009-09-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation tests of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) powder were done at the thermophilic (55 degrees C) and mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C) under aquatic conditions [total solid concentrations of the used sludge were 2.07% (at 55 degrees C) and 2.24% (at 35 degrees C)] using a newly developed evaluation system. With this system, the evolved biogas is collected in a gas sampling bag at atmospheric pressure. This method is more convenient than using a pressure transducer or inverted graduated cylinder submerged in water. PLA was degraded about 60% in 30 days, about 80% in 40 days and about 90% in 60 days at 55 degrees C. On the other hand, the PLA degradation started in 55 days at 35 degrees C and degradation rate was much slower than at 55 degrees C. PMID:19865521

  10. Testing of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron, the Globe ISOA lead-acid, and the Westinghouse nickel-iron battery subsystems in an electric-vehicle environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, R.; Bryant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Three full size developmental batteries were tested with electric vehicles; two nickel-iron batteries and a lead-acid battery. Constant speed and driving schedule tests were done on a chassis dynamometer. Several aspects of battery performance were evaluated for capacity, recharge efficiency, voltage response, and self discharge. Each of these three batteries exhibited some strengths and some weaknesses.

  11. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  12. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozge Arslan, Harika; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-07-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test procedure as described by Treagust constitutes the framework for this study. To differentiate a lack of knowledge from a misconception, a certainty response index is added as a third tier to each item. Based on propositional knowledge statements, related literature, and the identified misconceptions gathered initially from 157 pre-service teachers, the AREPDiT was constructed and administered to 256 pre-service teachers. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the pre-service teachers' scores was estimated to be 0.74. Content and face validations were established by senior experts. A moderate positive correlation between the participants' both-tiers scores and their certainty scores indicated evidence for construct validity. Therefore, the AREPDiT is a reliable and valid instrument not only to identify pre-service teachers' misconceptions about GW, GE, OLD, and AR but also to differentiate these misconceptions from lack of knowledge. The results also reveal that a majority of the respondents demonstrated limited understandings about atmosphere-related environmental problems and held six common misconceptions. Future studies could test the AREPDiT as a tool for assessing the misconceptions held by pre-service teachers from different programs as well as in-service teachers and high school students.

  13. Chloride test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... of body fluids and maintain the body's acid-base balance. This article is about the laboratory test ... signs that your body's fluid level or acid-base balance is disturbed. This test is most often ...

  14. VMA Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is primarily used to detect and rule out neuroblastomas in children with an abdominal mass or other ... homovanillic acid (HVA) test to help diagnose a neuroblastoma, to monitor the effectiveness of treatment, and to ...

  15. [Viral safety of biologicals: evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) assay and development of concentration method of HCV for sensitive detection by NAT].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Eriko; Yamaguchi, Teruhide

    2010-02-01

    The most important issue for the safety of biological products and blood products derived from human sources is how to prevent transmission of infectious agents. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem due to its high prevalence. HCV is mainly transmitted by exposure to blood and highly infectious during the early window period with extremely low viral loads. Therefore it is important to develop more sensitive detection methods for HCV. In the case of blood products, both serological test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) are required to detect HCV. Since NAT is highly sensitive, establishment of a new standard is required for validation of NAT assay. NAT guideline and establishment of the standard for HCV RNA and HCV genotype panel is introduced in this review. On the other hand, to enhance the sensitivity of virus detection by NAT, a novel viral concentration method using polyethyleneimine (PEI)-conjugated magnetic beads (PEI beads) was developed. PEI beads concentration method is applicable to a wide range of viruses including HCV. Studies using the national standard for HCV RNA, HCV genotype panel and seroconversion panel, suggest that virus concentration method using PEI-beads is useful for improvement of the sensitivity of HCV detection by NAT and applicable to donor screening for HCV.

  16. Development and comparison of a rapid isothermal nucleic acid amplification test for typing of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 on a portable fluorescence detector.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yanhong; McCarthy, Kaitlin; Kong, Huimin; Lemieux, Bertrand

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a rapid and simple molecular test, the IsoGlow HSV Typing assay, for the detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (type 1 and 2) from genital or oral lesions. Clinical samples suspended in viral transport mediums are simply diluted and then added to a helicase-dependent amplification master mix. The amplification and detection were performed on a portable fluorescence detector called the FireFly instrument. Detection of amplification products is based on end-point analysis using cycling probe technology. An internal control nucleic acid was included in the amplification master mix to monitor the presence of amplification inhibitors in the samples. Because the device has only two fluorescence detection channels, two strategies were developed and compared to detect the internal control template: internal control detected by melting curve analysis using a dual-labeled probe, versus internal control detection using end-point fluorescence release by a CPT probe at a lower temperature. Both have a total turnaround time of about 1 hour. Clinical performance relative to herpes viral culture was evaluated using 176 clinical specimens. Both formats of the IsoGlow HSV typing assay had sensitivities comparable to that of the Food and Drug Administration-cleared IsoAmp HSV (BioHelix Corp., Beverly MA) test and specificity for the two types of HSV comparable to that of ELVIS HSV (Diagnostic Hybrids, Athens, OH).

  17. Design and Performance Testing of a DNA Extraction Assay for Sensitive and Reliable Quantification of Acetic Acid Bacteria Directly in Red Wine Using Real Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Longin, Cédric; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Alexandre, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Although strategies exist to prevent AAB contamination, the increased interest for wines with low sulfite addition leads to greater AAB spoilage. Hence, there is a real need for a rapid, specific, sensitive, and reliable method for detecting these spoilage bacteria. All these requirements are met by real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (or quantitative PCR; qPCR). Here, we compare existing methods of isolating DNA and their adaptation to a red wine matrix. Two different protocols for isolating DNA and three PCR mix compositions were tested to select the best method. The addition of insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) at 1% (v/v) during DNA extraction using a protocol succeeded in eliminating PCR inhibitors from red wine. We developed a bacterial internal control which was efficient in avoiding false negative results due to decreases in the efficiency of DNA isolation and/or amplification. The specificity, linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method were evaluated. A standard curve was established for the enumeration of AAB inoculated into red wines. The limit of quantification in red wine was 3.7 log AAB/mL and about 2.8 log AAB/mL when the volume of the samples was increased from 1 to 10 mL. Thus, the DNA extraction method developed in this paper allows sensitive and reliable AAB quantification without underestimation thanks to the presence of an internal control. Moreover, monitoring of both the AAB population and the amount of acetic acid in ethanol medium and red wine highlighted that a minimum about 6.0 log cells/mL of AAB is needed to significantly increase the production of acetic acid leading to spoilage. PMID:27313572

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Anthraquinone-2-Carboxylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Yun Hwan; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Hong, Sungyoul; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Shi Hyung; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinone compounds are one of the abundant polyphenols found in fruits, vegetables, and herbs. However, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms of anthraquinones have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the activity of anthraquinones using acute inflammatory and nociceptive experimental conditions. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, AQCA), one of the major anthraquinones identified from Brazilian taheebo, ameliorated various inflammatory and algesic symptoms in EtOH/HCl- and acetylsalicylic acid- (ASA-) induced gastritis, arachidonic acid-induced edema, and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing without displaying toxic profiles in body and organ weight, gastric irritation, or serum parameters. In addition, AQCA suppressed the expression of inflammatory genes such as cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 in stomach tissues and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. According to reporter gene assay and immunoblotting analyses, AQCA inhibited activation of the nuclear factor- (NF-) κB and activator protein- (AP-) 1 pathways by suppression of upstream signaling involving interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK1), p38, Src, and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Our data strongly suggest that anthraquinones such as AQCA act as potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive components in vivo, thus contributing to the immune regulatory role of fruits and herbs. PMID:27057092

  19. Wipe-test and patch-test for alcohol misuse based on the concentration ratio of fatty acid ethyl esters and squalene CFAEE/CSQ in skin surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Auwärter, V; Kiessling, B; Dyes, C

    2004-07-16

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are known to be formed in blood and almost all human tissues after alcohol consumption and to be incorporated from sebum into hair where they can be used as long-term markers for excessive alcohol consumption. In order to examine whether skin surface lipids which consist mainly of sebum are an equally useful matrix for measurement of FAEE as alcohol abuse markers, samples were collected by a wipe-test from the forehead of 13 teetotallers, 16 social drinkers, 10 death cases with known recent alcohol misuse and five death cases without indications of alcohol misuse. The samples were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate and by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector for squalene, (SQ), as a natural reference substance which the FAEE concentrations were related to. The ratio mFAEE/mSQ ranged between 0.16 and 1.12 ng/microg (mean 0.34 ng/microg) for the teetotallers and between 0.08 and 0.94 ng/microg (mean 0.37 ng/microg) for the social drinkers with no significant difference between both groups. For the alcoholics 2.4-24.2 ng/microg (mean 13.1 ng/microg) were found. For two volunteers the course of mFAEE/mSQ 2 weeks before and 3 weeks after a single high alcohol dose was pursued by daily wipe tests. A strong increase of mFAEE/mSQ occurred between 7 and 12 days after the drinking event. This delay can be explained by the transition time of about 8 days between sebum production and its appearance on the skin surface known from literature. For seven social drinkers skin surface lipid samples were also collected using drug of abuse patches of the firm PharmCheck. The ratios mFAEE/mSQ in these samples were in the same range as from the wipe-test. The comparison with the self-reported ethanol amounts consumed the week before and during the test gave no good correlation (R2 = 0.42). It can be

  20. Collaborative study for establishment of a European Pharmacopoei Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for B19 virus DNA testing of plasma pools by nucleic acid amplification technique.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C M; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the collaborative study was to calibrate the B19 DNA content of a candidate Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) that is intended to be used for the validation of the analytical procedure, as threshold control and/or as quantitative reference material in the Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique (NAT) test of plasma pools for detection of B19 contamination. The candidate BRP was calibrated against the 1st International Standard for B19 DNA NAT assays. According to the European Pharmacopoeia monograph Human anti-D immunoglobulin, the threshold control needs to have a titre of 10( 4) IU/ml of B19 virus DNA. The lyophilised candidate BRP was prepared from 0.5 ml aliquots of a plasma pool spiked with B19 virus. The B19 virus originated from a "B19 virus window phase" blood donation (anti-B19 negative, B19-DNA high titre positive) and was diluted in a plasma pool tested negative by both serological and NAT assays for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 to obtain a B19-DNA concentration level in the range of 10( 6) copies/ml. The residual water content of the lyophilised candidate BRP was determined as 0.98 +/- 0.65% (mean +/- relative standard deviation). Sixteen laboratories (Official Medicine Control Laboratories, manufacturers of plasma derivatives, NAT test laboratories and NAT kit manufacturers) from nine countries participated. Participants were requested to test the candidate BRP and the International Standard (99/800) in four independent test runs on different days using their in-house qualitative and/or quantitative NAT methods. Sixteen laboratories reported results. Thirteen laboratories reported results from qualitative assays and 5 laboratories reported results from quantitative assays. Two laboratories reported results from both types of assay. For the qualitative assays a weighted combined potency of 5.64 log( 10) IU/ml with 95 per cent confidence limits of +/- 0.17 log( 10) which corresponds to 67 to 150

  1. Collaborative study for establishment of a European Pharmacopoei Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for B19 virus DNA testing of plasma pools by nucleic acid amplification technique.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C M; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the collaborative study was to calibrate the B19 DNA content of a candidate Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) that is intended to be used for the validation of the analytical procedure, as threshold control and/or as quantitative reference material in the Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique (NAT) test of plasma pools for detection of B19 contamination. The candidate BRP was calibrated against the 1st International Standard for B19 DNA NAT assays. According to the European Pharmacopoeia monograph Human anti-D immunoglobulin, the threshold control needs to have a titre of 10( 4) IU/ml of B19 virus DNA. The lyophilised candidate BRP was prepared from 0.5 ml aliquots of a plasma pool spiked with B19 virus. The B19 virus originated from a "B19 virus window phase" blood donation (anti-B19 negative, B19-DNA high titre positive) and was diluted in a plasma pool tested negative by both serological and NAT assays for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 to obtain a B19-DNA concentration level in the range of 10( 6) copies/ml. The residual water content of the lyophilised candidate BRP was determined as 0.98 +/- 0.65% (mean +/- relative standard deviation). Sixteen laboratories (Official Medicine Control Laboratories, manufacturers of plasma derivatives, NAT test laboratories and NAT kit manufacturers) from nine countries participated. Participants were requested to test the candidate BRP and the International Standard (99/800) in four independent test runs on different days using their in-house qualitative and/or quantitative NAT methods. Sixteen laboratories reported results. Thirteen laboratories reported results from qualitative assays and 5 laboratories reported results from quantitative assays. Two laboratories reported results from both types of assay. For the qualitative assays a weighted combined potency of 5.64 log( 10) IU/ml with 95 per cent confidence limits of +/- 0.17 log( 10) which corresponds to 67 to 150

  2. Delayed uric Acid accumulation in plasma provides additional anti-oxidant protection against iron-triggered oxidative stress after a wingate test.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Tp; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, Cv; Polotow, Tg; Barros, Mp

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5-60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis. PMID:25435669

  3. DELAYED URIC ACID ACCUMULATION IN PLASMA PROVIDES ADDITIONAL ANTI-OXIDANT PROTECTION AGAINST IRON-TRIGGERED OXIDATIVE STRESS AFTER A WINGATE TEST

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Junior, TP; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, CV; Polotow, TG

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5–60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis. PMID:25435669

  4. Predicting chronic toxicity of sediments spiked with zinc: An evaluation of the acid-volatile sulfide model using a life-cycle test with the midge Chironomus tentans

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, P.K.; Ankley, G.T.; Cotter, A.M.; Leonard, E.N.

    1996-12-01

    The development of sediment quality criteria for the cationic metals cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc has focused on the use of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) as the primary normalization phase for predicting interstitial pore-water concentrations and bioavailability of the metals. To date, most research in support of AVS in this context has utilized short-term laboratory exposures, with a relative paucity of information pertaining to long-term exposures. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the use of AVS as a predictor of metal toxicity to a benthic organism in a long-term laboratory exposure. Clean sediment was spiked with zinc to obtain nominal treatments ranging from {minus}2.34 to 58.5 {micro} g/g dry weight with respect to the molar difference between simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) and AVS. The test was initiated with newly hatched larvae of the midge Chironomus tentans and carried through one complete generation (56 d) during which survival, growth, emergence, and reproduction were monitored. When the molar difference between SEM and AVS was < 0, the concentration of zinc in the sediment interstitial water was low and no adverse effects were observed for any of the biological endpoints measured. Conversely, when SEM-AVS exceeded 0, a dose-dependent increase in the relative concentration of zinc in the pore water was detected. However, the absolute concentration of pore-water zinc at each treatment declined over the course of the study, corresponding to an increase in sediment AVS and to a loss of zinc due to diffusion into the overlying water, which was renewed twice daily. Only when SEM-AVS exceeded 0 were significant reductions in survival, growth, emergence, and reproduction observed. Together, the chemical and biological data from this study compare favorably with observations made in short-term exposures and thus support the use of AVS as a normalization phase for predicting toxicity in metal-contaminated sediments.

  5. Prospective One Year Follow Up of HIV Infected Women Screened for Cervical Cancer Using Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid, Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Testing in Johannesburg South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Firnhaber, Cynthia; Goeieman, Bridgette; Faesen, Mark; Levin, Simon; Williams, Sophie; Rameotshela, Sibongile; Swarts, Avril; Michelow, Pam; Omar, Tanvier; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Allan, Bruce; Schnippel, Kate; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa. There are little of HIV-infected women one-year after screening using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), HPV or cytology in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods HIV-infected women in Johannesburg South Africa were screened one year later by Pap smear, VIA and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Women qualified for the 12 month follow-up visit if they had a negative or cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 results at the baseline visit. Modified Poisson regression was used to analyse associations between patient baseline characteristics and progression. Results A total of 688 of 1,202 enrolled at baseline study who were CIN-2+ negative and qualified for a 12 month follow-up visit. Progression to CIN-2+ was higher in women with positive VIA results (12.6%; 24/191) than those VIA-negative (4.4%; 19/432). HPV-positive women at baseline were more likely to progress to CIN-2+ (12.3%; 36/293) than those HPV-negative (2.1%; 7/329). Cytology-positive women at baseline were more likely to progress to CIN-2+ (9.6%; 37/384) than cytology-negative women (2.5%; 6/237). Approximately 10% (10.4%; 39/376) of women with CIN 1 at baseline progressed to CIN 2+. Women who were VIA or HPV positive at baseline were more likely to progress aIRR 1.85, CI 95% (1.46 to 2.36), aIRR 1.41 CI 95% (1.14 to 1.75) respectively. Conclusion Progression to CIN-2+ in HIV-infected women is significant when measured by baseline positive VIA, HPV or Pap and yearly screening by any method should be considered in this population if possible. PMID:26730710

  6. Sensitivity of individual-donation and minipool nucleic acid amplification test options in detecting window period and occult hepatitis B virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Marion; Coleman, Charl; Mitchel, Josephine; Reddy, Ravi; van Drimmelen, Harry; Ficket, Tracy; Lelie, Nico

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several comparison studies showed that the Ultrio assay (Novartis Diagnostics) used in individual-donation nucleic acid amplification testing (ID-NAT) format was as sensitive as the TaqScreen assay (Roche) on minipools of six donations (MP6), but the sensitivity of HBV DNA detection has been improved in the new Ultrio Plus version of the assay. A head-to-head comparison study was designed to compare the clinical sensitivity of the Ultrio and Ultrio Plus assay in ID, MP4, and MP8 formats using TaqScreen MP6 as a reference assay. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma samples of 107 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative, HBV ID-NAT (Ultrio) positive-yield samples and 29 HBV DNA–negative, HBsAg-positive samples were used for comparison of NAT options in replicate testing of dilutions. Viral loads and relative sensitivities were determined by probit analysis against the Eurohep standard. RESULTS Ultrio Plus detected a significantly (p < 0.00001) higher proportion of replicate assays on HBV NAT yields (77%) than Ultrio ID (62%) and TaqScreen MP6 (47%), whereas Ultrio Plus MP4 and MP8 detected 53 and 41%, respectively. On HBsAg-yield samples missed by Ultrio screening, the reactivity rate increased significantly (p < 0.0001) from 23% in Ultrio to 65% in Ultrio Plus and further to 72% (p = 0.10) in the TaqScreen assay. The overall improvement factor of the analytical sensitivity offered by the target enhancer reagent in the Ultrio Plus assay was 2.5 (2.0–3.1)-fold on the Ultrio yield samples, but 43 (11–350)-fold on the HBsAg yields. In ID-NAT format the analytical sensitivity of TaqScreen relative to Ultrio Plus was 2.0 (1.0–4.2), 0.9 (0.7–1.3), and 1.6 (0.9–3.0) on the Eurohep standard, HBV NAT–, and HBsAg-yield samples respectively. CONCLUSION The clinical sensitivity of the currently available commercial NAT methods is mainly driven by the pool size. PMID:23621791

  7. Formic Acid-Based Direct, On-Plate Testing of Yeast and Corynebacterium Species by Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Theel, Elitza S.; Schmitt, Bryan H.; Hall, Leslie; Cunningham, Scott A.; Walchak, Robert C.; Patel, Robin

    2012-01-01

    An on-plate testing method using formic acid was evaluated on the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry system using 90 yeast and 78 Corynebacterium species isolates, and 95.6 and 81.1% of yeast and 96.1 and 92.3% of Corynebacterium isolates were correctly identified to the genus and species levels, respectively. The on-plate method using formic acid yielded identification percentages similar to those for the conventional but more laborious tube-based extraction. PMID:22760034

  8. Antinociceptive activity of Polygonum hydropiper.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Eva; Goni, S A; Rahman, M T; Ahmed, M

    2002-12-01

    The hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Polygonum hydropiper whole plant administered to mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, showed a significant activity on acetic acid-induced writhing. Within the tested extracts, the ethylacetate one showed the most significant activity.

  9. A chemical test of the principle of critical point universality: The solubility of nickel (II) oxide in isobutyric acid + water near the consolute point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baichuan; Baird, James K.; Richey, Randi D.; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2011-04-01

    A mixture of isobutyric acid + water has an upper consolute point at 38.8 mass % isobutyric acid and temperature near 26 °C. Nickel (II) oxide dissolves in this mixture by reacting with the acid to produce water and nickel isobutyrate. The solubility of nickel (II) oxide in isobutyric acid + water has been measured as a function of temperature at compositions, 25, 38.8, and 60 mass % isobutyric acid. For values of the temperature, T, which were at least 2 K in excess of the liquid-liquid phase transition temperature, the measured values of the solubility, s, lie on a straight line when plotted in van't Hoff form with ln s versus 1/T. The slope, (∂ln s/∂(1/T)), of the line is negative indicating that the dissolution reaction is endothermic. When the temperature was within 2 K of the phase transition temperature, however, (∂ln s/∂(1/T)) diverged toward negative infinity. The principle of critical point universality predicts that when excess solid nickel (II) oxide is in dissolution equilibrium with liquid isobutyric acid + water, (∂ln s/∂(1/T)) should diverge upon approaching the consolute point along the critical isopleth at 38.8 mass % isobutyric acid. As determined by the sign of the enthalpy of solution, the sign of this divergence is expected to be negative. Not only do our experiments confirm these predictions, but they also show that identical behavior can be observed at both 25 and 60 mass % isobustyric acid, compositions which lie substantially to either side of the critical composition.

  10. Analgesic activity of Calotropis gigantea flower.

    PubMed

    Pathak, A K; Argal, A

    2007-01-01

    The alcoholic extract of the flowers of Calotropis gigantea was administered orally and explored for its analgesic activity in chemical and thermal models in mice. In acetic acid induced writhing test, an inhibition of 20.97% and 43.0% in the number of writhes was observed at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. In the hot plate method the paw licking time was delayed. The analgesic effect was observed after 30 min of dose administration which reached its maximum after 90 min.

  11. Development of a functional wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid spongy sheet containing bioactive components: evaluation of wound healing potential in animal tests.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nahoko; Ishida, Daiki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuroyanagi, Misato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) spongy sheet containing bioactive components. The wound dressing prepared by the freeze-drying method has a two-layered structure: an upper layer composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA) and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) containing arginine (Arg), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative: VC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (referred to as EGF-dressing). A wound dressing containing only Arg and VC was prepared in a similar manner (referred to as EGF-free-dressing). The potential of each wound dressing was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and diabetic mice. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the abdominal region of SD rats. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available non-woven alginate wound dressing (Alg-dressing) was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing promoted re-epithelialization. In the second experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the dorsal region of diabetic mice. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available Alg-dressing was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. These findings indicate that EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing have the potential for more effective wound healing when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing has

  12. Development of a functional wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid spongy sheet containing bioactive components: evaluation of wound healing potential in animal tests.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nahoko; Ishida, Daiki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuroyanagi, Misato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) spongy sheet containing bioactive components. The wound dressing prepared by the freeze-drying method has a two-layered structure: an upper layer composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA) and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) containing arginine (Arg), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative: VC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (referred to as EGF-dressing). A wound dressing containing only Arg and VC was prepared in a similar manner (referred to as EGF-free-dressing). The potential of each wound dressing was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and diabetic mice. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the abdominal region of SD rats. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available non-woven alginate wound dressing (Alg-dressing) was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing promoted re-epithelialization. In the second experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the dorsal region of diabetic mice. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available Alg-dressing was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. These findings indicate that EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing have the potential for more effective wound healing when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing has

  13. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract.

  14. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  15. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as “copalchi” in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  16. Test report :

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.

  17. Methotrexate Dosing Regimen for Plaque-type Psoriasis: A Systematic Review of the Use of Test-dose, Start-dose, Dosing Scheme, Dose Adjustments, Maximum Dose and Folic Acid Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Menting, Stef P; Dekker, Paul M; Limpens, Jacqueline; Hooft, Lotty; Spuls, Phyllis I

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of methotrexate dosing regimens for psoriasis. This review summarizes the evidence for test-dose, start-dose, dosing scheme, dose adjustments, maximum dose and use of folic acid. A literature search for randomized controlled trials and guidelines was performed. Twenty-three randomized controlled trials (29 treatment groups) and 10 guidelines were included. Two treatment groups used a test-dose, 5 guidelines recommend it. The methotrexate start-dose in randomized controlled trials varied from 5 to 25 mg/week, most commonly being either 7.5 mg or 15 mg. Guidelines vary from 5 to 15 mg/week. Methotrexate was administered as a single dose or in a Weinstein schedule in 15 and 11 treatment-groups, respectively; both recommended equally in guidelines. A fixed dose (n = 18), predefined dose (n = 3), or dose adjusted on clinical improvement (n = 8) was used, the last also being recommended in guidelines. Ten treatment groups used folic acid; in 2 it was allowed, in 14 not mentioned, and in 3 no folic acid was used. Most guidelines recommend the use of folic acid. Authors' suggestions for methotrexate dosing are given.

  18. Effects of a mixture of fatty acids from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax oil in two models of inflammation: zymosan-induced arthritis and mice tail test of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ledón, N; Casacó, A; Remirez, D; González, A; Cruz, J; González, R; Capote, A; Tolón, Z; Rojas, E; Rodríguez, V J; Merino, N; Rodríguez, S; Ancheta, O; Cano, M C

    2007-10-01

    A mixture of fatty acids obtained from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax oil (FAM), in which the main constituents are palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, was evaluated in two models of inflammation: zymosan-induced arthritis and in the tail test for psoriasis, both on mice. In the first model, FAM significantly reduced zymozan-induced increase of beta glucuronidase (DE(50) 90+/-7 mg/kg). Histopathological studies showed inhibition in cellular infiltration and reduction of synovial hyperplasia and synovitis, whereas in the second test, histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that topical application of FAM induced orthokeratosis with the presence of keratohyalin granules in the previously parakeratotic adult mouse tail, and without effects on epidermal thickness. The ED(50) of FAM in this model was 155+/-10 mg. The results of our studies showed that topical application of FAM exerts an important anti-inflammatory activity in both tests without evidence of irritant effects. The anti-inflamatory effects exerted by FAM may be due to its inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid metabolism. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-inflammatory effect of sugar cane by-products in experimental models of arthritis and psoriasis.

  19. Laboratory studies of Aedes aegypti (L.) attraction to ketones, sulfides and primary chloroalkanes tested alone and in combination with l-lactic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attraction of female Aedes aegypti to single compounds and binary compositions comprised of L-lactic acid and an additional saturated compound from a set of ketones, sulfides, and chloroalkanes was studied using a triple-cage dual-port olfactometer. These chemical classes were studied because o...

  20. Whole body retention of Se-75-homotaurocholic acid (SeBCAT) using a Gamma Camera: A new test in chronic diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, H.; Palma, R.; Pfau, J.; Coudeu, I.; Bauer, K.

    1985-05-01

    Bile acid malabsorption has been recognized as an important cause of chronic diarrhea. Se-75HCAT, a bile acid, is absorbed in the terminal ileum. Therefore, measurement of its body retention indicate ileal function not requiring fecal collections. The authors studied 8 normal volunteers presenting with chronic recurrent diarrhea for more than 2 years. Each received orally a 10 ..mu..Ci capsule of SeHCAT (Amersham Intl.) and 3 hours later anterior and posterior whole body activity was measured using a digital camera without collimator. Measurements were repeated daily for 7 days and expressed as % of retention. Three patients had normal retention (1 celiac disease, 1 inactive Crohn disease and 1 functional diarrhea), another was borderline (an immunodeficiency) and 4 patients presented abnormal bile acid absorption (2 had vagotomy, 1 Crohn disease and 1 idiopathic diarrhea). This last group was treated with cholestyramine showing improvement of the diarrhea, and relapse on drug withdrawal. These findings demonstrate that this technique can identify bile acid malabsorption as the cause of chronic diarrhea by external counting.

  1. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  2. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  3. Blood gases test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... an artery. The test is used to evaluate respiratory diseases and conditions that affect the lungs, and it is used to determine the effectiveness of oxygen therapy. The acid-base component of the test also ...

  4. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  5. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  6. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  7. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  8. Pharmacology of a new non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory agent: 6,11-dihydro-11-oxodibenz [b, e] oxepin-2-acetic acid (HP 549).

    PubMed

    Lassman, H B; Kirby, R E; Wilker, J C; Mc Fadden, A R; Aultz, D E; Hoffman, D; Helsley, G C; Novick, W J

    1977-05-01

    HP 549 is an orally effective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with moderate analgesic and antipyretic activity. It is active in adjuvant-induced polyarthritis when given prophylactically or therapeutically. HP 549 also inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema in the rat, an activity which is not altered by adrenalectomy. The analgesic activity of HP 549 was demonstrated in phenylquinone writhing. However, HP 549 produced variable results in the Randall-Selitto analgesia test. The anti-pyretic activity of HP 549 appears to be weak. HP 549, unlike other pharmacologically active anti-inflammatory drugs, does not produce gastric irritation at effective doses and is 45 times less ulcerogenic than indomethacin. Also the acute therapeutic indices for HP 549 are more favorable than for indomethacin. PMID:901062

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid deficient male rats exhibit abnormal behavioral activation in the forced swim test following chronic fluoxetine treatment: association with altered 5-HT1A and alpha2A adrenergic receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K

    2014-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n = 34) or without (DEF, n = 30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n = 14) and DEF (n = 12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-26%, p = 0.0001) and DEF + FLX (-32%, p = 0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF + FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON + FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF + FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF + FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON + FLX rats. DEF + FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats.

  10. Use of a gamma-labeled bile acid (75SeHCAT) as a test of ileal function. Methods of improving accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, R.; Jazrawi, R.; Bridges, C.; Northfield, T.C.

    1986-05-01

    The object of the present study was to improve the accuracy of measurements of ileal function obtained by abdominal scanning and fecal counting after oral administration of the gamma-labeled bile acid 75seleno-homocholic acid-taurine (75SeHCAT), as current techniques do not distinguish between retention of the bile acid within the enterohepatic circulation from retention within the colon, and are also affected by incomplete stool collection when using the fecal method. We have therefore introduced the following modifications: (a) simultaneous ingestion of 51CrCl3 as a nonabsorbable correction marker for both the abdominal scanning and fecal counting methods; and (b) the use of 75SeHCAT counts over the gallbladder area on abdominal scanning, because these counts should be independent of colonic retention. We have studied 42 subjects, including 6 healthy controls, 6 ileal resection subjects, 15 ulcerative colitis patients, and 15 patients with unresected ileal Crohn's disease. Colonic retention (0%-68% per day) caused a variable overestimate of 75SeHCAT absorption. Corrected measurements of the fecal absorption index determined by a gamma-counter and of the abdominal absorption coefficient determined by a gamma-camera correlated well with each other (r = 0.92, p less than 0.0001), providing an internal validation of the 51CrCl3 modification. The fecal absorption index could also be determined from the carmine-rich stool collection of a single day, and this also correlated well with the abdominal absorption coefficient (r = 0.81, p less than 0.0001). Gallbladder scanning alone was simpler, involving only one isotope, but it correlated less well with the fecal absorption index than did the abdominal absorption coefficient (r = -0.64, p less than 0.001).

  11. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant operating parameters. (1) During the performance test...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant operating parameters. (1) During the performance test...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  16. A Facile Approach for the Mass Production of Submicro/Micro Poly (Lactic Acid) Fibrous Mats and Their Cytotoxicity Test towards Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite many of the studies being conducted, the electrospinning of poly (lactic acid) (PLA), dissolved in its common solvents, is difficult to be continuously processed for mass production. This is due to the polymer solution droplet drying. Besides, the poor stretching capability of the polymer solution limits the production of small diameter fibers. To address these issues, we have examined the two following objectives: first, using an appropriate solvent system for the mass production of fibrous mats with fine-tunable fiber diameters; second, nontoxicity of the mats towards Neural Stem Cell (NSC). To this aim, TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) was used as a cosolvent, in a mixture with DCM (dichloromethane), and the solution viscosity, surface tension, electrical conductivity, and the continuity of the electrospinning process were compared with the solutions prepared with common single solvents. The binary solvent facilitated PLA electrospinning, resulting in a long lasting, stable electrospinning condition, due to the low surface tension and high conductivity of the binary-solvent system. The fiber diameter was tailored from nano to micro by varying effective parameters and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image-processing software. Laminin-coated electrospun mats supported NSC expansion and spreading, as examined using AlamarBlue assay and fluorescent microscopy, respectively.

  17. A Facile Approach for the Mass Production of Submicro/Micro Poly (Lactic Acid) Fibrous Mats and Their Cytotoxicity Test towards Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite many of the studies being conducted, the electrospinning of poly (lactic acid) (PLA), dissolved in its common solvents, is difficult to be continuously processed for mass production. This is due to the polymer solution droplet drying. Besides, the poor stretching capability of the polymer solution limits the production of small diameter fibers. To address these issues, we have examined the two following objectives: first, using an appropriate solvent system for the mass production of fibrous mats with fine-tunable fiber diameters; second, nontoxicity of the mats towards Neural Stem Cell (NSC). To this aim, TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) was used as a cosolvent, in a mixture with DCM (dichloromethane), and the solution viscosity, surface tension, electrical conductivity, and the continuity of the electrospinning process were compared with the solutions prepared with common single solvents. The binary solvent facilitated PLA electrospinning, resulting in a long lasting, stable electrospinning condition, due to the low surface tension and high conductivity of the binary-solvent system. The fiber diameter was tailored from nano to micro by varying effective parameters and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image-processing software. Laminin-coated electrospun mats supported NSC expansion and spreading, as examined using AlamarBlue assay and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. PMID:27699177

  18. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  19. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report has four parts: they discuss acid rain in relation to acid soils, agriculture, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Among findings: modern sources of acid deposition from the atmosphere for all the acid soils in the world, nor even chiefly responsible for those of northern U.S. Agriculture has its problems, but acid precipitation is probably not one of them. More research is needed to determine to what extent acid precipitation is responsible for forest declines and for smaller detrimental effects on forest growth where no damage to the foliage is evident. Many lakes and streams are extremely sensitive to added acids.

  20. CRADA Final Report For CRADA NO. CR-12-006 [Operation and Testing of an SO{sub 2}-depolarized Electrolyzer (SDE) for the Purpose of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid Production

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, W. A.; Colon-Mercado, H. R.; Steimke, J. L.; Zahn, Steffen

    2014-02-24

    Over the past several years, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has led a team of collaborators under the Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear hydrogen production program to develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process. HyS is a 2-step water-splitting process consisting of high temperature decomposition of sulfuric acid to generate SO{sub 2}, followed by the electrolysis of aqueous SO{sub 2} to generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid. The latter is fed back into the high temperature reactor. SRNL designed and built an SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) and a test facility. Over 40 SDE’s were tested using different catalysts, membranes and other components. SRNL demonstrated that an SDE could be operated continuously for approximately 200 hours under certain conditions without buildup of sulfur at the SDE’s cathode, thus solving a key technical problem with SDE technology. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) is a major supplier of hydrogen production systems, and they have proprietary technology that could benefit from the SDE developed by SRNS, or some improved version thereof. However, to demonstrate that SRNL’s SDE is a truly viable approach to the electrolyzer design, continuous operation for far greater periods of time than 200 hours must be demonstrated, and the electrolyzer must be scaled up to greater hydrogen production capacities. SRNL and Air Products entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the objective of demonstrating the effectiveness of the SDE for hydrogen and sulfuric acid production and to demonstrate long-term continuous operation so as to dramatically increase the confidence in the SDE design for commercial operation. SRNL prepared a detailed technical report documenting previous SDE development, including the current SDE design and operating conditions that led to the 200-hour sulfurfree testing. SRNL refurbished its single cell SDE test facility and qualified the equipment for continuous operation. A

  1. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  2. Test report :

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

  3. Test report :

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Princeton Power Systems has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lithium ion phosphate batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Princeton Power Systems Prototype Energy Storage System.

  4. Test Report :

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, MECHANICAL TESTING, AND GEL MORPHOLOGY STUDY OF PHOSPHORIC ACID-DOPED META-POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES VIA CONVENTIONALLY IMBIBING AND THE SOL-GEL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Kelly A; More, Karren Leslie; Benicewicz, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) research has been directed at phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes since the 1990s. PEM fuel cells based on PA-doped PBI membranes produced via a sol-gel transition process have achieved lifetimes >10,000hrs with low degradation rates. It has been suggested that the gel morphology of the PA-doped PBI membranes is responsible for their excellent electrochemical performance. Thus, a study has been underway to characterize the microstructure of PA-doped PBI membranes, and to correlate structure with performance. However, PA-doped PBI membranes present special challenges for microscopy analysis, as these membranes are extremely sensitive to the electron beam and high vacuum conditions. This paper will discuss and compare the mechanical, electrochemical, and cryo-SEM analyses of PA-doped meta-PBI membranes produced via conventional imbibing and the sol-gel process.

  6. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  7. Detection of the change point in oxygen uptake during an incremental exercise test using recursive residuals: relationship to the plasma lactate accumulation and blood acid base balance.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, J A; Szkutnik, Z; Majerczak, J; Duda, K

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to determine the power output at which oxygen uptake (VO2) during an incremental exercise test begins to rise non-linearly. A group of 26 healthy non-smoking men [mean age 22.1 (SD 1.4) years, body mass 73.6 (SD 7.4) kg, height 179.4 (SD 7.5) cm, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 3.726 (SD 0.363) l x min(-1)], experienced in laboratory tests, were the subjects in this study. They performed an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer at a pedalling rate of 70 rev x min(-1). The test started at a power output of 30 W, followed by increases amounting to 30 W every 3 min. At 5 min prior to the first exercise intensity, at the end of each stage of exercise protocol, blood samples (1 ml each) were taken from an antecubital vein. The samples were analysed for plasma lactate concentration [La]pl, partial pressure of O2 and CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration [H+]b. The lactate threshold (LT) in this study was defined as the highest power output above which [La-]pl showed a sustained increase of more than 0.5 mmol x l(-1) x step(-1). The VO2 was measured breath-by-breath. In the analysis of the change point (CP) of VO2 during the incremental exercise test, a two-phase model was assumed for the 3rd-min-data of each step of the test: Xi = at(i) + b + epsilon(i) for i = 1,2, ..., T, and E(Xi) > at(i) + b for i = T + 1, ..., n, where X1, ..., Xn are independent and epsilon(i) approximately N(0, sigma2). In the first phase, a linear relationship between VO2 and power output was assumed, whereas in the second phase an additional increase in VO2 above the values expected from the linear model was allowed. The power output at which the first phase ended was called the change point in oxygen uptake (CP-VO2). The identification of the model consisted of two steps: testing for the existence of CP and estimating its location. Both procedures were based on suitably normalised recursive residuals. We showed that in 25 out of 26 subjects

  8. Particle phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater--Using humic acid and iron nano-sized colloids as test particles.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Katrine; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Baun, Anders; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-11-01

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different particulate fractions in stormwater: Total, Particulate, Filtrated, Colloidal and Dissolved fractions, were examined and compared to synthetic suspensions of humic acid colloids and iron nano-sized particles. The distribution of low-molecular weight PAHs (LMW PAHs), middle-molecular weight PAHs (MMW PAHs) and high-molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) among the fractions was also evaluated. The results from the synthetic suspensions showed that the highest concentrations of the PAHs were found in the Filtrated fractions and, surprisingly, high loads were found in the Dissolved fractions. The PAHs identified in stormwater in the Particulate fractions and Dissolved fractions follow their hydrophobic properties. In most samples >50% of the HMW PAHs were found in the Particulate fractions, while the LMW and MMW PAHs were found to a higher extent in the Filtrated fractions. The highest concentrations of PAHs were present in the stormwater with the highest total suspended solids (TSS); the relative amount of the HMW PAHs was highest in the Particulate fractions (particles>0.7 μm). The highest concentration of PAHs in the Colloidal fraction was found in the sample with occurrence of small nano-sized particles (<10nm). The results show the importance of developing technologies that both can manage particulate matter and effectively remove PAHs present in the Colloidal and Dissolved fractions in stormwater.

  9. Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

    2013-01-01

    This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 μg L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 μg L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater.

  10. Clostridium difficile testing algorithms using glutamate dehydrogenase antigen and C. difficile toxin enzyme immunoassays with C. difficile nucleic acid amplification testing increase diagnostic yield in a tertiary pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kaede V; McGowan, Karin L

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of the rapid C. diff Quik Chek Complete's glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (GDH) and toxin A/B (CDT) tests in two algorithmic approaches for a tertiary pediatric population: algorithm 1 entailed initial testing with GDH/CDT followed by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and algorithm 2 entailed GDH/CDT followed by cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) for adjudication of discrepant GDH-positive/CDT-negative results. A true positive (TP) was defined as positivity by CCNA or positivity by LAMP plus another test (GDH, CDT, or the Premier C. difficile toxin A and B enzyme immunoassay [P-EIA]). A total of 141 specimens from 141 patients yielded 27 TPs and 19% prevalence. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 56%, 100%, 100%, and 90% for P-EIA and 81%, 100%, 100%, and 96% for both algorithm 1 and algorithm 2. In summary, GDH-based algorithms detected C. difficile infections with superior sensitivity compared to P-EIA. The algorithms allowed immediate reporting of half of all TPs, but LAMP or CCNA was required to confirm the presence or absence of toxigenic C. difficile in GDH-positive/CDT-negative specimens.

  11. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  12. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  13. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  14. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  15. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  16. Versatile enzyme expression and characterization system for Aspergillus nidulans, with the Penicillium brevicompactum polyketide synthase gene from the mycophenolic acid gene cluster as a test case.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjarne G; Salomonsen, Bo; Nielsen, Morten T; Nielsen, Jakob B; Hansen, Niels B; Nielsen, Kristian F; Regueira, Torsten B; Nielsen, Jens; Patil, Kiran R; Mortensen, Uffe H

    2011-05-01

    Assigning functions to newly discovered genes constitutes one of the major challenges en route to fully exploiting the data becoming available from the genome sequencing initiatives. Heterologous expression in an appropriate host is central in functional genomics studies. In this context, filamentous fungi offer many advantages over bacterial and yeast systems. To facilitate the use of filamentous fungi in functional genomics, we present a versatile cloning system that allows a gene of interest to be expressed from a defined genomic location of Aspergillus nidulans. By a single USER cloning step, genes are easily inserted into a combined targeting-expression cassette ready for rapid integration and analysis. The system comprises a vector set that allows genes to be expressed either from the constitutive PgpdA promoter or from the inducible PalcA promoter. Moreover, by using the vector set, protein variants can easily be made and expressed from the same locus, which is mandatory for proper comparative analyses. Lastly, all individual elements of the vectors can easily be substituted for other similar elements, ensuring the flexibility of the system. We have demonstrated the potential of the system by transferring the 7,745-bp large mpaC gene from Penicillium brevicompactum to A. nidulans. In parallel, we produced defined mutant derivatives of mpaC, and the combined analysis of A. nidulans strains expressing mpaC or mutated mpaC genes unequivocally demonstrated that mpaC indeed encodes a polyketide synthase that produces the first intermediate in the production of the medically important immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid. PMID:21398493

  17. A method of preserving and testing the acceptability of gac fruit oil, a good source of beta-carotene and essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vuong, L T; King, J C

    2003-06-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is indigenous to Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia. Its seed pulp contains high concentrations of carotenoids, especially the provitamin A, beta-carotene. In northern Vietnam, gac fruits are seasonal and are mainly used in making a rice dish called xoi gac. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to collect and preserve gac fruit oil, to evaluate the nutritional composition of the oil, and to assess the acceptability of the gac oil by typical Vietnamese homemakers. One hundred women participated in training to learn how to prepare the fruits and operate the oil press. The women also participated in a survey of gac fruit use and their habitual use of animal fat and vegetable oil. Among all the participants in the training and surveys, 35 women actually produced oil from gac fruits grown in the village, using manual oil presses and locally available materials. The total carotene concentration in gac fruit oil was 5,700 micrograms/ml. The concentration of beta-carotene was 2,710 micrograms/ml. Sixty-nine percent of total fat was unsaturated, and 35% of that was polyunsaturated. The average daily consumption of gac fruit oil was estimated at 2 ml per person. The daily beta-carotene intake (from gac fruit oil) averaged approximately 5 mg per person. It was found that gac oil can be produced locally by village women using manual presses and locally available materials. The oil is a rich source of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and essential fatty acids. Although the beta-carotene concentration declines with time without a preservative or proper storage, it was still high after three months. The oil was readily accepted by the women and their children, and consumption of the oil increased the intake of beta-carotene and reduced the intake of lard. PMID:12891827

  18. A method of preserving and testing the acceptability of gac fruit oil, a good source of beta-carotene and essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vuong, L T; King, J C

    2003-06-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is indigenous to Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia. Its seed pulp contains high concentrations of carotenoids, especially the provitamin A, beta-carotene. In northern Vietnam, gac fruits are seasonal and are mainly used in making a rice dish called xoi gac. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to collect and preserve gac fruit oil, to evaluate the nutritional composition of the oil, and to assess the acceptability of the gac oil by typical Vietnamese homemakers. One hundred women participated in training to learn how to prepare the fruits and operate the oil press. The women also participated in a survey of gac fruit use and their habitual use of animal fat and vegetable oil. Among all the participants in the training and surveys, 35 women actually produced oil from gac fruits grown in the village, using manual oil presses and locally available materials. The total carotene concentration in gac fruit oil was 5,700 micrograms/ml. The concentration of beta-carotene was 2,710 micrograms/ml. Sixty-nine percent of total fat was unsaturated, and 35% of that was polyunsaturated. The average daily consumption of gac fruit oil was estimated at 2 ml per person. The daily beta-carotene intake (from gac fruit oil) averaged approximately 5 mg per person. It was found that gac oil can be produced locally by village women using manual presses and locally available materials. The oil is a rich source of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and essential fatty acids. Although the beta-carotene concentration declines with time without a preservative or proper storage, it was still high after three months. The oil was readily accepted by the women and their children, and consumption of the oil increased the intake of beta-carotene and reduced the intake of lard.

  19. Time-Motion Analysis of Four Automated Systems for the Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing.

    PubMed

    Williams, James A; Eddleman, Laura; Pantone, Amy; Martinez, Regina; Young, Stephen; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Next-generation diagnostics for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are available on semi- or fully-automated platforms. These systems require less hands-on time than older platforms and are user friendly. Four automated systems, the ABBOTT m2000 system, Becton Dickinson Viper System with XTR Technology, Gen-Probe Tigris DTS system, and Roche cobas 4800 system, were evaluated for total run time, hands-on time, and walk-away time. All of the systems evaluated in this time-motion study were able to complete a diagnostic test run within an 8-h work shift, instrument setup and operation were straightforward and uncomplicated, and walk-away time ranged from approximately 90 to 270 min in a head-to-head comparison of each system. All of the automated systems provide technical staff with increased time to perform other tasks during the run, offer easy expansion of the diagnostic test menu, and have the ability to increase specimen throughput. PMID:24196751

  20. [Analgesic properties of morpholinoethylimidazobenzimidazole derivative RU-1205].

    PubMed

    Spasov, A A; Grechko, O Iu; Shtareva, D M; Anisimova, V A

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the analgesic activity of a morpholinoethylimidazobenzimidazole derivative (RU-1205) in comparison to butorphanol. It is established that the test compound exhibits a pronounced analgesic activity, which exceeded that ofbutorphanol six times in the hot-plate test and was comparable to the reference drug effect in the tail-flick and acetic acid-induced writhing tests. It is established that the analgesic action of RU-1205 is based on the kappa-opioidergic mechanism. PMID:24432563

  1. Be an acid rain detective

    SciTech Connect

    Atwill, L.

    1982-07-01

    Acid rain is discussed in a question and answer format. The article is aimed at educating sport fishermen on the subject, and also to encourage them to write their congressmen, senators, and the President about the acid rain problem. The article also announces the availability of an acid rain test kit available through the magazine, ''Sports Afield.'' The kit consists of pH-test paper that turns different shades of pink and blue according to the pH of the water tested. The color of the test paper is then compared to a color chart furnished in the kit and an approximate pH can be determined.

  2. Bile acids but not acidic acids induce Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiao; Gai, Zhibo; Song, Xiaoming; Jia, Xinyong; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Bile acids (BAs) refluxing into the esophagus contribute to esophageal injury, which results in BE and subsequent EAC. We developed two animal models to test the role of BAs in the pathogenesis of BE. We surgically generated BA reflux, with or without gastric acid, in rats. In a second experiment, we fed animals separately with BAs and gastric acid. Pathologic changes were examined and the expression of Muc2 and Cdx2 in BE tissue was tested by immunostaining. Inflammatory factors in the plasma, as well as differentiation genes in BE were examined through highly sensitive ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR techniques. We found that BAs are sufficient for the induction of esophagitis and Barrett's-like metaplasia in the esophagus. Overexpression of inflammatory cells, IL-6, and TNF-α was observed both in animals fed with BAs and surgically generated BA reflux. Furthermore, elevated levels of Cdx2, Muc2, Bmp4, Kit19, and Tff2 (differentiation genes in BE) were found in BA-treated rats. In conclusion, BAs, but not gastric acid, are a major causative factor for BE. We confirmed that BAs contribute to the development of BE by inducing the inflammatory response in the esophagus. Inhibiting BAs may be a promising therapy for BE.

  3. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  4. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  5. Simultaneous analysis of several antiretroviral nucleosides in rat-plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV using acetic acid/hydroxylamine buffer Test of this new volatile medium-pH for HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bezy, Vincent; Morin, Philippe; Couerbe, Philippe; Leleu, Ghislaine; Agrofoglio, Luigi

    2005-07-25

    Zalcitabine (ddC), lamivudine (3TC), didanosine (ddI), stavudine (d4T), carbovir (CBV), zidovudine (AZT), tenofovir (PMPA) and its administrated form (tenofovir diisoproxyl fumarate, TDF), are nucleosides currently approved in HIV therapy. To facilitate pharmacokinetics studies, a specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for their analysis in rat plasma. The method involved a quantitative recovery of these drugs from rat plasma by solid-phase extraction on Oasis HLB Waters cartridges followed by optimised HPLC separation on an Atlantis dC18 column with acetic acid-hydroxylamine buffer (ionic strength 5mM, pH 7)-acetonitrile elution gradient. Quantitation was performed by HPLC/UV at 260 nm. Linear calibration curves were obtained within a 30-10,000 ng/mL plasma concentration range. Correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.992 were obtained by least-squares regression and limits of quantification were in 30-90 ng/mL concentration range. Quantitative parameters (accuracy, intra-day repeatability and inter-day reproducibility) yielded satisfactory results. Finally, a new buffer, obtained with acetic acid and hydroxylamine, has been tested in HPLC/ESI-MS/MS and appears to be an efficient volatile buffer in the medium 5-7 pH range. Indeed, at pH 7 and low ionic strength (5 mM), its buffer capacity is one hundred times higher to that obtained for the usual acetic acid/ammonia buffer.

  6. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract from Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Its Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Rodrigo; Nascimento, Marcus Vinícius Mariano; de Carvalho, Adryano Augustto Valladão; Valadares, Marize Campos; de Paula, José Realino; Costa, Elson Alves; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Synadenium umbellatum Pax., popularly known in Brazil as “cola-nota,” “avelós,” “cancerola,” and “milagrosa”, is a plant species used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and several diseases. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract from Synadenium umbellatum Pax. leaves (EES) and its hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), and methanol/water (MF) fractions using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, formalin-induced paw licking test, tail flick test, croton oil-induced ear edema test, and carrageenan-induced peritonitis test. EES and MF reduced the number of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, while CF and HF did not. EES effect on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing was reversed with a pretreatment with naloxone. EES reduced licking time in both phases of the formalin-induced paw licking test, but did not prolong the latency in the tail flick test. These results show that EES presented antinociceptive activity, probably involving the opioid system, anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema test, and leukocyte migration into the intraperitoneal cavity. MF also presented anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema test. In conclusion, EES and MF have antinociceptive activity involving the opioid system and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23401717

  7. Suppression of the SOS-inducing activity of Trp-P-1 and aflatoxin B1 by meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid from Machilus thunbergii in the Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 umu test.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Okuno, Y; Oshiro, K; Kasahara, H; Shimamura, H; Nakamura, S; Kameoka, H

    1998-07-01

    The methanol extract from Machilus thunbergii showed a suppressive effect on umu gene expression of the SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 against the mutagen, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), which requires liver metabolizing enzymes. The methanol extract from M. thunbergii was successively re-extracted with chloroform, butanol and water. A suppressive compound in the chloroform extract fraction was isolated by SiO2 column chromatography and identified as meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid by GC-MS, and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid inhibited of the SOS-inducing activity of Trp-P-1 in the umu test. Gene expression was suppressed by 62% at less than 0.18 mumol/ml, the ID50 value being 0.08 mumol/ml. Compound 1 was also assayed with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) and showed a suppressive effect. PMID:9720227

  8. Antinociceptive activity of Astragalus gummifer gum (gum tragacanth) through the adrenergic system: A in vivo study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Keyhani, Leila; Heydari, Mehrangiz; Dashti-R, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, gum obtained from Astragalus gummifer and some other species of Astragalus was used as analgesic agent. Objective: In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of several concentrations (125, 250, and 500 μg/kg body weight) of Astragalus gummifer gum (AGG) on thermal and acetic acid induced pain in mice. Materials and Methods: AGG was dissolved in distillated water and injected i.p to male mice 15 minute before the onset of experiment. Writhing and hot-plate tests were applied to study the analgesic effect of AGG and compared with that of diclofenac sodium (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (8 mg/kg, i.p). To investigate the mechanisms involved in antinociception, yohimbine, naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline were used in writhing test. These drugs were injected intraperitoneally 15 min before the administration of AGG. The number of writhes were counted in 30 minutes and analyzed. Results: AGG exhibited a significant antinociceptive effect and the most effective dose of AGG was 500 μg/kg. The most maximum possible effect (%MPE) was observed (117.4%) 15 min after drug administration. The %inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in AGG 125, 250 and 500 was 47%, 50% and 54% vs %15 of control and 66.3% of diclofenac sodium group. The antinociceptive effect induced by this gum in the writhing test was reversed by the systemic administration of yohimbine (α2-adrenergic antagonist), but naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline did not reverse this effect. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that AGG induced its antinociceptive through the adrenergic system. PMID:25878459

  9. Injections of the NMDA-antagonist D-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP-7) into the nucleus accumbens of rats enhance switching between cue-directed behaviours in a swimming test procedure.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, R; Charria Ortiz, G A; Cools, A R

    1992-06-01

    The present study explores the behavioural effects of intra-accumbens injections of D-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP-7), a selective competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, using a swimming test procedure, in which rats were forced to swim for 6 min. The behaviour of the rats was analysed in terms of cue-directed (CDBs) and non-cue-directed behaviours (NCDBs). AP-7 (100-500 ng/0.5 microliter) dose-dependently enhanced the number of switches to CDBs, without affecting the number of switches to NCDBs. Further analysis of the data showed that the number of switches between CDBs was enhanced, while no effect was found on the number of switches from NCDBs to CDBs, from CDBs to NCDBs or between NCDBs. These data suggest that the NMDA-receptor in the nucleus accumbens is involved in the ability to switch between cue-directed behaviours.

  10. The pharmacological profile of 2-(8-methyl-10,11-dihydro-11-oxodibenz[b,f]oxepin-2-yl)propionic acid (AD-1590), a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with potent antipyretic activity.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Yokoyama, Y; Motoyoshi, S; Ishii, K; Imazu, C; Seto, Y; Kadokawa, T; Shimizu, M

    1983-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and gastrointestinal ulcerogenic activities of 2-(8-methyl-10,11-dihydro-11-oxodibenz(b,f]oxepin-2-yl)propionic acid (AD-1590), a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, were compared with indomethacin (INN: indomethacin) and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in experimental animals. AD-1590 showed the potent inhibitory activity on acute and subacute inflammation such as carrageenin hind paw edema (oral ED50 = 1.35 mg/kg), acetic acid-induced increased vascular permeability (0.205 mg/kg), UV-erythema (0.295 mg/kg) and felt pellet-induced granuloma formation (1.7 mg/kg), and its potency was on the whole 2 to 3 times that of indomethacin. Oral analgesic ED50-values of AD-1590 were 0.245, 8.32 and 13.9 mg/kg in the writhing tests, and 2.45 mg/kg in the silver nitrate-induced arthritic pain test. Analgesic potency of AD-1590 was on the whole comparable to that of indomethacin. Against the pyrexia caused by two kinds of pyrogens (yeast and adjuvant), AD-1590 exerted a strong antipyretic action at oral doses as low as 0.02 to 0.1 mg/kg, and its potency (ED50 equal 0.0210 and 0.0406 mg/kg) was 8.7 to 11 times that of indomethacin. , AD-1590 displayed the antipyretic activity at low doses which were widely different from its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effective dose. The body temperature was not affected by 20 mg/kg p.o. of AD-1590 in the afebrile animals. AD-1590 was the strongest antipyretic drug among 10 NSAID tested. In rats, AD-1590 produced gastrointestinal ulcer similar to indomethacin, and its gastric ulcerogenicity (SUD50 equal 13.8 mg/kg p.o.) was about one-half that of indomethacin. The activity of AD-1590 in the fecal occult bleeding test in beagle dogs was weaker than that of indomethacin. The potency of AD-1590 (IC50 equal 0.78 mumol/l) as a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor was about 2.7 times that of indomethacin in the in vitro test. The safety index (SUD50/ED50) of AD-1590 was larger than

  11. Detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera by a Dot-ELISA using acid extracts from c. fetus ssp. fetus and c. jejuni strains and comparison with a complement fixation test.

    PubMed

    Gürtürk, K; Ekin, I H; Aksakal, A; Solmaz, H

    2002-04-01

    In this study, a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA) was evaluated in comparison with a complement fixation test (CFT) for the detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera. Acid glycine extracts (AGE) of both Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains that had been isolated from the gall-bladder of slaughtered sheep was used as antigen in both tests. A total of 153 sheep sera from aborted (74) and slaughtered (79) sheep were examined by both Dot-ELISA and CFT. Twenty-two sera showed anti-complementary activity were not suitable for CFT. Of the 22 sera showing anti-complementary activity, two sera were found to be positive in Dot-ELISA. Eighty-eight (67.2%) of the remaining 131 sera were negative by both Dot-ELISA and CFT using AGE of both Campylobacter strains whereas 43 sera (32.8%) gave different reaction patterns in Dot-ELISA and CFT with the extracts of both Campylobacter strains. Twelve sera were positive by both tests using AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus but CFT failed to detect antibodies in nine of these sera when AGE of C. jejuni was used. Twelve sera were positive by both tests only when AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus was used. Eleven sera were positive only by CFT. Seven of these reacted only with the AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus and four sera were positive by using AGE of both Campylobacter strains. The remaining eight sera were found to be positive only by dot-immunobinding assay either with the AGE of both Campylobacter strains or with the AGE of one of the Campylobacter strains. It is concluded that Dot-ELISA using AGE from C. fetus ssp. fetus could be employed for the detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera and the additional use of AGE from C. jejuni as antigen appeared not to be profitable for this purpose.

  12. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as soybeans, garbanzo beans, and lentils Peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds Animal ...

  13. Effects of ginsenosides on opioid-induced hyperalgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Tang, Minke; Li, Hui; Huang, Xinjie; Chen, Lei; Zhai, Haifeng

    2014-07-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is characterized by nociceptive sensitization caused by the cessation of chronic opioid use. OIH can limit the clinical use of opioid analgesics and complicate withdrawal from opioid addiction. In this study, we investigated the effects of Re, Rg1, and Rb1 ginsenosides, the bioactive components of ginseng, on OIH. OIH was achieved in mice after subcutaneous administration of morphine for 7 consecutive days three times per day. During withdrawal (days 8 and 9), these mice were administered Re, Rg1, or Rb1 intragastrically two times per day. On the test day (day 10), mice were subjected to the thermal sensitivity test and the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Re (300 mg/kg) inhibited OIH in both the thermal sensitivity test and the acetic acid-induced writhing test. However, the Rg1 and Rb1 ginsenosides failed to prevent OIH in either test. Furthermore, Rg1 showed a tendency to aggravate OIH in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Our data suggested that the ginsenoside Re, but not Rg1 or Rb1, may contribute toward reversal of OIH.

  14. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René

    2008-11-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK(a1) value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO(2) reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH

  15. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  16. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  17. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  18. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pK(a) of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pK(a) of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pK(a) units stronger and about 1 pK(a) unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  19. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  20. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  1. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

  2. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  3. Treatment of Bile Acid Amidation Defects with Glycocholic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Heubi, James E.; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Jha, Pinky; Buckley, Donna; Zhang, Wujuan; Rosenthal, Philip; Potter, Carol; Horslen, Simon; Suskind, David

    2014-01-01

    Bile acid amidation defects were predicted to present with fat/fat soluble vitamin malabsorption with minimal cholestasis. We identified and treated 5 patients (1 male/4 females) from 4 families with defective bile acid amidation due to a genetically confirmed deficiency in bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyl transferase (BAAT) with the conjugated bile acid, glycocholic acid (GCA). Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis of urine and bile at baseline revealed predominantly unconjugated cholic acid and absence of the usual glycine and taurine conjugated primary bile acids. Treatment with 15 mg/kg GCA resulted in total duodenal bile acid concentrations of 23.3 ± 19.1 mmol/L (mean ± SD) and 63.5 ± 4.0% of the bile acids were secreted in bile in the conjugated form of which GCA represented 59.6 ± 9.3% of the total biliary bile acids. Unconjugated cholic acid continued to be present in high concentrations in bile because of partial intestinal deconjugation of orally administered GCA. Serum total bile acid concentrations did not significantly differ between pretreatment and post-treatment samples and serum contained predominantly unconjugated cholic acid. These findings confirmed efficient intestinal absorption, hepatic extraction and biliary secretion of the administered GCA. Oral tolerance tests for vitamin D2 (1000 IU vitamin D2/kg) and tocopherol (100 IU/kg tocopherol acetate) demonstrated improvement in fat-soluble vitamin absorption after GCA treatment. Growth improved in 3/3 growth-delayed prepubertal patients. Conclusions: Oral glycocholic acid therapy is safe and effective in improving growth and fat-soluble vitamin absorption in children and adolescents with inborn errors of bile acid metabolism due to amidation defects. PMID:25163551

  4. Rapid detection of Gram-positive organisms by use of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test and the BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN system in a multicenter pediatric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, K V; Turner, N N; Roundtree, S S; Young, S; Brock-Haag, C A; Lacey, D; Abuzaid, S; Blecker-Shelly, D L; Doern, C D

    2013-11-01

    Assays that expedite the reporting of organism identification and antibiotic susceptibility status in positive blood cultures can fast track interventions that improve clinical outcomes. We evaluated the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test (BC-GP) in two pediatric hospitals. Positive BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN blood cultures with Gram-positive organisms were tested using the BC-GP in tandem with routine laboratory procedures. To test organisms underrepresented in the clinical blood culture evaluation, blood culture bottles were spiked with diluted organism suspensions at concentrations of 10 to 100 CFU per milliliter. A total of 249 Gram-positive bacterial isolates were recovered from 242 blood cultures. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with sensitivities of 100%, 99%, and 100% and specificities of 100%, 100%, and 99.5%, respectively. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis with sensitivities of 95%, 80%, and 96%, respectively, and 100% specificity. The BC-GP correctly identified 14/15 cases of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium bacteremia and 9 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae. It misidentified 5/15 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus mitis/Streptococcus oralis and 1/3 blood cultures spiked with Streptococcus anginosus group as S. pneumoniae. The BC-GP detected a case of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia but failed to detect 2/3 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus agalactiae. BC-GP's rapid accurate detection of Staphylococcus spp., E. faecium, and E. faecalis and its ability to ascertain mecA, vanA, and vanB status may expedite clinical decisions pertaining to optimal antibiotic use. False-positive S. pneumoniae results may warrant reporting of only "Streptococcus spp." when this organism is reported by the BC-GP.

  5. The anti-nociceptive potential of tilmicosin against chemical-induced but not thermal-induced pain in mice.

    PubMed

    El-Mahmoudy, A; Gheith, I

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic activity of the macrolide antibiotic tilmicosin at dose levels of 20 and 40 mg/kg of body weight, subcutaneously, against chemical- and thermal-induced acute pains, using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced pain, hot-plate, and tail-flick models in mice. Tilmicosin showed a dose-dependent significant decrease in the number of writhes in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and significant decrease in hind paw-licking time in the late phase of the formalin test. However, it did not cause any significant changes in the reaction times to heat stimuli in the hot-plate and tail-flick models. In chemically-induced pains, both dose levels of tilmicosin showed significant effects compared to those of the corresponding standard peripheral analgesic, acetylsalicylic acid (200 mg/kg of body weight, subcutaneously) being 26.37±2.88 and 43.64±3.85% vs. 73.35±1.44% in acetic acid test; and 19.23±3.85 and 44.90±1.80% vs. 73.63±2.39% in the late phase of formalin test, respectively. These results may indicate that tilmicosin possesses a significant peripheral but not central analgesic potential that may be beneficial in symptomatic relief of pain when it is used in therapy, in addition to its well-established antibacterial effect.

  6. "Stratifiability index" - A quantitative assessment of acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Ebner, Ellen; Börger, Alexander; Gose, Sven; Wenzl, Heinz

    2014-12-01

    A methodology is presented to quantify acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries and compare different types of batteries regardless of their design features and size by means of the proposed "stratifiability index". This index describes to what degree acid stratification develops in flooded lead acid batteries. Different test procedures are proposed which induce severe acid stratification within 48 h and lead to significantly different degrees of acid stratification. The test procedures are intended to assist in the development and selection of batteries which are less prone to develop severe acid stratification.

  7. Chlamydia Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amplification Test (NAAT); Chlamydia trachomatis Culture; Chlamydia trachomatis DNA Probe Related tests: Gonorrhea Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  8. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of a novel steroidal derivative from Bryophyllum pinnatum.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Gupta, Gaurav; Kazmi, Imran; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Afzal, Obaid; Alam, Jahangir; Hakeem, Khalidur Rahman; Pravez, Mohammad; Gupta, Ritu; Anwar, Firoz

    2012-07-01

    A new steroidal derivative, urs Stigmast-4, 20 (21), 23-trien-3-one and other four compounds were isolated from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. The structure of this new steroid was elucidated and established by standard spectroscopic methods. Carrageenan induced paw edema model was used for anti-inflammatory and acetic acid induced model used for analgesic activity. This new steroidal compound was found to be active in reducing inflammation (% inhibition 87.29 and 84.45 respectively) when compared with diclofenac. Further, it showed 75.72% protection in analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. In conclusion the % inhibition against carrageenan induced rat paw edema and % protection against acetic acid induced writhings showed by new compound revealed that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of aqueous extract B. pinnatum are mainly due to the presence of this steroidal compound.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of a novel steroidal derivative from Bryophyllum pinnatum.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Gupta, Gaurav; Kazmi, Imran; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Afzal, Obaid; Alam, Jahangir; Hakeem, Khalidur Rahman; Pravez, Mohammad; Gupta, Ritu; Anwar, Firoz

    2012-07-01

    A new steroidal derivative, urs Stigmast-4, 20 (21), 23-trien-3-one and other four compounds were isolated from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. The structure of this new steroid was elucidated and established by standard spectroscopic methods. Carrageenan induced paw edema model was used for anti-inflammatory and acetic acid induced model used for analgesic activity. This new steroidal compound was found to be active in reducing inflammation (% inhibition 87.29 and 84.45 respectively) when compared with diclofenac. Further, it showed 75.72% protection in analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. In conclusion the % inhibition against carrageenan induced rat paw edema and % protection against acetic acid induced writhings showed by new compound revealed that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of aqueous extract B. pinnatum are mainly due to the presence of this steroidal compound. PMID:22465504

  10. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  11. What State Tests Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Glenn W.

    What the Illinois Goal Assessment Program (IGAP) test actually tests and the consequences of these tests for funding decisions were studied with a random sample of 100 school districts in the Cook County suburbs of Chicago. Eighth-grade IGAP scores for reading were obtained from the state report card, a document prepared by each school district…

  12. Acid sludge utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, M.

    1980-09-01

    The Peak Oil Company of Tampa, Florida, in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, has completed an initial study for the incorporation of acid-sludge derived from the rerefining of used lubricating oil into a useful and salable building material. Both bricks and paving materials have been produced using a formulation developed by Peak. Equipment has been designed and constructed for the specific purpose of preparing emulsions containing the acid-sludge, which is a vital ingredient in the final formulation. Testing of products obtained from these initial efforts shows that the acid in the sludge has been effectively neutralized and that heavy metals are not leached from the bricks or paving material in normal testing. While some properties of the building materials that incorporate the acid-sludge by-product are below standards for clay and shale brick, uses are defined for the product as is, and there is some promise of eventual production of building materials that meet all specifications for competitive materials. Initial cost estimations are encouraging, indicating that a profit can be derived by converting a hazardous and noxious by-product of rerefining to a construction material. Acid-sludge has presented a complex and costly disposal problem to the industry resulting in a serious depletion in the capacity for rerefining used lubricating oil.

  13. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  14. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  15. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  16. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  17. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  18. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems: calcium ions combine with fatty acids liberated from triglyceride rich lipid solutions to form soaps and reduce the solubilization capacity of colloidal digestion products.

    PubMed

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B; Mullertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

    2013-01-30

    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen.

  19. Synthesis and Analgesic Activity of Annelated Xanthine Derivatives in Experimental Models in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Sapa, Jacek; Drabczyńska, Anna; Karcz, Tadeusz; Müller, Christa; Köse, Meryem; Latacz, Gniewomir; Schabikowski, Jakub; Bednarski, Marek; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-10-01

    A series of annelated derivatives of xanthine were synthesized and assayed as potential analgesic agents. All synthesized xanthine derivatives were tested in the writhing test and hot-plate test. The pharmacological assays demonstrated that all the compounds prepared, without exception, displayed a significant activity in the mouse writhing assay. The analgesic action of the most active compounds, expressed as ED50 was found to be 1.4-4.3 times more potent than that of acetylsalicylic acid used as the reference compound. However, only some of the compounds demonstrated analgesic activity in the hot-plate test. The analgesic effect of some compounds is probably related to their agonistic, antagonistic, or partial agonistic activity at the adenosine receptors.

  20. Gonorrhea Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... gonorrhoeae Culture; Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gram Stain; Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA Probe Related tests: Chlamydia Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  1. Evaluation of antinociceptive effects of Tragia plukenetii: A possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Sama; Fatima, Saba

    2013-07-01

    Tragia plukenetii R.Smith. (Euphorbiaceae) is an erect, prostate herb with sparsely hispid stinging hairs. In the present study, ethanolic extract and its fractions of T. plukenetii aerial parts were evaluated for antinociceptive and central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. Among all the extracts, chloroform extract has produced significant analgesic activity at a test dose of 250 mg/kg in acetic acid induced writhing test and Eddy's hotplate test. The analgesic effect of chloroform extract (68.83% inhibition) is comparable with aspirin (72.09% inhibition) in acetic acid induced writhing test. Chloroform extract significantly increased the latency time in hotplate test. In the study of CNS depressant effect, the chloroform extract was found to produce a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of the exploratory capacity and depressant effect in locomotor activity. From the point of CNS depressant and good protective effect on chemical and thermal pain stimuli, indicates that T. plukenetii chloroform extract may have morphinomimetic properties. The naloxone is not able to alter the T. plukenetii induced antinociceptive effect in writhing and hotplate test. Thus, the observed antinociceptive activity of T. plukenetii might have resulted from the activation of peripheral receptors. PMID:24501531

  2. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  3. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  4. Delayed gastric emptying rate as a potential mechanism for lowered glycemia after eating sourdough bread: studies in humans and rats using test products with added organic acids or an organic salt.

    PubMed

    Liljeberg, H G; Björck, I M

    1996-12-01

    The possible effects of organic acids or an organic salt on the rate of gastric emptying was studied to identify the cause for reduced postmeal responses of blood glucose and insulin to foods containing such components, eg, sourdough bread. Paracetamol was included in bread products with added lactic acid or sodium propionate and used as a marker for the rate of gastric emptying in healthy subjects. In parallel, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety were evaluated. The influence of lactic acid, propionic acid, and sodium propionate was also studied in rats after they were tube-fed with glucose solutions. The bread products with lactic acid or sodium propionate both lowered blood glucose and insulin responses. The bread with sodium propionate also prolonged satiety. The reason for the lowered metabolic responses with sodium propionate was probably a lowered gastric emptying rate, as judged from reduced blood paracetamol concentrations; there was no such effect observed with bread with added lactic acid. A similar amount of lactic acid in solution tube-fed to rats did not affect the disappearance of glucose from the stomach. In contrast with the finding in humans, sodium propionate had no effect on the rate of gastric emptying in rats whereas an equimolar solution of propionic acid reduced gastric emptying rate in rats. Possibly, less of this acid was produced in the gastric contents after a bolus load of a sodium propionate solution (in rats) than in an eating situation. Also, the pH and/or the osmolarity may be important, and when provided in excessive amounts, lactic acid reduced the gastric emptying rate in rats. A hydrochloric acid solution of similar pH was much less effective in this respect.

  5. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  6. Antinociceptive Effect of the Essential Oil Obtained from the Leaves of Croton cordiifolius Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lenise de Morais; da Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Simone Maria; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Ferraz, Igor Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Thaíse Torres; Mota, Carlos Renato França de Carvalho; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Martins, René Duarte; Havt, Alexandre; Ximenes, Rafael Matos

    2015-01-01

    Croton cordiifolius Baill. is a shrub known as "quebra-faca" and is used to treat inflammation, pain, wounds, and gastrointestinal disturbances in the semiarid region in the northeast of Brazil. In an ethnobotanical survey in the state of Pernambuco, "quebra-faca" use was cited in 33% of the interviews. Thus, we decided to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil from C. cordiifolius (CcEO). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 1,8-cineole (25.09%) and α-phellandrene (15.43%) as major constituents. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using murine models of chemically induced pain (writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests). Opioid and central nervous systems (CNS) involvement were also investigated. Regarding antinociceptive activity, CcEO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of writhing responses induced by acetic acid and decreased the licking times in both phases of the formalin test. CcEO also was evaluated in capsaicin- and glutamate-induced nociception. While no effect was observed in the capsaicin test, CcEO (100 mg/kg) was effective in the glutamate test. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not affect the antinociceptive activity of CcEO in writhing test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive effect of CcEO could be explained, at least in part, by inhibition of the glutamatergic system. PMID:25821494

  7. Antinociceptive Effect of the Essential Oil Obtained from the Leaves of Croton cordiifolius Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lenise de Morais; da Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; dos Santos, Simone Maria; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Ferraz, Igor Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Thaíse Torres; Mota, Carlos Renato França de Carvalho; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Martins, René Duarte; Ximenes, Rafael Matos

    2015-01-01

    Croton cordiifolius Baill. is a shrub known as “quebra-faca” and is used to treat inflammation, pain, wounds, and gastrointestinal disturbances in the semiarid region in the northeast of Brazil. In an ethnobotanical survey in the state of Pernambuco, “quebra-faca” use was cited in 33% of the interviews. Thus, we decided to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil from C. cordiifolius (CcEO). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 1,8-cineole (25.09%) and α-phellandrene (15.43%) as major constituents. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using murine models of chemically induced pain (writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests). Opioid and central nervous systems (CNS) involvement were also investigated. Regarding antinociceptive activity, CcEO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of writhing responses induced by acetic acid and decreased the licking times in both phases of the formalin test. CcEO also was evaluated in capsaicin- and glutamate-induced nociception. While no effect was observed in the capsaicin test, CcEO (100 mg/kg) was effective in the glutamate test. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not affect the antinociceptive activity of CcEO in writhing test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive effect of CcEO could be explained, at least in part, by inhibition of the glutamatergic system. PMID:25821494

  8. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  9. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  10. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  11. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  12. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  13. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  15. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  16. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  17. [Hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, N

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is now a leader product in esthetic procedures for the treatment of wrinkles and volumes. The structure of HA, its metabolism, its physiological function are foremost breaking down then its use in aesthetic dermatology: steps of injection, possible side effects, benefits and downsides of the use of HA in aesthetic dermatology.

  18. Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage▿

    PubMed Central

    Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml−1 for two of the three test organisms). PMID:17616609

  19. Life-stage-, sex-, and dose-dependent dietary toxicokinetics and relationship to toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in rats: implications for toxicity test dose selection, design, and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil A; Marty, Mary S; Zablotny, Carol L; Passage, Julie K; Perala, Adam W; Neal, Barbara H; Hammond, Larry; Bus, James S

    2013-12-01

    Life-stage-dependent toxicity and dose-dependent toxicokinetics (TK) were evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats following dietary exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). 2,4-D renal clearance is impacted by dose-dependent saturation of the renal organic anion transporter; thus, this study focused on identifying inflection points of onset of dietary nonlinear TK to inform dose selection decisions for toxicity studies. Male and female rats were fed 2,4-D-fortified diets at doses to 1600 ppm for 4-weeks premating, <2 weeks during mating, and to test day (TD) 71 to parental (P1) males and to P1 females through gestation/lactation to TD 96. F1 offspring were exposed via milk with continuing diet exposure until postnatal day (PND) 35. As assessed by plasma area under the curve for the time-course plasma concentration, nonlinear TK was observed ≥ 1200 ppm (63 mg/kg/day) for P1 males and between 200 and 400 ppm (14-27 mg/kg/day) for P1 females. Dam milk and pup plasma levels were higher on lactation day (LD) 14 than LD 4. Relative to P1 adults, 2,4-D levels were higher in dams during late gestation/lactation and postweaning pups (PND 21-35) and coincided with elevated intake of diet/kg body weight. Using conventional maximum tolerated dose (MTD) criteria based on body weight changes for dose selection would have resulted in excessive top doses approximately 2-fold higher than those identified incorporating critical TK data. These data indicate that demonstration of nonlinear TK, if present at dose levels substantially above real-world human exposures, is a key dose selection consideration for improving the human relevance of toxicity studies compared with studies employing conventional MTD dose selection strategies.

  20. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...