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Sample records for acid-base accounting aba

  1. Acid/base account and minesoils: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hossner, L.R.; Brandt, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Generation of acidity from the oxidation of iron sulfides (FeS{sub 2}) is a common feature of geological materials exposed to the atmosphere by mining activities. Acid/base accounting (ABA) has been the primary method to evaluate the acid- or alkaline-potential of geological materials and to predict if weathering of these materials will have an adverse effect on terrestrial and aquatic environments. The ABA procedure has also been used to evaluate minesoils at different stages of weathering and, in some cases, to estimate lime requirements. Conflicting assessments of the methodology have been reported in the literature. The ABA is the fastest and easiest way to evaluate the acid-forming characteristics of overburden materials; however, accurate evaluations sometimes require that ABA data be examined in conjunction with additional sample information and results from other analytical procedures. The end use of ABA data, whether it be for minesoil evaluation or water quality prediction, will dictate the method`s interpretive criteria. Reaction kinetics and stoichiometry may vary and are not clearly defined for all situations. There is an increasing awareness of the potential for interfering compounds, particularly siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), to be present in geological materials associated with coal mines. Hardrock mines, with possible mixed sulfide mineralogy, offer a challenge to the ABA, since acid generation may be caused by minerals other than pyrite. A combination of methods, static and kinetic, is appropriate to properly evaluate the presence of acid-forming materials.

  2. Acid-base accounting assessment of mine wastes using the chromium reducible sulfur method.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Russell; Stewart, Warwick; Miller, Stuart; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger

    2012-05-01

    The acid base account (ABA), commonly used in assessment of mine waste materials, relies in part on calculation of potential acidity from total sulfur measurements. However, potential acidity is overestimated where organic sulfur, sulfate sulfur and some sulfide compounds make up a substantial portion of the sulfur content. The chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) method has been widely applied to assess reduced inorganic sulfur forms in sediments and acid sulfate soils, but not in ABA assessment of mine wastes. This paper reports the application of the CRS method to measuring forms of sulfur commonly found in mine waste materials. A number of individual sulfur containing minerals and real waste materials were analyzed using both CRS and total S and the potential acidity estimates were compared with actual acidity measured from net acid generation tests and column leach tests. The results of the CRS analysis made on individual minerals demonstrate good assessment of sulfur from a range of sulfides. No sulfur was measured using the CRS method in a number of sulfate salts, including jarosite and melanterite typically found in weathered waste rocks, or from dibenzothiophene characteristic of organic sulfur compounds common to coal wastes. Comparison of ABA values for a number of coal waste samples demonstrated much better agreement of acidity predicted from CRS analysis than total S analysis with actual acidity. It also resulted in reclassification of most samples tested from PAF to NAF. Similar comparisons on base metal sulfide wastes generally resulted in overestimation of the acid potential by total S and underestimation of the acid potential by CRS in comparison to acidity measured during NAG tests, but did not generally result in reclassification. In all the cases examined, the best estimate of potential acidity included acidity calculated from both CRS and jarositic S. PMID:22444067

  3. Effects of storm runoff on acid-base accounting of mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoegren, D.R.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1997-12-31

    Pre-reclamation conditions were documented at an abandoned mine site in an upland area at the headwaters of a small perennial stream in southwestern Indiana. Stream discharge and chemistry were monitored from April to October 1995, in an effort to assess the total acid-base budget of outflows from the site. The chemistry of three lakes, a shallow aquifer, and flooded mine voids was also monitored. During the period of monitoring, thirty-five rainfall-runoff events occurred, producing a total storm discharge of approximately 6.12 x 10{sup 7} L. Baseflow during the monitoring period was approximately 1.10 x 10{sup 8} L and was characterized by water chemistry that was similar to that of a spring that issued from the flooded mine voids. Analysis of the discharge and chemistry associated with an isolated thunderstorm revealed fluctuations in acidity that were not congruent with fluctuations in the total discharge hydrograph. For example, acidity increased rapidly during the initial phase of hydrograph rise, but dropped significantly as the storm hydrograph peaked. A second, more subdued, rise in acidity occurred during a second rain pulse, and the acidity gradually decreased to pre-storm levels during hydrograph recession. The trends are interpreted to reflect different sources of storm runoff associated with various components of the total discharge hydrograph. Preliminary calculations indicate that the total quantity of acidity that is discharged during stormflow is about eight times higher than that which is discharged during a comparable period under baseflow conditions. While the lower acid concentrations generated during storm events are ecologically favorable, the increase in total quantities of acidity can have implications for the buffering capacities of receiving water bodies.

  4. Accounting for sap flow from different parts of the root system improves the prediction of xylem ABA concentration in plants grown with heterogeneous soil moisture

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Ian C.; Egea, Gregorio; Davies, William J.

    2008-01-01

    When soil moisture is heterogeneous, sap flow from, and ABA status of, different parts of the root system impact on leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf). The robustness of a model for predicting [X-ABA]leaf was assessed. ‘Two root-one shoot’ grafted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants received either deficit irrigation (DI, each root system received the same irrigation volumes) or partial rootzone drying (PRD, only one root system was watered and the other dried the soil). Irrespective of whether relative sap flow was assessed using sap flow sensors in vivo or by pressurization of de-topped roots, each root system contributed similarly to total sap flow during DI, while sap flow from roots in drying soil declined linearly with soil water potential (Ψsoil) during PRD. Although Ψsoil of the irrigated pot determined the threshold Ψsoil at which sap flow from roots in drying soil decreased, the slope of this decrease was independent of the wet pot Ψsoil. Irrespective of whether sap was collected from the wet or dry root system of PRD plants, or a DI plant, root xylem ABA concentration increased as Ψsoil declined. The model, which weighted ABA contributions of each root system according to the sap flow from each, almost perfectly explained [X-ABA] immediately above the graft union. That the model overestimated measured [X-ABA]leaf may result from changes in [X-ABA] along the transport pathway or an artefact of collecting xylem sap from detached leaves. The implications of declining sap flow through partially dry roots during PRD for the control of stomatal behaviour and irrigation scheduling are discussed. PMID:18940933

  5. Total soil water content accounts for augmented ABA leaf concentration and stomatal regulation of split-rooted apple trees during heterogeneous soil drying.

    PubMed

    Einhorn, Todd C; Caspari, Horst W; Green, Steve

    2012-09-01

    A split-rooted containerized system was developed by approach grafting two, 1-year-old apple (Malus×domestica Borkh. cv 'Gala') trees to investigate the effect of soil moisture heterogeneity and total soil moisture content (θ(v)) on tree water relations, gas exchange, and leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration [ABA(leaf)]. Four irrigation treatments comprising a 2×2 factorial experiment of irrigation volume and placement were imposed over a 30-day period: control (C) [>100% of crop evapotranspiration (ET(c))] applied to both containers; PRD100 (>100% ET(c)) applied to one container only; and two treatments receiving 50% ET(c) applied to either one (PRD50) or both containers (DI50). Irrigation between PRD (partial rootzone drying) root compartments was alternated when θ(v) reached ~35% of field capacity. Maximum daily sap flow of the irrigated roots of PRD100 exceeded that of C roots throughout the experimental period. Pre-dawn water potential (Ψ(pd)) was similar between C and PRD100; however, daily water use and mid-day gas exchange of PRD100 was 30% lower. Slightly higher [ABA(leaf)] was observed in PRD100, but the effect was not significant and could not explain the observed reductions in leaf gas exchange. Both 50% ET(c) treatments had similar, but lower θ(v), Ψ(pd), and gas exchange, and higher [ABA(leaf)] than C and PRD100. Regardless of treatment, the container having the lower θ(v) of a split-rooted system correlated poorly with [ABA(leaf)], but when θ(v) of both containers or θ(v) of the container possessing the higher soil moisture was used, the relationship markedly improved. These results imply that apple canopy gas exchange and [ABA(leaf)] are responsive to the total soil water environment. PMID:22791825

  6. Total soil water content accounts for augmented ABA leaf concentration and stomatal regulation of split-rooted apple trees during heterogeneous soil drying

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    A split-rooted containerized system was developed by approach grafting two, 1-year-old apple (Malus×domestica Borkh. cv ‘Gala’) trees to investigate the effect of soil moisture heterogeneity and total soil moisture content (θv) on tree water relations, gas exchange, and leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration [ABAleaf]. Four irrigation treatments comprising a 2×2 factorial experiment of irrigation volume and placement were imposed over a 30-day period: control (C) [>100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc)] applied to both containers; PRD100 (>100% ETc) applied to one container only; and two treatments receiving 50% ETc applied to either one (PRD50) or both containers (DI50). Irrigation between PRD (partial rootzone drying) root compartments was alternated when θv reached ~35% of field capacity. Maximum daily sap flow of the irrigated roots of PRD100 exceeded that of C roots throughout the experimental period. Pre-dawn water potential (Ψpd) was similar between C and PRD100; however, daily water use and mid-day gas exchange of PRD100 was 30% lower. Slightly higher [ABAleaf] was observed in PRD100, but the effect was not significant and could not explain the observed reductions in leaf gas exchange. Both 50% ETc treatments had similar, but lower θv, Ψpd, and gas exchange, and higher [ABAleaf] than C and PRD100. Regardless of treatment, the container having the lower θv of a split-rooted system correlated poorly with [ABAleaf], but when θv of both containers or θv of the container possessing the higher soil moisture was used, the relationship markedly improved. These results imply that apple canopy gas exchange and [ABAleaf] are responsive to the total soil water environment. Abbreviations:Aassimilation[ABAleaf]leaf ABA concentrationBdbulk densityDIdeficit irrigationDOYday of yeardwdry weightEtranspirationETccrop evapotranspirationFCfield capacitygsstomatal conductanceLAleaf areaPARphotosynthetic active radiationPRDpartial rootzone dryingΨpdpre-dawn leaf

  7. Local root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation depends on the spatial distribution of soil moisture in potato: implications for ABA signalling under heterogeneous soil drying

    PubMed Central

    Puértolas, Jaime; Conesa, María R.; Ballester, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation ([ABA]root), root water potential (Ψroot), and root water uptake (RWU), and their impact on xylem sap ABA concentration ([X-ABA]) were measured under vertical partial root-zone drying (VPRD, upper compartment dry, lower compartment wet) and horizontal partial root-zone drying (HPRD, two lateral compartments: one dry, the other wet) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When water was withheld from the dry compartment for 0–10 d, RWU and Ψroot were similarly lower in the dry compartment when soil volumetric water content dropped below 0.22cm3 cm–3 for both spatial distributions of soil moisture. However, [ABA]root increased in response to decreasing Ψroot in the dry compartment only for HPRD, resulting in much higher ABA accumulation than in VPRD. The position of the sampled roots (~4cm closer to the surface in the dry compartment of VPRD than in HPRD) might account for this difference, since older (upper) roots may accumulate less ABA in response to decreased Ψroot than younger (deeper) roots. This would explain differences in root ABA accumulation patterns under vertical and horizontal soil moisture gradients reported in the literature. In our experiment, these differences in root ABA accumulation did not influence [X-ABA], since the RWU fraction (and thus ABA export to shoots) from the dry compartment dramatically decreased simultaneously with any increase in [ABA]root. Thus, HPRD might better trigger a long-distance ABA signal than VPRD under conditions allowing simultaneous high [ABA]root and relatively high RWU fraction. PMID:25547916

  8. Local root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation depends on the spatial distribution of soil moisture in potato: implications for ABA signalling under heterogeneous soil drying.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, Jaime; Conesa, María R; Ballester, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation ([ABA]root), root water potential (Ψroot), and root water uptake (RWU), and their impact on xylem sap ABA concentration ([X-ABA]) were measured under vertical partial root-zone drying (VPRD, upper compartment dry, lower compartment wet) and horizontal partial root-zone drying (HPRD, two lateral compartments: one dry, the other wet) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When water was withheld from the dry compartment for 0-10 d, RWU and Ψroot were similarly lower in the dry compartment when soil volumetric water content dropped below 0.22cm(3) cm(-3) for both spatial distributions of soil moisture. However, [ABA]root increased in response to decreasing Ψroot in the dry compartment only for HPRD, resulting in much higher ABA accumulation than in VPRD. The position of the sampled roots (~4cm closer to the surface in the dry compartment of VPRD than in HPRD) might account for this difference, since older (upper) roots may accumulate less ABA in response to decreased Ψroot than younger (deeper) roots. This would explain differences in root ABA accumulation patterns under vertical and horizontal soil moisture gradients reported in the literature. In our experiment, these differences in root ABA accumulation did not influence [X-ABA], since the RWU fraction (and thus ABA export to shoots) from the dry compartment dramatically decreased simultaneously with any increase in [ABA]root. Thus, HPRD might better trigger a long-distance ABA signal than VPRD under conditions allowing simultaneous high [ABA]root and relatively high RWU fraction. PMID:25547916

  9. Root ABA Accumulation in Long-Term Water-Stressed Plants is Sustained by Hormone Transport from Aerial Organs.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Matías; Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-12-01

    The reduced pool of the ABA precursors, β,β-carotenoids, in roots does not account for the substantial increase in ABA content in response to water stress (WS) conditions, suggesting that ABA could be transported from other organs. Basipetal transport was interrupted by stem-girdling, and ABA levels were determined in roots after two cycles of WS induced by transplanting plants to dry perlite. Leaf applications of isotope-labeled ABA and reciprocal grafting of ABA-deficient tomato mutants were used to confirm the involvement of aerial organs on root ABA accumulation. Disruption of basipetal transport reduced ABA accumulation in roots, and this decrease was more severe after two consecutive WS periods. This effect was linked to a sharp decrease in the β,β-carotenoid pool in roots in response to water deficit. Significant levels of isotope-labeled ABA were transported from leaves to roots, mainly in plants subjected to water dehydration. Furthermore, the use of different ABA-deficient tomato mutants in reciprocal grafting combinations with wild-type genotypes confirmed the involvement of aerial organs in the ABA accumulation in roots. In conclusion, accumulation of ABA in roots after long-term WS periods largely relies on the aerial organs, suggesting a reduced ability of the roots to synthesize ABA from carotenoids. Furthermore, plants are able to transport ABA basipetally to sustain high hormone levels in roots. PMID:26542111

  10. Biochemical characterization of the aba2 and aba3 mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, S H; Léon-Kloosterziel, K M; Koornneef, M; Zeevaart, J A

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutants in a variety of species have been identified by screening for precocious germination and a wilty phenotype. Mutants at two new loci, aba2 and aba3, have recently been isolated in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Hynh. (K.M. Léon-Kloosterziel, M. Alvarez-Gil, G.J. Ruijs, S.E. Jacobsen, N.E. Olszewski, S.H. Schwartz, J.A.D. Zeevaart, M. Koornneef [1996] Plant J 10: 655-661), and the biochemical characterization of these mutants is presented here. Protein extracts from aba2 and aba3 plants displayed a greatly reduced ability to convert xanthoxin to ABA relative to the wild type. The next putative intermediate in ABA synthesis, ABA-aldehyde, was efficiently converted to ABA by extracts from aba2 but not by extracts from aba3 plants. This indicates that the aba2 mutant is blocked in the conversion of xanthoxin to ABA-aldehyde and that aba3 is impaired in the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA. Extracts from the aba3 mutant also lacked additional activities that require a molybdenum cofactor (Moco). Nitrate reductase utilizes a Moco but its activity was unaffected in extracts from aba3 plants. Moco hydroxylases in animals require a desulfo moiety of the cofactor. A sulfido ligand can be added to the Moco by treatment with Na2S and dithionite. Treatment of aba3 extracts with Na2S restored ABA-aldehyde oxidase activity. Therefore, the genetic lesion in aba3 appears to be in the introduction of S into the Moco. PMID:9159947

  11. Biochemical characterization of the aba2 and aba3 mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S H; Léon-Kloosterziel, K M; Koornneef, M; Zeevaart, J A

    1997-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutants in a variety of species have been identified by screening for precocious germination and a wilty phenotype. Mutants at two new loci, aba2 and aba3, have recently been isolated in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Hynh. (K.M. Léon-Kloosterziel, M. Alvarez-Gil, G.J. Ruijs, S.E. Jacobsen, N.E. Olszewski, S.H. Schwartz, J.A.D. Zeevaart, M. Koornneef [1996] Plant J 10: 655-661), and the biochemical characterization of these mutants is presented here. Protein extracts from aba2 and aba3 plants displayed a greatly reduced ability to convert xanthoxin to ABA relative to the wild type. The next putative intermediate in ABA synthesis, ABA-aldehyde, was efficiently converted to ABA by extracts from aba2 but not by extracts from aba3 plants. This indicates that the aba2 mutant is blocked in the conversion of xanthoxin to ABA-aldehyde and that aba3 is impaired in the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA. Extracts from the aba3 mutant also lacked additional activities that require a molybdenum cofactor (Moco). Nitrate reductase utilizes a Moco but its activity was unaffected in extracts from aba3 plants. Moco hydroxylases in animals require a desulfo moiety of the cofactor. A sulfido ligand can be added to the Moco by treatment with Na2S and dithionite. Treatment of aba3 extracts with Na2S restored ABA-aldehyde oxidase activity. Therefore, the genetic lesion in aba3 appears to be in the introduction of S into the Moco. PMID:9159947

  12. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  13. ABA-alcohol is an intermediate in abscisic acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been established that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to ABA. The ABA-deficient flacca and sitiens mutants of tomato are blocked in the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA, and accumulate trans-ABA-alcohol. {sup 18}O-Labeling studies of ABA in flacca and sitiens show that these mutants synthesize a large percentage of ({sup 18}O)ABA which contains two {sup 18}O atoms in the carboxyl group. Furthermore, the mutants synthesize much greater amounts of trans-ABA-glucose ester (t-ABA-GE) compared with the wild type, and this ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-GE is also double labeled in the carboxyl group. Our interpretation of these data is that the {sup 18}O in ABA-aldehyde is trapped in the side chain by reduction to ({sup 18}O)ABA-alcohol, followed by isomerization to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-alcohol and oxidation with {sup 18}O{sub 2} to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA. The ({sup 18}O)t-ABA is then rapidly converted to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-GE. Because ({sup 18}O)ABA doubly labeled in the carboxyl group has been observed in small amounts in labeling experiments with several species, and various species have been shown to convert ABA-aldehyde to ABA-alcohol and t-ABA-alcohol, we propose that ABA-alcohol is an ABA intermediate in a shunt pathway.

  14. ABA Receptors: Past, Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaohan; Weston, David; Chen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the key plant stress hormone. Consistent with the earlier studies in support of the presence of both membrane- and cytoplasm-localized ABA receptors, recent studies have identified multiple ABA receptors located in various subcellular locations. These include a chloroplast envelope-localized receptor (the H subunit of Chloroplast Mg2+-chelatase/ABA Receptor), two plasma membrane-localized receptors (G-protein Coupled Receptor 2 and GPCR-type G proteins), and one cytosol/nucleus-localized Pyrabactin Resistant (PYR)/PYR-Like (PYL)/Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor 1 (RCAR). Although the downstream molecular events for most of the identified ABA receptors are currently unknown, one of them, PYR/PYL/RACR was found to directly bind and regulate the activity of a long-known central regulator of ABA signaling, the A-group protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). Together with the Sucrose Non-fermentation Kinase Subfamily 2 (SnRK2s) protein kinases, a central signaling complex (ABA-PYR-PP2Cs-SnRK2s) that is responsible for ABA signal perception and transduction is supported by abundant genetic, physiological, biochemical and structural evidence. The identification of multiple ABA receptors has advanced our understanding of ABA signal perception and transduction while adding an extra layer of complexity.

  15. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  16. Chemical Promotion of Endogenous Amounts of ABA in Arabidopsis thaliana by a Natural Product, Theobroxide.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yudai; Ota, Maremichi; Inoue, Yutaka; Hasebe, Youko; Okamoto, Masanori; Inukai, Tsuyoshi; Masuta, Chikra; Sakihama, Yasuko; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Inage, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Yoshihara, Teruhiko; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Plant hormones are a group of structurally diverse small compounds that orchestrate the cellular processes governing proper plant growth and environmental adaptation. To understand the details of hormonal activity, we must study not only their inherent activities but also the cross-talk among plant hormones. In addition to their use in agriculture, plant chemical activators, such as probenazole and uniconazole, have made great contributions to understand hormonal cross-talk. However, the use of plant chemical activators is limited due to the lack of activators for certain hormones. For example, to the best of our knowledge, there are only a few chemical activators previously known to stimulate the accumulation of ABA in plants, such as absinazoles and proanthocyanidins. In many cases, antagonistic effects have been examined in experiments using exogenously applied ABA, although these studies did not account for biologically relevant concentrations. In this report, it was found that a natural product, theobroxide, had potential as a plant chemical activator for stimulating the accumulation of ABA. Using theobroxide, the antagonistic effect of ABA against GAs was proved without exogenously applying ABA or using mutant plants. Our results suggest that ABA levels could be chemically controlled to elicit ABA-dependent biological phenomena. PMID:26917631

  17. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant ABA analogs on in vitro ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expr...

  18. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, Karsten; Xu, Yong; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Kovach, Amanda; Tham, Fook S.; Cutler, Sean R.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-11-11

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands.

  19. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  20. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  1. Application of ABA Principles to General Communication Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Oren, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This article examines applied behavior analysis (ABA) based communication instruction for students with autism. It offers an historical context for ABA in speech-language pathology and reviews the literature on the use of ABA as a treatment method for communication impairment in autism, comparing contemporary ABA with the developmental…

  2. Wounding of potato tubers induces increases in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism and alters expression of ABA metabolic genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of physical wounding on ABA biosynthesis and catabolism and expression of genes encoding key ABA metabolic enzymes were determined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. An increase in ABA and ABA metabolite content was observed 48 h after wounding and remained elevated through 96 h. ...

  3. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration.

    PubMed

    Suttle, Jeffrey C; Abrams, Suzanne R; De Stefano-Beltrán, Luis; Huckle, Linda L

    2012-09-01

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant abscisic acid (ABA) analogues on in vitro ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expressed in yeast, three potato CYP707A genes were demonstrated to encode enzymatically active ABA-8'-hydroxylases with micromolar affinities for (+)-ABA. The in vitro activity of the three enzymes was inhibited by the P450 azole-type inhibitors ancymidol, paclobutrazol, diniconazole, and tetcyclasis, and by the 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA analogues, with diniconazole and tetcyclasis being the most potent inhibitors. The in planta metabolism of [(3)H](±)-ABA to phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid in tuber meristems was inhibited by diniconazole, tetcyclasis, and to a lesser extent by 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA. Continuous exposure of in vitro generated microtubers to diniconazole resulted in a 2-fold increase in endogenous ABA content and a decline in dihydrophaseic acid content after 9 weeks of development. Similar treatment with 8'-acetylene-ABA had no effects on the endogenous contents of ABA or phaseic acid but reduced the content of dihydrophaseic acid. Tuber meristem dormancy progression was determined ex vitro in control, diniconazole-, and 8'-acetylene-ABA-treated microtubers following harvest. Continuous exposure to diniconazole during microtuber development had no effects on subsequent sprouting at any time point. Continuous exposure to 8'-acetylene-ABA significantly increased the rate of microtuber sprouting. The results indicate that, although a decrease in ABA content is a hallmark of tuber dormancy progression, the decline in ABA levels is not a prerequisite for dormancy exit and the onset of tuber sprouting. PMID:22664582

  4. Sap fluxes from different parts of the rootzone modulate xylem ABA concentration during partial rootzone drying and re-wetting

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, J. G.; Dodd, I. C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies with partial rootzone drying (PRD) irrigation demonstrated that alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Alternated) increased leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf) compared with maintaining the same wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Fixed). To determine the relative contributions of different parts of the rootzone to this ABA signal, [X-ABA]leaf of potted, split-root tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants was modelled by quantifying the proportional water uptake from different soil compartments, and [X-ABA]leaf responses to the entire pot soil-water content (θpot). Continuously measuring soil-moisture depletion by, or sap fluxes from, different parts of the root system revealed that water uptake rapidly declined (within hours) after withholding water from part of the rootzone, but was rapidly restored (within minutes) upon re-watering. Two hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, [X-ABA]leaf was equally well predicted according to θpot alone and by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Six hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, water uptake by roots in drying soil was minimal and, instead, occurred mainly from the newly irrigated part of the rootzone, thus [X-ABA]leaf was best predicted by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Contrary to previous results, alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone did not enhance [X-ABA]leaf compared with PRD-Fixed irrigation. Further work is required to establish whether altered root-to-shoot ABA signalling contributes to the improved yields of crops grown with alternate, rather than fixed, PRD. PMID:25740924

  5. Sap fluxes from different parts of the rootzone modulate xylem ABA concentration during partial rootzone drying and re-wetting.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, J G; Dodd, I C

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies with partial rootzone drying (PRD) irrigation demonstrated that alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Alternated) increased leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf) compared with maintaining the same wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Fixed). To determine the relative contributions of different parts of the rootzone to this ABA signal, [X-ABA]leaf of potted, split-root tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants was modelled by quantifying the proportional water uptake from different soil compartments, and [X-ABA]leaf responses to the entire pot soil-water content (θpot). Continuously measuring soil-moisture depletion by, or sap fluxes from, different parts of the root system revealed that water uptake rapidly declined (within hours) after withholding water from part of the rootzone, but was rapidly restored (within minutes) upon re-watering. Two hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, [X-ABA]leaf was equally well predicted according to θpot alone and by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Six hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, water uptake by roots in drying soil was minimal and, instead, occurred mainly from the newly irrigated part of the rootzone, thus [X-ABA]leaf was best predicted by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Contrary to previous results, alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone did not enhance [X-ABA]leaf compared with PRD-Fixed irrigation. Further work is required to establish whether altered root-to-shoot ABA signalling contributes to the improved yields of crops grown with alternate, rather than fixed, PRD. PMID:25740924

  6. Super-resurgence: ABA renewal increases resurgence.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, Stephanie L; Lattal, Kennon A; Spence, Jake

    2015-06-01

    Previously extinguished operant responding recurs under both resurgence and renewal procedures, but the effects of combining these procedures on recurrence has not been studied. Because renewal and resurgence are known to independently produce response recurrence, we examined whether greater resurgence would occur if the resurgence procedure was combined with an ABA renewal procedure, relative to a resurgence procedure without contextual changes. Three pigeons were exposed to a concurrent resurgence procedure in which key colors served as contextual stimuli. In the Training phase, reinforcement for pecking two keys was scheduled on concurrent variable-interval (VI) 120-s VI 120-s schedules, each correlated with different key colors. In the Alternative Reinforcement phase, reinforcement occurred when neither key was pecked for 20-s (a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior [DRO] 20-s schedule). During this phase, one of the key colors was changed (ABA key), while the other key color remained as in the Training phase (AAA key). In the third phase, reinforcement was not provided and the color of the ABA key was changed back to the color in effect during the Training phase while the same color remained in effect on the other key. Greater resurgence occurred on the ABA renewal key with each pigeon, demonstrating that a superimposed ABA renewal procedure increases resurgence. PMID:25712040

  7. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:27357749

  8. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y.; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:27357749

  9. Elevated CO2-Induced Responses in Stomata Require ABA and ABA Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chater, Caspar; Peng, Kai; Movahedi, Mahsa; Dunn, Jessica A; Walker, Heather J; Liang, Yun-Kuan; McLachlan, Deirdre H; Casson, Stuart; Isner, Jean Charles; Wilson, Ian; Neill, Steven J; Hedrich, Rainer; Gray, Julie E; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2015-10-19

    An integral part of global environment change is an increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) [1]. Increased [CO2] reduces leaf stomatal apertures and density of stomata that plays out as reductions in evapotranspiration [2-4]. Surprisingly, given the importance of transpiration to the control of terrestrial water fluxes [5] and plant nutrient acquisition [6], we know comparatively little about the molecular components involved in the intracellular signaling pathways by which [CO2] controls stomatal development and function [7]. Here, we report that elevated [CO2]-induced closure and reductions in stomatal density require the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby adding a new common element to these signaling pathways. We also show that the PYR/RCAR family of ABA receptors [8, 9] and ABA itself are required in both responses. Using genetic approaches, we show that ABA in guard cells or their precursors is sufficient to mediate the [CO2]-induced stomatal density response. Taken together, our results suggest that stomatal responses to increased [CO2] operate through the intermediacy of ABA. In the case of [CO2]-induced reductions in stomatal aperture, this occurs by accessing the guard cell ABA signaling pathway. In both [CO2]-mediated responses, our data are consistent with a mechanism in which ABA increases the sensitivity of the system to [CO2] but could also be explained by requirement for a CO2-induced increase in ABA biosynthesis specifically in the guard cell lineage. Furthermore, the dependency of stomatal [CO2] signaling on ABA suggests that the ABA pathway is, in evolutionary terms, likely to be ancestral. PMID:26455301

  10. Acid-base homeostasis in the human system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Acid-base regulation is a cooperative phenomena in vivo with body fluids, extracellular and intracellular buffers, lungs, and kidneys all playing important roles. The present account is much too brief to be considered a review of present knowledge of these regulatory systems, and should be viewed, instead, as a guide to the elements necessary to construct a simple model of the mutual interactions of the acid-base regulatory systems of the body.

  11. Imidazolium-Containing ABA Triblock Copolymers as Electroactive Devices.

    PubMed

    Margaretta, Evan; Fahs, Gregory B; Inglefield, David L; Jangu, Chainika; Wang, Dong; Heflin, James R; Moore, Robert B; Long, Timothy E

    2016-01-20

    Two-step reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and two subsequent postpolymerization modification steps afforded well-defined ABA triblock copolymers featuring mechanically reinforcing polystyrene outer blocks and 1-methylimidazole-neutralized poly(acrylic acid)-based central blocks. Size exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR spectroscopy confirmed predictable molecular weights and narrow distributions. The ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIm][OTf]) was incorporated at 30 wt % into polymeric films. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis determined the thermomechanical properties of the polymers and polymer-IL composites. Atomic force microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) determined surface and bulk morphologies, and poly(Sty-b-AA(MeIm)-b-Sty) exhibited a change from packed cylindrical to lamellar morphology in SAXS upon IL incorporation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy determined the in-plane ionic conductivities of the polymer-IL membranes (σ ∼ 10(-4) S/cm). A device fabricated from poly(Sty-b-AA(MeIm)-b-Sty) with 30 wt % incorporated IL demonstrated mechanical actuation under a low applied voltage of 4 V. PMID:26699795

  12. Activation of dimeric ABA receptors elicits guard cell closure, ABA-regulated gene expression, and drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Masanori; Peterson, Francis C.; Defries, Andrew; Park, Sang-Youl; Endo, Akira; Nambara, Eiji; Volkman, Brian F.; Cutler, Sean R.

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential molecule in plant abiotic stress responses. It binds to soluble pyrabactin resistance1/PYR1-like/regulatory component of ABA receptor receptors and stabilizes them in a conformation that inhibits clade A type II C protein phosphatases; this leads to downstream SnRK2 kinase activation and numerous cellular outputs. We previously described the synthetic naphthalene sulfonamide ABA agonist pyrabactin, which activates seed ABA responses but fails to trigger substantial responses in vegetative tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we describe quinabactin, a sulfonamide ABA agonist that preferentially activates dimeric ABA receptors and possesses ABA-like potency in vivo. In Arabidopsis, the transcriptional responses induced by quinabactin are highly correlated with those induced by ABA treatments. Quinabactin treatments elicit guard cell closure, suppress water loss, and promote drought tolerance in adult Arabidopsis and soybean plants. The effects of quinabactin are sufficiently similar to those of ABA that it is able to rescue multiple phenotypes observed in the ABA-deficient mutant aba2. Genetic analyses show that quinabactin’s effects in vegetative tissues are primarily mediated by dimeric ABA receptors. A PYL2-quinabactin-HAB1 X-ray crystal structure solved at 1.98-Å resolution shows that quinabactin forms a hydrogen bond with the receptor/PP2C “lock” hydrogen bond network, a structural feature absent in pyrabactin-receptor/PP2C complexes. Our results demonstrate that ABA receptors can be chemically controlled to enable plant protection against water stress and define the dimeric receptors as key targets for chemical modulation of vegetative ABA responses. PMID:23818638

  13. Rapid Phosphoproteomic Effects of Abscisic Acid (ABA) on Wild-Type and ABA Receptor-Deficient A. thaliana Mutants*

    PubMed Central

    Minkoff, Benjamin B.; Stecker, Kelly E.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)1 is a plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth, including seed germination, stomatal aperture size, and cellular drought response. ABA interacts with a unique family of 14 receptor proteins. This interaction leads to the activation of a family of protein kinases, SnRK2s, which in turn phosphorylate substrates involved in many cellular processes. The family of receptors appears functionally redundant. To observe a measurable phenotype, four of the fourteen receptors have to be mutated to create a multilocus loss-of-function quadruple receptor (QR) mutant, which is much less sensitive to ABA than wild-type (WT) plants. Given these phenotypes, we asked whether or not a difference in ABA response between the WT and QR backgrounds would manifest on a phosphorylation level as well. We tested WT and QR mutant ABA response using isotope-assisted quantitative phosphoproteomics to determine what ABA-induced phosphorylation changes occur in WT plants within 5 min of ABA treatment and how that phosphorylation pattern is altered in the QR mutant. We found multiple ABA-induced phosphorylation changes that occur within 5 min of treatment, including three SnRK2 autophosphorylation events and phosphorylation on SnRK2 substrates. The majority of robust ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed were partially diminished in the QR mutant, whereas many smaller ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed in the WT were not responsive to ABA in the mutant. A single phosphorylation event was increased in response to ABA treatment in both the WT and QR mutant. A portion of the discovery data was validated using selected reaction monitoring-based targeted measurements on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. These data suggest that different subsets of phosphorylation events depend upon different subsets of the ABA receptor family to occur. Altogether, these data expand our understanding of the model by which the family of ABA receptors directs

  14. ABA Inducible Rice Protein Phosphatase 2C Confers ABA Insensitivity and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amarjeet; Jha, Saroj K.; Bagri, Jayram; Pandey, Girdhar K.

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25886365

  15. ABA inducible rice protein phosphatase 2C confers ABA insensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarjeet; Jha, Saroj K; Bagri, Jayram; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25886365

  16. Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates grape bud dormancy, and dormancy release stimuli may act through modification of ABA metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    In warm-winter regions, induction of dormancy release by hydrogen cyanamide (HC) is mandatory for commercial table grape production. Induction of respiratory stress by HC leads to dormancy release via an uncharacterized biochemical cascade that could reveal the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Previous studies proposed a central role for abscisic acid (ABA) in the repression of bud meristem activity, and suggested its removal as a critical step in the HC-induced cascade. In the current study, support for these assumptions was sought. The data show that ABA indeed inhibits dormancy release in grape (Vitis vinifera) buds and attenuates the advancing effect of HC. However, HC-dependent recovery was detected, and was affected by dormancy status. HC reduced VvXERICO and VvNCED transcript levels and induced levels of VvABA8’OH homologues. Regulation of these central players in ABA metabolism correlated with decreased ABA and increased ABA catabolite levels in HC-treated buds. Interestingly, an inhibitor of ethylene signalling attenuated these effects of HC on ABA metabolism. HC also modulated the expression of ABA signalling regulators, in a manner that supports a decreased ABA level and response. Taken together, the data support HC-induced removal of ABA-mediated repression via regulation of ABA metabolism and signalling. Expression profiling during the natural dormancy cycle revealed that at maximal dormancy, the HC-regulated VvNCED1 transcript level starts to drop. In parallel, levels of VvA8H-CYP707A4 transcript and ABA catabolites increase sharply. This may provide initial support for the involvement of ABA metabolism also in the execution of natural dormancy. PMID:25560179

  17. A key ABA catabolic gene, OsABA8ox3, is involved in drought stress resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shanlan; Jiang, Guobin; Ye, Nenghui; Chu, Zhizhan; Xu, Xuezhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhu, Guohui

    2015-01-01

    Expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and catabolism genes are generally co-regulated in plant development and responses to environmental stress. Up-regulation of OsNCED3 gene, a key gene in ABA biosynthesis, has been suggested as a way to enhance plant drought resistance but little is known for the role of ABA catabolic genes during drought stress. In this study, we found that OsABA8ox3 was the most highly expressed gene of the OsABA8ox family in rice leaves. Expression of OsABA8ox3 was promptly induced by rehydration after PEG-mimic dehydration, a tendency opposite to the changes of ABA level. We therefore constructed rice OsABA8ox3 silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) and overexpression plants. There were no obvious phenotype differences between the transgenic seedlings and wild type under normal condition. However, OsABA8ox3 RNAi lines showed significant improvement in drought stress tolerance while the overexpression seedlings were hypersensitive to drought stress when compared with wild type in terms of plant survival rates after 10 days of unwatering. Enzyme activity analysis indicated that OsABA8ox3 RNAi plants had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and less malondialdehyde (MDA) content than those of wild type when the plants were exposed to dehydration treatment, indicating a better anti-oxidative stress capability and less membrane damage. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analysis under dehydration treatment revealed that expressions of a group of stress/drought-related genes, i.e. LEA genes, were enhanced with higher transcript levels in OsABA8ox3 RNAi transgenic seedlings. We therefore conclude that that OsABA8ox3 gene plays an important role in controlling ABA level and drought stress resistance in rice. PMID:25647508

  18. Identification and Characterization of ABA Receptors in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Hao, Qi; Li, Wenqi; Yan, Chuangye

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone that regulates plant stress responses. ABA receptors in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPYLs) have been extensively investigated by structural, biochemical, and in vivo studies. In contrast, relatively little is known about the ABA signal transduction cascade in rice. Besides, the diversities of AtPYLs manifest that the information accumulated in Arabidopsis cannot be simply adapted to rice. Thus, studies on rice ABA receptors are compulsory. By taking a bioinformatic approach, we identified twelve ABA receptor orthologs in Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) (OsPYLs), named OsPYL1–12. We have successfully expressed and purified OsPYL1–3, 6 and 10–12 to homogeneity, tested the inhibitory effects on PP2C in Oryza sativa (OsPP2C), and measured their oligomerization states. OsPYL1–3 mainly exhibit as dimers and require ABA to inhibit PP2C’s activity. On the contrary, OsPYL6 retains in the monomer-dimer equilibrium state and OsPYL10–11 largely exist as monomers, and they all display an ABA-independent phosphatase inhibition manner. Interestingly, although OsPYL12 seems to be a dimer, it abrogates the phosphatase activity of PP2Cs in the absence of ABA. Toward a further understanding of OsPYLs on the ABA binding and PP2C inhibition, we determined the crystal structure of ABA-OsPYL2-OsPP2C06 complex. The bioinformatic, biochemical and structural analysis of ABA receptors in rice provide important foundations for designing rational ABA-analogues and breeding the stress-resistant rice for commercial agriculture. PMID:24743650

  19. ABA and cytokinins: challenge and opportunity for plant stress research.

    PubMed

    Verslues, Paul E

    2016-08-01

    Accumulation of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces many cellular mechanisms associated with drought resistance. Recent years have seen a rapid advance in our knowledge of how increased ABA levels are perceived by ABA receptors, particularly the PYL/RCAR receptors, but there has been relatively less new information about how ABA accumulation is controlled and matched to stress severity. ABA synthesis and catabolism, conjugation and deconjugation to glucose, and ABA transport all are involved in controlling ABA levels. This highly buffered system of ABA metabolism represents both a challenge and opportunity in developing a mechanistic understanding of how plants detect and respond to drought. Recent data have also shown that direct manipulation of cytokinin levels in transgenic plants has dramatic effect on drought phenotypes and prompted new interest in the role of cytokinins and cytokinin signaling in drought. Both ABA and cytokinins will continue to be major foci of drought research but likely with different trajectories both in terms of basic research and in translational research aimed at increasing plant performance during drought. PMID:26910054

  20. Isolation of ABA hypersensitive mutants in allhexaploid breadwheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) stimulates seed dormancy during embryo maturation, inhibits germination of mature seed, and stimulates stress responses such as stomatal closure in response to drought stress. Arabidopsis mutants isolated for ABA hypersensitive (ABH) seed germination showed incr...

  1. Wheat ABA-insensitive mutants result in reduced grain dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the isolation of wheat mutants in the hard red spring Scarlet resulting in reduced sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. ABA induces seed dormancy during embryo maturation and inhibits the germination of mature seeds. Wheat sensitivity t...

  2. ABA Levels and Sensitivity in Developing Wheat Embryos of Sprouting Resistant and Susceptible Cultivars 1

    PubMed Central

    Walker-Simmons, Mary

    1987-01-01

    A sprouting-resistant and a sprouting-susceptible wheat cultivar were utilized to examine the role of ABA levels and sensitivity responses in wheat embryonic germination. Endogenous embryonic ABA levels were measured in both cultivars throughout grain maturation utilizing a new and sensitive ABA immunoassay. Embryonic ABA levels of each cultivar were similar with the sprouting-susceptible cultivar having about a 25% lower ABA level than that of the sprouting-resistant cultivar. Larger differences between the cultivars were noted in sensitivity to ABA, as measured by capability of ABA to block embryonic germination. ABA inhibited embryonic germination much more effectively in the sprouting-resistant cultivar. PMID:16665406

  3. Can prolonged exposure to low VPD disturb the ABA signalling in stomatal guard cells?

    PubMed Central

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2013-01-01

    The response of stomata to many environmental factors is well documented. Multiple signalling pathways for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure have been proposed over the last decades. However, it seems that exposure of a leaf for a long time (several days) to some environmental conditions generates a sort of memory in the guard cells that results in the loss of suitable responses of the stomata to closing stimuli, such as desiccation and ABA. In this review paper we discuss changes in the normal pattern of signal transduction that could account for disruption of guard cell signalling after long-term exposure to some environmental conditions, with special emphasis on long-term low vapour pressure deficit (VPD). PMID:23956410

  4. The De-Etiolated 1 Homolog of Arabidopsis Modulates the ABA Signaling Pathway and ABA Biosynthesis in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Guangchao; Zou, Hanyan; Zhang, Yuchan; Xiang, Zheng; Huang, Junli; Luo, Li; Wang, Chunping; Lei, Kairong; Li, Xianyong; Song, Deming; Din, Ahmad Ud; Wang, Guixue

    2016-06-01

    DEETIOLATED1 (DET1) plays a critical role in developmental and environmental responses in many plants. To date, the functions of OsDET1 in rice (Oryza sativa) have been largely unknown. OsDET1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DET1 Here, we found that OsDET1 is essential for maintaining normal rice development. The repression of OsDET1 had detrimental effects on plant development, and leaded to contradictory phenotypes related to abscisic acid (ABA) in OsDET1 interference (RNAi) plants. We found that OsDET1 is involved in modulating ABA signaling in rice. OsDET1 RNAi plants exhibited an ABA hypersensitivity phenotype. Using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, we determined that OsDET1 interacts physically with DAMAGED-SPECIFIC DNA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (OsDDB1) and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC10 (COP10); DET1- and DDB1-ASSOCIATED1 binds to the ABA receptors OsPYL5 and OsDDB1. We found that the degradation of OsPYL5 was delayed in OsDET1 RNAi plants. These findings suggest that OsDET1 deficiency disturbs the COP10-DET1-DDB1 complex, which is responsible for ABA receptor (OsPYL) degradation, eventually leading to ABA sensitivity in rice. Additionally, OsDET1 also modulated ABA biosynthesis, as ABA biosynthesis was inhibited in OsDET1 RNAi plants and promoted in OsDET1-overexpressing transgenic plants. In conclusion, our data suggest that OsDET1 plays an important role in maintaining normal development in rice and mediates the cross talk between ABA biosynthesis and ABA signaling pathways in rice. PMID:27208292

  5. Seed dormancy and ABA signaling: the breakthrough goes on.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gacio, María del Carmen; Matilla-Vázquez, Miguel A; Matilla, Angel J

    2009-11-01

    The seed is an important organ of higher plants regarding plant survival and species dispersion. The transition between seed dormancy and germination represents a critical stage in the plant life cycle and it is an important ecological and commercial trait. A dynamic balance of synthesis and catabolism of two antagonistic hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and giberellins (GAs), controls the equilibrium between seed dormancy and germination. Embryonic ABA plays a central role in induction and maintenance of seed dormancy, and also inhibits the transition from embryonic to germination growth. Therefore, the ABA metabolism must be highly regulated at both temporal and spatial levels during phase of dessication tolerance. On the other hand, the ABA levels do not depend exclusively on the seeds because sometimes it becomes a strong sink and imports it from the roots and rhizosphere through the xylem and/or phloem. All theses events are discussed in depth here. Likewise, the role of some recently characterized genes belonging to seeds of woody species and related to ABA signaling, are also included. Finally, although four possible ABA receptors have been reported, not much is known about how they mediate ABA signalling transduction. However, new publications seem to shown that almost all these receptors lack several properties to consider them as such. PMID:19875942

  6. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress. PMID:26831097

  7. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163

  8. The induction of free proline accumulation by endogenous ABA in Arabidopsis thaliana during drought

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, M.L.; Bray, E.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and free proline increase in response to drought stress. Exogenous ABA has been shown to induce proline accumulation, suggesting that ABA triggers the amino acid response. To determine if endogenous ABA induces free proline accumulation, increases in ABA and proline during drought stress were compared between wild type (WT), ABA-insensitive (abi) and ABA-deficient (aba) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. If elevated levels of endogenous ABA signal the proline response, then the mutants would not be expected to accumulate proline during stress. abi should be unable to respond to increased levels of endogenous ABA, while aba should be unable to accumulate sufficient ABA to elicit a proline response. Drought-stressed three week old shoots of WT, abi, and aba exhibited different patterns of endogenous ABA accumulation, but similar patterns of proline accumulation over 24 hours. Although the patterns of endogenous ABA accumulation differed, maximum levels were similar in WT and abi, but aba produced approximately 25% less. However, free proline accumulated in all three plant lines. abi exhibited a greater, more rapid increase in free proline over that in either WT or aba. aba, however, showed the same pattern and levels of accumulation as that in WT. Since free proline accumulated to at least similar levels in both WT and mutants, regardless of the levels of ABA accumulation, it may be that only a small endogenous ABA accumulation is required for proline accumulation. Alternatively, endogenous ABA may not be the direct signal for the proline response during drought stress.

  9. The Kidney and Acid-Base Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeppen, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the topic of the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid base balance was last reviewed from a teaching perspective (Koeppen BM. Renal regulation of acid-base balance. Adv Physiol Educ 20: 132-141, 1998), our understanding of the specific membrane transporters involved in H+, HCO , and NH transport, and especially how these…

  10. The Conjugate Acid-Base Chart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treptow, Richard S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties that beginning chemistry students have in understanding acid-base chemistry. Describes the use of conjugate acid-base charts in helping students visualize the conjugate relationship. Addresses chart construction, metal ions, buffers and pH titrations, and the organic functional groups and nonaqueous solvents. (TW)

  11. ABI1 regulates carbon/nitrogen-nutrient signal transduction independent of ABA biosynthesis and canonical ABA signalling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Sasaki, Yuki; Li, Xingwen; Mori, Izumi C; Matsuura, Takakazu; Hirayama, Takashi; Sato, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2015-05-01

    Plants are able to sense and mediate the balance between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) nutrient availability to optimize metabolism and growth, described as the C/N response. To clarify the C/N signalling mechanism, C/N-insensitive plants were obtained from an Arabidopsis FOX hunting population, which over-expresses full-length cDNAs for individuals. The resulting cni2-D (carbon/nitrogen insensitive 2-dominant) plant was found to overcome the post-germination growth checkpoint and to expand green cotyledons in disrupted high C/low N stress conditions. The CNI2 gene encodes ABI1, a phosphatase type 2C protein, which negatively regulates abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. Over-expressors of ABI1 were found to be insensitive to disrupted C/N stress, whereas the loss-of function mutant abi1-2 was hypersensitive, suggesting that ABI1 plays an essential role in the plant C/N response. By contrast, the C/N-dependent growth phenotype observed in wild-type plants was not associated with endogenous ABA content. Accordingly, the ABA-insensitive mutant abi1-1, which could not bind to the ABA-ABA receptor complex, was not insensitive and restored normal sensitivity to high C/low N stress. The canonical ABA signalling mutants abi4 and abi5 were also sensitive to disrupted C/N stress. Further gene expression analysis demonstrated that several genes in the SnRK2s and SnRK1s pathways are transcriptionally affected by high C/low N stress in wild-type plants regardless of the lack of increased endogenous ABA contents, whereas the expression of these genes were significantly suppressed in ABI1 over-expressors. Taken together, these results suggest direct cross-talk between C/N and non-canonical ABA signalling pathways, regulated by ABI1, in plants. PMID:25795738

  12. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition.

    PubMed

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8'-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8'OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8'OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8'OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including 'Tamaizumi'. However, a single mutation in TaABA8'OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8'OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8'OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of 'Tamaizumi'. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8'OH1-A and TaABA8'OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8'OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in 'Tamaizumi' (a single mutant in TaABA8'OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8'OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat. PMID:23641187

  13. Impact of transcriptional, ABA-dependent, and ABA-independent pathways on wounding regulation of RNS1 expression.

    PubMed

    Hillwig, Melissa S; Lebrasseur, Nicole D; Green, Pamela J; Macintosh, Gustavo C

    2008-09-01

    Injured plants induce a wide range of genes whose products are thought to help to repair the plant or to defend against opportunistic pathogens that might infect the wounded plant. In Arabidopsis thaliana L., oligogalacturonides (OGAs) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the main regulators of the signaling pathways that control the local and systemic wound response, respectively. RNS1, a secreted ribonuclease, is induced by wounding in Arabidopsis independent of these two signals, thus indicating that another wound-response signal exists. Here we show that abscisic acid (ABA), which induces wound-responsive genes in other systems, also induces RNS1. In the absence of ABA signaling, wounding induces only approximately 45% of the endogenous levels of RNS1 mRNA. However, significant levels of RNS1 still accumulate in the absence of ABA signaling. Our results suggest that wound-responsive increases in ABA production may amplify induction of RNS1 by a novel ABA-independent pathway. To elucidate this novel pathway, we show here that the wound induction of RNS1 is due in part to transcriptional regulation by wounding and ABA. We also show evidence of post-transcriptional regulation which may contribute to the high levels of RNS1 transcript accumulation in response to wounding. PMID:18607631

  14. Use of an Acid-Base Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Grover; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Identifies several ways in which an acid-base table can provide students with information about chemical reactions. Cites examples of the chart's use and includes a table which indicates the strengths of some common acids and bases. (ML)

  15. Arabidopsis plants deficient in plastidial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase show alterations in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction: interaction between ABA and primary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Bermúdez, María Angeles; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) controls plant development and regulates plant responses to environmental stresses. A role for ABA in sugar regulation of plant development has also been well documented although the molecular mechanisms connecting the hormone with sugar signal transduction pathways are not well understood. In this work it is shown that Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapcp1gapcp2) are ABA insensitive in growth, stomatal closure, and germination assays. The ABA levels of gapcp1gapcp2 were normal, suggesting that the ABA signal transduction pathway is impaired in the mutants. ABA modified gapcp1gapcp2 gene expression, but the mutant response to the hormone differed from that observed in wild-type plants. The gene expression of the transcription factor ABI4, involved in both sugar and ABA signalling, was altered in gapcp1gapcp2, suggesting that their ABA insensitivity is mediated, at least partially, through this transcriptional regulator. Serine supplementation was able partly to restore the ABA sensitivity of gapcp1gapcp2, indicating that amino acid homeostasis and/or serine metabolism may also be important determinants in the connections of ABA with primary metabolism. Overall, these studies provide new insights into the links between plant primary metabolism and ABA signalling, and demonstrate the importance of plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in these interactions. PMID:21068209

  16. Structural basis for selective activation of ABA receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Francis C.; Burgie, E. Sethe; Park, Sang-Youl; Jensen, Davin R.; Weiner, Joshua J.; Bingman, Craig A.; Chang, Chia-En A.; Cutler, Sean R.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2010-11-01

    Changing environmental conditions and lessening fresh water supplies have sparked intense interest in understanding and manipulating abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which controls adaptive responses to drought and other abiotic stressors. We recently discovered a selective ABA agonist, pyrabactin, and used it to discover its primary target PYR1, the founding member of the PYR/PYL family of soluble ABA receptors. To understand pyrabactin's selectivity, we have taken a combined structural, chemical and genetic approach. We show that subtle differences between receptor binding pockets control ligand orientation between productive and nonproductive modes. Nonproductive binding occurs without gate closure and prevents receptor activation. Observations in solution show that these orientations are in rapid equilibrium that can be shifted by mutations to control maximal agonist activity. Our results provide a robust framework for the design of new agonists and reveal a new mechanism for agonist selectivity.

  17. A.B.A. Checklist: Birds of Continental United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, G.S.; Balch, L.G.; Gibson, D.D.; McCaskie, R.G.; Robbins, C.S.; Small, A.; Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Tucker, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 'Summary' in this edition of the A BA Checklist has been greatly expanded to include all properly documented records for each accidental species. These records are published, except for a very few recent ones which are in press or in preparation. Emphasis is on records supported by specimens or photographs, but sight records are also included. To make these accounts more useful to researchers, a reference has been given for each record. All records, except those identified as '(photo)' or '(specimen)', or by some other type of objective evidence, are sight records. Because of the interest shown in this section of the Checklist, coverage has not been confined to accidental species (defined as those which have occurred fewer than ten times in the ABA Checklist area during the twentieth century). Accounts are also given for selected rare visitors and native species. Two of the primary references are abbreviated in the accounts: Audubon Field Notes-AFN, and American Birds-AB.

  18. [Kidney, Fluid, and Acid-Base Balance].

    PubMed

    Shioji, Naohiro; Hayashi, Masao; Morimatsu, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Kidneys play an important role to maintain human homeostasis. They contribute to maintain body fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base balance. Especially in fluid control, we, physicians can intervene body fluid balance using fluid resuscitation and diuretics. In recent years, one type of fluid resuscitation, hydroxyl ethyl starch has been extensively studied in the field of intensive care. Although their effects on fluid resuscitation are reasonable, serious complications such as kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy occur frequently. Now we have to pay more attention to this important complication. Another topic of fluid management is tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist Recent randomized trial suggested that tolvaptan has a similar supportive effect for fluid control and more cost effective compared to carperitide. In recent years, Stewart approach is recognized as one important tool to assess acid-base balance in critically ill patients. This approach has great value, especially to understand metabolic components in acid-base balance. Even for assessing the effects of kidneys on acid-base balance, this approach gives us interesting insight. We should appropriately use this new approach to treat acid-base abnormality in critically ill patients. PMID:27319095

  19. The Top 10 Reasons Children With Autism Deserve ABA

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    We who advocate for applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism spectrum disorders often construct our arguments based on the scientific evidence. However, the audience that most needs to hear this argument, that is, the parents of children, especially very young children, diagnosed with autism, may not be convinced by the science alone. This essay attempts to make the case for the multiple benefits of ABA intervention through the use of humor and anecdotes couched in a “Top Ten List,” and illustrating most points with stories of an engaging child with autism (my son, Ben). PMID:22532906

  20. Effects of high night temperature and abscisic acid (ABA) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High night temperature (HNT) is known to decrease rice yields. The impact of abscisic acid (ABA) on plants has been the subject of many studies. However, little or no work has been carried out on rice response to ABA under HNT-stress conditions. This study determined the effects of ABA on rice leaf ...

  1. Coping as a Predictor of Burnout and General Health in Therapists Working in ABA Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, G. M.; Barbakou, A.; Hastings, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the work-related well-being of applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapists who work in school-based contexts and deliver ABA interventions to children with autism. Methods: A questionnaire on work-related stress (burnout), general distress, perceived supervisor support and coping was completed by 45 ABA therapists…

  2. Role of metabolism in ABA homeostasis during potato tuber dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endogenous hormones play a essential role in the regulation of potato tuber dormancy. Abscisic acid has been shown to be critically involved in tuber dormancy induction and maintenance. Genes encoding enzymes catalyzing the terminal steps of ABA synthesis and metabolism have been cloned from tuber...

  3. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  4. ABA and Diverse Cultural and Linguistic Environments: A Welsh Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, E. W.; Hoerger, M.; Hughes, J. C.; Williams, B. M.; Jones, B.; Moseley, Y.; Hughes, D. R.; Prys, D.

    2011-01-01

    Gwynedd Local Education Authority (LEA) in North West Wales, UK, is funding a small-scale autism-specific specialist education service using ABA methodology. The program is available through the medium of Welsh, English or bilingually, depending on the individual needs of the child (Jones and Hoerger in Eur J Behav Anal 10:249-253, "2009").…

  5. Personality Traits Associated with Occupational "Burnout" in ABA Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, Amy A.; Grist, Cathy Lann; Malesky, Lann A., Jr.; McCord, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapists typically work one-to-one with children with autism for extended periods of time, which often leads to high levels of job-related stress, lower levels of job satisfaction, increased frequency of occupational "burnout" and higher than average job turnover (Journal of Autism…

  6. Dissociations among ABA, ABC, and AAB Recovery Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungor, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2008-01-01

    In a human predictive learning experiment, the strengths of ABA, ABC, and AAB recovery effects after discrimination reversal learning were compared. Initially, a discrimination between two stimuli (X+, Y-) was trained in Context A. During Phase 2, participants received discrimination reversal training (X-, Y+) either in Context A (Group AAB) or in…

  7. ABA, AAB and ABC Renewal in Taste Aversion Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Juarez, Yectivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Gabriela; Carranza, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Carrasco, Livia; Nieto, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Context renewal is identified when the conditioned response (CR) elicited by an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) reappears as a result of changing the contextual cues during the test. Two experiments were designed for testing contextual renewal in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. Experiment 1 assessed ABA and AAB context renewal,…

  8. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

  9. Function of ABA in Stomatal Defense against Biotic and Drought Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Jung, Jangho; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes involved in plant development and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Under stress conditions, plants synthesize ABA in various organs and initiate defense mechanisms, such as the regulation of stomatal aperture and expression of defense-related genes conferring resistance to environmental stresses. The regulation of stomatal opening and closure is important to pathogen defense and control of transpirational water loss. Recent studies using a combination of approaches, including genetics, physiology, and molecular biology, have contributed considerably to our understanding of ABA signal transduction. A number of proteins associated with ABA signaling and responses—especially ABA receptors—have been identified. ABA signal transduction initiates signal perception by ABA receptors and transfer via downstream proteins, including protein kinases and phosphatases. In the present review, we focus on the function of ABA in stomatal defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, through analysis of each ABA signal component and the relationships of these components in the complex network of interactions. In particular, two ABA signal pathway models in response to biotic and abiotic stress were proposed, from stress signaling to stomatal closure, involving the pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR-like (PYL) or regulatory component of ABA receptor (RCAR) family proteins, 2C-type protein phosphatases, and SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26154766

  10. Function of ABA in Stomatal Defense against Biotic and Drought Stresses.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Jung, Jangho; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes involved in plant development and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Under stress conditions, plants synthesize ABA in various organs and initiate defense mechanisms, such as the regulation of stomatal aperture and expression of defense-related genes conferring resistance to environmental stresses. The regulation of stomatal opening and closure is important to pathogen defense and control of transpirational water loss. Recent studies using a combination of approaches, including genetics, physiology, and molecular biology, have contributed considerably to our understanding of ABA signal transduction. A number of proteins associated with ABA signaling and responses--especially ABA receptors--have been identified. ABA signal transduction initiates signal perception by ABA receptors and transfer via downstream proteins, including protein kinases and phosphatases. In the present review, we focus on the function of ABA in stomatal defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, through analysis of each ABA signal component and the relationships of these components in the complex network of interactions. In particular, two ABA signal pathway models in response to biotic and abiotic stress were proposed, from stress signaling to stomatal closure, involving the pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR-like (PYL) or regulatory component of ABA receptor (RCAR) family proteins, 2C-type protein phosphatases, and SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26154766

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of the ABA-specific glucosyltransferase gene from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Chung, Gyuhwa; Kim, Sang Hyon; Yang, Seung Hwan

    2015-04-15

    Levels of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) are maintained in homeostasis by a balance of its biosynthesis, catabolism and conjugation. The detailed molecular and signaling events leading to strict homeostasis are not completely understood in crop plants. In this study, we obtained cDNA of an ABA-inducible, ABA-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase (ABAGT) from the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) involved in conjugation of a glucose residue to ABA to form inactive ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) to examine its role during development and abiotic stress in bean. The bacterially expressed PvABAGTase enzyme showed ABA-specific glucosylation activity in vitro. A higher level of the PvABAGT transcript was observed in mature leaves, mature flowers, roots, seed coats and embryos as well as upon rehydration following a period of dehydration. Overexpression of 35S::PvABAGT in Arabidopsis showed reduced sensitivity to ABA compared with WT. The transgenic plants showed a high level of ABA-GE without significant decrease in the level of ABA compared with the wild type (WT) during dehydration stress. Upon rehydration, the levels of ABA and phaseic acid (PA) decreased in the WT and the PvABAGT-overexpressing lines with high levels of ABA-GE only in the transgenic plants. Our findings suggest that the PvABAGT gene could play a role in ABA homeostasis during development and stress responses in bean and its overexpression in Arabidopsis did not alter ABA homeostasis during dehydration stress. PMID:25747288

  12. Diversity and Evolution of AbaR Genomic Resistance Islands in Acinetobacter baumannii Strains of European Clone I▿†

    PubMed Central

    Krizova, Lenka; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Nemec, Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    To assess the diversity of AbaR genomic resistance islands in Acinetobacter baumannii European clone I (MLST clonal complex 1), we investigated 26 multidrug-resistant strains of this major clone isolated from hospitals in 21 cities of 10 European countries between 1984 and 2005. Each strain harbored an AbaR structure integrated at the same position in the chromosomal ATPase gene. AbaR3, including four subtypes based on variations in class 1 integron cassettes, and AbaR10 were found in 15 and 2 strains, respectively, whereas a new, unique AbaR variant was discovered in each of the other 9 strains. These new variants, designated AbaR11 to AbaR19 (19.8 kb to 57.5 kb), seem to be truncated derivatives of AbaR3, likely resulting from the deletions of its internal parts mediated by either IS26 elements (AbaR12 to AbaR19) or homologous recombination (AbaR11). AbaR3 was detected in all 10 strains isolated in 1984 to 1991, while AbaR11 to AbaR19 were carried only by strains isolated since 1997. Our results and those from previous publications suggest that AbaR3 is the original form of AbaR in European clone I, which may have provided strains of the lineage with a selective advantage facilitating their spread in European hospitals in the 1980s or before. PMID:21537009

  13. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research. PMID:23619467

  14. Rheology and Relaxation Timescales of ABA Triblock Polymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andrew; Lodge, Timothy

    When dissolved in a midblock selective solvent, ABA polymers form gels composed of aggregated end block micelles bridged by the midblocks. While much effort has been devoted to the study of the structure of these systems, the dynamics of these systems has received less attention. We examine the underlying mechanism of shear relaxation of ABA triblock polymer gels, especially as a function of chain length, composition, and concentration. Recent work using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering of polystyrene (PS)-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP) in squalane has elucidated many aspects of the dynamics of diblock chain exchange. By using rheology to study bulk relaxation phenomena of the triblock equivalent, PS-PEP-PS, we apply the knowledge gained from the chain exchange studies to bridge the gap between the molecular and macroscopic relaxation phenomena in PS-PEP-PS triblock gels.

  15. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research. PMID:23619467

  16. Common and unique elements of the ABA-regulated transcriptome of Arabidopsis guard cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the presence of drought and other desiccating stresses, plants synthesize and redistribute the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA promotes plant water conservation by acting on specialized cells in the leaf epidermis, guard cells, which border and regulate the apertures of stomatal pores through which transpirational water loss occurs. Following ABA exposure, solute uptake into guard cells is rapidly inhibited and solute loss is promoted, resulting in inhibition of stomatal opening and promotion of stomatal closure, with consequent plant water conservation. There is a wealth of information on the guard cell signaling mechanisms underlying these rapid ABA responses. To investigate ABA regulation of gene expression in guard cells in a systematic genome-wide manner, we analyzed data from global transcriptomes of guard cells generated with Affymetrix ATH1 microarrays, and compared these results to ABA regulation of gene expression in leaves and other tissues. Results The 1173 ABA-regulated genes of guard cells identified by our study share significant overlap with ABA-regulated genes of other tissues, and are associated with well-defined ABA-related promoter motifs such as ABREs and DREs. However, we also computationally identified a unique cis-acting motif, GTCGG, associated with ABA-induction of gene expression specifically in guard cells. In addition, approximately 300 genes showing ABA-regulation unique to this cell type were newly uncovered by our study. Within the ABA-regulated gene set of guard cells, we found that many of the genes known to encode ion transporters associated with stomatal opening are down-regulated by ABA, providing one mechanism for long-term maintenance of stomatal closure during drought. We also found examples of both negative and positive feedback in the transcriptional regulation by ABA of known ABA-signaling genes, particularly with regard to the PYR/PYL/RCAR class of soluble ABA receptors and their downstream targets

  17. Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 and Its Regulatory Protein Inhibitor 2 Negatively Regulate ABA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Xie, Shaojun; Batelli, Giorgia; Wang, Bangshing; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xing, Lu; Lei, Mingguang; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The core ABA signaling pathway consists of three major components: ABA receptor (PYR1/PYLs), type 2C Protein Phosphatase (PP2C) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Nevertheless, the complexity of ABA signaling remains to be explored. To uncover new components of ABA signal transduction pathways, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for SnRK2-interacting proteins. We found that Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 (TOPP1) and its regulatory protein, At Inhibitor-2 (AtI-2), physically interact with SnRK2s and also with PYLs. TOPP1 inhibited the kinase activity of SnRK2.6, and this inhibition could be enhanced by AtI-2. Transactivation assays showed that TOPP1 and AtI-2 negatively regulated the SnRK2.2/3/6-mediated activation of the ABA responsive reporter gene RD29B, supporting a negative role of TOPP1 and AtI-2 in ABA signaling. Consistent with these findings, topp1 and ati-2 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivities to ABA and salt treatments, and transcriptome analysis of TOPP1 and AtI-2 knockout plants revealed an increased expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes in the mutants. Taken together, our results uncover TOPP1 and AtI-2 as negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:26943172

  18. Membrane-associated transcription factor peptidase, site-2 protease, antagonizes ABA signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shun-Fan; Sun, Le; Valdés, Ana Elisa; Engström, Peter; Song, Ze-Ting; Lu, Sun-Jie; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Abscisic acid plays important roles in maintaining seed dormancy while gibberellins (GA) and other phytohormones antagonize ABA to promote germination. However, how ABA signaling is desensitized during the transition from dormancy to germination is still poorly understood. We functionally characterized the role of membrane-associated transcription factor peptidase, site-2 protease (S2P), in ABA signaling during seed germination in Arabidopsis. Genetic analysis showed that loss-of-function of S2P conferred high ABA sensitivity during seed germination, and expression of the activated form of membrane-associated transcription factor bZIP17, in which the transmembrane domain and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen-facing C-terminus were deleted, in the S2P mutant rescued its ABA-sensitive phenotype. MYC and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged bZIP17 were processed and translocated from the ER to the nucleus in response to ABA treatment. Furthermore, genes encoding negative regulators of ABA signaling, such as the transcription factor ATHB7 and its target genes HAB1, HAB2, HAI1 and AHG3, were up-regulated in seeds of the wild-type upon ABA treatment; this up-regulation was impaired in seeds of S2P mutants. Our results suggest that S2P desensitizes ABA signaling during seed germination through regulating the activation of the membrane-associated transcription factor bZIP17 and therefore controlling the expression level of genes encoding negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:25919792

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of ABA Effects on Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signaling during Tomato Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Jianwen; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Khan, Zia Ullah; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-01-01

    ABA has been widely acknowledged to regulate ethylene biosynthesis and signaling during fruit ripening, but the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between these two hormones are largely unexplored. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment obviously promoted fruit ripening as well as ethylene emission, whereas NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) application showed the opposite biological effects. Combined RNA-seq with time-course RT-PCR analysis, our study not only helped to illustrate how ABA regulated itself at the transcription level, but also revealed that ABA can facilitate ethylene production and response probably by regulating some crucial genes such as LeACS4, LeACO1, GR and LeETR6. In addition, investigation on the fruits treated with 1-MCP immediately after ABA exposure revealed that ethylene might be essential for the induction of ABA biosynthesis and signaling at the onset of fruit ripening. Furthermore, some specific transcription factors (TFs) known as regulators of ethylene synthesis and sensibility (e.g. MADS-RIN, TAGL1, CNR and NOR) were also observed to be ABA responsive, which implied that ABA influenced ethylene action possibly through the regulation of these TFs expression. Our comprehensive physiological and molecular-level analysis shed light on the mechanism of cross-talk between ABA and ethylene during the process of tomato fruit ripening. PMID:27100326

  20. The short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase ABA2 catalyzes the conversion of xanthoxin to abscisic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    González-Guzmán, Miguel; Apostolova, Nadezda; Bellés, José M; Barrero, José M; Piqueras, Pedro; Ponce, María R; Micol, José L; Serrano, Ramón; Rodríguez, Pedro L

    2002-08-01

    Mutants able to germinate and perform early growth in medium containing a high NaCl concentration were identified during the course of two independent screenings and named salt resistant (sre) and salobreño (sañ). The sre and sañ mutants also were able to germinate in high-osmoticum medium, indicating that they are osmotolerant in a germination assay. Complementation analyses revealed that sre1-1, sre1-2, sañ3-1, and sañ3-2 were alleles of the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis ABA2 gene. A map-based cloning strategy allowed the identification of the ABA2 gene and molecular characterization of four new aba2 alleles. The ABA2 gene product belongs to the family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, which are known to be NAD- or NADP-dependent oxidoreductases. Recombinant ABA2 protein produced in Escherichia coli exhibits a K(m) value for xanthoxin of 19 micro M and catalyzes in a NAD-dependent manner the conversion of xanthoxin to abscisic aldehyde, as determined by HPLC-mass spectrometry. The ABA2 mRNA is expressed constitutively in all plant organs examined and is not upregulated in response to osmotic stress. The results of this work are discussed in the context of previous genetic and biochemical evidence regarding ABA biosynthesis, confirming the xanthoxin-->abscisic aldehyde-->ABA transition as the last steps of the major ABA biosynthetic pathway. PMID:12172025

  1. Comprehensive Analysis of ABA Effects on Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signaling during Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Bu, Jianwen; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Khan, Zia Ullah; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-01-01

    ABA has been widely acknowledged to regulate ethylene biosynthesis and signaling during fruit ripening, but the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between these two hormones are largely unexplored. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment obviously promoted fruit ripening as well as ethylene emission, whereas NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) application showed the opposite biological effects. Combined RNA-seq with time-course RT-PCR analysis, our study not only helped to illustrate how ABA regulated itself at the transcription level, but also revealed that ABA can facilitate ethylene production and response probably by regulating some crucial genes such as LeACS4, LeACO1, GR and LeETR6. In addition, investigation on the fruits treated with 1-MCP immediately after ABA exposure revealed that ethylene might be essential for the induction of ABA biosynthesis and signaling at the onset of fruit ripening. Furthermore, some specific transcription factors (TFs) known as regulators of ethylene synthesis and sensibility (e.g. MADS-RIN, TAGL1, CNR and NOR) were also observed to be ABA responsive, which implied that ABA influenced ethylene action possibly through the regulation of these TFs expression. Our comprehensive physiological and molecular-level analysis shed light on the mechanism of cross-talk between ABA and ethylene during the process of tomato fruit ripening. PMID:27100326

  2. Acid-base Balance in Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding*

    PubMed Central

    Northfield, T. C.; Kirby, B. J.; Tattersfield, Anne E.

    1971-01-01

    Acid-base balance has been studied in 21 patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A low plasma bicarbonate concentration was found in nine patients, accompanied in each case by a base deficit of more than 3 mEq/litre, indicating a metabolic acidosis. Three patients had a low blood pH. Hyperlactataemia appeared to be a major cause of the acidosis. This was not accompanied by a raised blood pyruvate concentration. The hyperlactataemia could not be accounted for on the basis of hyperventilation, intravenous infusion of dextrose, or arterial hypoxaemia. Before blood transfusion it was most pronounced in patients who were clinically shocked, suggesting that it may have resulted from poor tissue perfusion and anaerobic glycolysis. Blood transfusion resulted in a rise in lactate concentration in seven patients who were not clinically shocked, and failed to reverse a severe uncompensated acidosis in a patient who was clinically shocked. These effects of blood transfusion are probably due to the fact that red blood cells in stored bank blood, with added acid-citrate-dextrose solution, metabolize the dextrose anaerobically to lactic acid. Monitoring of acid-base balance is recommended in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding who are clinically shocked. A metabolic acidosis can then be corrected with intravenous sodium bicarbonate. PMID:5313902

  3. Mathematical modeling of acid-base physiology

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F.

    2015-01-01

    pH is one of the most important parameters in life, influencing virtually every biological process at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body level. Thus, for cells, it is critical to regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and, for multicellular organisms, to regulate extracellular pH (pHo). pHi regulation depends on the opposing actions of plasma-membrane transporters that tend to increase pHi, and others that tend to decrease pHi. In addition, passive fluxes of uncharged species (e.g., CO2, NH3) and charged species (e.g., HCO3− , NH4+) perturb pHi. These movements not only influence one another, but also perturb the equilibria of a multitude of intracellular and extracellular buffers. Thus, even at the level of a single cell, perturbations in acid-base reactions, diffusion, and transport are so complex that it is impossible to understand them without a quantitative model. Here we summarize some mathematical models developed to shed light onto the complex interconnected events triggered by acids-base movements. We then describe a mathematical model of a spherical cell–which to our knowledge is the first one capable of handling a multitude of buffer reaction–that our team has recently developed to simulate changes in pHi and pHo caused by movements of acid-base equivalents across the plasma membrane of a Xenopus oocyte. Finally, we extend our work to a consideration of the effects of simultaneous CO2 and HCO3− influx into a cell, and envision how future models might extend to other cell types (e.g., erythrocytes) or tissues (e.g., renal proximal-tubule epithelium) important for whole-body pH homeostasis. PMID:25617697

  4. ABA-HYPERSENSITIVE BTB/POZ PROTEIN 1 functions as a negative regulator in ABA-mediated inhibition of germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hani; Kim, Soon-Hee; Seo, Dong Hye; Chung, Sunglan; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Woo Taek; Lee, Jae-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    To elucidate the contribution of CRL3-ABA-mediated responses, we attempted to find CRL3 substrate receptors involved in ABA signaling. One gene named ABA-HYPERSENSITIVE BTB/POZ PROTEIN 1 (AHT1) was upregulated more than 2.5 times by ABA, and its coding region possessed a BTB/POZ domain, which is the common feature of CRL3 substrate receptors. Loss of AHT1 led to retardation of the germination process, not inhibition of root growth. AHT1 transcripts also increased in response to mannitol, NaCl and drought treatments at the seedling stage and in dry seeds. High expression of AHT1 in dry seeds was inhibited by the defect of ABA signaling components such as ABI1, ABI3 and SRKs indicating that the expression of AHT1 is dependent on ABA signaling. Among bZIP transcription factors participating in ABA signaling, the losses of ABI5/DPBF1, AREB1/ABF2, EEL/DPBF4 and DPBF2/bZIP67 resulted in reduced AHT1 expression, showing that these transcription factors play a positive role in ABA-induced AHT1 expression. While loss of AHT1 did not affect the expression pattern of NCED3, ABI2, SRKs and AREB/ABF genes, it led to hyperinduction of ABI5/DPBF genes such as ABI5/DPBF1, EEL/DPBF4 and AREB3/DPBF3, which are mainly involved in seed development and germination, as well as ABA-inducible genes transactivated by ABI5. Overall, these findings indicate that AHT1 negatively regulates ABA-mediated inhibition of germination, possibly by repressing the expression of a subset of ABI5/DPBF subfamily genes, and that AHT1 may be regulated by a negative feedback process through its linkage with a part of ABI5/DPBF proteins. PMID:26667153

  5. Bipolar Membranes for Acid Base Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthamatten, Mitchell; Roddecha, Supacharee; Jorne, Jacob; Coughlan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries can provide grid-scale electricity storage to match power generation with consumption and promote renewable energy sources. Flow batteries offer modular and flexible design, low cost per kWh and high efficiencies. A novel flow battery concept will be presented based on acid-base neutralization where protons (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions react electrochemically to produce water. The large free energy of this highly reversible reaction can be stored chemically, and, upon discharge, can be harvested as usable electricity. The acid-base flow battery concept avoids the use of a sluggish oxygen electrode and utilizes the highly reversible hydrogen electrode, thus eliminating the need for expensive noble metal catalysts. The proposed flow battery is a hybrid of a battery and a fuel cell---hydrogen gas storing chemical energy is produced at one electrode and is immediately consumed at the other electrode. The two electrodes are exposed to low and high pH solutions, and these solutions are separated by a hybrid membrane containing a hybrid cation and anion exchange membrane (CEM/AEM). Membrane design will be discussed, along with ion-transport data for synthesized membranes.

  6. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  7. A Putative PP2C-Encoding Gene Negatively Regulates ABA Signaling in Populus euphratica

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinhuan; Zhang, Dongzhi; Zhang, Chong; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun; Tian, Qianqian

    2015-01-01

    A PP2C homolog gene was cloned from the drought-treated cDNA library of Populus euphratica. Multiple sequence alignment analysis suggested that the gene is a potential ortholog of HAB1. The expression of this HAB1 ortholog (PeHAB1) was markedly induced by drought and moderately induced by ABA. To characterize its function in ABA signaling, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing this gene. Transgenic lines exhibited reduced responses to exogenous ABA and reduced tolerance to drought compared to wide-type lines. Yeast two-hybrid analyses indicated that PeHAB1 could interact with the ABA receptor PYL4 in an ABA-independent manner. Taken together; these results indicated that PeHAB1 is a new negative regulator of ABA responses in poplar. PMID:26431530

  8. A Putative PP2C-Encoding Gene Negatively Regulates ABA Signaling in Populus euphratica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinhuan; Zhang, Dongzhi; Zhang, Chong; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun; Tian, Qianqian

    2015-01-01

    A PP2C homolog gene was cloned from the drought-treated cDNA library of Populus euphratica. Multiple sequence alignment analysis suggested that the gene is a potential ortholog of HAB1. The expression of this HAB1 ortholog (PeHAB1) was markedly induced by drought and moderately induced by ABA. To characterize its function in ABA signaling, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing this gene. Transgenic lines exhibited reduced responses to exogenous ABA and reduced tolerance to drought compared to wide-type lines. Yeast two-hybrid analyses indicated that PeHAB1 could interact with the ABA receptor PYL4 in an ABA-independent manner. Taken together; these results indicated that PeHAB1 is a new negative regulator of ABA responses in poplar. PMID:26431530

  9. Teaching Acid/Base Physiology in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friis, Ulla G.; Plovsing, Ronni; Hansen, Klaus; Laursen, Bent G.; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    Acid/base homeostasis is one of the most difficult subdisciplines of physiology for medical students to master. A different approach, where theory and practice are linked, might help students develop a deeper understanding of acid/base homeostasis. We therefore set out to develop a laboratory exercise in acid/base physiology that would provide…

  10. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  11. Unique drought resistance functions of the highly ABA-induced clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs.

    PubMed

    Bhaskara, Govinal Badiger; Nguyen, Thao Thi; Verslues, Paul E

    2012-09-01

    Six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) have established abscisic acid (ABA) signaling roles; however, phenotypic roles of the remaining three "HAI" PP2Cs, Highly ABA-Induced1 (HAI1), AKT1-Interacting PP2C1/HAI2, and HAI3, have remained unclear. HAI PP2C mutants had enhanced proline and osmoregulatory solute accumulation at low water potential, while mutants of other clade A PP2Cs had no or lesser effect on these drought resistance traits. hai1-2 also had increased expression of abiotic stress-associated genes, including dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins, but decreased expression of several defense-related genes. Conversely, the HAI PP2Cs had relatively less impact on several ABA sensitivity phenotypes. HAI PP2C single mutants were unaffected in ABA sensitivity, while double and triple mutants were moderately hypersensitive in postgermination ABA response but ABA insensitive in germination. The HAI PP2Cs interacted most strongly with PYL5 and PYL7 to -10 of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family, with PYL7 to -10 interactions being relatively little affected by ABA in yeast two-hybrid assays. HAI1 had especially limited PYL interaction. Reduced expression of the main HAI1-interacting PYLs at low water potential when HAI1 expression was strongly induced also suggests limited PYL regulation and a role of HAI1 activity in negatively regulating specific drought resistance phenotypes. Overall, the HAI PP2Cs had greatest effect on ABA-independent low water potential phenotypes and lesser effect on classical ABA sensitivity phenotypes. Both this and their distinct PYL interaction demonstrate a new level of functional differentiation among the clade A PP2Cs and a point of cross talk between ABA-dependent and ABA-independent drought-associated signaling. PMID:22829320

  12. Dual Function of NAC072 in ABF3-Mediated ABA-Responsive Gene Regulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyun; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Meijuan; Yan, Youcheng; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) domain proteins play various roles in plant growth and stress responses. Arabidopsis NAC transcription factor NAC072 has been reported as a transcriptional activator in Abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive gene expression. However, the exact function of NAC072 in ABA signaling is still elusive. In this study, we present evidence for the interrelation between NAC072 and ABA-responsive element binding factor 3 (ABF3) that act as a positive regulator of ABA-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis. The transcript of NAC072 is up-regulated by ABF3 in ABA response, and NAC072 protein interacts with ABF3. Enhanced ABA sensitivity occurs in nac072 mutant plants that overexpressed ABF3. However, overexpression of NAC072 weakened the ABA sensitivity in the abf3 mutant plants, but instead of recovering the ABA sensitivity of abf3. NAC072 and ABF3 cooperate to regulate RD29A expression, but are antagonistic when regulating RD29B expression. Therefore, NAC072 displays a dual function in ABF3-mediated ABA-responsive gene regulation. PMID:27486475

  13. An ABA down-regulated bHLH transcription repressor gene, bHLH129 regulates root elongation and ABA response when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hainan; Guo, Hongyan; Dai, Xuemei; Cheng, Yuxin; Zheng, Kaijie; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in modulating plant responses to environmental stresses. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are one of the largest transcription factor families that regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development, as well as of plant metabolism in Arabidopsis. Several bHLH transcription factors have been shown to be involved in the regulation of ABA signaling. We report here the characterization of bHLH129, a bHLH transcription factor in Arabidopsis. We found that the expression level of bHLH129 was reduced in response to exogenously applied ABA, and elevated in the ABA biosynthesis mutant aba1-5. Florescence observation of transgenic plants expressing bHLH129-GFP showed that bHLH129 was localized in the nucleus, and transient expression of bHLH129 in protoplasts inhibited reporter gene expression. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of the 35S promoter, bHLH129 promoted root elongation, and the transgenic plants were less sensitivity to ABA in root elongation assays. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that ABA response of several genes involved in ABA signaling, including ABI1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 were altered in the transgenic plants overexpressing bHLH129. Taken together, our study suggests that bHLH129 is a transcription repressor that negatively regulates ABA response in Arabidopsis. PMID:26625868

  14. Jasmonic acid accumulation and systemic photosynthetic and electrical changes in locally burned wild type tomato, ABA-deficient sitiens mutants and sitiens pre-treated by ABA.

    PubMed

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nožková-Hlaváčková, Vladimíra; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Nauš, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Burning the terminal leaflet of younger tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaf caused local and systemic changes in the surface electrical potential (SEP) and gas exchange (GE) parameters. The local and systemic accumulation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was measured 85 min after burning. The experiments were conducted with wild type (WT) plants, ABA-deficient mutant sitiens (SIT) and ABA pre-treated SIT plants (SITA). First changes in SEP were detected within 1.5 min after burning and were followed by a decrease in GE parameters within 3-6 min in WT, SIT and SITA plants. GE and SEP time courses of SIT were different and wave amplitudes of SEP of SIT were lower compared to WT and SITA. ABA content in WT and SITA control plants was similar and substantially higher compared to SIT, JA content was similar among WT, SIT and SITA. While changes in the ABA content in systemic leaves have not been recorded after burning, the systemic JA content was substantially increased in WT and more in SIT and SITA. The results suggest that ABA content governs the systemic reaction of GE and the SEP shape upon local burning. ABA, JA and SEP participate in triggering the GE reaction. The ABA shortage in the SIT in the reaction to burning is partly compensated by an enhanced JA accumulation. This JA compensation is maintained even in SIT endogenously supplied with ABA. A correlation between the systemic JA content and changes in GE parameters or SEP was not found. PMID:22391126

  15. Physiological roles of acid-base sensors.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis is essential for life. The macromolecules upon which living organisms depend are sensitive to pH changes, and physiological systems use the equilibrium between carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and protons to buffer their pH. Biological processes and environmental insults are constantly challenging an organism's pH; therefore, to maintain a consistent and proper pH, organisms need sensors that measure pH and that elicit appropriate responses. Mammals use multiple sensors for measuring both intracellular and extracellular pH, and although some mammalian pH sensors directly measure protons, it has recently become apparent that many pH-sensing systems measure pH via bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase. PMID:25340964

  16. Accounting for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Cooperative Accountability Project.

    This publication reports on two Regional Educational Accountability Conferences on Techniques sponsored by the Cooperative Accountability Project. Accountability is described as an "emotionally-charged issue" and an "operationally demanding concept." Overviewing accountability, major speakers emphasized that accountability is a means toward…

  17. The Citrus ABA signalosome: identification and transcriptional regulation during sweet orange fruit ripening and leaf dehydration.

    PubMed

    Romero, Paco; Lafuente, María T; Rodrigo, María J

    2012-08-01

    The abscisic acid (ABA) signalling core in plants include the cytosolic ABA receptors (PYR/PYL/RCARs), the clade-A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2CAs), and the subclass III SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s). The aim of this work was to identify these ABA perception system components in sweet orange and to determine the influence of endogenous ABA on their transcriptional regulation during fruit development and ripening, taking advantage of the comparative analysis between a wild-type and a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant. Transcriptional changes in the ABA signalosome during leaf dehydration were also studied. Six PYR/PYL/RCAR, five PP2CA, and two subclass III SnRK2 genes, homologous to those of Arabidopsis, were identified in the Citrus genome. The high degree of homology and conserved motifs for protein folding and for functional activity suggested that these Citrus proteins are bona fide core elements of ABA perception in orange. Opposite expression patterns of CsPYL4 and CsPYL5 and ABA accumulation were found during ripening, although there were few differences between varieties. In contrast, changes in expression of CsPP2CA genes during ripening paralleled those of ABA content and agreeed with the relevant differences between wild-type and mutant fruit transcript accumulation. CsSnRK2 gene expression continuously decreased with ripening and no remarkable differences were found between cultivars. Overall, dehydration had a minor effect on CsPYR/PYL/RCAR and CsSnRK2 expression in vegetative tissue, whereas CsABI1, CsAHG1, and CsAHG3 were highly induced by water stress. The global results suggest that responsiveness to ABA changes during citrus fruit ripening, and leaf dehydration was higher in the CsPP2CA gene negative regulators than in the other ABA signalosome components. PMID:22888124

  18. ABA-induced CCCH tandem zinc finger protein OsC3H47 decreases ABA sensitivity and promotes drought tolerance in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Liu, Bohan; Xu, Mengyun; Jamil, Muhammad; Wang, Guoping

    2015-08-14

    Water deficit causes multiple negative impacts on plants, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, abscisic acid (ABA) induction, stomatal closure, and decreased photosynthesis. Here, we characterized OsC3H47, which belongs to CCCH zinc-finger families, as a drought-stress response gene. It can be strongly induced by NaCl, PEG, ABA, and drought conditions. Overexpression of OsC3H47 significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stresses in rice seedlings, which indicates that OsC3H47 plays important roles in post-stress recovery. However, overexpression of OsC3H47 reduced the ABA sensitivity of rice seedlings. This suggests that OsC3H47 is a newly discovered gene that can control rice drought-stress response, and it may play an important role in ABA feedback and post-transcription processes. PMID:26047696

  19. The HAB1 PP2C is inhibited by ABA-dependent PYL10 interaction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Shi, Chaowei; Sun, Demeng; He, Yao; Lai, Chaohua; Lv, Pei; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Longhua; Wu, Fangming; Tian, Changlin

    2015-01-01

    PYL10 is a monomeric abscisic acid (ABA) receptor that inhibits protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies reported that the PP2C phosphatase inhibition by PYL10 was ABA-independent. Here, systematic PYL10 biochemical studies demonstrated that PYL10 activity was ABA-dependent, and the previously reported studies was interfered by the presence of BSA in the commercial kit. To investigate dynamic mechanism of how ABA binding to PYL10 induces PP2C phosphatase inhibiting activity, solution NMR relaxation analysis of apo-PYL10 and PYL10/ABA were conducted following backbone resonance assignments. Reduced spectrum density mapping of the backbone relaxation data revealed that PYL10 was more flexible in ABA bound form than apo-PYL10, indicating an increased conformational entropy upon ligand binding. Moreover, to illustrate conformation exchanges of PYL10 upon ABA binding, NMR line shape analysis was performed with increasing concentrations of ABA, and the results indicated that PYL10 backbone conformational changes occur at different time scales. PMID:26044871

  20. Overexpression of an ABA biosynthesis gene using a stress inducible promoter enhances drought resistance in petunia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants respond to drought stress by closing their stomata and reducing transpirational water loss. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates growth and stomatal closure particularly when the plant is under environmental stresses. One of the key enzymes in the ABA biosynthesis of higher plants ...

  1. ABA, ROS and NO are key players during switchgrass seed germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy and germination are complex physiological processes usually under hormonal control. Germination of seeds from many plants including switchgrass, are inhibited by ABA and promoted by NO and by ROS. However, ABA apparently requires both ROS and NO as intermediates in its action, with R...

  2. Aba Women's Rebellion [And] Hoda Sha'arawi: Nationalist and Feminist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    Two modules comprise this document--one on the Aba women's rebellion in Nigeria and one on the Egyptian feminist movement. The paper on the Aba women's rebellion in Nigeria presents a background discussion of the women's movement and colonialism in Nigeria. The larger part of the paper is a lesson plan which investigates the women's rebellion…

  3. None of the As in ABA Stand for Autism: Dispelling the Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenburger, Karola; Keenan, Mickey

    2009-01-01

    Interventions that are based on scientific principles of applied behaviour analysis (ABA) are recognised as effective treatments for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by many governments and professionals (Office of the Surgeon General, 2000; Ontario IBI Initiative, 2002). However, many still view ABA as one of many treatments for…

  4. Belowground ABA boosts aboveground production of DIMBOA and primes induction of chlorogenic acid in maize.

    PubMed

    Erb, Matthias; Gordon-Weeks, Ruth; Flors, Victor; Camañes, Gemma; Turlings, Ted C J; Ton, Jurriaan

    2009-07-01

    Plants are important mediators between above- and belowground herbivores. Consequently, interactions between root and shoot defenses can have far-reaching impacts on entire food webs. We recently reported that infestation of maize roots by larvae of the beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera induced shoot resistance against herbivores and pathogens. Root herbivory also enhanced aboveground DIMBOA and primed for enhanced induction of chlorogenic acid, two secondary metabolites that have been associated with plant stress resistance. Interestingly, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) emerged as a putative long-distance signal in the regulation of these systemic defenses. In this addendum, we have investigated the role of root-derived ABA in aboveground regulation of DIMBOA and the phenolic compounds chlorogenic acid, caffeic and ferulic acid. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of ABA in relation to defense against the leaf herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. Soil-drench treatment with ABA mimicked root herbivore-induced accumulation of DIMBOA in the leaves. Similarly, ABA mimicked aboveground priming of chlorogenic acid production, causing augmented induction of this compound after subsequent shoot attack by S. littoralis caterpillars. These findings confirm our notion that ABA acts as an important signal in the regulation of aboveground defenses during belowground herbivory. However, based on our previous finding that ABA alone is not sufficient to trigger aboveground resistance against S. littoralis caterpillars, our results also suggest that the ABA-inducible effects on DIMBOA and chlorogenic acid are not solely responsible for root herbivore-induced resistance against S. littoralis. PMID:19820311

  5. The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium accumulation of two ecotypes of Solanum photeinocarpum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Lin, Lijin; Luo, Li; Liao, Ming'an; Lv, Xiulan; Wang, Zhihui; Liang, Dong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Xun; Lai, Yunsong; Tang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The study of the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium (Cd) accumulation of two ecotypes (mining and farmland) of Solanum photeinocarpum was operated through a pot experiment. The results showed that the biomass and chlorophyll content of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum increased with increasing ABA concentration. Applying exogenous ABA increased Cd content in the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum. The maximum Cd contents in shoots of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum were obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA; shoot Cd contents respectively for the mining and farmland ecotypes were 33.92 and 24.71% higher than those for the control. Applying exogenous ABA also increased Cd extraction by the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum, and the highest Cd extraction was obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA with 569.42 μg/plant in shoots of the mining ecotype and 520.51 μg/plant in shoots of the farmland ecotype respectively. Therefore, exogenous ABA can be used for enhancing the Cd extraction ability of S. photeinocarpum, and 20 μmol/L ABA was the optimal dose. PMID:26899030

  6. From the Classroom to the Family Room: Using ABA for Best Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to supporting individuals with disabilities including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) can be an invaluable tool in understanding and changing behavior. More than a technique or method, ABA is a disciplined approach rooted in science to teach specific skills and then reinforce them so individuals can…

  7. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement. PMID:27299601

  8. The role of ABA in triggering ethylene biosynthesis and ripening of tomato fruit

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Bing; Leng, Ping

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand more details about the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in fruit ripening and senescence of tomato, two cDNAs (LeNCED1 and LeNCED2) which encode 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) as a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis, two cDNAs (LeACS2 and LeACS4) which encode 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, and one cDNA (LeACO1) which encodes ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis were cloned from tomato fruit using a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) approach. The relationship between ABA and ethylene during ripening was also investigated. Among six sampling times in tomato fruits, the LeNCED1 gene was highly expressed only at the breaker stage when the ABA content becomes high. After this, the LeACS2, LeACS4, and LeACO1 genes were expressed with some delay. The change in pattern of ACO activity was in accordance with ethylene production reaching its peak at the pink stage. The maximum ABA content preceded ethylene production in both the seeds and the flesh. The peak value of ABA, ACC, and ACC oxidase activity, and ethylene production all started to increase earlier in seeds than in flesh tissues, although they occurred at different ripening stages. Exogenous ABA treatment increased the ABA content in both flesh and seed, inducing the expression of both ACS and ACO genes, and promoting ethylene synthesis and fruit ripening, while treatment with fluridone or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited them, delaying fruit ripening and softening. Based on the results obtained in this study, it was concluded that LeNCED1 initiates ABA biosynthesis at the onset of fruit ripening, and might act as an original inducer, and ABA accumulation might play a key role in the regulation of ripeness and senescence of tomato fruit. PMID:19246595

  9. AbaA Regulates Conidiogenesis in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Seo, Young-Su; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is a prominent pathogen that infects major cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize. Both sexual (ascospores) and asexual (conidia) spores are produced in F. graminearum. Since conidia are responsible for secondary infection in disease development, our objective of the present study was to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum based on the framework previously described in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we firstly identified and functionally characterized the ortholog of AbaA, which is involved in differentiation from vegetative hyphae to conidia and known to be absent in F. graminearum. Deletion of abaA did not affect vegetative growth, sexual development, or virulence, but conidium production was completely abolished and thin hyphae grew from abnormally shaped phialides in abaA deletion mutants. Overexpression of abaA resulted in pleiotropic defects such as impaired sexual and asexual development, retarded conidium germination, and reduced trichothecene production. AbaA localized to the nuclei of phialides and terminal cells of mature conidia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans AbaA and the conserved AbaA-WetA pathway demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for AbaA activity are conserved in F. graminearum as they are in A. nidulans. Results from RNA-sequencing analysis suggest that AbaA plays a pivotal role in conidiation by regulating cell cycle pathways and other conidiation-related genes. Thus, the conserved roles of the AbaA ortholog in both A. nidulans and F. graminearum give new insight into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24039821

  10. Renal acid-base metabolism after ischemia.

    PubMed

    Holloway, J C; Phifer, T; Henderson, R; Welbourne, T C

    1986-05-01

    The response of the kidney to ischemia-induced cellular acidosis was followed over the immediate one hr post-ischemia reflow period. Clearance and extraction experiments as well as measurement of cortical intracellular pH (pHi) were performed on Inactin-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Arteriovenous concentration differences and para-aminohippurate extraction were obtained by cannulating the left renal vein. Base production was monitored as bicarbonate released into the renal vein and urine; net base production was related to the renal handling of glutamine and ammonia as well as to renal oxygen consumption and pHi. After a 15 min control period, the left renal artery was snared for one-half hr followed by release and four consecutive 15 min reflow periods. During the control period, cortical cell pHi measured by [14C]-5,5-Dimethyl-2,4-Oxazolidinedione distribution was 7.07 +/- 0.08, and Q-O2 was 14.1 +/- 2.2 micromoles/min; neither net glutamine utilization nor net bicarbonate generation occurred. After 30 min of ischemia, renal tissue pH fell to 6.6 +/- 0.15. However, within 45 min of reflow, cortical cell pH returned and exceeded the control value, 7.33 +/- 0.06 vs. 7.15 +/- 0.08. This increase in pHi was associated with a significant rise in cellular metabolic rate, Q-O2 increased to 20.3 +/- 6.4 micromoles/min. Corresponding with cellular alkalosis was a net production of bicarbonate and a net ammonia uptake and glutamine release; urinary acidification was abolished. These results are consistent with a nonexcretory renal metabolic base generating mechanism governing cellular acid base homeostasis following ischemia. PMID:3723929

  11. Self-assembly of ABA triblock copolymers under soft confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yuping; An, Jian; Zhu, Yutian

    2015-05-01

    Using Monte Carlo method, the self-assembly of ABA triblock copolymers under soft confinement is investigated in this study. The soft confinement is achieved by a poor solvent environment for the polymer, which makes the polymer aggregate into a droplet. Various effects, including the block length ratio, the solvent quality for the blocks B, and the incompatibility between blocks A and B, on the micellar structures induced by soft confinement are examined. By increasing the solvent quality of B blocks, the micellar structure transforms from stacked lamella to bud-like structure, and then to onion-like structure for A5B8A5 triblock copolymers, while the inner micellar structure changes from spherical phase to various cylindrical phase, such as inner single helix, double helixes, stacked rings and cage-like structures, for A7B4A7 triblock copolymers. Moreover, the formation pathways of some typical aggregates are examined to illustrate their growth mechanisms.

  12. Dwarf apple MbDREB1 enhances plant tolerance to low temperature, drought, and salt stress via both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Chi, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Chang-Ai; Li, Yan-Ze; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Xiu-Ming; Wang, Yan-Fang; Wang, Fa-Wei; Zhang, Chuang; Liu, Yang; Zong, Jun-Mei; Li, Hai-Yan

    2011-02-01

    In higher plants, DREB1/CBF-type transcription factors play an important role in tolerance to low temperatures, drought, and high-salt stress. These transcription factors bind to CRT/DRE elements in promoter regions of target genes, regulating their expression. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel gene encoding a DREB1 transcription factor from dwarf apple, Malus baccata (GenBank accession number: EF582842). Expression of MbDREB1 was induced by cold, drought, and salt stress, and also in response to exogenous ABA. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that MbDREB1 localizes in the nucleus. A yeast activity assay demonstrated that the MbDREB1 gene encodes a transcription activator, which specifically binds to DRE/CRT elements. Compared with wild-type plants, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing MbDREB1 showed increased tolerance to low temperature, drought, and salt stresses. Analysis of the MbDREB1 promoter revealed an ABA-responsive element (ABRE), an inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1)-like binding site, two MYB recognition sites, and three stress-inducible GT-1 boxes. GUS activities driven by the MbDREB1 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis increased in response to ABA, cold temperature, drought, and salt treatments. Interestingly, the expression of both ABA-independent and ABA-dependent stress-induced genes (COR15a and rd29B, respectively) was activated under normal growth conditions in Arabidopsis overexpressing MbDREB1. These results suggest that MbDREB1 functions as a transcription factor and increases plant tolerance to low temperature, drought, and salt stress via both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways. PMID:20967459

  13. Modular nature of abscisic acid (ABA) response complexes: composite promoter units that are necessary and sufficient for ABA induction of gene expression in barley.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Q; Zhang, P; Ho, T H

    1996-01-01

    The modular nature of the abscisic acid response complex (ABRC), the promoter unit necessary and sufficient for abscisic acid (ABA) induction of gene expression in barley, is defined in this study. We investigated ABA induction of a barley late embrogenesis abundant (Lea) gene, HVA1, and found that the ABRC of this gene consists of a 10-bp box with an ACGT core (ACGT-box) and the 11 bp directly upstream, named coupling element 3 (CE3). Only one copy of this ABRC is sufficient to confer ABA induction when linked to a minimal promoter. Because we previously reported another ABRC in the barley HVA22 gene, which consists of an ACGT-box with a distal coupling element (CE1), exchange experiments were conducted to study the interaction among modular elements in these ABRCs. We show that ACGT-boxes in these ABRCs are interchangeable, indicating that an ACGT-box can interact with either a distal or a proximal coupling element to confer ABA response. However, the two coupling elements are not fully exchangeable. Although CE3 can function either proximal or distal to the ACGT-box, CE1 is only functional at the distal position. The presence of both the distal and the proximal coupling elements has a synergistic effect on the absolute level of expression as well as on ABA induction. These ABRCs function in both seed and vegetative tissues. In seeds, ABA induction of the ABRC containing the proximal CE3, but not the ABRC with the distal CE1, is enhanced in the presence of the transcription regulator Viviparous1, indicating that these two ABRCs are mediated by different ABA signal transduction pathways. PMID:8768371

  14. [Role of NO signal in ABA-induced phenolic acids accumulation in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots].

    PubMed

    Shen, Lihong; Ren, Jiahui; Jin, Wenfang; Wang, Ruijie; Ni, Chunhong; Tong, Mengjiao; Liang, Zongsuo; Yang, Dongfeng

    2016-02-01

    To investigate roles of nitric oxide (NO) signal in accumulations of phenolic acids in abscisic.acid (ABA)-induced Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots, S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were treated with different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-an exogenous NO donor, for 6 days, and contents of phenolic acids in the hairy roots are determined. Then with treatment of ABA and NO scavenger (2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1- oxyl-3-oxide, c-PTIO) or NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME), contents of phenolic acids and expression levels of three key genes involved in phenolic acids biosynthesis were detected. Phenolic acids production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots was most significantly improved by 100 µmoL/L SNP. Contents of RA and salvianolic acid B increased by 3 and 4 folds. ABA significantly improved transcript levels of PAL (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), TAT (tyrosine aminotransferase) and RAS (rosmarinic acid synthase), and increased phenolic acids accumulations. However, with treatments of ABA+c-PTIO or ABA+L-NAME, accumulations of phenolic acids and expression levels of the three key genes were significantly inhibited. Both NO and ABA can increase accumulations of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. NO signal probably mediates the ABA-induced phenolic acids production. PMID:27382772

  15. Endodermal ABA Signaling Promotes Lateral Root Quiescence during Salt Stress in Arabidopsis Seedlings[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Lina; Dietrich, Daniela; Ng, Chong Han; Chan, Penny Mei Yeen; Bhalerao, Rishikesh; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Dinneny, José R.

    2013-01-01

    The endodermal tissue layer is found in the roots of vascular plants and functions as a semipermeable barrier, regulating the transport of solutes from the soil into the vascular stream. As a gateway for solutes, the endodermis may also serve as an important site for sensing and responding to useful or toxic substances in the environment. Here, we show that high salinity, an environmental stress widely impacting agricultural land, regulates growth of the seedling root system through a signaling network operating primarily in the endodermis. We report that salt stress induces an extended quiescent phase in postemergence lateral roots (LRs) whereby the rate of growth is suppressed for several days before recovery begins. Quiescence is correlated with sustained abscisic acid (ABA) response in LRs and is dependent upon genes necessary for ABA biosynthesis, signaling, and transcriptional regulation. We use a tissue-specific strategy to identify the key cell layers where ABA signaling acts to regulate growth. In the endodermis, misexpression of the ABA insensitive1-1 mutant protein, which dominantly inhibits ABA signaling, leads to a substantial recovery in LR growth under salt stress conditions. Gibberellic acid signaling, which antagonizes the ABA pathway, also acts primarily in the endodermis, and we define the crosstalk between these two hormones. Our results identify the endodermis as a gateway with an ABA-dependent guard, which prevents root growth into saline environments. PMID:23341337

  16. ABA-Mediated ROS in Mitochondria Regulate Root Meristem Activity by Controlling PLETHORA Expression in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Jing; He, Junna; Qin, Yingying; Hua, Deping; Duan, Ying; Chen, Zhizhong; Gong, Zhizhong

    2014-01-01

    Although research has determined that reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signaling molecules in plant development, the molecular mechanism by which ROS regulate plant growth is not well known. An aba overly sensitive mutant, abo8-1, which is defective in a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein responsible for the splicing of NAD4 intron 3 in mitochondrial complex I, accumulates more ROS in root tips than the wild type, and the ROS accumulation is further enhanced by ABA treatment. The ABO8 mutation reduces root meristem activity, which can be enhanced by ABA treatment and reversibly recovered by addition of certain concentrations of the reducing agent GSH. As indicated by low ProDR5:GUS expression, auxin accumulation/signaling was reduced in abo8-1. We also found that ABA inhibits the expression of PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, and that root growth is more sensitive to ABA in the plt1 and plt2 mutants than in the wild type. The expression of PLT1 and PLT2 is significantly reduced in the abo8-1 mutant. Overexpression of PLT2 in an inducible system can largely rescue root apical meristem (RAM)-defective phenotype of abo8-1 with and without ABA treatment. These results suggest that ABA-promoted ROS in the mitochondria of root tips are important retrograde signals that regulate root meristem activity by controlling auxin accumulation/signaling and PLT expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:25522358

  17. Linking Turgor with ABA Biosynthesis: Implications for Stomatal Responses to Vapor Pressure Deficit across Land Plants.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2016-07-01

    Stomatal responses to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) constitute the predominant form of daytime gas-exchange regulation in plants. Stomatal closure in response to increased VPD is driven by the rapid up-regulation of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and ABA levels in angiosperms; however, very little is known about the physiological trigger for this increase in ABA biosynthesis at increased VPD Using a novel method of modifying leaf cell turgor by the application of external pressures, we test whether changes in turgor pressure can trigger increases in foliar ABA levels over 20 min, a period of time most relevant to the stomatal response to VPD We found in angiosperm species that the biosynthesis of ABA was triggered by reductions in leaf turgor, and in two species tested, that a higher sensitivity of ABA synthesis to leaf turgor corresponded with a higher stomatal sensitivity to VPD In contrast, representative species from nonflowering plant lineages did not show a rapid turgor-triggered increase in foliar ABA levels, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating passive stomatal responses to changes in VPD in these lineages. Our method provides a new tool for characterizing the response of stomata to water availability. PMID:27208264

  18. Acid-base properties of titanium-antimony oxides catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zenkovets, G.A.; Paukshtis, E.A.; Tarasova, D.V.; Yurchenko, E.N.

    1982-06-01

    The acid-base properties of titanium-antimony oxide catalysts were studied by the methods of back titration and ir spectroscopy. The interrelationship between the acid-base and catalytic properties in the oxidative ammonolysis of propylene was discussed. 3 figures, 1 table.

  19. A Closer Look at Acid-Base Olfactory Titrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory titrations using raw onions and eugenol as acid-base indicators are reported. An in-depth investigation on olfactory titrations is presented to include requirements for potential olfactory indicators and protocols for using garlic, onions, and vanillin as acid-base olfactory indicators are tested.

  20. What is the Ultimate Goal in Acid-Base Regulation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balakrishnan, Selvakumar; Gopalakrishnan, Maya; Alagesan, Murali; Prakash, E. Sankaranarayanan

    2007-01-01

    It is common to see chapters on acid-base physiology state that the goal of acid-base regulatory mechanisms is to maintain the pH of arterial plasma and not arterial PCO [subscript 2] (Pa[subscript CO[subscript 2

  1. POLYAMINE OXIDASE2 of Arabidopsis contributes to ABA mediated plant developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Wimalasekera, Rinukshi; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra; Tavladoraki, Parasklevi; Scherer, Günther F E

    2015-11-01

    Polyamines (PA) are catabolised by two groups of amine oxidases, the copper-binding amine oxidases (CuAOs) and the FAD-binding polyamine oxidases (PAOs). Previously, we have shown that CuAO1 is involved in ABA associated growth responses and ABA- and PA-mediated rapid nitric oxide (NO) production. Here we report the differential regulation of expression of POLYAMINE OXIDASE2 of Arabidopsis (AtPAO2) in interaction with ABA, nitrate and ammonium. Without ABA treatment germination, cotyledon growth and fresh weight of pao2 knockdown mutants as well as PAO2OX over-expressor plants were comparable to those of the wild type (WT) plants irrespective of the N source. In the presence of ABA, in pao2 mutants cotyledon growth and fresh weights were more sensitive to inhibition by ABA while PAO2OX over-expressor plants showed a rather similar response to WT. When NO3(-) was the only N source primary root lengths and lateral root numbers were lower in pao2 mutants both without and with exogenous ABA. PAO2OX showed enhanced primary and lateral root growth in media with NO3(-) or NH4(+). Vigorous root growth of PAO2OX and the hypersensitivity of pao2 mutants to ABA suggest a positive function of AtPAO2 in root growth. ABA-induced NO production in pao2 mutants was lower indicating a potential contributory function of AtPAO2 in NO-mediated effects on root growth. PMID:26310141

  2. Networks of ABA and ABC stacked graphene on mica observed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattendorf, S.; Georgi, A.; Liebmann, M.; Morgenstern, M.

    2013-04-01

    Graphene flakes are prepared on freshly cleaved mica by exfoliation and studied by scanning tunneling microscopy in ultra high vacuum. On few-layer graphene, a triangular network of partial dislocations separating ABC stacked and ABA stacked graphene was found similar to the networks occasionally visible on freshly cleaved HOPG. We found differences in the electronic structure of ABC and ABA stacked areas by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, i.e., a pronounced peak at 0.25 eV above the Fermi level exclusively in the ABA areas, which is shown to be responsible for the different apparent heights observed in STM images.

  3. Loss of heterophylly in aquatic plants: not ABA-mediated stress but exogenous ABA treatment induces stomatal leaves in Potamogeton perfoliatus.

    PubMed

    Iida, Satoko; Ikeda, Miyuki; Amano, Momoe; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Kadono, Yasuro; Kosuge, Keiko

    2016-09-01

    Heterophyllous aquatic plants produce aerial (i.e., floating and terrestrial) and submerged leaves-the latter lack stomata-while homophyllous plants contain only submerged leaves, and cannot survive on land. To identify whether differences in morphogenetic potential and/or physiological stress responses are responsible for variation in phenotypic plasticity between two plants types, responses to abscisic acid (ABA) and salinity stress were compared between the closely related, but ecologically diverse pondweeds, Potamogeton wrightii (heterophyllous) and P. perfoliatus (homophyllous). The ABA-treated (1 or 10 μM) P. wrightii plants exhibited heterophylly and produced leaves with stomata. The obligate submerged P. perfoliatus plants were able to produce stomata on their leaves, but there were no changes to leaf shape, and stomatal production occurred only at a high ABA concentration (10 μM). Under salinity stress conditions, only P. wrightii leaves formed stomata. Additionally, the expression of stress-responsive NCED genes, which encode a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis, was consistently up-regulated in P. wrightii, but only temporarily in P. perfoliatus. The observed species-specific gene expression patterns may be responsible for the induction or suppression of stomatal production during exposure to salinity stress. These results suggest that the two Potamogeton species have an innate morphogenetic ability to form stomata, but the actual production of stomata depends on ABA-mediated stress responses specific to each species and habitat. PMID:27324202

  4. Plastid casein kinase 2 knockout reduces abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity, thermotolerance, and expression of ABA- and heat-stress-responsive nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chang, Hongping; Hu, Shuai; Lu, Xiutao; Yuan, Congying; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Ping; Xiao, Wenjun; Xiao, Langtao; Xue, Gang-Ping; Guo, Xinhong

    2014-08-01

    Plastid casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a major Ser/Thr-specific enzyme for protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast stroma and its kinase activity is regulated by redox signals. To understand the role of CK2 phosphorylation of chloroplast proteins in abiotic stress signalling, an Arabidopsis plastid CK2 (CKA4) knockout mutant was investigated in terms of the plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) and heat stress. CKA4 expression was upregulated by ABA and heat treatment. The cka4 mutant showed reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling growth, and increased stomatal aperture and leaf water loss with a slightly reduced leaf ABA level. The cka4 mutant was more sensitive to heat stress than the wild-type Columbia-0. The expression levels of a number of genes in the ABA regulatory network were reduced in the cka4 mutant. Many heat-upregulated genes (heat-shock factors and heat-shock proteins) were also reduced in the cka4 mutant. The cka4 mutant showed reduced expression levels of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase target genes (atpB and psbA). CKA4 knockout mutation also resulted in a reduction in expression of some critical genes (PTM, ABI4, and PRS1) involved in retrograde signalling from the chloroplast to the nucleus. Similar results were observed in mutant plants with the knockout mutation in both CKA4 and CKA3, which encodes a nuclear CK2 α3 subunit. CKA3 expression was not responsive to ABA and heat stress. These results suggest that CKA4 is an enhancing factor in abiotic stress signalling through modulating the expression of some molecular players in retrograde signalling. PMID:24803505

  5. Plastid casein kinase 2 knockout reduces abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity, thermotolerance, and expression of ABA- and heat-stress-responsive nuclear genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Chang, Hongping; Hu, Shuai; Lu, Xiutao; Yuan, Congying; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Ping; Xiao, Wenjun; Xiao, Langtao; Xue, Gang-Ping; Guo, Xinhong

    2014-01-01

    Plastid casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a major Ser/Thr-specific enzyme for protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast stroma and its kinase activity is regulated by redox signals. To understand the role of CK2 phosphorylation of chloroplast proteins in abiotic stress signalling, an Arabidopsis plastid CK2 (CKA4) knockout mutant was investigated in terms of the plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) and heat stress. CKA4 expression was upregulated by ABA and heat treatment. The cka4 mutant showed reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling growth, and increased stomatal aperture and leaf water loss with a slightly reduced leaf ABA level. The cka4 mutant was more sensitive to heat stress than the wild-type Columbia-0. The expression levels of a number of genes in the ABA regulatory network were reduced in the cka4 mutant. Many heat-upregulated genes (heat-shock factors and heat-shock proteins) were also reduced in the cka4 mutant. The cka4 mutant showed reduced expression levels of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase target genes (atpB and psbA). CKA4 knockout mutation also resulted in a reduction in expression of some critical genes (PTM, ABI4, and PRS1) involved in retrograde signalling from the chloroplast to the nucleus. Similar results were observed in mutant plants with the knockout mutation in both CKA4 and CKA3, which encodes a nuclear CK2 α3 subunit. CKA3 expression was not responsive to ABA and heat stress. These results suggest that CKA4 is an enhancing factor in abiotic stress signalling through modulating the expression of some molecular players in retrograde signalling. PMID:24803505

  6. LTP3 contributes to disease susceptibility in Arabidopsis by enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Guo, Wenya; Feng, Wen; Liu, Liang; Song, Xiaorui; Chen, Jian; Hou, Wei; Zhu, Hongxia; Tang, Saijun; Hu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Several plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) act positively in plant disease resistance. Here, we show that LTP3 (At5g59320), a pathogen and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene, negatively regulates plant immunity in Arabidopsis. The overexpression of LTP3 (LTP3-OX) led to an enhanced susceptibility to virulent bacteria and compromised resistance to avirulent bacteria. On infection of LTP3-OX plants with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, genes involved in ABA biosynthesis, NCED3 and AAO3, were highly induced, whereas salicylic acid (SA)-related genes, ICS1 and PR1, were down-regulated. Accordingly, in LTP3-OX plants, we observed increased ABA levels and decreased SA levels relative to the wild-type. We also showed that the LTP3 overexpression-mediated enhanced susceptibility was partially dependent on AAO3. Interestingly, loss of function of LTP3 (ltp3-1) did not affect ABA pathways, but resulted in PR1 gene induction and elevated SA levels, suggesting that LTP3 can negatively regulate SA in an ABA-independent manner. However, a double mutant consisting of ltp3-1 and silent LTP4 (ltp3/ltp4) showed reduced susceptibility to Pseudomonas and down-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, suggesting that LTP3 acts in a redundant manner with its closest homologue LTP4 by modulating the ABA pathway. Taken together, our data show that LTP3 is a novel negative regulator of plant immunity which acts through the manipulation of the ABA-SA balance. PMID:26123657

  7. Crosstalk between ABA and auxin signaling pathways in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    PubMed

    Rock, Christopher D; Sun, Xin

    2005-09-01

    Studies of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin have revealed that these pathways impinge on each other. The Daucus carota (L.) Dc3 promoter: uidA (beta-glucuronidase: GUS) chimaeric reporter (ProDc3:GUS) is induced by ABA, osmoticum, and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in vegetative tissues of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Here, we describe the root tissue-specific expression of ProDc3:GUS in the ABA-insensitive-2 (abi2-1), auxin-insensitive-1 (aux1), auxin-resistant-4 (axr4), and rooty (rty1) mutants of Arabidopsis in response to ABA, IAA and synthetic auxins naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2, 4-(dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid. Quantitative analysis of ProDc3:GUS expression showed that the abi2-1 mutant had reduced GUS activity in response to ABA, IAA, or 2, 4-D: , but not to NAA. Similarly, chromogenic staining of ProDc3:GUS activity showed that the aux1 and axr4 mutants gave predictable hypomorphic ProDc3:GUS expression phenotypes in roots treated with IAA or 2, 4-D: , but not the diffusible auxin NAA. Likewise the rty mutant, which accumulates auxin, showed elevated ProDc3:GUS expression in the absence or presence of hormones relative to wild type. Interestingly, the aux1 and axr4 mutants showed a hypomorphic effect on ABA-inducible ProDc3:GUS expression, demonstrating that ABA and IAA signaling pathways interact in roots. Possible mechanisms of crosstalk between ABA and auxin signaling are discussed. PMID:15889272

  8. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  9. Molecular characterization of an ABA insensitive 5 orthologue in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaona; Yuan, Feifei; Wang, Mengyao; Guo, Aiguang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Chang Gen

    2013-01-18

    ABI5 (ABA insensitive 5), a bZIP (Basic leucine zipper) transcription factor, has been shown to be a major mediator of plant ABA responses during seed germination. Although the molecular basis of ABI5-modulated processes has been well demonstrated in Arabidopsis thaliana, its identity and function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) remain elusive. Here, we describe our identification of BolABI5 (an ABI5 orthologue in B.oleracea) as a functional bZIP transcription factor in the modulation of plant ABA responses. Expression of BolABI5 was dramatically induced by drought stress and exogenous ABA. Heterogeneous expression of BolABI5 rescued the insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 to ABA during seed germination. Subcellular localization and trans-activation assays revealed that BolABI5 was localized in the nucleus and possessed DNA binding and trans-activation activities. Deletion of the bZIP domain generated BolABI5ΔbZIP, which no longer localized exclusively in the nucleus and had almost no detectable DNA-binding or trans-activation activities. Overall, these results suggest that BolABI5 may function as ABI5 in the positive regulation of plant ABA responses. PMID:23246838

  10. The Bronsted-Lowery Acid-Base Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history of the simultaneous discovery of acid-base relationships by Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry. Provides a brief biographical sketch of each. Discusses their concept of acids and bases in some detail. (CW)

  11. An Olfactory Indicator for Acid-Base Titrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an olfactory acid-base indicator in titrations for visually impaired students is discussed. Potential olfactory indicators include eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol. Titrations performed with each indicator with eugenol proved to be successful. (KR)

  12. TRANSFUSIONS—Hazardous Acid-Base Changes with Citrated Blood

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Jovita M. San; Iwai, Seizo; Hattori, Mitsuo; Leigh, M. Digby

    1962-01-01

    In a study of the acid-base changes in the blood of rabbits during and following transfusions of citrated blood and of heparinized blood, it was observed that, with citrated blood, pH decreased and carbon dioxide tensions rose. With heparinized blood, the acid-base balance was maintained within normal limits following transfusions. The potential hazards of rapid massive citrated blood transfusions in the anesthetized patient during operation must be kept in mind. PMID:14496706

  13. Water deficit effect on ABA accumulation in leaves of two Phaseolus species that differ in drought tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, M.G.; Markhart, A.H. )

    1991-05-01

    Phaseolus acutifolius Gray (Pa) is regarded as a dehydration postponer and has stomata that are more sensitive to low leaf water potential than P. vulgaris L. (Pv). This study was designed to determine if the greater sensitivity of Pa stomata is related to greater ABA concentration in Pa or to a greater sensitivity of Pa stomata to ABA. To test these hypotheses bulk leaf ABA accumulation was measured and the sensitivity to ABA was monitored using epidermal strips. To determine if part of the ABA accumulated in the leaves is produced in the roots a novel detached leaf system was used. Stomatal behavior and ABA accumulation at low leaf water potential was monitored and compared to intact leaves. The results of these experiments and the usefulness of the detached leaf system are discussed.

  14. Root water potential integrates discrete soil physical properties to influence ABA signalling during partial rootzone drying.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Ian C; Egea, Gregorio; Watts, Chris W; Whalley, W Richard

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the influence of different growing substrates (two mineral, two organic) on root xylem ABA concentration ([ABA](root)) and the contribution of the drying root system to total sap flow during partial rootzone drying (PRD), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) shoots were grafted onto the root systems of two plants grown in separate pots. Sap flow through each hypocotyl was measured below the graft union when one pot ('wet') was watered and other ('dry') was not. Each substrate gave unique relationships between dry pot matric potential (Psi(soil)), volumetric water content ((v)) or penetrometer resistance (Q) and either the fraction of photoperiod sap flow from roots in drying soil or [ABA](root). However, decreased relative sap flow, and increased [ABA](root), from roots in drying soil varied with root water potential (Psi(root)) more similarly across a range of substrates. The gradient between Psi(soil) and Psi(root) was greater in substrates with high sand or peat proportions, which may have contributed to a more sensitive response of [ABA](root) to Psi(soil) in these substrates. Whole plant transpiration was most closely correlated with the mean Psi(soil) of both pots, and then with detached leaf xylem ABA concentration. Although Psi(root) best predicted decreased relative sap flow, and increased [ABA](root), from roots in drying soil across a range of substrates, the inaccessibility of this variable in field studies requires a better understanding of how measurable soil variables (Psi(soil), (v), Q) affect Psi(root). PMID:20591896

  15. Amplification of ABA biosynthesis and signaling through a positive feedback mechanism in seeds.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Sall, Khadidiatou; Nambara, Eiji; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Abscisic acid is an essential hormone for seed dormancy. Our previous study using the plant gene switch system, a chemically induced gene expression system, demonstrated that induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting ABA biosynthesis gene, was sufficient to suppress germination in imbibed Arabidopsis seeds. Here, we report development of an efficient experimental system that causes amplification of NCED expression during seed maturation. The system was created with a Triticum aestivum promoter containing ABA responsive elements (ABREs) and a Sorghum bicolor NCED to cause ABA-stimulated ABA biosynthesis and signaling, through a positive feedback mechanism. The chimeric gene pABRE:NCED enhanced NCED and ABF (ABRE-binding factor) expression in Arabidopsis Columbia-0 seeds, which caused 9- to 73-fold increases in ABA levels. The pABRE:NCED seeds exhibited unusually deep dormancy which lasted for more than 3 months. Interestingly, the amplified ABA pathways also caused enhanced expression of Arabidopsis NCED5, revealing the presence of positive feedback in the native system. These results demonstrated the robustness of positive feedback mechanisms and the significance of NCED expression, or single metabolic change, during seed maturation. The pABRE:NCED system provides an excellent experimental system producing dormant and non-dormant seeds of the same maternal origin, which differ only in zygotic ABA. The pABRE:NCED seeds contain a GFP marker which enables seed sorting between transgenic and null segregants and are ideal for comparative analysis. In addition to its utility in basic research, the system can also be applied to prevention of pre-harvest sprouting during crop production, and therefore contributes to translational biology. PMID:24520869

  16. Unique Drought Resistance Functions of the Highly ABA-Induced Clade A Protein Phosphatase 2Cs1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskara, Govinal Badiger; Nguyen, Thao Thi; Verslues, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) have established abscisic acid (ABA) signaling roles; however, phenotypic roles of the remaining three “HAI” PP2Cs, Highly ABA-Induced1 (HAI1), AKT1-Interacting PP2C1/HAI2, and HAI3, have remained unclear. HAI PP2C mutants had enhanced proline and osmoregulatory solute accumulation at low water potential, while mutants of other clade A PP2Cs had no or lesser effect on these drought resistance traits. hai1-2 also had increased expression of abiotic stress-associated genes, including dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins, but decreased expression of several defense-related genes. Conversely, the HAI PP2Cs had relatively less impact on several ABA sensitivity phenotypes. HAI PP2C single mutants were unaffected in ABA sensitivity, while double and triple mutants were moderately hypersensitive in postgermination ABA response but ABA insensitive in germination. The HAI PP2Cs interacted most strongly with PYL5 and PYL7 to -10 of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family, with PYL7 to -10 interactions being relatively little affected by ABA in yeast two-hybrid assays. HAI1 had especially limited PYL interaction. Reduced expression of the main HAI1-interacting PYLs at low water potential when HAI1 expression was strongly induced also suggests limited PYL regulation and a role of HAI1 activity in negatively regulating specific drought resistance phenotypes. Overall, the HAI PP2Cs had greatest effect on ABA-independent low water potential phenotypes and lesser effect on classical ABA sensitivity phenotypes. Both this and their distinct PYL interaction demonstrate a new level of functional differentiation among the clade A PP2Cs and a point of cross talk between ABA-dependent and ABA-independent drought-associated signaling. PMID:22829320

  17. ZmABA2, an interacting protein of ZmMPK5, is involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis and functions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fangfang; Ni, Lan; Liu, Libo; Li, Xi; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Aying; Tan, Mingpu; Jiang, Mingyi

    2016-02-01

    In maize (Zea mays), the mitogen-activated protein kinase ZmMPK5 has been shown to be involved in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence and to enhance the tolerance of plants to drought, salt stress and oxidative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using ZmMPK5 as bait in yeast two-hybrid screening, a protein interacting with ZmMPK5 named ZmABA2, which belongs to a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, was identified. Pull-down assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis and co-immunoprecipitation test confirmed that ZmMPK5 interacts with ZmABA2 in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylation of Ser173 in ZmABA2 by ZmMPK5 was shown to increase the activity of ZmABA2 and the protein stability. Various abiotic stimuli induced the expression of ZmABA2 in leaves of maize plants. Pharmacological, biochemical and molecular biology and genetic analyses showed that both ZmMPK5 and ZmABA2 coordinately regulate the content of ABA. Overexpression of ZmABA2 in tobacco plants was found to elevate the content of ABA, regulate seed germination and root growth under drought and salt stress and enhance the tolerance of tobacco plants to drought and salt stress. These results suggest that ZmABA2 is a direct target of ZmMPK5 and is involved in ABA biosynthesis and functions. PMID:26096642

  18. Novel Variants of AbaR Resistance Islands with a Common Backbone in Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates of European Clone II

    PubMed Central

    Povilonis, Justas; Sužiedėlienė, Edita

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the genetic organization of three novel genomic antibiotic resistance islands (AbaRs) in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates belonging to group of European clone II (EC II) comM integrated sequences of 18-, 21-, and 23-kb resistance islands were determined. These resistance islands carry the backbone of AbaR-type transposon structures, which are composed of the transposition module coding for potential transposition proteins and other genes coding for the intact universal stress protein (uspA), sulfate permease (sul), and proteins of unknown function. The antibiotic resistance genes strA, strB, tetB, and tetR and insertion sequence CR2 element were found to be inserted into the AbaR transposons. GenBank homology searches indicated that they are closely related to the AbaR sequences found integrated in comM in strains of EC II (A. baumannii strains 1656-2 and TCDC-AB0715) and AbaR4 integrated in another location of A. baumannii AB0057 (EC I). All of the AbaRs showed structural similarity to the previously described AbaR4 island and share a 12,008-bp backbone. AbaRs contain Tn1213, Tn2006, and the multiple fragments which could be derived from transposons Tn3, Tn10, Tn21, Tn1000, Tn5393, and Tn6020, the insertion sequences IS26, ISAba1, ISAba14, and ISCR2, and the class 1 integron. Moreover, chromosomal DNA was inserted into distinct regions of the AbaR backbone. Sequence analysis suggested that the AbaR-type transposons have evolved through insertions, deletions, and homologous recombination. AbaR islands, sharing the core structure similar to AbaR4, appeared to be distributed in isolates of EC I and EC II via integration into distinct genomic sites, i.e., pho and comM, respectively. PMID:22290980

  19. Quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of phosphoproteins and ABA-regulated phosphoproteins in maize leaves under osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiuli; Li, Nana; Wu, Liuji; Li, Chunqi; Li, Chaohai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Tianxue; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates various developmental processes and stress responses in plants. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is a central post-translational modification (PTM) in ABA signaling. However, the phosphoproteins regulated by ABA under osmotic stress remain unknown in maize. In this study, maize mutant vp5 (deficient in ABA biosynthesis) and wild-type Vp5 were used to identify leaf phosphoproteins regulated by ABA under osmotic stress. Up to 4052 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 3017 phosphoproteins, were identified by Multiplex run iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic and LC-MS/MS methods. The 4052 phosphopeptides contained 5723 non-redundant phosphosites; 512 phosphopeptides (379 in Vp5, 133 in vp5) displayed at least a 1.5-fold change of phosphorylation level under osmotic stress, of which 40 shared common in both genotypes and were differentially regulated by ABA. Comparing the signaling pathways involved in vp5 response to osmotic stress and those that in Vp5, indicated that ABA played a vital role in regulating these pathways related to mRNA synthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. Our results provide a comprehensive dataset of phosphopeptides and phosphorylation sites regulated by ABA in maize adaptation to osmotic stress. This will be helpful to elucidate the ABA-mediate mechanism of maize endurance to drought by triggering phosphorylation or dephosphorylation cascades. PMID:26503333

  20. Identification of ICE1 as a negative regulator of ABA-dependent pathways in seeds and seedlings of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Hsing; Yang, Chien-Chih

    2015-07-01

    Inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1) mediates the cold stress signal via an abscisic acid (ABA)-independent pathway. A possible role of ICE1 in ABA-dependent pathways was examined in this study. Seedling growth was severely reduced in a T-DNA insertion mutant of ICE1, ice1-2, when grown on 1/2 MS medium lacking sugars, but was restored to wild-type (WT) levels by supplementation with 56 mM glucose. In addition to this sugar-dependent phenotype, germination and establishment of ice1-2 were more sensitive to high glucose concentrations than in the WT. Hypersensitivity to ABA was also observed in ice1-2, suggesting its sensitivity to glucose might be mediated through the ABA signaling pathway. Glucose and ABA induced much higher expression of two genes related to ABA signal transduction, ABA-INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) and ABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4), in ice1-2 than in the WT during establishment. In summary, in addition to its known roles in regulating cold responses, stomatal development, and endosperm breakdown, ICE1 is a negative regulator of ABA-dependent responses. PMID:26048037

  1. Degradation of the ABA co-receptor ABI1 by PUB12/13 U-box E3 ligases

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingyao; Cheng, Jinkui; Zhu, Yujuan; Ding, Yanglin; Meng, Jingjing; Chen, Zhizhong; Xie, Qi; Guo, Yan; Li, Jigang; Yang, Shuhua; Gong, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) are abscisic acid (ABA) co-receptors that block ABA signalling by inhibiting the downstream protein kinases. ABA signalling is activated after PP2Cs are inhibited by ABA-bound PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors (PYLs) in Arabidopsis. However, whether these PP2Cs are regulated by other factors remains unknown. Here, we report that ABI1 (ABA-INSENSITIVE 1) can interact with the U-box E3 ligases PUB12 and PUB13, but is ubiquitinated only when it interacts with ABA receptors in an in vitro assay. A mutant form of ABI1-1 that is unable to interact with PYLs is more stable than the wild-type protein. Both ABI1 degradation and all tested ABA responses are reduced in pub12 pub13 mutants compared with the wild type. Introducing the abi1-3 loss-of-function mutation into pub12 pub13 mutant recovers the ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the pub12 pub13 mutant. We thus uncover an important regulatory mechanism for regulating ABI1 levels by PUB12 and PUB13. PMID:26482222

  2. GEM, a member of the GRAM domain family of proteins, is part of the ABA signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Nuria; Fernández-Marcos, María; Costas, Celina; Desvoyes, Bénédicte; Pichel, Antonio; Caro, Elena; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is fundamental for plant development. Multiple factors have been identified that participate in the ABA signaling network, although a role of many proteins still await to be demonstrated. Here we have investigated the role of GEM (GL2 EXPRESSION MODULATOR), originally annotated as an ABA-responsive protein. GEM contains a GRAM domain, a feature shared with other eight Arabidopsis proteins for which we propose the name of GRE (GEM-RELATED) proteins. We found that (i) GEM expression responds to ABA, (ii) its promoter contains ABRE sites required for ABA response, and (iii) GEM expression depends on members of the ABA signaling pathway. This is consistent with the expression pattern of GEM during development in plant locations were ABA is known to play a direct role. We also found that GEM binds various phospholipids, e.g. mono and diphosphates and phosphatidic acid, suggesting a potential link of GEM with membrane-associated processes. Consistent with this, we found that the phosphoinositol-4-phosphate kinase PIP5K9 binds GEM in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated a role of GEM in seed dormancy. Together, our data led us to propose that GEM is an ABA-responsive protein that may function downstream of ABI5 as part of the ABA signaling pathway. PMID:26939893

  3. GEM, a member of the GRAM domain family of proteins, is part of the ABA signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Nuria; Fernández-Marcos, María; Costas, Celina; Desvoyes, Bénédicte; Pichel, Antonio; Caro, Elena; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is fundamental for plant development. Multiple factors have been identified that participate in the ABA signaling network, although a role of many proteins still await to be demonstrated. Here we have investigated the role of GEM (GL2 EXPRESSION MODULATOR), originally annotated as an ABA-responsive protein. GEM contains a GRAM domain, a feature shared with other eight Arabidopsis proteins for which we propose the name of GRE (GEM-RELATED) proteins. We found that (i) GEM expression responds to ABA, (ii) its promoter contains ABRE sites required for ABA response, and (iii) GEM expression depends on members of the ABA signaling pathway. This is consistent with the expression pattern of GEM during development in plant locations were ABA is known to play a direct role. We also found that GEM binds various phospholipids, e.g. mono and diphosphates and phosphatidic acid, suggesting a potential link of GEM with membrane-associated processes. Consistent with this, we found that the phosphoinositol-4-phosphate kinase PIP5K9 binds GEM in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated a role of GEM in seed dormancy. Together, our data led us to propose that GEM is an ABA-responsive protein that may function downstream of ABI5 as part of the ABA signaling pathway. PMID:26939893

  4. Interactions between soybean ABA receptors and type 2C protein phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Si; Yang, Fen; Ma, Jun; Gao, Xiao-Su; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in regulating plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. Proteins in the PYR/PYL/RCAR family (hereafter referred to as PYLs) are known as ABA receptors. Since most studies thus far have focused on Arabidopsis PYLs, little is known about PYL homologs in crop plants. We report here the characterization of 21 PYL homologs (GmPYLs) in soybean. Twenty three putative GmPYLs can be found from soybean genome sequence and categorized into three subgroups. GmPYLs interact with AtABI1 and two GmPP2Cs in diverse manners. A lot of the subgroup I GmPYLs interact with PP2Cs in an ABA-dependent manner, whereas most of the subgroup II and III GmPYLs bind to PP2Cs in an ABA-independent manner. The subgroup III GmPYL23, which cannot interact with any of the tested PP2Cs, differs from other GmPYLs. The CL2/gate domain is crucial for GmPYLs-PP2Cs interaction, and a mutation in the conserved proline (P109S) abolishes the interaction between GmPYL1 and AtABI1. Furthermore, the ABA dependence of GmPYLs-PP2Cs interactions are partially correlated with two amino acid residues preceding the CL2/gate domain of GmPYLs. We also show that GmPYL1 interacts with AtABI1 in an ABA-dependent manner in plant cells. Three GmPYLs differentially inhibit AtABI1 and GmPP2C1 in an ABA-dependent or -enhanced manner in vitro. In addition, ectopically expressing GmPYL1 partially restores ABA sensitivity of the Arabidopsis triple mutant pyr1/pyl1/pyl4. Taken together, our results suggest that soybean GmPYLs are ABA receptors that function by interacting and inhibiting PP2Cs. PMID:23934343

  5. Grafting cucumber onto luffa improves drought tolerance by increasing ABA biosynthesis and sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shanshan; Li, Hao; Lv, Xiangzhang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Asami, Tadao; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Balancing stomata-dependent CO2 assimilation and transpiration is a key challenge for increasing crop productivity and water use efficiency under drought stress for sustainable crop production worldwide. Here, we show that cucumber and luffa plants with luffa as rootstock have intrinsically increased water use efficiency, decreased transpiration rate and less affected CO2 assimilation capacity following drought stress over those with cucumber as rootstock. Drought accelerated abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in roots, xylem sap and leaves, and induced the transcript of ABA signaling genes, leading to a decreased stomatal aperture and transpiration in the plants grafted onto luffa roots as compared to plants grafted onto cucumber roots. Furthermore, stomatal movement in the plants grafted onto luffa roots had an increased sensitivity to ABA. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis in luffa roots decreased the drought tolerance in cucumber and luffa plants. Our study demonstrates that the roots of luffa have developed an enhanced ability to sense the changes in root-zone moisture and could eventually deliver modest level of ABA from roots to shoots that enhances water use efficiency under drought stress. Such a mechanism could be greatly exploited to benefit the agricultural production especially in arid and semi-arid areas. PMID:26832070

  6. Arabidopsis COP1-interacting protein 1 is a positive regulator of ABA response.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chenxia; Zhu, Xili; Zhang, Pingping; Gong, Qingqiu

    2016-09-01

    COP1-interacting protein 1 (CIP1, At5g41790) was the first reported interacting protein for CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) of Arabidopsis; however its physiological function has remained unknown for two decades. Here we show that CIP1 is a positive regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) response. CIP1 is mainly expressed in the photosynthetic cells and the vascular tissue, and its promoter activity can be induced by osmotic stress and ABA. The CIP1 protein is localized to the plasma membrane. A T-DNA insertion mutant cip1-1 was then characterized. The mutant is sensitive to osmotic stress and has ABA insensitive phenotypes. RNA sequencing showed that cip1-1 has lower levels of gene expression in abiotic stress response compared with the wild-type. Meanwhile, transcript levels of ABA biosynthesis genes are higher in cip1-1 than in the wild-type. These results suggested that CIP1 is positively involved in ABA response. PMID:27372427

  7. New fava bean guard cell signaling mutant impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Sumio; Shimomura, Naoki; Nakashima, Atsushi; Etoh, Takeomi

    2003-09-01

    We isolated a mutant from Vicia faba L. cv. House Ryousai. It wilts easily under strong light and high temperature conditions, suggesting that its stomatal movement may be disturbed. We determined responses of mutant guard cells to some environmental stimuli. Mutant guard cells demonstrated an impaired ability to respond to ABA in 0.1 mM CaCl(2) and stomata did not close in the presence of up to 1 mM ABA, whereas wild-type stomata closed when exposed to 10 micro M ABA. Elevating external Ca(2+) caused a similar degree of stomatal closure in the wild type and the mutant. A high concentration of CO(2) (700 micro l liter(-1)) induced stomatal closure in the wild type, but not in the mutant. On the basis of these results, we propose the working hypothesis that the mutation occurs in the region downstream of CO(2) and ABA sensing and in the region upstream of Ca(2+) elevation. The mutant is named fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure). PMID:14519772

  8. Engineering the ABA Plant Stress Pathway for Regulation of Induced Proximity

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fu-Sen; Ho, Wen Qi; Crabtree, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Chemically induced proximity (CIP) systems use small molecules and engineered proteins to control and study biological processes. However, small molecule–based systems for controlling protein abundance or activities have been limited by toxicity, instability, cost, and slow clearance of the small molecules in vivo. To address these problems, we modified proteins of the plant abscisic acid (ABA) stress response pathway to control the proximity of cellular proteins and showed that the system could be used to regulate transcription, signal transduction, and subcellular localization of proteins in response to exogenously applied ABA. We also showed that the ABA CIP system can be combined with other CIP systems to simultaneously control multiple processes. We found that, when given to mice, ABA was orally available and had a 4-hour half-life. These properties, along with its lack of toxicity and low cost, suggest that ABA may be well suited for therapeutic applications and as an experimental tool to control diverse cellular activities in vivo. PMID:21406691

  9. Azospirillum brasilense ameliorates the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to drought mainly via enhancement of ABA levels.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ana C; Bottini, Rubén; Pontin, Mariela; Berli, Federico J; Moreno, Daniela; Boccanlandro, Hernán; Travaglia, Claudia N; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2015-01-01

    Production of phytohormones is one of the main mechanisms to explain the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Azospirillum sp. The PGPRs induce plant growth and development, and reduce stress susceptibility. However, little is known regarding the stress-related phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) produced by bacteria. We investigated the effects of Azospirillum brasilense Sp 245 strain on Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and aba2-1 mutant plants, evaluating the morphophysiological and biochemical responses when watered and in drought. We used an in vitro-grown system to study changes in the root volume and architecture after inoculation with Azospirillum in Arabidopsis wild-type Col-0 and on the mutant aba2-1, during early growth. To examine Arabidopsis development and reproductive success as affected by the bacteria, ABA and drought, a pot experiment using Arabidopsis Col-0 plants was also carried out. Azospirillum brasilense augmented plant biomass, altered root architecture by increasing lateral roots number, stimulated photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments and retarded water loss in correlation with incremented ABA levels. As well, inoculation improved plants seed yield, plants survival, proline levels and relative leaf water content; it also decreased stomatal conductance, malondialdehyde and relative soil water content in plants submitted to drought. Arabidopsis inoculation with A. brasilense improved plants performance, especially in drought. PMID:24796562

  10. Isolation and characterization of an osmotic stress and ABA induced histone deacetylase in Arachis hygogaea

    PubMed Central

    Su, Liang-Chen; Deng, Bin; Liu, Shuai; Li, Li-Mei; Hu, Bo; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation, which together with histone methylation regulates gene activity in response to stress, is an important epigenetic modification. There is an increasing research focus on histone acetylation in crops, but there is no information to date in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). We showed that osmotic stress and ABA affect the acetylation of histone H3 loci in peanut seedlings by immunoblotting experiments. Using RNA-seq data for peanut, we found a RPD3/HDA1-like superfamily histone deacetylase (HDAC), termed AhHDA1, whose gene is up-regulated by PEG-induced water limitation and ABA signaling. We isolated and characterized AhHDA1 from A. hypogaea, showing that AhHDA1 is very similar to an Arabidopsis HDAC (AtHDA6) and, in recombinant form, possesses HDAC activity. To understand whether and how osmotic stress and ABA mediate the peanut stress response by epigenetics, the expression of AhHDA1 and stress-responsive genes following treatment with PEG, ABA, and the specific HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) were analyzed. AhHDA1 transcript levels were enhanced by all three treatments, as was expression of peanut transcription factor genes, indicating that AhHDA1 might be involved in the epigenetic regulation of stress resistance genes that comprise the responses to osmotic stress and ABA. PMID:26217363

  11. Integration of C/N-nutrient and multiple environmental signals into the ABA signaling cascade

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yu; Yamaguchi, Junji; Sato, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Due to their immobility, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to robustly monitor and appropriately respond to dynamic changes in nutrient availability. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are especially important in regulating plant metabolism and development, thereby affecting crop productivity. In addition to their independent utilization, the ratio of C to N metabolites in the cell, referred to as the “C/N balance”, is important for the regulation of plant growth, although molecular mechanisms mediating C/N signaling remain unclear. Recently ABI1, a protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C), was shown to be a regulator of C/N response in Arabidopsis plants. ABI1 functions as a negative regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. ABA is versatile phytohormone that regulates multiple aspects of plant growth and adaptation to environmental stress. This review highlights the regulation of the C/N response mediated by a non-canonical ABA signaling pathway that is independent of ABA biosynthesis, as well as recent findings on the direct crosstalk between multiple cellular signals and the ABA signaling cascade. PMID:26786013

  12. Grafting cucumber onto luffa improves drought tolerance by increasing ABA biosynthesis and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Li, Hao; Lv, Xiangzhang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Asami, Tadao; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Balancing stomata-dependent CO2 assimilation and transpiration is a key challenge for increasing crop productivity and water use efficiency under drought stress for sustainable crop production worldwide. Here, we show that cucumber and luffa plants with luffa as rootstock have intrinsically increased water use efficiency, decreased transpiration rate and less affected CO2 assimilation capacity following drought stress over those with cucumber as rootstock. Drought accelerated abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in roots, xylem sap and leaves, and induced the transcript of ABA signaling genes, leading to a decreased stomatal aperture and transpiration in the plants grafted onto luffa roots as compared to plants grafted onto cucumber roots. Furthermore, stomatal movement in the plants grafted onto luffa roots had an increased sensitivity to ABA. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis in luffa roots decreased the drought tolerance in cucumber and luffa plants. Our study demonstrates that the roots of luffa have developed an enhanced ability to sense the changes in root-zone moisture and could eventually deliver modest level of ABA from roots to shoots that enhances water use efficiency under drought stress. Such a mechanism could be greatly exploited to benefit the agricultural production especially in arid and semi-arid areas. PMID:26832070

  13. Stomatal closure is induced by hydraulic signals and maintained by ABA in drought-stressed grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Tombesi, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea; Frioni, Tommaso; Soccolini, Marta; Zadra, Claudia; Farinelli, Daniela; Poni, Stefano; Palliotti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Water saving under drought stress is assured by stomatal closure driven by active (ABA-mediated) and/or passive (hydraulic-mediated) mechanisms. There is currently no comprehensive model nor any general consensus about the actual contribution and relative importance of each of the above factors in modulating stomatal closure in planta. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of passive (hydraulic) vs active (ABA mediated) mechanisms of stomatal closure in V. vinifera plants facing drought stress. Leaf gas exchange decreased progressively to zero during drought, and embolism-induced loss of hydraulic conductance in petioles peaked to ~50% in correspondence with strong daily limitation of stomatal conductance. Foliar ABA significantly increased only after complete stomatal closure had already occurred. Rewatering plants after complete stomatal closure and after foliar ABA reached maximum values did not induced stomatal re-opening, despite embolism recovery and water potential rise. Our data suggest that in grapevine stomatal conductance is primarily regulated by passive hydraulic mechanisms. Foliar ABA apparently limits leaf gas exchange over long-term, also preventing recovery of stomatal aperture upon rewatering, suggesting the occurrence of a mechanism of long-term down-regulation of transpiration to favor embolism repair and preserve water under conditions of fluctuating water availability and repeated drought events. PMID:26207993

  14. Stomatal closure is induced by hydraulic signals and maintained by ABA in drought-stressed grapevine.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea; Frioni, Tommaso; Soccolini, Marta; Zadra, Claudia; Farinelli, Daniela; Poni, Stefano; Palliotti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Water saving under drought stress is assured by stomatal closure driven by active (ABA-mediated) and/or passive (hydraulic-mediated) mechanisms. There is currently no comprehensive model nor any general consensus about the actual contribution and relative importance of each of the above factors in modulating stomatal closure in planta. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of passive (hydraulic) vs active (ABA mediated) mechanisms of stomatal closure in V. vinifera plants facing drought stress. Leaf gas exchange decreased progressively to zero during drought, and embolism-induced loss of hydraulic conductance in petioles peaked to ~50% in correspondence with strong daily limitation of stomatal conductance. Foliar ABA significantly increased only after complete stomatal closure had already occurred. Rewatering plants after complete stomatal closure and after foliar ABA reached maximum values did not induced stomatal re-opening, despite embolism recovery and water potential rise. Our data suggest that in grapevine stomatal conductance is primarily regulated by passive hydraulic mechanisms. Foliar ABA apparently limits leaf gas exchange over long-term, also preventing recovery of stomatal aperture upon rewatering, suggesting the occurrence of a mechanism of long-term down-regulation of transpiration to favor embolism repair and preserve water under conditions of fluctuating water availability and repeated drought events. PMID:26207993

  15. Acid-Base Chemistry of White Wine: Analytical Characterisation and Chemical Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Prenesti, Enrico; Berto, Silvia; Toso, Simona; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids) with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture), ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic “wine” especially adapted for testing. PMID:22566762

  16. Xylem sap collection and extraction methodologies to determine in vivo concentrations of ABA and its bound forms by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate quantification of xylem sap ABA concentrations is important to underpin models of root-to-shoot ABA signalling to predict the physiological effects of soil drying. Growing tomato plants in a whole plant pressure chamber allowed sequential xylem sap collection from a detached leaf, the petiole stub of an otherwise intact plant and finally the de-topped root system of the same plant, to determine the impact of xylem sap sampling methodology on xylem ABA concentration. Since xylem sap can contain bound forms of ABA, a novel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure was developed to chemically separate free ABA from two in planta bound ABA forms known as Adducts I and II and ABA-glucose-ester (ABA-GE). Results Xylem sap ABA concentrations were highly dependent on the sampling methodology used: the highest concentrations were detected in sap collected by applying an overpressure to detached leaves following the measurement of leaf water potential. Irrespective of xylem sap source, the wild-type cultivars Ailsa Craig and Rheinlands Ruhm had higher free ABA concentrations than a range of ABA-deficient mutants (notabilis, flacca and sitiens). However, in the mutants, concentrations of bound forms of ABA were similar to wild-type plants, and similar to free ABA concentrations. Conclusions Although xylem concentrations of these bound ABA forms and ABA-GE suggest they have a limited physiological impact on ABA homeostasis in tomato, the methods developed here will allow a more complete understanding of ABA biochemistry and root-to-shoot signalling in species known to have higher concentrations of these compounds. PMID:22439865

  17. Aquaporins Contribute to ABA-Triggered Stomatal Closure through OST1-Mediated Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Alexandre; Rodrigues, Olivier; Verdoucq, Lionel; Merlot, Sylvain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Maurel, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Stomatal movements in response to environmental stimuli critically control the plant water status. Although these movements are governed by osmotically driven changes in guard cell volume, the role of membrane water channels (aquaporins) has remained hypothetical. Assays in epidermal peels showed that knockout Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking the Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein 2;1 (PIP2;1) aquaporin have a defect in stomatal closure, specifically in response to abscisic acid (ABA). ABA induced a 2-fold increase in osmotic water permeability (Pf) of guard cell protoplasts and an accumulation of reactive oxygen species in guard cells, which were both abrogated in pip2;1 plants. Open stomata 1 (OST1)/Snf1-related protein kinase 2.6 (SnRK2.6), a protein kinase involved in guard cell ABA signaling, was able to phosphorylate a cytosolic PIP2;1 peptide at Ser-121. OST1 enhanced PIP2;1 water transport activity when coexpressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Upon expression in pip2;1 plants, a phosphomimetic form (Ser121Asp) but not a phosphodeficient form (Ser121Ala) of PIP2;1 constitutively enhanced the Pf of guard cell protoplasts while suppressing its ABA-dependent activation and was able to restore ABA-dependent stomatal closure in pip2;1. This work supports a model whereby ABA-triggered stomatal closure requires an increase in guard cell permeability to water and possibly hydrogen peroxide, through OST1-dependent phosphorylation of PIP2;1 at Ser-121. PMID:26163575

  18. A Role for Arabidopsis miR399f in Salt, Drought, and ABA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Dongwon; Chun, Hyun Jin; Kang, Songhwa; Shin, Gilok; Park, Su Jung; Hong, Hyewon; Kim, Chanmin; Kim, Doh Hoon; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Min Chul; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    MiR399f plays a crucial role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under phosphate starvation conditions, AtMYB2, which plays a role in plant salt and drought stress responses, directly regulates the expression of miR399f. In this study, we found that miR399f also participates in plant responses to abscisic acid (ABA), and to abiotic stresses including salt and drought. Salt and ABA treatment induced the expression of miR399f, as confirmed by histochemical analysis of promoter-GUS fusions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing miR399f (miR399f-OE) exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt stress and exogenous ABA, but hypersensitivity to drought. Our in silico analysis identified ABF3 and CSP41b as putative target genes of miR399f, and expression analysis revealed that mRNA levels of ABF3 and CSP41b decreased remarkably in miR399f-OE plants under salt stress and in response to treatment with ABA. Moreover, we showed that activation of stress-responsive gene expression in response to salt stress and ABA treatment was impaired in miR399f-OE plants. Thus, these results suggested that in addition to phosphate starvation signaling, miR399f might also modulates plant responses to salt, ABA, and drought, by regulating the expression of newly discovered target genes such as ABF3 and CSP41b. PMID:26674968

  19. Structure of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-specific restriction enzyme, AbaSI, in complex with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, John R.; Borgaro, Janine G.; Griggs, Rose M.; Quimby, Aine; Guan, Shengxi; Zhang, Xing; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Zheng, Yu; Zhu, Zhenyu; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-07-03

    AbaSI, a member of the PvuRts1I-family of modification-dependent restriction endonucleases, cleaves DNA containing 5-hydroxymethylctosine (5hmC) and glucosylated 5hmC (g5hmC), but not DNA containing unmodified cytosine. AbaSI has been used as a tool for mapping the genomic locations of 5hmC, an important epigenetic modification in the DNA of higher organisms. Here we report the crystal structures of AbaSI in the presence and absence of DNA. These structures provide considerable, although incomplete, insight into how this enzyme acts. AbaSI appears to be mainly a homodimer in solution, but interacts with DNA in our structures as a homotetramer. Each AbaSI subunit comprises an N-terminal, Vsr-like, cleavage domain containing a single catalytic site, and a C-terminal, SRA-like, 5hmC-binding domain. Two N-terminal helices mediate most of the homodimer interface. Dimerization brings together the two catalytic sites required for double-strand cleavage, and separates the 5hmC binding-domains by ~ 70 Å, consistent with the known activity of AbaSI which cleaves DNA optimally between symmetrically modified cytosines ~ 22 bp apart. The eukaryotic SET and RING-associated (SRA) domains bind to DNA containing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in the hemi-methylated CpG sequence. They make contacts in both the major and minor DNA grooves, and flip the modified cytosine out of the helix into a conserved binding pocket. In contrast, the SRA-like domain of AbaSI, which has no sequence specificity, contacts only the minor DNA groove, and in our current structures the 5hmC remains intra-helical. A conserved, binding pocket is nevertheless present in this domain, suitable for accommodating 5hmC and g5hmC. We consider it likely, therefore, that base-flipping is part of the recognition and cleavage mechanism of AbaSI, but that our structures represent an earlier, pre-flipped stage, prior to actual recognition.

  20. Acid-Base Disorders--A Computer Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, David L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes and lists a program for Apple Pascal Version 1.1 which investigates the behavior of the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide buffer system in acid-base disorders. Designed specifically for the preclinical medical student, the program has proven easy to use and enables students to use blood gas parameters to arrive at diagnoses. (DH)

  1. Soil Studies: Applying Acid-Base Chemistry to Environmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Donna M.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory activities for chemistry students focus attention on the use of acid-base chemistry to examine environmental conditions. After using standard laboratory procedures to analyze soil and rainwater samples, students use web-based resources to interpret their findings. Uses CBL probes and graphing calculators to gather and analyze data and…

  2. Using Spreadsheets to Produce Acid-Base Titration Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, Martin James; Parkinson, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes two spreadsheets for producing acid-base titration curves, one uses relatively simple cell formulae that can be written into the spreadsheet by inexperienced students and the second uses more complex formulae that are best written by the teacher. (JRH)

  3. Students' Understanding of Acids/Bases in Organic Chemistry Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartrette, David P.; Mayo, Provi M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding key foundational principles is vital to learning chemistry across different contexts. One such foundational principle is the acid/base behavior of molecules. In the general chemistry sequence, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is stressed, because it lends itself well to studying equilibrium and kinetics. However, the Lewis theory of…

  4. The ABA receptor PYL9 together with PYL8 plays an important role in regulating lateral root growth.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lu; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Jinghui; Xiang, Chengbin; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid is a phytohormone regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. PYR1/PYL/RCAR proteins are ABA receptors that function by inhibiting PP2Cs to activate SnRK2s, resulting in phosphorylation of ABFs and other effectors of ABA response pathways. Exogenous ABA induces growth quiescence of lateral roots, which is prolonged by knockout of the ABA receptor PYL8. Among the 14 members of PYR1/PYL/RCAR protein family, PYL9 is a close relative of PYL8. Here we show that knockout of both PYL9 and PYL8 resulted in a longer ABA-induced quiescence on lateral root growth and a reduced sensitivity to ABA on primary root growth and lateral root formation compared to knockout of PYL8 alone. Induced overexpression of PYL9 promoted the lateral root elongation in the presence of ABA. The prolonged quiescent phase of the pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant was reversed by exogenous IAA. PYL9 may regulate auxin-responsive genes in vivo through direct interaction with MYB77 and MYB44. Thus, PYL9 and PYL8 are both responsible for recovery of lateral root from ABA inhibition via MYB transcription factors. PMID:27256015

  5. The ABA receptor PYL9 together with PYL8 plays an important role in regulating lateral root growth

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lu; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Jinghui; Xiang, Chengbin; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid is a phytohormone regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. PYR1/PYL/RCAR proteins are ABA receptors that function by inhibiting PP2Cs to activate SnRK2s, resulting in phosphorylation of ABFs and other effectors of ABA response pathways. Exogenous ABA induces growth quiescence of lateral roots, which is prolonged by knockout of the ABA receptor PYL8. Among the 14 members of PYR1/PYL/RCAR protein family, PYL9 is a close relative of PYL8. Here we show that knockout of both PYL9 and PYL8 resulted in a longer ABA-induced quiescence on lateral root growth and a reduced sensitivity to ABA on primary root growth and lateral root formation compared to knockout of PYL8 alone. Induced overexpression of PYL9 promoted the lateral root elongation in the presence of ABA. The prolonged quiescent phase of the pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant was reversed by exogenous IAA. PYL9 may regulate auxin-responsive genes in vivo through direct interaction with MYB77 and MYB44. Thus, PYL9 and PYL8 are both responsible for recovery of lateral root from ABA inhibition via MYB transcription factors. PMID:27256015

  6. The Arabidopsis MIEL1 E3 ligase negatively regulates ABA signalling by promoting protein turnover of MYB96.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Gil; Seo, Pil Joon

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant responses to various environmental challenges. Controlled protein turnover is an important component of ABA signalling. Here we show that the RING-type E3 ligase MYB30-INTERACTING E3 LIGASE 1 (MIEL1) regulates ABA sensitivity by promoting MYB96 turnover in Arabidopsis. Germination of MIEL1-deficient mutant seeds is hypersensitive to ABA, whereas MIEL1-overexpressing transgenic seeds are less sensitive. MIEL1 can interact with MYB96, a regulator of ABA signalling, and stimulate its ubiquitination and degradation. Genetic analysis shows that MYB96 is epistatic to MIEL1 in the control of ABA sensitivity in seeds. While MIEL1 acts primarily via MYB96 in seed germination, MIEL1 regulates protein turnover of both MYB96 and MYB30 in vegetative tissues. We find that ABA regulates the expression of MYB30-responsive genes during pathogen infection and this regulation is partly dependent on MIEL1. These results suggest that MIEL1 may facilitate crosstalk between ABA and biotic stress signalling. PMID:27615387

  7. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  8. BRI1-Associated Receptor Kinase 1 Regulates Guard Cell ABA Signaling Mediated by Open Stomata 1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yun; Dai, Changbo; Lee, Myeong Min; Kwak, June M; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2016-03-01

    Stomatal movements are critical in regulating gas exchange for photosynthesis and water balance between plant tissues and the atmosphere. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays key roles in regulating stomatal closure under various abiotic stresses. In this study, we revealed a novel role of BAK1 in guard cell ABA signaling. We found that the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling mutant bak1 lost more water than wild-type plants and showed ABA insensitivity in stomatal closure. ABA-induced OST1 expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were also impaired in bak1. Unlike direct treatment with H2O2, overexpression of OST1 did not completely rescue the insensitivity of bak1 to ABA. We demonstrated that BAK1 forms a complex with OST1 near the plasma membrane and that the BAK1/OST1 complex is increased in response to ABA in planta. Brassinolide, the most active BR, exerted a negative effect on ABA-induced formation of the BAK1/OST1 complex and OST1 expression. Moreover, we found that BAK1 and ABI1 oppositely regulate OST1 phosphorylation in vitro, and that ABI1 interacts with BAK1 and inhibits the interaction of BAK1 and OST1. Taken together, our results suggest that BAK1 regulates ABA-induced stomatal closure in guard cells. PMID:26724418

  9. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA storage vessels. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA storage vessels. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane... § 63.1293(a)(1) shall control HAP ABA emissions from the slabstock polyurethane foam production line...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane... § 63.1293(a)(1) shall control HAP ABA emissions from the slabstock polyurethane foam production line...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA equipment leaks. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA emissions from the production line. (a) Each owner...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA emissions from the production line. (a) Each owner...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA equipment leaks. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock...

  17. Interplay between ABA and GA Modulates the Timing of Asymmetric Cell Divisions in the Arabidopsis Root Ground Tissue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin Ae; Jang, Sejeong; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Heo, Jung-Ok; Chang, Kwang Suk; Choi, Ji Won; Dhar, Souvik; Kim, Gyuree; Choe, Jeong-Eun; Heo, Jae Bok; Kwon, Chian; Ko, Jae-Heung; Hwang, Yong-Sic; Lim, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In multicellular organisms, controlling the timing and extent of asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) is crucial for correct patterning. During post-embryonic root development in Arabidopsis thaliana, ground tissue (GT) maturation involves an additional ACD of the endodermis, which generates two different tissues: the endodermis (inner) and the middle cortex (outer). It has been reported that the abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) pathways are involved in middle cortex (MC) formation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between ABA and GA during GT maturation remain largely unknown. Through transcriptome analyses, we identified a previously uncharacterized C2H2-type zinc finger gene, whose expression is regulated by GA and ABA, thus named GAZ (GA- AND ABA-RESPONSIVE ZINC FINGER). Seedlings ectopically overexpressing GAZ (GAZ-OX) were sensitive to ABA and GA during MC formation, whereas GAZ-SRDX and RNAi seedlings displayed opposite phenotypes. In addition, our results indicated that GAZ was involved in the transcriptional regulation of ABA and GA homeostasis. In agreement with previous studies that ABA and GA coordinate to control the timing of MC formation, we also confirmed the unique interplay between ABA and GA and identified factors and regulatory networks bridging the two hormone pathways during GT maturation of the Arabidopsis root. PMID:26970019

  18. Dynamic subnuclear relocalization of WRKY40, a potential new mechanism of ABA-dependent transcription factor regulation

    PubMed Central

    Geilen, Katja; Böhmer, Maik

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone ABA plays a major role during plant development, e.g. seed maturation and seed germination, and during adaptation to abiotic stresses like stomatal aperture regulation. The three closely related WRKY transcription factors WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 function in ABA signal transduction. We recently demonstrated that WRKY18 and WRKY40 but not WRKY60 localize to nuclear bodies in A. thaliana mesophyll protoplasts. WRKY40, a negative regulator of ABA-dependent inhibition of seed germination, relocalizes from PNBs to the nucleoplasm in the presence of ABA in a dynamic and phosphorylation-dependent manner. We propose that subnuclear relocalization of WRKY40 might constitute a new regulatory mechanism of ABA-dependent modulation of transcription factor activity. PMID:26479147

  19. Dynamic subnuclear relocalization of WRKY40, a potential new mechanism of ABA-dependent transcription factor regulation.

    PubMed

    Geilen, Katja; Böhmer, Maik

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone ABA plays a major role during plant development, e.g. seed maturation and seed germination, and during adaptation to abiotic stresses like stomatal aperture regulation. The three closely related WRKY transcription factors WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 function in ABA signal transduction. We recently demonstrated that WRKY18 and WRKY40 but not WRKY60 localize to nuclear bodies in A. thaliana mesophyll protoplasts. WRKY40, a negative regulator of ABA-dependent inhibition of seed germination, relocalizes from PNBs to the nucleoplasm in the presence of ABA in a dynamic and phosphorylation-dependent manner. We propose that subnuclear relocalization of WRKY40 might constitute a new regulatory mechanism of ABA-dependent modulation of transcription factor activity. PMID:26479147

  20. Interaction between abscisic acid receptor PYL3 and protein phosphatase type 2C in response to ABA signaling in maize.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Ge; Yu, Hao-Qiang; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Lai, Cong-Xian; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Wan-Chen; Fu, Feng-Ling

    2014-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous hormone that regulates plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. In recent researches, pyrabactin resistance 1-like protein (PYL) and protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) were identified as the direct receptor and the second component of ABA signaling pathway, respectively. However, a lot of PYL and PP2C members were found in Arabidopsis and several other plants. Some of them were found not to be involved in ABA signaling. Because of the complex diversity of the genome, few documents have been available on the molecular details of the ABA signal perception system in maize. In the present study, we conducted bioinformatics analysis to find out the candidates (ZmPYL3 and ZmPP2C16) of the PYL and PP2C members most probably involved in ABA signaling in maize, cloned their encoding genes (ZmPYL3 and ZmPP2C16), verified the interaction between these two proteins in response to exogenous ABA induction by yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and investigated the expression patterns of these two genes under the induction of exogenous ABA by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results indicated that the ZmPYL3 and ZmPP2C16 proteins interacted in vitro and in vivo in response to the induction of exogenous ABA. The downregulated expression of the ZmPYL3 gene and the upregulated expression of the ZmPP2C16 gene are responsive to the induction of exogenous ABA. The ZmPYL3 and ZmPP2C16 proteins are the most probable members of the receptors and the second components of ABA signaling pathway, respectively. PMID:25091169

  1. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers.

    PubMed

    Nap, R J; Tagliazucchi, M; Szleifer, I

    2014-01-14

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  2. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    SciTech Connect

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

    2014-01-14

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  3. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  4. Arabidopsis ATAF1 enhances the tolerance to salt stress and ABA in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchang; Sun, Jie; Wu, Yaorong

    2016-09-01

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) transcription factors are plant-specific and have diverse functions in many plant developmental processes and responses to stress. In our previous study, we found that the expression of ATAF1, an Arabidopsis NAC gene, was obviously induced by high-salinity and abscisic acid (ABA). The overexpression of ATAF1 in Arabidopsis increased plant sensitivity to ABA and salt. To investigate whether ATAF1 affects the sensitivity of monocotyledon plant to salt and ABA, ATAF1 transgenic rice were generated. Transgenic rice exhibited significantly improved salt tolerance and insensitivity to ABA. The results of real-time PCR showed that ATAF1 overexpression in rice elevated the transcription of OsLEA3, OsSalT1 and OsPM1, which are stress-associated genes. Our results indicate that ATAF1 plays an important role in response to salt stress and may be utilized to improve the salt tolerance of rice. PMID:27216423

  5. Genome Sequence of Jumbo Phage vB_AbaM_ME3 of Acinetobacter baumanni

    PubMed Central

    Buttimer, Colin; O’Sullivan, Lisa; Elbreki, Mohamed; Neve, Horst; McAuliffe, Olivia; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin; O’Mahony, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage (phage) vB_AbaM_ME3 was previously isolated from wastewater effluent using the propagating host Acinetobacter baumannii DSM 30007. The full genome was sequenced, revealing it to be the largest Acinetobacter bacteriophage sequenced to date with a size of 234,900 bp and containing 326 open reading frames (ORFs). PMID:27563033

  6. Genome Sequence of Jumbo Phage vB_AbaM_ME3 of Acinetobacter baumanni.

    PubMed

    Buttimer, Colin; O'Sullivan, Lisa; Elbreki, Mohamed; Neve, Horst; McAuliffe, Olivia; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; O'Mahony, Jim; Coffey, Aidan

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage (phage) vB_AbaM_ME3 was previously isolated from wastewater effluent using the propagating host Acinetobacter baumannii DSM 30007. The full genome was sequenced, revealing it to be the largest Acinetobacter bacteriophage sequenced to date with a size of 234,900 bp and containing 326 open reading frames (ORFs). PMID:27563033

  7. Putrescine as a signal to modulate the indispensable ABA increase under cold stress

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Juan C; López-Cobollo, Rosa; Alcázar, Rubén; Zarza, Xavier; Koncz, Csaba; Altabella, Teresa; Salinas, Julio; Tiburcio, Antonio F

    2009-01-01

    Polyamines have been found to correlate frequently with biotic and abiotic insults, and their functional involvement in the plant responses to several stresses has been shown genetically with both gain and loss of function mutations. In spite of a large body of physiological and genetic data, the mode of action for polyamines at the molecular level still remains elusive. We have recently performed a detailed integrated analysis of polyamine metabolism under cold stress by means of metabolic studies, quantitative gene expression analyses, and gene inactivations, to characterize in more detail the role of polyamines in response to low temperature. Our data show a unique accumulation profile for putrescine compared to other polyamines, with a progressive increase upon cold stress treatment coincident with a similar transcriptional upregulation for the two arginine decarboxylase genes ADC1 and ADC2. Loss of function mutants adc1 and adc2 display reduced freezing tolerance and alterations in ABA content and ABA-dependent signalling pathways under low temperature, compared to wild type plants. Phenotypical reverse complementation tests for both adc and ABA-defective mutants support our conclusion that putrescine modulates ABA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level in response to low temperature thus uncovering a novel mode of action for polyamines as regulators of hormone biosynthesis. PMID:19721755

  8. Calcium-dependent oligomerization of CAR proteins at cell membrane modulates ABA signaling

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Maira; Sanchez-Barrena, Maria Jose; Gonzalez-Rubio, Juana Maria; Rodriguez, Lesia; Fernandez, Daniel; Antoni, Regina; Yunta, Cristina; Belda-Palazon, Borja; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Menendez, Margarita; Boskovic, Jasminka; Marquez, Jose A.; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Albert, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of ion transport in plants is essential for cell function. Abiotic stress unbalances cell ion homeostasis, and plants tend to readjust it, regulating membrane transporters and channels. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the second messenger Ca2+ are central in such processes, as they are involved in the regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases that control ion transport activity in response to environmental stimuli. The identification and characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of ABA and Ca2+ signaling pathways on membrane function are central and could provide opportunities for crop improvement. The C2-domain ABA-related (CAR) family of small proteins is involved in the Ca2+-dependent recruitment of the pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like (PYR/PYL) ABA receptors to the membrane. However, to fully understand CAR function, it is necessary to define a molecular mechanism that integrates Ca2+ sensing, membrane interaction, and the recognition of the PYR/PYL interacting partners. We present structural and biochemical data showing that CARs are peripheral membrane proteins that functionally cluster on the membrane and generate strong positive membrane curvature in a Ca2+-dependent manner. These features represent a mechanism for the generation, stabilization, and/or specific recognition of membrane discontinuities. Such structures may act as signaling platforms involved in the recruitment of PYR/PYL receptors and other signaling components involved in cell responses to stress. PMID:26719420

  9. MYB96 shapes the circadian gating of ABA signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Gil; Mas, Paloma; Seo, Pil Joon

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks regulate the rhythms of biological activities with a period of approximately 24-hours and synchronize plant metabolism and physiology with the environmental cycles. The clock also gates responses to environmental stresses to maximize fitness advantages. Here we report that the MYB96 transcription factor is connected with the clock oscillator to shape the circadian gating of abscisic acid (ABA) responses. MYB96 directly binds to the TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) promoter to positively regulate its expression. The use of myb96 mutant plants shows that this regulation is essential for the gated induction of TOC1 by ABA. In turn, MYB96 induction by ABA is also altered in toc1-3 mutant plants. The increased tolerance to drought of MYB96 over-expressing plants is decreased in the toc1-3 mutant background, suggesting that MYB96 and TOC1 intersect the circadian clock and ABA signaling. The MYB96-TOC1 function might be also regulated by the clock component CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), which binds to the MYB96 promoter and alters its circadian expression. Thus, a complex circuitry of CCA1-MYB96-TOC1 regulatory interactions provides the mechanistic basis underlying the connection between circadian and stress signaling to optimize plant fitness to ambient stresses. PMID:26725725

  10. Calcium-dependent oligomerization of CAR proteins at cell membrane modulates ABA signaling.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Maira; Sanchez-Barrena, Maria Jose; Gonzalez-Rubio, Juana Maria; Rodriguez, Lesia; Fernandez, Daniel; Antoni, Regina; Yunta, Cristina; Belda-Palazon, Borja; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Menendez, Margarita; Boskovic, Jasminka; Marquez, Jose A; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Albert, Armando

    2016-01-19

    Regulation of ion transport in plants is essential for cell function. Abiotic stress unbalances cell ion homeostasis, and plants tend to readjust it, regulating membrane transporters and channels. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the second messenger Ca(2+) are central in such processes, as they are involved in the regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases that control ion transport activity in response to environmental stimuli. The identification and characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of ABA and Ca(2+) signaling pathways on membrane function are central and could provide opportunities for crop improvement. The C2-domain ABA-related (CAR) family of small proteins is involved in the Ca(2+)-dependent recruitment of the pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like (PYR/PYL) ABA receptors to the membrane. However, to fully understand CAR function, it is necessary to define a molecular mechanism that integrates Ca(2+) sensing, membrane interaction, and the recognition of the PYR/PYL interacting partners. We present structural and biochemical data showing that CARs are peripheral membrane proteins that functionally cluster on the membrane and generate strong positive membrane curvature in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. These features represent a mechanism for the generation, stabilization, and/or specific recognition of membrane discontinuities. Such structures may act as signaling platforms involved in the recruitment of PYR/PYL receptors and other signaling components involved in cell responses to stress. PMID:26719420

  11. ABA and PBS: The Dangers in Creating Artificial Dichotomies in Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Mary Jane; DelPizzo-Cheng, Eliza; LaRue, Robert H.; Sloman, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and independence of Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) within the context of behavioral intervention. Specifically, behavior analysts have argued over whether PBS is subsumed within Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) or whether it can be considered a separate…

  12. Abscisic acid (ABA) receptors: light at the end of the tunnel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in several aspects of plant growth and development. Understanding how this hormonal stimulus is sensed and transduced turned out to be one of the major tasks in the field of plant signaling. A series of recent papers proposed several different prote...

  13. Nucleic acid-based approaches to STAT inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sen, Malabika; Grandis, Jennifer R

    2012-10-01

    Silencing of abnormally activated genes can be accomplished in a highly specific manner using nucleic acid based approaches. The focus of this review includes the different nucleic acid based inhibition strategies such as antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, small interfering RNA (siRNA), dominant-negative constructs, G-quartet oligonucleotides and decoy oligonucleotides, their mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these approaches to targeting the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins in cancer. Among the STAT proteins, especially STAT3, followed by STAT5, are the most frequently activated oncogenic STATs, which have emerged as plausible therapeutic cancer targets. Both STAT3 and STAT5 have been shown to regulate numerous oncogenic signaling pathways including proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and migration/invasion. PMID:24058785

  14. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanodevices in Biological Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Veetil, Aneesh T; Jaffrey, Samie R; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2016-06-01

    The nanoscale engineering of nucleic acids has led to exciting molecular technologies for high-end biological imaging. The predictable base pairing, high programmability, and superior new chemical and biological methods used to access nucleic acids with diverse lengths and in high purity, coupled with computational tools for their design, have allowed the creation of a stunning diversity of nucleic acid-based nanodevices. Given their biological origin, such synthetic devices have a tremendous capacity to interface with the biological world, and this capacity lies at the heart of several nucleic acid-based technologies that are finding applications in biological systems. We discuss these diverse applications and emphasize the advantage, in terms of physicochemical properties, that the nucleic acid scaffold brings to these contexts. As our ability to engineer this versatile scaffold increases, its applications in structural, cellular, and organismal biology are clearly poised to massively expand. PMID:27294440

  15. Root ABA Accumulation Enhances Rice Seedling Drought Tolerance under Ammonium Supply: Interaction with Aquaporins

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lei; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Ying; Gao, Limin; Wang, Min; Chaumont, François; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that ammonium nutrition enhances the drought tolerance of rice seedlings compared to nitrate nutrition and contributes to a higher root water uptake ability. It remains unclear why rice seedlings maintain a higher water uptake ability when supplied with ammonium under drought stress. Here, we focused on the effects of nitrogen form and drought stress on root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and aquaporin expression using hydroponics experiments and stimulating drought stress with 10% PEG6000. Drought stress decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductivity and increased the leaf temperature of plants supplied with either ammonium or nitrate, but especially under nitrate supply. After 4 h of PEG treatment, the root protoplast water permeability and the expression of root PIP and TIP genes decreased in plants supplied with ammonium or nitrate. After 24 h of PEG treatment, the root hydraulic conductivity, the protoplast water permeability, and the expression of some aquaporin genes increased in plants supplied with ammonium compared to those under non-PEG treatment. Root ABA accumulation was induced by 24 h of PEG treatment, especially in plants supplied with ammonium. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the expression of PIP and TIP genes under non-PEG treatment but increased the expression of some of them under PEG treatment. We concluded that drought stress induced a down-regulation of aquaporin expression, which appeared earlier than did root ABA accumulation. With continued drought stress, aquaporin expression and activity increased due to root ABA accumulation in plants supplied with ammonium. PMID:27559341

  16. Root ABA Accumulation Enhances Rice Seedling Drought Tolerance under Ammonium Supply: Interaction with Aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lei; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Ying; Gao, Limin; Wang, Min; Chaumont, François; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that ammonium nutrition enhances the drought tolerance of rice seedlings compared to nitrate nutrition and contributes to a higher root water uptake ability. It remains unclear why rice seedlings maintain a higher water uptake ability when supplied with ammonium under drought stress. Here, we focused on the effects of nitrogen form and drought stress on root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and aquaporin expression using hydroponics experiments and stimulating drought stress with 10% PEG6000. Drought stress decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductivity and increased the leaf temperature of plants supplied with either ammonium or nitrate, but especially under nitrate supply. After 4 h of PEG treatment, the root protoplast water permeability and the expression of root PIP and TIP genes decreased in plants supplied with ammonium or nitrate. After 24 h of PEG treatment, the root hydraulic conductivity, the protoplast water permeability, and the expression of some aquaporin genes increased in plants supplied with ammonium compared to those under non-PEG treatment. Root ABA accumulation was induced by 24 h of PEG treatment, especially in plants supplied with ammonium. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the expression of PIP and TIP genes under non-PEG treatment but increased the expression of some of them under PEG treatment. We concluded that drought stress induced a down-regulation of aquaporin expression, which appeared earlier than did root ABA accumulation. With continued drought stress, aquaporin expression and activity increased due to root ABA accumulation in plants supplied with ammonium. PMID:27559341

  17. Linking Turgor with ABA Biosynthesis: Implications for Stomatal Responses to Vapor Pressure Deficit across Land Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Scott A.M.; Brodribb, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Stomatal responses to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) constitute the predominant form of daytime gas-exchange regulation in plants. Stomatal closure in response to increased VPD is driven by the rapid up-regulation of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and ABA levels in angiosperms; however, very little is known about the physiological trigger for this increase in ABA biosynthesis at increased VPD. Using a novel method of modifying leaf cell turgor by the application of external pressures, we test whether changes in turgor pressure can trigger increases in foliar ABA levels over 20 min, a period of time most relevant to the stomatal response to VPD. We found in angiosperm species that the biosynthesis of ABA was triggered by reductions in leaf turgor, and in two species tested, that a higher sensitivity of ABA synthesis to leaf turgor corresponded with a higher stomatal sensitivity to VPD. In contrast, representative species from nonflowering plant lineages did not show a rapid turgor-triggered increase in foliar ABA levels, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating passive stomatal responses to changes in VPD in these lineages. Our method provides a new tool for characterizing the response of stomata to water availability. PMID:27208264

  18. ABA Suppresses Botrytis cinerea Elicited NO Production in Tomato to Influence H2O2 Generation and Increase Host Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumaran, Anushen; Akinyemi, Aderemi; Mandon, Julian; Cristescu, Simona M.; Hall, Michael A.; Harren, Frans J. M.; Mur, Luis A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with nitric oxide (NO) in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesizing pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production – an established mediator of defense against this pathogen – occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA-treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production. PMID:27252724

  19. A Direct Link between Abscisic Acid Sensing and the Chromatin-Remodeling ATPase BRAHMA via Core ABA Signaling Pathway Components.

    PubMed

    Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Han, Soon-Ki; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Jeong, Cheol Woong; Rodriguez, Lesia; Belda-Palazon, Borja; Wagner, Doris; Rodriguez, Pedro L

    2016-01-01

    Optimal response to drought is critical for plant survival and will affect biodiversity and crop performance during climate change. Mitotically heritable epigenetic or dynamic chromatin state changes have been implicated in the plant response to the drought stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The Arabidopsis SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling ATPase BRAHMA (BRM) modulates response to ABA by preventing premature activation of stress response pathways during germination. We show that core ABA signaling pathway components physically interact with BRM and post-translationally modify BRM by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Genetic evidence suggests that BRM acts downstream of SnRK2.2/2.3 kinases, and biochemical studies identified phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal region of BRM at SnRK2 target sites that are evolutionarily conserved. Finally, the phosphomimetic BRM(S1760D S1762D) mutant displays ABA hypersensitivity. Prior studies showed that BRM resides at target loci in the ABA pathway in the presence and absence of the stimulus, but is only active in the absence of ABA. Our data suggest that SnRK2-dependent phosphorylation of BRM leads to its inhibition, and PP2CA-mediated dephosphorylation of BRM restores the ability of BRM to repress ABA response. These findings point to the presence of a rapid phosphorylation-based switch to control BRM activity; this property could be potentially harnessed to improve drought tolerance in plants. PMID:26499068

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Possible Influences of ABA on Secondary Metabolism of Pigments, Flavonoids and Antioxidants in Tomato Fruit during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has been proven to be involved in the regulation of climacteric fruit ripening, but a comprehensive investigation of its influence on ripening related processes is still lacking. By applying the next generation sequencing technology, we conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of exogenous ABA and NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) on tomato fruit ripening. The high throughput sequencing results showed that out of the 25728 genes expressed across all three samples, 10388 were identified as significantly differently expressed genes. Exogenous ABA was found to enhance the transcription of genes involved in pigments metabolism, including carotenoids biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation, whereas NDGA treatment inhibited these processes. The results also revealed the crucial role of ABA in flavonoids synthesis and regulation of antioxidant system. Intriguingly, we also found that an inhibition of endogenous ABA significantly enhanced the transcriptional abundance of genes involved in photosynthesis. Our results highlighted the significance of ABA in regulating tomato ripening, which provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit maturation and senescence process. PMID:26053166

  1. ABA Suppresses Botrytis cinerea Elicited NO Production in Tomato to Influence H2O2 Generation and Increase Host Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Anushen; Akinyemi, Aderemi; Mandon, Julian; Cristescu, Simona M; Hall, Michael A; Harren, Frans J M; Mur, Luis A J

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with nitric oxide (NO) in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesizing pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production - an established mediator of defense against this pathogen - occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA-treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production. PMID:27252724

  2. Interplay between ABA and phospholipases A(2) and D in the response of citrus fruit to postharvest dehydration.

    PubMed

    Romero, Paco; Gandía, Mónica; Alférez, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    The interplay between abscisic acid (ABA) and phospholipases A2 and D (PLA2 and PLD) in the response of citrus fruit to water stress was investigated during postharvest by using an ABA-deficient mutant from 'Navelate' orange named 'Pinalate'. Fruit from both varieties harvested at two different maturation stages (mature-green and full-mature) were subjected to prolonged water loss inducing stem-end rind breakdown (SERB) in full-mature fruit. Treatment with PLA2 inhibitor aristolochic acid (AT) and PLD inhibitor lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) reduced the disorder in both varieties, suggesting that phospholipid metabolism is involved in citrus peel quality. Expression of CsPLDα and CsPLDβ, and CssPLA2α and CssPLA2β was studied by real-time RT-PCR during water stress and in response to ABA. CsPLDα expression increased in mature-green fruit from 'Navelate' but not in 'Pinalate' and ABA did not counteract this effect. ABA enhanced repression of CsPLDα in full-mature fruit. CsPLDβ gene expression decreased in mature-green 'Pinalate', remained unchanged in 'Navelate' and was induced in full-mature fruit from both varieties. CssPLA2α expression increased in mature-green fruit from both varieties whereas in full-mature fruit only increased in 'Navelate'. CssPLA2β expression increased in mature-green flavedo from both varieties, but in full-mature fruit remained steady in 'Navelate' and barely increased in 'Pinalate' fruit. ABA reduced expression in both after prolonged storage. Responsiveness to ABA increased with maturation. Our results show interplay between PLA2 and PLD and suggest that ABA action is upstream phospholipase activation. Response to ABA during water stress in citrus is regulated during fruit maturation and involves membrane phospholipid degradation. PMID:23800664

  3. Long-term effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on the grape berry phenylpropanoid pathway: Gene expression and metabolite content.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-González, Luis; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Ibáñez, Freddy; Pastenes, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    ABA has been proposed as the main signal triggering the onset of the ripening process in grapes, and modulating the secondary metabolism in grape berry skins. To determine the effect of ABA on secondary metabolism in berries, clusters of Carménère were sprayed with 0 μLL(-1) ABA; 50 μLL(-1) ABA and 100 μLL(-1) ABA during pre-véraison, and the gene expression of the transcription factors and enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were assessed from véraison to 70 days after véraison (DAV). Additionally, flavonols, tannins and anthocyanins were assessed from véraison until harvest (110 DAV). ABA accelerated sugar and anthocyanin accumulation at véraison. The grape transcript abundance of VvDFR, VvANS, VvUFGT and VvMybA1, all peaking around véraison mimicked the concentration of ABA throughout the season. The highest anthocyanin concentration occurred 35 DAV for all treatments, but higher pigment concentrations were observed in ABA-treated berries at véraison and from 60 to 70 DAV to harvest. VvPAL was also increased by treatment at the higher concentration of ABA from véraison to 40 DAV. Regarding flavanol synthesis, VvLAR2 and VvMyb4A decreased from véraison until 40 DAV and then increased again until 70 DAV. Compared to the control, both ABA treatments resulted in a less-than-proportional reduction of the expression of both genes compared to the control and, after 40 DAV, in a more-than-proportional increase compared to the control, suggesting a long-term effect of the pre-véraison ABA spray on the berries. A concomitant increase in flavanols was observed in berries after 40 DAV, and this occurred at a higher extent in berries treated with the highest ABA concentration. PMID:27116369

  4. Relationship of students' conceptual representations and problem-solving abilities in acid-base chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Angela R.

    2000-10-01

    This study explored the relationship between secondary chemistry students' conceptual representations of acid-base chemistry, as shown in student-constructed concept maps, and their ability to solve acid-base problems, represented by their score on an 18-item paper and pencil test, the Acid-Base Concept Assessment (ABCA). The ABCA, consisting of both multiple-choice and short-answer items, was originally designed using a question-type by subtopic matrix, validated by a panel of experts, and refined through pilot studies and factor analysis to create the final instrument. The concept map task included a short introduction to concept mapping, a prototype concept map, a practice concept-mapping activity, and the instructions for the acid-base concept map task. The instruments were administered to chemistry students at two high schools; 108 subjects completed both instruments for this study. Factor analysis of ABCA results indicated that the test was unifactorial for these students, despite the intention to create an instrument with multiple "question-type" scales. Concept maps were scored both holistically and by counting valid concepts. The two approaches were highly correlated (r = 0.75). The correlation between ABCA score and concept-map score was 0.29 for holistically-scored concept maps and 0.33 for counted-concept maps. Although both correlations were significant, they accounted for only 8.8 and 10.2% of variance in ABCA scores, respectively. However, when the reliability of the instruments used is considered, more than 20% of the variance in ABCA scores may be explained by concept map scores. MANOVAs for ABCA and concept map scores by instructor, student gender, and year in school showed significant differences for both holistic and counted concept-map scores. Discriminant analysis revealed that the source of these differences was the instruction variable. Significant differences between classes receiving different instruction were found in the frequency of

  5. History of medical understanding and misunderstanding of Acid base balance.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-09-01

    To establish how controversies in understanding acid base balance arose, the literature on acid base balance was reviewed from 1909, when Henderson described how the neutral reaction of blood is determined by carbonic and organic acids being in equilibrium with an excess of mineral bases over mineral acids. From 1914 to 1930, Van Slyke and others established our acid base principles. They recognised that carbonic acid converts into bicarbonate all non-volatile mineral bases not bound by mineral acids and determined therefore that bicarbonate represents the alkaline reserve of the body and should be a physiological constant. They showed that standard bicarbonate is a good measure of acidosis caused by increased production or decreased elimination of organic acids. However, they recognised that bicarbonate improved low plasma bicarbonate but not high urine acid excretion in diabetic ketoacidosis, and that increasing pCO2 caused chloride to shift into cells raising plasma titratable alkali. Both indicate that minerals influence pH. In 1945 Darrow showed that hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis in preterm infants fed milk with 5.7 mmol of chloride and 2.0 mmol of sodium per 100 kcal was caused by retention of chloride in excess of sodium. Similar findings were made but not recognised in later studies of metabolic acidosis in preterm infants. Shohl in 1921 and Kildeberg in 1978 presented the theory that carbonic and organic acids are neutralised by mineral base, where mineral base is the excess of mineral cations over anions and organic acid is the difference between mineral base, bicarbonate and protein anion. The degree of metabolic acidosis measured as base excess is determined by deviation in both mineral base and organic acid from normal. PMID:24179938

  6. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sett, Arghya; Das, Suradip; Bora, Utpal

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to replace conventional chromatographic methods for environmental monitoring with cheaper and easy to use biosensors for precise detection and estimation of hazardous environmental toxicants, water or air borne pathogens as well as various other chemicals and biologics are gaining momentum. Out of the various types of biosensors classified according to their bio-recognition principle, nucleic-acid-based sensors have shown high potential in terms of cost, sensitivity, and specificity. The discovery of catalytic activities of RNA (ribozymes) and DNA (DNAzymes) which could be triggered by divalent metallic ions paved the way for their extensive use in detection of heavy metal contaminants in environment. This was followed with the invention of small oligonucleotide sequences called aptamers which can fold into specific 3D conformation under suitable conditions after binding to target molecules. Due to their high affinity, specificity, reusability, stability, and non-immunogenicity to vast array of targets like small and macromolecules from organic, inorganic, and biological origin, they can often be exploited as sensors in industrial waste management, pollution control, and environmental toxicology. Further, rational combination of the catalytic activity of DNAzymes and RNAzymes along with the sequence-specific binding ability of aptamers have given rise to the most advanced form of functional nucleic-acid-based sensors called aptazymes. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors (FNASs) can be conjugated with fluorescent molecules, metallic nanoparticles, or quantum dots to aid in rapid detection of a variety of target molecules by target-induced structure switch (TISS) mode. Although intensive research is being carried out for further improvements of FNAs as sensors, challenges remain in integrating such bio-recognition element with advanced transduction platform to enable its use as a networked analytical system for tailor made analysis of environmental

  7. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  8. School Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Williamson M., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    This book presents the perspectives of experts from the fields of history, economics, political science, and psychology on what is known about accountability, what still needs to be learned, what should be done right now, and what should be avoided in devising accountability systems. The common myths about accountability are dispelled and how it…

  9. Colorful Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, C. Shane

    2006-01-01

    As instructors of accounting, we should take an abstract topic (at least to most students) and connect it to content known by students to help increase the effectiveness of our instruction. In a recent semester, ordinary items such as colors, a basketball, and baseball were used to relate the subject of accounting. The accounting topics of account…

  10. Biofuncationalized microfiber Bragg grating for acid-based sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Yang; Huang, Yunyun; Shen, Xiang; Sun, Dandan; Wang, Xiuxin; Jin, Long; Li, Jie; Guan, Baiou

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate an acid-based sensor from the biofuncationalized microfiber Bragg grating. By electrostatic selfassembly layer-by-layer technique, the film consisting of sodium alginate which has hygroscopic response to the potential of hydrogen is coated on the fiber surface. Consequently, the refractive index variation of the sensing film caused by water absorption can be measured by mFBG's higher order mode peak which can be translated into pH value information. The sensitivity of the sensor is received as high as 265pm/pH.

  11. The comprehensive acid-base characterization of glutathione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzahosseini, Arash; Somlyay, Máté; Noszál, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione in its thiol (GSH) and disulfide (GSSG) forms, and 4 related compounds were studied by 1H NMR-pH titrations and a case-tailored evaluation method. The resulting acid-base properties are quantified in terms of 128 microscopic protonation constants; the first complete set of such parameters for this vitally important pair of compounds. The concomitant 12 interactivity parameters were also determined. Since biological redox systems are regularly compared to the GSH-GSSG pair, the eight microscopic thiolate basicities determined this way are exclusive means for assessing subtle redox parameters in a wide pH range.

  12. Acid-Base Homeostasis: Overview for Infusion Nurses.

    PubMed

    Masco, Natalie A

    2016-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis is essential to normal function of the human body. Even slight alterations can significantly alter physiologic processes at the tissue and cellular levels. To optimally care for patients, nurses must be able to recognize signs and symptoms that indicate deviations from normal. Nurses who provide infusions to patients-whether in acute care, home care, or infusion center settings-have a responsibility to be able to recognize the laboratory value changes that occur with the imbalance and appreciate the treatment options, including intravenous infusions. PMID:27598068

  13. Spatial and orientation control of cylindrical nanostructures in ABA triblock copolymer thin films by raster solvent vapor annealing.

    PubMed

    Seppala, Jonathan E; Lewis, Ronald L; Epps, Thomas H

    2012-11-27

    We present a spatially resolved approach for the solvent vapor annealing (SVA) of block copolymer thin films that permits the facile and relatively rapid manipulation of nanoscale ordering and nanostructure orientation. In our method, a localized (point) SVA zone is created through the use of a vapor delivery nozzle. This point annealing zone can be rastered across the thin film using a motorized stage to control the local nanoscale structure and orientation in a cylinder-forming ABA triblock copolymer thin film. At moderate rastering speeds (∼100 μm/s) (i.e., relatively modest annealing time at a given point), the film displayed ordered cylindrical nanostructures with the cylinders oriented parallel to the substrate surface. As the rastering speed was decreased (∼10 μm/s), the morphology transformed into a surface nanostructure indicative of cylinders oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface. These perpendicular cylinder orientations also were created by rastering multiple times over the same region, and this effect was found when rastering in either retrace (overlapping) or crossed-path (orthogonal) geometries. Similar trends in nanostructure orientation and ordering were obtained from various nozzle diameters by accounting for differences in solvent flux and annealing time, illustrating the universality of this approach. Finally, we note that our "stylus-based" raster solvent vapor annealing technique allows a given point to be solvent annealed approximately 2 orders of magnitude faster than conventional "bell jar" solvent vapor annealing. PMID:23035916

  14. Spin and valley resolved Landau level crossing in tri-layer ABA stacked graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Biswajit; Gupta, Vishakha; Borah, Abhinandan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Deshmukh, Mandar

    We present quantum Hall measurements on a high quality encapsulated tri-layer graphene device. Low temperature field effect mobility of this device is around 500,000 cm2/Vs and we see SdH oscillations at a magnetic field as low as 0.3 T. Quantum Hall measurements confirm that the chosen tri layer graphene is Bernal (ABA) stacked. Due to the presence of both mass-less monolayer like Dirac fermions and massive bi-layer like Dirac fermions in Bernal stacked tri-layer graphene, there are Landau level crossings between monolayer and bi-layer bands in quantum Hall regime. Although most of the Landau Level crossings are predominantly present on the electron sides, we also observe signatures of the crossings on the hole side. This behaviour is consistent with the asymmetry of electron and hole in ABA tri-layer graphene. We observe a series of crossings of the spin and valley resolved Landau Levels.

  15. Brief report: comparative ABA and DIR trials in twin brothers with autism.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Jane C; Seal, Brenda C

    2007-07-01

    Trial interventions in DIR and ABA with twin brothers with autism were offered to help the parents choose one of the programs for their sons. Pre- and post-test scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) revealed a slight gain in the composite score of the ABA child and a slight loss in the score of the DIR child. Contrasted gains and losses occurred in six of the seven CSBS clusters. Results from this pilot research are discussed with additional communication and behavior data from the intervention period. Careful interpretation of CSBS outcomes in counseling parents and graduate students is strongly advised. Continued research in comparative outcomes for intervention programs is strongly encouraged. PMID:17072747

  16. The effects of GA and ABA treatments on metabolite profile of germinating barley.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuqing; Cai, Shengguan; Ye, Lingzhen; Hu, Hongliang; Li, Chengdao; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Sugar degradation during grain germination is important for malt quality. In malting industry, gibberellin (GA) is frequently used for improvement of malting quality. In this study, the changes of metabolite profiles and starch-degrading enzymes during grain germination, and as affected by GA and abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated using two wild barley accessions XZ72 and XZ95. Totally fifty-two metabolites with known structures were detected and the change of metabolite during germination was time- and genotype dependent. Sugars and amino acids were the most dramatically changed compounds. Addition of GA enhanced the activities of starch-degrading enzymes, and increased most metabolites, especially sugars and amino acids, whereas ABA had the opposite effect. The effect varied with the barley accessions. The current study is the first attempt in investigating the effect of hormones on metabolite profiles in germinating barley grain, being helpful for identifying the factors affecting barley germination or malt quality. PMID:26304431

  17. Rich Phase Behavior of Sphere-Forming Asymmetric ABA'C Block Copolymer Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanpuriya, Sid; Arora, Akash; Kim, Kyungtae; Dorfman, Kevin; Bates, Frank

    Motivated by self-consistent field theory simulations, the effect of ABA' corona block length asymmetry on the phase behavior of ABA'C-type tetrablock terpolymers has been examined. The chosen model system, poly(styrene)- b-poly(isoprene)- b-poly(styrene)- b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SIS'O), has been characterized using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. Asymmetric SIS'O tetrablocks reveal a rich variety of sphere-forming phases over compositions and molecular weights where symmetric SISO polymers formed only hexagonally oriented cylinders. These include FCC, HCP, and complex symmetries such as the Frank-Kasper σ and A15 phases. NSF Award 1333669.

  18. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation. PMID:26277753

  19. A Computer-Based Simulation of an Acid-Base Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boblick, John M.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews the advantages of computer simulated environments for experiments, referring in particular to acid-base titrations. Includes pre-lab instructions and a sample computer printout of a student's use of an acid-base simulation. Ten references. (PR)

  20. RopGEF2 is involved in ABA-suppression of seed germination and post-germination growth of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shujuan; Wu, Yuxuan; He, Yuqing; Wang, Yarui; Xiao, Jun; Li, Lin; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Xi; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    The involvement of Rho of Plants (ROP) GTPases in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling in Arabidopsis has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the roles of RopGEFs (Rop guanine nucleotide exchange factors), which modulate ROP activities in ABA signalling, are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that RopGEF2 may play a negative role in ABA-suppressed seed germination and post-germination growth. We show that disruption of RopGEF2 enhances sensitivity to exogenous ABA in seed germination assays and that RopGEF2pro-GUS is mainly expressed in developing embryos and germinating seeds. Interestingly, YFP-RopGEF2 is located in both the cytoplasmic region and in mitochondria. Notably, the PRONE2 (plant-specific ROP nucleotide exchanger 2) domain of RopGEF2 is detected in mitochondria, whereas the N-terminus of RopGEF2 is shown to be in the cytosol. After ABA treatment, degradation of RopGEF2 is triggered in the cytosol through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system. The binding of RopGEF2 to ROP2, ROP6 or ROP10, which has been demonstrated to be involved in ABA signalling, not only alters the localization of RopGEF2 but also enables RopGEF2 to escape degradation in the cell. Thus, in this study, we deduce a sophisticated mechanism of ABA-mediated RopGEF2-ROP signalling, which potentially implicates the inactivation of ROPs in responsiveness to ABA. PMID:26461226

  1. Acid-base actuation of [c2]daisy chains.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Wu, Jishan; Olson, Mark A; Spruell, Jason M; Trabolsi, Ali; Yang, Ying-Wei; Elhabiri, Mourad; Albrecht-Gary, Anne-Marie; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2009-05-27

    A versatile synthetic strategy, which was conceived and employed to prepare doubly threaded, bistable [c2]daisy chain compounds, is described. Propargyl and 1-pentenyl groups have been grafted onto the stoppers of [c2]daisy chain molecules obtained using a template-directed synthetic protocol. Such [c2]daisy chain molecules undergo reversible extension and contraction upon treatment with acid and base, respectively. The dialkyne-functionalized [c2]daisy chain (AA) was subjected to an [AA+BB] type polymerization with an appropriate diazide (BB) to afford a linear, mechanically interlocked, main-chain polymer. The macromolecular properties of this polymer were characterized by chronocoulometry, size exclusion chromatography, and static light-scattering analysis. The acid-base switching properties of both the monomers and the polymer have been studied in solution, using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, UV/vis absorption spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The experimental results demonstrate that the functionalized [c2]daisy chains, along with their polymeric derivatives, undergo quantitative, efficient, and fully reversible switching processes in solution. Kinetics measurements demonstrate that the acid/base-promoted extension/contraction movements of the polymeric [c2]daisy chain are actually faster than those of its monomeric counterpart. These observations open the door to correlated molecular motions and to changes in material properties. PMID:19419175

  2. Self-assembly of rod-coil-rod ABA-type triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Zhong; Sun, Zhao-Yan; Zhang, Cheng-Xiang; An, Li-Jia; Tong, Zhen

    2008-02-21

    Self-assembled behavior of symmetric ABA rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer melts is studied by applying self-consistent-field lattice techniques in three-dimensional space. The phase diagram is constructed to understand the effects of the chain architecture on the self-assembled behavior. Four stable structures are observed for the ABA rod-coil-rod triblock, i.e., spherelike, lamellar, gyroidlike, and cylindrical structures. Different from AB rod-coil diblock and BAB coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers, the lamellar structure observed in ABA rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer melts is not stable for high volume fraction of the rod component (f(rod)=0.8), which is attributed to the intramolecular interactions between the two rod blocks of the polymer chain. When 0.3

  3. Graphene oxide modulates root growth of Brassica napus L. and regulates ABA and IAA concentration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Xie, Ling-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Fei; Xu, Ben-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have proven that nanomaterials have a significant effect on plant growth and development. To better understand the effects of nanomaterials on plants, Zhongshuang 11 was treated with different concentrations of graphene oxide. The results indicated that 25-100mg/l graphene oxide treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length compared with the control samples. The fresh root weight decreased when treated with 50-100mg/l graphene oxide. The graphene oxide treatment had no significant effect on the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Treatment with 50mg/l graphene oxide increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (NCED, AAO, and ZEP) and some genes involved in IAA biosynthesis (ARF2, ARF8, IAA2, and IAA3), but inhibited the transcript levels of IAA4 and IAA7. The graphene oxide treatment also resulted in a higher ABA content, but a lower IAA content compared with the control samples. The results indicated that graphene oxide modulated the root growth of Brassica napus L. and affected ABA and IAA biosynthesis and concentration. PMID:26945480

  4. Sucrose and ABA regulate starch biosynthesis in maize through a novel transcription factor, ZmEREB156

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huanhuan; Xie, Sidi; Xiao, Qianlin; Wei, Bin; Zheng, Lanjie; Wang, Yongbin; Cao, Yao; Zhang, Xiangge; Long, Tiandan; Li, Yangping; Hu, Yufeng; Yu, Guowu; Liu, Hanmei; Liu, Yinghong; Huang, Zhi; Zhang, Junjie; Huang, Yubi

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is not only the carbon source for starch synthesis, but also a signal molecule. Alone or in coordination with ABA, it can regulate the expression of genes involved in starch synthesis. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, maize endosperms were collected from Zea mays L. B73 inbred line 10 d after pollination and treated with sucrose, ABA, or sucrose plus ABA at 28 °C in the dark for 24 h. RNA-sequence analysis of the maize endosperm transcriptome revealed 47 candidate transcription factors among the differentially expressed genes. We therefore speculate that starch synthetic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors induced by the combination of sucrose and ABA. ZmEREB156, a candidate transcription factor, is induced by sucrose plus ABA and is involved in starch biosynthesis. The ZmEREB156-GFP-fused protein was localized in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells, and ZmEREB156 protein possessed strong transcriptional activation activity. Promoter activity of the starch-related genes Zmsh2 and ZmSSIIIa increased after overexpression of ZmEREB156 in maize endosperm. ZmEREB156 could bind to the ZmSSIIIa promoter but not the Zmsh2 promoter in a yeast one-hybrid system. Thus, ZmEREB156 positively modulates starch biosynthetic gene ZmSSIIIa via the synergistic effect of sucrose and ABA. PMID:27282997

  5. Effects of ABA and CaCl₂ on GABA accumulation in fava bean germinating under hypoxia-NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Hui, Qianru; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    Effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and CaCl2 on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation of germinated fava bean under hypoxia-NaCl stress were investigated. Exogenous ABA resulted in the enhancement of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity as well as GABA content in cotyledon and shoot. CaCl2 increased both enzyme activities in shoot and GABA content in cotyledon and shoot. ABA downregulated GAD expression in cotyledon and radicle, while upregulated that in shoot; it also upregulated DAO expression in each organ. CaCl2 upregulated GAD expression in cotyledon, while downregulated that in radicle. However, it upregulated DAO expression in shoot, downregulated that in radicle. ABA inhibitor fluridon and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid inhibited GAD and DAO activities significantly so that inhibited GABA accumulation through reducing ABA biosynthesis and chelating Ca(2+), respectively. However, they upregulated GAD and DAO expression in varying degrees. These results indicate that ABA and Ca(2+) participate in GABA biosynthesis in fava bean during germination under hypoxia-NaCl stress. PMID:26644273

  6. Spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 2 in Asia and AbaR-type resistance islands.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hun; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Hae Won; Kim, So Hyun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; So, Thomas Man-Kit; Yasin, Rohani M D; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Carlos, Celia C; Hsu, Li Yang; Buntaran, Latre; Lalitha, M K; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2013-11-01

    In this surveillance study, we identified the genotypes, carbapenem resistance determinants, and structural variations of AbaR-type resistance islands among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates from nine Asian locales. Clonal complex 92 (CC92), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2), was the most prevalent in most Asian locales (83/108 isolates; 76.9%). CC108, or GC1, was a predominant clone in India. OXA-23 oxacillinase was detected in CRAB isolates from most Asian locales except Taiwan. blaOXA-24 was found in CRAB isolates from Taiwan. AbaR4-type resistance islands, which were divided into six subtypes, were identified in most CRAB isolates investigated. Five isolates from India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong contained AbaR3-type resistance islands. Of these, three isolates harbored both AbaR3- and AbaR4-type resistance islands simultaneously. In this study, GC2 was revealed as a prevalent clone in most Asian locales, with the AbaR4-type resistance island predominant, with diverse variants. The significance of this study lies in identifying the spread of global clones of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in Asia. PMID:23939892

  7. Sucrose and ABA regulate starch biosynthesis in maize through a novel transcription factor, ZmEREB156.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huanhuan; Xie, Sidi; Xiao, Qianlin; Wei, Bin; Zheng, Lanjie; Wang, Yongbin; Cao, Yao; Zhang, Xiangge; Long, Tiandan; Li, Yangping; Hu, Yufeng; Yu, Guowu; Liu, Hanmei; Liu, Yinghong; Huang, Zhi; Zhang, Junjie; Huang, Yubi

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is not only the carbon source for starch synthesis, but also a signal molecule. Alone or in coordination with ABA, it can regulate the expression of genes involved in starch synthesis. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, maize endosperms were collected from Zea mays L. B73 inbred line 10 d after pollination and treated with sucrose, ABA, or sucrose plus ABA at 28 °C in the dark for 24 h. RNA-sequence analysis of the maize endosperm transcriptome revealed 47 candidate transcription factors among the differentially expressed genes. We therefore speculate that starch synthetic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors induced by the combination of sucrose and ABA. ZmEREB156, a candidate transcription factor, is induced by sucrose plus ABA and is involved in starch biosynthesis. The ZmEREB156-GFP-fused protein was localized in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells, and ZmEREB156 protein possessed strong transcriptional activation activity. Promoter activity of the starch-related genes Zmsh2 and ZmSSIIIa increased after overexpression of ZmEREB156 in maize endosperm. ZmEREB156 could bind to the ZmSSIIIa promoter but not the Zmsh2 promoter in a yeast one-hybrid system. Thus, ZmEREB156 positively modulates starch biosynthetic gene ZmSSIIIa via the synergistic effect of sucrose and ABA. PMID:27282997

  8. [Practical approach to complex acid-base disorders using a slide rule].

    PubMed

    Rives, E; Grimaud, D

    1986-01-01

    Diagnosis of mixed acid-base disturbances is often difficult. Nowadays it depends on biochemical and statistical interpretation, coupled with clinical data. The acid-base slide-rule is a useful tool to carry out this five step procedure, which it simplifies, giving rapidly at the patient's bed-side an objective support for the diagnosis of acid-base disturbances. PMID:3777572

  9. 78 FR 36698 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Nucleic Acid-Based Systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Nucleic Acid-Based Systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Respiratory Specimens AGENCY: Food...) is proposing to reclassify nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices for the detection of... Controls Guideline: Nucleic Acid-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the Detection of...

  10. Expression of ABA Metabolism-Related Genes Suggests Similarities and Differences Between Seed Dormancy and Bud Dormancy of Peach (Prunus persica)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongling; Gao, Zhenzhen; Du, Peiyong; Xiao, Wei; Tan, Qiuping; Chen, Xiude; Li, Ling; Gao, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy inhibits seed and bud growth of perennial plants until the environmental conditions are optimal for survival. Previous studies indicated that certain co-regulation pathways exist in seed and bud dormancy. In our study, we found that seed and bud dormancy are similar to some extent but show different reactions to chemical treatments that induce breaking of dormancy. Whether the abscisic acid (ABA) regulatory networks are similar in dormant peach seeds and buds is not well known; however, ABA is generally believed to play a critical role in seed and bud dormancy. In peach, some genes putatively involved in ABA synthesis and catabolism were identified and their expression patterns were studied to learn more about ABA homeostasis and the possible crosstalk between bud dormancy and seed dormancy mechanisms. The analysis demonstrated that two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase-encoding genes seem to be key in regulating ABA biosynthesis to induce seed and bud dormancy. Three CYP707As play an overlapping role in controlling ABA inactivation, resulting in dormancy-release. In addition, Transcript analysis of ABA metabolism-related genes was much similar demonstrated that ABA pathways was similar in the regulation of vegetative and flower bud dormancy, whereas, expression patterns of ABA metabolism-related genes were different in seed dormancy showed that ABA pathway maybe different in regulating seed dormancy in peach. PMID:26793222

  11. The Arabidopsis F-box E3 ligase RIFP1 plays a negative role in abscisic acid signalling by facilitating ABA receptor RCAR3 degradation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Liang; Li, Dekuan; Liu, Zhibin; Wang, Jianmei; Li, Xufeng; Yang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in plant growth and development. The function of ABA is mediated by a group of newly discovered ABA receptors, named PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE 1/PYR-LIKE/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORs (PYR1/PYLs/RCARs). Here, we report that an Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein RCAR3 INTERACTING F-BOX PROTEIN 1 (RIFP1) interacts with ABA receptor (RCAR3) and SCF E3 ligase complex subunits Arabidopsis SKP1-LIKE PROTEINs (ASKs) in vitro and in vivo. The rifp1 mutant plants displayed increased ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination and water loss of detached leaves, while the overexpression of RIFP1 in Arabidopsis led to plants being insensitive to ABA. Meanwhile, the rifp1 mutant plants showed greater tolerance to water deficit. In addition, the RCAR3 protein level was more stable in the rifp1 mutant plants than in the wild-type plants, indicating that RIFP1 facilitates the proteasome degradation of RCAR3. Accordingly, the loss of RIFP1 increased the transcript levels of several ABA-responsive genes. Taken together, these data indicate that RIFP1 plays a negative role in the RCAR3-mediated ABA signalling pathway and likely functions as an adaptor subunit of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex to regulate ABA receptor RCAR3 stability. PMID:26386272

  12. Release of GTP Exchange Factor Mediated Down-Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction through ABA-Induced Rapid Degradation of RopGEFs

    PubMed Central

    Waadt, Rainer; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical to plant development and stress responses. Abiotic stress triggers an ABA signal transduction cascade, which is comprised of the core components PYL/RCAR ABA receptors, PP2C-type protein phosphatases, and protein kinases. Small GTPases of the ROP/RAC family act as negative regulators of ABA signal transduction. However, the mechanisms by which ABA controls the behavior of ROP/RACs have remained unclear. Here, we show that an Arabidopsis guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein RopGEF1 is rapidly sequestered to intracellular particles in response to ABA. GFP-RopGEF1 is sequestered via the endosome-prevacuolar compartment pathway and is degraded. RopGEF1 directly interacts with several clade A PP2C protein phosphatases, including ABI1. Interestingly, RopGEF1 undergoes constitutive degradation in pp2c quadruple abi1/abi2/hab1/pp2ca mutant plants, revealing that active PP2C protein phosphatases protect and stabilize RopGEF1 from ABA-mediated degradation. Interestingly, ABA-mediated degradation of RopGEF1 also plays an important role in ABA-mediated inhibition of lateral root growth. The presented findings point to a PP2C-RopGEF-ROP/RAC control loop model that is proposed to aid in shutting off ABA signal transduction, to counteract leaky ABA signal transduction caused by “monomeric” PYL/RCAR ABA receptors in the absence of stress, and facilitate signaling in response to ABA. PMID:27192441

  13. DNA sequence and spatial expression pattern of a drought- and ABA-induced gene in tomato

    SciTech Connect

    Plant, A.L.; Cohen, A.; Moses, M.S.; Bray, E.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The genomic and cDNA sequence for the previously characterized drought- and ABA-induced gene pLE16 are presented. The single open reading frame contained within the gene has the capacity to encode a polypeptide of 12.7 kD with a predicted pI of 8.73. The amino-terminus is highly hydrophobic and is characteristic of signal sequences which target polypeptides for export from the cytoplasm. There is considerable homology (51.3% identity) between the amino-terminus of pLE16 and the amino-terminal domains of a group of proteins that comprise the phospholipid transfer proteins. Although this homology breaks down at the carboxy-terminal half of pLE16, the homology that exists suggests that pLE16 may be associated with membranes and may therefore play a role in maintaining membrane integrity during drought-stress. pLE16 is expressed in drought-stressed leaf, petiole and stem tissue and to a much lower extent in the seeds and pericarp of mature green tomato fruit. No expression was detected in the seeds or pericarp of red fruit or drought-stressed roots. Expression of pLE16 is induced in leaf tissue by a variety of other environmental stresses including PEG-mediated water deficit, salt, cold stress and heat stress. These stresses did not however induce expression of pLE16 in the roots. Examination of the 5{prime} flanking DNA sequences for this gene did not reveal the presence of the consensus ABA responsive element (ABRE), implicated in ABA induction of gene expression and so far common to the 5{prime} flanking DNA sequences of many genes that are ABA responsive. The expression of pLE16 in response to drought-stress and other environmental stresses in vegetative tissue, together with the lack of a consensus ABRE, suggests that the regulation of this gene by ABA may differ from those that are seed-specific.

  14. Nucleic acid-based tissue biomarkers of urologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Dimo; Meller, Sebastian; Uhl, Barbara; Ralla, Bernhard; Stephan, Carsten; Jung, Klaus; Ellinger, Jörg; Kristiansen, Glen

    2014-08-01

    Molecular biomarkers play an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Biomarkers allow estimation of the risk of developing cancer; help to diagnose a tumor, ideally at an early stage when cure is still possible; and aid in monitoring disease progression. Furthermore, they hold the potential to predict the outcome of the disease (prognostic biomarkers) and the response to therapy (predictive biomarkers). Altogether, biomarkers will help to avoid tumor-related deaths and reduce overtreatment, and will contribute to increased survival and quality of life in cancer patients due to personalized treatments. It is well established that the process of carcinogenesis is a complex interplay between genomic predisposition, acquired somatic mutations, epigenetic changes and genomic aberrations. Within this complex interplay, nucleic acids, i.e. RNA and DNA, play a fundamental role and therefore represent ideal candidates for biomarkers. They are particularly promising candidates because sequence-specific hybridization and amplification technologies allow highly accurate and sensitive assessment of these biomarker levels over a broad dynamic range. This article provides an overview of nucleic acid-based biomarkers in tissues for the management of urologic malignancies, i.e. tumors of the prostate, testis, kidney, penis, urinary bladder, renal pelvis, ureter and other urinary organs. Special emphasis is put on genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic biomarkers (SNPs, mutations [genomic and mitochondrial], microsatellite instabilities, viral and bacterial DNA, DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, mRNA expression, and non-coding RNAs [lncRNA, miRNA, siRNA, piRNA, snRNA, snoRNA]). Due to the multitude of published biomarker candidates, special focus is given to the general applicability of different molecular classes as biomarkers and some particularly promising nucleic acid biomarkers. Furthermore, specific challenges regarding the development and clinical

  15. Up-regulating the abscisic acid inactivation gene ZmABA8ox1b contributes to seed germination heterosis by promoting cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangyang; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xinye; Song, Jian; Li, Hongjian; Sui, Zhipeng; Zhang, Ming; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Xin, Mingming; Xie, Chaojie; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2016-04-01

    Heterosis has been widely used in agriculture, but the underlying molecular principles are still largely unknown. During seed germination, we observed that maize (Zea mays) hybrid B73/Mo17 was less sensitive than its parental inbred lines to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), and endogenous ABA content in hybrid embryos decreased more rapidly than in the parental inbred lines. ZmABA8ox1b, an ABA inactivation gene, was consistently more highly up-regulated in hybrid B73/Mo17 than in its parental inbred lines at early stages of seed germination. Moreover, ectopic expression of ZmABA8ox1b obviously promoted seed germination in Arabidopsis Remarkably, microscopic observation revealed that cell expansion played a major role in the ABA-mediated maize seed germination heterosis, which could be attributed to the altered expression of cell wall-related genes. PMID:27034328

  16. Loss of nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 impairs stomatal closure by altering genes of core ABA signaling components in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenchen; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Yizhou; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 determine NO production in plants and are critical to abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. However, the role for NIA1 and NIA2 in ABA signaling has not been paid much attention in nitrate reductase loss-of-function mutant nia1nia2. Recently, we have demonstrated that ABA-inhibited K(+)in current and ABA-enhanced slow anion current were absent in nia1nia2. Exogenous NO restored regulation of these channels for stomatal closure in nia1nia2. In this study, we found that mutating NIA1 and NIA2 impaired nearly all the key components of guard cell ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. We also propose a simplified model for ABA signaling in the nia1nia2 mutant. PMID:27171851

  17. Loss of nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 impairs stomatal closure by altering genes of core ABA signaling components in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chenchen; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Yizhou; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 determine NO production in plants and are critical to abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. However, the role for NIA1 and NIA2 in ABA signaling has not been paid much attention in nitrate reductase loss-of-function mutant nia1nia2. Recently, we have demonstrated that ABA-inhibited K+in current and ABA-enhanced slow anion current were absent in nia1nia2. Exogenous NO restored regulation of these channels for stomatal closure in nia1nia2. In this study, we found that mutating NIA1 and NIA2 impaired nearly all the key components of guard cell ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. We also propose a simplified model for ABA signaling in the nia1nia2 mutant. PMID:27171851

  18. Up-regulating the abscisic acid inactivation gene ZmABA8ox1b contributes to seed germination heterosis by promoting cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yangyang; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xinye; Song, Jian; Li, Hongjian; Sui, Zhipeng; Zhang, Ming; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Xin, Mingming; Xie, Chaojie; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2016-01-01

    Heterosis has been widely used in agriculture, but the underlying molecular principles are still largely unknown. During seed germination, we observed that maize (Zea mays) hybrid B73/Mo17 was less sensitive than its parental inbred lines to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), and endogenous ABA content in hybrid embryos decreased more rapidly than in the parental inbred lines. ZmABA8ox1b, an ABA inactivation gene, was consistently more highly up-regulated in hybrid B73/Mo17 than in its parental inbred lines at early stages of seed germination. Moreover, ectopic expression of ZmABA8ox1b obviously promoted seed germination in Arabidopsis. Remarkably, microscopic observation revealed that cell expansion played a major role in the ABA-mediated maize seed germination heterosis, which could be attributed to the altered expression of cell wall-related genes. PMID:27034328

  19. Stomatal malfunctioning under low VPD conditions: induced by alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signaling?

    PubMed

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; Malcolm Matamoros, Priscila; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2014-12-01

    Exposing plants to low VPD reduces leaf capacity to maintain adequate water status thereafter. To find the impact of VPD on functioning of stomata, stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy, fava bean plants were grown at low (L, 0.23 kPa) or moderate (M, 1.17 kPa) VPDs and some plants that developed their leaves at moderate VPD were then transferred for 4 days to low VPD (M→L). Part of the M→L-plants were sprayed with ABA (abscisic acid) during exposure to L. L-plants showed bigger stomata, larger pore area, thinner leaves and less spongy cells compared with M-plants. Stomatal morphology (except aperture) and leaf anatomy of the M→L-plants were almost similar to the M-plants, while their transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were identical to that of L-plants. The stomatal response to ABA was lost in L-plants, but also after 1-day exposure of M-plants to low VPD. The level of foliar ABA sharply decreased within 1-day exposure to L, while the level of ABA-GE (ABA-glucose ester) was not affected. Spraying ABA during the exposure to L prevented loss of stomatal closing response thereafter. The effect of low VPD was largely depending on exposure time: the stomatal responsiveness to ABA was lost after 1-day exposure to low VPD, while the responsiveness to desiccation was gradually lost during 4-day exposure to low VPD. Leaf anatomical and stomatal morphological alterations due to low VPD were not the main cause of loss of stomatal closure response to closing stimuli. PMID:24773210

  20. RhHB1 mediates the antagonism of gibberellins to ABA and ethylene during rose (Rosa hybrida) petal senescence.

    PubMed

    Lü, Peitao; Zhang, Changqing; Liu, Jitao; Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Guimei; Jiang, Xinqiang; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Wang, Liangsheng; Hong, Bo; Gao, Junping

    2014-05-01

    Rose (Rosa hybrida) is one of the most important ornamental plants worldwide; however, senescence of its petals terminates the ornamental value of the flower, resulting in major economic loss. It is known that the hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene promote petal senescence, while gibberellins (GAs) delay the process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antagonistic effects amongst plant hormones during petal senescence are still unclear. Here we isolated RhHB1, a homeodomain-leucine zipper I transcription factor gene, from rose flowers. Quantitative RT-PCR and GUS reporter analyses showed that RhHB1 was strongly expressed in senescing petals, and its expression was induced by ABA or ethylene in petals. ABA or ethylene treatment clearly accelerated rose petal senescence, while application of the gibberellin GA3 delayed the process. However, silencing of RhHB1 delayed the ABA- or ethylene-mediated senescence, and resulted in higher petal anthocyanin levels and lower expression of RhSAG12. Moreover, treatment with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, repressed these delays. In addition, silencing of RhHB1 blocked the ABA- or ethylene-induced reduction in expression of the GA20 oxidase encoded by RhGA20ox1, a gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, RhHB1 directly binds to the RhGA20ox1 promoter, and silencing of RhGA20ox1 promoted petal senescence. Eight senescence-related genes showed substantial differences in expression in petals after treatment with GA3 or paclobutrazol. These results suggest that RhHB1 mediates the antagonistic effect of GAs on ABA and ethylene during rose petal senescence, and that the promotion of petal senescence by ABA or ethylene operates through an RhHB1-RhGA20ox1 regulatory checkpoint. PMID:24589134

  1. Transcriptome profiling identifies ABA mediated regulatory changes towards storage filling in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential biodiesel plant castor bean (Ricinus communis) has been in the limelight for bioenergy research due to the availability of its genome which raises the bar for genome-wide studies claiming advances that impact the “genome-phenome challenge”. Here we report the application of phytohormone ABA as an exogenous factor for the improvement of storage reserve accumulation with a focus on the complex interaction of pathways associated with seed filling. Results After the application of exogenous ABA treatments, we measured an increased ABA levels in the developing seeds cultured in vitro using the ELISA technique and quantified the content of major biomolecules (including total lipids, sugars and protein) in treated seeds. Exogenous ABA (10 μM) enhanced the accumulation of soluble sugar content (6.3%) followed by deposition of total lipid content (4.9 %). To elucidate the possible ABA signal transduction pathways towards overall seed filling, we studied the differential gene expression analysis using Illumina RNA-Sequencing technology, resulting in 2568 (1507-up/1061-down regulated) differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes were involved in sugar metabolism (such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose 1,6 bis-phosphate, glycerol-3-phosphate, pyruvate kinase), lipid biosynthesis (such as ACS, ACBP, GPAT2, GPAT3, FAD2, FAD3, SAD1 and DGAT1), storage proteins synthesis (such as SGP1, zinc finger protein, RING H2 protein, nodulin 55 and cytochrome P450), and ABA biosynthesis (such as NCED1, NCED3 and beta carotene). Further, we confirmed the validation of RNA-Sequencing data by Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Conclusions Taken together, metabolite measurements supported by genes and pathway expression results indicated in this study provide new insights to understand the ABA signaling mechanism towards seed storage filling and also contribute useful information for facilitating oilseed crop functional genomics on an aim for utilizing

  2. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis. PMID:26717241

  3. Effect of temperature on the acid-base properties of the alumina surface: microcalorimetry and acid-base titration experiments.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jean-Pierre; Marmier, Nicolas; Hurel, Charlotte; Morel-Desrosiers, Nicole

    2006-06-15

    Sorption reactions on natural or synthetic materials that can attenuate the migration of pollutants in the geosphere could be affected by temperature variations. Nevertheless, most of the theoretical models describing sorption reactions are at 25 degrees C. To check these models at different temperatures, experimental data such as the enthalpies of sorption are thus required. Highly sensitive microcalorimeters can now be used to determine the heat effects accompanying the sorption of radionuclides on oxide-water interfaces, but enthalpies of sorption cannot be extracted from microcalorimetric data without a clear knowledge of the thermodynamics of protonation and deprotonation of the oxide surface. However, the values reported in the literature show large discrepancies and one must conclude that, amazingly, this fundamental problem of proton binding is not yet resolved. We have thus undertaken to measure by titration microcalorimetry the heat effects accompanying proton exchange at the alumina-water interface at 25 degrees C. Based on (i) the surface sites speciation provided by a surface complexation model (built from acid-base titrations at 25 degrees C) and (ii) results of the microcalorimetric experiments, calculations have been made to extract the enthalpic variations associated respectively to first and second deprotonation of the alumina surface. Values obtained are deltaH1 = 80+/-10 kJ mol(-1) and deltaH2 = 5+/-3 kJ mol(-1). In a second step, these enthalpy values were used to calculate the alumina surface acidity constants at 50 degrees C via the van't Hoff equation. Then a theoretical titration curve at 50 degrees C was calculated and compared to the experimental alumina surface titration curve. Good agreement between the predicted acid-base titration curve and the experimental one was observed. PMID:16504204

  4. Cross-talk modulation between ABA and ethylene by transcription factor SlZFP2 during fruit development and ripening in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xiao, Han

    2015-01-01

    The stress hormone ABA not only regulates stress response, but is also required for plant development and growth. Some evidences indicate that ABA plays a pivotal role in the ripening process of non climacteric as well as climacteric fruits. In a recent study, we showed that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) transcription factor SlZFP2 fine tunes ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of ABA biosynthetic genes and it also regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator CNR. This indicates that SlZFP2 likely modulates the cross-talk between ABA and ethylene in regulation of fruit development and ripening in tomato. Gene expression analysis using ABA deficient mutants sit and flc as well as the SlZFP2 RNAi lines of high fruit ABA production showed that ethylene biosynthetic genes LeACS1A, LeACS1 and LeACO1 were positively regulated by ABA during early fruit growth. We reason that ABA promotes basal ethylene biosynthesis in system 1 during fruit growth and likely plays a minor role in ripening regulation after the onset of ripening process. PMID:26492077

  5. Pyrolytic Behavior of Amino Acids and Nucleic Acid Bases: Implications for Their Survival during Extraterrestrial Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiuk, Vladimir A.; Navarro-González, Rafael

    1998-08-01

    The idea of extraterrestrial delivery of organic matter (by comets, asteroids, meteorites, and interplanetary dust particles) to the early Earth is very popular at present. A strong argument for its favor is the detection of a large variety of organic compounds, including amino acids and nucleic acid bases, in carbonaceous chondrites. Whether these compounds can be delivered by other space bodies is unclear and depends primarily on capability of the biomolecules to survive high temperature regimes during atmospheric deceleration and impacts to the terrestrial surface. Although some indirect estimates of simple biomolecules' survivability have been reported, there is an evident lack of experimental data. In the present study we demonstrate that some simple amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines do not completely decompose even under volatilization at 500°C in a nitrogen atmosphere at normal pressure, with the percentage of survival of the order of 1-10%. In the case of amino acids, several types of condensation products form (piperazine-2,5-diones, bicyclic amidines, hydantoins, etc.) with total yields in the same percentage range, preserving amino acid residues intact and being able to release free amino acids upon hydrolysis. Taking into account the property of amino acids as well as nucleic acid bases to sublime in vacuum under temperatures of about 200°C, one should expect that the biomolecules in the dust particles actually do not experience the temperatures as much as 400-500°C and rapidly sublime during the atmospheric passage, dissipating in the upper atmosphere. The biomolecules' survival during catastrophic airbursts of comets is also possible, but very unlikely for asteroidal impacts to the terrestrial surface (at least for those resulting in complete pulverization and evaporation of the projectiles).

  6. Cloning and Expression Analysis of cDNAs Encoding ABA 8'-Hydroxylase in Peanut Plants in Response to Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiao-Rong; Li, Li-Mei; Hu, Bo; Li, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism is one of the determinants of endogenous ABA levels affecting numerous aspects of plant growth and abiotic-stress responses. The major ABA catabolic pathway is triggered by ABA 8'-hydroxylation catalysed by ABA 8'-hydroxylase, the cytochrome P450 CYP707A family. In this study, the full-length cDNAs of AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 were cloned and characterized from peanut. Expression analyses showed that AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 were expressed ubiquitously in peanut roots, stems, and leaves with different transcript accumulation levels, including the higher expression of AhCYP707A1 in roots. The expression of AhCYP707A2 was significantly up-regulated by 20% PEG6000 or 250 mmol/L NaCl in peanut roots, stems, and leaves, whereas the up-regulation of AhCYP707A1 transcript level by PEG6000 or NaCl was observed only in roots instead of leaves and stems. Due to the osmotic and ionic stresses of high concentration of NaCl to plants simultaneously, low concentration of LiCl (30 mmol/L, at which concentration osmotic status of cells is not seriously affected, the toxicity of Li+ being higher than that of Na+) was used to examine whether the effect of NaCl might be related to osmotic or ionic stress. The results revealed visually the susceptibility to osmotic stress and the resistance to salt ions in peanut seedlings. The significant up-regulation of AhCYP707A1, AhCYP707A2 and AhNCED1 transcripts and endogenous ABA levels by PEG6000 or NaCl instead of LiCl, showed that the osmotic stress instead of ionic stress affected the expression of those genes and the biosynthesis of ABA in peanut. The functional expression of AhCYP707A1 cDNA in yeast showed that the microsomal fractions prepared from yeast cell expressing recombinant AhCYP707A1 protein exhibited the catalytic activity of ABA 8'-hydroxylase. These results demonstrate that the expressions of AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 play an important role in ABA catabolism in peanut, particularly in response

  7. Type B Heterotrimeric G Protein γ-Subunit Regulates Auxin and ABA Signaling in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Gayathery; Trusov, Yuri; Lopez-Encina, Carlos; Hayashi, Satomi; Batley, Jacqueline; Botella, José Ramón

    2016-02-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins composed of α, β, and γ subunits are central signal transducers mediating the cellular response to multiple stimuli in most eukaryotes. Gγ subunits provide proper cellular localization and functional specificity to the heterotrimer complex. Plant Gγ subunits, divided into three structurally distinct types, are more diverse than their animal counterparts. Type B Gγ subunits, lacking a carboxyl-terminal isoprenylation motif, are found only in flowering plants. We present the functional characterization of type B Gγ subunit (SlGGB1) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We show that SlGGB1 is the most abundant Gγ subunit in tomato and strongly interacts with the Gβ subunit. Importantly, the green fluorescent protein-SlGGB1 fusion protein as well as the carboxyl-terminal yellow fluorescent protein-SlGGB1/amino-terminal yellow fluorescent protein-Gβ heterodimer were localized in the plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. RNA interference-mediated silencing of SlGGB1 resulted in smaller seeds, higher number of lateral roots, and pointy fruits. The silenced lines were hypersensitive to exogenous auxin, while levels of endogenous auxins were lower or similar to those of the wild type. SlGGB1-silenced plants also showed strong hyposensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination but not in other related assays. Transcriptome analysis of the transgenic seeds revealed abnormal expression of genes involved in ABA sensing, signaling, and response. We conclude that the type B Gγ subunit SlGGB1 mediates auxin and ABA signaling in tomato. PMID:26668332

  8. AbaA and WetA govern distinct stages of Aspergillus fumigatus development.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2011-02-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus produces a massive number of asexual spores (conidia) as the primary means of dispersal, survival, genome protection and infection of hosts. In this report, we investigate the functions of two developmental regulators, AfuAbaA and AfuWetA, in A. fumigatus. The AfuabaA gene is predicted to encode an ATTS/TEA DNA-binding domain protein and is activated by AfuBrlA during the middle stage of A. fumigatus asexual development (conidiation). The deletion of AfuabaA results in the formation of aberrant conidiophores exhibiting reiterated cylinder-like terminal cells lacking spores. Furthermore, the absence of AfuabaA causes delayed autolysis and cell death, whereas the overexpression of AfuabaA accelerates these processes, indicating an additional role for AfuAbaA. The AfuwetA gene is sequentially activated by AfuAbaA in the late phase of conidiation. The deletion of AfuwetA causes the formation of defective spore walls and a lack of trehalose biogenesis, leading to a rapid loss of spore viability and reduced tolerance to various stresses. This is the first report to demonstrate that WetA is essential for trehalose biogenesis in conidia. Moreover, the absence of AfuwetA causes delayed germ-tube formation and reduced hyphal branching, suggesting a role of AfuWetA in the early phase of fungal growth. A genetic model depicting the regulation of conidiation in A. fumigatus is proposed. PMID:20966095

  9. The Arabidopsis aba4-1 mutant reveals a specific function for neoxanthin in protection against photooxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Cazzaniga, Stefano; North, Helen; Marion-Poll, Annie; Bassi, Roberto

    2007-03-01

    The aba4-1 mutant completely lacks neoxanthin but retains all other xanthophyll species. The missing neoxanthin in light-harvesting complex (Lhc) proteins is compensated for by higher levels of violaxanthin, albeit with lower capacity for photoprotection compared with proteins with wild-type levels of neoxanthin. Detached leaves of aba4-1 were more sensitive to oxidative stress than the wild type when exposed to high light and incubated in a solution of photosensitizer agents. Both treatments caused more rapid pigment bleaching and lipid oxidation in aba4-1 than wild-type plants, suggesting that neoxanthin acts as an antioxidant within the photosystem II (PSII) supercomplex in thylakoids. While neoxanthin-depleted Lhc proteins and leaves had similar sensitivity as the wild type to hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen, they were more sensitive to superoxide anions. aba4-1 intact plants were not more sensitive than the wild type to high-light stress, indicating the existence of compensatory mechanisms of photoprotection involving the accumulation of zeaxanthin. However, the aba4-1 npq1 double mutant, lacking zeaxanthin and neoxanthin, underwent stronger PSII photoinhibition and more extensive oxidation of pigments than the npq1 mutant, which still contains neoxanthin. We conclude that neoxanthin preserves PSII from photoinactivation and protects membrane lipids from photooxidation by reactive oxygen species. Neoxanthin appears particularly active against superoxide anions produced by the Mehler's reaction, whose rate is known to be enhanced in abiotic stress conditions. PMID:17351115

  10. The Arabidopsis aba4-1 Mutant Reveals a Specific Function for Neoxanthin in Protection against Photooxidative Stress[W

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Cazzaniga, Stefano; North, Helen; Marion-Poll, Annie; Bassi, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The aba4-1 mutant completely lacks neoxanthin but retains all other xanthophyll species. The missing neoxanthin in light-harvesting complex (Lhc) proteins is compensated for by higher levels of violaxanthin, albeit with lower capacity for photoprotection compared with proteins with wild-type levels of neoxanthin. Detached leaves of aba4-1 were more sensitive to oxidative stress than the wild type when exposed to high light and incubated in a solution of photosensitizer agents. Both treatments caused more rapid pigment bleaching and lipid oxidation in aba4-1 than wild-type plants, suggesting that neoxanthin acts as an antioxidant within the photosystem II (PSII) supercomplex in thylakoids. While neoxanthin-depleted Lhc proteins and leaves had similar sensitivity as the wild type to hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen, they were more sensitive to superoxide anions. aba4-1 intact plants were not more sensitive than the wild type to high-light stress, indicating the existence of compensatory mechanisms of photoprotection involving the accumulation of zeaxanthin. However, the aba4-1 npq1 double mutant, lacking zeaxanthin and neoxanthin, underwent stronger PSII photoinhibition and more extensive oxidation of pigments than the npq1 mutant, which still contains neoxanthin. We conclude that neoxanthin preserves PSII from photoinactivation and protects membrane lipids from photooxidation by reactive oxygen species. Neoxanthin appears particularly active against superoxide anions produced by the Mehler's reaction, whose rate is known to be enhanced in abiotic stress conditions. PMID:17351115

  11. Spreading of AbaR-type genomic islands in multidrug resistance Acinetobacter baumannii strains belonging to different clonal complexes.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, María Soledad; Vilacoba, Elisabet; Stietz, María Silvina; Merkier, Andrea Karina; Jeric, Paola; Limansky, Adriana S; Márquez, Carolina; Bello, Helia; Catalano, Mariana; Centrón, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    In order to determine the occurrence of AbaR-type genomic island in multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAb) strains circulating in Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile, we studied 51 MDRAb isolates recovered from several hospitals over 30 years. AbaR-type genomic resistance islands were found in 36 MDRAb isolates since 1986 till now. MLST technique allowed us to identify the presence of four different Clonal Complexes (109, 104, 119, 113) among the positive AbaR-type island positive strains. This is the first description of AbaR-type islands in the CC104 and CC113 that are the most widespread Clonal Complexes in Argentina. In addition, PCR mapping exposed different arrays to those previously described, evidencing the plasticity of this island. Our results evidence a widespread distribution of the AbaR-type genomic islands along the time in the MDRAb population, including the epidemic global clone 1 (GC1) as well as different clonal complexes to those already described in the literature. PMID:23397241

  12. Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Lara A.; Boron, Walter F.; Zhou, Yuehan

    2015-01-01

    Each day, the kidneys filter 180 L of blood plasma, equating to some 4,300 mmol of the major blood buffer, bicarbonate (HCO3−). The glomerular filtrate enters the lumen of the proximal tubule (PT), and the majority of filtered HCO3− is reclaimed along the early (S1) and convoluted (S2) portions of the PT in a manner coupled to the secretion of H+ into the lumen. The PT also uses the secreted H+ to titrate non-HCO3− buffers in the lumen, in the process creating “new HCO3−” for transport into the blood. Thus, the PT – along with more distal renal segments – is largely responsible for regulating plasma [HCO3−]. In this review we first focus on the milestone discoveries over the past 50+ years that define the mechanism and regulation of acid-base transport by the proximal tubule. Further on in the review, we will summarize research still in progress from our laboratory, work that addresses the problem of how the PT is able to finely adapt to acid–base disturbances by rapidly sensing changes in basolateral levels of HCO3− and CO2 (but not pH), and thereby to exert tight control over the acid–base composition of the blood plasma. PMID:21170887

  13. Citric acid-based hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds enhance calvarial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4 mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

  14. [Development of Nucleic Acid-Based Adjuvant for Cancer Immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kobiyama, Kouji; Ishii, Ken J

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery of the human T cell-defined tumor antigen, the cancer immunotherapy field has rapidly progressed, with the research and development of cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, being conducted actively. However, the disadvantages of most cancer vaccines include relatively weak immunogenicity and immune escape or exhaustion. Adjuvants with innate immunostimulatory activities have been used to overcome these issues, and these agents have been shown to enhance the immunogenicity of cancer vaccines and to act as mono-therapeutic anti-tumor agents. CpG ODN, an agonist for TLR9, is one of the promising nucleic acid-based adjuvants, and it is a potent inducer of innate immune effector functions. CpG ODN suppresses tumor growth in the absence of tumor antigens and peptide administration. Therefore, CpG ODN is expected to be useful as a cancer vaccine adjuvant as well as a cancer immunotherapy agent. In this review, we discuss the potential therapeutic applications and mechanisms of CpG ODN for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26469159

  15. Solution influence on biomolecular equilibria - Nucleic acid base associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Various attempts to construct an understanding of the influence of solution environment on biomolecular equilibria at the molecular level using computer simulation are discussed. First, the application of the formal statistical thermodynamic program for investigating biomolecular equilibria in solution is presented, addressing modeling and conceptual simplications such as perturbative methods, long-range interaction approximations, surface thermodynamics, and hydration shell. Then, Monte Carlo calculations on the associations of nucleic acid bases in both polar and nonpolar solvents such as water and carbon tetrachloride are carried out. The solvent contribution to the enthalpy of base association is positive (destabilizing) in both polar and nonpolar solvents while negative enthalpies for stacked complexes are obtained only when the solute-solute in vacuo energy is added to the total energy. The release upon association of solvent molecules from the first hydration layer around a solute to the bulk is accompanied by an increase in solute-solvent energy and decrease in solvent-solvent energy. The techniques presented are expectd to displace less molecular and more heuristic modeling of biomolecular equilibria in solution.

  16. Nucleic acid-based nanoengineering: novel structures for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanying; LaBean, Thomas H.; Leong, Kam W.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoengineering exploits the interactions of materials at the nanometre scale to create functional nanostructures. It relies on the precise organization of nanomaterials to achieve unique functionality. There are no interactions more elegant than those governing nucleic acids via Watson–Crick base-pairing rules. The infinite combinations of DNA/RNA base pairs and their remarkable molecular recognition capability can give rise to interesting nanostructures that are only limited by our imagination. Over the past years, creative assembly of nucleic acids has fashioned a plethora of two-dimensional and three-dimensional nanostructures with precisely controlled size, shape and spatial functionalization. These nanostructures have been precisely patterned with molecules, proteins and gold nanoparticles for the observation of chemical reactions at the single molecule level, activation of enzymatic cascade and novel modality of photonic detection, respectively. Recently, they have also been engineered to encapsulate and release bioactive agents in a stimulus-responsive manner for therapeutic applications. The future of nucleic acid-based nanoengineering is bright and exciting. In this review, we will discuss the strategies to control the assembly of nucleic acids and highlight the recent efforts to build functional nucleic acid nanodevices for nanomedicine. PMID:23050076

  17. Acid-base transport in pancreas—new challenges

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ivana; Haanes, Kristian A.; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Along the gastrointestinal tract a number of epithelia contribute with acid or basic secretions in order to aid digestive processes. The stomach and pancreas are the most extreme examples of acid (H+) and base (HCO−3) transporters, respectively. Nevertheless, they share the same challenges of transporting acid and bases across epithelia and effectively regulating their intracellular pH. In this review, we will make use of comparative physiology to enlighten the cellular mechanisms of pancreatic HCO−3 and fluid secretion, which is still challenging physiologists. Some of the novel transporters to consider in pancreas are the proton pumps (H+-K+-ATPases), as well as the calcium-activated K+ and Cl− channels, such as KCa3.1 and TMEM16A/ANO1. Local regulators, such as purinergic signaling, fine-tune, and coordinate pancreatic secretion. Lastly, we speculate whether dys-regulation of acid-base transport contributes to pancreatic diseases including cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, and cancer. PMID:24391597

  18. A Dual-Function Transcription Factor, AtYY1, Is a Novel Negative Regulator of the Arabidopsis ABA Response Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Wu, Xiu-Yun; Li, Hui; Song, Jian-Hui; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in plant growth and development, as well as in response to various environmental stresses. To date, many regulatory genes involved in the ABA response network have been identified; however, their roles have remained to be fully elucidated. In this study, we identified AtYY1, an Arabidopsis homolog of the mammalian C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1), as a novel negative regulator of the ABA response. AtYY1 is a dual-function transcription factor with both repression and activation domains. The expression of AtYY1 was induced by ABA and stress conditions including high salt and dehydration. The yy1 mutant was more sensitive to ABA and NaCl than the wild-type, while overexpressing AtYY1 plants were less sensitive. AtYY1 loss also enhanced ABA-induced stomatal closing and drought resistance. Moreover, AtYY1 can bind the ABA REPRESSOR1 (ABR1) promoter and directly upregulate ABR1 expression, as well as negatively regulate ABA- and salt-responsive gene expression. Additional analysis indicated that ABA INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) might positively regulate AtYY1 expression and that ABR1 can antagonize this regulation. Our findings provide direct evidence that AtYY1 is a novel negative regulator of the ABA response network and that the ABI4-AtYY1-ABR1 regulatory pathway may fine-tune ABA-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:26961720

  19. Overexpression of an ABA biosynthesis gene using a stress-inducible promoter enhances drought resistance in petunia

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Melo, Alejandro C; Chao; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The response of plants to drought stress includes reduced transpiration as stomates close in response to increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations. Constitutive overexpression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis, increases drought resistance, but causes negative pleiotropic effects on plant growth and development. We overexpressed the tomato NCED (LeNCED1) in petunia plants under the control of a stress-inducible promoter, rd29A. Under water stress, the transgenic plants had increased transcripts of NCED mRNA, elevated leaf ABA concentrations, increased concentrations of proline, and a significant increase in drought resistance. The transgenic plants also displayed the expected decreases in stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis. After 14 days without water, the control plants were dead, but the transgenic plants, though wilted, recovered fully when re-watered. Well-watered transgenic plants grew like non-transformed control plants and there was no effect of the transgene on seed dormancy. PMID:26504568

  20. Overexpression of an ABA biosynthesis gene using a stress-inducible promoter enhances drought resistance in petunia.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Melo, Alejandro C; Chao; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The response of plants to drought stress includes reduced transpiration as stomates close in response to increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations. Constitutive overexpression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis, increases drought resistance, but causes negative pleiotropic effects on plant growth and development. We overexpressed the tomato NCED (LeNCED1) in petunia plants under the control of a stress-inducible promoter, rd29A. Under water stress, the transgenic plants had increased transcripts of NCED mRNA, elevated leaf ABA concentrations, increased concentrations of proline, and a significant increase in drought resistance. The transgenic plants also displayed the expected decreases in stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis. After 14 days without water, the control plants were dead, but the transgenic plants, though wilted, recovered fully when re-watered. Well-watered transgenic plants grew like non-transformed control plants and there was no effect of the transgene on seed dormancy. PMID:26504568

  1. Stomatal guard cells co-opted an ancient ABA-dependent desiccation survival system to regulate stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Lind, Christof; Dreyer, Ingo; López-Sanjurjo, Enrique J; von Meyer, Katharina; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Lang, Daniel; Zhao, Yang; Kreuzer, Ines; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ronne, Hans; Reski, Ralf; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Geiger, Dietmar; Hedrich, Rainer

    2015-03-30

    During the transition from water to land, plants had to cope with the loss of water through transpiration, the inevitable result of photosynthetic CO2 fixation on land [1, 2]. Control of transpiration became possible through the development of a new cell type: guard cells, which form stomata. In vascular plants, stomatal regulation is mediated by the stress hormone ABA, which triggers the opening of the SnR kinase OST1-activated anion channel SLAC1 [3, 4]. To understand the evolution of this regulatory circuit, we cloned both ABA-signaling elements, SLAC1 and OST1, from a charophyte alga, a liverwort, and a moss, and functionally analyzed the channel-kinase interactions. We were able to show that the emergence of stomata in the last common ancestor of mosses and vascular plants coincided with the origin of SLAC1-type channels capable of using the ancient ABA drought signaling kinase OST1 for regulation of stomatal closure. PMID:25802151

  2. Regulation of Arabidopsis MAPKKK18 by ABI1 and SnRK2, components of the ABA signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tajdel, Małgorzata; Mituła, Filip; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), a key regulator in many crucial developmental and physiological processes, recruits diverse components into precisely regulated signaling network. We recently discovered that MAPKKK18, an ABA-activated kinase, is regulated by the protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) ABI1 and the kinase SnRK2.6, both components of the ABA core signaling pathway. ABI1 acts to inhibit MAPKKK18 kinase activity, but also affects MAPKKK18 protein turnover via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. SnRK2.6 kinase also seems to be important for the regulation of MAPKKK18 function. In this review we summarize the mechanisms that are exclusively involved in MAPKKK18 kinase regulation and that ensure specificity in its activation. PMID:26852793

  3. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  4. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  5. Magnetic Hydrogels from Alkyne/Cobalt Carbonyl-Functionalized ABA Triblock Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bingyin; Hom, Wendy L; Chen, Xianyin; Yu, Pengqing; Pavelka, Laura C; Kisslinger, Kim; Parise, John B; Bhatia, Surita R; Grubbs, Robert B

    2016-04-01

    A series of alkyne-functionalized poly(4-(phenylethynyl)styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(4-(phenylethynyl)styrene) (PPES-b-PEO-b-PPES) ABA triblock copolymers was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. PESn[Co2(CO)6]x-EO800-PESn[Co2(CO)6]x ABA triblock copolymer/cobalt adducts (10-67 wt % PEO) were subsequently prepared by reaction of the alkyne-functionalized PPES block with Co2(CO)8 and their phase behavior was studied by TEM. Heating triblock copolymer/cobalt carbonyl adducts at 120 °C led to cross-linking of the PPES/Co domains and the formation of magnetic cobalt nanoparticles within the PPES/Co domains. Magnetic hydrogels could be prepared by swelling the PEO domains of the cross-linked materials with water. Swelling tests, rheological studies and actuation tests demonstrated that the water capacity and modulus of the hydrogels were dependent upon the composition of the block copolymer precursors. PMID:26958699

  6. Responsive Hydrogels and Ion Gels by Self-Assembly of ABA and ABC Triblock Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Gels - polymeric networks swollen with a substantial amount of solvent - represent a fascinating class of soft materials, with wide-ranging applications in fields as diverse as biomedicine, pharmaceutics, personal care products, foods, sensors, actuators, flexible electronics, oil recovery, and adhesives. Physical gels are held together by non-covalent interactions, which may be as specific as hydrogen bonds, or as general as solvophobic association of insoluble blocks. Among the attractive features of physical gels are reversibility, stimuli-responsiveness, and tunability of macroscopic properties. In this talk two classes of physical gels will be highlighted. In one, the ability of ABC block terpolymers to form novel structures will be demonstrated, where blocks A and C are mutually immiscible and solvophobic, while B is solvophilic. In particular, the formation of gels by sequential association (first A, then C) leads to a remarkably sharp gelation transition, at a relatively low polymer concentration, compared to analogous gels formed from ABA systems. In the second class, gels formed by self-assembly of a variety of ABA systems in ionic liquids will be described, and in particular how gelation can be controlled through factors such as block chemistry, temperature, choice of ionic liquid, and application of light.

  7. Controlling Domain Orientations in Thin Films of AB and ABA Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Thai; Mahadevapuram, Nikhila; Perera, Ginusha M.; Stein, Gila E.

    2012-03-15

    Domain orientations in thin films of lamellar copolymers are evaluated as a function of copolymer architecture, film thickness, and processing conditions. Two copolymer architectures are considered: An AB diblock of poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) and an ABA triblock of poly(methyl methacrylate-b-styrene-b-methyl methacrylate). All films are cast on substrates that are energetically neutral with respect to the copolymer constituents. Film structures are evaluated with optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. For AB diblock copolymers, the domain orientations are very sensitive to film thickness, annealing temperature, and imperfections in the 'neutral' substrate coating: Diblock domains are oriented perpendicular to the substrate when annealing temperature is elevated ({>=} 220 C) and defects in the substrate coating are minimized; otherwise, parallel or mixed parallel/perpendicular domain orientations are detected for most film thicknesses. For ABA triblock copolymers, the perpendicular domain orientation is stable for all the film thicknesses and processing conditions that were studied. The orientations of diblock and triblock copolymers are consistent with recent works that consider architectural effects when calculating the copolymer surface tension (Macromolecules 2006, 39, 9346 and Macromolecules 2010, 43, 1671). Significantly, the data demonstrate that triblocks are easier to process for applications in nanopatterning - in particular, when high-aspect-ratio nanostructures are required. However, both diblock and triblock films contain a high density of 'tilted' or bent domains, and these kinetically trapped defects should be minimized for most patterning applications.

  8. A NAP-AAO3 Regulatory Module Promotes Chlorophyll Degradation via ABA Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Leaves[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophyll degradation is an important part of leaf senescence, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. Excised leaves of an Arabidopsis thaliana NAC-LIKE, ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI (NAP) transcription factor mutant (nap) exhibited lower transcript levels of known chlorophyll degradation genes, STAY-GREEN1 (SGR1), NON-YELLOW COLORING1 (NYC1), PHEOPHYTINASE (PPH), and PHEIDE a OXYGENASE (PaO), and higher chlorophyll retention than the wild type during dark-induced senescence. Transcriptome coexpression analysis revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism/signaling genes were disproportionately represented among those positively correlated with NAP expression. ABA levels were abnormally low in nap leaves during extended darkness. The ABA biosynthetic genes 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE2, ABA DEFICIENT3, and ABSCISIC ALDEHYDE OXIDASE3 (AAO3) exhibited abnormally low transcript levels in dark-treated nap leaves. NAP transactivated the promoter of AAO3 in mesophyll cell protoplasts, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that NAP can bind directly to a segment (−196 to −162 relative to the ATG start codon) of the AAO3 promoter. Exogenous application of ABA increased the transcript levels of SGR1, NYC1, PPH, and PaO and suppressed the stay-green phenotype of nap leaves during extended darkness. Overexpression of AAO3 in nap leaves also suppressed the stay-green phenotype under extended darkness. Collectively, the results show that NAP promotes chlorophyll degradation by enhancing transcription of AAO3, which leads to increased levels of the senescence-inducing hormone ABA. PMID:25516602

  9. ALA Inhibits ABA-induced Stomatal Closure via Reducing H2O2 and Ca(2+) Levels in Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    An, Yuyan; Liu, Longbo; Chen, Linghui; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a newly proved natural plant growth regulator, is well known to improve plant photosynthesis under both normal and stressful conditions. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Stomatal closure is one of the major limiting factors for photosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone in provoking stomatal closing. Here, we showed that ALA significantly inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure using wild-type and ALA-overproducing transgenic Arabidopsis (YHem1). We found that ALA decreased ABA-induced H2O2 and cytosolic Ca(2+) accumulation in guard cells with stomatal bioassay, laser-scanning confocal microscopy and pharmacological methods. The inhibitory effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was similar to that of AsA (an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal), CAT (a H2O2-scavenging enzyme), DPI (an inhibitor of the H2O2-generating NADPH oxidase), EGTA (a Ca-chelating agent), and AlCl3 (an inhibitor of calcium channel). Furthermore, ALA inhibited exogenous H2O2- or Ca(2+)-induced stomatal closure. Taken together, we conclude that ALA inhibits ABA-induced stomatal closure via reducing H2O2, probably by scavenging, and Ca(2+) levels in guard cells. Moreover, the inhibitive effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was further confirmed in the whole plant. Finally, we demonstrated that ALA inhibits stomatal closing, but significantly improves plant drought tolerance. Our results provide valuable information for the promotion of plant production and development of a sustainable low-carbon society. PMID:27148309

  10. ALA Inhibits ABA-induced Stomatal Closure via Reducing H2O2 and Ca2+ Levels in Guard Cells

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuyan; Liu, Longbo; Chen, Linghui; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a newly proved natural plant growth regulator, is well known to improve plant photosynthesis under both normal and stressful conditions. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Stomatal closure is one of the major limiting factors for photosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone in provoking stomatal closing. Here, we showed that ALA significantly inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure using wild-type and ALA-overproducing transgenic Arabidopsis (YHem1). We found that ALA decreased ABA-induced H2O2 and cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in guard cells with stomatal bioassay, laser-scanning confocal microscopy and pharmacological methods. The inhibitory effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was similar to that of AsA (an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal), CAT (a H2O2-scavenging enzyme), DPI (an inhibitor of the H2O2-generating NADPH oxidase), EGTA (a Ca-chelating agent), and AlCl3 (an inhibitor of calcium channel). Furthermore, ALA inhibited exogenous H2O2- or Ca2+-induced stomatal closure. Taken together, we conclude that ALA inhibits ABA-induced stomatal closure via reducing H2O2, probably by scavenging, and Ca2+ levels in guard cells. Moreover, the inhibitive effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was further confirmed in the whole plant. Finally, we demonstrated that ALA inhibits stomatal closing, but significantly improves plant drought tolerance. Our results provide valuable information for the promotion of plant production and development of a sustainable low-carbon society. PMID:27148309

  11. Adansonian Analysis and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition of Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, R. R.; Mandel, M.

    1965-01-01

    Colwell, R. R. (Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.), and M. Mandel. Adansonian analysis and deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Serratia marcescens. J. Bacteriol. 89:454–461. 1965.—A total of 33 strains of Serratia marcescens were subjected to Adansonian analysis for which more than 200 coded features for each of the organisms were included. In addition, the base composition [expressed as moles per cent guanine + cytosine (G + C)] of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) prepared from each of the strains was determined. Except for four strains which were intermediate between Serratia and the Hafnia and Aerobacter group C of Edwards and Ewing, the S. marcescens species group proved to be extremely homogeneous, and the different strains showed high affinities for each other (mean similarity, ¯S = 77%). The G + C ratio of the DNA from the Serratia strains ranged from 56.2 to 58.4% G + C. Many species names have been listed for the genus, but only a single clustering of the strains was obtained at the species level, for which the species name S. marcescens was retained. S. kiliensis, S. indica, S. plymuthica, and S. marinorubra could not be distinguished from S. marcescens; it was concluded, therefore, that there is only a single species in the genus. The variety designation kiliensis does not appear to be valid, since no subspecies clustering of strains with negative Voges-Proskauer reactions could be detected. The characteristics of the species are listed, and a description of S. marcescens is presented. PMID:14255714

  12. Acid-base properties of aqueous illite surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Q.; Sun, Z.; Forsling, W.; Tang, H.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper, the acid-base properties of illite/water suspensions are examined using the constant capacitance surface complexation model. On the basis of results of potentiometric titrations and solubility experiments, the authors conclude that the proton reactions in the supernatants of illite suspensions can be successfully represented by proton reactions of Al(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup 3+} and Si(OH){sub 4} in water solutions. For illustrating the acidic characteristics of aqueous illite surfaces, two surface protonation models are proposed: (1) one site-one pK{sub a} model, {triple_bond}SOH {r_reversible} {triple_bond}SO{sup {minus}} + H{sup +}, pK{sub a}{sup int} = 4.12-4.23; (2) two sites-two pK{sub a}s model, {triple_bond}S{sub 1}OH {r_reversible} {triple_bond}S{sup 1}O{sup {minus}} + H{sup +}, pK{sub a{sub I}} = 4.17-4.44, and {triple_bond}S{sub II}OH {r_reversible} {triple_bond}S{sub II}O{sup {minus}} + H{sup +}, pK{sub a{sub II}}{sup int} = 6.35-7.74. Evaluation of these two models indicates that both of them can give good descriptions of the experimental data of systems with different illite concentrations and ionic strengths and that the one site-one pK{sub a} model can be considered as a simplification of the two sites-two pK{sub a}s model. Since both models assume only deprotonation reactions at the illite surfaces, they suggest that the surface behavior of the illite is similar to that of amorphous SiO{sub 2}. Model assumptions, experimental procedures, and evaluative criteria are detailed in the paper.

  13. The RING Finger Ubiquitin E3 Ligase SDIR1 Targets SDIR1-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 for Degradation to Modulate the Salt Stress Response and ABA Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huawei; Cui, Feng; Wu, Yaorong; Lou, Lijuan; Liu, Lijing; Tian, Miaomiao; Ning, Yuese; Shu, Kai; Tang, Sanyuan; Xie, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant development and the stress response. The intracellular E3 ligase SDIR1 (SALT- AND DROUGHT-INDUCED REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE FINGER1) plays a key role in ABA signaling, regulating ABA-related seed germination and the stress response. In this study, we found that SDIR1 is localized on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using cell biology, molecular biology, and biochemistry approaches, we demonstrated that SDIR1 interacts with and ubiquitinates its substrate, SDIRIP1 (SDIR1-INTERACTING PROTEIN1), to modulate SDIRIP1 stability through the 26S proteasome pathway. SDIRIP1 acts genetically downstream of SDIR1 in ABA and salt stress signaling. In detail, SDIRIP1 selectively regulates the expression of the downstream basic region/leucine zipper motif transcription factor gene ABA-INSENSITIVE5, rather than ABA-RESPONSIVE ELEMENTS BINDING FACTOR3 (ABF3) or ABF4, to regulate ABA-mediated seed germination and the plant salt response. Overall, the SDIR1/SDIRIP1 complex plays a vital role in ABA signaling through the ubiquitination pathway. PMID:25616872

  14. Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Youth: The Development of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scales (ABAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Stephen M.; Leschied, Alan Winfield; Fearon, Pasco

    2007-01-01

    A focus on antisocial beliefs and attitudes has informed both the assessment and treatment literature, and practice, in youth justice service provision. This study attempts to broaden the construct of antisocial beliefs and attitudes and reports on the psychometric development of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS). The ABAS is a new…

  15. Genetic Analysis of Physcomitrella patens Identifies ABSCISIC ACID NON-RESPONSIVE, a Regulator of ABA Responses Unique to Basal Land Plants and Required for Desiccation Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Sean R; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Trinh, Chi H; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry W; Grimwood, Jane; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; Rensing, Stefan A; Lang, Daniel; Reski, Ralf; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J; Li, Fay-Wei; Larsson, Anders; Wong, Gane K-S; Edwards, Thomas A; Cuming, Andrew C

    2016-06-01

    The anatomically simple plants that first colonized land must have acquired molecular and biochemical adaptations to drought stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) coordinates responses leading to desiccation tolerance in all land plants. We identified ABA nonresponsive mutants in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and genotyped a segregating population to map and identify the ABA NON-RESPONSIVE (ANR) gene encoding a modular protein kinase comprising an N-terminal PAS domain, a central EDR domain, and a C-terminal MAPKKK-like domain. anr mutants fail to accumulate dehydration tolerance-associated gene products in response to drought, ABA, or osmotic stress and do not acquire ABA-dependent desiccation tolerance. The crystal structure of the PAS domain, determined to 1.7-Å resolution, shows a conserved PAS-fold that dimerizes through a weak dimerization interface. Targeted mutagenesis of a conserved tryptophan residue within the PAS domain generates plants with ABA nonresponsive growth and strongly attenuated ABA-responsive gene expression, whereas deleting this domain retains a fully ABA-responsive phenotype. ANR orthologs are found in early-diverging land plant lineages and aquatic algae but are absent from more recently diverged vascular plants. We propose that ANR genes represent an ancestral adaptation that enabled drought stress survival of the first terrestrial colonizers but were lost during land plant evolution. PMID:27194706

  16. Isolation of ABA-responsive mutants in allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Drawing connections to grain dormancy, preharvest sprouting, and drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the isolation of Wheat ABA-responsive mutants (Warm) in Chinese spring background of allohexaploid Triticum aestivum. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is required for the induction of seed dormancy, the induction of stomatal closure and drought tolerance, and is associated...

  17. Genetic Analysis of Physcomitrella patens Identifies ABSCISIC ACID NON-RESPONSIVE, a Regulator of ABA Responses Unique to Basal Land Plants and Required for Desiccation Tolerance[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Trinh, Chi H.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Muchero, Wellington; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J.; Li, Fay-Wei; Larsson, Anders; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomically simple plants that first colonized land must have acquired molecular and biochemical adaptations to drought stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) coordinates responses leading to desiccation tolerance in all land plants. We identified ABA nonresponsive mutants in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and genotyped a segregating population to map and identify the ABA NON-RESPONSIVE (ANR) gene encoding a modular protein kinase comprising an N-terminal PAS domain, a central EDR domain, and a C-terminal MAPKKK-like domain. anr mutants fail to accumulate dehydration tolerance-associated gene products in response to drought, ABA, or osmotic stress and do not acquire ABA-dependent desiccation tolerance. The crystal structure of the PAS domain, determined to 1.7-Å resolution, shows a conserved PAS-fold that dimerizes through a weak dimerization interface. Targeted mutagenesis of a conserved tryptophan residue within the PAS domain generates plants with ABA nonresponsive growth and strongly attenuated ABA-responsive gene expression, whereas deleting this domain retains a fully ABA-responsive phenotype. ANR orthologs are found in early-diverging land plant lineages and aquatic algae but are absent from more recently diverged vascular plants. We propose that ANR genes represent an ancestral adaptation that enabled drought stress survival of the first terrestrial colonizers but were lost during land plant evolution. PMID:27194706

  18. A G-Protein β Subunit, AGB1, Negatively Regulates the ABA Response and Drought Tolerance by Down-Regulating AtMPK6-Related Pathway in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-bei; Chen, Ming; Ma, Ya-nan; Xu, Zhao-shi; Li, Lian-cheng; Chen, Yao-feng; Ma, You-zhi

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are versatile regulators involved in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the function of G-proteins is primarily associated with ABA signaling. However, the downstream effectors and the molecular mechanisms in the ABA pathway remain largely unknown. In this study, an AGB1 mutant (agb1-2) was found to show enhanced drought tolerance, indicating that AGB1 might negatively regulate drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Data showed that AGB1 interacted with protein kinase AtMPK6 that was previously shown to phosphorylate AtVIP1, a transcription factor responding to ABA signaling. Our study found that transcript levels of three ABA responsive genes, AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 (downstream gene of AtVIP1), were significantly up-regulated in agb1-2 lines after ABA or drought treatments. Other ABA-responsive and drought-inducible genes, such as RD29A (downstream gene of AtMYB44), were also up-regulated in agb1-2 lines. Furthermore, overexpression of AtVIP1 resulted in hypersensitivity to ABA at seed germination and seedling stages, and significantly enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic plants. These results suggest that AGB1 was involved in the ABA signaling pathway and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis through down-regulating the AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 cascade. PMID:25635681

  19. Canonical Pedagogical Content Knowledge by Cores for Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry at High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Clara; Cañada, Florentina; Garritz, Andoni; Mellado, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The topic of acid-base chemistry is one of the oldest in general chemistry courses and it has been almost continuously in academic discussion. The central purpose of documenting the knowledge and beliefs of a group of ten Mexican teachers with experience in teaching acid-base chemistry in high school was to know how they design, prepare and…

  20. Acid-base properties of the surface of the α-Al2O3 suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazanov, M. A.; Dudkin, B. N.

    2009-12-01

    The distribution of the acid-base centers on the surface of α-Al2O3 suspension particles was studied by potentiometric titration, and the corresponding p K spectra were constructed. It was inferred that the double electric layer created by the supporting electrolyte substantially affected the screening of the acid-base centers on the particle surface of the suspension.

  1. Collaborative Strategies for Teaching Common Acid-Base Disorders to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Marie Warrer; Toksvang, Linea Natalie; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Berg, Ronan M. G.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and diagnose acid-base disorders is of the utmost importance in the clinical setting. However, it has been the experience of the authors that medical students often have difficulties learning the basic principles of acid-base physiology in the respiratory physiology curriculum, particularly when applying this knowledge to…

  2. A Comparative Study of French and Turkish Students' Ideas on Acid-Base Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokelez, Aytekin

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this comparative study was to determine the knowledge that French and Turkish upper secondary-school students (grades 11 and 12) acquire on the concept of acid-base reactions. Following an examination of the relevant curricula and textbooks in the two countries, 528 students answered six written questions about the acid-base concept.…

  3. Thai Grade 11 Students' Alternative Conceptions for Acid-Base Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artdej, Romklao; Ratanaroutai, Thasaneeya; Coll, Richard Kevin; Thongpanchang, Tienthong

    2010-01-01

    This study involved the development of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to assess Thai high school students' understanding of acid-base chemistry. The acid-base diagnostic test (ABDT) comprising 18 items was administered to 55 Grade 11 students in a science and mathematics programme during the second semester of the 2008 academic year. Analysis of…

  4. Using the Logarithmic Concentration Diagram, Log "C", to Teach Acid-Base Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Acid-base equilibrium is one of the most important and most challenging topics in a typical general chemistry course. This article introduces an alternative to the algebraic approach generally used in textbooks, the graphical log "C" method. Log "C" diagrams provide conceptual insight into the behavior of aqueous acid-base systems and allow…

  5. High School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts: An Ongoing Challenge for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damanhuri, Muhd Ibrahim Muhamad; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a quantitative case study design, the "Acids-Bases Chemistry Achievement Test" ("ABCAT") was developed to evaluate the extent to which students in Malaysian secondary schools achieved the intended curriculum on acid-base concepts. Responses were obtained from 260 Form 5 (Grade 11) students from five schools to initially…

  6. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    PubMed Central

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  7. Increased ABA sensitivity results in higher seed dormancy in soft white spring wheat cultivar ‘Zak’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a strategy to increase the seed dormancy of soft white wheat, mutants with increased sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were identified in mutagenized grain of soft white spring wheat ‘Zak”. Lack of seed dormancy is correlated with increased susceptibility to preharvest sprouti...

  8. Bringing ABA into Your Inclusive Classroom: A Guide to Improving Outcomes for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a highly effective, rigorously researched intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders--but most teachers don't get the training they need to put it to work in their inclusive classroom. That's why every K-12 educator needs this practical guidebook, packed with teaching plans and plain-English…

  9. Negative regulation of ABA signaling by WRKY33 is critical for Arabidopsis immunity towards Botrytis cinerea 2100

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shouan; Kracher, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg; Birkenbihl, Rainer P; Somssich, Imre E

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis mutant wrky33 is highly susceptible to Botrytis cinerea. We identified >1680 Botrytis-induced WRKY33 binding sites associated with 1576 Arabidopsis genes. Transcriptional profiling defined 318 functional direct target genes at 14 hr post inoculation. Comparative analyses revealed that WRKY33 possesses dual functionality acting either as a repressor or as an activator in a promoter-context dependent manner. We confirmed known WRKY33 targets involved in hormone signaling and phytoalexin biosynthesis, but also uncovered a novel negative role of abscisic acid (ABA) in resistance towards B. cinerea 2100. The ABA biosynthesis genes NCED3 and NCED5 were identified as direct targets required for WRKY33-mediated resistance. Loss-of-WRKY33 function resulted in elevated ABA levels and genetic studies confirmed that WRKY33 acts upstream of NCED3/NCED5 to negatively regulate ABA biosynthesis. This study provides the first detailed view of the genome-wide contribution of a specific plant transcription factor in modulating the transcriptional network associated with plant immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07295.001 PMID:26076231

  10. AtRAV and AtbZIP transcription factors positively regulate ABA responses: Overexpression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency, and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Ar...

  11. Formative Evaluation of an ABA Outreach Training Program for Parents of Children with Autism in Remote Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzman-Powell, Linda S.; Buzhardt, Jay; Rusinko, Lisa C.; Miller, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Families in rural or remote areas have limited access to evidence-based intervention for their children with autism. Using web-based training and telemedicine technology, the current study investigated the feasibility of training seven parents to implement Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) strategies with their children with autism. In this…

  12. Effects of Multiple Contexts and Context Similarity on the Renewal of Extinguished Conditioned Behaviour in an ABA Design with Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balooch, Siavash Bandarian; Neumann, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The ABA renewal procedure involves pairing a conditional stimulus (CS) and an unconditional stimulus (US) in one context (A), presenting extinction trials of the CS alone in a second context (B), and nonreinforced test trials of the CS in the acquisition context (A). The renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour is observed during test. The…

  13. Registration of Zak ERA8 soft white spring wheat germplasm with enhanced response to ABA and increased seed dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ZakERA8 is a unique mutant line selected from mutagenized soft white spring 'Zak' that has increased seed dormancy as a result of enhanced responsiveness to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during germination. This germplasm was developed by USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA in collaboration with Washingt...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  1. Group Training of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Knowledge Competencies to Community-Based Service Providers for Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; St. Amand, CarrieAnne; MaGee, Christine; Sperry, James M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a training program to teach applied behavior analysis (ABA) knowledge competencies to paraprofessional staff (N = 47) at a habilitation services agency for adults with developmental disabilities. Before and following training, staff completed assessment of knowledge tests for three content areas: basic learning principles,…

  2. Renal and systemic acid-base effects of chronic dichloroacetate administration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hulter, H N; Glynn, R D; Sebastian, A

    1980-10-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) increases metabolic disposal of lactic acid secondary to activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and consequent acceleration of pyruvate oxidation. DCA has thus been proposed as a therapeutic agent for clinical states of lactic acidosis. Yet, DCA has a potential metabolic acidosis-producing effect by virtue of reported effects of (A) increasing blood ketoacid concentration, (B) decreasing tubular reabsorption of filtered ketoacid anions, and (C) decreasing renal NH3 production. In the present study chronic administration of DCA, 50 mg/kg p.o. daily for 6-8 days, resulted in a cumulative increase in renal net acid excretion (NAE) (sigma delta NAE, +61 meq, p < 0.05). The increase in NAE was accounted for entirely by increased NH4+ excretion. Production of ammonia by the kidney appeared to be increased since the increased excretion of NH4+ was accompanied by an increase in urine pH (delta UpH, +0.18 +/- 0.07, p < 0.05). The increase in NAE was accompanied by a nearly identical increase in urinary anion gap (UAG) (UAG = [NH4+ + Na+ + K+] - [Cl- + HCO3- + HPO4(2-) + H2PO4-]). The increase in UAG was caused by increased urinary total organic anions, accounted for at least in part by a significant increase in urinary acetoacetate. No significant increase in urinary potassium or sodium excretion occurred. A change in plasma acid-base composition occurred that was consistent with a mild respiratory acidosis without associated primary metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. These findings indicate that chronic DCA administration results in (1) increased steady state endogenous noncarbonic organic acid production, and (2) retention of carbonic acid. Further investigation of the potential metabolic and respiratory acidosis-producing effects of DCA is required to determine its clinical efficacy in the treatment of clinical lactic acidosis. PMID:7421587

  3. Segmental chain dynamics of ABA triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Vivek; Wei, Guangmin; Nagao, Michihiro; Venkataraman, Shrinivas; Yang, Yi Yan; Hedrick, James

    The polymer physics of hierarchical, aqueous self-assembled ABA block copolymers is an active area of research for both advanced materials and biomaterial applications. Scattering-based techniques provide a direct measure of the correlations and structure across multiple length and time scales. Hierarchical clusters of micelles are formed by well-defined poly(ethylene glycol) triblock copolymers with oligo-fluorene hydrophobic end-groups in aqueous solutions. The structure and dynamics of this system was studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and static and dynamic light scattering. We will present new neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE) results that provides direct insight into the segmental chain dynamics constrained by the pi-pi stacking of the oligo-fluorene end groups. The dilute cluster regime within the temperature-composition phase diagram is of current interest. Nist Materials Genome Program.

  4. Superconducting current and proximity effect in ABA and ABC multilayer graphene Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-12-01

    Using a numerical tight-binding approach based on the Chebyshev-Bogoliubov-de Gennes method we describe Josephson junctions made of multilayer graphene contacted by top superconducting gates. Both Bernal (ABA) and rhombohedral (ABC) stacking are considered and we find that the type of stacking has a strong effect on the proximity effect and the supercurrent flow. For both cases the pair amplitude shows a polarization between dimer and nondimer atoms, being more pronounced for rhombohedral stacking. Even though the proximity effect in nondimer sites is enhanced when compared to single-layer graphene, we find that the supercurrent is suppressed. The spatial distribution of the supercurrent shows that for Bernal stacking the current flows only in the topmost layers while for rhombohedral stacking the current flows throughout the whole structure.

  5. Structural analysis of cysteine S-nitrosylation: a modified acid-based motif and the emerging role of trans-nitrosylation

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Stefano M.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2009-01-01

    S-nitrosylation, the selective and reversible addition of nitric oxide (NO) moiety to cysteine (Cys) sulfur in proteins, regulates numerous cellular processes. In recent years, proteomic approaches have been developed that are capable of identifying nitrosylated Cys residues. However, the features underlying specificity of Cys modification with NO remain poorly defined. Previous studies suggested that S-nitrosylated Cys may be flanked by an acid-base motif or hydrophobic areas, and show high reactivity, low pKa and high sulfur atom exposure. In the current study, we prepared an extensive, manually curated dataset of proteins with S-nitrosothiols, accounting for a variety of biochemical functions, organisms of origin and physiological responses to NO. Analysis of this generic NO-Cys dataset revealed that proximal acid-base motif, Cys pKa, sulfur atom exposure, Cys conservation or hydrophobicity in the vicinity of the modified Cys do not define the specificity of S-nitrosylation. Instead, this analysis revealed a revised acid-base motif, which is located more distantly to the Cys and has its charged groups exposed. We hypothesize that, rather than being strictly employed for direct activation of Cys, the modified acid-base motif is engaged in protein-protein interactions whereby contributing to trans-nitrosylation as an important and widespread mechanism for reversible modification of Cys with NO moiety. For proteins lacking the revised motif, we discuss alternative mechanisms including a potential role of nitrosoglutathione as a transacting agent. PMID:19854201

  6. Electrical signaling, stomatal conductance, ABA and Ethylene content in avocado trees in response to root hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Gurovich, Luis; Schaffer, Bruce; García, Nicolás; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees are among the most sensitive of fruit tree species to root hypoxia as a result of flooded or poorly drained soil. Similar to drought stress, an early physiological response to root hypoxia in avocado is a reduction of stomatal conductance. It has been previously determined in avocado trees that an extracellular electrical signal between the base of stem and leaves is produced and related to reductions in stomatal conductance in response to drought stress. The current study was designed to determine if changes in the extracellular electrical potential between the base of the stem and leaves in avocado trees could also be detected in response to short-term (min) or long-term (days) root hypoxia, and if these signals could be related to stomatal conductance (gs), root and leaf ABA and ACC concentrations, ethylene emission from leaves and leaf abscission. In contrast to previous observations for drought-stressed trees, short-term or long-term root hypoxia did not stimulate an electrical potential difference between the base of the stem and leaves. Short-term hypoxia did not result in a significant decrease in gs compared with plants in the control treatment, and no differences in ABA concentration were found between plants subjected to hypoxia and control plants. Long-term hypoxia in the root zone resulted in a significant decrease in gs, increased leaf ethylene and increased leaf abscission. The results indicate that for avocado trees exposed to root hypoxia, electrical signals do not appear to be the primary root-to-shoot communication mechanism involved in signaling for stomatal closure as a result of hypoxia in the root zone. PMID:19649181

  7. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (χ2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

  8. A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin α-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature. PMID:25270993

  9. Expression analysis of abscisic acid (ABA) and metabolic signalling factors in developing endosperm and embryo of barley☆

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua; Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J.; Halford, Nigel G.

    2013-01-01

    The expression of genes encoding components of ABA and metabolic signalling pathways in developing barley endosperm and embryo was investigated. The genes included HvRCAR35_47387 and HvRCAR35_2538 (encoding ABA receptors), HvABI1d (protein phosphatase 2C), HvSnRK2.4, HvSnRK2.6 and HvPKABA1 (SnRK2-type protein kinases) and HvABI5 (ABA response element binding protein; AREBP), as well as two genes encoding SnRK1-type protein kinases. Both SnRK1 and SnRK2 phosphorylate AREBPs, but SnRK2 is activated by ABA whereas SnRK1 may be broken down. Multiple cereal AREBPs with two conserved SnRK1/2 target sites and another class of BZIP transcription factors with SnRK1/2 binding sites, including HvBLZ1, were identified. Barley grain (cv. Triumph) was sampled at 15, 20, 25 and 30 days post-anthesis (dpa). HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 were expressed highly in the endosperm but at much lower levels in the embryo. Conversely, HvPKABA1 and HvRCAR35_2538 were expressed at higher levels in the embryo than the endosperm, while HvSnRK2.6 was expressed at similar levels in both. HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 all peaked in expression in the endosperm at 20 dpa. A model is proposed in which ABA brings about a transition from a SnRK1-dominated state in the endosperm during grain filling to a SnRK2-dominated state during maturation. PMID:24748715

  10. Structural basis for basal activity and autoactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling SnRK2 kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Ley-Moy; Soon, Fen-Fen; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. Central for ABA signaling is the ABA-mediated autoactivation of three monomeric Snf1-related kinases (SnRK2.2, -2.3, and -2.6). In the absence of ABA, SnRK2s are kept in an inactive state by forming physical complexes with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Upon relief of this inhibition, SnRK2 kinases can autoactivate through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 at 1.9- and 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The structures, in combination with biochemical studies, reveal a two-step mechanism of intramolecular kinase activation that resembles the intermolecular activation of cyclin-dependent kinases. First, release of inhibition by PP2C allows the SnRK2s to become partially active because of an intramolecular stabilization of the catalytic domain by a conserved helix in the kinase regulatory domain. This stabilization enables SnRK2s to gain full activity by activation loop autophosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is more efficient in SnRK2.6, which has higher stability than SnRK2.3 and has well-structured activation loop phosphate acceptor sites that are positioned next to the catalytic site. Together, these data provide a structural framework that links ABA-mediated release of PP2C inhibition to activation of SnRK2 kinases.

  11. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ). PMID:26579187

  12. The evolution of the role of ABA in the regulation of water-use efficiency: From biochemical mechanisms to stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Negin, Boaz; Moshelion, Menachem

    2016-10-01

    Abscisic acid is found in a wide variety of organisms. In the plant kingdom, ABA's role in mediating responses to abiotic stress has been conserved and enhanced throughout evolution. The emergence of plants to terrestrial environments required the development of mechanisms to cope with ongoing and severe abiotic stress such as drought and rapid changes in humidity and temperature. The common understanding is that terrestrial plants evolved strategies ranging from desiccation-tolerance mechanisms (mosses) to drought tolerance (CAM plants), to better exploit different ecological niches. In between these divergent water regulation strategies, ABA plays a significant role in managing plants' adaptation to new environments by optimizing water-use efficiency (WUE) under particular environmental conditions. ABA plays some very different roles in the regulation of WUE. ABA's role in the regulation of guard cells and transpiration has yielded a wide variety of WUE-regulation mechanisms, ranging from no sensitivity (ferns) to low sensitivity (anisohydric behavior) to hypersensitivity to ABA (isohydric behavior and putatively CAM plants). ABA also plays a role in the regulation of non-stomatal, biochemical mechanisms of WUE regulation. In angiosperms, this includes the control of osmotic adjustment and morphological changes, including changes in leaf size, stomatal density, stomatal size and root development. Under severe stress, ABA also appears to initiate leaf senescence via transcriptional regulation, to directly inhibit photosynthesis. PMID:27593466

  13. The Arabidopsis a zinc finger domain protein ARS1 is essential for seed germination and ROS homeostasis in response to ABA and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Dongwon; Cha, Joon-Yung; Kang, Songhwa; Park, Bokyung; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Hong, Hyewon; Chun, Hyun Jin; Kim, Doh Hoon; Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Sang Yeol; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can disrupt seed dormancy and plant development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant called ars1 (aba and ros sensitive 1) that showed hypersensitivity to ABA during seed germination and to methyl viologen (MV) at the seedling stage. ARS1 encodes a nuclear protein with one zinc finger domain, two nuclear localization signal (NLS) domains, and one nuclear export signal (NES). The ars1 mutants showed reduced expression of a gene for superoxide dismutase (CSD3) and enhanced accumulation of ROS after ABA treatment. Transient expression of ARS1 in Arabidopsis protoplasts strongly suppressed ABA-mediated ROS production. Interestingly, nuclear-localized ARS1 translocated to the cytoplasm in response to treatment with ABA, H2O2, or MV. Taken together, these results suggest that ARS1 modulates seed germination and ROS homeostasis in response to ABA and oxidative stress in plants. PMID:26583028

  14. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon).

    PubMed

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0-2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions. PMID:23630325

  15. MAP kinases MPK9 and MPK12 are preferentially expressed in guard cells and positively regulate ROS-mediated ABA signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jammes, Fabien; Song, Charlotte; Shin, Dongjin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Takeda, Kouji; Gu, Dan; Cho, Daeshik; Lee, Sangmee; Giordo, Roberta; Sritubtim, Somrudee; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Ellis, Brian E.; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Kwak, June M.

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells. To dissect guard cell ABA-ROS signaling genetically, a cell type-specific functional genomics approach was used to identify 2 MAPK genes, MPK9 and MPK12, which are preferentially and highly expressed in guard cells. To provide genetic evidence for their function, Arabidopsis single and double TILLING mutants that carry deleterious point mutations in these genes were isolated. RNAi-based gene-silencing plant lines, in which both genes are silenced simultaneously, were generated also. Mutants carrying a mutation in only 1 of these genes did not show any altered phenotype, indicating functional redundancy in these genes. ABA-induced stomatal closure was strongly impaired in 2 independent RNAi lines in which both MPK9 and MPK12 transcripts were significantly silenced. Consistent with this result, mpk9-1/12-1 double mutants showed an enhanced transpirational water loss and ABA- and H2O2-insensitive stomatal response. Furthermore, ABA and calcium failed to activate anion channels in guard cells of mpk9-1/12-1, indicating that these 2 MPKs act upstream of anion channels in guard cell ABA signaling. An MPK12-YFP fusion construct rescued the ABA-insensitive stomatal response phenotype of mpk9-1/12-1, demonstrating that the phenotype was caused by the mutations. The MPK12 protein is localized in the cytosol and the nucleus, and ABA and H2O2 treatments enhance the protein kinase activity of MPK12. Together, these results provide genetic evidence that MPK9 and MPK12 function downstream of ROS to regulate guard cell ABA signaling positively. PMID:19910530

  16. Going Beyond, Going Further: The Preparation of Acid-Base Titration Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClendon, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for a simple technique for generating mechanically plotted acid-base titration curves. The method is suitable for second-year high school chemistry students. (JN)

  17. The effect of acid-base clustering and ions on the growth of atmospheric nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Rondo, Linda; Kontkanen, Jenni; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Kürten, Andreas; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Sipilä, Mikko; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Ahlm, Lars; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Downard, Andrew J.; Dunne, Eimear M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J.; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Olenius, Tinja; Ortega, Ismael K.; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud; Rissanen, Matti P.; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D.; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Simon, Mario; Smith, James N.; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, António; Vaattovaara, Petri; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Vrtala, Aron E.; Wagner, Paul E.; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M.; Virtanen, Annele; Donahue, Neil M.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Baltensperger, Urs; Riipinen, Ilona; Curtius, Joachim; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-05-01

    The growth of freshly formed aerosol particles can be the bottleneck in their survival to cloud condensation nuclei. It is therefore crucial to understand how particles grow in the atmosphere. Insufficient experimental data has impeded a profound understanding of nano-particle growth under atmospheric conditions. Here we study nano-particle growth in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoors Droplets) chamber, starting from the formation of molecular clusters. We present measured growth rates at sub-3 nm sizes with different atmospherically relevant concentrations of sulphuric acid, water, ammonia and dimethylamine. We find that atmospheric ions and small acid-base clusters, which are not generally accounted for in the measurement of sulphuric acid vapour, can participate in the growth process, leading to enhanced growth rates. The availability of compounds capable of stabilizing sulphuric acid clusters governs the magnitude of these effects and thus the exact growth mechanism. We bring these observations into a coherent framework and discuss their significance in the atmosphere.

  18. Facing acid-base disorders in the third millennium - the Stewart approach revisited.

    PubMed

    Kishen, R; Honoré, Patrick M; Jacobs, R; Joannes-Boyau, O; De Waele, E; De Regt, J; Van Gorp, V; Boer, W; Spapen, Hd

    2014-01-01

    Acid-base disorders are common in the critically ill. Most of these disorders do not cause harm and are self-limiting after appropriate resuscitation and management. Unfortunately, clinicians tend to think about an acid-base disturbance as a "disease" and spend long hours effectively treating numbers rather than the patient. Moreover, a sizable number of intensive-care physicians experience difficulties in interpreting the significance of or understanding the etiology of certain forms of acid-base disequilibria. Traditional tools for interpreting acid-base disorders may not be adequate for analyzing the complex nature of these metabolic abnormalities. Inappropriate interpretation may also lead to wrong clinical conclusions and incorrectly influence clinical management (eg, bicarbonate therapy for metabolic acidosis in different clinical situations). The Stewart approach, based on physicochemical principles, is a robust physiological concept that can facilitate the interpretation and analysis of simple, mixed, and complex acid-base disorders, thereby allowing better diagnosis of the cause of the disturbance and more timely treatment. However, as the concept does not attach importance to plasma bicarbonate, clinicians may find it complicated to use in their daily clinical practice. This article reviews various approaches to interpreting acid-base disorders and suggests the integration of base-excess and Stewart approach for a better interpretation of these metabolic disorders. PMID:24959091

  19. Thai Grade 11 students' alternative conceptions for acid-base chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artdej, Romklao; Ratanaroutai, Thasaneeya; Coll, Richard Kevin; Thongpanchang, Tienthong

    2010-07-01

    This study involved the development of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to assess Thai high school students' understanding of acid-base chemistry. The acid-base diagnostic test (ABDT) comprising 18 items was administered to 55 Grade 11 students in a science and mathematics programme during the second semester of the 2008 academic year. Analysis of students' responses from this study followed the methodology outlined by Çalik and Ayas. The research findings suggest that the ABDT, the multiple choice diagnostic instrument, enables researchers and teachers to classify students' understanding at different levels. Most students exhibited alternative conceptions for several concepts: acid-base theory, dissociation of strong acids or bases, and dissociation of weak acids/bases. Interestingly, one of the concepts that students appeared to find most difficult, and for which they exhibited the most alternative conceptions, was acid-base theory. Some alternative conceptions revealed in this study differ from earlier reports, such as the concept of electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions as well as the concentration changes of H3O+and OH- in water. These research findings present valuable information for facilitating better understanding of acid-base chemistry by providing insight into the preventable and correctable alternative conceptions exhibited by students.

  20. ABA and ABC renewal of conditioned magazine approach are not impaired by dorsal hippocampus inactivation or lesions.

    PubMed

    Campese, Vincent; Delamater, Andrew R

    2013-07-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) in renewal of conditioned and then extinguished magazine approach responding in rats. Experiments 1 and 2 found no effect of muscimol inactivation of the DH during testing on ABA and ABC renewal, respectively. However, subjects from these studies were subsequently found to be impaired on a delayed non-matching-to-place task following muscimol but not saline infusions. Experiment 3 found no effects of post-training excitotoxic lesions of the DH on ABA and ABC renewal. Lesioned subjects were, however, impaired on the delayed non-matching-to-place task compared to control subjects. These findings suggest that the DH may not play a similar role in Pavlovian extinction in appetitive learning tasks as has previously been reported in aversive learning. PMID:23583520

  1. Involvement of rice histone deacetylase HDA705 in seed germination and in response to ABA and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhui; Li, Mingzhi; Gu, Dachuan; Liu, Xuncheng; Zhang, Jianxia; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Xinhua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Duan, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation play crucial roles in the modification of chromatin structure and regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) assist to maintain the balance of chromatin acetylation status. Previous studies showed that plant HDACs are key regulators involved in response to development and stresses. In this study, we examined the expression pattern and function of HDA705, a member of the RPD3/HDA1-type HDAC in rice. Overexpression of HDA705 in rice decreased ABA and salt stress resistance during seed germination. Delayed seed germination of HDA705 overexpression lines was associated with down-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes and up-regulation of ABA biosynthetic genes. Moreover, overexpression of HDA705 in rice enhanced osmotic stress resistance during the seedling stage. Our findings demonstrate that HDA705 may play a role in regulating seed germination and the response to abiotic stresses in rice. PMID:26772883

  2. Liming can decrease legume crop yield and leaf gas exchange by enhancing root to shoot ABA signalling.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Shane A; Elphinstone, E David; Dodd, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    To meet future requirements for food production, sustainable intensive agricultural systems need to optimize nutrient availability to maximize yield, traditionally achieved by maintaining soil pH within an optimal range (6-6.5) by applying lime (calcium carbonate). However, a field trial that applied recommended liming rates to a sandy loam soil (increasing soil pH from 5.5 to 6.2) decreased pod yield of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Fuego) by ~30%. Subsequent pot trials, with liming that raised soil pH to 6.3-6.7, reduced stomatal conductance (g(s)) by 63, 26, and 59% in V. faba, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. Furthermore, liming reduced shoot dry biomass by 16-24% in these species. Ionomic analysis of root xylem sap and leaf tissue revealed a decrease in phosphorus concentration that was correlated with decreased g(s): both reductions were partially reversed by adding superphosphate fertilizer. Further analysis of pea suggests that leaf gas exchange was reduced by a systemic increase (roots, xylem sap, and leaves) in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to lime-induced suboptimal plant phosphorus concentrations. Supplying synthetic ABA via the transpiration stream to detached pea leaves, at the same xylem sap concentrations induced by liming, decreased transpiration. Furthermore, the g(s) of the ABA-deficient mutant pea wilty was unresponsive to liming, apparently confirming that ABA mediates some responses to low phosphorus availability caused by liming. This research provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the physiological processes by which lime application can limit crop yields, and questions the suitability of current liming recommendations. PMID:25740925

  3. Liming can decrease legume crop yield and leaf gas exchange by enhancing root to shoot ABA signalling

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Shane A.; Elphinstone, E. David; Dodd, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    To meet future requirements for food production, sustainable intensive agricultural systems need to optimize nutrient availability to maximize yield, traditionally achieved by maintaining soil pH within an optimal range (6–6.5) by applying lime (calcium carbonate). However, a field trial that applied recommended liming rates to a sandy loam soil (increasing soil pH from 5.5 to 6.2) decreased pod yield of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Fuego) by ~30%. Subsequent pot trials, with liming that raised soil pH to 6.3–6.7, reduced stomatal conductance (g s) by 63, 26, and 59% in V. faba, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. Furthermore, liming reduced shoot dry biomass by 16–24% in these species. Ionomic analysis of root xylem sap and leaf tissue revealed a decrease in phosphorus concentration that was correlated with decreased g s: both reductions were partially reversed by adding superphosphate fertilizer. Further analysis of pea suggests that leaf gas exchange was reduced by a systemic increase (roots, xylem sap, and leaves) in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to lime-induced suboptimal plant phosphorus concentrations. Supplying synthetic ABA via the transpiration stream to detached pea leaves, at the same xylem sap concentrations induced by liming, decreased transpiration. Furthermore, the g s of the ABA-deficient mutant pea wilty was unresponsive to liming, apparently confirming that ABA mediates some responses to low phosphorus availability caused by liming. This research provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the physiological processes by which lime application can limit crop yields, and questions the suitability of current liming recommendations. PMID:25740925

  4. A role for PacMYBA in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinjie; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Kaichun; Yuan, Huazhao; Liao, Xiong; Wang, Qi; Guo, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Li, Tianhong

    2014-05-01

    The MYB transcription factors and plant hormone ABA have been suggested to play a role in fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking in sweet cherry. The present study describes the first functional characterization of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, PacMYBA, from red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.). Transient promoter assays demonstrated that PacMYBA physically interacted with several anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to activate the promoters of PacDFR, PacANS and PacUFGT, which are thought to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the immature seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PacMYBA exhibited ectopic pigmentation. Silencing of PacMYBA, using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing technique, resulted in sweet cherry fruit that lacked red pigment. ABA treatment significantly induced anthocyanin accumulation, while treatment with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) blocked anthocyanin production. PacMYBA expression peaked after 2 h of pre-incubation in ABA and was 15.2-fold higher than that of sweet cherries treated with NDGA. The colorless phenotype was also observed in the fruits silenced in PacNCED1, which encodes a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. The endogenous ABA content as well as the transcript levels of six structural genes and PacMYBA in PacNCED1-RNAi (RNA interference) fruit were significantly lower than in the TRV vector control fruit. These results suggest that PacMYBA plays an important role in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis and ABA is a signal molecule that promotes red-colored sweet cherry fruit accumulating anthocyanin. PMID:24443499

  5. Multiple impacts of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 on nutrient and ABA relations of Pisum sativum

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Ian C.

    2012-01-01

    Resolving the physiological mechanisms by which rhizobacteria enhance plant growth is difficult, since many such bacteria contain multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To understand further how the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (ACCd)-containing rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 affects plant growth, the flows and partitioning of mineral nutrients and abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolism were studied in pea (Pisum sativum) plants following rhizosphere bacterial inoculation. Although root architecture was not affected, inoculation increased root and shoot biomass, and stomatal conductance, by 20, 15, and 24%, respectively, and increased N, P, K, Ca, and Mg uptake by 16, 81, 50, 46, and 58%, respectively. P deposition in inoculated plant roots was 4.9 times higher than that in uninoculated controls. Rhizobacterial inoculation increased root to shoot xylem flows and shoot to root phloem flows of K by 1.8- and 2.1-fold, respectively. In control plants, major sinks for K deposition were the roots and upper shoot (43% and 49% of total uptake, respectively), while rhizobacterial inoculation increased K distribution to the lower shoot at the expense of other compartments (xylem, phloem, and upper shoot). Despite being unable to metabolize ABA in vitro, V. paradoxus 5C-2 decreased root ABA concentrations and accumulation by 40–60%. Although inoculation decreased xylem ABA flows, phloem ABA flows increased. Whether bacterial ACCd attenuates root to shoot ABA signalling requires further investigation, since ABA is critical to maintain growth of droughted plants, and ACCd-containing organisms have been advocated as a means of minimizing growth inhibition of plants in drying soil. PMID:23136167

  6. Feedback Regulation of ABA Signaling and Biosynthesis by a bZIP Transcription Factor Targets Drought-Resistance-Related Genes.

    PubMed

    Zong, Wei; Tang, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Lei; Ma, Siqi; Xu, Yan; Li, Guoliang; Xiong, Lizhong

    2016-08-01

    The OsbZIP23 transcription factor has been characterized for its essential role in drought resistance in rice (Oryza sativa), but the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we first investigated the transcriptional activation of OsbZIP23. A homolog of SnRK2 protein kinase (SAPK2) was found to interact with and phosphorylate OsbZIP23 for its transcriptional activation. SAPK2 also interacted with OsPP2C49, an ABI1 homolog, which deactivated the SAPK2 to inhibit the transcriptional activation activity of OsbZIP23. Next, we performed genome-wide identification of OsbZIP23 targets by immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA sequencing analyses in the OsbZIP23-overexpression, osbzip23 mutant, and wild-type rice under normal and drought stress conditions. OsbZIP23 directly regulates a large number of reported genes that function in stress response, hormone signaling, and developmental processes. Among these targets, we found that OsbZIP23 could positively regulate OsPP2C49, and overexpression of OsPP2C49 in rice resulted in significantly decreased sensitivity of the abscisic acid (ABA) response and rapid dehydration. Moreover, OsNCED4 (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase4), a key gene in ABA biosynthesis, was also positively regulated by OsbZIP23. Together, our results suggest that OsbZIP23 acts as a central regulator in ABA signaling and biosynthesis, and drought resistance in rice. PMID:27325665

  7. CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Ting; Sun, Hainan; Wang, Yinjie; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway. PMID:26938878

  8. CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Ting; Sun, Hainan; Wang, Yinjie; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway. PMID:26938878

  9. Rice OsiSAP7 negatively regulates ABA stress signalling and imparts sensitivity to water-deficit stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gunjan; Giri, Jitender; Tyagi, Akhilesh K

    2015-08-01

    Stress associated protein (SAP) genes in plants regulate abiotic stress responses. SAP gene family consists of 18 members in rice. Although their abiotic stress responsiveness is well established, the mechanism of their action is poorly understood. OsiSAP7 was chosen to investigate the mechanism of its action based on the dual nature of its sub-cellular localization preferentially in the nucleus or sub-nuclear speckles upon transient expression in onion epidermal cells. Its expression was down-regulated in rice seedlings under abiotic stresses. OsiSAP7 was localized evenly in the nucleus under unstressed conditions and in sub-nuclear speckles on MG132 treatment. OsiSAP7 exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. Abiotic stress responses of OsiSAP7 were assessed by its overexpression in Arabidopsis under the control of a stress inducible promoter rd29A. Stress response assessment was done at seed germination and advanced stages of development. Transgenics were ABA insensitive at seed germination stage and sensitive to water-deficit stress at advanced stage as compared to wild type (WT). They were also impaired in ABA and stress-responsive gene expression. Our study suggests that OsiSAP7 acts as a negative regulator of ABA and water-deficit stress signalling by acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. PMID:26089154

  10. A.B.A. Checklist: Birds of Continental United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Harrison, W.; Keith, G.S.; McCaskie, R.G.; Peterson, R.T.; Pettingell, N.; Pettingell, O.S., Jr.; Small, A.; Smart, R.W.; Tucker, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this Checklist is to provide a complete up-to-date list of the bird species that have been recorded in the 49 continental United States and Canada. This list includes the native North American breeding species, the regular visitors, the accidentals from other countries that are believed to have strayed here without the direct aid of man, and those introduced species that have become well established and are now a true part of our avifauna. The A.B.A. Checklist will be revised at frequent intervals to keep up with changes in classification and additions to the avifauna. This edition includes a total of 794 species. For details of geographic range and for a complete list of re<;ognized subspecies the reader is referred to the latest (5th) edition of the A. O. U. Check-List of North American Birds, prepared by a committee of the American Ornithologists' Union, 1957, and to the 32nd Supplement published in April 1973 (Auk 90:411-419).

  11. Ab initio quasiparticle band structure of ABA and ABC-stacked graphene trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Marcos G.; Capaz, Rodrigo B.; Louie, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    We obtain the quasiparticle band structure of ABA and ABC-stacked graphene trilayers through ab initio density-functional theory (DFT) and many-body quasiparticle calculations within the GW approximation. To interpret our results, we fit the DFT and GW π bands to a low-energy tight-binding model, which is found to reproduce very well the observed features near the K point. The values of the extracted hopping parameters are reported and compared with available theoretical and experimental data. For both stackings, the self-energy corrections lead to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity, an effect also observed in previous calculations on monolayer graphene. They also increase the separation between the higher-energy bands, which is proportional to the nearest-neighbor interlayer hopping parameter γ1. Both features are brought to closer agreement with experiment through the self-energy corrections. Finally, other effects, such as trigonal warping, electron-hole asymmetry, and energy gaps, are discussed in terms of the associated parameters.

  12. Ab initio quasiparticle bandstructure of ABA and ABC-stacked graphene trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Marcos; Capaz, Rodrigo; Louie, Steven

    2013-03-01

    We obtain the quasiparticle band structure of ABA and ABC-stacked graphene trilayers through ab initio density functional theory (DFT) and many-body quasiparticle calculations within the GW approximation. To interpret our results, we fit the DFT and GW π bands to a low energy tight-binding model, which is found to reproduce very well the observed features near the K point. The values of the extracted hopping parameters are reported and compared with available theoretical and experimental data. For both stackings, the quasiparticle corrections lead to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity, an effect also observed in previous calculations on monolayer graphene. They also increase the separation between the higher energy bands, which is proportional to the nearest neighbor interlayer hopping parameter γ1. Both features are brought to closer agreement with experiment through the quasiparticle corrections. Finally, other effects, such as trigonal warping, electron-hole assymetry and energy gaps are discussed in terms of the associated parameters. This work was supported by the Brazilian funding agencies: CAPES, CNPq, FAPERJ and INCT-Nanomateriais de Carbono. It was also supported by NSF grant No. DMR10-1006184 and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  13. Rigidity effect on phase behavior of symmetric ABA triblock copolymers: A Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jianhui; Shi, Tongfei; Li, Yunqi; Chen, Jizhong; An, Lijia

    2008-08-01

    The phase behavior of symmetric ABA triblock copolymers containing a semiflexible midblock is studied by lattice Monte Carlo simulation. As the midblock evolves from a fully flexible state to a semiflexible state in terms of increase in its persistence length, different phase behaviors are observed while cooling the system from an infinite high temperature to a temperature below TODT (order-disorder transition temperature). Within the midblock flexibility range we studied (lp/Nc<=0.105), a lamellar structure is formed at equilibrium state as the situation for fully flexible chains. The fraction of bridge chain is evaluated for the lamellar structures. We find that the increase in midblock rigidity indeed results in the increase in bridge chain fraction within the range from 44.9% to 51.8%. In order to elucidate phase behavior evolution observed in our simulation, a detailed conformation distribution analysis is also given. Our results bridge a gap of different phase behaviors between rod-coil block copolymer and coil-coil block copolymer and show a necessity to investigate rigidity influence on phase diagram.

  14. AsHSP17, a creeping bentgrass small heat shock protein modulates plant photosynthesis and ABA-dependent and independent signalling to attenuate plant response to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinbo; Sun, Chunyu; Li, Zhigang; Hu, Qian; Han, Liebao; Luo, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that accumulate in response to heat and other abiotic stressors. Small HSPs (sHSPs) belong to the most ubiquitous HSP subgroup with molecular weights ranging from 12 to 42 kDa. We have cloned a new sHSP gene, AsHSP17 from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and studied its role in plant response to environmental stress. AsHSP17 encodes a protein of 17 kDa. Its expression was strongly induced by heat in both leaf and root tissues, and by salt and abscisic acid (ABA) in roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing AsHSP17 exhibited enhanced sensitivity to heat and salt stress accompanied by reduced leaf chlorophyll content and decreased photosynthesis under both normal and stressed conditions compared to wild type. Overexpression of AsHSP17 also led to hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA and salinity during germination and post-germinative growth. Gene expression analysis indicated that AsHSP17 modulates expression of photosynthesis-related genes and regulates ABA biosynthesis, metabolism and ABA signalling as well as ABA-independent stress signalling. Our results suggest that AsHSP17 may function as a protein chaperone to negatively regulate plant responses to adverse environmental stresses through modulating photosynthesis and ABA-dependent and independent signalling pathways. PMID:26610288

  15. Maize ABP9 enhances tolerance to multiple stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis by modulating ABA signaling and cellular levels of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Wang, Lei; Meng, Hui; Wen, Hongtao; Fan, Yunliu; Zhao, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play critical roles in mediating abiotic stress responses in plants. It is well known that ABA is involved in the modulation of ROS levels by regulating ROS-producing and ROS-scavenging genes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation are poorly understood. Here we show that the expression of maize ABP9 gene, which encodes a bZIP transcription factor capable of binding to the ABRE2 motif in the maize Cat1 promoter, is induced by ABA, H(2)O(2), drought and salt. Constitutive expression of ABP9 in transgenic Arabidopsis leads to remarkably enhanced tolerance to multiple stresses including drought, high salt, freezing temperature and oxidative stresses. ABP9 expressing Arabidopsis plants also exhibit increased sensitivity to exogenously applied ABA during seed germination, root growth and stomatal closure and improved water-conserving capacity. Moreover, constitutive expression of ABP9 causes reduced cellular levels of ROS, alleviated oxidative damage and reduced cell death, accompanied by elevated expression of many stress/ABA responsive genes including those for scavenging and regulating ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that ABP9 may play a pivotal role in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses by fine tuning ABA signaling and control of ROS accumulation. PMID:21327835

  16. Transpiration, CO2 assimilation, WUE, and stomatal aperture in leaves of Viscum album (L.): Effect of abscisic acid (ABA) in the xylem sap of its host (Populus x euamericana).

    PubMed

    Escher, Peter; Peuke, Andreas D; Bannister, Peter; Fink, Siegfried; Hartung, Wolfram; Jiang, Fan; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Leaves of the mistletoe Viscum album (L.) show a high rate of transpiration, even when the host is under severe drought stress. The hypothesis that a strong control of ABA influx from the xylem sap of the host into the mistletoe prevents stomatal closure in mistletoe leaves was tested under the following conditions: sections of poplar twigs carrying a mistletoe were perfused with artificial xylem sap that contained different ABA concentrations and both transpiration and ABA levels were analysed in mistletoe leaves. Despite variation by a factor of 10(4), the ABA content of the host xylem did not affect ABA levels, leaf transpiration, CO(2) assimilation, WUE, or the degree of stomatal aperture in mistletoe leaves. These observations support the hypothesis of a strong control of ABA influx from the host of the xylem into the mistletoe, although degradation of ABA before it enters the mistletoe leaves cannot be excluded. This mechanism may ensure a water and nutritional status favourable for the mistletoe, even if the water status of the host is impaired. Despite the lack of short-term sensitivity of ABA levels in mistletoe leaves to even strong changes of ABA levels in the xylem sap of the host, ABA levels in mistletoe leaves were relatively high compared to ABA levels in the leaves of several tree species including poplar. Since significant transpiration of the mistletoe leaves was observed despite high ABA levels, a diminished sensitivity of the stomata of mistletoe leaves to ABA has to be concluded. The stomatal density of adaxial Viscum leaves of 89+/-23 stomata per mm is lower than those reported in a study performed at the end of the 19th century. PMID:18042393

  17. Recent advances in understanding trans-epithelial acid-base regulation and excretion mechanisms in cephalopods

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Marian Y; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Tseng, Yung-Che

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods have evolved complex sensory systems and an active lifestyle to compete with fish for similar resources in the marine environment. Their highly active lifestyle and their extensive protein metabolism has led to substantial acid-base regulatory abilities enabling these organisms to cope with CO2 induced acid-base disturbances. In convergence to teleost, cephalopods possess an ontogeny-dependent shift in ion-regulatory epithelia with epidermal ionocytes being the major site of embryonic acid-base regulation and ammonia excretion, while gill epithelia take these functions in adults. Although the basic morphology and excretory function of gill epithelia in cephalopods were outlined almost half a century ago, modern immunohistological and molecular techniques are bringing new insights to the mechanistic basis of acid-base regulation and excretion of nitrogenous waste products (e.g. NH3/NH4+) across ion regulatory epithelia of cephalopods. Using cephalopods as an invertebrate model, recent findings reveal partly conserved mechanisms but also novel aspects of acid-base regulation and nitrogen excretion in these exclusively marine animals. Comparative studies using a range of marine invertebrates will create a novel and exciting research direction addressing the evolution of pH regulatory and excretory systems. PMID:26716070

  18. Recent advances in understanding trans-epithelial acid-base regulation and excretion mechanisms in cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Hu, Marian Y; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Tseng, Yung-Che

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods have evolved complex sensory systems and an active lifestyle to compete with fish for similar resources in the marine environment. Their highly active lifestyle and their extensive protein metabolism has led to substantial acid-base regulatory abilities enabling these organisms to cope with CO2 induced acid-base disturbances. In convergence to teleost, cephalopods possess an ontogeny-dependent shift in ion-regulatory epithelia with epidermal ionocytes being the major site of embryonic acid-base regulation and ammonia excretion, while gill epithelia take these functions in adults. Although the basic morphology and excretory function of gill epithelia in cephalopods were outlined almost half a century ago, modern immunohistological and molecular techniques are bringing new insights to the mechanistic basis of acid-base regulation and excretion of nitrogenous waste products (e.g. NH3/NH4 (+)) across ion regulatory epithelia of cephalopods. Using cephalopods as an invertebrate model, recent findings reveal partly conserved mechanisms but also novel aspects of acid-base regulation and nitrogen excretion in these exclusively marine animals. Comparative studies using a range of marine invertebrates will create a novel and exciting research direction addressing the evolution of pH regulatory and excretory systems. PMID:26716070

  19. The Rose (Rosa hybrida) NAC Transcription Factor 3 Gene, RhNAC3, Involved in ABA Signaling Pathway Both in Rose and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Peitao; Liu, Jitao; Gao, Junping; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Plant transcription factors involved in stress responses are generally classified by their involvement in either the abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent or the ABA-independent regulatory pathways. A stress-associated NAC gene from rose (Rosa hybrida), RhNAC3, was previously found to increase dehydration tolerance in both rose and Arabidopsis. However, the regulatory mechanism involved in RhNAC3 action is still not fully understood. In this study, we isolated and analyzed the upstream regulatory sequence of RhNAC3 and found many stress-related cis-elements to be present in the promoter, with five ABA-responsive element (ABRE) motifs being of particular interest. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana plants transformed with the putative RhNAC3 promoter sequence fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene revealed that RhNAC3 is expressed at high basal levels in leaf guard cells and in vascular tissues. Moreover, the ABRE motifs in the RhNAC3 promoter were observed to have a cumulative effect on the transcriptional activity of this gene both in the presence and absence of exogenous ABA. Overexpression of RhNAC3 in A. thaliana resulted in ABA hypersensitivity during seed germination and promoted leaf closure after ABA or drought treatments. Additionally, the expression of 11 ABA-responsive genes was induced to a greater degree by dehydration in the transgenic plants overexpressing RhNAC3 than control lines transformed with the vector alone. Further analysis revealed that all these genes contain NAC binding cis-elements in their promoter regions, and RhNAC3 was found to partially bind to these putative NAC recognition sites. We further found that of 219 A. thaliana genes previously shown by microarray analysis to be regulated by heterologous overexpression RhNAC3, 85 are responsive to ABA. In rose, the expression of genes downstream of the ABA-signaling pathways was also repressed in RhNAC3-silenced petals. Taken together, we propose that the rose RhNAC3 protein

  20. Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities during renal support for acute kidney injury: recognition and management.

    PubMed

    Claure-Del Granado, Rolando; Claure, Rolando; Bouchard, Josée

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with electrolyte and acid-base disturbances such as hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. The initiation of dialysis in AKI can efficiently treat these complications. The choice of dialysis modality can be made based on their operational characteristics to tailor the therapy according to the clinical scenario. Each dialysis modality can also trigger significant electrolyte and acid-base disorders, such as hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia and metabolic alkalosis, which may direct changes in fluid delivery and composition. Continuous techniques may be particularly useful in these situations as they allow more time for correction and to maintain balance. This review provides an overview of the electrolyte and acid-base disturbances occurring in AKI and after the initiation of dialysis and discusses therapeutic options in this setting. PMID:23095419

  1. Absorption, fluorescence, and acid-base equilibria of rhodamines in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Obukhova, Elena N; Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A; Patsenker, Leonid D; Doroshenko, Andrey O; Marynin, Andriy I; Krasovitskii, Boris M

    2017-01-01

    Rhodamine dyes are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of science. The aim of this paper was to ascertain to what extent the structural peculiarities of the compounds influence their absorption, emission, and acid-base properties under unified conditions. The acid-base dissociation (HR(+)⇄R+H(+)) of a series of rhodamine dyes was studied in sodium n-dodecylsulfate micellar solutions. In this media, the form R exists as a zwitterion R(±). The indices of apparent ionization constants of fifteen rhodamine cations HR(+) with different substituents in the xanthene moiety vary within the range of pKa(app)=5.04 to 5.53. The distinct dependence of emission of rhodamines bound to micelles on pH of bulk water opens the possibility of using them as fluorescent interfacial acid-base indicators. PMID:27423469

  2. Organization of hepatic nitrogen metabolism and its relation to acid-base homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Häussinger, D

    1990-11-16

    Hepatic and renal nitrogen metabolism are linked by an interorgan glutamine flux, coupling both renal ammoniagenesis and hepatic ureogenesis to systemic acid base regulation. This is because protein breakdown produces equimolar amounts of NH4+ and HCO3-. A hepatic role in this interorgan team effort is based upon the tissue-specific presence of urea synthesis, which represents a major irreversible pathway for removal of metabolically generated bicarbonate. A sensitive and complex control of bicarbonate disposal via ureogenesis by the extracellular acid-base status creates a feed-back control loop between the acid-base status and the rate of bicarbonate elimination. This bicarbonate-homeostatic mechanism operates without threat of hyperammonemia, because a sophisticated structural and functional organisation of ammonia-metabolizing pathways in the liver acinus uncouples urea synthesis from the vital need to eliminate potentially toxic ammonia. PMID:2126308

  3. Sorting of GFP Tagged NtSyr1, an ABA Related Syntaxin

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Massimiliano; De Domenico, Stefania; Piro, Gabriella; Dalessandro, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Exocytosis molecular mechanisms in plant cells are not fully understood. The full characterization of molecular determinants, such as SNAREs, for the specificity in vesicles delivery to the plasma membrane should shed some light on these mechanisms. Nicotiana tabacum Syntaxin 1 (NtSyr1 or SYP121) is a SNARE protein required for ABA control of ion channels and appears involved in the exocytosis of exogenous markers. NtSyr1 is mainly localized on the plasma membrane, but when over expressed the protein also appears on endomembranes. Since NtSyr1 is a tail-anchored protein inserted into the target membrane post-translationally, it is not clear whether its initial anchoring site is the ER or the plasma membrane. In this study, we investigated the sorting events of NtSyr1 in vivo using its full-length cDNA or its C-terminal domain, fused to a GFP tag and transiently expressed in protoplasts or in the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum cv. SR1. Five chimeras were produced of which two were useful to investigate the protein sorting within the endomembrane system. One (GFP-H3M) had a dominant negative effect on exocytosis; the other one (SP1-GFP) resulted in a slow targeting to the same localization of the full-length chimera (GFP-SP1). The insertion of signal peptides on SP1-GFP further characterized the insertion site for this protein. Our data indicates that NtSyr1 is firstly anchored on ER membrane and then sorted to plasma membrane. PMID:19521480

  4. Unexpected Consequences of Block Polydispersity on the Self-Assembly of ABA Triblock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Widin, Joan M.; Schmitt, Adam K.; Schmitt, Andrew L.; Im, Kyuhyun; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K.

    2012-05-09

    Controlled/'living' polymerizations and tandem polymerization methodologies offer enticing opportunities to enchain a wide variety of monomers into new, functional block copolymer materials with unusual physical properties. However, the use of these synthetic methods often introduces nontrivial molecular weight polydispersities, a type of chain length heterogeneity, into one or more of the copolymer blocks. While the self-assembly behavior of monodisperse AB diblock and ABA triblock copolymers is both experimentally and theoretically well understood, the effects of broadening the copolymer molecular weight distribution on block copolymer phase behavior are less well-explored. We report the melt-phase self-assembly behavior of SBS triblock copolymers (S = poly(styrene) and B = poly(1,4-butadiene)) comprised of a broad polydispersity B block (M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.73-2.00) flanked by relatively narrow dispersity S blocks (M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.09-1.36), in order to identify the effects of chain length heterogeneity on block copolymer self-assembly. Based on synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy analyses of seventeen SBS triblock copolymers with poly(1,4-butadiene) volume fractions 0.27 {le} f{sub B} {le} 0.82, we demonstrate that polydisperse SBS triblock copolymers self-assemble into periodic structures with unexpectedly enhanced stabilities that greatly exceed those of equivalent monodisperse copolymers. The unprecedented stabilities of these polydisperse microphase separated melts are discussed in the context of a complete morphology diagram for this system, which demonstrates that narrow dispersity copolymers are not required for periodic nanoscale assembly.

  5. Unexpected consequences of block polydispersity on the self-assembly of ABA triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Widin, Joan M; Schmitt, Adam K; Schmitt, Andrew L; Im, Kyuhyun; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K

    2012-02-29

    Controlled/"living" polymerizations and tandem polymerization methodologies offer enticing opportunities to enchain a wide variety of monomers into new, functional block copolymer materials with unusual physical properties. However, the use of these synthetic methods often introduces nontrivial molecular weight polydispersities, a type of chain length heterogeneity, into one or more of the copolymer blocks. While the self-assembly behavior of monodisperse AB diblock and ABA triblock copolymers is both experimentally and theoretically well understood, the effects of broadening the copolymer molecular weight distribution on block copolymer phase behavior are less well-explored. We report the melt-phase self-assembly behavior of SBS triblock copolymers (S = poly(styrene) and B = poly(1,4-butadiene)) comprised of a broad polydispersity B block (M(w)/M(n) = 1.73-2.00) flanked by relatively narrow dispersity S blocks (M(w)/M(n) = 1.09-1.36), in order to identify the effects of chain length heterogeneity on block copolymer self-assembly. Based on synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy analyses of seventeen SBS triblock copolymers with poly(1,4-butadiene) volume fractions 0.27 ≤ f(B) ≤ 0.82, we demonstrate that polydisperse SBS triblock copolymers self-assemble into periodic structures with unexpectedly enhanced stabilities that greatly exceed those of equivalent monodisperse copolymers. The unprecedented stabilities of these polydisperse microphase separated melts are discussed in the context of a complete morphology diagram for this system, which demonstrates that narrow dispersity copolymers are not required for periodic nanoscale assembly. PMID:22280467

  6. Diverse 2D structures obtained by adsorption of charged ABA triblock copolymer on different surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontturi, Katri S.; Vesterinen, Arja-Helena; Seppälä, Jukka; Laine, Janne

    2012-11-01

    In the larger context of 2D polymeric structures, the morphologies obtained by adsorption and subsequent drying of charged, ABA type amphiphilic triblock copolymer of poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl metacrylate] (PDMAEMA) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were investigated with atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as in situ adsorption analysis with quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Hydrophilic silica and hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) were used as substrates for adsorption. The structures emerging from the self-assembly of adsorbing polymer were profoundly influenced by composition of the aqueous solution and the choice of substrate. When adsorbed from dilute polymer solution where the concentration is so low that the polymer does not yet show surface-active behavior, the triblock copolymer unimers associated on hydrophilic silica surface forming large, irregular clustered aggregates, with sizes increasing with electrolyte concentration of the solution. On a hydrophobic PS substrate, on the other hand, unimers spread much more evenly, forming clear surface patterns. The roughness of these patterned structures was tuned with the electrolyte concentration of the solution. Adsorption from a more concentrated polymer solution, where the surface-activity of the polymer is perceptible, resulted in the formation of a smooth film with complete coverage over the hydrophilic silica substrate when the electrolyte concentration was high. On PS, on the other hand, nucleation of evenly scattered globular, disk-like micelles was induced. Besides the dry film morphology, the even distribution of the irreversibly adsorbed polymer over the PS surface was likely to serve as an optimal platform for the build-up of reversible hydrophobically bound multilayers at high electrolyte concentration. The multilayer formation was reversible because a decrease in the electrolyte concentration of the solution re-introduces strong electrostatic

  7. Effective distance of a ferromagnetic trilayer Ising nanostructure with an ABA stacking sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şarlı, Numan; Akbudak, Salih; Polat, Yasin; Ellialtıoğlu, M. Recai

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the distance between two nearest-neighbor layers on the magnetization and hysteresis properties (remanence, coercivity and loop area) of a ferromagnetic trilayer Ising nanostructure (TLINS) with an ABA stacking sequence using the Kaneyoshi approach within the effective field theory. We found that the ferromagnetic properties of the TLINS were highly dependent on the distance (d) between the layers. The layers had strong interactions at a certain minimum distance (dmin) ​but no interactions at a certain maximum distance (dmax) . Thus, we suggest that there is an effective distance (deff) at dmin ≤deff ≤dmax for the TLINS. We observed that the critical temperature increased sharply as the distance decreased at d ≤dmin ,TC ​ increased slowly as the distance decreased at deff, and TC ​had a certain constant value at d ≥dmax. The critical field points increased rapidly as the distance decreased and HC ​had different values for the central and edge atoms at d ≤dmin. HC ​increased slowly as the distance decreased at deff and HC ​had the same value for the central and edge atoms at deff, while HC ​had a certain constant value at d ≥dmax. Distance had no effect on the critical temperature and critical field points of the TLINS and they had a constant value at d ≥dmax; thus, the TLINS behaved as a single layer Ising nanostructure at great distances.

  8. The in Silico Insight into Carbon Nanotube and Nucleic Acid Bases Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Ali Asghar; Ghalandari, Behafarid; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background To explore practical applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in biomedical fields the properties of their interaction with biomolecules must be revealed. Recent years, the interaction of CNTs with biomolecules is a subject of research interest for practical applications so that previous research explored that CNTs have complementary structure properties with single strand DNA (ssDNA). Objectives Hence, the quantum mechanics (QM) method based on ab initio was used for this purpose. Therefore values of binding energy, charge distribution, electronic energy and other physical properties of interaction were studied for interaction of nucleic acid bases and SCNT. Materials and Methods In this study, the interaction between nucleic acid bases and a (4, 4) single-walled carbon nanotube (SCNT) were investigated through calculations within quantum mechanics (QM) method at theoretical level of Hartree-Fock (HF) method using 6-31G basis set. Hence, the physical properties such as electronic energy, total dipole moment, charge distributions and binding energy of nucleic acid bases interaction with SCNT were investigated based on HF method. Results It has been found that the guanine base adsorption is bound stronger to the outer surface of nanotube in comparison to the other bases, consistent with the recent theoretical studies. In the other words, the results explored that guanine interaction with SCNT has optimum level of electronic energy so that their interaction is stable. Also, the calculations illustrated that SCNT interact to nucleic acid bases by noncovalent interaction because of charge distribution an electrostatic area is created in place of interaction. Conclusions Consequently, small diameter SCNT interaction with nucleic acid bases is noncovalent. Also, the results revealed that small diameter SCNT interaction especially SCNT (4, 4) with nucleic acid bases can be useful in practical application area of biomedical fields such detection and drug delivery.

  9. Photochemistry of nucleic acid bases and their thio- and aza-analogues in solution.

    PubMed

    Pollum, Marvin; Martínez-Fernández, Lara; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    The steady-state and time-resolved photochemistry of the natural nucleic acid bases and their sulfur- and nitrogen-substituted analogues in solution is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the experimental studies performed over the last 3-5 years that showcase topical areas of scientific inquiry and those that require further scrutiny. Significant progress has been made toward mapping the radiative and nonradiative decay pathways of nucleic acid bases. There is a consensus that ultrafast internal conversion to the ground state is the primary relaxation pathway in the nucleic acid bases, whereas the mechanism of this relaxation and the level of participation of the (1)πσ*, (1) nπ*, and (3)ππ* states are still matters of debate. Although impressive research has been performed in recent years, the microscopic mechanism(s) by which the nucleic acid bases dissipate excess vibrational energy to their environment, and the role of the N-glycosidic group in this and in other nonradiative decay pathways, are still poorly understood. The simple replacement of a single atom in a nucleobase with a sulfur or nitrogen atom severely restricts access to the conical intersections responsible for the intrinsic internal conversion pathways to the ground state in the nucleic acid bases. It also enhances access to ultrafast and efficient inter-system crossing pathways that populate the triplet manifold in yields close to unity. Determining the coupled nuclear and electronic pathways responsible for the significantly different photochemistry in these nucleic acid base analogues serves as a convenient platform to examine the current state of knowledge regarding the photodynamic properties of the DNA and RNA bases from both experimental and computational perspectives. Further investigations should also aid in forecasting the prospective use of sulfur- and nitrogen-substituted base analogues in photochemotherapeutic applications. PMID:25238718

  10. Essentials in the diagnosis of acid-base disorders and their high altitude application.

    PubMed

    Paulev, P E; Zubieta-Calleja, G R

    2005-09-01

    This report describes the historical development in the clinical application of chemical variables for the interpretation of acid-base disturbances. The pH concept was already introduced in 1909. Following World War II, disagreements concerning the definition of acids and bases occurred, and since then two strategies have been competing. Danish scientists in 1923 defined an acid as a substance able to give off a proton at a given pH, and a base as a substance that could bind a proton, whereas the North American Singer-Hasting school in 1948 defined acids as strong non-buffer anions and bases as non-buffer cations. As a consequence of this last definition, electrolyte disturbances were mixed up with real acid-base disorders and the variable, strong ion difference (SID), was introduced as a measure of non-respiratory acid-base disturbances. However, the SID concept is only an empirical approximation. In contrast, the Astrup/Siggaard-Andersen school of scientists, using computer strategies and the Acid-base Chart, has made diagnosis of acid-base disorders possible at a glance on the Chart, when the data are considered in context with the clinical development. Siggaard-Andersen introduced Base Excess (BE) or Standard Base Excess (SBE) in the extracellular fluid volume (ECF), extended to include the red cell volume (eECF), as a measure of metabolic acid-base disturbances and recently replaced it by the term Concentration of Titratable Hydrogen Ion (ctH). These two concepts (SBE and ctH) represent the same concentration difference, but with opposite signs. Three charts modified from the Siggaard-Andersen Acid-Base Chart are presented for use at low, medium and high altitudes of 2500 m, 3500 m, and 4000 m, respectively. In this context, the authors suggest the use of Titratable Hydrogen Ion concentration Difference (THID) in the extended extracellular fluid volume, finding it efficient and better than any other determination of the metabolic component in acid-base

  11. Closed cycle ion exchange method for regenerating acids, bases and salts

    DOEpatents

    Dreyfuss, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    A method for conducting a chemical reaction in acidic, basic, or neutral solution as required and then regenerating the acid, base, or salt by means of ion exchange in a closed cycle reaction sequence which comprises contacting the spent acid, base, or salt with an ion exchanger, preferably a synthetic organic ion-exchange resin, so selected that the counter ions thereof are ions also produced as a by-product in the closed reaction cycle, and then regenerating the spent ion exchanger by contact with the by-product counter ions. The method is particularly applicable to closed cycle processes for the thermochemical production of hydrogen.

  12. Bifunctional Organic Polymeric Catalysts with a Tunable Acid-Base Distance and Framework Flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huanhui; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Qunlong; Li, Junhui; Yang, Shiqi; Zhu, Zhirong

    2014-09-01

    Acid-base bifunctional organic polymeric catalysts were synthesized with tunable structures. we demonstrated two synthesis approaches for structural fine-tune. In the first case, the framework flexibility was tuned by changing the ratio of rigid blocks to flexible blocks within the polymer framework. In the second case, we precisely adjusted the acid-base distance by distributing basic monomers to be adjacent to acidic monomers, and by changing the chain length of acidic monomers. In a standard test reaction for the aldol condensation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde with acetone, the catalysts showed good reusability upon recycling and maintained relatively high conversion percentage.

  13. Silica nanoparticles as a delivery system for nucleic acid-based reagents

    PubMed Central

    Hom, Christopher; Lu, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The transport of nucleic acid-based reagents is predicated upon developing structurally stable delivery systems that can preferentially bind and protect DNA and RNA, and release their cargo upon reaching their designated sites. Recent advancements in tailoring the size, shape, and external surface functionalization of silica materials have led to increased biocompatibility and efficiency of delivery. In this Feature Article, we highlight recent research progress in the use of silica nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for nucleic acid-based reagents. PMID:20740060

  14. Nucleic Acid-based Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Using Integrated Microfluidic Platform Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Clarissa; Cady, Nathaniel C.; Batt, Carl A.

    2009-01-01

    The advent of nucleic acid-based pathogen detection methods offers increased sensitivity and specificity over traditional microbiological techniques, driving the development of portable, integrated biosensors. The miniaturization and automation of integrated detection systems presents a significant advantage for rapid, portable field-based testing. In this review, we highlight current developments and directions in nucleic acid-based micro total analysis systems for the detection of bacterial pathogens. Recent progress in the miniaturization of microfluidic processing steps for cell capture, DNA extraction and purification, polymerase chain reaction, and product detection are detailed. Discussions include strategies and challenges for implementation of an integrated portable platform. PMID:22412335

  15. Surface acid-base characteristics of fiber materials by contact angle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Youan . Dept. of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry)

    1993-11-05

    Contact angle measurements were used to study the surface acid-base characteristics of treated and untreated carbon fibers, and of treated and untreated silicon carbide fibers. It has been shown that, when untreated the surfaces of these two fibers exhibits amphoteric, but the base character is dominant. After oxidization in a liquid phase, the surface acid character of the carbon fibers changes little, whereas the base character becomes much stronger. The treatment, with boiling-concentrated HNO[sub 3] for three hours and the sintering treatment in air at 500 C. for eight hours, has little effect on the surface acid-base characteristics of the silicon carbide fibers.

  16. Involvement of ABA- and H2O2-dependent cytosolic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in maintaining redox homeostasis in soybean roots under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huahua; Yang, Lidan; Li, Yan; Hou, Junjie; Huang, Junjun; Liang, Weihong

    2016-10-01

    The roles of abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in inducing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) activity and the possible roles of G6PDH in regulating ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle were investigated in soybean (Glycine max L.) roots under drought stress. Drought caused a marked increase of the total and cytosolic G6PDH activities and triggered a rapid ABA and H2O2 accumulation in soybean roots. Exogenous ABA or H2O2 treatment elevated the total and cytosolic G6PDH activities, whereas suppressing ABA or H2O2 production inhibited the drought-induced increase in total and cytosolic G6PDH activities, suggesting that ABA and H2O2 are required for drought-induced increase of total G6PDH activity, namely cytosolic G6PDH activity. Furthermore, ABA induced H2O2 production by stimulating NADPH oxidase activity under drought stress. Moreover, drought significantly increased the contents of AsA and GSH and the activities of key enzymes in AsA-GSH cycle, while application of G6PDH inhibitor to seedlings significantly reduced the above effect induced by drought. Taken together, these results indicate that H2O2 acting as a downstream signaling molecule of ABA mediates drought-induced increase in cytosolic G6PDH activity, and that enhanced cytosolic G6PDH activity maintains cellular redox homeostasis by regulating AsA-GSH cycle in soybean roots. PMID:27285781

  17. Lipoxygenase-derived 9-hydro(pero)xides of linoleoylethanolamide interact with ABA signaling to arrest root development during Arabidopsis seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Keereetaweep, Jantana; Blancaflor, Elison B; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo; Chapman, Kent D

    2015-04-01

    Ethanolamide-conjugated fatty acid derivatives, also known as N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), occur at low levels (μg per g) in desiccated seeds, and endogenous amounts decline rapidly with seedling growth. Linoleoylethanolamide (NAE18:2) is the most abundant of these NAEs in seeds of almost all plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, NAE18:2 may be oxidized by lipoxygenase (LOX) or hydrolyzed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) during normal seedling establishment, and this contributes to the normal progression of NAE depletion that is coincident with the depletion of abscisic acid (ABA). Here we provide biochemical, genetic and pharmacological evidence that a specific 9-LOX metabolite of NAE18:2 [9-hydro(pero)xy linoleoylethanolamide (9-NAE-H(P)OD)] has a potent negative influence on seedling root elongation, and acts synergistically with ABA to modulate the transition from embryo to seedling growth. Genetic analyses using mutants in ABA synthesis (aba1 and aba2), perception (pyr1, pyl1, pyl2, pyl4, pyl5 and pyl8) or transcriptional activation (abi3-1) indicated that arrest of root growth by 9-NAE-H(P)OD requires an intact ABA signaling pathway, and probably operates to increase ABA synthesis as part of a positive feedback loop to modulate seedling establishment in response to adverse environmental conditions. These results identify a specific, bioactive ethanolamide oxylipin metabolite of NAE18:2, different from those of ethanolamide-conjugated linolenic acid (NAE18:3), as well as a molecular explanation for its inhibitory action, emphasizing the oxidative metabolism of NAEs as an important feature of seedling development. PMID:25752187

  18. Pepper protein phosphatase type 2C, CaADIP1 and its interacting partner CaRLP1 antagonistically regulate ABA signalling and drought response.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone that regulates plant growth and developmental processes, including seed germination and stomatal closing. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a novel type 2C protein phosphatase, CaADIP1 (Capsicum annuum ABA and Drought-Induced Protein phosphatase 1). The expression of CaADIP1 was induced in pepper leaves by ABA, drought and NaCl treatments. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CaADIP1 (CaADIP1-OX) exhibited an ABA-hyposensitive and drought-susceptible phenotype. We used a yeast two-hybrid screening assay to identify CaRLP1 (Capsicum annuum RCAR-Like Protein 1), which interacts with CaADIP1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast to CaADIP1-OX plants, CaRLP1-OX plants displayed an ABA-hypersensitive and drought-tolerant phenotype, which was characterized by low levels of transpirational water loss and increased expression of stress-responsive genes relative to those of wild-type plants. In CaADIP1-OX/CaRLP1-OX double transgenic plants, ectopic expression of the CaRLP1 gene led to strong suppression of CaADIP1-induced ABA hyposensitivity during the germinative and post-germinative stages, indicating that CaADIP1 and CaRLP1 act in the same signalling pathway and CaADIP1 functions downstream of CaRLP1. Our results indicate that CaADIP1 and its interacting partner CaRLP1 antagonistically regulate the ABA-dependent defense signalling response to drought stress. PMID:26825039

  19. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18. PMID:26443375

  20. ABA renewal involves enhancements in both GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor activity and GluA1 phosphorylation in the lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungjoon; Song, Beomjong; Kim, Jeongyeon; Hong, Ingie; Song, Sangho; Lee, Junuk; Park, Sungmo; Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Justin C; Lee, Sukwon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2014-01-01

    Fear renewal, the context-specific relapse of fear following fear extinction, is a leading animal model of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and fear-related disorders. Although fear extinction can diminish fear responses, this effect is restricted to the context where the extinction is carried out, and the extinguished fear strongly relapses when assessed in the original acquisition context (ABA renewal) or in a context distinct from the conditioning and extinction contexts (ABC renewal). We have previously identified Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 subunit in the lateral amygdala (LA) as a key molecular mechanism for ABC renewal. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ABA renewal remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that both the excitatory synaptic efficacy and GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity at thalamic input synapses onto the LA (T-LA synapses) were enhanced upon ABA renewal. GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity was also increased during low-threshold potentiation, a potential cellular substrate of renewal, at T-LA synapses. The microinjection of 1-naphtylacetyl-spermine (NASPM), a selective blocker of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, into the LA attenuated ABA renewal, suggesting a critical role of GluA2-lacking AMPARs in ABA renewal. We also found that Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 in the LA was increased upon ABA renewal. We developed a short peptide mimicking the Ser831-containing C-tail region of GluA1, which can be phosphorylated upon renewal (GluA1S); thus, the phosphorylated GluA1S may compete with Ser831-phosphorylated GluA1. This GluA1S peptide blocked the low-threshold potentiation when dialyzed into a recorded neuron. The microinjection of a cell-permeable form of GluA1S peptide into the LA attenuated ABA renewal. In support of the GluA1S experiments, a GluA1D peptide (in which the serine at 831 is replaced with a phosphomimetic amino acid, aspartate) attenuated ABA renewal when microinjected into the LA. These findings suggest that enhancements in both the

  1. Polyamines, IAA and ABA during germination in two recalcitrant seeds: Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm)

    PubMed Central

    Pieruzzi, Fernanda P.; Dias, Leonardo L. C.; Balbuena, Tiago S.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; dos Santos, André L. W.; Floh, Eny I. S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant growth regulators play an important role in seed germination. However, much of the current knowledge about their function during seed germination was obtained using orthodox seeds as model systems, and there is a paucity of information about the role of plant growth regulators during germination of recalcitrant seeds. In the present work, two endangered woody species with recalcitrant seeds, Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm), native to the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil, were used to study the mobilization of polyamines (PAs), indole-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. Methods Data were sampled from embryos of O. odorifera and embryos and megagametophytes of A. angustifolia throughout the germination process. Biochemical analyses were carried out in HPLC. Key Results During seed germination, an increase in the (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio was recorded in embryos in both species. An increase in IAA and PA levels was also observed during seed germination in both embryos, while ABA levels showed a decrease in O. odorifera and an increase in A. angustifolia embryos throughout the period studied. Conclusions The (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio could be used as a marker for germination completion. The increase in IAA levels, prior to germination, could be associated with variations in PA content. The ABA mobilization observed in the embryos could represent a greater resistance to this hormone in recalcitrant seeds, in comparison to orthodox seeds, opening a new perspective for studies on the effects of this regulator in recalcitrant seeds. The gymnosperm seed, though without a connective tissue between megagametophyte and embryo, seems to be able to maintain communication between the tissues, based on the likely transport of plant growth regulators. PMID:21685432

  2. Salicylic acid mediates antioxidant defense system and ABA pathway related gene expression in Oryza sativa against quinclorac toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Mengting; Islam, Faisal; Gill, Rafaqat A; Yang, Chong; Ali, Basharat; Yan, Guijun; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-11-01

    The auxin herbicide quinclorac is widely used for controlling weeds in transplanted and direct-seeded rice fields. However, its phytotoxic responses on rice are still unknown. Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.5g/L) of quinclorac herbicide on the physiological and biochemical changes of two rice cultivars (XS 134 and ZJ 88) and further analyzed the ameliorating role of salicylic acid (SA) on quinclorac toxicity in rice plants. The results revealed that exogenous application of SA significantly increased plant biomass and total chlorophyll contents in herbicide stressed plants. The lipid peroxidation and ROS (H2O2, O2(-.), (-)OH) production were significantly increased in roots and leaves of both rice cultivars under quinclorac stress, demonstrating an oxidative burst in rice plants. Whereas, application of SA significantly lowered ROS contents under quinclorac stress. Further, exogenous SA treatment significantly modulated antioxidant enzymes and enhanced GSH concentration in stress plants. Anatomical observations of leaf and root revealed that herbicide affected internal structures, while SA played a vital role in protection from toxic effects. Expression analysis of stress hormone ABA genes (OsABA8oxs, OsNCEDs) revealed that quinclorac application enhanced stress condition in cultivar ZJ 88, while SA treatment downregulated ABA genes more in cultivar XS 134, which correlated with the enhanced tolerance to quinclorac induced oxidative stress in this cultivar. The present study delineated that SA played a critical role under quinclorac stress in both rice cultivars by regulating antioxidant defense system, reducing ROS formation and preventing the degradation of internal cell organelles. PMID:27448955

  3. Redetermination of the structure of ALa₂WO₇ (A=Ba, Sr) with fluorite-like metal ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, W.T.; IJdo, D.J.W.; Bontenbal, A.

    2013-05-01

    The crystal structures of ALa₂WO₇ (A=Ba, and Sr) at room temperature were re-determined by the Rietveld method using the combined X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. The compounds are confirmed to be isomorphic, crystallizing in the space group P112₁/b. In ALa₂WO₇ the ordering of metal atoms is fluorite-like, but it differs from that of the fluorite-defect compounds of the formula Ln₃MO₇ (Ln=lanthanide or Y, M=pentavalent metal). The structure of ALa₂WO₇ consists of isolated WO₆ octahedra, whereas in the normal Ln₃MO₇ the MO₆ octahedra share corners forming one-dimensional chains. Although ALa₂WO₇ has a centric space group, La ions are not situate at the centre of symmetry, which explains the ⁵D₀→⁷F₂ transition being dominant in emission spectrum of Eu-doped materials. - Graphical abstract: Schematic drawing of the crystal structures of ALa₂WO₇ (A=Ba, Sr) (left) and Ln₃MO₇ (right) showing the different arrangement of metal octahedra. Note that the example of Ln₃MO₇ is the structure of La₃TaO₇ with the space group Cmcm. Highlights: • The structural ambiguity of BaLa₂WO₇ has been resolved. • The details of the crystal structure of SrLa₂WO₇ are reported for the first time. • ALa₂WO₇ (A=Ba, Sr) closely resemble β-La₃RuO₇ and one of the La₃IrO₇ polymorph.

  4. Type B Heterotrimeric G Protein γ-Subunit Regulates Auxin and ABA Signaling in Tomato[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Gayathery; Trusov, Yuri; Hayashi, Satomi; Batley, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins composed of α, β, and γ subunits are central signal transducers mediating the cellular response to multiple stimuli in most eukaryotes. Gγ subunits provide proper cellular localization and functional specificity to the heterotrimer complex. Plant Gγ subunits, divided into three structurally distinct types, are more diverse than their animal counterparts. Type B Gγ subunits, lacking a carboxyl-terminal isoprenylation motif, are found only in flowering plants. We present the functional characterization of type B Gγ subunit (SlGGB1) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We show that SlGGB1 is the most abundant Gγ subunit in tomato and strongly interacts with the Gβ subunit. Importantly, the green fluorescent protein-SlGGB1 fusion protein as well as the carboxyl-terminal yellow fluorescent protein-SlGGB1/amino-terminal yellow fluorescent protein-Gβ heterodimer were localized in the plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. RNA interference-mediated silencing of SlGGB1 resulted in smaller seeds, higher number of lateral roots, and pointy fruits. The silenced lines were hypersensitive to exogenous auxin, while levels of endogenous auxins were lower or similar to those of the wild type. SlGGB1-silenced plants also showed strong hyposensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination but not in other related assays. Transcriptome analysis of the transgenic seeds revealed abnormal expression of genes involved in ABA sensing, signaling, and response. We conclude that the type B Gγ subunit SlGGB1 mediates auxin and ABA signaling in tomato. PMID:26668332

  5. Surveying Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Acid-Base Behavior of Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio-Mas, Carles; Calatayud, Maria-Luisa; Barcenas, Sergio L.

    2007-01-01

    By the end of their high school studies, students should be able to understand macroscopic and sub-microscopic conceptualization of acid-base behavior and the relationship between these conceptual models. The aim of this article is to ascertain whether grade-12 students have sufficient background knowledge to explain the properties of acids,…

  6. Kinetic Classroom: Acid-Base and Redox Demonstrations with Student Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomax, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    Describes classroom activities that involve student movement to demonstrate principles of kinetics. This classroom method can be used for any topic related to dynamic processes. The method used in this activity illustrates Brxnsted-Lowry acid-base theory and redox reactions. Takes advantage of analogies between proton and electron transfers. Use…

  7. Determining surface areas of marine alga cells by acid-base titration method.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Ma, Y; Su, Y

    1997-09-01

    A new method for determining the surface area of living marine alga cells was described. The method uses acid-base titration to measure the surface acid/base amount on the surface of alga cells and uses the BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) equation to estimate the maximum surface acid/base amount, assuming that hydrous cell walls have carbohydrates or other structural compounds which can behave like surface Brönsted acid-base sites due to coordination of environmental H2O molecules. The method was applied to 18 diverse alga species (including 7 diatoms, 2 flagellates, 8 green algae and 1 red alga) maintained in seawater cultures. For the species examined, the surface areas of individual cells ranged from 2.8 x 10(-8) m2 for Nannochloropsis oculata to 690 x 10(-8) m2 for Dunaliella viridis, specific surface areas from 1,030 m2.g-1 for Dunaliella salina to 28,900 m2.g-1 for Pyramidomonas sp. Measurement accuracy was 15.2%. Preliminary studies show that the method may be more promising and accurate than light/electron microscopic measurements for coarse estimation of the surface area of living algae. PMID:9297794

  8. Semisynthetic DNA-protein conjugates for fabrication of nucleic acid based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Kersten S.; Feldkamp, Udo; Niemeyer, Christof M.

    2008-10-01

    We here report on the developments of semisynthetic DNA-protein conjugates and their assembly into multi-component nanostructures. We describe the improvement of the DNA sequences embedded in such nanostructures by computational and analytical methods. Moreover, we report on the exploration of novel DNA conjugates of streptavidin or redox proteins with improved properties for the assembly of nucleic acid based nanostructures.

  9. Soluble adenylyl cyclase is an acid-base sensor in epithelial base-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Roa, Jinae N; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Blood acid-base regulation by specialized epithelia, such as gills and kidney, requires the ability to sense blood acid-base status. Here, we developed primary cultures of ray (Urolophus halleri) gill cells to study mechanisms for acid-base sensing without the interference of whole animal hormonal regulation. Ray gills have abundant base-secreting cells, identified by their noticeable expression of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (VHA), and also express the evolutionarily conserved acid-base sensor soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Exposure of cultured cells to extracellular alkalosis (pH 8.0, 40 mM HCO3 (-)) triggered VHA translocation to the cell membrane, similar to previous reports in live animals experiencing blood alkalosis. VHA translocation was dependent on sAC, as it was blocked by the sAC-specific inhibitor KH7. Ray gill base-secreting cells also express transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); however, tmAC inhibition by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine did not prevent alkalosis-dependent VHA translocation, and tmAC activation by forskolin reduced the abundance of VHA at the cell membrane. This study demonstrates that sAC is a necessary and sufficient sensor of extracellular alkalosis in ray gill base-secreting cells. In addition, this study indicates that different sources of cAMP differentially modulate cell biology. PMID:27335168

  10. The Effect of Voluntary Ventilation on Acid-base Responses to a Moo Duk Tkow Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a study that investigated the acid-base and lactate reponses to voluntary integration of breathing and exercise movements during beginning level form Ki Cho I, performed at competitive intensities. Findings suggest that respiratory compensation does not occur and that respiratory acidosis may contribute to metabolic…

  11. Isoelectric Point, Electric Charge, and Nomenclature of the Acid-Base Residues of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Andres A.; Ribeiro, Joao M.; Sillero, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The main object of this work is to present the pedagogical usefulness of the theoretical methods, developed in this laboratory, for the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) and the net electric charge of proteins together with some comments on the naming of the acid-base residues of proteins. (Contains 8 figures and 4 tables.)

  12. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  13. Acid-Base Chemistry According to Robert Boyle: Chemical Reactions in Words as well as Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodney, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Examples of acid-base reactions from Robert Boyle's "The Sceptical Chemist" are used to illustrate the rich information content of chemical equations. Boyle required lengthy passages of florid language to describe the same reaction that can be done quite simply with a chemical equation. Reading or hearing the words, however, enriches the student's…

  14. Interactive Computer-Assisted Instruction in Acid-Base Physiology for Mobile Computer Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmuir, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ~20 screens of information, on the subjects…

  15. Analysis and Identification of Acid-Base Indicator Dyes by Thin-Layer Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Daniel D.

    2007-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a very simple and effective technique that is used by chemists by different purposes, including the monitoring of the progress of a reaction. TLC can also be easily used for the analysis and identification of various acid-base indicator dyes.

  16. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler, Michal; Van Driel, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students' difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1)…

  17. Red Shoe-Blue Shoe: An Acid-Base Demonstration with a Fashionable Twist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breyer, Arthur C.; Uzelmeier, Calvin E.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates that acid-base indicators come in many forms and the reversible effects that acids and bases have on the colors of such indicators. An object is dyed in an indicator, which causes the object to turn dark blue at pH less than 3.0 to 5.0. Suggests using dyeable fabric shoes and other cotton articles. (PVD)

  18. Students' Understanding of Acid, Base and Salt Reactions in Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Uses a two-tier, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument to determine (n=915) grade 10 students' understanding of the acid, base, and salt reactions involved in basic qualitative analysis. Reports that many students did not understand the formation of precipitates and the complex salts, acid/salt-base reactions, and thermal decomposition involved in…

  19. Electrolyte Diets, Stress, and Acid-Base Balance in Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to compare acid-base balance in broiler chickens provided diets’ containing two different dietary electrolyte balances (DEB) and administered either adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or saline. Diets were moderate (M; 174 mEq/kg) or high (H; 241 mEq/kg) DEB by altering Na-...

  20. ABA Is an Essential Signal for Plant Resistance to Pathogens Affecting JA Biosynthesis and the Activation of Defenses in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Bruce A.T.; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Pérez-Pérez, Manuel M.; Godoy, Marta; Sánchez-Serrano, José-J.; Schmelz, Eric A.; Solano, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana defense response to the damping-off oomycete pathogen Pythium irregulare show that resistance to P. irregulare requires a multicomponent defense strategy. Penetration represents a first layer, as indicated by the susceptibility of pen2 mutants, followed by recognition, likely mediated by ERECTA receptor-like kinases. Subsequent signaling of inducible defenses is predominantly mediated by jasmonic acid (JA), with insensitive coi1 mutants showing extreme susceptibility. In contrast with the generally accepted roles of ethylene and salicylic acid cooperating with or antagonizing, respectively, JA in the activation of defenses against necrotrophs, both are required to prevent disease progression, although much less so than JA. Meta-analysis of transcriptome profiles confirmed the predominant role of JA in activation of P. irregulare–induced defenses and uncovered abscisic acid (ABA) as an important regulator of defense gene expression. Analysis of cis-regulatory sequences also revealed an unexpected overrepresentation of ABA response elements in promoters of P. irregulare–responsive genes. Subsequent infections of ABA-related and callose-deficient mutants confirmed the importance of ABA in defense, acting partly through an undescribed mechanism. The results support a model for ABA affecting JA biosynthesis in the activation of defenses against this oomycete. PMID:17513501

  1. A pqr2 mutant encodes a defective polyamine transporter and is negatively affected by ABA for paraquat resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuchao; Hu, Huizhen; Wang, Youmei; Xu, Zhengdan; Zha, Yi; Cai, Xiwen; Peng, Liangcai; Feng, Shengqiu

    2016-09-01

    Despite the paraquat-resistant mutants that have been reported in plants, this study identified a novel A. thaliana mutant (pqr2) from an XVE inducible activation library based on its resistance to 2 μM paraquat. The pqr2 mutant exhibited a termination mutation in the exon of AT1G31830/PAR1/PQR2, encoded a polyamine uptake transporter AtPUT2/PAR1/PQR2. The PQR2 mutation could largely reduce superoxide accumulation and cell death in the pqr2 plants under paraquat treatment. Moreover, compared with wild type, the pqr2 mutant exhibited much reduced tolerance to putrescine, a classic polyamine compound, which confirmed that PQR2 encoded a defective polyamine transporter. Notably, co-treated with ABA and paraquat, both pqr2 mutant and wild type exhibited a lethal phenotype from seed germination, but the wild type like pqr2 mutant, could remain paraquat-resistance while co-treated with high dosage of Na2WO4, an ABA synthesis inhibitor. Gene expression analysis suggested that ABA signaling should widely regulate paraquat-responsive genes distinctively in wild type and pqr2 mutant. Hence, this study has for the first time reported about ABA negative effect on paraquat-resistance in A. thaliana, providing insight into the ABA signaling involved in the oxidative stress responses induced by paraquat in plants. PMID:27229891

  2. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

  3. Identification and functional characterization of the pepper CaDRT1 gene involved in the ABA-mediated drought stress response.

    PubMed

    Baek, Woonhee; Lim, Sohee; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-05-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by various environmental stresses, including high salinity and drought, and they have evolved defense mechanisms to counteract the deleterious effects of these stresses. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth and developmental processes and mediates abiotic stress responses. Here, we identified the Capsicum annuum DRought Tolerance 1 (CaDRT1) gene from pepper leaves treated with ABA. CaDRT1 was strongly expressed in pepper leaves in response to environmental stresses and after ABA treatment, suggesting that the CaDRT1 protein functions in the abiotic stress response. Knockdown expression of CaDRT1 via virus-induced gene silencing resulted in a high level of drought susceptibility, and this was characterized by increased transpirational water loss via decreased stomatal closure. CaDRT1-overexpressing (OX) Arabidopsis plants exhibited an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype during the germinative, seedling, and adult stages. Additionally, these CaDRT1-OX plants exhibited a drought-tolerant phenotype characterized by low levels of transpirational water loss, high leaf temperatures, increased stomatal closure, and enhanced expression levels of drought-responsive genes. Taken together, our results suggest that CaDRT1 is a positive regulator of the ABA-mediated drought stress response. PMID:26869261

  4. Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura 78 (AtATL78) mediates ABA-dependent ROS signaling in response to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Suh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Soo Jin; Oh, Tae Rin; Cho, Seok Keun; Yang, Seong Wook; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed a variety of complicated responses to cope with drought, one of the most challenging environmental stresses. As a quick response, plants rapidly inhibit stomatal opening under the control of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, in order to preserve water. Here, we report that Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL), a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, mediates the ABA-dependent stomatal closure. In contrast to wild-type plants, the stomatal closure was fully impaired in atatl78 mutant plants even in the presence of exogenous ABA and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Besides, under high concentrations of Ca(2+), a down-stream signaling molecule of ABA signaling pathway, atatl78 mutant plants successfully closed the pores. Furthermore, AtATL78 protein indirectly associated with catalases and the deficiency of AtATL78 led the reduction of catalase activity and H2O2, implying the function of AtATL78 in the modulation of ROS activity. Based on these results, we suggest that AtATL78 possibly plays a role in promoting ROS-mediated ABA signaling pathway during drought stress. PMID:26612255

  5. GhMPK17, a Cotton Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, Is Involved in Plant Response to High Salinity and Osmotic Stresses and ABA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Sun, Xiang; Wang, Na-Na; Gong, Si-Ying; Zheng, Yong; Li, Xue-Bao

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play pivotal roles in mediating biotic and abiotic stress responses. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is the most important textile crop in the world, and often encounters abiotic stress during its growth seasons. In this study, a gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was isolated from cotton, and designated as GhMPK17. The open reading frame (ORF) of GhMPK17 gene is 1494 bp in length and encodes a protein with 497 amino acids. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that GhMPK17 expression was up-regulated in cotton under NaCl, mannitol and ABA treatments. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing GhMPK17 gene showed higher seed germination, root elongation and cotyledon greening/expansion rates than those of the wild type on MS medium containing NaCl, mannitol and exogenous ABA, suggesting that overexpression of GhMPK17 in Arabidopsis increased plant ABA-insensitivity, and enhanced plant tolerance to salt and osmotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of GhMPK17 in Arabidopsis reduced H2O2 level and altered expression of ABA- and abiotic stress-related genes in the transgenic plants. Collectively, these data suggested that GhMPK17 gene may be involved in plant response to high salinity and osmotic stresses and ABA signaling. PMID:24743296

  6. Two Groups of Thellungiella salsuginea RAVs Exhibit Distinct Responses and Sensitivity to Salt and ABA in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaohui; Luo, Cui; Song, Yingjin; Wang, Jiehua

    2016-01-01

    Containing both AP2 domain and B3 domain, RAV (Related to ABI3/VP1) transcription factors are involved in diverse functions in higher plants. A total of eight TsRAV genes were isolated from the genome of Thellungiella salsuginea and could be divided into two groups (A- and B-group) based on their sequence similarity. The mRNA abundance of all Thellungiella salsuginea TsRAVs followed a gradual decline during seed germination. In Thellungiella salsuginea seedling, transcripts of TsRAVs in the group A (A-TsRAVs) were gradually and moderately reduced by salt treatment but rapidly and severely repressed by ABA treatment. In comparison, with a barely detectable constitutive expression, the transcriptional level of TsRAVs in the group B (B-TsRAVs) exhibited a moderate induction in cotyledons when confronted with ABA. We then produced the “gain-of-function” transgenic Arabidopsis plants for each TsRAV gene and found that only 35S:A-TsRAVs showed weak growth retardation including reduced root elongation, suggesting their roles in negatively controlling plant growth. Under normal conditions, the germination process of all TsRAVs overexpressing transgenic seeds was inhibited with a stronger effect observed in 35S:A-TsRAVs seeds than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seeds. With the presence of NaCl, seed germination and seedling root elongation of all plants including wild type and 35S:TsRAVs plants were retarded and a more severe inhibition occurred to the 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic plants. ABA treatment only negatively affected the germination rates of 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic seeds but not those of 35S:B-TsRAV transgenic seeds. All 35S:TsRAVs transgenic plants showed a similar degree of reduction in root growth compared with untreated seedlings in the presence of ABA. Furthermore, the cotyledon greening/expansion was more severely inhibited 35S:A-TsRAVs than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seedlings. Upon water deficiency, with a wider opening of stomata, 35S:A-TsRAVs plants experienced a faster

  7. Two Groups of Thellungiella salsuginea RAVs Exhibit Distinct Responses and Sensitivity to Salt and ABA in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaohui; Luo, Cui; Song, Yingjin; Wang, Jiehua

    2016-01-01

    Containing both AP2 domain and B3 domain, RAV (Related to ABI3/VP1) transcription factors are involved in diverse functions in higher plants. A total of eight TsRAV genes were isolated from the genome of Thellungiella salsuginea and could be divided into two groups (A- and B-group) based on their sequence similarity. The mRNA abundance of all Thellungiella salsuginea TsRAVs followed a gradual decline during seed germination. In Thellungiella salsuginea seedling, transcripts of TsRAVs in the group A (A-TsRAVs) were gradually and moderately reduced by salt treatment but rapidly and severely repressed by ABA treatment. In comparison, with a barely detectable constitutive expression, the transcriptional level of TsRAVs in the group B (B-TsRAVs) exhibited a moderate induction in cotyledons when confronted with ABA. We then produced the "gain-of-function" transgenic Arabidopsis plants for each TsRAV gene and found that only 35S:A-TsRAVs showed weak growth retardation including reduced root elongation, suggesting their roles in negatively controlling plant growth. Under normal conditions, the germination process of all TsRAVs overexpressing transgenic seeds was inhibited with a stronger effect observed in 35S:A-TsRAVs seeds than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seeds. With the presence of NaCl, seed germination and seedling root elongation of all plants including wild type and 35S:TsRAVs plants were retarded and a more severe inhibition occurred to the 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic plants. ABA treatment only negatively affected the germination rates of 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic seeds but not those of 35S:B-TsRAV transgenic seeds. All 35S:TsRAVs transgenic plants showed a similar degree of reduction in root growth compared with untreated seedlings in the presence of ABA. Furthermore, the cotyledon greening/expansion was more severely inhibited 35S:A-TsRAVs than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seedlings. Upon water deficiency, with a wider opening of stomata, 35S:A-TsRAVs plants experienced a faster transpirational

  8. Medial prefrontal cortex involvement in the expression of extinction and ABA renewal of instrumental behavior for a food reinforcer.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Meghan C; Todd, Travis P; Bouton, Mark E; Green, John T

    2016-02-01

    Instrumental renewal, the return of extinguished instrumental responding after removal from the extinction context, is an important model of behavioral relapse that is poorly understood at the neural level. In two experiments, we examined the role of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in extinction and ABA renewal of instrumental responding for a sucrose reinforcer. Previous work, exclusively using drug reinforcers, has suggested that the roles of the dmPFC and vmPFC in expression of extinction and ABA renewal may depend at least in part on the type of drug reinforcer used. The current experiments used a food reinforcer because the behavioral mechanisms underlying the extinction and renewal of instrumental responding are especially well worked out in this paradigm. After instrumental conditioning in context A and extinction in context B, we inactivated dmPFC, vmPFC, or a more ventral medial prefrontal cortex region by infusing baclofen/muscimol (B/M) just prior to testing in both contexts. In rats with inactivated dmPFC, ABA renewal was still present (i.e., responding increased when returned to context A); however responding was lower (less renewal) than controls. Inactivation of vmPFC increased responding in context B (the extinction context) and decreased responding in context A, indicating no renewal in these animals. There was no effect of B/M infusion on rats with cannula placements ventral to the vmPFC. Fluorophore-conjugated muscimol was infused in a subset of rats following test to visualize infusion spread. Imaging suggested that the infusion spread was minimal and mainly constrained to the targeted area. Together, these experiments suggest that there is a region of medial prefrontal cortex encompassing both dmPFC and vmPFC that is important for ABA renewal of extinguished instrumental responding for a food reinforcer. In addition, vmPFC, but not dmPFC, is important for expression of extinction of

  9. Lewis Acid-Base Adduct Approach for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Kim, Hui-Seon; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-02-16

    Since the first report on the long-term durable 9.7% solid-state perovskite solar cell employing methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3), mesoporous TiO2, and 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) in 2012, following the seed technologies on perovskite-sensitized liquid junction solar cells in 2009 and 2011, a surge of interest has been focused on perovskite solar cells due to superb photovoltaic performance and extremely facile fabrication processes. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells reached 21% in a very short period of time. Such an unprecedentedly high photovoltaic performance is due to the intrinsic optoelectronic property of organolead iodide perovskite material. Moreover, a high dielectric constant, sub-millimeter scale carrier diffusion length, an underlying ferroelectric property, and ion migration behavior can make organolead halide perovskites suitable for multifunctionality. Thus, besides solar cell applications, perovskite material has recently been applied to a variety fields of materials science such as photodetectors, light emitting diodes, lasing, X-ray imaging, resistive memory, and water splitting. Regardless of application areas, the growth of a well-defined perovskite layer with high crystallinity is essential for effective utilization of its excellent physicochemical properties. Therefore, an effective methodology for preparation of high quality perovskite layers is required. In this Account, an effective methodology for production of high quality perovskite layers is described, which is the Lewis acid-base adduct approach. In the solution process to form the perovskite layer, the key chemicals of CH3NH3I (or HC(NH2)2I) and PbI2 are used by dissolving them in polar aprotic solvents. Since polar aprotic solvents bear oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen, they can act as a Lewis base. In addition, the main group compound PbI2 is known to be a Lewis acid. Thus, PbI2 has a chance

  10. Metabolism, gas exchange, and acid-base balance of giant salamanders.

    PubMed

    Ultsch, Gordon R

    2012-08-01

    The giant salamanders are aquatic and paedomorphic urodeles including the genera Andrias and Cryptobranchus (Cryptobranchidae), Amphiuma (Amphiumidae), Siren (Sirenidae), and Necturus (Proteidae, of which only N. maculosus is considered 'a giant'). Species in the genera Cryptobranchus and Necturus are considered aquatic salamanders well adapted for breathing water, poorly adapted for breathing air, and with limited abilities to compensate acid-base disturbances. As such, they are water-breathing animals with a somewhat fish-like respiratory and acid-base physiology, whose habitat selection is limited to waters that do not typically become hypoxic or hypercarbic (although this assertion has been questioned for N. maculosus). Siren and Amphiuma species, by contrast, are dependent upon air-breathing, have excellent lungs, inefficient (Siren) or no (Amphiuma) gills, and are obligate air-breathers with an acid-base status more similar to that of terrestrial tetrapods. As such, they can be considered to be air-breathing animals that live in water. Their response to the aquatic hypercarbia that they often encounter is to maintain intracellular pH (pH(i) ) and abandon extracellular pH regulation, a process that has been referred to as preferential pH(i) regulation. The acid-base status of some present-day tropical air-breathing fishes, and of Siren and Amphiuma, suggests that the acid-base transition from a low PCO(2) -low [] system typical of water-breathing fishes to the high PCO(2) -high [] systems of terrestrial tetrapods may have been completed before emergence onto land, and likely occurred in habitats that were typically both hypoxic and hypercarbic. PMID:22151821

  11. Thioarsenides: A case for long-range Lewis acid-base-directed van der Waals interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Wallace, Adam F.; Downs, R. T.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2011-04-01

    Electron density distributions, bond paths, Laplacian and local energy density properties have been calculated for a number of As4Sn (n = 3,4,5) thioarsenide molecular crystals. On the basis of the distributions, the intramolecular As-S and As-As interactions classify as shared bonded interactions and the intermolecular As-S, As-As and S-S interactions classify as closed-shell van der Waals bonded interactions. The bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths link regions of locally concentrated electron density (Lewis base regions) with aligned regions of locally depleted electron density (Lewis acid regions) on adjacent molecules. The paths are comparable with intermolecular paths reported for several other molecular crystals that link aligned Lewis base and acid regions in a key-lock fashion, interactions that classified as long range Lewis acid-base directed van der Waals interactions. As the bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths (~70%) link Lewis acid-base regions on adjacent molecules, it appears that molecules adopt an arrangement that maximizes the number of As-S Lewis acid-base intermolecular bonded interactions. The maximization of the number of Lewis acid-base interactions appears to be connected with the close-packed array adopted by molecules: distorted cubic close-packed arrays are adopted for alacránite, pararealgar, uzonite, realgar and β-AsS and the distorted hexagonal close-packed arrays adopted by α- and β-dimorphite. A growth mechanism is proposed for thioarsenide molecular crystals from aqueous species that maximizes the number of long range Lewis acid-base vdW As-S bonded interactions with the resulting directed bond paths structuralizing the molecules as a molecular crystal.

  12. Thioarsenides: a case for long-range Lewis acid-base-directed van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, G. V.; Wallace, A. F.; Downs, R. T.; Ross, N. L.; Cox, D. F.; Rosso, K. M.

    2011-04-01

    Electron density distributions, bond paths, Laplacian and local-energy density properties have been calculated for a number of As4S n ( n = 3, 4 and 5) thioarsenide molecular crystals. On the basis of the distributions, the intramolecular As-S and As-As interactions classify as shared bonded interactions, and the intermolecular As-S, As-As and S-S interactions classify as closed-shell van der Waals (vdW) bonded interactions. The bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths link regions of locally concentrated electron density (Lewis-base regions) with aligned regions of locally depleted electron density (Lewis-acid regions) on adjacent molecules. The paths are comparable with intermolecular paths reported for several other molecular crystals that link aligned Lewis base and acid regions in a key-lock fashion, interactions that classified as long-range Lewis acid-base-directed vdW interactions. As the bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths (~70%) link Lewis acid-base regions on adjacent molecules, it appears that molecules adopt an arrangement that maximizes the number of As-S Lewis acid-base intermolecular bonded interactions. The maximization of the number of Lewis acid-base interactions appears to be connected with the close-packed array adopted by molecules: distorted cubic close-packed arrays are adopted for alacránite, pararealgar, uzonite, realgar and β-AsS and the distorted hexagonal close-packed arrays adopted by α- and β-dimorphite. A growth mechanism is proposed for thioarsenide molecular crystals from aqueous species that maximizes the number of long-range Lewis acid-base vdW As-S bonded interactions with the resulting directed bond paths structuralizing the molecules as a molecular crystal.

  13. Investigation of surfactant mediated acid-base charging of mineral oxide particles dispersed in apolar systems.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew M; Berg, John C

    2012-12-21

    The current work examines the role of acid-base properties on particle charging in apolar media. Manipulating the polarity and magnitude of charge in such systems is of growing interest to a number of applications. A major hurdle to the implementation of this technology is that the mechanism(s) of particle charging remain a subject of debate. The authors previously conducted a study of the charging of a series of mineral oxide particles dispersed in apolar systems that contained the surfactant AOT. It was observed that there was a correlation between the particle electrophoretic mobility and the acid-base nature of the particle, as characterized by aqueous point of zero charge (PZC) or the isoelectric point (IEP). The current study investigates whether or not a similar correlation is observed with other surfactants, namely, the acidic Span 80 and the basic OLOA 11000. This is accomplished by measuring the electrophoretic mobility of a series of mineral oxides that are dispersed in Isopar-L containing various concentrations of either Span 80 or OLOA 11000. The mineral oxides used have PZC values that cover a wide range of pH, providing a systematic study of how particle and surfactant acid-base properties impact particle charge. It was found that the magnitude and polarity of particle surface charge varied linearly with the particle PZC for both surfactants used. In addition, the point at which the polarity of charge reversed for the basic surfactant OLOA 11000 was shifted to a pH of approximately 8.5, compared to the previous result of about 5 for AOT. This proves that both surfactant and particle acid-base properties are important, and provides support for the theory of acid-base charging in apolar media. PMID:23157688

  14. Acid-base analysis: a critique of the Stewart and bicarbonate-centered approaches.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Ira; Kraut, Jeffrey; Ornekian, Vahram; Nguyen, Minhtri K

    2008-05-01

    When approaching the analysis of disorders of acid-base balance, physical chemists, physiologists, and clinicians, tend to focus on different aspects of the relevant phenomenology. The physical chemist focuses on a quantitative understanding of proton hydration and aqueous proton transfer reactions that alter the acidity of a given solution. The physiologist focuses on molecular, cellular, and whole organ transport processes that modulate the acidity of a given body fluid compartment. The clinician emphasizes the diagnosis, clinical causes, and most appropriate treatment of acid-base disturbances. Historically, two different conceptual frameworks have evolved among clinicians and physiologists for interpreting acid-base phenomena. The traditional or bicarbonate-centered framework relies quantitatively on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, whereas the Stewart or strong ion approach utilizes either the original Stewart equation or its simplified version derived by Constable. In this review, the concepts underlying the bicarbonate-centered and Stewart formulations are analyzed in detail, emphasizing the differences in how each approach characterizes acid-base phenomenology at the molecular level, tissue level, and in the clinical realm. A quantitative comparison of the equations that are currently used in the literature to calculate H(+) concentration ([H(+)]) is included to clear up some of the misconceptions that currently exist in this area. Our analysis demonstrates that while the principle of electroneutrality plays a central role in the strong ion formulation, electroneutrality mechanistically does not dictate a specific [H(+)], and the strong ion and bicarbonate-centered approaches are quantitatively identical even in the presence of nonbicarbonate buffers. Finally, our analysis indicates that the bicarbonate-centered approach utilizing the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is a mechanistic formulation that reflects the underlying acid-base phenomenology. PMID

  15. Value of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status in the differential diagnosis of hyperpara-thyroidism from other causes of hypercalcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wills, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    A study is reported of the estimation of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status in the differentiation of primary hyperparathyroidism from all other causes of hypercalcaemia. In the two groups of patients studied, all of whom had hypercalcaemia, there was complete separation between the two groups on the basis of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status. In 16 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism the increase in plasma chloride concentration and associated metabolic acidosis could have been accounted for by the known renal tubular effects of parathyroid hormone. In 13 patients with hypercalcaemia due to various other causes the decrease in plasma chloride concentration and associated metabolic alkalosis could be accounted for either by the known effects of an excess of calcium-ion on the renal tubules, or perhaps by suppression of endogenous parathyroid hormone secretion. In patients with hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia of `pseudohyperparathyroidism' associated with non-endocrine tumours it is postulated that the low plasma chloride concentrations and metabolic alkalosis found in these patients were due either to a differing biological activity of the parathyroid-hormone-like polypeptide secreted by the tumour cells, or possibly to simultaneous secretion by these cells of an ACTH-like polypeptide. PMID:5573436

  16. Overexpression of Rosa rugosa anthocyanidin reductase enhances tobacco tolerance to abiotic stress through increased ROS scavenging and modulation of ABA signaling.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ping; Shen, Yuxiao; Jin, Shuangxia; Huang, Shasha; Cheng, Xu; Wang, Zhen; Li, Penghui; Zhao, Jian; Bao, Manzhu; Ning, Guogui

    2016-04-01

    Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and plays a role in the plant stress response. However, the mechanism by which ANR confers stress tolerance in plants is not understood. Here, we report the isolation of RrANR, the homologous gene from rose, and NtABF, an ABA-response related transcription factor gene from tobacco. These genes were characterized regarding their functions in stress responses through the use of transgenic, transcriptomic and physiological analyses. Over-expression of RrANR in tobacco resulted in an increased accumulation of both PAs and abscisic acid (ABA), and also enhanced stress tolerance. Transcriptomic analysis of these transgenic tobacco lines indicated that RrANR overexpression induced global transcriptomic changes, including these involved in oxidation/reduction, hormone response and secondary metabolism. Genes related to ABA biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging were up-regulated in RrANR transgenic lines, and these effects were phenocopied by the direct treatment of tobacco plants with PAs and ABA. Transcriptomic data from each of these treatments identified the upregulation of a putative NtABF. Furthermore, the up-regulation of NtABF in RrANR transformants or in PAs- and ABA-treated tobacco plants was associated with enhanced stress tolerance. Overexpression of NtABF in transgenic tobacco mimicked the effects of RrANR-transgenic plants with regard to the up-regulation of ROS-scavenging genes and an increase in oxidative tolerance. Taken together, our findings indicate that overexpression of RrANR results in an increase in plant tolerance to oxidative stress via increased scavenging of ROS and modulation of the ABA signaling pathway. PMID:26940490

  17. Arabidopsis HY1-Modulated Stomatal Movement: An Integrative Hub Is Functionally Associated with ABI4 in Dehydration-Induced ABA Responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Duan, Xingliang; Zhou, Heng; Lai, Diwen; Zhang, Yihua; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-03-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3) has recently been proposed as a novel component in mediating wide ranges of the plant adaptive signaling processes. However, the physiological significance and molecular basis underlying Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) HO1 (HY1) functioning in drought tolerance remained unclear. Here, we report that mutation of HY1 promoted, but overexpression of this gene impaired, Arabidopsis drought tolerance. This was attributed to the abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive or -hyposensitive phenotypes, with the regulation of stomatal closure in particular. However, comparative transcriptomic profile analysis showed that the induction of numerous ABA/stress-dependent genes in dehydrated wild-type plants was differentially impaired in the hy1 mutant. In agreement, ABA-induced ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) transcript accumulation was strengthened in the hy1 mutant. Genetic analysis further identified that the hy1-associated ABA hypersensitivity and drought tolerance were arrested in the abi4 background. Moreover, the promotion of ABA-triggered up-regulation of RbohD abundance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the hy1 mutant was almost fully blocked by the mutation of ABI4, suggesting that the HY1-ABI4 signaling in the wild type involved in stomatal closure was dependent on the RbohD-derived ROS production. However, hy1-promoted stomatal closure was not affected by a nitric oxide scavenger. Correspondingly, ABA-insensitive behaviors in rbohD stomata were not affected by either the mutation of HY1 or its ectopic expression in the rbohD background, both of which responded significantly to exogenous ROS. These data indicate that HY1 functioned negatively and acted upstream of ABI4 in drought signaling, which was casually dependent on the RbohD-derived ROS in the regulation of stomatal closure. PMID:26704641

  18. Arabidopsis AtSUC2 and AtSUC4, encoding sucrose transporters, are required for abiotic stress tolerance in an ABA-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xue; Liu, Mingli; Zhang, Lijun; Ruan, Yanye; Ding, Rui; Ji, Yuqi; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Shaobin; Farmer, John; Wang, Che

    2015-01-01

    Sucrose transporters (SUCs or SUTs) play a central role, as they orchestrate sucrose allocation both intracellularly and at the whole plant level. Previously, we found AtSUC4 mutants changing sucrose distribution under drought and salt stresses. Here, we systematically examined the role of Arabidopsis AtSUC2 and AtSUC4 in response to abiotic stress. The results showed significant induction of AtSUC2 and AtSUC4 in salt, osmotic, low temperature and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatments by public microarray data and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses. The loss-of-function mutation of AtSUC2 and AtSUC4 led to hypersensitive responses to abiotic stress and ABA treatment in seed germination and seedling growth. These mutants also showed higher sucrose content in shoots and lower sucrose content in roots, as compared with that in wild-type plants, and inhibited the ABA-induced expression of many stress- and ABA-responsive genes, especially ABFs and ABF-downstream and upstream genes. The loss-of-function mutant of AtSUC3, a unique putative sucrose sensor, reduced the expression of AtSUC2 and AtSUC4 in response to abiotic stresses and ABA. These findings confirmed that AtSUC2 and AtSUC4 are important regulators in plant abiotic stress tolerance that use an ABA signaling pathway, which may be crossed with sucrose signaling. PMID:24814155

  19. Hybrid micellar hydrogels of a thermosensitive ABA triblock copolymer and hairy nanoparticles: effect of spatial location of hairy nanoparticles on gel properties.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Henn, Daniel M; Wright, Roger A E; Zhao, Bin

    2014-09-23

    This article reports a method for control of spatial location of nanoparticles (NPs) in hybrid micellar hydrogels of a thermosensitive ABA triblock copolymer and polymer brush-grafted NPs (hairy NPs), either inside or outside the core of micelles, and the study of the effect of different locations of NPs on gel properties. Two batches of thermosensitive polymer brush-grafted, 17 nm silica NPs with different lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) and a thermosensitive ABA triblock copolymer composed of a poly(ethylene oxide) central block and thermosensitive outer blocks (ABA-D) were synthesized. The different locations of NPs were achieved by controlling the LCST of hairy NPs (LCST(NP)) relative to that of the thermosensitive outer blocks of ABA-D (LCST(ABA)). When the LCST(NP) and LCST(ABA) were similar, the NPs resided in the core of micelles upon heating from below the LCST(NP) and LCST(ABA). When the LCST(NP) was significantly higher, the NPs were located outside the core of micelles as confirmed by fluorescent resonance energy transfer. The effects of different locations of hairy NPs and NP-to-polymer mass ratio on properties of hybrid micellar hydrogels formed from aqueous solutions of ABA-D with a concentration of 10 wt % and various amounts of hairy NPs were studied by rheological measurements. The sol-gel transition temperature (T(sol-gel)) and dynamic storage modulus G' of the gels with NPs inside the core of micelles did not change much with increasing the NP-to-polymer mass ratio. In contrast, the T(sol-gel) of gels with NPs in the interstitial space among micelles increased slightly and the G' decreased significantly with the increase of the NP-to-polymer ratio. The hairy NPs in the interstitial space appeared to affect the formation of polymer networks and increase the fraction of polymer loops, resulting in a lower density of bridging chains and thus a lower G'. In addition, for gels with NPs in the interstitial space, a noticeable increase in

  20. Modulation Role of Abscisic Acid (ABA) on Growth, Water Relations and Glycinebetaine Metabolism in Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Cultivars under Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lixin; Gao, Mei; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhang, Xifeng; Wang, Kai; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    The role of plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in plants under drought stress (DS) is crucial in modulating physiological responses that eventually lead to adaptation to an unfavorable environment; however, the role of this hormone in modulation of glycinebetaine (GB) metabolism in maize particularly at the seedling stage is still poorly understood. Some hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the modulation role of ABA on plant growth, water relations and GB metabolism in the leaves of two maize cultivars, Zhengdan 958 (ZD958; drought tolerant), and Jundan 20 (JD20; drought sensitive), subjected to integrated root-zone drought stress (IR-DS) simulated by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 12% w/v, MW 6000). The IR-DS substantially resulted in increased betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity and choline content which act as the key enzyme and initial substrate, respectively, in GB biosynthesis. Drought stress also induced accumulation of GB, whereas it caused reduction in leaf relative water content (RWC) and dry matter (DM) in both cultivars. The contents of ABA and GB increased in drought-stressed maize seedlings, but ABA accumulated prior to GB accumulation under the drought treatment. These responses were more predominant in ZD958 than those in JD20. Addition of exogenous ABA and fluridone (Flu) (ABA synthesis inhibitor) applied separately increased and decreased BADH activity, respectively. Abscisic acid application enhanced GB accumulation, leaf RWC and shoot DM production in both cultivars. However, of both maize cultivars, the drought sensitive maize cultivar (JD20) performed relatively better than the other maize cultivar ZD958 under both ABA and Flu application in view of all parameters appraised. It is, therefore, concluded that increase in both BADH activity and choline content possibly resulted in enhancement of GB accumulation under DS. The endogenous ABA was probably involved in the regulation of GB metabolism by regulating

  1. SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2: key genes involved in ABA metabolism during tomato fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Kai; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Dai, Shengjie; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Wang, Ya; Pei, Yuelin; Wang, Hongqing; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in fruit development and ripening. Here, three NCED genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway) and three CYP707A genes encoding ABA 8′-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA) were identified in tomato fruit by tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated tomato fruits had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. In SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening slowed down, and the entire fruit turned to orange instead of red as in the control. In comparison, the downregulation of SlCYP707A2 expression in SlCYP707A2-silenced fruit could promote ripening; for example, colouring was quicker than in the control. Silencing SlNCED2/3 or SlCYP707A1/3 made no significant difference to fruit ripening comparing RNAi-treated fruits with control fruits. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1transcript levels in the SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruit were downregulated to 21% and 19% of those in control fruit, respectively, but upregulated in SlCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruit. Silencing SlNCED1 or SlCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABA-signalling genes (PYL1, PP2C1, and SnRK2.2), lycopene-synthesis genes (SlBcyc, SlPSY1 and SlPDS), and cell wall-degrading genes (SlPG1, SlEXP, and SlXET) during ripening. These data indicate that SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2 are key genes in the regulation of ABA synthesis and catabolism, and are involved in fruit ripening as positive and negative regulators, respectively. PMID:25039074

  2. Effect of acid/base on the third-order optical nonlinearity of polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aijian; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and its acid/base composites (PPy·H2SO4, PPy·HCl and PPy·NH3·H2O) were successfully synthesized and were characterized respectively by using fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet/visible absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The nonlinear optical properties of PPy and its acid/base composites were investigated using nanosecond Z-scan measurements at 532 nm. At the identical linear transmittance, the saturable absorption of pure PPy was changed to reverse saturable absorption by doping with acid (HCl and H2SO4) and base (NH3·H2O). The possible mechanisms for the different nonlinear properties were also discussed.

  3. Acid-Base Behavior in Hydrothermal Processing of Wastes - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, K.; Rossky, P.

    2000-12-01

    A major obstacle to development of hydrothermal oxidation technology has been a lack of scientific knowledge of chemistry in hydrothermal solution above 350 C, particularly acid-base behavior, and transport phenomena, which is needed to understand corrosion, metal-ion complexation, and salt precipitation and recovery. Our objective has been to provide this knowledge with in situ UV-visible spectroscopic measurements and fully molecular computer simulation. Our recent development of relatively stable organic UV-visible pH indicators for supercritical water oxidation offers the opportunity to characterize buffers and to monitor acid-base titrations. These results have important implications for understanding reaction pathways and yields for decomposition of wastes in supercritical water.

  4. Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, J. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bruning, H.; Ter Heijne, A.

    2014-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density.

  5. Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, J E; Biesheuvel, P M; Bruning, H; Ter Heijne, A

    2014-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density. PMID:25122405

  6. [Participation of the adrenals in the pathogenesis of metabolic acid-base disorders].

    PubMed

    Iluchev, D; Shtereva, S

    1976-01-01

    The authors examined in dynamics the changes in the functional state of the adrenals on 240 rabbits, which served as models for acute metabolic deviations in the acid-base balance. The obtained results showed that the acute metabolic acidosis increased moderately the values of ACTH and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in blood without changing their concentration on the adrenal tissue. It lowered strongly the content of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradranaline) in the adrenal medular part. The metabolic alkalosis raised the concentration of ACTH in blood plasma and increased the amount of corticosteroids in blood and adrenals. There was no well formed parallelism in normalizing acid-base and hormonal indices. As a consequence of this a stage of postaciodotic catecholamine adrenal deficit was formed as well as metabasic hypercorticism in the experimental animals. PMID:14819

  7. Continuous monitoring of the zinc-phosphate acid-base cement setting reaction by proton nuclear magnetic relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apih, T.; Lebar, A.; Pawlig, O.; Trettin, R.

    2001-06-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic relaxation is a well-established technique for continuous and non destructive monitoring of hydration of conventional Portland building cements. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) monitoring of the setting reaction of zinc-phosphate acid-base dental cements, which harden in minutes as compared to days, as in the case of Portland cements. We compare the setting of cement powder (mainly, zinc oxide) prepared with clinically used aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid solution with the setting of a model system where cement powder is mixed with pure orthophosphoric acid solution. In contrast to previously published NMR studies of setting Portland cements, where a decrease of spin-lattice relaxation time is attributed to enhanced relaxation at the growing internal surface, spin-lattice relaxation time T1 increases during the set of clinically used zinc-phosphate cement. Comparison of these results with a detailed study of diffusion, viscosity, and magnetic-field dispersion of T1 in pure and aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid demonstrates that the increase of T1 in the setting cement is connected with the increase of molecular mobility in the residual phosphoric acid solution. Although not taken into account so far, such effects may also significantly influence the relaxation times in setting Portland cements, particularly when admixtures with an effect on water viscosity are used.

  8. The effect of acid-base clustering and ions on the growth of atmospheric nano-particles.

    PubMed

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Rondo, Linda; Kontkanen, Jenni; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Kürten, Andreas; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Sipilä, Mikko; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Ahlm, Lars; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Olenius, Tinja; Ortega, Ismael K; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud; Rissanen, Matti P; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Simon, Mario; Smith, James N; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, António; Vaattovaara, Petri; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Vrtala, Aron E; Wagner, Paul E; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Virtanen, Annele; Donahue, Neil M; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Baltensperger, Urs; Riipinen, Ilona; Curtius, Joachim; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-01-01

    The growth of freshly formed aerosol particles can be the bottleneck in their survival to cloud condensation nuclei. It is therefore crucial to understand how particles grow in the atmosphere. Insufficient experimental data has impeded a profound understanding of nano-particle growth under atmospheric conditions. Here we study nano-particle growth in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoors Droplets) chamber, starting from the formation of molecular clusters. We present measured growth rates at sub-3 nm sizes with different atmospherically relevant concentrations of sulphuric acid, water, ammonia and dimethylamine. We find that atmospheric ions and small acid-base clusters, which are not generally accounted for in the measurement of sulphuric acid vapour, can participate in the growth process, leading to enhanced growth rates. The availability of compounds capable of stabilizing sulphuric acid clusters governs the magnitude of these effects and thus the exact growth mechanism. We bring these observations into a coherent framework and discuss their significance in the atmosphere. PMID:27197574

  9. Insight into acid-base nucleation experiments by comparison of the chemical composition of positive, negative, and neutral clusters.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Federico; Praplan, Arnaud P; Sarnela, Nina; Dommen, Josef; Kürten, Andreas; Ortega, Ismael K; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Junninen, Heikki; Simon, Mario; Tröstl, Jasmin; Jokinen, Tuija; Sipilä, Mikko; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Almeida, Joao; Breitenlechner, Martin; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Tomé, António; Virtanen, Annele; Viisanen, Yrjö; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Curtius, Joachim; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Donahue, Neil M; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the nucleation of sulfuric acid together with two bases (ammonia and dimethylamine), at the CLOUD chamber at CERN. The chemical composition of positive, negative, and neutral clusters was studied using three Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers: two were operated in positive and negative mode to detect the chamber ions, while the third was equipped with a nitrate ion chemical ionization source allowing detection of neutral clusters. Taking into account the possible fragmentation that can happen during the charging of the ions or within the first stage of the mass spectrometer, the cluster formation proceeded via essentially one-to-one acid-base addition for all of the clusters, independent of the type of the base. For the positive clusters, the charge is carried by one excess protonated base, while for the negative clusters it is carried by a deprotonated acid; the same is true for the neutral clusters after these have been ionized. During the experiments involving sulfuric acid and dimethylamine, it was possible to study the appearance time for all the clusters (positive, negative, and neutral). It appeared that, after the formation of the clusters containing three molecules of sulfuric acid, the clusters grow at a similar speed, independent of their charge. The growth rate is then probably limited by the arrival rate of sulfuric acid or cluster-cluster collision. PMID:25406110

  10. ModABa Model: Annual Flow Duration Curves Assessment in Ephemeral Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumo, Dario; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2013-04-01

    A representation of the streamflow regime for a river basin is required for a variety of hydrological analyses and engineering applications, from the water resource allocation and utilization to the environmental flow management. The flow duration curve (FDC) represents a comprehensive signature of temporal runoff variability often used to synthesize catchment rainfall-runoff responses. Several models aimed to the theoretical reconstruction of the FDC have been recently developed under different approaches, and a relevant scientific knowledge specific to this topic has been already acquired. In this work, a new model for the probabilistic characterization of the daily streamflows in perennial and ephemeral catchments is introduced. The ModABa model (MODel for Annual flow duration curves assessment in intermittent BAsins) can be thought as a wide mosaic whose tesserae are frameworks, models or conceptual schemes separately developed in different recent studies. Such tesserae are harmoniously placed and interconnected, concurring together towards a unique final aim that is the reproduction of the FDC of daily streamflows in a river basin. Two separated periods within the year are firstly identified: a non-zero period, typically characterized by significant streamflows, and a dry period, that, in the cases of ephemeral basins, is the period typically characterized by absence of streamflow. The proportion of time the river is dry, providing an estimation of the probability of zero flow occurring, is empirically estimated. Then, an analysis concerning the non-zero period is performed, considering the streamflow disaggregated into a slow subsuperficial component and a fast superficial component. A recent analytical model is adopted to derive the non zero FDC relative to the subsuperficial component; this last is considered to be generated by the soil water excess over the field capacity in the permeable portion of the basin. The non zero FDC relative to the fast

  11. Hyperventilation and blood acid-base balance in hypercapnia exposed red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Ern, Rasmus; Esbaugh, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Hyperventilation is a common response in fish exposed to elevated water CO2. It is believed to lessen the respiratory acidosis associated with hypercapnia by lowering arterial PCO2, but the contribution of hyperventilation to blood acid-base compensation has yet to be quantified. Hyperventilation may also increase the flux of irons across the gill epithelium and the cost of osmoregulation, owing to the osmo-respiratory compromise. Therefore, hypercapnia exposed fish may increase standard metabolic rate (SMR) leaving less energy for physiological functions such as foraging, migration, growth and reproduction. Here we show that gill ventilation, blood PCO2 and total blood [CO2] increased in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) exposed to 1000 and 5000 µatm water CO2, and that blood PCO2 and total blood [CO2] decrease in fish during hypoxia induced hyperventilation. Based on these results we estimate the ventilatory contributions to total acid-base compensation in 1000 and 5000 µatm water CO2. We find that S. ocellatus only utilize a portion of its ventilatory capacity to reduce the acid-base disturbance in 1000 µatm water CO2. SMR was unaffected by both salinity and hypercapnia exposure indicating that the cost of osmoregulation is small relative to SMR, and that the lack of increased ventilation in 1000 µatm water CO2 despite the capacity to do so is not due to an energetic tradeoff between acid-base balance and osmoregulation. Therefore, while ocean acidification may impact ventilatory parameters, there will be little impact on the overall energy budget of S. ocellatus. PMID:26922790

  12. Acid-base properties of 2-phenethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid, an antitumor agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozhilova, N. E.; Kutina, N. N.; Petukhova, O. A.; Kharitonov, Yu. Ya.

    2013-07-01

    The acid-base properties of the 2-phenethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid (PET) substance belonging to the class of isothiocyanates and capable of inhibiting the development of tumors on many experimental models were studied. The acidity and hydrolysis constants of the PET substance in ethanol, acetone, aqueous ethanol, and aqueous acetone solutions were determined from the data of potentiometric (pH-metric) titration of ethanol and acetone solutions of PET with aqueous solidum hydroxide at room temperature.

  13. Roles of urea production, ammonium excretion, and amino acid oxidation in acid-base balance.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, W

    1986-02-01

    Atkinson and colleagues recently proposed several concepts that contrast with traditional views: first, that acid-base balance is regulated chiefly by the reactions leading to urea production in the liver; second, that ammonium excretion by the kidney plays no role in acid-base homeostasis; and third, that ammonium does not stimulate ureagenesis (except indirectly). To examine these concepts, plasma ions other than bicarbonate are categorized as 1) fixed cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, symbolized M+) and anions (Cl-), 2) buffer anions (A-), 3) other anions (X-), and 4) ammonium plus charged amino groups (N+). Since electroneutrality dictates that M+ + N+ = Cl- + HCO3- + A- + X-, it follows that delta HCO3- = delta(M+ - Cl-) - delta A- - delta X- + delta N+. Therefore acid-base disturbances (changes in HCO3-) can be categorized as to how they affect bodily content and hence plasma concentration of each of these four types of ions. The stoichiometry of ureagenesis, glutamine hydrolysis, ammonium and titratable acid excretion, oxidation of neutral, acidic, and basic amino acids, and oxidation of methionine, phosphoserine, and protein are examined to see how they alter these quantities. It is concluded that 1) although ureagenesis is pH dependent and also counteracts a tendency of amino acid oxidation to cause alkalosis, this tendency is inherently limited by the hyperammonemia (delta N+) that necessarily accompanies it, 2) ammonium excretion is equivalent to hydrogen excretion in its effects on acid-base balance if, and only if, it occurs in exchange for sodium or is accompanied by chloride excretion and only when the glutamate generated by glutamine hydrolysis is oxidized.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3511732

  14. Acid-Base Pairs in Lewis Acidic Zeolites Promote Direct Aldol Reactions by Soft Enolization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer D; Van de Vyver, Stijn; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-08-17

    Hf-, Sn-, and Zr-Beta zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. PMID:26138135

  15. Self-assembly pathway of peptide nanotubes formed by a glutamatic acid-based bolaamphiphile.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Emerson Rodrigo; Alves, Wendel Andrade; Castelletto, Valeria; Reza, Mehedi; Ruokolainen, Janne; Hussain, Rohanah; Hamley, Ian William

    2015-07-25

    The self-assembly of peptide nanotubes formed by an L-glutamic acid-based bolaamphiphile is shown to proceed via a remarkable mechanism where the peptide conformation changes from β-sheet to unordered. The kinetics of this process are elucidated via X-ray scattering and UV circular dichroism methods. The reverse transition from "unordered" to β-sheet structures is triggered by UV radiation. PMID:26094619

  16. Holding Accountability to Account. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Holding Accountability to Account: How Scholarship and Experience in Other Fields Inform Exploration of Performance Incentives in Education"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Richard Rothstein, a research associate at the Economic Policy Institute, argues educational…

  17. Accountability, California Style: Counting or Accounting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Michael; Higgins, Jennifer; Raczek, Anastasia

    2004-01-01

    Across the nation and at nearly all levels of our educational system, efforts to hold schools accountable for student learning dominate strategies for improving the quality of education. At both the national and state level, student testing stands at the center of educational accountability programs, such that schools are effectively held…

  18. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  19. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-base Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsler, Michal; van Driel, Jan

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students’ difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1) students’ difficulties in understanding acid-base chemistry and (2) models of acids and bases in their teaching practice. In the interviews, the teachers were asked to comment on authentic student responses collected in a previous study that included student interviews about their understanding of acids and bases. Further, the teachers drew story-lines representing their level of satisfaction with their acid-base teaching. The results show that, although all teachers recognised some of the students’ difficulties as confusion between models, only a few chose to emphasise the different models of acids and bases. Most of the teachers thought it was sufficient to distinguish clearly between the phenomenological level and the particle level. The ways the teachers reflected on their teaching, in order to improve it, also differed. Some teachers reflected more on students’ difficulties; others were more concerned about their own performance. Implications for chemistry (teacher) education are discussed.

  20. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    PubMed

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available. PMID:26936478

  1. Physiological responses of dogs on exposure to hot, arid conditions. Acid-base status.

    PubMed

    Krausz, S; Marder, J

    1977-09-16

    Acid-base parameters were determined in chronically cannulated dogs exposed to ambient temperatures increasing from 25-47 degrees C (with relative humidity below 30%). pH increased from 7.409 +/- 0.004 (S.E.M.) to 7.538 +/- 0.017, PaCO2 decreased from 33.0 +/- 0.5 to 20.9 +/- 1.2 torr, and [HCO3-] decreased from 20.9 +/- 0.3 to 17.2 +/- 0.4 mEq/l. Minimal base excess change, together with a rapid return to normal parameters upon recooling to 25 degrees C, suggests that the stress is almost exclusively respiratory, with little metabolic involvement. Analysis of serial exposures shows no acclimatization effect in acid-base status. This suggests the possible existence of natural acclimation to heat in dogs maintained in a warm climate, permitting excellent tolerance of hot, arid conditions with limited acid-base disturbance. PMID:563058

  2. The evolution of mammalian hibernation: lessons from comparative acid-base physiology.

    PubMed

    Malan, André

    2014-09-01

    The conquest of land has endowed air-breathers with the capability to utilize ventilation not only to acquire oxygen but also to control blood and intracellular acid-base state. Hypercapnic acidosis (resulting from ventilatory control and/or behavioral choice), thus, has become a universal component of hypometabolic states in air-breathers, with inhibitory and/or protective roles. Here, special emphasis is placed on the understanding of alterations of acid-base state associated with changes in temperature. Hypercapnic acidosis in connection with hypometabolism has been found in a variety of air-breathing clades, from snails to mammals through lungfish, amphibians, and reptiles. The discovery of the plesiomorphic character of mammalian hibernation has made the transfer to hibernation biology of the experience gained in the application of hypercapnic acidosis (the so-called "pH-stat" procedure) relevant to acid-base control in clinical artificial hypothermia. This paves the way for mutual benefits from such reciprocal exchange of information between hibernation biology and clinical applications. PMID:24585189

  3. A comparative study of surface acid-base characteristics of natural illites from different origins

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Sun, Z.; Forsling, W.; Du, Q.; Tang, H.

    1999-11-01

    The acid-base characteristics of naturally occurring illites, collected from different locations, were investigated by potentiometeric titrations. The experimental data were interpreted using the constant capacitance surface complexation model. Considerable release of Al and Si from illite samples and subsequent complexation or precipitation of hydroxyl aluminosilicates generated during the acidimetric forward titration and the alkalimetric back titration, respectively, were observed. In order to describe the acid-base chemistry of aqueous illite surfaces, two surface proton-reaction models, introducing the corresponding reactions between the dissolved aluminum species and silicic acid, as well as a surface Al-Si complex on homogeneous illite surface sites, were proposed. Optimization results indicated that both models could provide a good description of the titration behavior for all aqueous illite systems in this study. The intrinsic acidity constants for the different illites were similar in Model 1, showing some generalities in their acid-base properties. Model 1 may be considered as a simplification of Model 2, evident in the similarities between the corresponding constants. In addition, the formation constant for surface Al-Si species (complexes or precipitates) is relatively stable in this study.

  4. Whole body acid-base and fluid-electrolyte balance: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Matthew B

    2013-10-15

    A cellular compartment was added to our previous mathematical model of steady-state acid-base and fluid-electrolyte chemistry to gain further understanding and aid diagnosis of complex disorders involving cellular involvement in critically ill patients. An important hypothesis to be validated was that the thermodynamic, standard free-energy of cellular H(+) and Na(+) pumps remained constant under all conditions. In addition, a hydrostatic-osmotic pressure balance was assumed to describe fluid exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, including incorporation of compliance curves of vascular and interstitial spaces. The description of the cellular compartment was validated by close comparison of measured and model-predicted cellular pH and electrolyte changes in vitro and in vivo. The new description of plasma-interstitial fluid exchange was validated using measured changes in fluid volumes after isoosmotic and hyperosmotic fluid infusions of NaCl and NaHCO3. The validated model was used to explain the role of cells in the mechanism of saline or dilutional acidosis and acid-base effects of acidic or basic fluid infusions and the acid-base disorder due to potassium depletion. A module was created that would allow users, who do not possess the software, to determine, for free, the results of fluid infusions and urinary losses of water and solutes to the whole body. PMID:23884137

  5. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of differing…

  6. Re-induction of the cell cycle in the Arabidopsis post-embryonic root meristem is ABA-insensitive, GA-dependent and repressed by KRP6

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwland, Jeroen; Stamm, Petra; Wen, Bo; Randall, Ricardo S.; Murray, James A. H.; Bassel, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Seeding establishment following seed germination requires activation of the root meristem for primary root growth. We investigated the hormonal and genetic regulation of root meristem activation during Arabidopsis seed germination. In optimal conditions, radicle cell divisions occur only after the completion of germination and require de novo GA synthesis. When the completion of germination is blocked by ABA, radicle elongation and cell divisions occurred in these non-germinating seeds. Conversely under GA-limiting conditions, ABA-insensitive mutants complete germination in the absence of radicle meristem activation and growth. Radicle meristem activation and extension can therefore occur independently of completion of the developmental transition of germination. The cell cycle regulator KRP6 partially represses GA-dependent activation of the cell cycle. Germination of krp6 mutant seeds occurs more rapidly, is slightly insensitive to ABA in dose-response assays, but also hypersensitive to the GA synthesis inhibitor PAC. These conflicting phenotypes suggest the cell cycle uncouples GA and ABA responses in germinating Arabidopsis seeds, and that KRP6 acts downstream of GA to inhibit mitotic cell cycle activation during germination. PMID:27021201

  7. Related to ABA-Insensitive3(ABI3)/Viviparous1 and AtABI5 transcription factor coexpression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabi...

  8. Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

  9. Grain dormancy loss is associated with changes in ABA and GA sensitivity and hormone accumulation in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge about the hormonal control of seed dormancy and dormancy loss is essential in wheat, because low seed dormancy at maturity is associated with the problem of preharvest sprouting (PHS) when rain occurs before harvest. Low GA (gibberellin) hormone sensitivity and high ABA (abscisic acid) sen...

  10. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee, Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention procedures, a…

  11. The Transmembrane Region of Guard Cell SLAC1 Channels Perceives CO2 Signals via an ABA-Independent Pathway in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiko; Negi, Juntaro; Wang, Cun; Isogai, Yasuhiro; Schroeder, Julian I; Iba, Koh

    2016-02-01

    The guard cell S-type anion channel, SLOW ANION CHANNEL1 (SLAC1), a key component in the control of stomatal movements, is activated in response to CO2 and abscisic acid (ABA). Several amino acids existing in the N-terminal region of SLAC1 are involved in regulating its activity via phosphorylation in the ABA response. However, little is known about sites involved in CO2 signal perception. To dissect sites that are necessary for the stomatal CO2 response, we performed slac1 complementation experiments using transgenic plants expressing truncated SLAC1 proteins. Measurements of gas exchange and stomatal apertures in the truncated transgenic lines in response to CO2 and ABA revealed that sites involved in the stomatal CO2 response exist in the transmembrane region and do not require the SLAC1 N and C termini. CO2 and ABA regulation of S-type anion channel activity in guard cells of the transgenic lines confirmed these results. In vivo site-directed mutagenesis experiments targeted to amino acids within the transmembrane region of SLAC1 raise the possibility that two tyrosine residues exposed on the membrane are involved in the stomatal CO2 response. PMID:26764376

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart III of... - HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources [see § 63.1297(d)(2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart III of... - HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources [see § 63.1297(d)(2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart III of... - HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources [see § 63.1297(d)(2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart III of... - HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources [see § 63.1297(d)(2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart III of... - HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources [see § 63.1297(d)(2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  17. The ABI4-Induced Arabidopsis ANAC060 Transcription Factor Attenuates ABA Signaling and Renders Seedlings Sugar Insensitive when Present in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaoliang; Yu, Bo; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Suli; Wang, Yufeng; Peng, Yu; Meyer, Rhonda C.; Smeekens, Sjef C.; Teng, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Seedling establishment is inhibited on media containing high levels (∼6%) of glucose or fructose. Genetic loci that overcome the inhibition of seedling growth on high sugar have been identified using natural variation analysis and mutant selection, providing insight into sugar signaling pathways. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed for seedling sensitivity to high sugar in a Col/C24 F2 population of Arabidopsis thaliana. A glucose and fructose-sensing QTL, GSQ11, was mapped through selective genotyping and confirmed in near-isogenic lines in both Col and C24 backgrounds. Allelism tests and transgenic complementation showed that GSQ11 lies within the ANAC060 gene. The Col ANAC060 allele confers sugar insensitivity and was dominant over the sugar-sensitive C24 allele. Genomic and mRNA analyses showed that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Col ANAC060 affects the splicing patterns of ANAC060 such that 20 additional nucleotides are present in the mRNA. The insertion created a stop codon, resulting in a truncated ANAC60 protein lacking the transmembrane domain (TMD) that is present in the C24 ANAC060 protein. The absence of the TMD results in the nuclear localization of ANAC060. The short version of the ANAC060 protein is found in ∼12% of natural Arabidopsis accessions. Glucose induces GSQ11/ANAC060 expression in a process that requires abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR and transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 directly binds to the GSQ11/ANAC060 promoter to activate transcription. Interestingly, Col ANAC060 reduced ABA sensitivity and Glc-induced ABA accumulation, and ABI4 expression was also reduced in Col ANAC060 lines. Thus, the sugar-ABA signaling cascade induces ANAC060 expression, but the truncated Col ANAC060 protein attenuates ABA induction and ABA signaling. This negative feedback from nuclear ANAC060 on ABA signaling results in sugar insensitivity. PMID:24625790

  18. Proteomic analyses reveal the key roles of BrlA and AbaA in biogenesis of gliotoxin in Aspergillus fumigatus

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Young Hwan; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-07-31

    The opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus primarily reproduces by forming a large number of asexual spores (conidia). Sequential activation of the central regulators BrlA, AbaA and WetA is necessary for the fungus to undergo asexual development. In this study, to address the presumed roles of these key developmental regulators during proliferation of the fungus, we analyzed and compared the proteomes of vegetative cells of wild type (WT) and individual mutant strains. Approximately 1300 protein spots were detectable from 2-D electrophoresis gels. Among these, 13 proteins exhibiting significantly altered accumulation levels were further identified by ESI-MS/MS. Markedly, we found that the GliM and GliT proteins associated with gliotoxin (GT) biosynthesis and self-protection of the fungus from GT were significantly down-regulated in the ΔabaA and ΔbrlA mutants. Moreover, mRNA levels of other GT biosynthetic genes including gliM, gliP, gliT, and gliZ were significantly reduced in both mutant strains, and no and low levels of GT were detectable in the ΔbrlA and ΔabaA mutant strains, respectively. As GliT is required for the protection of the fungus from GT, growth of the ΔbrlA mutant with reduced levels of GliT was severely impaired by exogenous GT. Our studies demonstrate that AbaA and BrlA positively regulate expression of the GT biosynthetic gene cluster in actively growing vegetative cells, and likely bridge morphological and chemical development during the life-cycle of A. fumigatus. - Highlights: • Proteome analyses of WT and mutants reveal 13 differentially expressed proteins. • The GliT and GliM proteins are significantly down-regulated by ΔabaA and ΔbrlA. • Expression of other gliotoxin biosynthetic genes is lowered by ΔabaA and ΔbrlA. • Growth of ΔbrlA strain lacking GliT is completely inhibited by exogenous gliotoxin. • BrlA and AbaA play key roles in biogenesis of gliotoxin in Aspergillus fumigatus.

  19. Characterization of a Poly(styrene-block-methylacrylate-random-octadecylacrylate-block-styrene) Shape Memory ABA Triblock Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Pengzhan; Cavicchi, Kevin

    2011-03-01

    A new ABA triblock copolymer of poly(styrene-block- methylacrylate-random-octadecylacrylate-block-styrene) (PS-b- PMA-r-PODA-b-PS) was synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The triblock copolymer can generate a three-dimensional, physically crosslinked network by self-assembly, where the glassy PS domains physically crosslink the midblock chains. The side chain crystallization of the polyoctadecylacrylare (PODA) side chain generates a second reversible network enabling shape memory properties. Shape memory tests by uniaxial deformation and recovery of molded dog-bone shape samples demonstrate that shape fixities above 96% and shape recoveries above 98% were obtained for extensional strains up to 300%. An outstanding advantage of this shape memory material is that it can be very easily shaped and remolded by elevating the temperature to 140circ; C, and after remolding the initial shape memory properties are totally recovered by eliminating the defects introduced by the previous deformation cycling.

  20. Involvement of RD20, a member of caleosin family, in ABA-mediated regulation of germination in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Cheval, Cécilia; Ranty, Benoit; Vavasseur, Alain; Aldon, Didier

    2011-01-01

    The RD20 gene encodes a member of the caleosin family, which is primarily known to function in the mobilization of seed storage lipids during germination. In contrast to other caleosins, RD20 expression is early-induced by water deficit conditions and we recently provided genetic evidence for its positive role in drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. RD20 is also responsive to pathogen infection and is constitutively expressed in diverse tissues and organs during development suggesting additional roles for this caleosin. This addendum describes further exploration of phenotypic alterations in T-DNA insertional rd20 mutant and knock-out complemented transgenic plants in the context of early development and susceptibility to a phytopathogenic bacteria. We show that the RD20 gene is involved in ABA-mediated inhibition of germination and does not play a significant role in plant defense against Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:21673513

  1. Identification and functional expression of the pepper RING type E3 ligase, CaDTR1, involved in drought stress tolerance via ABA-mediated signalling

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyunhee; Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Drought negatively affects plant growth and development, thereby leading to loss of crop productivity. Several plant E3 ubiquitin ligases act as positive or negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) and thus play important roles in the drought stress response. Here, we show that the C3HC4-type RING finger E3 ligase, CaDTR1, regulates the drought stress response via ABA-mediated signalling. CaDTR1 contains an amino-terminal RING finger motif and two carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic regions; the RING finger motif functions during attachment of ubiquitins to the target proteins, and the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic regions function during subcellular localisation. The expression of CaDTR1 was induced by ABA, drought, and NaCl treatments. CaDTR1 localised in the nucleus and displayed in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. CaDTR1-silenced pepper plants exhibited a drought-sensitive phenotype characterised by high levels of transpirational water loss. On the other hand, CaDTR1-overexpressing (OX) Arabidopsis plants exhibited an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype during the germinative and post-germinative growth stages. Moreover, in contrast to CaDTR1-silenced pepper plants, CaDTR1-OX plants exhibited a drought-tolerant phenotype characterised by low levels of transpirational water loss via increased stomatal closure and high leaf temperatures. Our data indicate that CaDTR1 functions as a positive regulator of the drought stress response via ABA-mediated signalling. PMID:27439598

  2. Identification and functional expression of the pepper RING type E3 ligase, CaDTR1, involved in drought stress tolerance via ABA-mediated signalling.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyunhee; Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Drought negatively affects plant growth and development, thereby leading to loss of crop productivity. Several plant E3 ubiquitin ligases act as positive or negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) and thus play important roles in the drought stress response. Here, we show that the C3HC4-type RING finger E3 ligase, CaDTR1, regulates the drought stress response via ABA-mediated signalling. CaDTR1 contains an amino-terminal RING finger motif and two carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic regions; the RING finger motif functions during attachment of ubiquitins to the target proteins, and the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic regions function during subcellular localisation. The expression of CaDTR1 was induced by ABA, drought, and NaCl treatments. CaDTR1 localised in the nucleus and displayed in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. CaDTR1-silenced pepper plants exhibited a drought-sensitive phenotype characterised by high levels of transpirational water loss. On the other hand, CaDTR1-overexpressing (OX) Arabidopsis plants exhibited an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype during the germinative and post-germinative growth stages. Moreover, in contrast to CaDTR1-silenced pepper plants, CaDTR1-OX plants exhibited a drought-tolerant phenotype characterised by low levels of transpirational water loss via increased stomatal closure and high leaf temperatures. Our data indicate that CaDTR1 functions as a positive regulator of the drought stress response via ABA-mediated signalling. PMID:27439598

  3. Overexpression of soybean miR172c confers tolerance to water deficit and salt stress, but increases ABA sensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yuhang; Li, Yongguang

    2016-01-01

    MiRNAs play crucial roles in many aspects of plant development and the response to the environment. The miR172 family has been shown to participate in the control of flowering time and the response to abiotic stress. This family regulates the expression of APETALA2 (AP2)-like transcription factors in Arabidopsis. In the present study, soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) miR172c, a member of the miR172 family, and its target gene were investigated for abiotic stress responses in transgenic Arabidopsis. gma-miR172c was induced by abscisic acid (ABA) treatments and abiotic stresses, including salt and water deficit. 5'-RACE (5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assays indicated that miR172c directed Glyma01g39520 mRNA cleavage in soybeans. Overexpression of gma-miR172c in Arabidopsis resulted in reduced leaf water loss and increased survival rate under stress conditions. Meanwhile, the root length, germination rate, and cotyledon greening of transgenic plants were improved during both high salt and water deficit conditions. In addition, transgenic plants exhibited hypersensitivity to ABA during both the seed germination and post-germination seedling growth stages. Stress-related physiological indicators and the expression of stress/ABA-responsive genes were affected by abiotic treatments. The overexpression of gma-miR172c in Arabidopsis promoted earlier flowering compared with the wild type through modulation of the expression of flowering genes, such as FT and LFY during long days, especially under drought conditions. Glyma01g39520 weakened ABA sensitivity and reduced the tolerance to drought stress in the snz mutant of Arabidopsis by reducing the expression of ABI3 and ABI5. Overall, the present results demonstrate that gma-miR172c confers water deficit and salt tolerance but increased ABA sensitivity by regulating Glyma01g39520, which also accelerates flowering under abiotic stresses. PMID:26466661

  4. The generalized lewis acid-base titration of palladium and niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cima, M.; Brewer, L.

    1988-12-01

    The high thermodynamic stability of alloys composed of platinum group metals and group IVB and VB metals has been explained by an electronic interaction analogous to the Lewis acid-base concept for nontransition elements. The analogy is further demonstrated by the titration of palladium by addition of niobium. The activity of niobium in solid palladium was measured as a function of concentration by solid-state galvanic cells and study of the ternary oxide phase diagram. The galvanic cells were of the type Pt/NbO2,Nb2O4.8/YDTJNbOy,Nbpd/Pt where the solid electrolyte is yttria-doped thoria (YDT). Ternary phase diagrams for the Pd-Nb-0 and Rh-Nb-0 systems were obtained by characterizing samples equilibrated at 1000 °C. The phase relationships found in the ternary diagrams were also used to derive thermochemical data for the alloys. Thermochemical quantities for other acid-base stabilized alloys such as Nb-Rh, Ti-Pd, and Ti-Rh were also measured. The excess partial molar ΔGxs/R of niobium at infinite dilution was determined to be -31 kilo-Kelvin at 1000 °C, and the AG°JR of formation of a mole of NbPd3.55 is —21 kilo-Kelvin. These results and those for the other systems are used to assess the importance of valence electron configuration, nuclear charge, and crystal field effects in the context of generalized Lewis acid-base theory. It is concluded that both the nuclear charge of the atom and crystal field splitting of the valence orbitals significantly affect the basicity of the platinum group metals.

  5. Synthesis of acid-base bifunctional mesoporous materials by oxidation and thermolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiaofang; Zou, Yongcun; Wu, Shujie; Liu, Heng; Guan, Jingqi; Kan, Qiubin

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of acid-base bifunctional catalyst. The obtained sample of SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acids exhibits excellent catalytic activity in aldol condensation reaction. Research highlights: {yields} Synthesize acid-base bifunctional mesoporous materials SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}. {yields} Oxidation and then thermolysis to generate acidic site and basic site. {yields} Exhibit good catalytic performance in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes. -- Abstract: A novel and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of acid-base bifunctional catalyst SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}. This method was achieved by co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and (3-triethoxysilylpropyl) carbamicacid-1-methylcyclohexylester (3TAME) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), followed by oxidation and then thermolysis to generate acidic site and basic site. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron micrographs (TEM) show that the resultant materials keep mesoporous structure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), back titration, solid-state {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR and solid-state {sup 29}Si MAS NMR confirm that the organosiloxanes were condensed as a part of the silica framework. The bifunctional sample (SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}) containing amine and sulfonic acids exhibits excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes.

  6. Chemical rescue, multiple ionizable groups, and general acid-base catalysis in the HDV genomic ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Anne T; Wadkins, Timothy S; Been, Michael D

    2006-07-01

    In the ribozyme from the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) genomic strand RNA, a cytosine side chain is proposed to facilitate proton transfer in the transition state of the reaction and, thus, act as a general acid-base catalyst. Mutation of this active-site cytosine (C75) reduced RNA cleavage rates by as much as one million-fold, but addition of exogenous cytosine and certain nucleobase or imidazole analogs can partially rescue activity in these mutants. However, pH-rate profiles for the rescued reactions were bell shaped, and only one leg of the pH-rate curve could be attributed to ionization of the exogenous nucleobase or buffer. When a second potential ionizable nucleobase (C41) was removed, one leg of the bell-shaped curve was eliminated in the chemical-rescue reaction. With this construct, the apparent pK(a) determined from the pH-rate profile correlated with the solution pK(a) of the buffer, and the contribution of the buffer to the rate enhancement could be directly evaluated in a free-energy or Brønsted plot. The free-energy relationship between the acid dissociation constant of the buffer and the rate constant for cleavage (Brønsted value, beta, = approximately 0.5) was consistent with a mechanism in which the buffer acted as a general acid-base catalyst. These data support the hypothesis that cytosine 75, in the intact ribozyme, acts as a general acid-base catalyst. PMID:16690998

  7. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yanqiu; Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang; Guan, Jingqi; Kan, Qiubin

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

  8. KINEMATIC VARIABLES AND BLOOD ACID-BASE STATUS IN THE ANALYSIS OF COLLEGIATE SWIMMERS’ ANAEROBIC CAPACITY

    PubMed Central

    Bielec, G.; Makar, P.; Laskowski, R.

    2013-01-01

    Short duration repeated maximal efforts are often used in swimming training to improve lactate tolerance, which gives swimmers the ability to maintain a high work rate for a longer period of time. The aim of the study was to examine the kinematics of swimming and its relation to the changes in blood acid-base status and potassium level. Seven collegiate swimmers, with at least 6 years of training experience, volunteered to participate in the study. The test consisted of 8 x 25 m front crawl performed with maximum effort. The rest period between repetitions was set to five seconds. Blood samples were taken from the fingertip at rest, after warm-up and in the 3rd minute after completion of the test. The swimming was recorded with a video recorder, for later analysis of time, velocity and technique (stroke index). Based on the swimming velocity results, the obtained curve can be divided into rapid decrease of velocity and relatively stable velocities. The breaking point of repetition in swimming velocity was assumed as the swimming velocity threshold and it was highly correlated with the decrease of the blood acid-base status (pH r=0.82, BE r=0.87, HCO3 - r=0.76; p<0.05 in all cases). There was no correlation between stroke index or fatigue index and blood acid-base status. Analysis of the swimming speed in the 8 x 25 m test seems to be helpful in evaluation of lactate tolerance (anaerobic capacity) in collegiate swimmers. PMID:24744491

  9. Spectroscopic Investigation of Surface Dependent Acid-base Property of Ceria Nanoshapes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Zili; Mann, Amanda K; Li, Meijun; Overbury, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In addition to their well-known redox character, the acid-base property is another interesting aspect of ceria-based catalysts. Herein, the effect of surface structure on the acid-base property of ceria was studied in detail by utilizing ceria nanocrystals with different morphologies (cubes, octahedra and rods) that exhibit crystallographically well-defined surface facets. The nature, type, strength and amount of acid and base sites on these ceria nanoshapes were investigated via in situ IR spectroscopy combined with various probe molecules. Pyridine adsorption shows the presence of Lewis acid sites (Ce cations) on the ceria nanoshapes. These Lewis acid sites are relatively weak andmore » similar in strength among the three nanoshapes according to the probing by both pyridine and acetonitrile. Both Br nsted (hydroxyl group) and Lewis (surface lattice oxygen) base sites are present on the ceria nanoshapes as probed by CO2 adsorption. CO2 and chloroform adsorption indicate that the strength and amount of the Lewis base sites are shape dependent: rods > cubes > octahedra. The weak and strong surface dependence of the acid and base sites, respectively, are a result of interplay between the surface structure dependent coordination unsaturation status of the Ce cations and O anions and the amount of defect sites on the three ceria nanoshapes. Furthermore, it was found that the nature of the acid-base sites of ceria can be impacted by impurities, such as Na and P residues that result from their use as structure-directing reagent in the hydrothermal synthesis of the ceria nanocrystals. This observation calls for precaution in interpreting the catalytic behavior of nanoshaped ceria where trace impurities may be present.« less

  10. Accountability: A Mosaic Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Teri

    1977-01-01

    The problems involved in definition, implementation and control of accountability processes are discussed. It is stated that "...emotional involvement in accountability is one of the most difficult aspects to deal with, the chief emotion being fear". (Author/RW)

  11. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  12. Has Stewart approach improved our ability to diagnose acid-base disorders in critically ill patients?

    PubMed

    Masevicius, Fabio D; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2015-02-01

    The Stewart approach-the application of basic physical-chemical principles of aqueous solutions to blood-is an appealing method for analyzing acid-base disorders. These principles mainly dictate that pH is determined by three independent variables, which change primarily and independently of one other. In blood plasma in vivo these variables are: (1) the PCO2; (2) the strong ion difference (SID)-the difference between the sums of all the strong (i.e., fully dissociated, chemically nonreacting) cations and all the strong anions; and (3) the nonvolatile weak acids (Atot). Accordingly, the pH and the bicarbonate levels (dependent variables) are only altered when one or more of the independent variables change. Moreover, the source of H(+) is the dissociation of water to maintain electroneutrality when the independent variables are modified. The basic principles of the Stewart approach in blood, however, have been challenged in different ways. First, the presumed independent variables are actually interdependent as occurs in situations such as: (1) the Hamburger effect (a chloride shift when CO2 is added to venous blood from the tissues); (2) the loss of Donnan equilibrium (a chloride shift from the interstitium to the intravascular compartment to balance the decrease of Atot secondary to capillary leak; and (3) the compensatory response to a primary disturbance in either independent variable. Second, the concept of water dissociation in response to changes in SID is controversial and lacks experimental evidence. In addition, the Stewart approach is not better than the conventional method for understanding acid-base disorders such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis secondary to a chloride-rich-fluid load. Finally, several attempts were performed to demonstrate the clinical superiority of the Stewart approach. These studies, however, have severe methodological drawbacks. In contrast, the largest study on this issue indicated the interchangeability of the Stewart and

  13. Determination of the acidic sites of purified single-walled carbon nanotubes by acid base titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Bhowmik, P.; Zhao, B.; Hamon, M. A.; Itkis, M. E.; Haddon, R. C.

    2001-09-01

    We report the measurement of the acidic sites in three different samples of commercially available full-length purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) - as obtained from CarboLex (CLI), Carbon Solutions (CSI) and Tubes@Rice (TAR) - by simple acid-base titration methods. Titration of the purified SWNTs with NaOH and NaHCO 3 solutions was used to determine the total percentage of acidic sites and carboxylic acid groups, respectively. The total percentage of acidic sites in full length purified SWNTs from TAR, CLI and CSI are about 1-3%.

  14. The importance of acid-base management for cardiac and cerebral preservation during open heart operations.

    PubMed

    Swan, H

    1984-04-01

    The basic physiologic characteristics of acid-base equilibria during hypothermia were briefly reviewed. By graphic analysis, four possible clinical strategies for managing the acid-base status of the patient undergoing H-CPB were documented. The effect of hemodilution on buffer capacity was charted in a manner applicable to common current operative procedures. During hypothermia for cardiac operations as presently conducted, the perfusionist is in control of the temperature of the body and the perfusion preservation of the body and brain; the surgeon must assume responsibility for preservation of the heart. The literature pertinent to the relationship of the acid-base state to the functions and structural preservation of the heart and brain during the conditions of cooling to and rewarming from deep hypothermia associated with cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic cross clamping, cardioplegia and total circulatory arrest have been reviewed. The evidence is overwhelming that myocardial anoxia caused by aortic occlusion or total circulatory arrest at any temperature to 15 degrees C. result in progressive acidosis which, of itself, is myotoxic. In contrast, alkalinity is ionotropic. Myocardial ischemia, in both adults and infants, should be prevented and treated by alkaline perfusion cooling and by frequent coronary perfusion of a cardiopreservative solution which is extremely cold (4 to 8 degrees C.), oxygenated, has a pH of 7.8, slightly hyperosmolar and which has a hematocrit of 20 per cent (imidazole, erythrocytes and plasma protein colloid), a cardioplegic ionic pattern and energy substrates. Reperfusion of the heart should begin at a 37 pH of 7.8. Evidence is strong that the use of CO2 added to any gas mixture is harmful. It increases myocardial acidosis; it does not increase cerebral blood flow during hypothermia. Protection of the unperfused brain of an infant should emphasize prevention of circulatory arrest prolonged to more than 40 minutes. Temporary reperfusion

  15. Spectral and Acid-Base Properties of Hydroxyflavones in Micellar Solutions of Cationic Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkovska, N. A.; Barvinchenko, V. N.; Fedyanina, T. V.; Rugal', A. A.

    2014-09-01

    It has been shown that the spectral characteristics (intensity, position of the absorption band) and the acid-base properties in a series of structurally similar hydroxyflavones depend on the concentration of the cationic surfactants miramistin and decamethoxin in aqueous solutions, and the extent of their changes is more pronounced for hydrophobic quercetin than for hydrophilic rutin. For the first time, we have determined the apparent dissociation constants of quercetin and rutin in solutions of these cationic surfactants (pKa1) over a broad concentration range and we have established that they decrease in the series water-decamethoxin-miramistin.

  16. The species- and site-specific acid-base properties of penicillamine and its homodisulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzahosseini, Arash; Szilvay, András; Noszál, Béla

    2014-08-01

    Penicillamine, penicillamine disulfide and 4 related compounds were studied by 1H NMR-pH titrations and case-tailored evaluation methods. The resulting acid-base properties are quantified in terms of 14 macroscopic and 28 microscopic protonation constants and the concomitant 7 interactivity parameters. The species- and site-specific basicities are interpreted by means of inductive and shielding effects through various intra- and intermolecular comparisons. The thiolate basicities determined this way are key parameters and exclusive means for the prediction of thiolate oxidizabilities and chelate forming properties in order to understand and influence chelation therapy and oxidative stress at the molecular level.

  17. Management of Acute Kidney Injury and Acid-Base Balance in the Septic Patient.

    PubMed

    Weyker, Paul D; Pérez, Xosé L; Liu, Kathleen D

    2016-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an abrupt decrease in kidney function that takes place over hours to days. Sepsis is the leading cause of AKI and portends a particularly high morbidity and mortality, although the severity may vary from a transient rise in serum creatinine to end-stage renal disease. With regard to acid-base management in septic AKI, caution should be used with hyperchloremic crystalloid solutions, and dialysis is often used in the setting of severe acidosis. In the future, biomarkers may help clinicians identify AKI earlier and allow for potential interventions before the development of severe AKI. PMID:27229644

  18. Acid-base balance and plasma composition in the aestivating lungfish (Protopterus).

    PubMed

    DeLaney, R G; Lahiri, S; Hamilton, R; Fishman, P

    1977-01-01

    Upon entering into aestivation, Protopterus aethiopicus develops a respiratory acidosis. A slow compensatory increase in plasma bicarbonate suffices only to partially restore arterial pH toward normal. The cessation of water intake from the start of aestivation results in hemoconcentration and marked oliguria. The concentrations of most plasma constituents continue to increase progressively, and the electrolyte ratios change. The increase in urea concentration is disproportionately high for the degree of dehydration and constitutes an increasing fraction of total plasma osmolality. Acid-base and electrolyte balance do not reach a new equilibrium within 1 yr in the cocoon. PMID:13665

  19. The role of acid-base imbalance in statin-induced myotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Taha, Dhiaa A; De Moor, Cornelia H; Barrett, David A; Lee, Jong Bong; Gandhi, Raj D; Hoo, Chee Wei; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2016-08-01

    Disturbances in acid-base balance, such as acidosis and alkalosis, have potential to alter the pharmacologic and toxicologic outcomes of statin therapy. Statins are commonly prescribed for elderly patients who have multiple comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, and renal diseases. These patients are at risk of developing acid-base imbalance. In the present study, the effect of disturbances in acid-base balance on the interconversion of simvastatin and pravastatin between lactone and hydroxy acid forms have been investigated in physiological buffers, human plasma, and cell culture medium over pH ranging from 6.8-7.8. The effects of such interconversion on cellular uptake and myotoxicity of statins were assessed in vitro using C2C12 skeletal muscle cells under conditions relevant to acidosis, alkalosis, and physiological pH. Results indicate that the conversion of the lactone forms of simvastatin and pravastatin to the corresponding hydroxy acid is strongly pH dependent. At physiological and alkaline pH, substantial proportions of simvastatin lactone (SVL; ∼87% and 99%, respectively) and pravastatin lactone (PVL; ∼98% and 99%, respectively) were converted to the active hydroxy acid forms after 24 hours of incubation at 37°C. At acidic pH, conversion occurs to a lower extent, resulting in greater proportion of statin remaining in the more lipophilic lactone form. However, pH alteration did not influence the conversion of the hydroxy acid forms of simvastatin and pravastatin to the corresponding lactones. Furthermore, acidosis has been shown to hinder the metabolism of the lactone form of statins by inhibiting hepatic microsomal enzyme activities. Lipophilic SVL was found to be more cytotoxic to undifferentiated and differentiated skeletal muscle cells compared with more hydrophilic simvastatin hydroxy acid, PVL, and pravastatin hydroxy acid. Enhanced cytotoxicity of statins was observed under acidic conditions and is attributed to increased

  20. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  1. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  2. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  3. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  4. Accounting Education in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  5. How are the Concepts and Theories of Acid Base Reactions Presented? Chemistry in Textbooks and as Presented by Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furió-Más, Carlos; Calatayud, María Luisa; Guisasola, Jenaro; Furió-Gómez, Cristina

    2005-09-01

    This paper investigates the views of science and scientific activity that can be found in chemistry textbooks and heard from teachers when acid base reactions are introduced to grade 12 and university chemistry students. First, the main macroscopic and microscopic conceptual models are developed. Second, we attempt to show how the existence of views of science in textbooks and of chemistry teachers contributes to an impoverished image of chemistry. A varied design has been elaborated to analyse some epistemological deficiencies in teaching acid base reactions. Textbooks have been analysed and teachers have been interviewed. The results obtained show that the teaching process does not emphasize the macroscopic presentation of acids and bases. Macroscopic and microscopic conceptual models involved in the explanation of acid base processes are mixed in textbooks and by teachers. Furthermore, the non-problematic introduction of concepts, such as the hydrolysis concept, and the linear, cumulative view of acid base theories (Arrhenius and Brönsted) were detected.

  6. Surface properties of bacillus subtilis determined by acid/base titrations, and the implications for metal adsorption in fluid-rock systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, J.B.; Davis, T.A.

    1996-10-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitous in low temperature aqueous systems, but quantifying their effects on aqueous mass transport remains a problem. Numerous studies have qualitatively examined the metal binding capacity of bacterial cell walls. However, quantitative thermodynamic modeling of metal-bacteria-mineral systems requires a detailed knowledge of the surface properties of the bacterial functional groups. In this study, we have conducted acid/base titrations of suspensions of B. subtilis, a common subsurface species whose surface properties are largely controlled by carboxyl groups. Titrations were conducted between pH 2 and 11 at several ionic strengths. The data are analyzed using a constant capacitance model to account for the surface electric field effects on the acidity constant. The pK{sub a} value that best fits the titration data is 3.9 {plus_minus} 0.3. This result represents the first step toward quantifying bacteria-metal and mineral-bacteria-metal interactions using equilibrium thermodynamics.

  7. Locked nucleic acid based beacons for surface interaction studies and biosensor development

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Karen; Estevez, M.-Carmen; Wu, Yanrong; Phillips, Joseph A.; Medley, Colin D.; Tan, Weihong

    2011-01-01

    DNA sensors and microarrays permit fast, simple and real-time detection of nucleic acids through the design and use of increasingly sensitive, selective and robust molecular probes. Specifically, molecular beacons (MBs) have been employed for this purpose; however, their potential in the development of solid-surface-based biosensors has not been fully realized. This is mainly a consequence of the beacon’s poor stability due to the hairpin structure once immobilized onto a solid surface, commonly resulting in a low signal enhancement. Here, we report the design of a new MB that overcomes some of the limitations of MBs for surface immobilization. Essentially, this new design adds locked nucleic acid bases (LNAs) to the beacon structure, resulting in a LNA molecular beacon (LMB) with robust stability after surface immobilization. To test the efficacy of LMBs against that of regular molecular beacons (RMBs), the properties of selectivity, sensitivity, thermal stability, hybridization kinetics and robustness for the detection of target sequences were compared and evaluated. A 25-fold enhancement was achieved for the LMB on surface with detection limits reaching the low nanomolar range. In addition, the LMB-based biosensor was shown to possess better stability, reproducibility, selectivity and robustness when compared to the RMB. Therefore, as an alternative to conventional DNA and as a prospective tool for use in both DNA microarrays and biosensors, these results demonstrate the potential of the locked nucleic acid bases for nucleic acid design for surface immobilization. PMID:19351140

  8. The oxidative stress, antioxidant profile and acid-base status in preterm and term canine neonates.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, C I; Kishi, D; Regazzi, F M; Silva, L C G; Veiga, G A L; Angrimani, D S R; Lucio, C F; Nichi, M

    2015-04-01

    During the initiation of neonatal pulmonary respiration, there is an exponential increase in reactive oxygen species that must be scavenged by antioxidant defences. However, neonate and preterm newborns are known to possess immature antioxidant mechanisms to neutralize these toxic effects. The purposes of this study were to compare the development of antioxidant system between preterm and term canine neonates and to evaluate the magnitude of acid-base balance during the initial 4 h of life. A prospective study was conducted involving 18 neonatal puppies assigned to Term Group (63 days of gestation; n = 5), Preterm-57 Group (57 days of gestation; n = 8) and Preterm-55 Group (55 days of gestation; n = 5). Neonates were physically examined through Apgar score and venous haemogasometry within 5 min, 2 and 4 h after birth. No difference on amniotic fluid and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the marker of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS) was verified. Irrespective of prematurity, all neonates presented low vitality, hypothermia, acidosis, hypoxaemia and hypercapnia at birth. However, term puppies clinically evolved more rapidly than preterm newborns. During the course of the study, premature neonates presented more severe complications, such as prolonged hypoxaemia and even death. In conclusion, premature puppies have no signs of immature enzymatic mechanisms for controlling oxidative stress, although SOD and GPx may participate in achieving acid-base balance. Aside from initial unremarkable symptoms, premature puppies should be carefully followed up, as they are at high risk of succumbing to odds of prematurity. PMID:25611795

  9. Bioavailability of folates in selected foods incorporated into amino acid-based diets fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Clifford, A J; Jones, A D; Bills, N D

    1990-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a folate depletion/repletion protocol with rats fed an amino acid-based diet to measure the bioavailability of food folate. Growth, liver folate and serum folate of depleted rats that were fed test foods incorporated into a folate-free, amino acid-based diet were standardized against similar responses of rats fed known amounts of folic acid incorporated into the same diet. Bioavailability of folate of cooked broccoli, refried beans and orange juice concentrate in experiment 1 was 80-89, 113 and 62%, respectively, based on growth response; in experiment 2, values for cooked and raw broccoli, cooked cabbage and cantaloupe were 95, 103, 74 and 81%, respectively. The results demonstrate that in addition to serum and liver folate concentrations, growth may be a useful response criterion to evaluate the bioavailability of folates in foods. Further research is needed to determine the relevance of these bioavailability estimates to human nutrition. PMID:2262810

  10. Using problem based learning and guided inquiry in a high school acid-base chemistry unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Katie

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if incorporating problem based learning and guided inquiry would improve student achievement in an acid base unit for high school chemistry. The activities and labs in the unit were modified to be centered around the problem of a fish kill that students investigated. Students also participated in guided inquiry labs to increase the amount of critical thinking and problem solving being done in the classroom. The hypothesis was that the implementation of problem based learning and guided inquiry would foster student learning. Students took a pre-test and post-test on questions covering the objectives of the acid base unit. These assessments were compared to determine the effectiveness of the unit. The results indicate that the unit was effective in increasing student performance on the unit test. This study also analyzed the process of problem based learning. Problem based learning can be an effective method of engaging students in inquiry. However, designing an effective problem based learning unit requires careful design of the problem and enough structure to assure students learn the intended content.

  11. General acid-base catalysis mediated by nucleobases in the hairpin ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; Wilson, Timothy J.; Li, Nan-Sheng; Lu, Jun; Piccirilli, Joseph A.; Lilley, David M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The catalytic mechanism by which the hairpin ribozyme accelerates cleavage or ligation of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA has been incompletely understood. There is experimental evidence for an important role for an adenine (A38) and a guanine (G8), and it has been proposed that these act in general acid-base catalysis. In this work we show that a large reduction in cleavage rate on substitution of A38 by purine (A38P) can be reversed by replacement of the 5′-oxygen atom at the scissile phosphate by sulfur (5′-PS), which is a much better leaving group. This is consistent with A38 acting as the general acid in the unmodified ribozyme. The rate of cleavage of the 5′-PS substrate by the A38P ribozyme increases with pH log-linearly, indicative of a requirement for a deprotonated base with a relatively high pKa. On substitution of G8 by diaminopurine, the 5′-PS substrate cleavage rate at first increases with pH and then remains at a plateau, exhibiting an apparent pKa consistent with this nucleotide acting in general base catalysis. Alternative explanations for the pH dependence of hairpin ribozyme reactivity are discussed, from which we conclude that general acid-base catalysis by A38 and G8 is the simplest and most probable explanation consistent with all the experimental data. PMID:22958171

  12. The glmS Ribozyme Cofactor is a General Acid-Base Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Viladoms, Julia; Fedor, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The glmS ribozyme is the first natural self-cleaving ribozyme known to require a cofactor. The D-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) cofactor has been proposed to serve as a general acid, but its role in the catalytic mechanism has not been established conclusively. We surveyed GlcN6P-like molecules for their ability to support self-cleavage of the glmS ribozyme and found a strong correlation between the pH dependence of the cleavage reaction and the intrinsic acidity of the cofactors. For cofactors with low binding affinities the contribution to rate enhancement was proportional to their intrinsic acidity. This linear free-energy relationship between cofactor efficiency and acid dissociation constants is consistent with a mechanism in which the cofactors participate directly in the reaction as general acid-base catalysts. A high value for the Brønsted coefficient (β ~ 0.7) indicates that a significant amount of proton transfer has already occurred in the transition state. The glmS ribozyme is the first self-cleaving RNA to use an exogenous acid-base catalyst. PMID:23113700

  13. Site-specific acid-base properties of pholcodine and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Z; Hosztafi, S; Noszál, B

    2006-11-01

    The acid-base properties of pholcodine, a cough-depressant agent, and related compounds including metabolites were studied by 1H NMR-pH titrations, and are characterised in terms of macroscopic and microscopic protonation constants. New N-methylated derivatives were also synthesized in order to quantitate site- and nucleus-specific protonation shifts and to unravel microscopic acid-base equilibria. The piperidine nitrogen was found to be 38 and 400 times more basic than its morpholine counterpart in pholcodine and norpholcodine, respectively. The protonation data show that the molecule of pholcodine bears an average of positive charge of 1.07 at physiological pH, preventing it from entering the central nervous system, a plausible reason for its lack of analgesic or addictive properties. The protonation constants of pholcodine and its derivatives are interpreted by comparing with related molecules of pharmaceutical interest. The pH-dependent relative concentrations of the variously protonated forms of pholcodine and morphine are depicted in distribution diagrams. PMID:17004059

  14. Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-11-01

    The Vanadium (V) cation structures in mixed acid based electrolyte solution were analysed by density functional theory (DFT) based computational modelling and 51V and 35Cl Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Vanadium (V) cation exists as di-nuclear [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound at higher vanadium concentrations (≥1.75M). In particular, at high temperatures (>295K) this di-nuclear compound undergoes ligand exchange process with nearby solvent chlorine molecule and forms chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound. This chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be resistant to the de-protonation reaction which is the initial step in the precipitation reaction in Vanadium based electrolyte solutions. The combined theoretical and experimental approach reveals that formation of chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be central to the observed higher thermal stability of mixed acid based Vanadium (V) electrolyte solutions.

  15. [The favorable effect of humic acid based complex micro-element preparations in cadmium exposure].

    PubMed

    Hudák, A; Náray, M; Nagy, I; Molnár, M; Gömöry, I; Ungváry, G

    1997-06-01

    The authors have studied the effect of consumption of a humic acid based complex microelement preparation (potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, vanadium, cobalt, molibden, selenium bound to humic acids) for six weeks (10 ml daily) on the biological exposure indices (blood and urine cadmium levels) and clinical laboratory parameters (liver and kidney tests, blood picture) of men (n = 18; 39.7 +/- 10.4 years of age;) working in cadmium exposure for 8.3 +/- 5.0 years. The initial mean blood and urine cadmium levels of the non-smoking subjects was twice higher than that of the non-smoking male controls living in the same urban area (n = 35), and significantly correlated with the length of exposure. Their mean serum alanin-aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase, creatinine, uric acid and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase levels were significantly higher than that of the controls. After the six-week treatment blood cadmium level, activity of serum alanin-aminotransferase, serum uric acid and urinary protein concentrations decreased significantly, the abnormal serum iron levels normalized. According to this results, the absorption of cadmium decreased on the effect of the complex microelement supplementation and the adverse laboratory changes attributable partly to cadmium exposure improved. Therefore humic acid based complex microelement supplementation is recommended as an effective tool for prevention and health protection in occupational cadmium exposure as well as for smokers known to be considerably burdened by cadmium. PMID:9254361

  16. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2014: Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the Annual Kidney Week Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, in 2014 the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and transplantation. Complex cases from each of these categories along with single-best-answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, program directors of United States nephrology training programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions using an Internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using audience response devices with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the audience responses and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this educational session. This article recapitulates the acid-base and electrolyte disorders portion of the session and reproduces its educational value for the readers of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:25617429

  17. Angiotensin II modulates respiratory and acid-base responses to prolonged hypoxia in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Heitman, S J; Jennings, D B

    1998-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II (ANG II) contributes to ventilatory and acid-base adaptations during 3-4 h of hypoxia (partial pressure of O2 in arterial blood approximately 43 Torr) in the conscious dog. Three protocols were carried out over 3-4 h in five dogs: 1) air control, 2) 12% O2 breathing, and 3) 12% O2 breathing with ANG II receptors blocked by infusion of saralasin (0. 5 microg . kg-1 . min-1). After 2 h of hypoxia, expired ventilation and alveolar ventilation progressively increased, and the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood and the difference between the arterial concentrations of strong cations and strong anions ([SID]) decreased. When the hypoxic chemoreceptor drive to breathe was abolished transiently for 30 s with 100% O2, the resultant central apneic time decreased between 0.5 and 2.5 h of hypoxia. All these adaptive responses to hypoxia were abolished by ANG II receptor block. Because plasma ANG II levels were lower during hypoxia and hypoxic release of arginine vasopressin from the pituitary into the plasma was prevented by ANG II receptor block, the brain renin-angiotensin system was likely involved. It is possible that ANG II mediates ventilatory and acid-base adaptive responses to prolonged hypoxia via alterations in ion transport to decrease [SID] in brain extracellular fluid rather than acting by a direct neural mechanism. PMID:9688673

  18. Amino acid-based cationic lipids with α-tocopherol hydrophobic tail for efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen-Jing; Zheng, Li-Ting; Su, Rong-Chuan; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2015-11-01

    In this work, three amino acid-based cationic lipids L1-L3 bearing the same α-tocopherol moiety and biodegradable ester bond linkage, but differing in the polar head-group, were prepared and applied as non-viral gene delivery vectors. The physicochemical properties such as size, zeta-potential, stability, and cellular uptake of the lipoplexes formed from lipids L1-L3 as well as the transfection efficacy (TE) were investigated. The results showed that the chemical composition of the cationic head-group clearly affects the physicochemical parameters of the amino acid-based lipids, especially the TE. Besides their low cytotoxicity, these lipoplexes also showed comparable TE to commercially available lipofectamine 2000. In particular, dipeptide lipid L3 gave excellent TE, which was 1.8 times higher than bPEI 25k in the presence of 10% serum in Hela cells. These results demonstrate the promising use of novel dipeptide lipids for safe and efficient gene delivery. PMID:25973654

  19. The glmS ribozyme cofactor is a general acid-base catalyst.

    PubMed

    Viladoms, Júlia; Fedor, Martha J

    2012-11-21

    The glmS ribozyme is the first natural self-cleaving ribozyme known to require a cofactor. The d-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) cofactor has been proposed to serve as a general acid, but its role in the catalytic mechanism has not been established conclusively. We surveyed GlcN6P-like molecules for their ability to support self-cleavage of the glmS ribozyme and found a strong correlation between the pH dependence of the cleavage reaction and the intrinsic acidity of the cofactors. For cofactors with low binding affinities, the contribution to rate enhancement was proportional to their intrinsic acidity. This linear free-energy relationship between cofactor efficiency and acid dissociation constants is consistent with a mechanism in which the cofactors participate directly in the reaction as general acid-base catalysts. A high value for the Brønsted coefficient (β ~ 0.7) indicates that a significant amount of proton transfer has already occurred in the transition state. The glmS ribozyme is the first self-cleaving RNA to use an exogenous acid-base catalyst. PMID:23113700

  20. Surface functionalization of two-dimensional metal chalcogenides by Lewis acid-base chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lei, Sidong; Wang, Xifan; Li, Bo; Kang, Jiahao; He, Yongmin; George, Antony; Ge, Liehui; Gong, Yongji; Dong, Pei; Jin, Zehua; Brunetto, Gustavo; Chen, Weibing; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Baines, Robert; Galvão, Douglas S; Lou, Jun; Barrera, Enrique; Banerjee, Kaustav; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-05-01

    Precise control of the electronic surface states of two-dimensional (2D) materials could improve their versatility and widen their applicability in electronics and sensing. To this end, chemical surface functionalization has been used to adjust the electronic properties of 2D materials. So far, however, chemical functionalization has relied on lattice defects and physisorption methods that inevitably modify the topological characteristics of the atomic layers. Here we make use of the lone pair electrons found in most of 2D metal chalcogenides and report a functionalization method via a Lewis acid-base reaction that does not alter the host structure. Atomic layers of n-type InSe react with Ti(4+) to form planar p-type [Ti(4+)n(InSe)] coordination complexes. Using this strategy, we fabricate planar p-n junctions on 2D InSe with improved rectification and photovoltaic properties, without requiring heterostructure growth procedures or device fabrication processes. We also show that this functionalization approach works with other Lewis acids (such as B(3+), Al(3+) and Sn(4+)) and can be applied to other 2D materials (for example MoS2, MoSe2). Finally, we show that it is possible to use Lewis acid-base chemistry as a bridge to connect molecules to 2D atomic layers and fabricate a proof-of-principle dye-sensitized photosensing device. PMID:26828848

  1. A Prebiotic Chemistry Experiment on the Adsorption of Nucleic Acids Bases onto a Natural Zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anizelli, Pedro R.; Baú, João Paulo T.; Gomes, Frederico P.; da Costa, Antonio Carlos S.; Carneiro, Cristine E. A.; Zaia, Cássia Thaïs B. V.; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2015-09-01

    There are currently few mechanisms that can explain how nucleic acid bases were synthesized, concentrated from dilute solutions, and/or protected against degradation by UV radiation or hydrolysis on the prebiotic Earth. A natural zeolite exhibited the potential to adsorb adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil over a range of pH, with greater adsorption of adenine and cytosine at acidic pH. Adsorption of all nucleic acid bases was decreased in artificial seawater compared to water, likely due to cation complexation. Furthermore, adsorption of adenine appeared to protect natural zeolite from thermal degradation. The C=O groups from thymine, cytosine and uracil appeared to assist the dissolution of the mineral while the NH2 group from adenine had no effect. As shown by FT-IR spectroscopy, adenine interacted with a natural zeolite through the NH2 group, and cytosine through the C=O group. A pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of adenine adsorption, which occurred faster in artificial seawaters.

  2. A Prebiotic Chemistry Experiment on the Adsorption of Nucleic Acids Bases onto a Natural Zeolite.

    PubMed

    Anizelli, Pedro R; Baú, João Paulo T; Gomes, Frederico P; da Costa, Antonio Carlos S; Carneiro, Cristine E A; Zaia, Cássia Thaïs B V; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2015-09-01

    There are currently few mechanisms that can explain how nucleic acid bases were synthesized, concentrated from dilute solutions, and/or protected against degradation by UV radiation or hydrolysis on the prebiotic Earth. A natural zeolite exhibited the potential to adsorb adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil over a range of pH, with greater adsorption of adenine and cytosine at acidic pH. Adsorption of all nucleic acid bases was decreased in artificial seawater compared to water, likely due to cation complexation. Furthermore, adsorption of adenine appeared to protect natural zeolite from thermal degradation. The C=O groups from thymine, cytosine and uracil appeared to assist the dissolution of the mineral while the NH2 group from adenine had no effect. As shown by FT-IR spectroscopy, adenine interacted with a natural zeolite through the NH2 group, and cytosine through the C=O group. A pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of adenine adsorption, which occurred faster in artificial seawaters. PMID:25754589

  3. Acid-base dysregulation and chemosensory mechanisms in panic disorder: a translational update.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, L L; Strawn, J R; Sah, R

    2015-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD), a complex anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks, represents a poorly understood psychiatric condition which is associated with significant morbidity and an increased risk of suicide attempts and completed suicide. Recently however, neuroimaging and panic provocation challenge studies have provided insights into the pathoetiology of panic phenomena and have begun to elucidate potential neural mechanisms that may underlie panic attacks. In this regard, accumulating evidence suggests that acidosis may be a contributing factor in induction of panic. Challenge studies in patients with PD reveal that panic attacks may be reliably provoked by agents that lead to acid-base dysbalance such as CO2 inhalation and sodium lactate infusion. Chemosensory mechanisms that translate pH into panic-relevant fear, autonomic, and respiratory responses are therefore of high relevance to the understanding of panic pathophysiology. Herein, we provide a current update on clinical and preclinical studies supporting how acid-base imbalance and diverse chemosensory mechanisms may be associated with PD and discuss future implications of these findings. PMID:26080089

  4. American Society of Nephrology quiz and questionnaire 2014: acid-base and electrolyte disorders.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Mitchell H; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the Annual Kidney Week Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, in 2014 the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and transplantation. Complex cases from each of these categories along with single-best-answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, program directors of United States nephrology training programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions using an Internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using audience response devices with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the audience responses and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this educational session. This article recapitulates the acid-base and electrolyte disorders portion of the session and reproduces its educational value for the readers of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:25617429

  5. Modelling of the acid base properties of two thermophilic bacteria at different growth times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Hannah T. M.; Bremer, Phil J.; McQuillan, A. James; Daughney, Christopher J.

    2008-09-01

    Acid-base titrations and electrophoretic mobility measurements were conducted on the thermophilic bacteria Anoxybacillus flavithermus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus at two different growth times corresponding to exponential and stationary/death phase. The data showed significant differences between the two investigated growth times for both bacterial species. In stationary/death phase samples, cells were disrupted and their buffering capacity was lower than that of exponential phase cells. For G. stearothermophilus the electrophoretic mobility profiles changed dramatically. Chemical equilibrium models were developed to simultaneously describe the data from the titrations and the electrophoretic mobility measurements. A simple approach was developed to determine confidence intervals for the overall variance between the model and the experimental data, in order to identify statistically significant changes in model fit and thereby select the simplest model that was able to adequately describe each data set. Exponential phase cells of the investigated thermophiles had a higher total site concentration than the average found for mesophilic bacteria (based on a previously published generalised model for the acid-base behaviour of mesophiles), whereas the opposite was true for cells in stationary/death phase. The results of this study indicate that growth phase is an important parameter that can affect ion binding by bacteria, that growth phase should be considered when developing or employing chemical models for bacteria-bearing systems.

  6. Manipulation of partially oriented hydroxyapatite building blocks to form flowerlike bundles without acid-base regulation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenliang; Wang, Zihao; Chen, Jingdi; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-06-01

    The application of hydroxyapatite (HAP) in different fields depends greatly on its morphology, composition and structure. Besides, the main inorganic building blocks of human bones and teeth are also HAP. Therefore, accurate shape and aggregation control and of hydroxyapatite particles will be of great interest. Herein, oriented bundles of flowerlike HAP nanorods were successfully prepared through hydrothermal treatment without acid-base regulation, with the mono-alkyl phosphate (MAP) and sodium citrate as surfactant and chelating agent, respectively. The prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and zeta potential, the pH value and conductivity value of suspension were characterized by pH meter and conductivity measurement. The results showed that the MAP and citrate play an important role in assembly of HAP nanorods without acid-base regulation. Citrate calcium complex could decompose slowly and release citrate ions at hydrothermal conditions. Besides, the further decomposition of citrate ions could release aconitic acid as the reaction time prolongs. Moreover, the possible scheme for the formation process was discussed in detail. PMID:26930036

  7. GhCAX3 Gene, a Novel Ca2+/H+ Exchanger from Cotton, Confers Regulation of Cold Response and ABA Induced Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    He, Liangrong; Zhang, Wenwen; He, Xin; Zhang, Xianlong; Yang, Xiyan; Zhu, Longfu

    2013-01-01

    As a second messenger, Ca2+ plays a major role in cold induced transduction via stimulus-specific increases in [Ca2+]cyt, which is called calcium signature. During this process, CAXs (Ca2+/H+ exchangers) play critical role. For the first time, a putative Ca2+/H+ exchanger GhCAX3 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. ‘YZ-1′) was isolated and characterized. It was highly expressed in all tissues of cotton except roots and fibers. This gene may act as a regulator in cotton’s response to abiotic stresses as it could be up-regulated by Ca2+, NaCl, ABA and cold stress. Similar to other CAXs, it was proved that GhCAX3 also had Ca2+ transport activity and the N-terminal regulatory region (NRR) through yeast complementation assay. Over-expression of GhCAX3 in tobacco showed less sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling stages, and the phenotypic difference between wild type (WT) and transgenic plants was more significant when the NRR was truncated. Furthermore, GhCAX3 conferred cold tolerance in yeast as well as in tobacco seedlings based on physiological and molecular studies. However, transgenic plant seeds showed more sensitivity to cold stress compared to WT during seed germination, especially when expressed in N-terminal truncated version. Finally, the extent of sensitivity in transgenic lines was more severe than that in WT line under sodium tungstate treatment (an ABA repressor), indicating that ABA could alleviate cold sensitivity of GhCAX3 seeds, especially in short of its NRR. Meanwhile, we also found that overexpression of GhCAX3 could enhance some cold and ABA responsive marker genes. Taken together, these results suggested that GhCAX3 plays important roles in the cross-talk of ABA and cold signal transduction, and compared to full-length of GhCAX3, the absence of NRR could enhance the tolerance or sensitivity to cold stress, depending on seedling’s developmental stages. PMID:23776653

  8. The role of acid-base effects on particle charging in apolar media.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew Michael; Berg, John C

    2015-06-01

    The creation and stabilization of electric charge in apolar environments (dielectric constant≈2) have been an area of interest dating back to when an explanation was sought for the occurrence of what are now known as electrokinetic explosions during the pumping of fuels. More recently attention has focused on the charging of suspended particles in such media, underlying such applications as electrophoretic displays (e.g., the Amazon Kindle® reader) and new printing devices (e.g., the HP Indigo® Digital Press). The endeavor has been challenging owing to the complexity of the systems involved and the large number of factors that appear to be important. A number of different, and sometimes conflicting, theories for particle surface charging have been advanced, but most observations obtained in the authors' laboratory, as well as others, appear to be explainable in terms of an acid-base mechanism. Adducts formed between chemical functional groups on the particle surface and monomers of reverse micelle-forming surfactants dissociate, leaving charged groups on the surface, while the counter-charges formed are sequestered in the reverse micelles. For a series of mineral oxides in a given medium with a given surfactant, surface charging (as quantified by the maximum electrophoretic mobility or zeta potential obtained as surfactant concentration is varied) was found to scale linearly with the aqueous PZC (or IEP) values of the oxides. Different surfactants, with the same oxide series, yielded similar behavior, but with different PZC crossover points between negative and positive particle charging, and different slopes of charge vs. PZC. Thus the oxide series could be used as a yardstick to characterize the acid-base properties of the surfactants. This has led directly to the study of other materials, including surface-modified oxides, carbon blacks, pigments (charge transfer complexes), and polymer latices. This review focuses on the acid-base mechanism of particle

  9. The influence of dissolved organic matter on the acid-base system of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliński, Karol; Schneider, Bernd; Hammer, Karoline; Machulik, Ulrike; Schulz-Bull, Detlef

    2014-04-01

    To assess the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the acid-base system of the Baltic Sea, 19 stations along the salinity gradient from Mecklenburg Bight to the Bothnian Bay were sampled in November 2011 for total alkalinity (AT), total inorganic carbon concentration (CT), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), and pH. Based on these data, an organic alkalinity contribution (Aorg) was determined, defined as the difference between measured AT and the inorganic alkalinity calculated from CT and pH and/or CT and pCO2. Aorg was in the range of 22-58 μmol kg- 1, corresponding to 1.5-3.5% of AT. The method to determine Aorg was validated in an experiment performed on DOM-enriched river water samples collected from the mouths of the Vistula and Oder Rivers in May 2012. The Aorg increase determined in that experiment correlated directly with the increased DOC concentration caused by enrichment of the > 1 kDa DOM fraction. To examine the effect of Aorg on calculations of the marine CO2 system, the pCO2 and pH values measured in Baltic Sea water were compared with calculated values that were based on the measured alkalinity and another variable of the CO2 system, but ignored the existence of Aorg. Large differences between measured and calculated pCO2 and pH were obtained when the computations were based on AT and CT. The calculated pCO2 was 27-56% lower than the measured value whereas the calculated pH was overestimated by more than 0.4 pH units. Since biogeochemical models are based on the transport and transformations of AT and CT, the acid-base properties of DOM should be included in calculations of the CO2 system in DOM-rich basins like the Baltic Sea. In view of our limited knowledge about the composition and acid/base properties of DOM, this is best achieved using a bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, that represents all weakly acidic functional groups present in DOM. Our preliminary results indicated that the bulk KDOM in the Baltic Sea is 2.94 · 10- 8 mol kg- 1

  10. Hypoxia and Its Acid-Base Consequences: From Mountains to Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Erik R

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia, depending upon its magnitude and circumstances, evokes a spectrum of mild to severe acid-base changes ranging from alkalosis to acidosis, which can alter many responses to hypoxia at both non-genomic and genomic levels, in part via altered hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) metabolism. Healthy people at high altitude and persons hyperventilating to non-hypoxic stimuli can become alkalotic and alkalemic with arterial pH acutely rising as high as 7.7. Hypoxia-mediated respiratory alkalosis reduces sympathetic tone, blunts hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and hypoxic cerebral vasodilation, and increases hemoglobin oxygen affinity. These effects and others can be salutary or counterproductive to tissue oxygen delivery and utilization, based upon magnitude of each effect and summation. With severe hypoxia either in the setting of profound arterial hemoglobin desaturation and reduced O2 content or poor perfusion (ischemia) at the global or local level, metabolic and hypercapnic acidosis develop along with considerable lactate formation and pH falling to below 6.8. Although conventionally considered to be injurious and deleterious to cell function and survival, both acidoses may be cytoprotective by various anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms which limit total hypoxic or ischemic-reperfusion injury. Attempts to correct acidosis by giving bicarbonate or other alkaline agents under these circumstances ahead of or concurrent with reoxygenation efforts may be ill advised. Better understanding of this so-called "pH paradox" or permissive acidosis may offer therapeutic possibilities. Rapidly growing cancers often outstrip their vascular supply compromising both oxygen and nutrient delivery and metabolic waste disposal, thus limiting their growth and metastatic potential. However, their excessive glycolysis and lactate formation may not necessarily represent oxygen insufficiency, but rather the Warburg effect-an attempt to provide a large amount

  11. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    'A major obstacle to the development of hydrothermal technology for treating DOE wastes has been a lack of scientific knowledge of solution chemistry, thermodynamics and transport phenomena. The progress over the last year is highlighted in the following four abstracts from manuscripts which have been submitted to journals. The authors also have made considerable progress on a spectroscopic study of the acid-base equilibria of Cr(VI). They have utilized novel spectroscopic indicators to study acid-base equilibria up to 380 C. Until now, very few systems have been studied at such high temperatures, although this information is vital for hydrothermal processing of wastes. The pH values of aqueous solutions of boric acid and KOH were measured with the optical indicator 2-naphthol at temperatures from 300 to 380 C. The equilibrium constant Kb-l for the reaction B(OH)3 + OH{sup -} = B(OH){sup -4} was determined from the pH measurements and correlated with a modified Born model. The titration curve for the addition of HCl to sodium borate exhibits strong acid-strong base behavior even at 350 C and 24.1 MPa. At these conditions, aqueous solutions of sodium borate buffer the pH at 9.6 t 0.25. submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Acetic Acid and HCl Acid-base titrations for the KOH-acetic acid or NH{sub 3} -acetic acid systems were monitored with the optical indicator 2-naphthoic acid at 350 C and 34 MPa, and those for the HCl;Cl- system with acridine at 380 C and up to 34 MPa (5,000 psia ). KOH remains a much stronger base than NH,OH at high temperature. From 298 K to the critical temperature of water, the dissociation constant for HCl decreases by 13 orders of magnitude, and thus, the basicity of Cl{sup -} becomes significant. Consequently, the addition of NaCl to HCl raises the pH. The pH titration curves may be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the relevant equilibrium constants and Pitzer''s formulation of the Debye- Htickel equation for the activity coefficients.'

  12. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of acid-base systems, solvated molecules and MALDI matrix molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eustis, Soren Newman

    Gas phase, mass-selected, anion photoelectron spectroscopic studies were performed on a variety of molecular systems. These studies can be grouped into three main themes: acid-base interactions, solvation, and ions of analytical interest. Acid-base interactions represent some of the most fundamental processes in chemistry. The study of these processes elucidates elementary principles such as inner and outer sphere complexes, hard and soft ions, and salt formation---to name a few. Apart from their appeal from a pedagogical standpoint, the ubiquity of chemical reactions which involve acids, bases or the resulting salts makes the study of their fundamental interactions both necessary and fruitful. With this in mind, the neutral and anionic series (NH3···HX) (X= F, Cl, Br, I) were examined experimentally and theoretically. The relatively small size of these systems, combined with the advances in computational methods, allowed our experimental results to be compared with very high level ab initio theoretical results. The synergy between theory and experiment yielded an understanding of the nature of the complexes that could not be achieved with either method in isolation. The second theme present in this body or work is molecular solvation. Solvation is a phenomenon which is present in biology, chemistry and physics. Many biological molecules do not become 'active' until they are solvated by water. Thus, the study of biologically relevant species solvated by water is one step in a bottom up approach to studying the biochemical interactions in living organisms. Furthermore, the hydration of acidic molecules in the atmosphere is what drives the formation of 'free' protons or hydronium ions which are the key players in acid driven chemistry. Here are presented two unique solvation studies, Adenine(H2O)-n and C6F6(H2O)-n, these systems are very distinct, but show somewhat similar responses to hydration. The last theme presented in this work is the electronic properties

  13. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee, Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two ABA intervention procedures, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with a structured ABA approach in a school setting. A Randomized Clinical Trial design using two groups of children, matched according to age, sex and mean length of utterance was used to compare the interventions. The data showed that the PRT approach was significantly more effective in improving targeted and untargeted areas after three months of intervention. The results are discussed in terms of variables that produce more rapid improvements in communication for children with ASD. PMID:24840596

  14. Chlorophyll a Fluorescence as a Tool in Evaluating the Effects of ABA Content and Ethylene Inhibitors on Quality of Flowering Potted Bougainvillea

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Antonio; Trivellini, Alice; Borghesi, Eva; Vernieri, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Flowering potted plants during the postproduction stage are usually stored in inadequate environmental conditions. We evaluated the effect of the most common storage conditions and treatments on two Bougainvillea cultivars after harvest and during recovery. Flowering potted Bougainvillea plants were treated with 100 mL 2 mM amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA) or 500 ppb 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) prior storage in dark at 14°C for simulating transport or storage conditions and, subsequently, transferred to growth chambers at 20°C in the light for one week for evaluating the recovery ability. The plant stress during the experiments was assessed by ethylene, ABA, and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Ethylene production was affected by temperature rather than treatments. ABA concentration declined in leaves and flowers during storage and was not affected by treatments. Fluorescence parameters appear to be very useful for screening Bougainvillea cultivars resistant to prolonged storage periods. PMID:22272178

  15. Overexpression of AtPTPA in Arabidopsis increases protein phosphatase 2A activity by promoting holoenzyme formation and ABA negatively affects holoenzyme formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Zhu, Xunlu; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    AtPTPA is a critical regulator for the holoenzyme assembling of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in Arabidopsis. Characterization of AtPTPA improves our understanding of the function and regulation of PP2A in eukaryotes. Further analysis of AtPTPA-overexpressing plants indicates that AtPTPA increases PP2A activity by promoting PP2A's AC dimer formation, thereby holoenzyme assembling. Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) reduces PP2A enzyme activity by negatively affects PP2A's AC dimer formation. Therefore, AtPTPA is a positive factor that promotes PP2A holoenzyme assembly, and ABA is a negative factor that prevents PP2A holoenzyme assembly. PMID:26633567

  16. Boronic Acid-Based Approach for Separation and Immobilization of Glycoproteins and Its Application in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojin; Xia, Ning; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Glycoproteins influence a broad spectrum of biological processes including cell-cell interaction, host-pathogen interaction, or protection of proteins against proteolytic degradation. The analysis of their glyco-structures and concentration levels are increasingly important in diagnosis and proteomics. Boronic acids can covalently react with cis-diols in the oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins to form five- or six-membered cyclic esters. Based on this interaction, boronic acid-based ligands and materials have attracted much attention in both chemistry and biology as the recognition motif for enrichment and chemo/biosensing of glycoproteins in recent years. In this work, we reviewed the progress in the separation, immobilization and detection of glycoproteins with boronic acid-functionalized materials and addressed its application in sensing. PMID:24141187

  17. Charge transport and structural dynamics in carboxylic-acid-based deep eutectic mixtures.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Philip J; Cosby, Tyler; Holt, Adam P; Benson, Roberto S; Sangoro, Joshua R

    2014-08-01

    Charge transport and structural dynamics in the 1:2 mol ratio mixture of lidocaine and decanoic acid (LID-DA), a model deep eutectic mixture (DEM), have been characterized over a wide temperature range using broad-band dielectric spectroscopy and depolarized dynamic light scattering. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements were performed to assess the degree of proton transfer between the neutral parent molecules. From our detailed analysis of the dielectric spectra, we have determined that this carboxylic-acid-based DEM is approximately 25% ionic at room temperature. Furthermore, we have found that the characteristic diffusion rate of mobile charge carriers is practically identical to the rate of structural relaxation at all measured temperatures, indicating that fast proton transport does not occur in LID-DA. Our results demonstrate that while LID-DA exhibits the thermal characteristics of a DEM, its charge transport properties resemble those of a protic ionic liquid. PMID:25025600

  18. Complexation Constants of Ubiquinone,0 and Ubiquinone,10 with Nucleosides and Nucleic Acid Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahawi, Kassim Y.; Shanshal, Muthana

    2008-02-01

    UV spectrophotometric measurements were done on mixtures of the ubiquinones Ub,0 and Ub,10 in their monomeric form (c < 10-5 mol/l) with the nucleosides; adenosine, cytidine, 2'-desoxyadenosine, 2'-desoxy-quanosine, guanosine and thymidine, as well as the nucleic acid bases; adenine, cytosine, hypoxanthine, thymine and uracil. Applying the Liptay method, it was found that both ubiquinones form 1 : 1 interaction complexes with the nucleic acid components. The complexation constants were found in the order of 105 mol-1. The calculated ΔG values were negative (˜-7.0 kcal/mol), suggesting a favoured hydrogen bridge formation. This is confirmed by the positive change of the entropy ΔS. The complexation enthalpies ΔH for all complexes are negative, suggesting exothermal interactions.

  19. Laser restoring the glass surface treated with acid-based paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strusevich, Anastasia V.; Poltaev, Yuriy A.; Sinev, Dmitrii A.

    2013-11-01

    The modern city facilities are often being attacked by graffiti artists, and increasingly vandals leave "tags" using paints, which compound based on acids, hydrofluoric or acetic commonly. These paints not only ink the surface, but also increase the surface roughness, and such impact can not be corrected by conventional cleaning. Thus, it was requested to develop technology that would not only clean the surface, but also to restore its structure by smoothing out irregularities and roughness formed after exposure in acid. In this work we investigated the effect of restoring the surface of the glass, spoiled by acid-based paint and then treated with CO2-laser. During the experiments, it was found that it is real to create the single-step laser surface restoring technology.

  20. Identification of gallic acid based glycoconjugates as a novel tubulin polymerization inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Kapil; Hamidullah; Singh, Kartikey; Arun, Ashutosh; Shukla, Mahendra; Srivastava, Neetika; Ashraf, Raghib; Sharma, Abhisheak; Mahar, Rohit; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Sarkar, Jayanta; Ramachandran, Ravishankar; Lal, Jawahar; Konwar, Rituraj; Tripathi, Rama Pati

    2016-01-28

    A novel class of gallic acid based glycoconjugates were designed and synthesized as potential anticancer agents. Among all the compounds screened, compound 2a showed potent anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. The latter resulted in tubulin polymerization inhibition and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In addition, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching studies of the compound with tubulin confirmed direct interaction of compounds with tubulin. Molecular modeling studies revealed that it binds at the colchicine binding site in tubulin. Further, 2a also exhibited potent in vivo anticancer activity in LA-7 syngeneic rat mammary tumor model. Current data projects its strong candidature to be developed as anticancer agent. PMID:26659548