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Sample records for acid-based cationic surfactants

  1. Spectral and Acid-Base Properties of Hydroxyflavones in Micellar Solutions of Cationic Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkovska, N. A.; Barvinchenko, V. N.; Fedyanina, T. V.; Rugal', A. A.

    2014-09-01

    It has been shown that the spectral characteristics (intensity, position of the absorption band) and the acid-base properties in a series of structurally similar hydroxyflavones depend on the concentration of the cationic surfactants miramistin and decamethoxin in aqueous solutions, and the extent of their changes is more pronounced for hydrophobic quercetin than for hydrophilic rutin. For the first time, we have determined the apparent dissociation constants of quercetin and rutin in solutions of these cationic surfactants (pKa1) over a broad concentration range and we have established that they decrease in the series water-decamethoxin-miramistin.

  2. Spontaneous formation of biocompatible vesicles in aqueous mixtures of amino acid-based cationic surfactants and SDS/SDBS.

    PubMed

    Shome, Anshupriya; Kar, Tanmoy; Das, Prasanta K

    2011-02-01

    The spontaneous formation of vesicles by six amino acid-based cationic surfactants and two anionic surfactants (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) is reported. The head-group structure of the cationic surfactants is minutely altered to understand their effect on vesicle formation. To establish the regulatory role of the aromatic group in self-aggregation, both aliphatic and aromatic side-chain-substituted amino acid-based cationic surfactants are used. The presence of aromaticity in any one of the constituents favors the formation of vesicles by cationic/anionic surfactant mixtures. The formation of vesicles is primarily dependent on the balance between the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of both cationic and anionic surfactants. Vesicle formation is characterized by surface tension, fluorescence anisotropy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and phase diagrams. These vesicles are thermally stable up to 65 °C, determined by temperature-dependent fluorescence anisotropy. According to the MTT assay, these catanionic vesicles are nontoxic to NIH3T3 cells, thus indicating their wider applicability as delivery vehicles to cells. Among the six cationic surfactants examined, tryptophan- and tyrosine-based surfactants have the ability to reduce HAuCl(4) to gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which is utilized to obtain in-situ-synthesized GNPs entrapped in vesicles without the need for any external reducing agent. PMID:21275029

  3. Amino acid-based surfactants – do they deserve more attention?

    PubMed

    Bordes, Romain; Holmberg, Krister

    2015-08-01

    The 20 standard amino acids (together with a few more that are not used in the biosynthesis of proteins) constitute a versatile tool box for synthesis of surfactants. Anionic, cationic and zwitterionic amphiphiles can be prepared and surfactants with several functional groups can be obtained by the proper choice of starting amino acid. This review gives examples of procedures used for preparation and discusses important physicochemical properties of the amphiphiles and how these can be taken advantage of for various applications. Micelles with a chiral surface can be obtained by self-assembly of enantiomerically pure surfactants and such supramolecular chirality can be utilized for asymmetric organic synthesis and for preparation of mesoporous materials with chiral pores. Surfactants based on amino acids with two carboxyl groups are effective chelating agents and can be used as collectors in mineral ore flotation. A surfactant based on cysteine readily oxidizes into the corresponding cystine compound, which can be regarded as a gemini surfactant. The facile and reversible cysteine-cystine transformation has been taken advantage of in the design of a switchable surfactant. A very attractive aspect of surfactants based on amino acids is that the polar head-group is entirely natural and that the linkage to the hydrophobic tail, which is often an ester or an amide bond, is easily cleaved. The rate of degradation can be tailored by the structure of the amphiphile. The ester linkage in betaine ester surfactants is particularly susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis and this surfactant type can be used as a biocide with short-lived action. This paper is not intended as a full review on the topic. Instead it highlights concepts that are unique to amino acid-based surfactants and that we believe can have practical implications. PMID:25846628

  4. Hydrodynamic size of DNA/cationic gemini surfactant complex as a function of surfactant structure.

    PubMed

    Devínsky, Ferdinand; Pisárcik, Martin; Lacko, Ivan

    2009-06-01

    The present study deals with the determination of hydrodynamic size of DNA/cationic gemini surfactant complex in sodium bromide solution using the dynamic light scattering method. Cationic gemini surfactants with polymethylene spacer of variable length were used for the interaction with DNA. The scattering experiments were performed at constant DNA and sodium bromide concentrations and variable surfactant concentration in the premicellar and micellar regions as a function of surfactant spacer length. It was found that the DNA conformation strongly depends on the polymethylene spacer length as well as on the surfactant concentration relative to the surfactant critical micelle concentration. Gemini surfactant molecules with 4 methylene groups in the spacer were found to be the least efficient DNA compacting agent in the region above the surfactant cmc. Gemini molecules with the shortest spacer length (2 methylene groups) and the longest spacer length (8 methylene groups) investigated showed the most efficient DNA compaction ability. PMID:19592712

  5. Investigation of surfactant mediated acid-base charging of mineral oxide particles dispersed in apolar systems.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew M; Berg, John C

    2012-12-21

    The current work examines the role of acid-base properties on particle charging in apolar media. Manipulating the polarity and magnitude of charge in such systems is of growing interest to a number of applications. A major hurdle to the implementation of this technology is that the mechanism(s) of particle charging remain a subject of debate. The authors previously conducted a study of the charging of a series of mineral oxide particles dispersed in apolar systems that contained the surfactant AOT. It was observed that there was a correlation between the particle electrophoretic mobility and the acid-base nature of the particle, as characterized by aqueous point of zero charge (PZC) or the isoelectric point (IEP). The current study investigates whether or not a similar correlation is observed with other surfactants, namely, the acidic Span 80 and the basic OLOA 11000. This is accomplished by measuring the electrophoretic mobility of a series of mineral oxides that are dispersed in Isopar-L containing various concentrations of either Span 80 or OLOA 11000. The mineral oxides used have PZC values that cover a wide range of pH, providing a systematic study of how particle and surfactant acid-base properties impact particle charge. It was found that the magnitude and polarity of particle surface charge varied linearly with the particle PZC for both surfactants used. In addition, the point at which the polarity of charge reversed for the basic surfactant OLOA 11000 was shifted to a pH of approximately 8.5, compared to the previous result of about 5 for AOT. This proves that both surfactant and particle acid-base properties are important, and provides support for the theory of acid-base charging in apolar media. PMID:23157688

  6. Solubilization of pentanol by cationic surfactants and binary mixtures of cationic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.E.

    1993-12-31

    The research reported here has included studies of the solubilization of pentanol in hexadecylpyridinium chloride (CPC), trimethyletetradecylammonium chloride (C{sub 14}Cl), benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C{sub 14}BzCl), benzyldimethylhexadecylpyridinium chloride (C{sub 16}BzCl), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and binary mixtures of CPC + C{sub 16}BzCl and C{sub 14}Cl + C{sub 14}BzCl. Rather than using calorimetric methods, this project will employ headspace chromatography to measure solubilization of pentanol over a wide range of solute concentrations. While not yielding as much thermodynamic data as calorimetry, headspace chromatography is a more direct measure of the extent of solubilization. Using headspace chromatography, is a more direct measure of the extent of solubilization. Using headspace chromatography, this study will seek to determine whether strongly synergistic mixture ratios exist in the case of binary cationic surfactant systems. There are two equilibria in the pentanol-water-surfactant system: (1) The pentanol solubilized in micelles is in equilibrium with the monomeric pentanol in solution, and (2) the monomeric pentanol is in equilibrium with the pentanol in the vapor above the solution. To establish the link between the two equilibria, a sample of the vapor above pure liquid pentanol must be collected, in order to find the activity of pentanol in solution. Also, a calibration curve for various concentrations of pentanol in solution. From this type of data it is possible to infer both the concentration of pentanol solubilized in micelles and the concentrations of pentanol in the ``bulk`` solution outside the micelles. The method is equally applicable to systems containing a single surfactant as well as mixtures of surfactants.

  7. Physicochemical properties of oleic acid-based partially fluorinated gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Umemoto, Naoki; Aburai, Kenichi; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Endo, Takeshi; Kitiyanan, Boonyarach; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    We have developed oleic acid-based partially fluorinated gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups. The fluorocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via a -CH(2)CH(2)OCO- unit, and the carboxylic acid headgroups are introduced to the cis double bond of oleic acid via -OCOCH(2)CH(2)- units. The aqueous solution properties of these surfactants were studied at pH 9 in the presence of 10 mmol dm–3 NaCl by means of static surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering measurements. The resulting surface tension data demonstrate that the partially fluorinated gemini surfactants exhibit excellent surface activity in their dilute aqueous solutions. In addition, the surfactants are suggested to form micellar aggregates 2–4 nm in diameter. We also studied the aqueous temperature-concentration phase diagrams of the partially fluorinated gemini surfactants (disodium salts) on the basis of visual observations (through a crossed polarizer), polarized optical microscopy, and small angle X-ray scattering measurements. Several phase states including micellar solution phase, hexagonal phase, bicontinuous cubic phase, and lamellar phase were observed along with the coexistence of these phases in certain regions. Assemblies with lesser positive curvature tend to be formed with increasing surfactant concentration, increasing temperature, and increasing fluorocarbon chain length. A comparison of the phase diagrams of the partially fluorinated and hydrogenated surfactant systems suggests that close molecular packing is inhibited within the assemblies of the partially fluorinated surfactants because of the limited miscibility between the fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon units. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic report focusing on the temperature-concentration phase diagrams of (partially) fluorinated gemini surfactants over a wide range of compositions and temperatures. PMID:24712085

  8. Precipitation of mixtures of anionic and cationic surfactants; 3: Effect of added nonionic surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Shiau, B.J.; Harwell, J.H.; Scamehorn, J.F. . Inst. for Applied Surfactant Research)

    1994-10-15

    The precipitation of an anionic surfactant by a cationic surfactant in the presence of a nonionic surfactant is examined. The precipitation domains for sodium dodecyl sulfate/dodecyl-pyridinium chloride were measured over a wide range of surfactant concentrations as a function of nonylphenol polyethoxylate concentration. Increasing the nonylphenol polyethoxylate concentration decreases the tendency for precipitation to occur. A model for predicting precipitation domains in ternary surfactant mixtures has been developed and verified experimentally. The model allows the nonionic surfactant to affect the precipitation behavior only by lowering the critical micelle concentration of the mixture. Small deviations between theory and experiments along part of the anionic-rich micelle boundary result from adsorption of SDS on the precipitate which gives the microcrystals a negative charge and prevents their growth to a visible size.

  9. Surface-Active and Performance Properties of Cationic Imidazolinium Surfactants Based on Different Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajpai, Divya; Tyagi, V. K.

    Imidazoline surfactants belong to the category of cationic surfactants. Cationic surfactants are often quaternary nitrogen salts and are widely used both in nonaqueous systems and in applications such as textile softeners, dispersants, and emulsifiers. This study describes the surface-active properties of cationic imidazolinium surfactants synthesized from different fatty acids. Their laundry performance in combination with nonionic surfactants like detergency, foaming property, softening property, rewettability etc., is also emphasized.

  10. Ordered DNA-Surfactant Hybrid Nanospheres Triggered by Magnetic Cationic Surfactants for Photon- and Magneto-Manipulated Drug Delivery and Release.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Wang, Yitong; Wei, Guangcheng; Feng, Lei; Dong, Shuli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-12-14

    Here we construct for the first time ordered surfactant-DNA hybrid nanospheres of double-strand (ds) DNA and cationic surfactants with magnetic counterion, [FeCl3Br](-). The specificity of the magnetic cationic surfactants that can compact DNA at high concentrations makes it possible for building ordered nanospheres through aggregation, fusion, and coagulation. Cationic surfactants with conventional Br(-) cannot produce spheres under the same condition because they lose the DNA compaction ability. When a light-responsive magnetic cationic surfactant is used to produce nanospheres, a dual-controllable drug-delivery platform can be built simply by the applications of external magnetic force and alternative UV and visible light. These nanospheres obtain high drug absorption efficiency, slow release property, and good biocompatibility. There is potential for effective magnetic-field-based targeted drug delivery, followed by photocontrollable drug release. We deduce that our results might be of great interest for making new functional nucleic-acid-based nanomachines and be envisioned to find applications in nanotechnology and biochemistry. PMID:26571346

  11. Flexible polyelectrolyte conformation in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, C. B.; Kuhn, P. S.; Diehl, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we have studied the conformation of flexible polyelectrolyte chains in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactant molecules. We developed a simple theoretical model for the formation of the polyelectrolyte-cationic surfactant complexes and mixed micelles formed by cationic and anionic surfactant molecules, in the framework of the Debye-Hückel-Bjerrum-Manning and Flory theories, with the hydrophobic interaction included explicitly as an effective short-ranged attraction between the surfactant hydrocarbon tails. This simple model allows us to calculate the extension of the polyelectrolyte-cationic surfactant complexes as a function of the anionic surfactant concentration, for different types of cationic and anionic surfactant molecules. A discrete conformational transition from a collapsed state to an elongated coil was found, for all surfactant chain lengths we have considered, in agreement with the experimental observations for the unfolding of ​DNA-cationic surfactant complexes.

  12. α-Gel formation by amino acid-based gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Ohno, Kiyomi; Nomura, Kazuyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kazutami; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-07-01

    Ternary mixtures being composed of surfactant, long-chain alcohol, and water sometimes form a highly viscous lamellar gel with a hexagonal packing arrangement of their crystalline hydrocarbon chains. This molecular assembly is called "α-crystalline phase" or "α-gel". In this study, we have characterized α-gels formed by the ternary mixtures of amino acid-based gemini surfactants, 1-hexadecanol (C16OH), and water. The surfactants used in this study were synthesized by reacting dodecanoylglutamic acid anhydride with alkyl diamines and abbreviated as 12-GsG-12 (s: the spacer chain length of 2, 5, and 8 methylene units). An amino acid-based monomeric surfactant, dodecanoylglutamic acid (12-Glu), was also used for comparison. At a fixed water concentration the melting point of the α-gel increased with increasing C16OH concentration, and then attained a saturation level at the critical mole ratio of 12-GsG-12/C16OH = 1/2 under the normalization by the number of hydrocarbon chains of the surfactants. This indicates that, to obtain the saturated α-gel, a lesser amount of C16OH is required for the gemini surfactants than for the monomeric one (the critical mole ratio of 12-Glu/C16OH = 1/3). Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements demonstrated an increase in the long-range d-spacing of the saturated α-gels in the order 12-Glu <12-G8G-12 < 12-G5G-12 < 12-G2G-12. In the three gemini surfactant systems, the decreased spacer chain length resulted in the increased maximum viscosity and elastic modulus of the saturated α-gels at a given water concentration. This is caused by the decreased amount of excess water being present outside the α-gel structure (or the increased amount of water incorporated between the surfactant-alcohol bilayers). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on the formation of α-gel in gemini surfactant systems. PMID:24912111

  13. Switchable Pickering emulsions stabilized by silica nanoparticles hydrophobized in situ with a conventional cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue; Jiang, Jianzhong; Liu, Kaihong; Cui, Zhenggang; Binks, Bernard P

    2015-03-24

    A stable oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by negatively charged silica nanoparticles hydrophobized in situ with a trace amount of a conventional cationic surfactant can be rendered unstable on addition of an equimolar amount of an anionic surfactant. The emulsion can be subsequently restabilized by adding a similar trace amount of cationic surfactant along with rehomogenization. This destabilization-stabilization behavior can be cycled many times, demonstrating that the Pickering emulsion is switchable. The trigger is the stronger electrostatic interaction between the oppositely charged ionic surfactants compared with that between the cationic surfactant and the (initially) negatively charged particle surfaces. The cationic surfactant prefers to form ion pairs with the added anionic surfactant and thus desorbs from particle surfaces rendering them surface-inactive. This access to switchable Pickering emulsions is easier than those employing switchable surfactants, polymers, or surface-active particles, avoiding both the complicated synthesis and the stringent switching conditions. PMID:25736518

  14. Solubilization of pentanol by micelles of cationic surfactants and binary mixtures of cationic surfactants in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.E.; Uchiyama, Hirotaka; Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Scamehorn, J.F. )

    1994-07-01

    The solubilization of pentanol in aqueous solutions of individual cationic surfactants and binary mixtures of cationic surfactants at 20[degree]C has been investigated using head-space chromatography. Complete solubilization isotherms have been determined for pentanol in micelles of the surfactants hexadecyl-pyridinium chloride (CPC), trimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C[sub 14]Cl), benzyldimethyltetradecyl-ammonium chloride (C[sub 14]BzCl), benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (C[sub 16]BzCl), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C[sub 16]Cl). In every case, a large decrease in the solubilization equilibrium (or partition) constant occurs on increasing the mole fraction of pentanol in the micelles (X); a factor of 3-5 reduction in the equilibrium constant occurs as X increases from nearly zero to nearly 0.9. Solubilization results have also been determined for mixed micelles of C[sub 14]Cl and C[sub 14]BzCl (system I) and CPC and C[sub 16]BzCl (system II). Large positive synergistic effects reported previously for system I and large antisynergistic effects for system II are not confirmed by the results of the present studies. For both of these mixed micellar systems, small decreases in the value of the solubilization equilibrium constant, relative to values predicted with an assumed additivity relationship, are observed. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Interactions of cationic trimeric, gemini and monomeric surfactants with trianionic curcumin in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meina; Wu, Chunxian; Tang, Yongqiang; Fan, Yaxun; Han, Yuchun; Wang, Yilin

    2014-05-21

    Interactions of trianionic curcumin (Cur(3-)) with a series of cationic surfactants, monomeric surfactant dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), dimeric surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (12-6-12) and trimeric surfactant tri(dodecyldimethylammonioacetoxy)diethyltriamine trichloride (DTAD), have been investigated in aqueous solution of pH 13.0. Surface tension and spectral measurements indicate that the cationic surfactants display a similar surfactant concentration dependent interaction process with Cur(3-), involving three interaction stages. At first the three cationic surfactants electrostatically bind on Cur(3-) to form the surfactant-Cur(3-) complex. Then the bound and unbound cationic surfactants with Cur(3-) aggregate into surfactant-Cur(3-) mixed micelles through hydrophobic interactions above the critical micelle concentration of the surfactants (CMCC) in the presence of Cur(3-). Finally excess unbound surfactants self-assemble into micelles like those without Cur(3-). For all the three surfactants, the addition of Cur(3-) only decreases the critical micelle concentration of 12-6-12 but does not affect the critical micelle concentration of DTAB and DTAD. As the oligomeric degree of surfactants increases, the intermolecular interaction of the cationic surfactants with Cur(3-) increases and the surfactant amount needed for Cur(3-) encapsulation decreases. Compared with 12-6-12, either the weaker interaction of DTAB with Cur(3-) or stronger interaction of DTAD with Cur(3-) limits the stability or solubility of Cur(3-) in surfactant micelles. Therefore, gemini surfactant 12-6-12 is the best choice to effectively suppress Cur(3-) degradation at very low concentrations. Isothermal titration microcalorimetry, surface tension and (1)H NMR results reveal that 12-6-12 and Cur(3-) form a (12-6-12)2-Cur(3-) complex and start to form micelles at extremely decreased concentrations, where either 12-6-12 or Cur(3-) works as a bridge

  16. Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-11-01

    The Vanadium (V) cation structures in mixed acid based electrolyte solution were analysed by density functional theory (DFT) based computational modelling and 51V and 35Cl Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Vanadium (V) cation exists as di-nuclear [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound at higher vanadium concentrations (≥1.75M). In particular, at high temperatures (>295K) this di-nuclear compound undergoes ligand exchange process with nearby solvent chlorine molecule and forms chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound. This chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be resistant to the de-protonation reaction which is the initial step in the precipitation reaction in Vanadium based electrolyte solutions. The combined theoretical and experimental approach reveals that formation of chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be central to the observed higher thermal stability of mixed acid based Vanadium (V) electrolyte solutions.

  17. Amino acid-based cationic lipids with α-tocopherol hydrophobic tail for efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen-Jing; Zheng, Li-Ting; Su, Rong-Chuan; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2015-11-01

    In this work, three amino acid-based cationic lipids L1-L3 bearing the same α-tocopherol moiety and biodegradable ester bond linkage, but differing in the polar head-group, were prepared and applied as non-viral gene delivery vectors. The physicochemical properties such as size, zeta-potential, stability, and cellular uptake of the lipoplexes formed from lipids L1-L3 as well as the transfection efficacy (TE) were investigated. The results showed that the chemical composition of the cationic head-group clearly affects the physicochemical parameters of the amino acid-based lipids, especially the TE. Besides their low cytotoxicity, these lipoplexes also showed comparable TE to commercially available lipofectamine 2000. In particular, dipeptide lipid L3 gave excellent TE, which was 1.8 times higher than bPEI 25k in the presence of 10% serum in Hela cells. These results demonstrate the promising use of novel dipeptide lipids for safe and efficient gene delivery. PMID:25973654

  18. Adsorption of mixed cationic-nonionic surfactant and its effect on bentonite structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaxin; Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Yong; Wu, Huayong; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of cationic-nonionic mixed surfactant onto bentonite and its effect on bentonite structure were investigated. The objective was to improve the understanding of surfactant behavior on clay mineral for its possible use in remediation technologies of soil and groundwater contaminated by toxic organic compounds. The cationic surfactant used was hexadecylpyridinium bromide (HDPB), and the nonionic surfactant was Triton X-100 (TX100). Adsorption of TX100 was enhanced significantly by the addition of HDPB, but this enhancement decreased with an increase in the fraction of the cationic surfactant. Part of HDPB was replaced by TX100 which decreased the adsorption of HDPB. However, the total adsorbed amount of the mixed surfactant was still increased substantially, indicating the synergistic effect between the cationic and nonionic surfactants. The surfactant-modified bentonite was characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric-derivative thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses. Surfactant intercalation was found to decrease the bentonite specific surface area, pore volume, and surface roughness and irregularities, as calculated by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The co-adsorption of the cationic and nonionic surfactants increased the ordering conformation of the adsorbed surfactants on bentonite, but decreased the thermal stability of the organobentonite system. PMID:23513697

  19. USE OF CATIONIC SURFACTANTS TO MODIFY AQUIFER MATERIALS TO REDUCE THE MOBILITY OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cationic surfactants can be used to modify surfaces of soils and subsurface materials to promote sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) and retard their migration. or example, cationic surfactants could be injected into an aquifer downgradient from a source of HOC contam...

  20. USE OF CATIONIC SURFACTANT TO MODIFY SOIL SURFACES TO PROMOTE SORPTION AND RETARD MIGRATION OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cationic surfactants can be used to modify surfaces of soils and subsurface materials to promote adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC). atch and column experiments were performed to investigate this phenomenon with the cationic surfactant dodecylpyridinium (DP), a ser...

  1. USE OF CATIONIC SURFACTANTS TO MODIFY SOIL SURFACES TO PROMOTE SORPTION AND RETARD MIGRATION OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cationic surfactants can be used to modify surfaces of soils and subsurface materials to promote adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC). Batch and column experiments were performed to investigate this phenomenon with the cationic surfactant dodecylpyridinium (DP), a se...

  2. Ecotoxicity and biodegradability of antielectrostatic dicephalic cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Piętka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Frąckowiak, Renata; Maliszewska, Irena; Kołwzan, Barbara; Wilk, Kazimiera A

    2012-11-01

    Four series of dicephalic cationic surfactants, considered as new antielectrostatic agents have been investigated in order to establish their toxicity and biodegradability. Among them N,N-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamine)propyl]alkylamides, N,N-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamine)propyl]alkylamide dihydrochlorides, N,N-bis[3,3'-(trimethylammonio)propyl]alkylamide dibromides and N,N-bis[3,3'-(trimethylammonio)propyl]alkylamide dimethylsulphates with different hydrophobic chain length (n-C(9)H(19) to n-C(15)H(31)) and type of counterion (chloride, bromide and methylsulfate) have been studied. The inhibitory effect against microorganisms has been examined using model gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. None of the tested surfactants have shown antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula glutinis) at a concentration below 1000 μg mL(-1), however some of them were moderately active against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis). The Microtox® test was successfully applied to measure EC(50) values of the studied dicephalic cationic surfactants. Their toxicity to Vibrio fischeri depended upon the alkanoyl chain length with the EC(50) values in a range of 2.6-980 mg L(-1). N,N-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamine)propyl]alkylamide dihydrochlorides 2a-b and N,N-bis[3,3'-(trimethylammonio)propyl]alkylamide dibromides 3a-b comprising n-decanoyl and n-dodecanoyl hydrophobic tails appeared to be the least toxic. Furthermore, the biodegradability under aerobic conditions of 2a-b, 3a-b was evaluated using OECD Method 301F. According to the obtained results 2a, 3a-3b can be considered as almost readily biodegradable and they are not expected to be persistent in the environment. Additionally, partial biodegradation was observed for 2b, indicating its possible biodegradation in wastewater treatment systems. PMID:22743183

  3. Interaction between DNA and cationic surfactants: effect of DNA conformation and surfactant headgroup.

    PubMed

    Dias, Rita S; Magno, Luís M; Valente, Artur J M; Das, Dibyendu; Das, Prasanta K; Maiti, Souvik; Miguel, Maria G; Lindman, Björn

    2008-11-20

    The interactions between DNA and a number of different cationic surfactants, differing in headgroup polarity, were investigated by electric conductivity measurements and fluorescence microscopy. It was observed that, the critical association concentration (cac), characterizing the onset of surfactant binding to DNA, does not vary significantly with the architecture of the headgroup. However, comparing with the critical micelle concentration (cmc) in the absence of DNA, it can be inferred that the micelles of a surfactant with a simple quaternary ammonium headgroup are much more stabilized by the presence of DNA than those of surfactants with hydroxylated head-groups. In line with previous studies of polymer-surfactant association, the cac does not vary significantly with either the DNA concentration or its chain length. On the other hand, a novel observation is that the cac is much lower when DNA is denaturated and in the single-stranded conformation, than for the double-helix DNA. This is contrary to expectation for a simple electrostatically driven association. Thus previous studies of polyelectrolyte-surfactant systems have shown that the cac decreases strongly with increasing linear charge density of the polyion. Since double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) has twice as large linear charge density as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), the stronger binding in the latter case indicates an important role of nonelectrostatic effects. Both a higher flexibility of ssDNA and a higher hydrophobicity due to the exposed bases are found to play a role, with the hydrophobic interaction argued to be more important. The significance of hydrophobic DNA-surfactant interaction is in line with other observations. The significance of nonelectrostatic effects is also indicated in significant differences in cac between different surfactants for ssDNA but not for dsDNA. For lower concentrations of DNA, the conductivity measurements presented an "anomalous" feature, i.e., a second inflection point

  4. Effect of electrolytes on wettability of glass surface using anionic and cationic surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rajib Ghosh; Paria, Santanu

    2014-01-01

    Wetting behavior of a flat glass surface using pure nonionic, anionic, and cationic surfactants solutions has been studied by the dynamic contact angle (Wilhelmy plate) measurement technique. The advancing contact angle increases with the increasing concentration of surfactant and the value is maximum in the presence of cationic surfactant CTAB. The effect of different electrolytes in the presence of ionic surfactants was also studied to see the wetting behavior in the presence of electrolytes. The presence of electrolytes on ionic surfactant solutions significantly enhance the contact angle at very low concentration, which in turn lead to reduction in ionic surfactant requirement by more than 90% to achieve a particular contact angle. The effectiveness of electrolyte highly depends on the valance of counter ion. The reduction of ionic surfactant requirement is mostly useful for different applications such as flotation, and colloidal stability to reduce the production cost as well as environmental pollution. PMID:24183426

  5. Enhanced spectrophotometric determination of Losartan potassium based on its physicochemical interaction with cationic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Laila; Abdel-Aziz, Lobna; Gaied, Mariam

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of Losartan potassium (LST K), an angiotensin-II receptor (type AT1) antagonist, in presence of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The physicochemical interaction of LST K with CTAB was investigated. The effect of cationic micelles on the spectroscopic and acid-base properties of LST K was studied at pH 7.4. The binding constant (Kb) and the partition coefficient (Kx) of LST K-CTAB were 1.62 × 105 M-1 and 1.38 × 105; respectively. The binding of LST K to CTAB micelles implied a shift in drug acidity constant (ΔpKa = 0.422). The developed method is linear over the range 0.5-28 μg mL-1. The accuracy was evaluated and was found to be 99.79 ± 0.509% and the relative standard deviation for intraday and interday precision was 0.821 and 0.963; respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine LST K in pharmaceutical formulations.

  6. Enhanced spectrophotometric determination of Losartan potassium based on its physicochemical interaction with cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Laila; Abdel-Aziz, Lobna; Gaied, Mariam

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of Losartan potassium (LST K), an angiotensin-II receptor (type AT1) antagonist, in presence of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The physicochemical interaction of LST K with CTAB was investigated. The effect of cationic micelles on the spectroscopic and acid-base properties of LST K was studied at pH 7.4. The binding constant (Kb) and the partition coefficient (Kx) of LST K-CTAB were 1.62×10(5) M(-1) and 1.38×10(5); respectively. The binding of LST K to CTAB micelles implied a shift in drug acidity constant (ΔpKa=0.422). The developed method is linear over the range 0.5-28 μg mL(-1). The accuracy was evaluated and was found to be 99.79±0.509% and the relative standard deviation for intraday and interday precision was 0.821 and 0.963; respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine LST K in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25315864

  7. Thermodynamics of cationic surfactant sorption onto natural clinoptilolite

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E.J.; Bowman, R.S.; Carey, J.W.

    1998-10-15

    Sorption enthalpies of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) as monomers and micelles and tetraethylammonium bromide (TEA) were used with surfactant, counterion, and co-ion sorption isotherms to infer the conformation, sorption mechanism, and relative stability of the sorbed surfactants on natural clinoptilolite. The average value of the sorption enthalpy was {minus}10.38 kJ/mol for monomers, {minus}11.98 kJ/mol for micelles, and +3.03 kJ/mol for TEA. Sorption of monomers produced a lower sorption plateau than equivalent micelle sorption (maxima 145 mmol/kg, 225 mmol/kg). Analysis of the sorption data demonstrated a change in the sorption mechanism at the external cation exchange capacity (ECEC) of clinoptilolite. Sorption data from below and above the ECEC were fit to a simple polynomial model and the Gibbs free energy of sorption ({Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0}) and sorption entropies were calculated. Resultant values of {Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0} were {minus}9.27 and {minus}14.38 kJ/mol for HDTMA monomers and micelles, respectively, for sorption below the ECEC, and {minus}16.11 and {minus}23.10 kJ/mol, respectively, for sorption above the ECEC. The value for TEA was {minus}1.04 kJ/mol, indicating weaker sorption than for HDTMA. Monomer sorption to clinoptilolite exceeded the ECEC, even when the solution concentration was below the critical micelle concentration. Hydrophobic (tail-tail) components of {Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0} were the driving force for sorption of HDTMA, both below and above the ECEC. A significant kinetic effect was observed in the sorption isotherms with a period of rapid sorption followed by slow equilibration requiring 7 days to achieve steady state for HDTMA; TEA equilibration occurred within 24 h.

  8. Soil particle-size dependent partitioning behavior of pesticides within water-soil-cationic surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Keller, Arturo A

    2008-08-01

    Cationic surfactants have been proposed for enhanced sorption zones to contain hydrophobic organic compound (HOC) contamination. Benzalkonium chloride (BC), a cationic surfactant, was selected to study the particle-size dependent sorption behavior of the surfactant and its role in the immobilization of two hydrophobic pesticides (atrazine and diuron) within soil-water-surfactant systems for this application. Five different soils were considered in this study. Our results showed significant particle-size dependent behavior for surfactant sorption and pesticide immobilization in the presence of the sorbed cationic surfactant. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the bulk soils and their size fractions (clay, silt, and sand fractions) determined BC sorption capacity. In the absence of BC the sand fractions were the least effective sorbent for the pesticides compared with silts and clays. However, at relatively low BC mass sorbed (<10,000mg/kg) to any of the soil fractions, well below sorption saturation, the sand fractions became more effective sorbents for either pesticide than the clay and silt fractions. The pesticide partitioning coefficient onto sorbed BC (K(ss)) was not constant. Particle CEC, availability of CEC sites for sorption of the cationic surfactant, and the amount of the BC sorbed determined the phase of K(ss). The maximum K(ss) occurred before BC saturation sorption capacity was reached and at different % CEC occupancy for the different size fractions. For the clay fractions, the maximum K(ss) occurred at lower % CEC occupancy ( approximately 30-40%) than for the silt and sand fractions. The maximal K(ss) for the sand fractions occurred at the highest % CEC occupancy among all fractions ( approximately 50-60%). These findings suggest that for an in situ surfactant-enhanced sorption zone it may be better to operate well below the saturation sorption of the cationic surfactant. This would enhance sorption of the HOCs onto the immobile fractions (silt

  9. Structural and Energetic Studies on the Interaction of Cationic Surfactants and Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Brinatti, César; Huang, John; Berry, Richard M; Tam, Kam C; Loh, Watson

    2016-01-26

    We report a comprehensive study on the interactions between cationic surfactant homologues CnTAB (n = 12, 14, and 16) with negatively charged cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). By combining different techniques, such as isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), surface tension, light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and fluorescence anisotropy measurements, we identified two different driving forces for the formation of surface induced micellar aggregates. For the C12TAB surfactant, a surfactant monolayer with the alkyl chains exposed to the water is formed via electrostatic interactions at low concentration. At a higher surfactant concentration, micellar aggregates are formed at the CNC surface. For the C14TAB and C16TAB systems, micellar aggregates are formed at the CNC surface at a much lower surfactant concentration via electrostatic interactions, followed by hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains. At higher surfactant concentration, charge neutralization and association of the surfactant decorated CNC aggregates led to flocculation. PMID:26731488

  10. Morphological study of cationic polymer-anionic surfactant complex precipitated in solution during the dilution process.

    PubMed

    Miyake, M; Kakizawa, Y

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the phase diagrams and the morphology of the complexes that were formed by cationic polymers, cationic cellulose (CC) and cationic dextran (CD), and by anionic surfactant-based sodium poly(oxyethylene) lauryl ether sulfate (LES). The anionic charge of the LES-based surfactants was changed by adding an amphoteric surfactant, lauryl amidopropyl betaine acetate (LPB), or a nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene stearyl ether (C18EO25). We discuss the relationship between the complex aggregation process and the morphology of the precipitated complexes. The morphologies of CC complex aggregates, which precipitated during the dilution process in a model shampoo solution, changed from membranous forms to mesh-like forms by decreasing the charges of both the CC and the surfactant. Their touch on hair in the rinsing process changed from sticky to smooth and velvety, corresponding to their rheological properties. In contrast, CD complex aggregates had a membranous form and a smooth touch independently of the charges on the polymer and surfactant. These results suggested that the control of the charges of both the polymer and surfactant and the choice of polymer structure are important for excellent conditioning effects upon rinsing with shampoo. PMID:20716437

  11. Preparation, Physicochemical Properties, and Transfection Activities of Tartaric Acid-Based Cationic Lipids as Effective Nonviral Gene Delivery Vectors.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ning; Jia, Yi-Yang; Hou, Yi-Lin; Ma, Xi-Xi; He, Yong-Sheng; Li, Chen; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Bang-Le

    2016-07-01

    In this work two novel cationic lipids using natural tartaric acid as linking backbone were synthesized. These cationic lipids were simply constructed by tartaric acid backbone using head group 6-aminocaproic acid and saturated hydrocarbon chains dodecanol (T-C12-AH) or hexadecanol (T-C16-AH). The physicochemical properties, gel electrophoresis, transfection activities, and cytotoxicity of cationic liposomes were tested. The optimum formulation for T-C12-AH and T-C16-AH was at cationic lipid/dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) molar ratio of 1 : 0.5 and 1 : 2, respectively, and N/P charge molar ratio of 1 : 1 and 1 : 1, respectively. Under optimized conditions, T-C12-AH and T-C16-AH showed effective gene transfection capabilities, superior or comparable to that of commercially available transfecting reagent 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethyl)carbamoyl]cholesterol (DC-Chol) and N-[2,3-dioleoyloxypropyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP). The results demonstrated that the two novel tartaric acid-based cationic lipids exhibited low toxicity and efficient transfection performance, offering an excellent prospect as nonviral vectors for gene delivery. PMID:27118165

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: USE OF CATIONIC SURFACTANTS TO MODIFY AQUIFER MATERIALS TO REDUCE THE MOBILITY OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cationic surfactants can be used to modify surfaces of soils and subsurface materials to promote sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) and retard their migration. For example, cationic surfactants could be injected into an aquifer downgradient from a source of HOC conta...

  13. The interaction of a model active pharmaceutical with cationic surfactant and the subsequent design of drug based ionic liquid surfactants.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Sara; Brown, Paul; Ferguson, Steven; Khan, Rafaqat Ali; Ismail, Bushra; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Sayed, Murtaza; Khan, Asad Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Interactions of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) with surfactants remain an important research area due to the need to improve drug delivery systems. In this study, UV-Visible spectrophotometry was used to investigate the interactions between a model low molecular weight hydrophilic drug sodium valproate (SV) and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Changes in the spectra of SV were observed in pre- and post-micellar concentrations of CTAB. The binding constant (Kb) values and the number of drug molecules encapsulated per micelle were calculated, which posed the possibility of mixed micelle formation and strong complexation between SV and CTAB. These results were compared to those of a novel room temperature surface active ionic liquid, which was synthesized by the removal of inorganic counterions from a 1:1 mixture of CTAB and SV. In this new compound the drug now constitutes a building block of the carrier and, as such, has considerably different surfactant properties to its building blocks. In addition, enhanced solubility in a range of solvents, including simulated gastric fluid, was observed. The study provides valuable experimental evidence concerning the performance of drug based surfactant ionic liquids and how their chemical manipulation, without altering the architecture of the API, leads to control of surfactant behavior and physicochemical properties. In turn, this should feed through to improved and controlled drug release rates and delivery mechanisms, and the prevention of precipitation or formation of polymorphs typical of crystalline form APIs. PMID:27472069

  14. New ester based gemini surfactants: the effect of different cationic headgroups on micellization properties and viscosity of aqueous micellar solution.

    PubMed

    Bhadani, Avinash; Tani, Misako; Endo, Takeshi; Sakai, Kenichi; Abe, Masahiko; Sakai, Hideki

    2015-07-15

    A new series of ester functionalized cationic gemini surfactants having different cationic headgroups (i.e. piperidinium, pyrrolidinium, morpholinium and quaternary ammonium) have been synthesized and characterized using NMR and Mass spectroscopy. These new gemini surfactants were investigated for their micellization and viscosity properties using surface tension, conductivity, fluorescence and rheology thechniques. The physicochemical properties of the aqueous surfactant system were influenced by polarity, size and the nature of cationic headgroups as the surface, thermodynamic and viscosity properties of these gemini surfactants were found to be dependent on the type of cationic headgroup. The current research finding establishes the structure-property relationship of the surfactant molecule specifically taking into account the dominant role displayed by the nature of the cationic headgroup. PMID:26145125

  15. Adsorption of cationic surfactants and their effects on the interfacial properties of quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Renhe

    This dissertation is primarily concerned with an investigation of the interfacial behavior of natural quartz in aqueous solution where the adsorption of various cationic surfactants is involved. The broad objective of this research was to delineate the mechanisms involved in the adsorption of cationic surfactants using experimental determination of adsorption isotherms, zeta potentials, suspension turbidity, contact angles, induction times, as well as Hallimond tube flotation response. With dodecylpyridinium chloride as the model surfactant, four-region adsorption isotherms were observed and found to correlate well with zeta potential, suspension stability and contact angle measurements. Calculations of adsorption energy showed strong specific adsorption in Region I, probably resulting from H-bonding of the pyridinium headgroup to active sites on the silica. As a result of hemimicelle formation at the solid-liquid interface in Region II, pronounced increases in the adsorption density, zeta potential, and surface hydrophobicity were observed. The stability of quartz suspensions showed a significant drop in this region. In Region III, the zeta potential is reversed and the stability of the suspensions begins to increase again. In this region, the surface hydrophobicity of quartz decreases with further surfactant adsorption, suggesting reverse orientation of the adsorbed surfactant ions. In Region IV, the adsorption isotherm and zeta potential reach a plateau when the surfactant concentration reaches the CMC, and the surface becomes completely hydrophilic. The molecular structure of surfactant ions (chain length, number of hydrocarbon chains and number of headgroups) was found to significantly affect their surface activity. Increasing the hydrocarbon chain length of the surfactant lowers the concentration of surfactant required for minimum suspension stability, as well as redispersion. The adsorption is stronger for surfactants whose structure permits hydrogen bonding

  16. Shape Control of Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials Templated with Dual Cationic Surfactants and Their Antibacterial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Nanjing; Chen, Xuan; Jayawardana, Kalana W.; Wu, Bin; Sundhoro, Madanodaya; Yan, Mingdi

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous silica nanomaterials of different shapes (film, platelet, sphere, rod) were synthesized simply by tuning the mole ratio of dual cationic surfactant templates, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and tetrabutylammonium iodine (TBAI). The film showed the most potent antibacterial activities against mycobacteria. PMID:26364920

  17. A cationic surfactant assisted selective etching strategy to hollow mesoporous silica spheres.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaoliang; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Zhaohui; Liu, Pengxin; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2011-04-01

    Hollow mesoporous silica spheres have recently attracted increasing attention. However, effective synthesis of uniform hollow mesoporous spheres with controllable well-defined pore structures for fundamental research and practical applications has remained a significant challenge. In this work, a straightforward and effective "cationic surfactant assisted selective etching" synthetic strategy was developed for the preparation of high-quality hollow mesoporous silica spheres with either wormhole-like or oriented mesoporous shell. The as-prepared hollow mesoporous silica spheres have large surface area, high pore volume, and controllable structure parameters. Our experiments demonstrated that cationic surfactant plays critical roles in forming the hollow mesoporous structure. A formation mechanism involving the etching of solid SiO(2) accelerated by cationic surfactant followed by the redeposition of dissolved silica species directed by cationic surfactant is proposed. Furthermore, the strategy can be extended as a general strategy to transform silica-coated composite materials into yolk-shell structures with either wormhole-like or oriented mesoporous shell. PMID:21305093

  18. The interactions between cationic cellulose and Gemini surfactant in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shaojing; Cheng, Fa; Chen, Yu; Wei, Yuping

    2016-05-01

    Due to the extensive application of cationic cellulose in cosmetic, drug delivery and gene therapy, combining the improvement effect of surfactant-cellulose complexes, to investigate the properties of cellulose in aqueous solution is an important topic from both scientific and technical views. In this study, the phase behavior, solution properties and microstructure of Gemini surfactant sodium 5-nonyl-2-(4-(4-nonyl-2-sulfonatophenoxy)butoxy)phenyl sulfite (9-4-9)/cationic cellulose (JR400, the ammonium groups are directly bonded to the hydroxyethyl substituent with a degree substitution of 0.37) mixture was investigated using turbidity, fluorescence spectrophotometer and shear rheology techniques. As a control, the interaction of corresponding monovalent surfactant, sodium 2-ethoxy-5-nonylbenzenesulfonate (9-2) with JR400 in aqueous solution was also studied. Experimental results showed that 9-4-9/JR400 mixture has lower critical aggregation concentration (CAC) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) (about one order of magnitude) than 9-2/JR400 mixture. A low concentration of Gemini surfactant 9-4-9 appeared to induce an obvious micropolarity and viscosity value variation of the mixture, while these effects required a high concentration of corresponding monovalent one. Furthermore, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements illuminated the formation and collapse procedure of network structure of the 9-4-9/JR400 mixture, which resulted in the increase and decrease of viscosity. These results suggest that the molecular structure of the surfactant has a great effect on its interaction with cationic cellulose. Moreover, the Gemini surfactant/cationic cellulose mixture may be used as a potencial stimuli-responsive drug delivery vector which not only load hydrophilic drugs, but also deliver hydrophobic substances. PMID:26876997

  19. Effect of cationic/anionic organic surfactants on evaporation induced self assembled tin oxide nanostructured films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun Khun, Kamalpreet; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Tin oxide nanostructures with well defined morphologies have been obtained through an evaporation induced self assembly process. The technique has been employed using an ultrasonic nebulizer for production of aersol and its subsequent deposition onto a heated glass substrate. The precursor used for aersol production was modified by introducing cationic and anionic surfactants namely cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate respectively. The effect of surfactants on the structural, electrical and optical properties of self assembled tin oxide nanostructures were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electroscope microscopy, two probe technique and photoluminiscence studies. The results reveal that high concentration of surfactants in the precursor solution leads to reduction in crystallite size with significant changes in the morphology of tin oxide nanostructures. Photoluminiscence studies of the nanostructures show emissions in the visible region which exhibit marked changes in the intensities upon variation of surfactants in the precursor solutions.

  20. Complexes between high charge density cationic polyelectrolytes and anionic single- and double-tail surfactants.

    PubMed

    Mantzaridis, C; Mountrichas, G; Pispas, S

    2009-05-21

    Polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes formed between well-defined linear flexible polyelectrolytes, namely, quaternized poly[3,5-bis(dimethylaminomethylene)hydroxystyrene] (Q-N-PHOS), bearing two cationic sites on each repeating unit, and two different anionic surfactants, namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with one hydrocarbon tail and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) with two hydrocarbon chains, are studied by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, electrophoretic, dynamic and static light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. Depending on the surfactant state in initial solutions (i.e., below or above nominal critical micelle concentration, cmc) and final (-/+) charge ratio, self-assembly in nanoparticles of variable size, stability, and effective charge is possible. Spherical, rather polydispserse complexes are formed in all cases. Critical aggregation concentrations (cac) depend on the surfactant type, while hydrophobicity of the main polyelectrolyte chain plays a role in colloidal stability of the complex nanoparticles. PMID:19388679

  1. Molecular conformation-controlled vesicle/micelle transition of cationic trimeric surfactants in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxian; Hou, Yanbo; Deng, Manli; Huang, Xu; Yu, Defeng; Xiang, Junfeng; Liu, Yu; Li, Zhibo; Wang, Yilin

    2010-06-01

    Two star-like trimeric cationic surfactants with amide groups in spacers, tri(dodecyldimethylammonioacetoxy)diethyltriamine trichloride (DTAD) and tri(dodecyldimethylammonioacetoxy)tris(2-aminoethyl)amine trichloride (DDAD), have been synthesized, and the aggregation behavior of the surfactants in aqueous solution has been investigated by surface tension, electrical conductivity, isothermal titration microcalorimetry, dynamic light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and NMR techniques. Typically, both the surfactants form vesicles just above critical aggregation concentration (CAC), and then the vesicles transfer to micelles gradually with an increase of the surfactant concentration. It is approved that the conformation of the surfactant molecules changes in this transition process. Just above the CAC, the hydrophobic chains of the surfactant molecules pack more loosely because of the rigid spacer and intramolecular electrostatic repulsion in the three-charged headgroup. With the increase of the surfactant concentration, hydrophobic interaction becomes strong enough to pack the hydrophobic tails tightly and turn the molecular conformation into a pyramid-like shape, thus leading to the vesicle to micelle transition. PMID:20426428

  2. Temperature-Induced Aggregate Transitions in Mixtures of Cationic Ammonium Gemini Surfactant with Anionic Glutamic Acid Surfactant in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiuling; Tian, Maozhang; Wang, Yilin

    2016-02-01

    The aggregation behaviors of the mixtures of cationic gemini surfactant 1,4-bis(dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium bromide)-2,3-butanediol (C12C4(OH)2C12Br2) and anionic amino acid surfactant N-dodecanoylglutamic acid (C12Glu) in aqueous solution of pH = 10.0 have been studied. The mixture forms spherical micelles, vesicles, and wormlike micelles at 25 °C by changing mixing ratios and/or total surfactant concentration. Then these aggregates undergo a series of transitions upon increasing the temperature. Smaller spherical micelles transfer into larger vesicles, vesicles transfer into solid spherical aggregates and then into larger irregular aggregates, and entangled wormlike micelles transfer into branched wormlike micelles. Moreover, the larger irregular aggregates and branched micelles finally lead to precipitation and clouding phenomenon, respectively. All these transitions are thermally reversible, and the transition temperatures can be tuned by varying the mixing ratios and/or total concentration. These temperature-dependent aggregate transitions can be elucidated on the basis of the temperature-induced variations in the dehydration, electrostatic interaction, and hydrogen bonds of the headgroup area and in the hydrophobic interaction between the hydrocarbon chains. The results suggest that the surfactants carrying multiple binding sites will greatly improve the regulation ability and temperature sensitivity. PMID:26750978

  3. Hydrogels of sodium alginate in cationic surfactants: Surfactant dependent modulation of encapsulation/release toward Ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Suraya; Chat, Oyais Ahmad; Maswal, Masrat; Ashraf, Uzma; Rather, Ghulam Mohammad; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad

    2015-11-20

    The interaction of cetyltrimethylammoium bromide (CTAB) and its gemini homologue (butanediyl-1,4-bis (dimethylcetylammonium bromide), 16-4-16 with biocompatible polymer sodium alginate (SA) has been investigated in aqueous medium. Addition of K2CO3 influences viscoelastic properties of surfactant impregnated SA via competition between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Viscosity of these polymer-surfactant systems increases with increase in concentration of K2CO3, and a cryogel is formed at about 0.5M K2CO3 concentration. The thermal stability of gel (5% SA+0.5M K2CO3) decreases with increase in surfactant concentration, a minimum is observed with increase in 16-4-16 concentration. The impact of surfactant addition on the alginate structure vis-à-vis its drug loading capability and release thereof was studied using Ibuprofen (IBU) as the model drug. The hydrogel with 16-4-16 exhibits higher IBU encapsulation and faster release in comparison to the one containing CTAB. This higher encapsulation-cum-faster release capability has been related to micelle mediated solubilization and greater porosity of the hydrogel with gemini surfactant. PMID:26344266

  4. Effect of cation exchange on surfactant-enhanced solubilization of trichloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, J. A.; Sawyer, T. E.; Schroth, M. H.; Humphrey, M. D.; Istok, J. D.

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop the single-well push-pull test as a diagnostic tool for assessing the potential for cation exchange to adversely affect the phase behavior of sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate surfactant (Aerosol MA 80-I) and its solubilization of trichloroethene (TCE) in the subsurface. Laboratory push-pull tests were conducted on a model natural aquifer sediment collected from a TCE-contaminated field site and a test solution consisting of 36,800 mg/l (3.7 wt.%) sulfosuccinate, 100,000 mg/l (10 wt.%) isopropanol, and 3200 mg/l (0.32 wt.%) KBr. Laboratory experiments were designed to simulate conditions occurring during single-well, "push-pull" tests. In batch experiments conducted in the presence of excess TCE, the test solution gave a Winsor Type I system with an enhanced aqueous TCE solubility of 26,700 mg/l and a solution density of 1.000 g/cm 3. The sulfosuccinate surfactant was transported conservatively in sediment packs containing no TCE. However, increasing concentrations of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ resulting from cation exchange caused the TCE solubilization potential of the injected surfactant to exceed values predicted from the solubilization isotherm. Sulfosuccinate surfactant transport was strongly retarded in sediment packs containing 5 vol.% residual TCE because cation exchange resulted in the formation of a Winsor Type II system, which resulted in the partitioning of the sulfosuccinate surfactant into the residual TCE phase. Conservative sulfosuccinate transport was observed in a separate sediment pack containing 5 vol.% residual TCE when a 130 meq/l Na + pre-flush was used to reduce quantities of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in the sediment pack prior to sulfosuccinate injection. The results of this study emphasize the importance of cation exchange on the performance of surfactant-enhanced TCE solubilization and demonstrate the utility of the push-pull test for predicting the potentially deleterious effects of cation exchange on surfactant phase

  5. Effects of Surfactants on the Improvement of Sludge Dewaterability Using Cationic Flocculants

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Jun; Teng, Houkai; Zhao, Chun; Zhao, Chuanliang; Liao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the cationic surfactant (cationic cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB) on the improvement of the sludge dewaterability using the cationic flocculant (cationic polyacrylamide, CPAM) were analyzed. Residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid (DS) content, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), zeta potential, floc size, and settling rate were investigated, respectively. The result showed that the CTAB positively affected the sludge conditioning and dewatering. Compared to not using surfactant, the DS and the settling rate increased by 8%–21.2% and 9.2%–15.1%, respectively, at 40 mg·L−1 CPAM, 10×10−3 mg·L−1 CTAB, and pH 3. The residual turbidities of the supernatant and SRF were reduced by 14.6%–31.1% and 6.9%–7.8% compared with turbidities and SRF without surfactant. Furthermore, the release of sludge EPS, the increases in size of the sludge flocs, and the sludge settling rate were found to be the main reasons for the CTAB improvement of sludge dewatering performance. PMID:25347394

  6. Effects of surfactants on the improvement of sludge dewaterability using cationic flocculants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongjun; Zheng, Huaili; Zhai, Jun; Teng, Houkai; Zhao, Chun; Zhao, Chuanliang; Liao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the cationic surfactant (cationic cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB) on the improvement of the sludge dewaterability using the cationic flocculant (cationic polyacrylamide, CPAM) were analyzed. Residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid (DS) content, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), zeta potential, floc size, and settling rate were investigated, respectively. The result showed that the CTAB positively affected the sludge conditioning and dewatering. Compared to not using surfactant, the DS and the settling rate increased by 8%-21.2% and 9.2%-15.1%, respectively, at 40 mg·L-1 CPAM, 10×10-3 mg·L-1 CTAB, and pH 3. The residual turbidities of the supernatant and SRF were reduced by 14.6%-31.1% and 6.9%-7.8% compared with turbidities and SRF without surfactant. Furthermore, the release of sludge EPS, the increases in size of the sludge flocs, and the sludge settling rate were found to be the main reasons for the CTAB improvement of sludge dewatering performance. PMID:25347394

  7. A cationic azobenzene-surfactant-modified graphene hybrid: unique photoresponse and electrochemical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu; Bao, Lin; Ou, Encai; Peng, Chang; Wang, Weimao; Xu, Weijian

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant-modified graphene hybrids containing azobenzene groups were for the first time prepared, and the electrochemical performance was investigated. The hybrids were obtained by electrostatic interactions between cationic azobenzene-surfactants and negatively charged graphene oxide in water. The electrostatic interactions, chemical structure and photoresponse of the hybrids were measured by using zeta potential values, fluorescence spectra, FTIR, XPS, XRD, SEM, UV-Vis absorption, AFM and Raman spectra. The electrochemical performance was estimated using cyclic voltammetry. The results show that strong electrostatic interactions exist between the azobenzene surfactants and graphene oxide. Notably, this azobenzene-graphene hybrid can self-assemble into aggregation structures in aqueous solution. Besides, the self-assembly can be reversibly controlled by ultraviolet light (365 nm) and blue light (455 nm) irradiation. This process is driven by the photoinduced polarity change of the cationic azobenzene surfactant and is responsible for the graphene hybrids' electrochemical performance. It is the first example of the reversible self-assembly of graphene driven by light irradiation.Surfactant-modified graphene hybrids containing azobenzene groups were for the first time prepared, and the electrochemical performance was investigated. The hybrids were obtained by electrostatic interactions between cationic azobenzene-surfactants and negatively charged graphene oxide in water. The electrostatic interactions, chemical structure and photoresponse of the hybrids were measured by using zeta potential values, fluorescence spectra, FTIR, XPS, XRD, SEM, UV-Vis absorption, AFM and Raman spectra. The electrochemical performance was estimated using cyclic voltammetry. The results show that strong electrostatic interactions exist between the azobenzene surfactants and graphene oxide. Notably, this azobenzene-graphene hybrid can self-assemble into aggregation structures in aqueous

  8. Synthesis of high quality MCM-48 with binary cationic-nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Quanzhi; Wang, Lina; Chu, Jinglong; Qu, Jinkui; Li, Shaohua; Qi, Tao

    2010-05-18

    Highly ordered MCM-48 was synthesized in the hydrothermal system of a mixture of cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) monooctylphenyl ether (Tx-100) using water glass as the silicon source. The effect of various factors, such as the amount of surfactant, CTAB/Tx-100, Si source, crystallization temperature, and crystallization time, on the synthesis were discussed in detail. The local effective surfactant packing parameter theory and the charge balance theory were used to explain the reason that various factors can affect the product structure reasonably. Especially, the role of Tx-100 was expounded. The optimum synthesis conditions for MCM-48 were obtained. PMID:20225814

  9. Unique role of ionic liquid [bmin][BF 4] during curcumin-surfactant association and micellization of cationic, anionic and non-ionic surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Digambara; Barakat, Christelle

    2011-09-01

    Hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroburate, modified the properties of aqueous surfactant solutions associated with curcumin. Because of potential pharmaceutical applications as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic agent, curcumin has received ample attention as potential drug. The interaction of curcumin with various charged aqueous surfactant solutions showed it exists in deprotonated enol form in surfactant solutions. The nitro and hydroxyl groups of o-nitrophenol interact with the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of the enol form of curcumin by forming ground state complex through hydrogen bonds and offered interesting information about the nature of the interactions between the aqueous surfactant solutions and curcumin depending on charge of head group of the surfactant. IL[bmin][BF 4] encouraged early formation of micelle in case of cationic and anionic aqueous surfactant solutions, but slightly prolonged micelle formation in the case of neutral aqueous surfactant solution. However, for curcumin IL [bmin][BF 4] favored strong association (7-fold increase) with neutral surfactant solution, marginally supported association with anionic surfactant solution and discouraged (˜2-fold decrease) association with cationic surfactant solution.

  10. Removal of cationic heavy metal from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chi K; Park, Donghee; Woo, Seung H; Park, Jong M

    2009-05-30

    To increase their capacity to adsorb heavy metals, activated carbons were impregnated with the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), or dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium (DSS). Surfactant-impregnated activated carbons removed Cd(II) at up to 0.198 mmol g(-1), which was more than an order of magnitude better than the Cd(II) removal performance of activated carbon without surfactant (i.e., 0.016 mmol g(-1)) even at optimal pH (i.e., pH 6). The capacity of the activated carbon to adsorb Cd(II) increased in proportion to the quantity of surfactant with which they were impregnated. The kinetics of the adsorption of Cd(II) onto the surfactant-impregnated activated carbon was best described by a pseudo-second-order model, and was described better by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm than by the Langmuir isotherm. The surface charge of activated carbon was negative in all pH ranges tested (2-6). These results indicate that surface modification with anionic surfactant could be used to significantly enhance the capacity of activated carbon to adsorb cations. PMID:19022570

  11. Mutual Lewis acid-base interactions of cations and anions in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Holzweber, Markus; Lungwitz, Ralf; Doerfler, Denise; Spange, Stefan; Koel, Mihkel; Hutter, Herbert; Linert, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Solute properties are known to be strongly influenced by solvent molecules due to solvation. This is due to mutual interaction as both the properties of the solute and of the solvent strongly depend on each other. The present paper is based on the idea that ionic liquids are cations solvated by anions and anions solvated by cations. To show this (in this system strongly pronounced) interaction the long time established donor-acceptor concept for solvents and ions in solution by Viktor Gutmann is extended to ionic liquids. A number of solvent parameters, such as the Kamlet-Abboud-Taft and the Dimroth-Reichardt E(T) scale for ionic liquids neglect this mutual influence, which, however, seems to be in fact necessary to get a proper description of ionic liquid properties. It is shown how strong such parameters vary when the influence of the counter ion is taken into account. Furthermore, acceptor and donor numbers for ionic liquids are presented. PMID:23180598

  12. Modulation of pyridinium cationic lipid-DNA complex properties by pyridinium gemini surfactants and its impact on lipoplex transfection properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Lees, Julia; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Brailoiu, Eugen; Madesh, Muniswamy; Wunder, Stephanie L; Ilies, Marc A

    2014-02-01

    The study presents the effects of blending a cationic gemini surfactant into cationic lipid bilayers and its impact on the plasmid DNA compaction and delivery process. Using nanoDSC, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, and electrophoretic mobility measurements, together with transfection (2D- and 3D-) and viability assays, we identified the main physicochemical parameters of the lipid bilayers, liposomes, and lipoplexes that are affected by the gemini surfactant addition. We also correlated the cationic bilayer composition with the dynamics of the DNA compaction process and with transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity, and the internalization mechanism of the resultant nucleic acid complexes. We found that the blending of gemini surfactant into the cationic bilayers fluidized the supramolecular assemblies, reduced the amount of positive charge required to fully compact the plasmid DNA and, in certain cases, changed the internalization mechanism of the lipoplexes. The transfection efficiency of select ternary lipoplexes derived from cationic gemini surfactants and lipids was several times superior to the transfection efficiency of corresponding binary lipoplexes, also surpassing standard transfection systems. The overall impact of gemini surfactants into the formation and dynamic of cationic bilayers was found to depend heavily on the presence of colipids, their nature, and amount present in lipoplexes. The study confirmed the possibility of combining the specific properties of pyridinium gemini surfactants and cationic lipids synergistically to obtain efficient synthetic transfection systems with negligible cytotoxicity useful for therapeutic gene delivery. PMID:24377350

  13. Modulation of pyridinium cationic lipid-DNA complex properties by pyridinium gemini surfactants and its impact on lipoplex transfection properties

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Lees, Julia; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Brailoiu, Eugen; Madesh, Muniswamy; Wunder, Stephanie L.; Ilies, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    The study presents the effects of blending a cationic gemini surfactant into cationic lipid bilayers and its impact towards plasmid DNA compaction and delivery process. Using nanoDSC, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility measurements, together with transfection (2D- and 3D-) and viability assays, we identified the main physicochemical parameters of the lipid bilayers, liposomes and lipoplexes that are affected by the gemini surfactant addition. We also correlated the cationic bilayer composition with the dynamics of the DNA compaction process, and with transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity and internalization mechanism of the resultant nucleic acid complexes. We found that blending of gemini surfactant into the cationic bilayers fluidized the supramolecular assemblies, reduced the amount of positive charge required to fully compact the plasmid DNA and, in certain cases, changed the internalization mechanism of the lipoplexes. Transfection efficiency of select ternary lipoplexes derived from cationic gemini surfactants and lipids was several times superior to transfection efficiency of corresponding binary lipoplexes, also surpassing standard transfection systems. The overall impact of gemini surfactants into the formation and dynamic of cationic bilayers was found to depend heavily on the presence of co-lipids, their nature and amount present into lipoplexes. The study confirmed the possibility of combining the specific properties of pyridinium gemini surfactants and cationic lipids synergistically for obtaining efficient synthetic transfection systems with negligible cytotoxicity useful for therapeutic gene delivery. PMID:24377350

  14. Aggregation behavior of a tetrameric cationic surfactant in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanbo; Han, Yuchun; Deng, Manli; Xiang, Junfen; Wang, Yilin

    2010-01-01

    A star-shaped tetrameric quaternary ammonium surfactant PATC, which has four hydrophobic chains and charged hydrophilic headgroups connected by amide-type spacer group, has been synthesized in this work. Surface tension, electrical conductivity, ITC, DLS, and NMR have been used to investigate the relationship between its chemical structure and its aggregation properties. Interestingly, a large size distribution around 75 nm is observed below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of PATC, and the large size distribution starts to decrease beyond the cmc and finally transfers to a small size distribution. It is proved that the large size premicellar aggregates may display network-like structure, and the size decrease beyond the cmc is the transition of the network-like aggregates to micelles. The possible reason is that intramolecular electrostatic repulsion among the charged headgroups below the cmc leads to a star-shaped molecular configuration, which may form the network-like aggregates through intermolecular hydrophobic interaction between hydrocarbon chains, while the hydrophobic effect becomes strong enough to turn the molecular configuration into pyramid-like shape beyond the cmc, which make the transition of network-like aggregates to micelles available. PMID:19947615

  15. Cationic surfactants for control of fresh- and saltwater mollusks in nuclear cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.M.; Mallen, E.; Lehmann, F.

    1991-11-01

    One result of the release of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Letter 89-13, Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment, was the heightened awareness of the nuclear industry to the problems of macrofouling in heat exchange systems. The principal mollusk species that contribute to freshwater macrofouling problems are Asiatic Clam (southern United States) and Zebra Mussel (Great Lakes). The predominant saltwater fouling mollusks are the Blue Mussel (Pacific, northern Atlantic), Ribbed Mussel (southern Atlantic, Gulf Coast), and American Oyster (Atlantic, Gulf Coast). The nuclear community's awareness of macrofouling problems and the ineffectiveness of intermittent chlorination programs have led to the development of several chemical control technologies for eliminating macrofouling organism infestation. One technology that has proven effective for the control of macrofouling organisms is the periodic addition of a combination of two cationic charged surfactants, specifically, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (QUAT) and dodecyl guanidine hydrochloride (DGH). Experience with the cationic surfactants at several nuclear power plants is reported.

  16. Comparison between the interactions of the cationic surfactant DODAB with xanthan and galactomannan.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Gabriel A T; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Pontarolo, Roberto; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2015-01-22

    The interactions of the cationic surfactant DODAB with anionic xanthan (XAN) and nonionic galactomannan (GMC) polysaccharides in solution were investigated using tensiometry, differential scanning microcalorimetry (μ-DSC), zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques and by the calculated thermodynamic parameters of ΔG(ves)(0), ΔG(ads)(0), Γ(max) and a(min). The surfactant formed large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) that aggregated with both the polymers in solution. Increasing DODAB concentrations resulted in greater and greater DODAB-XAN aggregates, high turbidity and even precipitation, while DODAB-GMC aggregates remained equal sized, clear solution and no precipitation observed. Further addition of DODAB to XAN solution was able to resuspend the precipitates. The interactions with both polysaccharides resulted in a more spontaneous adsorption of the DODAB-polymer aggregates at the air/solution interface with lower surfactant population. PMID:25439922

  17. Anaerobic biodegradability and inhibitory effects of some anionic and cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Armendáriz, Beatriz; Moreno, Yésica Mayett; Monroy-Hermosillo, Oscar; Guyot, Jean Pierre; González, Rosa O

    2010-09-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability and inhibitory effects on the methane production of three different surfactants, two anionic: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), and a cationic surfactant: trialkyl-methylammonium chloride (TMAC), were evaluated with two different anaerobic sludges, granular and flocculent. Five different concentrations of the surfactants, 5, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/L, were tested. SLS was biodegraded at concentrations of 5, 50 and 100 mg/L with flocculent sludge and at 100 and 250 mg/L with granular sludge. However an inhibitory effect on methane production was observed in both sludges at 500 mg/L. The results indicate that SDBS was not biodegradable under anoxic conditions. TMAC was slightly degraded 50 and 100 mg/L with the flocculent sludge, and from 100 to 500 mg/L with the granular sludge. PMID:20686749

  18. Nano ZnO structures synthesized in presence of anionic and cationic surfactant under hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagavathi, T.; Geetha, D.

    2012-12-01

    Uniform ZnO nano structures are synthesized in the presence of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and cationic surfactant, cetyl tri methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) at 100 °C using NaOH as the reactant. The particle size, morphology and structure of the nano ZnO particles are collected by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Rod and cone shaped ZnO nano structure is observed. It may vary in morphology from pure ZnO structure due to the presence of surfactants. The results show that there is an extrinsic relation between the morphology of the samples. Based on the relation, we proposed that there might be two kinds of interactions between SDBS and CTAB with ZnO particles, i.e., inter- and intra-interactions.

  19. Superamphiphilic nanocontainers based on the resorcinarene - Cationic surfactant system: Synergetic self-assembling behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynanova, Gulnara A.; Bekmukhametova, Alina M.; Kashapov, Ruslan R.; Ziganshina, Albina Yu.; Zakharova, Lucia Ya.

    2016-05-01

    Self-organization in the mixed system based on water-soluble aminomethylated calix[4]arene with sulfonatoethyl groups at the lower rim and classical cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide has been studied by the methods of tensiometry, conductometry, spectrophotometry, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering. The values of the critical association concentration, the size and zeta potential values, and the solubilization capacity of mixed aggregates toward the hydrophobic probe (Sudan I) were determined.

  20. A cationic azobenzene-surfactant-modified graphene hybrid: unique photoresponse and electrochemical behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Bao, Lin; Ou, Encai; Peng, Chang; Wang, Weimao; Xu, Weijian

    2015-12-14

    Surfactant-modified graphene hybrids containing azobenzene groups were for the first time prepared, and the electrochemical performance was investigated. The hybrids were obtained by electrostatic interactions between cationic azobenzene-surfactants and negatively charged graphene oxide in water. The electrostatic interactions, chemical structure and photoresponse of the hybrids were measured by using zeta potential values, fluorescence spectra, FTIR, XPS, XRD, SEM, UV-Vis absorption, AFM and Raman spectra. The electrochemical performance was estimated using cyclic voltammetry. The results show that strong electrostatic interactions exist between the azobenzene surfactants and graphene oxide. Notably, this azobenzene-graphene hybrid can self-assemble into aggregation structures in aqueous solution. Besides, the self-assembly can be reversibly controlled by ultraviolet light (365 nm) and blue light (455 nm) irradiation. This process is driven by the photoinduced polarity change of the cationic azobenzene surfactant and is responsible for the graphene hybrids' electrochemical performance. It is the first example of the reversible self-assembly of graphene driven by light irradiation. PMID:26553111

  1. Co-solvent effects on drag reduction, rheological properties and micelle microstructures of cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zakin, Jacques L

    2005-06-15

    Some quaternary cationic surfactants, when mixed with a counterion, are known to self-assemble into threadlike micelles in water. Such behavior causes drastic changes in rheological properties of even very dilute solutions, allowing them to be used as drag reducing agents (DRA) in turbulent pipe flow circulating systems, such as district cooling/heating systems. Surfactant self-assembly is a physicochemical phenomenon whose character depends on surfactant nature and concentration, nature of the solvent, temperature and type and concentration of counterions. This study investigates drag reduction (DR) and rheological properties of two cationic surfactants, Ethoquad O/12 (oleyl bis(hydroxyethyl)methylammonium chloride) and Ethoquad O/13 (oleyl tris(hydroxyethyl) ammonium acetate), with excess salicylate counterion (NaSal), in mixed solvents containing 0 to 28 wt% ethylene glycol (EG) and water. The addition of EG to the solvent had greater effects on solutions' DR ability, shear viscosity, apparent extensional viscosity and viscoelasticity at 25 degrees C than at approximately 0 degrees C. Cryo-TEM images show threadlike micelle in these systems. DR at low temperatures in solutions containing moderate amount of EG can be utilized in a new approach to energy saving in district cooling systems using EG-water based mixtures as the cooling fluids. PMID:15897088

  2. Phase behavior and microstructures in a mixture of anionic Gemini and cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haiming; Li, Bingcheng; Yan, Yun; Huang, Jianbin; Kang, Wanli

    2014-07-01

    We report in this work the phase behavior and microstructures in a mixture of an anionic Gemini surfactant, sodium dilauramino cystine (SDLC), and a conventional cationic surfactant, dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DTAC). Observation of the appearance shows that the phase behavior of the SDLC-DTAC mixed cationic surfactant system transforms from an isotropic homogeneous phase to an aqueous surfactant two-phase system (ASTP) and then to an anisotropic homogeneous phase with the continuous addition of DTAC. The corresponding aggregate microstructures are investigated by rheology, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and polarization microscopy. It has been found that a wormlike micelle, in the isotropic homogeneous phase, occurs linear to the branch growth. The aggregate microstructures in the ASTP lower and upper phases are branched wormlike micelles and vesicles, respectively. The micelle transformed into a vesicle upon varying the phase volume percentage until a lamellar liquid crystal formed in the anisotropic homogeneous phase. The macroscopic phase behavior and microscopic aggregate structure are related to the understanding of the possible mechanisms for the above phenomena. PMID:24817411

  3. Cationic gemini surfactants with cleavable spacer: chemical hydrolysis, biodegradation, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tehrani-Bagha, A R; Holmberg, K; van Ginkel, C G; Kean, M

    2015-07-01

    The paper describes synthesis and characterization of a new type of cationic gemini surfactant, which has dodecyl tails and a spacer that contains an ester bond. The nomenclature used to describe the structure is 12Q2OCO1Q12, with Q being a quaternary ammonium group and the numbers indicating the number of methylene or methyl groups. Due to the close proximity to the two quaternary ammonium groups, the ester bond is very stable on the acid side and very labile already at slightly alkaline conditions. The hydrolysis products are two single chain surfactants (i.e. 12Q2OH and 12Q1COOH) which are less surface active than the intact gemini surfactant. 12Q2OCO1Q12 was found to be readily biodegradable, i.e. it gave more than 60% biodegradation after 28 days. This is interesting because similar gemini surfactants but with ester bonds in the tails instead of the spacer, have previously been found not to be readily biodegradable. The gemini surfactant was found to be toxic to aquatic organisms (ErC50 value of 0.27 mg/l), although less toxic than the two hydrolysis products. PMID:25446957

  4. Adsorption of a cationic surfactant by a magsorbent based on magnetic alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Layaly; El Kolli, Nadia; Dali, Noëlle; Talbot, Delphine; Abramson, Sébastien; Welschbillig, Mathias; Cabuil, Valérie; Bée, Agnès

    2014-10-15

    Adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant, by magnetic alginate beads (MagAlgbeads) was investigated. The magnetic adsorbent (called magsorbent) was prepared by encapsulation of magnetic functionalized nanoparticles in an alginate gel. The influence on CPC adsorption of several parameters such as contact time, pH and initial surfactant concentration was studied. The equilibrium isotherm shows that adsorption occurs through both electrostatic interactions with charge neutralization of the carboxylate groups of the beads and hydrophobic interactions inducing the formation of surfactant aggregates in the beads. The dosage of calcium ions released in the solution turns out to be a useful tool for understanding the adsorption mechanisms. Adsorption is accompanied by a shrinking of the beads that corresponds to a 45% reduction of the volume. Adsorption kinetic experiments show that equilibrium time is strongly dependent on the surfactant concentration, which monitors the nature of the interactions. On the other hand, since the pH affects the ionization state of adsorption sites, adsorption depends on the pH solution, maximum adsorption being obtained in a large pH range (3.2-12) in agreement with the pKa value of alginate (pKa=3.4-4.2). Finally, due to the formation of micelle-like surfactants aggregates in the magnetic alginate beads, they could be used as a new efficient magsorbent for hydrophobic pollutants. PMID:25086393

  5. Characterizing the acid/base behavior of oil-soluble surfactants at the interface of nonpolar solvents with a polar phase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyung; Zhou, Zhang-Lin; Behrens, Sven Holger

    2015-06-01

    We propose a simple method of characterizing the (Lewis) acid/base behavior of oil-soluble nonionic surfactants at the interface of nonpolar solvents with a polar phase. Using interfacial tensiometry, we probe the effective acidic and basic response of nonpolar surfactant solutions to contact with a variety of polar reference liquids. The measured interfacial tensions are used as experimental coefficients in a set of equations borrowed from the thermodynamic "surface energy component model" of van Oss, Chaudhury, and Good (vOCG), but used here in a more heuristic fashion and with a revised interpretation of the parameters extracted to describe the dispersive, acidic, and basic character of the sample. We test the proposed characterization method using alkane solutions of purified polyisobutylene succinimide (PIBS) surfactants with systematic structural variations, and observe that the inferred parameter values are consistent with, and sensitive to, subtle differences in the surfactant chemistry. This suggests the possibility to compare different surfactant solutions semiquantitatively with regard to their acidic and basic character. In a further illustration of the proposed analysis, we characterize a solution of commercial PIBS surfactant in hexane, and find that the parameters obtained by the proposed method correctly predict the solution interfacial tension with a polar liquid not included among the chosen reference liquids. PMID:25978798

  6. Study of the Formation and Solution Properties of Worm-Like Micelles Formed Using Both N-Hexadecyl-N-Methylpiperidinium Bromide-Based Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhihu; Dai, Caili; Feng, Haishun; Liu, Yifei; Wang, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of worm-like micelles formed by mixing the cationic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide (C16MDB) with the anionic surfactant sodium laurate (SL) in aqueous solutions were investigated using rheological measurements. The effects of sodium laurate and temperature on the worm-like micelles and the mechanism of the observed shear thinning phenomenon and pseudoplastic behavior were systematically investigated. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further ascertained existence of entangled worm-like micelles. PMID:25296131

  7. Microemulsion formation and phase behavior of anionic and cationic surfactants with sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Lin, E.; Zhao, G.; Xiao, T.

    1996-12-01

    The phase behavior and solubilization of multiphase microemulsions in mixed anionic-cationic surfactant systems were studied for fixed ratio of water-to-oil and surfactant-to-alcohol. In the mixed surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate + cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)/heptane/alcohol/water systems, microemulsions and birefringement phases are formed by adjusting the surfactant ratio {epsilon} and the cationic weight fraction {delta}. The bicontinuous (or w/o microemulsion) {yields} birefringement o/w microemulsion transition takes place and microemulsion domain enlarges with increasing {epsilon}. The optimum surfactant concentration {gamma} increases and the corresponding optimum {delta} decreases with increasing {epsilon} and both of them decrease with increasing the alcohol chain length butanol to hexanol. The birefringent region shrinks rapidly with increasing alcohol and/or CTAB weight fractions in total surfactant concentration. Conductivity measurements have been performed in the single-phase region of the system containing mixed surfactants and alcohols at 25 C. The conductivity results indicate where a transition takes place and which of these different types of phase structures may be in the single-phase of the system containing anionic-cationic mixed surfactants.

  8. Effect of cationic and anionic surfactants on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on natural sediments.

    PubMed

    Pan, Gang; Jia, Chengxia; Zhao, Dongye; You, Chun; Chen, Hao; Jiang, Guibin

    2009-01-01

    Sorption and desorption of PFOS at water-sediment interfaces were investigated in the presence of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). CTAB remarkably enhanced the sorption of PFOS on the sediment. In contrast, the influence of SDBS to the sorption of PFOS was concentration dependent. Two contrasting factors were responsible for the phenomenon. One was the sorption of the surfactant itself to the sediment, which enhanced the sorption of PFOS. The other was the increase in solubility of PFOS caused by the adding of surfactants, which decreased the sorption of PFOS. SDBS had a much lower sorption capacity, but rather strong ability to increase the solubility of PFOS. High levels of SDBS remarkably reduced the sorption of PFOS on the sediment. These results imply that cationic and anionic surfactants may have contrast impacts on the distribution and transport of PFOS in the environment. PMID:18722698

  9. Active Demulsification of Photoresponsive Emulsions Using Cationic-Anionic Surfactant Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Koizumi, Nanami; Kondo, Yukishige

    2016-01-26

    The influence of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation on the emulsification properties of mixtures of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and a photoresponsive cationic surfactant, 2-(4-(4-butylphenyl)diazenylphenoxy)ethyltrimethylammonium bromide (C4AzoTAB), containing an azobenzene group has been investigated. When mixtures of n-octane and aqueous SDS/trans-C4AzoTAB solution are homogenized, stable emulsions are obtained in regions of specific surfactant concentrations and molar ratios of the mixed surfactants. The stable emulsions are stable for over a week and found to be of the oil-in-water (O/W) type. UV light irradiation of the stable O/W emulsions leads to the coalescence of smaller oil droplets into larger ones in the emulsions, i.e., demulsification. As a result, the oil and aqueous surfactant solution phases are fully separated by UV light irradiation for 90 min, even shorter than our previous result (6 h; Langmuir 2014 , 30 , 41 - 47 ). The use of a microreactor shortens the time required for the photoinduced demulsification into 3.5 min. When mixtures of octane and aqueous SDS/cis-C4AzoTAB solution are homogenized, no emulsions are obtained. The interfacial tension (IFT) between octane and aqueous SDS/cis-C4AzoTAB solution is higher than that between octane and aqueous SDS/trans-C4AzoTAB solution, indicating that the IFT of SDS/trans-C4AzoTAB mixtures increases with the cis photoisomerization of the trans isomer. These results suggest that cis isomerization of the SDS/trans-C4AzoTAB mixtures due to UV light irradiation causes Ostwald ripening of the octane droplets in the emulsions, thereby reducing the interfacial area between the octane and water phases as the IFT between octane and the aqueous surfactant solution increases. Subsequently, the octane and aqueous solution phases separate. PMID:26731043

  10. The structure and morphology of gold nanoparticles produced in cationic gemini surfactant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawska, Magdalena; Wiatr, Michalina; Nowakowski, Paweł; Szutkowski, Kosma; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Kozak, Maciej

    2013-12-01

    Potential applications of gold nanoparticles (GNP) are strictly connected with their size and shape. The influence of different dicationic (gemini) surfactants, alkyloxymethylimidazolium derivatives derivatives, on the structure and morphology of GNP was studied. The synthesis of nanoparticles was performed in the presence of various gemini surfactants—dodecyloxymethylimidazolium nitrate (IMI_NO3_C4_C12), propionate (IMI_PROP_C4_C12) and 3,3'-[1,9-(2,8-dioxanonane)]bis-(1-nonyloxymethylimidazolium) chloride (IMI_Cl_oxyC7_C9), used as stabilizers and templates for obtaining different size and shape of gold nanoparticles. The samples obtained were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation (SAXS), UV-vis spectroscopy and NMR PFG spectroscopy. For the obtained solutions of nanoparticles the plasmon resonance was observed at the wavelengths corresponding to the presence of gold nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 5-100 nm, with a significant shift towards higher wavelength for the samples prepared with addition of dicationic surfactants. TEM images evidence the presence of gold nanoparticles with tetrahedral and spherical morphology in solutions prepared with the surfactants IMI_PROP_C4_C12, IMI_NO3_C4_C12, and those of spherical morphology, but strongly aggregated, in the solution with the cationic surfactant IMI_Cl_oxyC7_C9.

  11. Novel self-assembling system based on resorcinarene and cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Kashapov, Ruslan R; Pashirova, Tatiana N; Kharlamov, Sergey V; Ziganshina, Albina Yu; Ziltsova, Elena P; Lukashenko, Svetlana S; Zakharova, Lucia Ya; Habicher, Wolf D; Latypov, Shamil K; Konovalov, Alexander I

    2011-09-21

    Mixed association of calix[4]resorcinarene with ethyl sulfonate groups on the lower rim and dimethylaminomethyl groups on the upper rim (CR) and cationic surfactant 4-aza-1-hexadecyl-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide (DABCO-16) is studied by methods of tensiometry, conductometry, potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy at fixed CR concentration and varied surfactant concentration. Beyond ca. 0.4 mM of DABCO-16, mixed aggregates enriched by CR are proved to be formed due to electrostatic forces, while beyond ca. 5 mM, aggregates enriched by surfactant occur due to the hydrophobic effect. Spectrophotometry monitoring of the solubilization of a hydrophobic dye, Orange OT, demonstrated that only the second type of mixed aggregate enriched by DABCO-16 is capable of binding the organic probe, while the mixed system where the surfactant is a minor component shows no binding capacity towards Orange OT. This finding can be used for the design of nanocontainers with controllable binding/release properties. PMID:21822509

  12. pH-Induced Re-entrant Microstructural Transitions in Cationic Surfactant-Hydrotrope Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Umeasiegbu, Chinedu D; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2016-01-26

    The structural transitions occurring with change in pH for aqueous mixtures of a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and a hydrotrope (sodium salicylate, NaSal) were investigated at various temperatures using dynamic light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. Direct structural studies show a transition from rigid cylindrical micelles at neutral pH to spherical micelles at ∼ pH 2 upon protonation of salicylate molecules; however, an unanticipated reversion to flexible cylindrical micelles with further decrease in pH was observed. We also observed these microstructure transitions from cylinders at high pH to spherical micelles at intermediate pH to flexible cylindrical micelles at low pH were highly sensitive to temperature. Our results suggest that, in addition to the well-described electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in cationic surfactant-hydrotrope mixtures, the pH-induced microstructural changes are potentially governed by complementary cation-π and hydrogen bonding interactions. PMID:26654713

  13. Solubilization of hydrophilic compounds in 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane with a cationic surfactant

    PubMed

    Li; Lee; Yu

    2000-03-15

    Solubilization of hydrophilic compounds was examined in liquid 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) in the presence of the cationic surfactant trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC). The absorption spectra of methyl orange in the TOMAC-containing R134a solutions were obtained. Significant blue shifts were observed in comparison with the spectrum of methyl orange in aqueous solution. The shifts decreased as the water-to-surfactant ratio, W0, increased. In addition, spectral measurements confirmed the dissolution of cytochrome c in R134a in the presence of TOMAC. R134a remains as a liquid under mild applied pressure and becomes gas under ambient conditions; it therefore separates from analytes of interest directly without further concentration when used as an extraction solvent. Accordingly, it may be applied to recover valuable hydrophilic substances of low concentration from aqueous solutions. PMID:10740881

  14. Large- and small-nanopore silica prepared with a short-chain cationic fluorinated surfactant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bing; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Vyas, Sandhya M; Knutson, Barbara L; Rankin, Stephen E

    2005-07-01

    A cationic partially fluorinated surfactant with four carbons in the chain 1-(3,3,4,4,4-pentafluorobutyl)pyridinium chloride is employed as a structure-directing agent to synthesize nanoporous silica. Samples are prepared in dilute ammonia solutions at room temperature with a range of surfactant:Si ratios. The sample with the largest surfactant:Si ratio forms particles with wormhole-like micropores with an average diameter of 1.6 nm, which corresponds to the anticipated small size of the surfactant aggregates. On the other hand, the sample with the smallest surfactant:Si ratio forms a gel that, upon drying, has uniform 11.1 nm pores. The formation and stabilization of the latter large-mesopore structure is unusual for a sample prepared and dried under ambient conditions, and may reflect favourable roles of the surfactant both in inducing gelation and in stabilizing the pore structure during drying. PMID:21727471

  15. The Effect of Head-Group on Selective Counterion Binding to Cationic Surfactants

    PubMed

    Kellaway; Warr

    1997-09-15

    Selectivity coefficients for the competitive adsorption of chloride, bromide, and iodide at the air/solution interface have been measured by a high accuracy ion flotation technique using the surfactant cations dodecylammonium, dodecylmethylammonium, dodecyldimethylammonium, and dodecyltrimethylammonium. Selective binding was found to depend on the nature of the head group, with selectivity increasing from primary to quaternary ammonium ions. Results are consistent with counterion binding arising from contact adsorption by mutual dehydration of head groups and counterions. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press PMID:9344533

  16. Asp-Gly based peptides confined at the surface of cationic gemini surfactant aggregates.

    PubMed

    Brizard, Aurélie; Dolain, Christel; Huc, Ivan; Oda, Reiko

    2006-04-11

    Cationic gemini surfactants complexed with anionic oligoglycine-aspartate (called gemini peptides hereafter) were synthesized, and their aggregation behaviors were studied. The effects of the hydrophobic chain length (C10-C22) and the length of the oligoglycine (0-4) were investigated, and it was clearly shown by critical micellar concentration, Krafft temperature, and isothermal surface pressure measurements that the hydrophobic effect and interpeptidic interaction influence the aggregation behavior in a cooperative manner. Below their Krafft temperatures, some of them formed both hydro- and organogels with three-dimensional networks and the Fourier transform infrared measurements show the presence of interpeptidic hydrogen bonds. PMID:16584231

  17. Binding of cationic surfactants to DNA, protein and DNA-protein mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gani, S A; Chattoraj, D K; Mukherjee, D C

    1999-06-01

    Extent of binding (gamma 2(1)) of cationic surfactants cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), myristyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (MTAB) and dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) to calf-thymus DNA, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and to their binary mixture respectively have been measured as function of bulk concentration of the surfactant by using equilibrium dialysis technique. Binding of CTAB has been studied at different pH, ionic strength (mu), temperature and biopolymer composition and with native and denatured states of the biopolymers. The chain-length of different long chain amines plays a significant role in the extent of binding under identical solution condition. The binding ratios for CTAB to collagen, gelatin, DNA-collagen and DNA-gelatin mixtures respectively have also been determined. The conformational structures of different biopolymers are observed to play significant role in macromolecular interactions between protein and DNA in the presence of CTAB. From the experimental values of the maximum binding ratio (gamma 2m) at the saturation level for each individual biopolymer, ideal values (gamma 2m)id have been theoretically calculated for binary mixtures of biopolymers using additivity rule. The protein-DNA-CTAB interaction in mixture has been explained in terms of the deviation (delta) of (gamma 2m) from (gamma 2m)id in the presence of a surfactant in bulk. The binding of surfactants to biopolymers and to their binary mixtures are compared more precisely in terms of the Gibbs' free energy decrease (-delta G degree) for the saturation of the binding sites in the biopolymers or biopolymer mixtures with the change of the bulk surfactant activity from zero to unity in the rational mole fraction scale. PMID:10650715

  18. Cationic surfactants in the form of nanoparticles and micelles elicit different human neutrophil responses: a toxicological study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Sung, Calvin T; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-02-01

    Cationic surfactants are an ingredient commonly incorporated into nanoparticles for clinical practicability; however, the toxicity of cationic surfactants in nanoparticles is not fully elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the inflammatory responses of cationic nanobubbles and micelles in human neutrophils. Soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate (SME) and hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) are the two cationic surfactants employed in this study. The zeta potential of CTAB nanobubbles was 80 mV, which was the highest among all formulations. Nanobubbles, without cationic surfactants, showed no cytotoxic effects on neutrophils in terms of inflammatory responses. Cationic nanobubbles caused a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of degranulation (elastase release) and membrane damage (release of lactate dehydrogenase, LDH). Among all nanoparticles and micelles, CTAB-containing nanosystems showed the greatest inflammatory responses. A CTAB nanobubble diluent (1/150) increased the LDH release 80-fold. Propidium iodide staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) verified cell death and morphological change of neutrophils treated by CTAB nanobubbles. SME, in a micelle form, strengthened the inflammatory response more than SME-loaded nanobubbles. Membrane interaction and subsequent Ca(2+) influx were the mechanisms that triggered inflammation. The information obtained from this work is beneficial in designing nanoparticulate formulations for balancing clinical activity and toxicity. PMID:24246197

  19. Resonance Rayleigh scattering method for the determination of cationic surfactants with chromium(VI)-iodide system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaopu; Shi, Yan; Liu, Zhongfang; Luo, Hongqun; Kong, Ling

    2006-05-01

    A method for detecting and identifying cationic surfactant in some chemical samples for daily use that include Head & Shoulder Ampoule and Slek Shower Lotion has been developed. In an acid medium, chromium(VI) oxidizes I(-) to produce I(2), I(2) binds excess of I(-) to form I(3)(-), and I(3)(-) can further react with a cationic surfactant (CS) (such as cetyldimethyl benzylammonium chloride (CDBAC), Zephiramine (Zeph), cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB), tetradecyl pyridinium bromide (TPB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)) to form ion-association complexes [CS][I(3)]. This results in a significant enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and appearance of new RRS spectra. The RRS spectral characteristics of the ion-association complexes, the influencing factors and the optimum conditions of the reactions have been investigated. The intensities of RRS are directly proportional to the concentration of CS. CS in samples are collected using a treated anion exchange column and subsequently complexed by I(3)(-); then the RRS intensities of CS complex are determined at 495 nm. The reactions have high sensitivities, and their detection limits are 7.05 - 9.62 ng/mL for different CS. The effects of foreign substances are investigated and the results show that the method has good selectivity. PMID:16770060

  20. Evaluation of the role of a cationic surfactant on the flow characteristics of fly ash slurry.

    PubMed

    Naik, H K; Mishra, M K; Rao Karanam, U M; Deb, D

    2009-09-30

    Transportation of fly ash is a major problem in its efficient disposal. The main problem associated with fly ash transportation is that the particles settle down sooner than desired. The primary objective of this research is that not only the fly ash particles should remain floated till it reaches the end but also settle down after that. In this investigation the role of a drag-reducing cationic surfactant and a counter-ion has been evaluated to achieve the objectives. The experimental results show encouraging trends of surfactant helping fly ash particles to remain water-borne. The material exhibited Newtonian behavior. This paper describes these in term of shear rates, shear stress, temperature, concentration and viscosity. Rheological tests were conducted using Advanced Computerized Rheometer. Zeta potential was measured to test the stability of the colloidal fly ash particles using Malvern Zeta Sizer instrument. Surface tension was also measured to know the drag reduction behavior of the fly ash slurry by using Surface Tensiometer. The test results and flow diagrams were generated using Rheoplus software and are presented in this paper. Surfactant concentration of 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5% by weight was mixed with equal amount of counter-ion and the slurry was prepared by adding fly ash with ordinary tap water to achieve the desired solid concentration of 20% (by weight). PMID:19345482

  1. Investigation of complexes formed by interaction of cationic gemini surfactants with deoxyribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanzhong; Li, Xingfu; Wettig, Shawn D; Badea, Ildiko; Foldvari, Marianna; Verrall, Ronald E

    2007-04-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants, N,N-bis(dimethylalkyl)-alpha,omega-alkanediammonium dibromide [C(m)H(2m+1)(CH(3))(2)N(+)(CH(2))(s)N(+)(CH(3))(2)C(m)H(2m+1) x 2 Br(-), or m-s-m], have proven to be effective synthetic vectors for gene delivery (transfection). Complexes (lipoplexes) of gemini compounds, where m = 12, s = 3, 12 and m = 18 : 1(oleyl), s = 2, 3, 6, with DNA have been investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. The results show that lipoplex properties depend on the structural properties of the gemini surfactants, the presence of the helper lipid dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and the titration sequence. ITC data show that the interaction between DNA and gemini surfactants is endothermic and the observed enthalpy vs. charge ratio profile depends upon the titration sequence. Isoelectric points (IP) of lipoplex formation were estimated from the zeta potential measurements and show good agreement with the reaction endpoints (RP) obtained from ITC. DLS data indicate that DNA is condensed in the lipoplex. AFM images suggest that the lipoplex morphology changes from isolated globular-like aggregated particles to larger-size aggregates with great diversity in morphology. This change is further accentuated by the presence of DOPE in the lipoplexes. The results are interpreted in terms of some current models of lipoplex formation. PMID:17429555

  2. Cooperativity or phase transition? Unfolding transition of DNA cationic surfactant complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'nikov, Sergey M.; Sergeyev, Vladimir G.; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Hatta, Ichiro

    1997-11-01

    We recently reported that single duplex DNA, with the size above the order of several tens kilobase pairs, undergoes a large discrete transition from an elongated coil into a collapsed globule with the addition of a cationic surfactant. In the present article, we describe the manner of the unfolding transition of compact long DNA, or globule DNA, complexed with cationic surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and distearyldimethylammonium bromide (D18DAB), as is induced by the addition of sodium bromide. The conformational dynamics of individual single duplex T4DNA molecules was directly observed with the use of fluorescence microscopy. We found that on the level of individual DNAs, the salt-induced unfolding transition of the globules is largely discrete, or first-order phase transition for the both complexes with CTAB and D18DAB. On the other hand, for the ensemble average of the DNAs, the transition is discrete with CTAB but is continuous (sigmoidal) with D18DAB. The discreteness for the coil-globule transition in the ensemble of DNAs complexed with CTAB is attributed to the existence of the phase transition in whole over the bulk solution: the sphere-rod transition in surfactant micelles. On the other hand, for D18DAB such phase transition on the micelle structure in the bulk solution seems to be absent. In correspondence to such a large difference on the manner of the transition, x-ray diffraction analysis indicates marked difference on the structure of DNA complexes with CTAB and with D18DAB.

  3. Effects of electrokinetics and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide [CTAB] on the hydrocarbon removal and retention from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, R Sri; Qian, Y; Krishnapillai, M

    2006-07-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated soil and groundwater is considered to be a leading cause for increased health risk and environmental contamination. Therefore, an efficient technique is needed to retard the movement or enhance the removal of the contaminant depending on the remediation objective. The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of the addition of a cationic surfactant on the movement of hydrocarbons within a contaminated clay soil subjected to electrokinetic treatment. Water-flushing and surfactant-flushing experiments were conducted on one-dimensional soil columns. The model diesel fuel was composed of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes [BTEX] and three selected polycyclic hydrocarbons [PAHs]. In the water-flushing experiments, the application of an electrokinetic treatment was found to enhance the removal of PAHs from the clay columns by about 20%. In contrast, the application of an electrokinetic treatment, when coupled with cationic surfactant-flushing, retarded the movement of BTEX and the three selected PAHs in the clay columns. Hydraulic columns with surfactant (CTAB) removed 17% more naphthalene and 11% more 2-methylnaphthalene compared to columns subjected to electrokinetic treatment with CTAB. The flux through the electrokinetic columns during water flushing as well as surfactant flushing was higher than the flux due to hydraulic gradient alone. As the solubility of hydrocarbons increased, they moved farther with electrokinetic treatment without CTAB. However, with CTAB the electrokinetic treatment tends to retard the movement. Use of a cationic surfactant coupled with electrokinetic treatment was found to retard the movement of contaminants. PMID:16894821

  4. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Comber, S D W; Rule, K L; Conrad, A U; Höss, S; Webb, S F; Marshall, S

    2008-05-01

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. PMID:17889974

  5. Effects of cationic surfactant exposure to a bivalve mollusc in stream mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, S.E.; Davidson, D.H.; Cherry, D.S. . Environmental Science Dept.); Farris, J.L.; Reed, D. . Univ. Center for Environmental and Hazardous Materials Studies and Biology Dept.)

    1993-10-01

    Effects of the cationic surfactant lauryl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C[sub 12]-TMAC) on growth, reproduction, cellulolytic enzyme activity, and larval colonization of Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) were investigated in experimental stream mesocosms. Clams from three different populations and of two known morphotypes were evaluated for growth in two 8-week experiments in fall 1989 and spring 1990. Growth was impaired at 185 [mu]g/L. It is not known at this time to what extent the effects on pediveligers would be manifested relative to recruitment to later life stages. These findings were compared to a published safety assessment for mono-alkyl quanternaries, of which TMAC is a member. The findings reported here do not substantially alter conclusions from previous studies; however, clams appear to be among the more sensitive taxa studied thus far.

  6. Cationic surfactant-based method for simultaneous harvesting and cell disruption of a microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Can; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2013-12-01

    Microalgae are one of the most promising sustainable energy sources for biodiesel production. However, the high costs of the downstream process are a major bottleneck for commercial-scale production of biodiesel from a microalgal biomass. A novel approach called the cationic surfactant-based harvesting and cell disruption (CSHD) method was studied to determine its effectiveness in simultaneous microalgal biomass harvesting and cell disruption. Using CSHD, the harvesting efficiency reached more than 91% in less than 5 min and 97% in 90 min. Moreover, CSHD exhibited a powerful ability to disrupt the cells; the lipid recovery was increased 133% compared to not using CSHD. CSHD allowed the extraction of up to 100% of the total lipids from a wet microalgal biomass with 80% water content. All of these results were achieved without using energy-intensive equipment. Altogether, our results suggest that CSHD is an energy-efficient technique for the downstream process of microalgal lipid production. PMID:24128606

  7. The mechanism of sonochemical degradation of a cationic surfactant in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Singla, Ritu; Grieser, Franz; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2011-03-01

    The sonochemical degradation of the cationic surfactant, laurylpyridinium chloride (LPC), in water was studied at concentrations of 0.1-0.6 mM, all below its critical micelle concentration (15 mM). It has been found that the initial step in the degradation of LPC occurs primarily by a pyrolysis pathway. Chemical analysis of sonicated solutions by gas chromatography, electrospray mass spectrometry, and high performance liquid chromatography reveals that a broad range of decomposition products, hydrocarbon gases and water-soluble species, are produced. Propionamide and acetamide were identified as two of the degradation intermediates and probably formed as the result of the opening of the pyridinium ring following OH radical addition. Most of the LPC is eventually converted into carboxylic acids. The complete mineralization of these carboxylic acids by sonolysis is however a comparatively slow process due to the hydrophilic nature of these low molecular weight products. PMID:21041108

  8. Experimenting with Synthesis and Analysis of Cationic Gemini Surfactants in a Second-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzovino, Mary E.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Moore, John W.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students synthesize a variety of cationic gemini surfactants and analyze their efficacy as fabric softeners. Students perform a simple organic synthesis reaction and two analytical tests (one qualitative and one quantitative), and use the class data to assess the synthesized products. The experiment…

  9. Surfacted ferrofluid based dispersive solid phase extraction; a novel approach to preconcentration of cationic dye in shrimp and water samples.

    PubMed

    Fasih Ramandi, Negin; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2015-10-15

    Surfacted ferrofluid (S-FF) is a stable colloid dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles in a carrier liquid which possesses magnetic properties and fluidity simultaneously. Specifically in S-FF coating magnetic nanoparticles with a suitable surfactant provides steric repulsions to prevent particles agglomeration. Selecting the function of surfactant can be engineered according to its application. In the present study, for the first time the application of S-FF in dispersive solid phase extraction of methylene blue (as a cationic dye model) in water and shrimp samples was investigated. For this purpose, in order to use ionic liquid as carrier fluid, the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was coated by an anionic surfactant in a polar medium to form a hydrophilic layer around magnetic nanoparticles. In addition to hydrophobic interactions between the analyte and carbonic chain of surfactant, the retention of cationic dye was mainly governed by attractive electrostatic interactions between polar head of surfactant and dye. Under optimized conditions, the relative standard deviation is 2.9%, the limit of detection is 2.5 μg L(-1), and the preconcentration factor is 135. PMID:25952885

  10. DNA Compaction Induced by a Cationic Polymer or Surfactant Impact Gene Expression and DNA Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ainalem, Marie-Louise; Bartles, Andrew; Muck, Joscha; Dias, Rita S.; Carnerup, Anna M.; Zink, Daniele; Nylander, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in achieving gene regulation in biotechnological and biomedical applications by using synthetic DNA-binding agents. Most studies have so far focused on synthetic sequence-specific DNA-binding agents. Such approaches are relatively complicated and cost intensive and their level of sophistication is not always required, in particular for biotechnological application. Our study is inspired by in vivo data that suggest that DNA compaction might contribute to gene regulation. This study exploits the potential of using synthetic DNA compacting agents that are not sequence-specific to achieve gene regulation for in vitro systems. The semi-synthetic in vitro system we use include common cationic DNA-compacting agents, poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers and the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which we apply to linearized plasmid DNA encoding for the luciferase reporter gene. We show that complexing the DNA with either of the cationic agents leads to gene expression inhibition in a manner that depends on the extent of compaction. This is demonstrated by using a coupled in vitro transcription-translation system. We show that compaction can also protect DNA against degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our study shows that these effects are reversible and DNA can be released from the complexes. Release of DNA leads to restoration of gene expression and makes the DNA susceptible to degradation by Dnase. A highly charged polyelectrolyte, heparin, is needed to release DNA from dendrimers, while DNA complexed with CTAB dissociates with the non-ionic surfactant C12E5. Our results demonstrate the relation between DNA compaction by non-specific DNA-binding agents and gene expression and gene regulation can be achieved in vitro systems in a reliable dose-dependent and reversible manner. PMID:24671109

  11. Kinetics of Adsorption of Cationic Surfactants at Silica-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Biswas; Chattoraj

    1998-09-01

    The kinetics of adsorption of cationic surfactants (CTAB, MTAB and DTAB) at silica surface has been studied at various values of bulk surfactant concentration (Ct2), pH, ionic strength, and temperature and in presence of different electrolytes and urea. The adsorption process has been found to follow a two-step first-order kinetic rate equation with two different rate constants k1 and k2. From the variation of k1 and k2 with temperature, values of energies of activation Ea1 and Ea2 for both the kinetic steps have been evaluated. The corresponding values of enthalpies of activation (DeltaH1# and DeltaH2#), entropies of activation (DeltaS1# and DeltaS2#) have been evaluated using Eyring's equation for absolute reaction rate. It has been found that for both the kinetic steps, DeltaH1# < TavDeltaS1# and DeltaH2# < TavDeltaS2#, which means that activation reaction is largely entropy controlled. Again, for both kinetic steps, DeltaH# varies linearly with TavDeltaS#, and DeltaG1# and DeltaG2# vary between 70 and 88 kJ/mole of surfactant, respectively. Thus there is a entropy-enthalpy compensation effect in the adsorption process. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9710495

  12. Adsorption of Cationic Laser Dye onto Polymer/Surfactant Complex Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Pabitra Kumar; Arshad Hussain, Syed; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Pal, Mrinal

    2011-06-01

    Fabrication of complex molecular films of organic materials is one of the most important issues in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. Soft materials with flexible properties have been given much attention and can be obtained through bottom up processing from functional molecules, where self-assembly based on supramolecular chemistry and designed assembly have become crucial processes and technologies. In this work, we report the successful incorporation of cationic laser dye rhodamine 6G abbreviated as R6G into the pre-assembled polyelectrolyte/surfactant complex film onto quartz substrate by electrostatic adsorption technique. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) was used as polycation and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as anionic surfactant. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic characterization reveals the formation of only H-type aggregates of R6G in their aqueous solution and both H- and J-type aggregates in PAH/SDS/R6G complex layer-by-layber films as well as the adsorption kinetics of R6G onto the complex films. The ratio of the absorbance intensity of two aggregated bands in PAH/SDS/R6G complex films is merely independent of the concentration range of the SDS solution used to fabricate PAH/SDS complex self-assembled films. Atomic force microscopy reveals the formation of R6G aggregates in PAH/SDS/R6G complex films.

  13. A study of molecular adsorption of a cationic surfactant on complex surfaces with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, I; Zorn, G; Nichols, J M

    2016-02-01

    The study of molecular adsorption on solid surfaces is of broad interest. However, so far the study has been restricted to idealized flat smooth rigid surfaces which are rarely the case in real world applications. Here we describe a study of molecular adsorption on a complex surface of the submicron fibers of a fibrous membrane of regenerated cellulose in aqueous media. We use a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), as the adsorbing molecule. We study the equilibrium adsorption of CTAC molecules on the same area of the fibers by sequentially immersing the membrane in pure water, 1 mM and then a 20 mM solution of CTAC. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is applied to study the adsorption. The force-volume mode is used to record the force-deformation curves of the adsorbed molecules on the fiber surface. We suggest a model to separate the forces due to the adsorbed molecules from the elastic deformation of the fiber. Interestingly, knowledge of the surface geometry is not required in this model provided the surface is made of elastically homogeneous material. Different models are investigated to estimate the amount of the adsorbed molecules based on the obtained force curves. The exponential steric repulsion model fits the force data the best. The amount of the adsorbed surfactant molecules and its dependence on the concentration are found to be reasonable compared to the data previously measured by means of Raman scattering done on a flat surface of silica. PMID:26730682

  14. Interaction of a biosurfactant, Surfactin with a cationic Gemini surfactant in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Garamus, Vasil M; Liu, Fang; Xiao, Jingwen; Eckerlebe, Helmut; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Mu, Bozhong; Zou, Aihua

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between biosurfactant Surfactin and cationic Gemini surfactant ethanediyl-1,3-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (abbreviated as 12-3-12) was investigated using turbidity, surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Analysis of critical micelle concentration (CMC) values in Surfactin/12-3-12 mixture indicates that there is synergism in formation of mixed Surfactin/12-3-12 micelles. Although Surfactin and 12-3-12 are oppositely charged in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH7.4), there are no precipitates observed at the concentrations below the CMC of Surfactin/12-3-12 system. However, at the concentration above CMC value, the Surfactin/12-3-12 mixture is severely turbid with high 12-3-12 content. DLS and SANS measurements follow the size and shape changes of mixed Surfactin/12-3-12 aggregates from small spherical micelles via elongated aggregates to large bulk complexes with increasing fraction of Gemini surfactant. PMID:27475707

  15. Synergistic effect of cationic and anionic surfactants for the modification of Ca-montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zepeng; Zhang, Jichu; Liao, Libing; Xia, Zhiguo

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The basal spacing of MMT–CTAB–SDS reaches 5.30 nm. ► MMT–CTAB–SDS shows perfect dispersion property and excellent heat resistance. ► SDS helped to improve the heat resistance and decrease the surface energy of the MMT–CTAB–SDS particles. - Abstract: The synergistic effect of cationic surfactant (CTAB) and anionic surfactant (SDS) for the modification of Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-MMT) has been developed, and the novel cation–anion modified organomontmorillonite (MMT–CTAB–SDS) was prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the interlayer spacing of montmorillonite was well expanded by the intercalation of CTAB and SDS and the basal spacing increased from 1.54 nm (Ca-MMT) to 5.30 nm (MMT–CTAB–SDS). Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) showed that the MMT–CTAB–SDS displayed excellent heat resistance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis proved that the MMT–CTAB–SDS exhibited excellent dispersion property and the plates with few silicate layers can be observed. Contact angle tests indicated that the hydrophilicity of MMT–CTAB–SDS was lower than that of Ca-MMT and higher than that of MMT–CTAB. It was verified that SDS contributed to expanding the interlayer space, further improved the heat resistance of the MMT–CTAB and decreased the surface energy of the MMT–CTAB–SDS particles.

  16. Adsorption of Anionic, Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants on Carbonate Rock in Presence of ZrO 2 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouriya; Bahramian, Alireza; Fakhroueian, Zahra

    The adsorption of surfactants at the solid-water interface is important for the control of wetting, lubrication, detergency and in mineral flotation.We have studied the adsorptions of different types of surfactants, cationic (Dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide, DTAB), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and non-anionic (lauryl alcohol-7 mole ethoxylate, LA7) on carbonate rock in presence of zirconium oxide spherical nanoparticles (17-19 nm). ZrO2 nanoparticles with tetrahedral structure have significant effect on adsorption of surfactants on the carbonate rock. We have used the measured conductivities to determine the rate of adsorption of surfactants at rock-water interfaces. The conductivity of DTAB in aqueous solutions containing calcite powder decreases more than the other surfactants in contact with ZrO2 nanoparticles. We have also investigated the adsorption of surfactants at the air-water interface. The presence of nanoparticles, as demonstrated by our experiments, enhances the surface activity and surface adsorption of the surfactants through electrostatic forces or formation of nanostructures. Dynamic light structuring data shows similar aggregation number of nanoparticles in presence of nanoparticles.

  17. Cationic vesicles based on biocompatible diacyl glycerol-arginine surfactants: physicochemical properties, antimicrobial activity, encapsulation efficiency and drug release.

    PubMed

    Tavano, L; Pinazo, A; Abo-Riya, M; Infante, M R; Manresa, M A; Muzzalupo, R; Pérez, L

    2014-08-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of cationic vesicular systems prepared from biocompatible diacyl glycerol-arginine surfactants are investigated. These systems form stable cationic vesicles by themselves and the average diameter of the vesicles decreases as the alkyl chain length of the surfactant increases. The addition of DPPC also modifies the physicochemical properties of these vesicles. Among the drugs these cationic formulations can encapsulate, we have considered Ciprofloxacin and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). We show that the percentage of encapsulated drug depends on both the physicochemical properties of the carrier and the type of drug. The capacity of these systems to carry different molecules was evaluated performing in vitro drug release studies. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of empty and Ciprofloxacin-loaded vesicles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has been determined. Three bacteria were tested: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The in vitro drug release from all formulations was effectively delayed. Empty cationic vesicles showed antimicrobial activity and Ciprofloxacin-loaded vesicles showed similar or higher antimicrobial activity than the free drug solution. These results suggest that our formulations represent a great innovation in the pharmaceutical field, due to their dual pharmacological function: one related to the nature of the vehiculated drug and the other related to the innate antibacterial properties of the surfactant-based carriers. PMID:24907585

  18. Oil-in-water microemulsions based on cationic surfactants with a hydroxyalkyl fragment in the head group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirgorodskaya, Alla B.; Yackevich, Ekaterina I.; Zakharova, Lucia Ya.; Konovalov, Alexander I.

    2013-04-01

    The stable oil-in-water microemulsions with a high water content were formed on the basis of cationic surfactants, including those that contain a hydroxyalkyl fragment in the head group. These systems can bind the water- and oil-soluble reagents into a single aggregate formed by self-assembling components. The size, surface and electrokinetic potentials of aggregates in the surfactant/n-hexane/n-butanol/water microemulsions were determined. Besides, their catalytic effect on the cleavage of carboxylic acid esters was evaluated. The behavior of the system was shown to be determined not only by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions but also by specific interactions, i.e., hydrogen bonds.

  19. Oxidation of phenyl propyne catalyzed by copper(II) complexes of a benzimidazolyl schiff base ligand: effect of acid/base, oxidant, surfactant and morphology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravinder; Mathur, Pavan

    2015-02-01

    Copper(II) complexes with a new N-Substituted benzimidazolyl schiff base ligand are used as catalyst for the oxidation of 1-phenyl propyne. The oxidation is carried out under mild conditions using stoichiometric amounts of oxidant and catalytic amounts of Cu(II) complex as catalyst. Effect of acid/base, oxidant, morphology and surfactant has been studied. Two major products of phenyl propyne oxidation are the α-diketonic product and a terminal aldehyde. Diketone is the major product under acidic conditions while aldehyde formation is highest under basic conditions. The maximum conversion is found with the NO3(-) bound complex. GC-MS is used to find the percentage yields of products. SEM and PXRD of the reused complexes as catalyst suggest that morphology affects the catalytic efficiency. PMID:25448979

  20. Oxidation of phenyl propyne catalyzed by copper(II) complexes of a benzimidazolyl schiff base ligand: Effect of acid/base, oxidant, surfactant and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Mathur, Pavan

    2015-02-01

    Copper(II) complexes with a new N-Substituted benzimidazolyl schiff base ligand are used as catalyst for the oxidation of 1-phenyl propyne. The oxidation is carried out under mild conditions using stoichiometric amounts of oxidant and catalytic amounts of Cu(II) complex as catalyst. Effect of acid/base, oxidant, morphology and surfactant has been studied. Two major products of phenyl propyne oxidation are the α-diketonic product and a terminal aldehyde. Diketone is the major product under acidic conditions while aldehyde formation is highest under basic conditions. The maximum conversion is found with the NO3- bound complex. GC-MS is used to find the percentage yields of products. SEM and PXRD of the reused complexes as catalyst suggest that morphology affects the catalytic efficiency.

  1. Enhanced aqueous solubility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by green diester-linked cationic gemini surfactants and their binary solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Manorama; Fatma, Nazish; Kabir-ud-Din

    2016-07-01

    Three homologues of a novel biodegradable diester-linked cationic gemini surfactant series, CmH2m+1 (CH3)2N+(CH2COOCH2)2N+(CH3)2CmH2m+1.2Cl- (m-E2-m; m = 12, 14, 16), were used for investigation of the solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene in single as well as binary surfactant solutions. Physicochemical parameters of the pure/mixed systems were derived by conductivity and surface tension measurements. Dissolution capacity of the equimolar binary surfactant solutions towards the PAHs was studied from the molar solubilization ratio (MSR), micelle-water partition coefficient (Km) and free energy of solubilization (ΔGs0) of the solubilizates. Influence of hydrophobic chain length of the dimeric surfactants on solubilization was characterized. Aqueous solubility of the PAHs was enhanced linearly with concentration of the surfactant in all the pure and mixed gemini-gemini surfactant systems.

  2. Optimization of the enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of amino acid-based surfactants from palm oil fractions.

    PubMed

    Soo, Ee Lin; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran; Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman, Raja Noor; Kamaruddin, Kamarulzaman

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of using palm oil fractions as cheap and abundant sources of raw material for the synthesis of amino acid surfactants was investigated. Of a number of enzymes screened, the best results were obtained with the immobilized enzyme, Lipozyme. The effects of temperature, solvent, incubation period, fatty substrate/amino acid molar ratio, enzyme amount, and water removal on the reactions were analyzed and compared to those on reactions with free fatty acids and pure triglycerides as fatty substrates. All reactions were most efficient when carried out at high temperatures (70-80 degrees C) in hexane as a solvent. However, while reactions with free fatty acids proceeded better when a slight excess of the free fatty acids over the amino acids was used, reactions with triglycerides and palm oil fractions were best performed at equimolar ratios. Also, the addition of molecular sieves slightly enhanced reactions with free fatty acids but adversely affected reactions with triglycerides and palm oil fractions. Although reactions with palm oil fractions took longer (6 d) to reach equilibrium compared to reactions with free fatty acids (4 d) and pure triglycerides (4 d), better yields were obtained. Such lipase-catalyzed transacylation of palm oil fractions with amino acids is potentially useful in the production of mixed medium- to long-chain surfactants for specific applications. PMID:16233420

  3. Effect of hydrophobicity of cationic carbocyanine dyes DiOC n on their binding to anionic surfactant micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, A. S.; Yefimova, S. L.; Guralchuk, G. Ya.; Sorokin, A. V.; Borovoy, I. A.; Malyukin, Yu. V.

    2010-05-01

    The interaction of a series of cationic dialkyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiOC n ) dyes of different degrees of hydrophobicity with micelles of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), has been studied spectrophotometrically in aqueous solutions. The Benesi-Hildebrand equation was used to calculate binding constants ( K b ) of the dyes to surfactant micelles, the fraction of dye bound to the micelles ( f mic ), and the standard free-energy change (Δ G 0) for the transfer of dye from the aqueous to micellar phase. It has been shown that the interaction of oppositely charged dye molecules and surfactant micelles is controlled by both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. A small increase in dye hydrophobicity due to lengthening of the hydrocarbon radical has been shown to cause an abrupt nonlinear increase of the fmic value. This points to a key role of hydrophobic interactions in the binding of dye molecules with the micelles.

  4. Ferrate(VI): a novel oxidant for degradation of cationic surfactant - cetylpyridinium bromide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weihua; Lin, Xiaoyan; Wang, Honghui; Yang, Wutao

    2013-01-01

    Ferrate(VI) is an efficient multi-functional water treatment reagent that has several novel properties, such as strong oxidation, absorption, flocculation, disinfection and deodorization. The removal of cationic surfactants based on ferrate (K2FeO4) was performed in the case of cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB). The influence of operating variables on the mineralization efficiency was studied as a function of ferrate dosage, initial pH and reaction time. Total organic carbon (TOC), UV and infrared spectra were performed to gain a better understanding of the degradation process. Results show that the optimal treatment conditions are as follows, solution initial pH is over 5, oxidation time is 5 min and ferrate dosage is 1.5 times that of CPB. The removal efficiency of CPB above 99% and TOC removal percentage of 91.3% can be achieved in minutes. The reaction of CPB with K2FeO4 responds to a second-order kinetic law. PMID:23676386

  5. Preparation and property of UV-curable polyurethane acrylate film filled with cationic surfactant treated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinghong; Cai, Xia; Shen, Fenglei

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of nanocomposite films composed of UV-curable polyurethane acrylate (PUA) and modified graphene were demonstrated in this paper. Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide modified graphene (CTAB-G) was prepared via intercalation of cationic surfactant and subsequently incorporated into PUA by UV curing technology. Fourier transform infrared spectra, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of CTAB-G, as well as CTAB-G/PUA nanocomposite films. The results revealed that the CTAB-G sheets were layer-by-layer structure and dispersed uniformly in PUA matrix. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed that the thermal stabilities of UV-curable PUA nanocomposite films in this work were much higher than that of PUA nanocomposites previously reported. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that the dynamic mechanical properties of nanocomposite films were greatly enhanced in the presence of modified graphene sheets. In addition, the CTAB-G/PUA nanocomposite films exhibited improved dielectric properties and electrical conductivities compared with the pure PUA.

  6. Chromium(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution onto Moroccan Al-pillared and cationic surfactant stevensite.

    PubMed

    Benhammou, Abdelaziz; Yaacoubi, Abdelrani; Nibou, Lahbib; Tanouti, Boumediane

    2007-02-01

    Batch adsorption of the chromium(VI) onto Moroccan stevensite pillared by Keggin aluminium hydroxypolycation (Al-stevensite) and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTA-stevensite) was investigated. The results showed that the CTA-stevensite has a higher affinity than that of Al-stevensite for chromium(VI) adsorption. The adsorption capacities for natural stevensite, Al-stevensite and CTA-stevensite calculated according to the Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich isotherm (DKR) are 13.7, 75.4 and 195.6mmolkg(-1), respectively. The study of the pH effect showed that the optimal range corresponding to the Cr(VI) maximum adsorption on Al-stevensite is pH 3.5-6 and that on CTA-stevensite is pH 2-6. The adsorption rates evaluated according to the pseudo-second-order model are 7.2, 207.2 and 178.5mmolkg(-1)min(-1) for the natural stevensite, Al-stevensite and CTA-stevensite, respectively. The low values of the adsorption energy calculated by (DKR) suggest that anion exchange is the main mechanism that governs the chromate adsorption. PMID:16876943

  7. Surface Charge Density Determines the Efficiency of Cationic Gemini Surfactant Based Lipofection

    PubMed Central

    Ryhänen, Samppa J.; Säily, Matti J.; Paukku, Tommi; Borocci, Stefano; Mancini, Giovanna; Holopainen, Juha M.; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiencies of the binary liposomes composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and cationic gemini surfactant, (2S,3R)-2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-bis(N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium)butane dibromide as transfection vectors, were measured using the enhanced green fluorescent protein coding plasmid and COS-1 cells. Strong correlation between the transfection efficiency and lipid stoichiometry was observed. Accordingly, liposomes with XSR−1 ≥ 0.50 conveyed the enhanced green fluorescent protein coding plasmid effectively into cells. The condensation of DNA by liposomes with XSR−1 > 0.50 was indicated by static light scattering and ethidium bromide intercalation assay, whereas differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence anisotropy of diphenylhexatriene revealed stoichiometry dependent reorganization in the headgroup region of the liposome bilayer, in alignment with our previous Langmuir-balance study. Surface charge density and the organization of positive charges appear to determine the mode of interaction of DNA with (2S,3R)-2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-bis(N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium)butane dibromide/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes, only resulting in DNA condensation when XSR−1 > 0.50. Condensation of DNA in turn seems to be required for efficient transfection. PMID:12524311

  8. Thermo-responsive properties driven by hydrogen bonding in aqueous cationic gemini surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xi-Lian; Han, Chuan-Hong; Geng, Pei-Pei; Chen, Xiao-Xiao; Guo, Yan; Liu, Jie; Sun, De-Zhi; Zhang, Jun-Hong; Yu, Meng-Jiao

    2016-02-01

    A series of unexpected thermo-responsive phenomena were discovered in an aqueous solution of the cationic gemini surfactant, 2-hydroxypropyl-1,3-bis(alkyldimethylammonium chloride) (n-3(OH)-n(2Cl), n = 14, 16), in the presence of an inorganic salt. The viscosity change trend for the 14-3(OH)-14(2Cl) system was investigated in the 20-40 °C temperature range. As the temperature increased, the viscosity of the solution first decreased to a minimum point corresponding to 27 °C, and then increased until a maximum was reached, after which the viscosity decreased again. In the 16-3(OH)-16(2Cl) system, the gelling temperature (T(gel)) and viscosity changes upon heating were similar to those in the 14-3(OH)-14(2Cl) system above 27 °C. The reversible conversion of elastic hydrogel to wormlike micelles in the aqueous solution of the 16-3(OH)-16(2Cl) system in the presence of an inorganic salt was observed at relatively low temperatures. Various techniques were used to study and verify the phase-transition processes in these systems, including rheological measurements, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), electric conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. The abovementioned phenomena were explained by the formation and destruction of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and the transition mechanisms of the aggregates were analyzed accordingly. PMID:26659081

  9. Effect of cationic surfactants on characteristics and colorimetric behavior of polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposite as time-temperature indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopwinyuwong, Atchareeya; Kitaoka, Takuya; Boonsupthip, Waraporn; Pechyen, Chiravoot; Suppakul, Panuwat

    2014-09-01

    Polydiacetylene (PDA)/silica nanocomposites were synthesized by self-assembly method using polymerizable amphiphilic diacetylene monomers, 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA). Addition of cationic surfactants (PDADMAC and CTAB) to PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites induced higher intermolecular force which affected their size, shape and color transition. Pure PDA, PDA/SiO2, PDA/SiO2/PDADMAC and PDA/SiO2/CTAB were investigated by particle size analysis, TEM, SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy and FT-IR. It was found that the PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites exhibited slightly larger particle sizes than those of other samples. The PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites with a core-shell structure were almost regarded as spherical-shaped particles. Cationic surfactants, especially CTAB, presumably affected the particle size and shape of PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites due to the disruption of hydrogen bonding between PDA head group and ammonium group. The colorimetric response of both PDA/SiO2/surfactant and surfactant-free PDA/SiO2 aqueous solutions directly changed in relation to time and temperature; thus they were expected to be applied as a new polymer-based time-temperature indicator (TTI).

  10. Density functional theory study of interaction, bonding and affinity of group IIb transition metal cations with nucleic acid bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Sabyasachi; Mandal, Debasish; Ghosh, Deepanwita; Das, Abhijit K.

    2012-05-01

    The structure, bonding, and energetics of the complexes obtained from the interaction between the most stable tautomeric forms of free DNA and RNA bases and Zn2+, Cd2+ and Hg2+ cations have been studied using density functional B3LYP method. The 6-311+G (2df, 2p) basis set along with LANL2DZ pseudopotentials for the cations are used in the calculations. The tautomerization paths of the nucleobases are investigated and transition states between the tautomeric forms of the free bases are located. The relative stability of the complexes and the tautomers of the free nucleobases are discussed referring to MIA and relative energy values. For uracil, thymine and adenine, interaction of the metal cations with the most stable tautomers form the least stable molecular complexes. For cytosine and guanine, the stability of the metalated complexes differs significantly. The enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (TΔS) and free energy (ΔG) of the complexes at 298 K have also been calculated.

  11. Analyzing freely dissolved concentrations of cationic surfactant utilizing ion-exchange capability of polyacrylate coated solid-phase microextraction fibers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Droge, Steven T J; Hermens, Joop L M

    2012-08-24

    A 7-μm polyacrylate (PA) coated fiber was successfully employed to determine freely dissolved concentrations of cationic surfactants by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and utilizing the capability of the PA-coating to sorb organic cations via ion-exchange at carboxylic groups. Measured fiber-water partitioning coefficients (K(fw)) were constant below a fiber loading of 2mmol per liter polyacrylate, allowing for simple and accurate analysis in a concentration range that is relevant from a risk assessment point of view. Ion-exchange was confirmed to be the main sorption mechanism because of a decreasing K(fw) with either higher CaCl(2) concentrations or lower pH, and maximum fiber uptake at the polyacrylate cation-exchange capacity (CEC, at 30mmol/L PA). Fiber-water sorption isotherms were established in various aqueous media in toxicological relevant concentrations. The developed SPME method has a high potential for application in ecotoxicological studies, as demonstrated in sorption studies with humic acid in different electrolyte solutions at aqueous concentrations down to the sub nM range. Cationic surfactant sorption affinities for humic acid also depend on medium composition but are orders of magnitude higher than to the PA fiber on a sorbent weight basis. PMID:22818738

  12. Cationic liposomes modified with non-ionic surfactants as effective non-viral carrier for gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhuo; Gao, Jian-Qing; Chen, Jin-Liang; Liang, Wen-Quan

    2006-05-01

    A defined change in formulation components affects the physical and chemical characteristics of cationic liposomes (CLs) carriers in many ways. Therefore, a great degree of control can be exercised over the structure by modifying the CLs with various materials, leading to new innovations for carrier improvement. In the present study, surface modifications of cationic liposomes with non-ionic surfactants--sorbitan monoesters serials (Span 85, 80, 40 and 20) were carried out for developing a new gene transfer carrier. Span modified cationic liposomes (Sp-CLs) were prepared by reverse phase evaporation method (RPV) and self-assemble complexes of antisense oligonucleotides/surfactant modifying cationic liposomes were prepared by auto-coacervation through electrostatic effect. Characterization of Sp-CLs and the self-assembled complex was performed by electron microscope, particle size, zeta potential, turbidity and agarose electrophoresis. Furthermore, in vitro cellular uptake experiment showed that Span plays a role in enhancing the cellular uptake of encapsulated oligonucleotides mediated by Sp-CLs by the endocytosis-dependent route. CLs modified with Span 40 significantly facilitated the cellular uptake by COS-7 cells and HeLa cells; also showed some positive effect on gene expression. That suggests it is a potential non-viral carrier for efficient gene transfer. PMID:16626948

  13. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163

  14. Seasonal evolution of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactant concentrations in coastal aerosols from Askö, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Violaine; Nozière, Barbara; Baduel, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Surfactants present in atmospheric aerosols are expected to enhance the activation into cloud droplets by acting on one of the two key parameters of the Köhler equation: the surface tension, σ. But because the magnitude of this effect and its regional and temporal variability are still highly uncertain [1,2], various approaches have been developed to evidence it directly in the atmosphere. This work presents the analysis of surfactants present in PM2.5 aerosol fractions collected at the coastal site of Askö, Sweden (58° 49.5' N, 17° 39' E) from July to October 2010. The total surfactant fraction was extracted from the samples using an improved double extraction technique. Surface tension measurements performed with the pendant drop technique [3] indicated the presence of very strong surfactants (σ ~ 30 - 35 mN/m) in these aerosols. In addition, these extractions were combined with colorimetric methods to determine the anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactant concentrations [4,5], and provided for the first time interference-free surfactant concentrations in atmospheric aerosols. At this site, the total surfactant concentration in the PM2.5 samples varied between 7 to 150 mM and was dominated by anionic and non-ionic ones. The absolute surface tension curves obtained for total surfactant fraction displayed Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMC) in the range 50 - 400 uM, strongly suggesting a biological origin for the surfactants. The seasonal evolution of these concentrations and their relationships with environmental or meteorological parameters at the site will be discussed. [1] Ekström, S., Nozière, B. et al., Biogeosciences, 2010, 7, 387 [2] Baduel, C., Nozière, B., Jaffrezo, J.-L., Atmos. Environ., 2012, 47, 413 [3] Nozière, B., Baduel, C., Jaffrezo, J.-L., Nat. Commun., 2014, 5, 1 [4] Latif, M. T.; Brimblecombe, P. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2004, 38, 6501 [5] Pacheco e Silva et al., Method to measure surfactant in fluid, 2013, US 2013/0337568 A1

  15. DNA pre-condensation with an amino acid-based cationic amphiphile. A viable approach for liposome-based gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mónica; Penacho, Nuno; Simöes, Sérgio; Lima, Maria C P; Lindman, Björn; Miguel, Maria G

    2008-01-01

    A study related to the development and characterization of a new gene delivery system was performed. The approach consists in both the pre-condensation of plasmid DNA with an arginine-based cationic surfactant, arginine-N-lauroyl amide dihydrochloride (ALA), which was found not to be toxic, and the incorporation of the blood protein transferrin (Tf) into the formulations. Two cationic liposome formulations were used, one composed of a mixture of dioleoyl trimethylammoniopropane and cholesterol (DOTAP:Chol) and the other a pH sensitive formulation constituted of DOTAP, Chol, Dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS). Particles with different ALA/DNA and cationic lipid/DNA charge ratios were produced and a physicochemical characterization of the systems developed was performed. DNA conformational changes in the presence of ALA were studied by Circular Dichroism (CD) and the ALA binding to DNA was followed by surface tension measurements. Insight into the structure and morphology of the various ALA-complexes (complexes composed of ALA, DNA, Tf and liposomes) was obtained by cryogenic-Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) and the sizes of the ALA-complexes were determined through Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). We found that the transfection capacity of these systems is directly related with the presence of ALA and the lipidic composition. Complexes based on the pH sensitive liposome formulation present better transfection profiles. The correlation between the inner structure, density and size of the ALA-complexes and their biological activity is discussed. Overall, we demonstrate that the presence of ALA improves the transfection efficiency when conjugated with cationic liposome systems. PMID:18097953

  16. Physicochemical behaviors of cationic gemini surfactant (14-4-14) based microheterogeneous assemblies.

    PubMed

    Das, Sibani; Mukherjee, Indrajyoti; Paul, Bidyut K; Ghosh, Soumen

    2014-10-28

    A comprehensive study of micellization and microemulsion formation of a cationic gemini surfactant (tetramethylene-1,4-bis(dimethyltetradecylammonium bromide; 14-4-14) in the absence or presence of hydrophobically modified polyelectrolyte, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), has been conducted by conductometry, tensiometry, microcalorimetry, and fluorimetry methods at different temperatures. Both critical micelle concentration and degree of ionization of the surfactant have been observed to increase with increasing temperature. The interfacial and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. The standard Gibbs free energy of micellization (ΔGm°) is negative, which decreases with increase in temperature. Larger entropic contribution is observed compared to the enthalpy. The interaction of 14-4-14 with NaCMC produces coacervates which was determined from turbidimetry method. The pseudoternary phase behavior of the microemulsion systems comprising water (or NaCMC as additive), 14-4-14, isopropanol (IP) or n-butanol (Bu) as cosurfactant, and isopropyl myristate (IPM) were studied at 298 K. Phase diagrams reveal that IP derived microemulsions (in the absence of NaCMC) offer a large isotropic region compared to Bu-derived systems at comparable physicochemical conditions. Increasing the concentration of IP or Bu decreases the isotropic region in the phase diagram. NaCMC influences the microemulsion zone, depending upon its concentration, and type of cosurfactant and surfantant/cosurfactant ratio. Dynamic light scattering and conductometric measurements show the size of the droplet, threshold temperature of percolation, scaling parameters, and activation energy of the percolation process of 14-4-14/IP or Bu derived microemulsion systems without/with NaCMC at various physicochemical conditions. Bu exerts a greater effect to reduce θt than IP as a cosurfactant (in the absence of NaCMC) at comparable ω. On the other hand, IP showed better percolating effect than Bu in the

  17. Modification of clay barriers with a cationic surfactant to improve the retention of pesticides in soils.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, M S; Sánchez-Martín, M J; Andrades, M S; Sánchez-Camazano, M

    2007-01-10

    In this work, the efficiency of reactive clay barriers in the immobilisation of organic pesticides in a sandy soil was studied. Reactive barriers were prepared by modification of montmorillonite, kaolinite and palygorskite clay minerals, and of a clayey soil with the cationic surfactant octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA). Percolation curves of the pesticides linuron, atrazine and metalaxyl of different hydrophobic character, were obtained in columns packed with a natural sandy soil with these barriers intercalated under saturated flow conditions. The cumulative curves in the unmodified soil indicated a leaching of pesticides greater than 85% of the total amount of compound added. After barrier intercalation, the breakthrough curves (BTC) indicated a dramatic decrease in the amounts of linuron leached in all columns and a significant modification of the leaching kinetics of atrazine and metalaxyl. Retardation factors, R, of the pesticides in the columns were significantly correlated with the organic matter content (OM) derived from the ODTMA of the organo clay/soil barriers (r2>or=0.78). Significant correlations were also found between these R factors and the pore volume values corresponding to the maximum peaks of the BTCs (r2=0.83; p<0.01) or the total volumes leached (r2=0.44; p<0.05) for the pesticides atrazine and metalaxyl. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of reactive clay barriers for almost complete immobilisation of hydrophobic pesticides or for decreasing the leaching of moderately hydrophobic pesticides coming from point-like sources of pollution. These barriers would avoid the generation of elevated concentrations of these compounds in the soils due to their rapid washing. PMID:16879917

  18. Coacervation and aggregate transitions of a cationic ammonium gemini surfactant with sodium benzoate in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruijuan; Tian, Maozhang; Wang, Yilin

    2014-03-21

    Coacervation in an aqueous solution of cationic ammonium gemini surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (C12C6C12Br2) with sodium benzoate (NaBz) has been investigated at 25 °C by turbidity titration, light microscopy, dynamic light scattering, cryogenic temperature transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), isothermal titration calorimetry, ζ potential and (1)H NMR measurements. There is a critical NaBz concentration of 0.10 M, only above which coacervation can take place. However, if the NaBz concentration is too large, coacervation also becomes difficult. Coacervation takes place at a very low concentration of C12C6C12Br2 and exists in a very wide concentration region of C12C6C12Br2. The phase behavior in the NaBz concentration from 0.15 to 0.50 M includes spherical micelles, threadlike micelles, coacervation, and precipitation. With increasing NaBz concentration, the phase boundaries of coacervation shift to higher C12C6C12Br2 concentration. Moreover, the C12C6C12Br2-NaBz aggregates in the coacervate are found to be close to charge neutralized. The Cryo-TEM and SEM images of the coacervate shows a layer-layer stacking structure consisting of a three-dimensional network formed by the assembly of threadlike micelles. Long, dense and almost uncharged threadlike micelles are the precursors of coacervation in the system. PMID:24651935

  19. Effects of a cationic and hydrophobic peptide, KL4, on model lung surfactant lipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Koppenol, S; Yu, H; Zografi, G

    1998-04-01

    We report on the surface behavior of a hydrophobic, cationic peptide, [lysine-(leucine)4]4-lysine (KL4), spread at the air/water interface at 25 degrees C and pH 7.2, and its effect at very low molar ratios on the surface properties of the zwitterionic phospholipid 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and the anionic forms of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG) and palmitic acid (PA), in various combinations. Surface properties were evaluated by measuring equilibrium spreading pressures (pi(e)) and surface pressure-area isotherms (pi-A) with the Wilhelmy plate technique. Surface phase separation was observed with fluorescence microscopy. KL4 itself forms a single-phase monolayer, stable up to a surface pressure pi of 30 mN/m, and forms an immiscible monolayer mixture with DPPC. No strong interaction was detected between POPG and KL4 in the low pi region, whereas a stable monolayer of the PA/KL4 binary mixture forms, which is attributed to ionic interactions between oppositely charged PA and KL4. KL4 has significant effects on the DPPC/POPG mixture, in that it promotes surface phase separation while also increasing pi(e) and pi(max), and these effects are greatly enhanced in the presence of PA. In the model we have proposed, KL4 facilitates the separation of DPPC-rich and POPG/PA-rich phases to achieve surface refinement. It is these two phases that can fulfill the important lung surfactant functions of high surface pressure stability and efficient spreading. PMID:9545051

  20. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal fermentation, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in four contemporary 4×4 Latin Square designs, which consisted of four periods of 21 days and four treatments according to DCAD: +290; +192; +98 and -71 milliequivalent (mEq)/kg dry matter (DM). Ruminal pH and concentrations of acetic and butyric acid increased linearly according to the increase of DCAD. Similarly, NDF total apparent digestibility linearly increased by 6.38% when DCAD increased from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM [Y=65.90 (SE=2.37)+0.0167 (SE=0.0068)×DCAD (mEq/kg DM)]. Blood pH was also increased according to DCAD, which resulted in reduction of serum concentrations of Na, K and ionic calcium (iCa). To maintain the blood acid-base homeostasis, renal metabolism played an important role in controlling serum concentrations of Na and K, since the Na and K urinary excretion increased linearly by 89.69% and 46.06%, respectively, from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM. Changes in acid-base balance of biological fluids may directly affect the mineral composition of milk, as milk concentrations of Na, K, iCa and chlorides were reduced according to blood pH increased. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of DCAD raises the pH of ruminal fluid, NDF total apparent digestibility, and blood pH, and decreases the milk concentration of cationic minerals, as well as the efficiency of Na utilization to milk production. PMID:26289745

  1. Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis for the determination of anionic and cationic homologous surfactants in a single run.

    PubMed

    Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Maria D

    2005-06-01

    An electrophoretic method for the simultaneous separation and determination of cationic and anionic surfactants based on double electrokinetic injection from the two ends of the capillary is proposed here. Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) with methanol as solvent was used to reduce the electroosmotic flow so that under these conditions the analytes migrate toward the corresponding electrode. The optimization step was the key to solve the problems associated with surfactants analysis (namely, adsorption on the capillary wall, micelle formation, and those issues related to the separation of homologous compounds). Good results were obtained with the proposed method both for the analysis of both spiked and natural samples, thus demonstrating the applicability of the proposed method for routine analysis. Finally, a comparison between the proposed method and two methods for independent analysis of cationic and anionic surfactants was made. The results showed that the precision (between 1.90 and 4.10% for repeatability and 7.43 and 8.98% for within-laboratory reproducibility, both expressed as relative standard deviation) and sensitivity (limits of detection and quantification between 0.52 and 1.88 microg/mL and between 1.73 and 6.20 microg/mL, respectively) are not affected by the CE mode. The resolution was similar to or better than that of the comparison methods and the analysis time was considerably shortened as both types of compounds were determined in a single run in only 9 min. PMID:15920780

  2. A cationic surfactant-decorated liquid crystal sensing platform for simple and sensitive detection of acetylcholinesterase and its inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Hu, Qiongzheng; Guo, Yongxian; Yu, Li

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, construction of the liquid crystal (LC)-based sensing platform for simple and sensitive detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and its inhibitor using a cationic surfactant-decorated LC interface was demonstrated. A change of the optical images of LCs from bright to dark appearance was observed when the cationic surfactant, myristoylcholine chloride (Myr), was transferred onto the aqueous/LC interface, due to the formation of a stable surfactant monolayer at the interface. A dark-to-bright change of the optical appearance was then observed when AChE was transferred onto the Myr-decorated LC interface. The sensitivity of this new type of LC-based sensor is 3 orders of magnitude higher in the serum albumin solution than that only in the buffer solution. Noteworthy is that the AChE LC sensor shows a very high sensitivity for the detection of the enzyme inhibitor, which is around 1 fM. The constructed low-cost LC-based sensor is quite simple and convenient, showing high promise for label-free detection of AChE and its inhibitors. PMID:25957073

  3. pH-induced motion control of self-propelled oil droplets using a hydrolyzable gemini cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Miura, Shingo; Banno, Taisuke; Tonooka, Taishi; Osaki, Toshihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji; Toyota, Taro

    2014-07-15

    Self-propelled motion of micrometer-sized substances has drawn much attention as an autonomous transportation system. One candidate vehicle is a chemically driven micrometer-sized oil droplet. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of a chemical reaction system controlling the three-dimensional motion of oil droplets underwater. In this study, we developed a molecular system that controlled the self-propelled motion of 4-heptyloxybenzaldehyde oil droplets by using novel gemini cationic surfactants containing carbonate linkages (2G12C). We found that, in emulsions containing sodium hydroxide, the motion time of the self-propelled oil droplets was longer in the presence of 2G12C than in the presence of gemini cationic surfactants without carbonate linkages. Moreover, in 2G12C solution, oil droplets at rest underwent unidirectional, self-propelled motion in a gradient field toward a higher concentration of sodium hydroxide. Even though they stopped within several seconds, they restarted in the same direction. 2G12C was gradually hydrolyzed under basic conditions to produce a pair of the corresponding monomeric surfactants, which exhibit different interfacial properties from 2G12C. The prolonged and restart motion of the oil droplets were explained by the increase in the heterogeneity of the interfacial tension of the oil droplets. PMID:24934718

  4. Spectroscopic studies of the interaction between methylene blue-naphthol orange complex and anionic and cationic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shunzo; Kobashi, Serina; Tsutsui, Ken-ichiro; Sueishi, Yoshimi

    2007-02-01

    Initially, the absorbance of MB at 665 nm decreased rapidly with increasing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration, but increased gradually above about 2.3 × 10 -3 M. However, the absorbance of MB was almost independent of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) concentration. On the other hand, the absorbance of NpO was affected by addition of CTAB in a similar manner to the change in MB-SDS system, but not by addition of SDS. The absorption band of MB showed a small red-shift and a decrease in intensity upon addition of NpO, while that of NpO showed only the decrease in the intensity upon the addition of MB. These spectral changes were attributed to the formation of complexes between these dyes. The effects of anionic and cationic surfactants on the absorption spectra of mixtures of MB and NpO were also examined. Contrary to the effects on the absorption spectrum of MB and NpO, respectively, the absorbances of MB and NpO in the mixtures were changed with the additions of both anionic and cationic surfactants. The spectral changes were explained by changes in the forms of MB and NpO in the solutions with increasing surfactant concentrations.

  5. Controlled complexation of plasmid DNA with cationic polymers: effect of surfactant on the complexation and stability of the complexes.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, Marjukka; Murtomäki, Lasse; Kontturi, Kyösti

    2008-10-01

    The aggregation of the cationic polymer-plasmid DNA complexes of two commonly used polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) and poly-l-lysine (PLL) were systematically compared. The complexation was studied in 5% glucose solution at 25 degrees C using dynamic light scattering and isothermal titration calorimetry. The aggregation of the complexes was controlled by addition of the surfactant polyoxyethylene stearate (POES). The stability of the complexes was evaluated using dextran sulphate (DS) as relaxing agent. The relaxation of the complexes in the presence of DS was studied using agarose gel electrophoresis. This study elucidates the role of surfactant in controlling the size of the PEI/pDNA complex and reveals the differences of the two polymers as complexing agents. PMID:18583110

  6. Release of outer membrane vesicles in Pseudomonas putida as a response to stress caused by cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Marisa Heredia, Romina; Sabrina Boeris, Paola; Sebastián Liffourrena, Andrés; Fernanda Bergero, María; Alberto López, Gastón; Inés Lucchesi, Gloria

    2016-05-01

    Pseudomonas putida A (ATCC 12633), a degrader of cationic surfactants, releases outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) when grown with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) as the sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source. The OMVs exhibit a bilayer structure and were found to be composed of lipopolysaccharides, proteins and phospholipids (PLs) such as cardiolipin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). The OMVs showed a marked increase in the PG content, approximately 43 % higher than the amount registered in the parent cells from which the vesicles were derived. After growth of P. putida with TTAB, the amount of lipoprotein covalently cross-linked to the peptidoglycan showed a twofold decrease when compared with values found after growth without the surfactant [16 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μg (mg cell envelope protein)- 1, respectively]. This decrease in the amount of lipoprotein can be related to areas of loss of contact between the outer membrane and the peptidoglycan and, therefore, to OMV production. In addition, due to its amphiphilic nature, TTAB can contribute to OMV biogenesis, through a physical mechanism, by induction of the curvature of the membrane. Taking into account that OVMs were produced when the cells were grown under external stress, caused by the surfactant, and that TTAB was detected in the vesicles [48 nmol TTAB (nmol PL)- 1], we concluded that this system of TTAB elimination is a mechanism that P. putida A (ATCC 12633) would utilize for alleviating stress caused by cationic surfactants. PMID:26925774

  7. Evidence of self-aggregation of cationic surfactants in a choline chloride+glycerol deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mahi; Singh, Ranjan K; Pandey, Siddharth

    2015-08-24

    Based on fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, surface tension, small-angle X-ray/dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of cationic surfactants of the n-alkyltrimethylammonium family within an archetypical deep eutectic solvent comprised of a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and glycerol. Estimated thermodynamic parameters suggest this self-aggregation process to be less entropically driven than that in water. These novel water-free self-assemblies might serve as dynamic soft templates to direct the growth of size- or shape-tailored nanoparticles within water-restricted media. PMID:26080073

  8. Interaction between a Cationic Surfactant-like Peptide and Lipid Vesicles and Its Relationship to Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the properties of an antimicrobial surfactant-like peptide (Ala)6(Arg), A6R, containing a cationic headgroup. The interaction of this peptide with zwitterionic (DPPC) lipid vesicles is investigated using a range of microscopic, X-ray scattering, spectroscopic, and calorimetric methods. The β-sheet structure adopted by A6R is disrupted in the presence of DPPC. A strong effect on the small-angle X-ray scattering profile is observed: the Bragg peaks from the DPPC bilayers in the vesicle walls are eliminated in the presence of A6R and only bilayer form factor peaks are observed. All of these observations point to the interaction of A6R with DPPC bilayers. These studies provide insight into interactions between a model cationic peptide and vesicles, relevant to understanding the action of antimicrobial peptides on lipid membranes. Notably, peptide A6R exhibits antimicrobial activity without membrane lysis. PMID:24156610

  9. Synthesis of Multibranched Gold Nanoechinus Using a Gemini Cationic Surfactant and Its Application for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Priya; Liu, Cheng-Hong; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2016-09-14

    High-yield multibranched Au nanoechinus possessing lengthy and dense branched nanorods on the surface were synthesized using a seed-mediated surfactant-directed approach in the presence of gemini cationic surfactant N,N,N'N'-tetramethyl-N,N'-ditetradecylethane-1,2-diaminium bromide (C14C2C14Br2), HAuCl4, AgNO3, and ascorbic acid. C14C2C14Br2 surfactant provides a versatile template in designing the unique morphology of Au nanoechinus with the assistance of AgNO3. UV-vis spectroscopic analysis proves that Au nanoechinus possess a unique intense broad localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak, which extends from 400 to 1700 nm in the NIR region making a highly potential platform for biomedical applications. Systematic time-dependent TEM, UV-vis-NIR, and XRD analysis were performed to monitor the morphological evolution of multibranched Au nanoechinus. It was found that the surface of branched nanorods of Au NE preferentially grew along (111) crystal planes. Furthermore, as-synthesized Au nanoechinus shows excellent SERS enhancement ability for dopamine inside HeLa cells. PMID:27556284

  10. Biosorption of chromate anions from aqueous solution by a cationic surfactant-modified lichen (Cladonia rangiformis (L.)).

    PubMed

    Bingol, Atifet; Aslan, Ali; Cakici, Avni

    2009-01-30

    Biosorption has been appearing as a useful alternative to conventional treatment systems for the removal of toxic metals from aqueous stream. The batch removal of chromate anions (CrO(4)(2-)) from wastewater under different experimental conditions using a cationic surfactant-modified lichen (Cladonia rangiformis (L.)) was investigated in this study. Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used for biomass modification. The results of the experiments showed that biomass modification substantially improved the biosorption efficiency. Effects of pH, biosorption time, initial CrO(4)(2-) concentration, biosorbent dosage, and the existence of the surfactant on the biosorption of CrO(4)(2-) anions were studied. Studies up to date have shown that the biosorption efficiency of chromium increased as the pH of the solution decreased. In the present study, the removal of chromate anions from aqueous solutions at high pH values with surfactant-modified lichen was investigated. From the results of the experiments it was seen that the removal of chromate anions by modified lichen was 61% at the solution natural pH (pH 5.11) but at the same pH value the removal of chromate anions by unmodified lichen was 6%. Also concentrations ranging from 30 to 150 mg/L Cr(IV) were tested and the biosorptive removal efficiency of the metal ions from aqueous solution at high pH was achieved more than 98%. PMID:18502042

  11. Enhanced sorption of naphthalene and p-nitrophenol by nano-SiO2 modified with a cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Jing, Qingfeng; Yi, Zili; Lin, Daohui; Zhu, Lizhong; Yang, Kun

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we observed that modification of nano-oxides (e.g., nano-SiO2) with cationic surfactants (e.g., cetyl pyridinium chloride, CPC) could be a potential way to make nano-oxides be superior sorbents with a partition mechanism for the sorptive removal of organic contaminants from wastewater where the coated CPC was an effective organic phase for partitioning. The partitioning of nonpolar naphthalene into coated CPC was induced by hydrophobic effect alone and presenting linear isotherms, while that of polar p-nitrophenol was induced by not only the hydrophobic effect but also the hydrogen-bonding interaction and presenting isotherm nonlinearity. The sorption affinity for naphthalene and p-nitrophenol partitioning into the coated CPC and the configuration of coated CPC remained unchanged although the amounts of coated CPC were increased. Linear relationships were established between the coated CPC amounts and the sorption capacities of naphthalene or p-nitrophenol, which could be used to predict the sorption of organic contaminants on surfactant-modified nano-oxides. In addition, these observed results would be also valuable for estimating the environmental behaviors and risks of nano-SiO2 and organic contaminants because nano-SiO2 would be inevitably coated with ubiquitous surfactants in the environment due to the discharging from the wide domestic and industry applications. PMID:23561503

  12. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of polysaccharide alginate derived cationic surfactant-metal(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Salah M; Hefni, Hassan H

    2016-01-01

    New natural polysaccharide carbohydrate derivatives of sodium alginate surfactant and its cobalt, copper and zinc complexes were synthesized. Structures of the synthesized compounds are reported using FTIR, (1)H NMR and UV-vis. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of the alginate surfactant and its metal complexes in aqueous solution was found out from surface tension measurements. Surface tension data at different temperatures served for the evaluation of the temperature-dependent CMC and the thermodynamics of micellization (ΔGmic, ΔHmic, ΔSmic) and adsorption (ΔGads, ΔGads, ΔSads). The surface activities of the synthesized polymeric surfactant and its metal complexes were influenced by their chemical structures and the type of the transition metals. These compounds were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Candida albicans and Asperigllus niger). The antibacterial and antifungal screening tests of the alginate surfactant metal complexes have shown good results compared to its precursor alginate surfactant. PMID:26478092

  13. Critical roles of cationic surfactants in the preparation of colloidal mesostructured silica nanoparticles: control of mesostructure, particle size, and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hironori; Urata, Chihiro; Higashitamori, Sayuri; Aoyama, Yuko; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-12

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles are promising materials for various applications, such as drug delivery and catalysis, but the functional roles of surfactants in the formation and preparation of mesostructured silica nanoparticles (MSN-as) remain to be seen. It was confirmed that the molar ratio of cationic surfactants to Si of alkoxysilanes (Surf/Si) can affect the degree of mesostructure formation (i.e., whether the mesochannels formed inside the nanoparticles actually pass through the outer surface of the particles), the particle diameter, and the dispersibility of MSN-as. Wormhole-like mesostructures formed with low Surf/Si ratios; however, the mesopores did not pass through the outer surface of the particles completely. At high Surf/Si ratios, the mesostructures extended. The particle diameter was 100 nm or larger at low Surf/Si ratios, and the primary particle diameter decreased as the Surf/Si ratio increased. This was because the surfactants enhanced the dispersity of the alkoxysilanes in water and the hydrolysis rate of the alkoxysilanes became faster, leading to an increased nucleation as compared to the particle growth. Moreover, primary particles aggregated at low Surf/Si ratios because of the hydrophobic interactions among the surfactants that were not involved in the mesostructure formation but were adsorbed onto the nanoparticles. At high Surf/Si ratios, the surfactant micelles were adsorbed on the surface of primary particles (admicelles), resulting in the dispersion of the particles due to electrostatic repulsion. In particular, molar ratios of 0.13 or higher were quite effective for the preparation of highly dispersed MSN-as. Surfactants played important roles in the mesostructure formation, decreasing the particle diameters, and the dispersibility of the particles. All of these factors were considerably affected by the Surf/Si ratio. The results suggested novel opportunities to control various colloidal mesostructured nanoparticles from the

  14. Growth Behavior, Geometrical Shape, and Second CMC of Micelles Formed by Cationic Gemini Esterquat Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Bergström, L Magnus; Tehrani-Bagha, Alireza; Nagy, Gergely

    2015-04-28

    Micelles formed by novel gemini esterquat surfactants have been investigated with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The growth behavior of the micelles is found to differ conspicuously depending on the length of the gemini surfactant spacer group. The gemini surfactant with a long spacer form rather small triaxial ellipsoidal tablet-shaped micelles that grow weakly with surfactant concentration in the entire range of measured concentrations. Geminis with a short spacer, on the other hand, form weakly growing oblates or tablets at low concentrations that start to grow much more strongly into polydisperse rodlike or wormlike micelles at higher concentrations. The latter behavior is consistent with the presence of a second CMC that marks the transition from the weakly to the strongly growing regime. It is found that the growth behavior in terms of aggregation number as a function of surfactant concentration always appear concave in weakly growing regimes, while switching to convex behavior in strongly growing regimes. As a result, we are able to determine the second CMC of the geminis with short spacer by means of suggesting a rather precise definition of it, located at the point of inflection of the growth curve that corresponds to the transition from concave to convex growth behavior. Our SANS results are rationalized by comparison with the recently developed general micelle model. In particular, this theory is able to explain and reproduce the characteristic appearances of the experimental growth curves, including the presence of a second CMC and the convex strongly growing regime beyond. By means of optimizing the agreement between predictions from the general micelle model and results from SANS experiments, we are able to determine the three bending elasticity constants spontaneous curvature, bending rigidity, and saddle-splay constant for each surfactant. PMID:25835031

  15. [Effect of univalent cations on synthesis of surfactants by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Shevchuk, T A; Antoniuk, S I; Kravchenko, E Iu; Iutinskaia, G A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of univalent cations on activity of key enzymes of C2-metabolism has been investigated in the producer of biosurfactants, Acinetibacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 grown on ethanol. It was established that potassium cations are inhibitors of pyroquinolinequinone-dependent alcohol- and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases, the enzymes of biosynthesis of surface-active aminolipids (NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase) and glycolipids (phosphoenopyruvate (PhEP)-carboxikinase), while ammonium cations are activators of these enzymes and PhEP-carboxylase. A decrease of potassium cations concentration in the cultivation medium to 1 mM and increase of the content of amine nitrogen to 10 mM as a result of potassium nitrate substitution by equimolar, as to nitrogen, urea concentration were accompanied by the increase of activity of enzymes of ethanol metabolism and SAS biosynthesis, as well as by the 2-fold increase of conditional concentration of the biosurfactants. PMID:23720959

  16. Cationic liposomes formulated with DMPC and a gemini surfactant traverse the cell membrane without causing a significant bio-damage.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, E; Papacci, F; Sennato, S; Bombelli, C; Viola, I; Bonincontro, A; Bordi, F; Mancini, G; Gigli, G; Risuleo, G

    2014-10-01

    Cationic liposomes have been intensively studied both in basic and applied research because of their promising potential as non-viral molecular vehicles. This work was aimed to gain more information on the interactions between the plasmamembrane and liposomes formed by a natural phospholipid and a cationic surfactant of the gemini family. The present work was conducted with the synergistic use of diverse experimental approaches: electro-rotation measurements, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, laser scanning confocal microscopy and biomolecular/cellular techniques. Electro-rotation measurements pointed out that the interaction of cationic liposomes with the cell membrane alters significantly its dielectric and geometric parameters. This alteration, being accompanied by significant changes of the membrane surface roughness as measured by atomic force microscopy, suggests that the interaction with the liposomes causes locally substantial modifications to the structure and morphology of the cell membrane. However, the results of electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) experiments show that upon the interaction the electric charge exposed on the cell surface does not vary significantly, pointing out that the simple adhesion on the cell surface of the cationic liposomes or their fusion with the membrane is to be ruled out. As a matter of fact, confocal microscopy images directly demonstrated the penetration of the liposomes inside the cell and their diffusion within the cytoplasm. Electro-rotation experiments performed in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors suggest that the internalization is mediated by, at least, one specific pathway. Noteworthy, the liposome uptake by the cell does not cause a significant biological damage. PMID:25017801

  17. Fabrication, stability and efficacy of dual-component antimicrobial nanoemulsions: essential oil (thyme oil) and cationic surfactant (lauric arginate).

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuhua; McLandsborough, Lynne; McClements, David Julian

    2015-04-01

    The influence of a cationic surfactant (lauric arginate, LAE) on the physical properties and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions was investigated. Nanoemulsions prepared from pure thyme oil were highly unstable due to Ostwald ripening, but they could be stabilized by adding a ripening inhibitor (corn oil) to the oil phase prior to homogenisation. The loading capacity and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions were significantly increased by adding LAE. In the absence of LAE, at least 60 wt% corn oil had to be added to the lipid phase to inhibit Ostwald ripening; but in the presence of 0.1 wt% LAE, only 30 wt% corn oil was needed. LAE addition substantially increased the antimicrobial efficacy of the thyme oil nanoemulsions: 200 μg/ml thyme oil was needed to inhibit growth of a spoilage yeast (Zygosaccharomyces bailii) if LAE was added, whereas ⩾ 400 μg/ml was needed in the absence of LAE. PMID:25442557

  18. Influence of a cationic surfactant on adsorption of p-nitrophenol by a magsorbent based on magnetic alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Layaly; El Kolli, Nadia; Talbot, Delphine; Welschbillig, Mathias; Bée, Agnès

    2015-11-01

    The paper focuses on the removal of p-nitrophenol by an adsorption process. A magnetic adsorbent was synthesized by encapsulation of magnetic functionalized nanoparticles using alginate as a green biopolymer matrix. A cationic surfactant, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPyCl), was used to confer a hydrophobic character to the magnetic beads and thus to promote their adsorption efficiency. The effect of different parameters such as initial concentrations of both PNP and CPyCl, contact time and solution pH value on the adsorption of PNP in the presence of CPyCl was investigated. It should be noted that combination of magnetic and adsorption properties in a same material is an interesting challenge which could overcome the recovery problems of pollutant-loaded adsorbent. PMID:26188728

  19. Influence of temperature on corrosion inhibition for carbon steel by rice straw extract in HCl solution: Synergistic effect of cationic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkafli, Rabiahtul; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Jalar, Azman

    2013-11-01

    The corrosion inhibitive effects of rice straw extract (RSE) for carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution was investigated. Weight loss method and potentiodynamic polarization was used to study the inhibition efficiency of cationic surfactant, benzalkonium chloride (BKC) additives into rice straw extract corrosion inhibitor. Inhibition efficiency was determined by comparing the inhibition efficiency in the absence and presence of additives. The corrosion inhibition efficiency was found to increase with surfactant concentration and decreased with increasing temperature which is due to the fact that, the rate of carbon steel corrosion was higher than the rate of adsorption of inhibitor molecules. The inhibiting action of the rice straw extract was considerably enhanced by the addition of cationic surfactant. The results obtained from weight loss analysis are in direct agreement with tafel polarization studies. Tafel polarization data indicated that a combination of RSE and BKC acts as a mixed - type inhibitor.

  20. Effect of alkane chain length and counterion on the freezing transition of cationic surfactant adsorbed film at alkane mixture - water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Yuhei; Sakamoto, Hiroyasu; Takiue, Takanori; Aratono, Makoto; Matsubara, Hiroki

    2015-05-21

    Penetration of alkane molecules into the adsorbed film gives rise to a surface freezing transition of cationic surfactant at the alkane-water interface. To examine the effect of the alkane chain length and counterion on the surface freezing, we employed interfacial tensiometry and ellipsometry to study the interface of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride aqueous solutions against dodecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, and their mixtures. Applying theoretical equations to the experimental results obtained, we found that the alkane molecules that have the same chain length as the surfactant adsorb preferentially into the surface freezing film. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the freezing transition temperature of cationic surfactant adsorbed film was independent of the kind of counterion. PMID:25932500

  1. Sorption-desorption of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene on soil: Anionic surfactant and cationic polyelectrolyte effects

    SciTech Connect

    DiVincenzo, J.P.; Dentel, S.K.

    1996-11-01

    Anionic surfactants and cationic polymers are two classes of anthropogenic chemicals that are released to the environment in significant amounts. In particular, this occurs in the land disposal of sludges, potentially altering the terrestrial mobility of other contaminants such as hydrophobic organics. Thus, we examined the 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) sorption-desorption on soil with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and/or a cationic polyelectrolyte (Percol 757) present. Initial experiments varying sorbent mass resulted in nonconstant partitioning and a nonlinear isotherm; a model of incomplete colloidal separation by centrifugation could not explain the nonlinearity. A proposed model quantifies this isotherm behavior with a BET isotherm equation related to the limiting sorption capacity of the organic matter phase, Q{sub om}{degrees}. Additions of SDS and/or polyelectrolyte led to significant changes in TCB sorption. The SDS decreased TCB sorption significantly, but only with SDS exceeding the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The CMC value itself varied with electrolyte and soil presence. Increasing the SDS concentration above the CMC caused TCB desorption from soil. The SDS also increased residual colloidal solids, but primarily below the CMC. Percol 757 slightly increased TCP sorption. With polymer added to soil containing SDS, TCB sorption was unaffected until charge equivalence was approached, whereupon sorption increased severalfold. This trend reversed when the SDS exceeded the sum of the polymer equivalence and the CMC. These results are explained in terms of polymer-surfactant interactions. Environmental implications include effects on transport of hydrophobic organics resulting form sludge disposal on land. 27 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Experimental and theoretical approach to cationic drug-anionic gemini surfactant systems in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Noori, Sahar; Naqvi, Andleeb Z; Ansari, Wajid H; Kabir-ud-Din

    2014-03-01

    Herein the results of surface tension measurements on the mixed systems of an amphiphilic drug amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT) and three anionic bisphosphodiester gemini surfactants having different hydrophobic tails (8, 10, and 12 carbon) are presented. The experimental and ideal critical micelle concentration (cmc and cmcid) values suggest synergism in mixed systems of AMT and 8-2-8/10-2-10 and attractive interaction in AMT-12-2-12 systems. Other parameters evaluated from the data also suggest mixed micellization among the components with almost 50% contribution of surfactants (micellar mole fraction, X1(m), close to 0.5). The X1 values evaluated from Rubingh's model (X1(m)) and Motomura's model (X1(M)) as well as X1(id) values increase with increasing content of surfactants in solution. Adsorption behavior too indicates that the mixed monolayers experience attractive interaction (β(σ)) which vary in the order: AMT-12-2-12

  3. Selective separation of beta-lactoglobulin from sweet whey using CGAs generated from the cationic surfactant CTAB.

    PubMed

    Fuda, Elisabeth; Bhatia, Divesh; Pyle, D L; Jauregi, Paula

    2005-06-01

    The selective separation of whey proteins was studied using colloidal gas aphrons generated from the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). From the titration curves obtained by zeta potential measurements of individual whey proteins, it was expected to selectively adsorb the major whey proteins, i.e., bovine serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin to the aphrons and elute the remaining proteins (lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase) in the liquid phase. A number of process parameters including pH, ionic strength, and mass ratio of surfactant to protein (M(CTAB)/M(TP)) were varied in order to evaluate their effect on protein separation. Under optimum conditions (2 mmol/l CTAB, M(CTAB)/M(TP) = 0.26-0.35, pH 8, and ionic strength = 0.018 mol/l), 80-90% beta-lactoglobulin was removed from the liquid phase as a precipitate, while about 75% lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase, 80% bovine serum albumin, 95% immunoglobulin, and 65% alpha-lactalbumin were recovered in the liquid fraction. Mechanistic studies using zeta potential measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy proved that electrostatic interactions modulate only partially the selectivity of protein separation, as proteins with similar surface charges do not separate to the same extent between the two phases. The selectivity of recovery of beta-lactoglobulin probably occurs in two steps: the first being the selective interaction of the protein with opposite-charged surfactant molecules by means of electrostatic interactions, which leads to denaturation of the protein and subsequent formation and precipitation of the CTAB-beta-lactoglobulin complex. This is followed by the separation of CTAB-beta-lactoglobulin aggregates from the bulk liquid by flotation in the aphron phase. In this way, CGAs act as carriers which facilitate the removal of protein precipitate. PMID:15816026

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO microstructures via a cationic surfactant-assisted hydrothermal microemulsion process

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yumin Lv Hua; Li Shuangqing; Xi Guoxi; Xing Xinyan

    2011-05-15

    Hexagonal cylinder-like ZnO with a regular twinning microstructure was successfully synthesized via a cationic surfactant-assisted hydrothermal microemulsion route. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Ultraviolet and Visible absorption spectroscopy were employed to characterize the structure, morphologies and properties of the as-prepared samples. The results showed that the reaction temperature, reaction time and molar ratio (w) between water and CTAB exhibited obvious influences on the morphologies and sizes of the products. The Ultraviolet and Visible absorption spectra revealed a strong and broad absorption band from ultraviolet to visible region and the maximum absorption peak appeared at 376 nm. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the ZnO microstructures was also discussed in this study. - Research Highlights: {yields} Hexagonal cylinder-like ZnO with twinning microstructure was prepared. {yields} Water/surfactant ratio exhibits obvious influence on the morphology and size of ZnO. {yields} An aggregation mechanism of the ZnO microstructures has been proposed.

  5. Column studies for the adsorption of cationic surfactant onto an organic polymer resin and a granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Vergili, Ilda; Kaya, Yasemin; Gönder, Zeren Beril; Barlas, Hulusi

    2010-03-01

    Adsorption beds containing granular activated carbon and organic polymer resin are used widely to remove organic pollutants from wastewaters and water streams. Adsorption polymers are becoming alternatives to activated carbon for removal of surfactants by adsorption techniques. This study investigated the adsorption characteristics of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant for selected concentrations below and above critical micelle concentration (CMC). A series of column tests were performed to determine the breakthrough curves by using two different adsorbents: (1) Hydraffin CC 8 x 30 as a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) and (2) Lewatit VPOC 1064 MD PH as a commercial organic polymer resin. In the experiments, the volumetric flow rate was maintained at 10.5 mL/min (approximately 2 m3/ m2 x h). Loading of adsorbents was continued until breakthrough was 10% of the feed concentration. The breakthrough took place at 488 bed volume (BV) below CMC (C0 = 40 mg/L) and 39 BV above CMC (C0 = 400 mg/ L) onto GAC. The organic polymer resin, however, showed a higher adsorption capacity than GAC (1412 BV below CMC and 287 BV above CMC). From the Logit method, the value of adsorption rate coefficient (K) and adsorption capacity coefficient (N) were obtained. PMID:20369564

  6. Synthesis and solution properties of cationic gemini surfactants with long unsaturated tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huazhen; Yang, Haiyang; Yan, Yunfei; Wang, Qin; He, Pingsheng

    2010-07-01

    Gemini surfactants 22:1- s-22:1, where s = 2 and 6 methylene groups and 22:1 refer to erucyl dimethylammonium bromide chains, together with the monomeric surfactant erucyl bis-(hydroxyethyl) methylammonium bromide (EHAB) which has the same long unsaturated tails with gemini surfactants, were synthesized and characterized and solution properties of these surfactants were investigated using surface tension, conductivity and viscosity measurement. It has been found that the critical micelle concentration ( cmc) values of 22:1-2-22:1 and 22:1-6-22:1 are 15.4 and 8.3 μM, respectively, less than the cmc value of EHAB (38 μM). On the other hand, the surface tension of 22:1-2-22:1 and 22:1-6-22:1 at cmc are 40.9 and 42.4, respectively, greater than the surface tension of EHAB (30.9 at cmc). Both 22:1-2-22:1 and 22:1-6-22:1 have nearly the same value of a0 (the minimum head group areas per surfactant molecule at the aqueous solution/air interface), which is almost the half value of a0 corresponding to EHAB. On the other hand, the ionization degree α of micelles of both 22:1-2-22:1 and 22:1-6-22:1 is approximately twice the value of α corresponding to micelles of EHAB. Though 22:1-2-22:1 has more similarity with 22:1-6-22:1 rather than EHAB as presented above, 22:1-2-22:1 in water cannot enhance the viscosity of the solution significantly in the presence of salt. In contrast, both 22:1-6-22:1 and EHAB in water can give rise to highly viscoelastic or gel-like solutions even at the high temperature in the presence of salt. In particular, 22:1-6-22:1 has proved to be a more efficient candidate for high temperature rheology-control applications than EHAB. The effect of salt upon the viscosity of 22:1-6-22:1 in aqueous solution is significant. The most proper ratio of 22:1-6-22:1/NaSal for enhancing the viscosity of solution has been proved to be 0.7.

  7. Surfactant properties of ionic liquids containing short alkyl chain imidazolium cations and ibuprofenate anions.

    PubMed

    Tourné-Péteilh, Corine; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Vioux, André; Judeinstein, Patrick; In, Martin; Viau, Lydie

    2011-09-14

    Interfacial tension, electrical conductivity, NMR self-diffusion and DLS experiments have been used to investigate the self-aggregation in water of ionic liquids associating an ibuprofenate anion and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium [C(n)MIm](+) (n = 4, 6, 8) cations. Despite the short alkyl chain on imidazolium cations (n ≤ 8), these ionic liquids exhibit particularly low Critical Aggregation Concentrations (CAC), significantly lower than their parent 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride salts. This behaviour is attributed to the formation of catanionic pairs between ibuprofenate and imidazolium. PMID:21799958

  8. Gene transfer by cationic surfactants is essentially limited by the trapping of the surfactant/DNA complexes onto the cell membrane: a fluorescence investigation.

    PubMed

    Clamme, J P; Bernacchi, S; Vuilleumier, C; Duportail, G; Mély, Y

    2000-08-25

    The interaction between complexes of plasmid DNA with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and L929 fibroblasts was first examined using confocal microscopy. The complexes labeled with the DNA intercalator, YOYO-1, were found to be trapped onto the external face of the plasma membrane; a feature that may constitute a major limiting step in transfection. Moreover, since no cytotoxic effect appeared in these conditions, we further inferred that the CTAB molecules remained bound to the DNA. The interaction of the complexes with the membranes was best modeled with neutral vesicles. From anisotropy thermotropic curves of DPHpPC-labeled vesicles and fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements between these vesicles and YOYO-labeled complexes, we evidenced that the binding of the complexes to the vesicle surface opened the micelle-like domains and unwound DNA. However, DNA was not released but remained stably bound via electrostatic interactions to the CTAB molecules incorporated in the external liposome leaflet. Consequently, the large diameter of the unwound plasmid DNA is likely the major factor that precludes its internalization into the cells by endocytosis. In contrast, anionic vesicles that mimic the cytoplasmic facing monolayer of the plasma membrane rapidly released DNA from the complex. This may explain the previously reported high transfection efficiency of DNA complexed with liposomes composed of neutral lipids and cationic surfactants, since the latter may destabilize the endosomal membrane and induce the release of DNA in the cytoplasm. PMID:11030593

  9. Lysine-based surfactants in nanovesicle formulations: the role of cationic charge position and hydrophobicity in in vitro cytotoxicity and intracellular delivery.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Daniele Rubert; del Carmen Morán, Maria; Mitjans, Montserrat; Pérez, Lourdes; Ramos, David; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Pilar Vinardell, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Understanding nanomaterial interactions within cells is of increasing importance for assessing their toxicity and cellular transport. Here, the authors developed nanovesicles containing bioactive cationic lysine-based amphiphiles and assessed whether these cationic compounds increase the likelihood of intracellular delivery and modulate toxicity. Different cytotoxic responses were found among the formulations, depending on surfactant, cell line and endpoint assayed. The induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis were the general mechanisms underlying cytotoxicity. Fluorescence microscopy analysis demonstrated that nanovesicles were internalised by HeLa cells and evidenced that their ability to release endocytosed materials into cell cytoplasm depends on the structural parameters of amphiphiles. The cationic charge position and hydrophobicity of surfactants determine the nanovesicle interactions within the cell and, thus, the resulting toxicity and intracellular behaviour after cell uptake of the nanomaterial. The insights into some toxicity mechanisms of these new nanomaterials contribute in reducing the uncertainty surrounding their potential health hazards. PMID:23560805

  10. Non-ionic surfactant modified cationic liposomes mediated gene transfection in vitro and in the mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wuxiao; Izumisawa, Tomohiro; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Qi, Xianrong; Kitamoto, Dai; Maitani, Yoshie

    2009-02-01

    As reported previously, cationic liposomes formulated with dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and N,N-methyl hydroxyethyl aminopropane carbamoyl cholesterol (MHAPC-liposomes) achieved efficient gene transfection in the mouse lung following intratracheal injection. We have studied here the role of surfactants, mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) and polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), in affecting gene transfection of MHAPC-lipoplexes (complex with pCMV-luc DNA) in A549 cells and in the mouse lung. MEL-A increased gene transfection of MHAPC-lipoplexes significantly in vitro and slightly in the mouse lung, while Tween 80 decreased it both in vitro and in vivo. As assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence imaging, MEL-A might faciliate gene dissociation from MHAPC-lipoplexes with fluorescein-labeled oligodeoxynucleotide (FITC-ODN) after internalization into the cells and retained the lipoplexes in the mouse lung for prolonged time, while Tween 80 was inefficient to deliver foreign gene into target cells and in the lung. These results demonstrated that MEL-A is advantageous to Tween 80 in the modification of cationic liposomes as gene delivery vectors in the lung. PMID:19182397

  11. Nanostructures formed by self-assembly of negatively charged polymer and cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nizri, G; Makarsky, A; Magdassi, S; Talmon, Y

    2009-02-17

    The formation of nanoparticles by interaction of an anionic polyelectrolyte, sodium polyacrylate (NaPA), was studied with a series of oppositely charged surfactants with different chain lengths, alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (CnTAB). The binding and formation of nanoparticles was characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential, and self-diffusion NMR. The inner nanostructure of the particles was observed by direct-imaging cryogenic-temperature transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), indicating aggregates of hexagonal liquid crystal with nanometric size. PMID:19143559

  12. Role of cationic and nonionic surfactants on biocidal efficiency in diesel-water interface.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, N; Maruthamuthu, S; Palaniswamy, N

    2007-06-15

    Biodegradation occurs at the interface between diesel and water. The microbial contamination can result in inhibitor/fuel degradation that leads to the unacceptable level of turbidity, filter plugging, corrosion of storage tanks, pipeline and souring of stored products. Hence, selection of biocides/inhibitors is an important aspect in petroleum product transporting pipeline. Three biocides (cationic and nonionic) were employed to study the biodegradation of diesel in diesel-water interface. The biocidal efficiency on biodegradation of diesel was examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Polyoxyethyleneglycol dodecyl ether [BRIJ-35] and polyethylene glycol-p-isooctylphenyl ether [TRITON-X-100] had higher bactericidal efficiency than Dodecyl ethyl dimethyl ammonium bromide [DDAB]. But the cationic biocide (DDAB) gave good biocidal efficiency at the interface. The data are explained in terms of a model that postulates the formation of "micelle" at the diesel-water interface. PMID:17363228

  13. Large electropositive cations as surfactants for the growth of polar epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Alfred K. C.; Elfimov, Ilya; Berciu, Mona; Sawatzky, George A.

    2015-03-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) we demonstrate that the adsorption of large cations such as potassium or cesium facilitates the epitaxial growth of polar LaAlO3(LAO ) on SrTiO3(STO ). The low ionization potential of K favors efficient electron transfer to the STO conduction band and results in a two-dimensional electron gas which exactly compensates for the diverging potential with increasing layer thickness. For large cations like K or Cs, DFT total energy considerations show that they remain adsorbed on the LAO surface and do not enter substitutionally into LAO. These results suggest a scheme for growing clean LAO/STO interface systems, and polar systems in general, by performing the growth process in the presence of large, low ionization potential alkali-metal ions.

  14. Photophysical and antibacterial properties of complex systems based on smectite, a cationic surfactant and methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Donauerová, Alena; Bujdák, Juraj; Smolinská, Miroslava; Bujdáková, Helena

    2015-10-01

    Solid or colloidal materials with embedded photosensitizers are promising agents from the medical or environmental perspective, where the direct use of photoactive solutions appears to be problematic. Colloids based on layered silicates of the saponite (Sap) and montmorillonite (Mon) type, including those modified with dodecylammonium cations (C12) and photosensitizer--methylene blue (MB) were studied. Two representatives of bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli, were selected for this work. A spectral study showed that MB solutions and also colloids with Sap including C12 exhibited the highest photoactivities. The antimicrobial properties of the smectite colloids were not directly linked to the photoactivity of the adsorbed MB cations. They were also influenced by other parameters, such as light vs. dark conditions, the spectrum, power and duration of the light used for the irradiation; growth phases, and the pre-treatment of microorganisms. Both the photoactivity and antimicrobial properties of the colloids were improved upon pre-modification with C12. Significantly higher antimicrobial properties were observed for the colloids based on Mon with MB in the form of molecular aggregates without significant photoactivities. The MB/Mon colloids, both modified and non-modified with C12 cations, exhibited higher antimicrobial effects than pure MB solution. Besides the direct effect of photosensitization, the surface properties of the silicate particles likely played a crucial role in the interactions with microorganisms. PMID:26248233

  15. Adsorption of Anionic or Cationic Surfactants in Polyanionic Brushes and Its Effect on Brush Swelling and Fouling Resistance during Emulsion Filtration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhefei; Tarabara, Volodymyr V; Bruening, Merlin L

    2015-11-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization of ionic monomers from membrane surfaces yields polyelectrolyte brushes that swell in water and repel oil droplets to resist fouling during filtration of oil-in-water emulsions. However, surfactant adsorption to polyelectrolyte brushes may overcome this fouling resistance. This work examines adsorption of cationic and anionic surfactants in polyanionic brushes and the effect of these surfactants on emulsion filtration. In situ ellipsometry with films on flat surfaces shows that brushes composed of poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate salts) (pSPMK) swell 280% in water and do not adsorb sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). pSPMK-modified microfiltration membranes reject >99.9% of the oil from SDS-stabilized submicron emulsions, and the specific flux through these modified membranes is comparable to that through NF270 nanofiltration membranes. Moreover, the brush-modified membranes show no decline in flux over a 12 h filtration, whereas the flux through NF270 membranes decreases by 98.7%. In contrast, pSPMK brushes adsorb large quantities of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and at low chain densities the brushes collapse in the presence of this cationic surfactant. Filtration of CTAB-stabilized emulsions through pSPMK-modified membranes gives minimal oil rejection, presumably due to the brush collapse. Thus, the fouling resistance of polyelectrolyte brush-modified membranes clearly depends on the surfactant composition in a particular emulsion. PMID:26442835

  16. A light-responsive organofluid based on reverse worm-like micelles formed from an equi-charged, mixed, anionic gemini surfactant with an azobenzene spacer and a cationic conventional surfactant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Duoping; Zhao, Jianxi

    2016-05-01

    An equally-charged mixture of an anionic gemini surfactant, O,O'-bis(sodium 2-tetradecylcarboxylate)-p-azodiphendiol (G14-azo), and a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was dissolved in cyclohexane to form reverse worm-like micelles. Samples with different surfactant concentrations and amounts of added water were studied using rheological measurements. The amount of water, represented as the molar ratio of water to total surfactants W0, was c. 13 (at its minimum) in these equally charged systems of G14-azo (200 mmol L(-1))/CTAB. The low shear viscosity ηL of this system reached 4370 Pa s at W0 = 13 and the dynamic rheological result showed typical surfactant gel behaviour. Under UV-light irradiation, the transparent sample (G14-azo (300 mmol L(-1))/CTAB (600 mmol L(-1))) at W0 = 40 became turbid, during which ηL was rapidly reduced from the original 285 Pa s to 0.3 Pa s, indicating a transition of aggregate morphology from reverse worms into simple reverse micelles. Then the sample was returned to its original homogeneous state with c. 290 Pa s viscosity under visible light irradiation. However, this transition cannot be well achieved at low W0 due to the interior cores being too small. This limit has been attributed to both the Gemini type of surfactant molecule and to the inverted structure of aggregates. PMID:27021435

  17. Novel gemini cationic surfactants based on N, N-dimethyl fatty hydrazide and 1,3-dibromopropane: synthesis, evaluation of surface and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Badr, E E; Kandeel, E M; El-Sadek, B M

    2010-01-01

    A fatty hydrazide based cationic gemini surfactants, 1,3-bis (N'-acyl-N,N-dimethylhydrazinium) propane dibromide which possess hydrolyzable amido moieties in the lipophilic portions, were prepared by reacting 1,3-bromopropane with N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazide. The surface properties were explained and discussed based on the effect of their chemical structures. The micelle-forming ability, foaming ability, and foam stability were evaluated. The prepared surfactants also showed some antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) but they were not active against gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa), yeast (Candida albicans), and molds (Aspergillus niger). PMID:21099142

  18. Effects of cationic ammonium gemini surfactant on micellization of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruijuan; Tang, Yongqiang; Wang, Yilin

    2014-03-01

    Effects of cationic ammonium gemini surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (12-6-12) on the micellization of two triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide), F127 (EO97PO69EO97) and P123 (EO20PO70EO20), have been studied in aqueous solution by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and NMR techniques. Compared with traditional single-chain ionic surfactants, 12-6-12 has a stronger ability of lowering the CMT of the copolymers, which should be attributed to the stronger aggregation ability and lower critical micelle concentration of 12-6-12. The critical micelle temperature (CMT) of the two copolymers decreases as the 12-6-12 concentration increases and the ability of 12-6-12 in lowering the CMT of F127 is slightly stronger than that of P123. Moreover, a combination of ITC and DLS has shown that 12-6-12 binds to the copolymers at the temperatures from 16 to 40 °C. At the temperatures below the CMT of the copolymers, 12-6-12 micelles bind on single copolymer chains and induce the copolymers to initiate aggregation at very low 12-6-12 concentration. At the temperatures above the CMT of the copolymers, the interaction of 12-6-12 with both monomeric and micellar copolymers leads to the formation of the mixed copolymer/12-6-12 micelles, then the mixed micelles break into smaller mixed micelles, and finally free 12-6-12 micelles form with the increase of the 12-6-12 concentration. PMID:24528103

  19. Mechanism of smectic arrangement of montmorillonite and bentonite clay platelets incorporated in gels of poly(acrylamide) induced by the interaction with cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Starodoubtsev, S G; Lavrentyeva, E K; Khokhlov, A R; Allegra, G; Famulari, A; Meille, S V

    2006-01-01

    Structure transitions, induced by the interaction with the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride in nanocomposite gels of poly(acrylamide) with incorporated suspensions of the two closely related layered clays bentonite and montmorillonite, were studied. Unexpectedly, different behaviors were revealed. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm that, due to the interaction with the surfactant, initially disordered bentonite platelets arrange into highly ordered structures incorporating alternating clay platelets and surfactant bilayers. The formation of these smectic structures also in the cross-linked polymer gels, upon addition of the surfactant, is explained by the existence of preformed, poorly ordered aggregates of the clay platelets in the suspensions before the gel formation. In the case of montmorillonite, smectic ordering of the disordered platelets in the presence of the surfactant is observed only after drying the suspensions and the clay-gel composites. Rheology studies of aqueous suspensions of the two clays, in the absence of both surfactant and gel, evidence a much higher viscosity for bentonite than for montmorillonite, suggesting smaller clay-aggregate size in the latter case. Qualitatively consistent results are obtained from optical micrographs. PMID:16378447

  20. Solvation dynamics and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 in mixed micelles of Triton X-100 and cationic gemini surfactants: effect of composition and spacer chain length of gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sonu; Kumari, Sunita; Saha, Subit K

    2016-01-21

    Solvation dynamics and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 (C-153) in mixed micelles of non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100 and a series of cationic gemini surfactants, 12-s-12, 2Br with varying polymethylene spacer chain length (s = 3, 6, 8, 12) at different bulk mole fractions of a surfactant were studied. Studies were carried out by means of UV-Vis absorption, steady-state fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy, time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy, and dynamic light scattering measurements. While micropolarity of the environment around C-153 in mixed micelles increased, the microviscosity decreased with increasing amount of a gemini surfactant. This is because the thickness of the Stern layer of micelles increases as a result of greater extent of penetration of water molecules. Solvation dynamics and rotational relaxation of C-153 become faster with increasing mole fraction of a gemini surfactant in the mixed micelles. Increasing the thickness of the Stern layer leads to an increase in the number of water molecules hydrogen bonded among themselves, resulting in an increase in polarity and microfluidity of the environment. At a given bulk mole fraction of a surfactant, the microviscosity of micelles decreases with increasing the spacer chain length of the gemini surfactant resulting in an increase in the rate of the rotational relaxation process. However, at a given bulk mole fraction of a surfactant, solvation dynamics becomes slower with increasing spacer chain length from s = 3 to 8 because of the increasing degree of counter ion dissociation. The slow rotational relaxation process is mainly due to the lateral diffusion of C-153 along the surface of the micelles. Rotationalmotion of the micelle as a whole is much slower than the lateral diffusion of C-153. PMID:26750436

  1. Photoinduced formation of threadlike micelles from mixtures of a cationic surfactant and a stilbene amphiphile.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Kishimoto, Mai; Kondo, Yukishige

    2016-05-15

    This study examined the influence of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on aqueous surfactant solutions containing an anionic stilbene derivative (sodium [4-[(E)-2-(4-butylphenyl)ethenyl]phenoxy]acetate; C4StilNa) as a photoresponsive skeleton. Prior to UV irradiation, an aqueous solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and C4StilNa was a low-viscosity fluid forming spheroidal micelles. Exposure of the low-viscosity fluid to UV light resulted in the formation of threadlike micelles and an increase in the viscosity of the aqueous CTAB/C4StilNa solution. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated that the photochemically induced isomerization and dimerization reactions of C4StilNa molecules had occurred in the aggregates due to UV irradiation. Overall, the structural transformation of the stilbene groups in the C4StilNa molecules with the photochemical reactions leads to an increase in the critical packing parameter and consequently a photoinduced transition of spheroidal micelles to threadlike micelles. PMID:26967168

  2. Interaction forces between silica surfaces in cationic surfactant solutions: an atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Lüderitz, Liset A C; v Klitzing, Regine

    2013-07-15

    The interaction forces between silicon oxide surfaces in the presence of surfactant solutions were studied. Based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these interaction forces the correlation with the structure of the aggregates on the surfaces is analyzed. A colloidal probe atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the forces between two colloidal silica particles and between a colloidal particle and a silicon wafer in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at concentrations between 0.005 mM and 1.2 mM. Different interaction forces were obtained for the silica particle-silica particle system when compared to those for the silica particle-silicon wafer system for the same studied concentration. This indicates that the silica particles and the silicon wafer have different aggregate morphologies on their surfaces. The point of zero charge (pzc) was obtained at 0.05 mM CTAB concentration for the silica particles and at 0.3mM for the silica particle-silicon wafer system. This indicates a higher charge at the silicon wafer than at the silica particles. The observed long range attractions are explained by nanobubbles present at the silicon oxide surfaces and/or by attractive electrostatic interactions between the surfaces, induced by oppositely charged patches at the opposing Si oxide surfaces. PMID:23647691

  3. Effect of cationic surfactant on transport of surface-active and non-surface-active model drugs and emulsion stability in triphasic systems.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, N; Burgess, D J

    2000-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of excess surfactant on transport kinetics in emulsions, using surface-active (phenobarbital, barbital) and non-surface-active (phenylazoaniline, benzocaine) model drugs (pH 7.0). Mineral oil was chosen as the oil phase, and the ionic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was chosen as the emulsifier. The effect of nonionic surfactant Brij 97 on transport kinetics of these model drugs were determined by authors elsewhere. Model drug transport in the triphasic systems was investigated using side-by-side diffusion cells mounted with hydrophilic dialysis membranes (molecular weight cutoffs 1 kD and 50 kD) and a novel bulk equilibrium reverse dialysis bag technique. Emulsion stability was determined by droplet size analysis as a function of time, temperature, and the presence of model drugs using photon correlation spectroscopy. Mineral oil/water partition coefficients and aqueous solubilities were determined in the presence of surfactant. The droplet size of the CTAB-stabilized emulsion system is bigger than that of the Brij 97-stabilized system because of the relatively less dense interfacial packing of the cationic surfactant. CTAB forms a complex with the model drugs because of ionic interaction between CTAB and the aromatic and azo groups of the model drugs. This complexation is expected to increase emulsion stability and affect model drug transport kinetics. The transport rates of model drugs in emulsions increased with increases in CTAB micellar concentrations up to 0.5% w/v and then decreased at higher surfactant concentrations. Total transport rates of phenobarbital and barbital were faster than those of phenylazoaniline and benzocaine. Excess surfactant affected the transport rates of the model drugs in the emulsions depending on drug surface activity and lipophilicity. The transport profiles of the model drugs appeared to be governed by model drug oil/water partition coefficient values and by

  4. Photodegradation of surfactants. 8. Comparison of photocatalytic processes between anionic sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and cationic benzyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride on the TiO{sub 2} surface

    SciTech Connect

    Hidaka, Hisao; Zhao, J.; Pelizzetti, E.

    1992-03-05

    Anionic DBS and cationic BDDAC surfactants were decomposed photocatalytically in air-equilibrated aqueous TiO{sub 2} dispersion under Hg-lamp irradiation. The cleavage of the aromatic moiety, the intermediacy of peroxides and aldehydes, and the ultimate mineralization to CO{sub 2} were examined for DBS and compared to those of BDDAC. The anionic DBS photodegrades faster than the cationic BDDAC. The aromatic moiety in the surfactant structure is decomposed more rapidly than the alkyl chain. Evidence for the formation of reactive {sup {lg_bullet}}OH radicals was obtained using spin-trapping (DMPO) ESR spectroscopy. The photodegradation kinetics are discussed in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. A photodegradation mechanism is proposed on the basis of the experimental results. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Modification of the charge transport properties of the copper phthalocyanine/poly(vinyl alcohol) interface using cationic or anionic surfactant for field-effect transistor performance enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastrombek, Diana; Nawaz, Ali; Koehler, Marlus; Meruvia, Michelle S.; Hümmelgen, Ivo A.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the performance enhancement of organic field-effect transistors prepared using cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) as gate dielectric and copper phthalocyanine as channel semiconductor through gate dielectric surface treatment. The gate dielectric surface was treated using either a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), or an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). We determined the charge-carrier field-effect mobility ( μ FET) in these transistors as a function of the effective channel thickness in the channel bottleneck, near to the transistor source. When compared to the untreated devices, in the devices treated with CTAB or SDS, the channel formation occurs at lower gate voltage and the carrier mobility in the thinnest channel region, corresponding to the immediate vicinity of the insulator/semiconductor interface, is significantly higher. The surfactant treatment leads to a tenfold increase in μ FET and significant enhancement in capacitance, on/off current ratio and transconductance of the transistor.

  6. Spectroscopic investigations on the synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant as template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakaran, K.; Rajeswari, S.

    2009-12-01

    The present work reports the successful synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite, Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2 (denoted HAP) from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant (CTAB) as regulator of nucleation and crystal growth. The reaction involved in the synthesis was studied elaborately. The influence of reaction temperature, ageing time and CTAB concentration on the synthesis of nano-HAP are also studied in addition to the effect of sintering temperature on the crystal growth. Spectral characterization involving Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were performed for functional group analysis and phase identification of the materials, respectively. Thermal stability of nano-HAP was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The physical characteristics, such as morphology and particle size of the synthesized nano-HAP were assessed thoroughly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The results have revealed that well-crystallized nano-HAP was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 10 h with the addition of CTAB at critical micelle concentration (CMC). It was also found that the synthesized nano-HAP was thermally stable up to 1100 °C.

  7. Acute toxicity of the cationic surfactant C12-benzalkonium in different bioassays: how test design affects bioavailability and effect concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Geurts, Marc; Sjollema, Sascha B; Kramer, Nynke I; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2014-03-01

    Using an ion-exchange-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method, the freely dissolved concentrations of C12-benzalkonium were measured in different toxicity assays, including 1) immobilization of Daphnia magna in the presence or absence of dissolved humic acid; 2) mortality of Lumbriculus variegatus in the presence or absence of a suspension of Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) sediment; 3) photosystem II inhibition of green algae Chlorella vulgaris; and 4) viability of in vitro rainbow trout gill cell line (RTgill-W1) in the presence or absence of serum proteins. Furthermore, the loss from chemical adsorption to the different test vessels used in these tests was also determined. The C12-benzalkonium sorption isotherms to the different sorbent phases were established as well. Our results show that the freely dissolved concentration is a better indicator of the actual exposure concentration than the nominal or total concentration in most test assays. Daphnia was the most sensitive species to C12-benzalkonium. The acute Daphnia and Lumbriculus tests both showed no enhanced toxicity from possible ingestion of sorbed C12-benzalkonium in comparison with water-only exposure, which is in accordance with the equilibrium partitioning theory. Moreover, the present study demonstrates that commonly used sorbent phases can strongly affect bioavailability and observed effect concentrations for C12-benzalkonium. Even stronger effects of decreased actual exposure concentrations resulting from sorption to test vessels, cells, and sorbent phases can be expected for more hydrophobic cationic surfactants. PMID:24273010

  8. Synthesis of environmentally friendly highly dispersed magnetite nanoparticles based on rosin cationic surfactants as thin film coatings of steel.

    PubMed

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Al-Hussain, Sami A

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA) as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement. PMID:24758936

  9. A solid phase extraction-ion chromatography with conductivity detection procedure for determining cationic surfactants in surface water samples.

    PubMed

    Olkowska, Ewa; Polkowska, Żaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-11-15

    A new analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of individual cationic surfactants (alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides) in surface water samples has been developed. We describe this methodology for the first time: it involves the application of solid phase extraction (SPE-for sample preparation) coupled with ion chromatography-conductivity detection (IC-CD-for the final determination). Mean recoveries of analytes between 79% and 93%, and overall method quantification limits in the range from 0.0018 to 0.038 μg/mL for surface water and CRM samples were achieved. The methodology was applied to the determination of individual alkyl benzyl quaternary ammonium compounds in environmental samples (reservoir water) and enables their presence in such types of waters to be confirmed. In addition, it is a simpler, less time-consuming, labour-intensive, avoiding use of toxic chloroform and significantly less expensive methodology than previously described approaches (liquid-liquid extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry). PMID:24148395

  10. Fabrication of tin-cobalt/carbon composite electrodes by electrodeposition using cationic surfactant for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cho-Long; Nam, Do-Hwan; Eom, Ji-Yong; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2016-07-01

    Sn-Co alloy and Sn-Co/C composite are fabricated on the nodule-type Cu substrate by co-electrodeposition process using the pulse current in the pyrophosphate bath, and then their cycling performances are examined. To modify the surface property of carbon (acetylene black) particles and improve the dispersion of agglomerated carbon particles, CTAB (Cetrimonium bromide (C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) as a cationic surfactant is added into the electrodeposition bath.10.1007/s13391-016-6077-2 By addition of the CTAB, the amount of the carbon content in the Sn-Co/C composite is increased, and also the carbon particles are uniformly distributed in the Sn-Co electrodeposit. The Sn0.6Co0.4 alloy and (Sn0.6Co0.4)0.71/C0.29 composite are obtained after annealing as the final products. The (Sn0.6Co0.4)0.71/C0.29 composite anode exhibits better the capacity retention than the Sn0.6Co0.4 alloy anode due primarily to the role of the well-dispersed carbon particles as the second buffer phase and electrical conductive path in the Sn-Co/C composite during cycling.

  11. Synthesis of Environmentally Friendly Highly Dispersed Magnetite Nanoparticles Based on Rosin Cationic Surfactants as Thin Film Coatings of Steel

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Ayman M.; El-Mahdy, Gamal A.; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A.; Al-Hussain, Sami A.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA) as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement. PMID:24758936

  12. The Nature of Aqueous Solutions of a Cationic Calix[4]arene: A Comparative Study of Dye–Calixarene and Dye–Surfactant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mchedlov-PetrossyanL. N. Vilkova, N. O.; Vodolazkaya, N. A.; Yakubovskaya, A. G.; Rodik, R. V.; Boyko, V. I.; Kalchenko, V. I.

    2006-01-01

    Among different types of calixarenes, the water–soluble ones are of especial interest because of their possible applications in biochemical research. In order to elucidate the nature of aqueous solutions of a cationic amphiphilic calixarene, substituted tetrapropoxy-calix[4]arene bearing hydrophilic choline groups at the upper rim, we studied vis–spectroscopically the influence of the above system on the acid–base behavior of three indicator dyes, namely, 2,4-dinitrophenol, bromophenol blue, and N,N/-dioctadecylrhodamine, at constant ionic strength of 0.05 M, maintained with NaCl addition. Simultaneously, ‘apparent’ ionization constants, Kaa, of the same dyes were determined in the presence of common cationic surfactant micelles. Within the concentration range from 1.0×10–5 to 0.01 M, the aforementioned water–soluble calixarene displays effects similar to those of micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (or chloride). The shifts of the absorption and emission bands in the visible region, as well as the alterations of the Kaa values against the ‘aqueous’ ones appeared to be very similar in aqueous solutions of both calix[4]arene and cationic surfactant. A conclusion can be made about aggregation (or association), i.e., micelle formation of the cationic calix[4]arene under study.

  13. Cationic copper(II)-containing surfactants: molecular structures, film morphology, and influence on the alignment of nematic mesogens.

    PubMed

    Verani, Cláudio N; Driscoll, Jeffery; Keyes, Paul H; Heeg, Mary Jane

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the synthesis and amphiphilic behavior of the cationic metallosurfactants [(L(Py14))2Cu(II)ClO4]ClO4 (1), [(L(Py16))2Cu(II)ClO4]ClO4 (2), [(L(Py18))2Cu(II)ClO4]ClO4 (3), [(L(Py18))2Cu(II)NO3]NO3 (4), [(L(Py18))2Cu(II)Cl]Cl (5), and [(L(Py18))2Cu(II)Br]Br (6) obtained by treatment of the appropriate alkylaminemethyl-2-pyridine ligand containing tetra-, hexa-, or octadecyl chains with copper salts. These metallosurfactants show excellent agreement between infrared spectroscopic bands, spectrometric masses with isotopic patterns, and elemental composition. Single-crystal X-ray data available for 1, 2, 5 and the previously published 3 reveal a trigonal bipyramidal copper(II) ion bound at the basal plane to the amine and pyridine of each alkylaminemethylpyridine ligand and an anionic coligand to the apical position. Except for the surfactant with the shortest tetradecyl (C14) chain, these species yield Langmuir films with collapse pressures of 45-55 mN·m(-1) and average areas of ca. 50 Å(2). A plateau around 15 mN·m(-1) is observed for 3, 4, and 5 and associated with the formation of dendritic domains about 50 μm in size. Species 2 and 6 lack this plateau and show domains of ca. 5 μm. Once transferred onto solid substrates, the resulting Langmuir-Blodgett film of 3 at 18 mN·m(-1) influences the alignment of the nematic liquid crystal N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline. PMID:24813105

  14. Synthesis of double-wall nanoscrolls intercalated with polyfluorinated cationic surfactant into layered niobate and their magnetic alignment.

    PubMed

    Nabetani, Yu; Uchikoshi, Akino; Miyajima, Souki; Hassan, Syed Zahid; Ramakrishnan, Vivek; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Yamato, Masafumi; Inoue, Haruo

    2016-04-28

    The orientation of nanomaterials with an anisotropic nature such as nanoscrolls is very important for realizing their efficient and sophisticated functions in devices, including nanostructured electrodes in artificial photosynthetic cells. In this study, we successfully synthesized a nanoscroll by intercalation of a cationic polyfluorinated surfactant into the interlayer spaces of layered niobate and successfully controlled its orientation by applying an external magnetic field in water. The exfoliated niobate nanosheets were efficiently rolled-up to form nanoscrolls, which have a fine layered structure (d020 = 3.64 nm), by mixing with heptafluorobutanoylaminoethylhexadecyldimethylammonium bromide (C3F-S) in water, whereas the corresponding hydrocarbon analogue (C3H-S) did not form nanoscrolls. The synthetic yield for the purified and isolated nanoscrolls from the nanosheets was estimated to be 62% by weight. It was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that most of the niobate nanosheets (98%) were converted to nanoscrolls. An external magnetic field was applied to the nanoscrolls to force them to align. After the magnetic treatment, the orientation of the nanoscrolls was investigated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The non-uniform ring distribution of the SAXS patterns indicates that the nanoscrolls dispersed in water were aligned well on applying the magnetic field. The long axis of the nanoscroll was oriented in the direction of the applied field and long nanoscrolls were aligned more efficiently. When the intercalated C3F-S molecules were removed from the nanoscrolls by treating with an acid, the resultant nanoscrolls did not exhibit magnetic alignment, strongly suggesting that C3F-S plays an important role in the orientation control of the nanoscrolls by the magnetic field. PMID:27074750

  15. Solubilization of growth hormone and other recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies by using a cationic surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Puri, N K; Crivelli, E; Cardamone, M; Fiddes, R; Bertolini, J; Ninham, B; Brandon, M R

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant pig growth hormone (rPGH) was solubilized from inclusion bodies by using the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The solubilizing action of CTAC appeared to be dependent on the presence of a positively charged head group, as a non-charged variant was inactive. Relatively low concentrations of CTAC were required for rapid solubilization, and protein-bound CTAC was easily removed by ion-exchange chromatography. Compared with solubilization and recovery of rPGH from inclusion bodies with 7.5 M-urea and 6 M-guanidinium chloride, the relative efficiency of solubilization was lower with CTAC. However, superior refolding efficiency resulted in final yields of purified rPGH being in the order of CTAC greater than urea greater than or equal to guanidinium chloride. Detailed comparison of the different rPGH preparations as well as pituitary-derived growth hormone by h.p.l.c., native PAGE, c.d. spectral analysis and radioreceptor-binding assay showed that the CTAC-derived rPGH was essentially indistinguishable from the urea and guanidinium chloride preparations. The CTAC-derived rPGH was of greater biopotency than pituitary-derived growth hormone. The advantages of CTAC over urea and guanidinium chloride for increasing recovery of monomeric rPGH by minimizing aggregation during refolding in vitro were also found with recombinant sheep interleukin-I beta and a sheep insulin-like growth factor II fusion protein. In addition, the bioactivity of the CTAC-derived recombinant interleukin-1 beta was approximately ten-fold greater than that of an equivalent amount obtained from urea and guanidinium chloride preparations. It is concluded that CTAC represents, in general, an excellent additional approach or a superior alternative to urea and in particular guanidinium chloride for solubilization and recovery of bioactive recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 9. PMID:1497625

  16. Interaction between cationic surfactant of 1-methyl-3-tetradecylimidazolium bromide and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Kang, Wenpei; Sun, Dezhi; Liu, Jie; Wei, Xilian

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between long-chain imidazolium ionic liquid (C14mimBr) and anionic polyelectrolyte of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) has been studied using surface tension, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scatting (DLS) and conductance methods. The result shows that the surface tension plots have a pronounced hump in the surface tension at surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the surfactant. The cooperative adsorption of surfactant and polymer on the surface (PSS) and the formation of polymer/surfactant aggregate in bulk solution (PSM) provide a rational explanation about it. The formation of surfactant/polymer complexes is affected by the concentration of the surfactant or NaPSS, which is also ascertained by ITC and DLS measurements. Further, the thermodynamic parameters are derived from calorimetric titration and conductance curves, and the effects of polymer concentration and temperature on the parameters are evaluated in detail.

  17. Determination of cationic surfactants by capillary zone electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography with deoxycholate micelles in the presence of large organic solvent concentrations.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F; Mongay-Fernández, C; Ramis-Ramos, G

    2000-10-20

    Mixtures of the cationic surfactants benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) were quickly resolved and reproducibly and reliably determined by using background electrolytes (BGEs) containing 80 mM borate, pH 8.5, bile salts and large concentrations of an organic solvent. When the bile salt is present, the separation mechanism changes from capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to a mixed micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)-CZE, with predominant MEKC interactions, which lead to an excellent resolution of all the solutes, including the C12-C18 homologues of BKC and CPC. A BGE containing 50 mM sodium deoxycholate and 30% ethanol for an extreme resolution, or 20% tetrahydrofuran for an adequate resolution within a much shorter analysis time, is recommended. The procedure was applied to the determination of the surfactants in industrial and household formulations, with excellent resolution between the homologues, detection limits of a few microg ml(-1) and reproducibilities below 2%. PMID:11105866

  18. Antimicrobial activity of cationic gemini surfactant containing an oxycarbonyl group in the lipophilic portion against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Taiga; Imai, Yoshitane; Kawaguchi, Kakuhiro; Miyano, Naoko; Ikeda, Isao

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the antimicrobial activities of a cationic Gemini surfactant, trans-1,4-bis[2-(alkanoyloxy)ethyldimethylammonio]-2-butene dichloride [II-m-2(t-butene)] and its derivatives against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The II-m-2(t-butene) compound was previously shown to have good surface activity and biodegradability. A dodecanoyloxy derivative (m = 12) of II-m-2(t-butene) showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive Streptococcus aureus [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 7.8 μg/mL] and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (MIC: 31.2 μg/mL). PMID:24420061

  19. Enhancement of soil retention for phenanthrene in binary cationic gemini and nonionic surfactant mixtures: characterizing two-step adsorption and partition processes through experimental and modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan; Huang, Gordon; An, Chunjiang; Wei, Jia; Yao, Yao

    2015-04-01

    The enhancement of soil retention for phenanthrene (PHE) through the addition of a binary mixture of cationic gemini (12-2-12) and nonionic surfactants (C12E10) was investigated. The maximum apparent sorption coefficient Kd(*) reached 4247.8 mL/g through the addition of mixed 12-2-12 gemini and C12E10 surfactants, which was markedly higher than the summed individual results in the presence of individual 12-2-12 gemini (1148.6 mL/g) or C12E10 (210.0 mL/g) surfactant. However, the sorption of 12-2-12 gemini was inhibited by the increasing C12E10 dose; and a higher initial 12-2-12 gemini dose showed a higher "desorption" rate. The present study also addressed the sorption behavior of the single 12-2-12 gemini surfactant at the soil/aqueous interface. The sorption isotherm was divided into two steps to elucidate the sorption process; and the sorption schematics were proposed to elaborate the growth of surfactant aggregates corresponding to the various steps of the sorption isotherm. Finally, a two-step adsorption and partition model (TAPM) was developed to simulate the sorption process. Analysis of the equilibrium data indicated that the sorption isotherms of 12-2-12 gemini fitted the TAPM model better. Thermodynamic calculations confirmed that the 12-2-12 gemini sorption at the soil/aqueous interface was spontaneous and exothermic from 288 to 308K. PMID:25576782

  20. Selective Ni-P electroless plating on photopatterned cationic adsorption films influenced by alkyl chain lengths of polyelectrolyte adsorbates and additive surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Masaru; Nawa, Nozomi; Iyoda, Tomokazu

    2004-10-26

    We demonstrated that the photopatterned single-layer adsorption film of poly(1-dodecyl-4-pyridinium bromide) on a silica surface was available for a template of nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) electroless plating through sensitization with a SnCl(2) aqueous solution and activation with a PdCl(2) aqueous solution. Four kinds of poly(1-alkyl-4-vinylpyridinium halide)s bearing methyl, propyl, hexyl, and dodecyl groups were prepared. The cationic polymers were adsorbed by a negatively charged silica surface from their solutions, to form single-layer adsorption films exhibiting desorption-resistance toward deionized water and ethanol. The organic adsorption films could be decomposed completely by exposure to 172 nm deep-UV light. The formation and decomposition of the single-layer films were confirmed by deep-UV absorption spectral measurement and zeta-potential measurement. Ni-P electroless plating was carried out on the photopatterned adsorption films, using three types of SnO(x) colloidal materials without and with cationic or anionic surfactant as catalyst precursors in the sensitization step. In the case of the negatively charged SnO(x) colloids surrounded by anionic surfactant, Ni-deposition took place preferentially on the cationic adsorption films remaining in unexposed regions. The Ni-deposition was accelerated significantly on the cationic adsorption film bearing dodecyl groups. It was obvious by ICP-AES analyses that the hydrophobic long-chain dodecyl groups in the adsorption film could promote the adsorption of the negative SnO(x) colloids on the film surface, followed by much nucleus formation of zerovalent Pd catalysts useful for the electroless plating. The result of our experiment clearly showed that, in addition to electrostatic interaction, van der Waals interaction generating between the hydrophobic long-chain hydrocarbons of the adsorption film and the surfactant improved significantly the adsorption stability of the SnO(x) colloids, resulting in highly

  1. Normal and shear forces between charged solid surfaces immersed in cationic surfactant solution: the role of the alkyl chain length.

    PubMed

    Silbert, Gilad; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2014-05-13

    Using a surface force balance (SFB), we measured the boundary friction and the normal forces between mica surfaces immersed in a series of alkyltrimethylammonium chloride (TAC) surfactant solutions well above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The surfactants that were used--C14TAC, C16TAC, and C18TAC--varied by the length of the alkyl chain. The structures of the adsorbed layers on the mica were obtained using AFM imaging and ranged from flat bilayers to rodlike micelles. Despite the difference in alkyl chain, all the surfactant solutions reduce the friction between the two mica surfaces enormously relative to immersion in water, and have similar friction coefficients (μ ≈ 0.001). The pressure at which such lubrication breaks down is higher for the surfactants with longer chain lengths and indicates that an important role of the chain length is to provide a more robust structure of the adsorbed layers which maintains its integrity to higher pressures. PMID:24720712

  2. Warm white light emitting ThO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+} nanorods: Cationic surfactant assisted reverse micellar synthesis and Photoluminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Gupta, Ruma; Natarajan, V.; Godbole, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ThO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+} nanoparticles have been synthesized using cationic surfactant assisted reverse micellar route. • HRTEM shows the formation of thoria nanorods. • Photoluminescence investigation shows host as well as samarium ion emission. • Time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy shows the presence of two types of samarium ion in thoria host. - Abstract: Sm{sup 3+} activated thorium oxide nanorods were synthesized by cationic surfactant assisted reverse micellar route. Phase purity, morphological and luminescent properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Upon UV light excitation (245 nm), ThO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+} exhibited host emission at 447 nm, along with characteristic emission lines of Sm{sup 3+} at 569, 609, 662 and 716 nm. Lifetime spectroscopy shows the presence of two types of Sm{sup 3+} (τ = 1.1 ms and 4.9 ms) with different asymmetric ratios.

  3. Analysis of mixed micellar and interfacial behavior of cationic gemini hexanediyl-1,6-bis(dimethylcetylammonium bromide) with conventional ionic and nonionic surfactants in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Din, Kabir-ud; Sheikh, Mohmad Shafi; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad

    2010-05-13

    The interaction between cationic gemini hexanediyl-1,6-bis(dimethylcetylammonium bromide) (16-6-16, abbreviated as G6) with conventional cationic cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), anionic sodium bis(2-ethyl hexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) and nonionic polyoxyethylene 10 cetyl ether (Brij56) in aqueous medium has been investigated at 25 degrees C. Different physicochemical properties such as critical micelle concentration (cmc), surface excess concentration (Gamma(max)), minimum area per molecule (A(min)), and interaction parameters (beta(m), beta(sigma)) as well as other thermodynamic and micellar properties have been determined. The interfacial and bulk behaviors were explored using theoretical models of Clint, Rubingh, Rosen, Motomura, and Maeda for justification and comparison of results of different binary combinations with the geminis of alkanediyl-alpha,omega-bis(dimethylcetylammonium bromide) series. Synergism was observed in all the binary combinations in the micelle and at interface with lowering of packing parameter due to slight expansion of A(min). The results of the present study could be of interest for selection of surfactant mixtures for surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) of soils and aquifers contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). PMID:20397638

  4. Fractionation of protein, RNA, and plasmid DNA in centrifugal precipitation chromatography using cationic surfactant CTAB containing inorganic salts NaCl and NH(4)Cl.

    PubMed

    Tomanee, Panarat; Hsu, James T; Ito, Yoichiro

    2004-10-01

    Centrifugal precipitation chromatography (CPC) is a separation system that mainly employs a moving concentration gradient of precipitating agent along a channel and solutes of interest undergo repetitive precipitation-dissolution, fractionate at different locations, and elute out from the channel according to their solubility in the precipitating agent solution. We report here for the first time the use of a CPC system for fractionation of protein, RNA, and plasmid DNA in clarified lysate produced from bacterial culture. The cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was initially used as a precipitating agent; however, all biomolecules showed no differential solubility in the moving concentration gradient of this surfactant and, as a result, no separation of protein, RNA, and plasmid DNA occurred. To overcome this problem, inorganic salts such as NaCl and NH(4)Cl were introduced into solution of CTAB. The protein and RNA were found to have higher solubility with the addition of these salts and separated from the plasmid DNA. Decreasing surface charge density of CTAB upon addition of NaCl and NH(4)Cl was believed to lead to lower surfactant complexation, and therefore caused differential solubility and fractionation of these biomolecules. Addition of CaCl(2) did not improve solubility and separation of RNA from plasmid DNA. PMID:15384057

  5. Wetting effects versus ion pairs diffusivity: interactions of anionic surfactants with highly soluble cationic drugs and its impact on tablet dissolution.

    PubMed

    Desai, Divyakant; Wong, Benjamin; Huang, Yande; Ye, Qingmei; Guo, Hang; Huang, Ming; Timmins, Peter

    2015-07-01

    A study was conducted to develop a mechanistic understanding of dissolution of a highly soluble cationic drug, metformin hydrochloride, under the influence of anionic surfactants, sodium alkyl sulfates. The surfactants did not influence the saturated solubility of the drug, but reduced the surface tension of the dissolution media as the alkyl chain length increased. Their influence on tablet wetting based on the contact angles did not show any trend. The dissolution of 850 mg metformin hydrochloride tablets in 0.1 N HCl and pH 4.5 acetate buffer with 0.01% (w/v) sodium n-octyl sulfate (C8), sodium n-decyl sulfate (C10), or sodium n-tetradecyl sulfate (C14) was similar to the control, but was enhanced by sodium lauryl sulfate (C12). At 0.1% (w/v) concentration, the dissolution was not enhanced by C12 because the reduction in surface tension was counterbalanced by an increase in hydrophobic ion pairs that showed slower diffusivity by nuclear magnetic resonance. At 0.1% (w/v), metformin also formed an insoluble salt (1:2 molar ratios) with C10 (pH 1.2), C12, and C14 (pH 1.2 and 4.5) but not with C8. Three competing factors influenced the drug dissolution by surfactants: reduction in surface tension of the dissolution media, ion pairs with low diffusivity, and formation of an insoluble salt. PMID:26017286

  6. Effect of Base Stacking on the Acid-Base Properties of the Adenine Cation Radical [A•+] in Solution: ESR and DFT Studies

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Khanduri, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the acid–base properties of the adenine cation radical are investigated by means of experiment and theory. Adenine cation radical (A•+) is produced by one-electron oxidation of dAdo and of the stacked DNA-oligomer (dA)6 by Cl2•− in aqueous glass (7.5 M LiCl in H2O and in D2O) and investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations and deuterium substitution at C8–H and N6–H in dAdo aid in our assignments of structure. We find the pKa value of A•+ in this system to be ca. 8 at 150 K in seeming contradiction to the accepted value of ≤ 1 at ambient temperature. However, upon thermal annealing to ≥160 K, complete deprotonation of A•+ occurs in dAdo in these glassy systems even at pH ca. 3. A•+ found in (dA)6 at 150 K also deprotonates on thermal annealing. The stability of A•+ at 150 K in these systems is attributed to charge delocalization between stacked bases. Theoretical calculations at various levels (DFT B3LYP/6-31G*, MPWB95, and HF-MP2) predict binding energies for the adenine stacked dimer cation radical of 12 to 16 kcal/mol. Further DFT B3LYP/6-31G* calculations predict that, in aqueous solution, monomeric A•+ should deprotonate spontaneously (a predicted pKa of ca. −0.3 for A•+). However, the charge resonance stabilized dimer AA•+ is predicted to result in a significant barrier to deprotonation and a calculated pKa of ca. 7 for the AA•+ dimer which is 7 pH units higher than the monomer. These theoretical and experimental results suggest that A•+ isolated in solution and A•+ in adenine stacks have highly differing acid–base properties resulting from the stabilization induced by hole delocalization within adenine stacks. PMID:18611019

  7. Experimental-Theoretical Approach to the Adsorption Mechanisms for Anionic, Cationic, and Zwitterionic Surfactants at the Calcite-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Durán-Álvarez, Agustín; Maldonado-Domínguez, Mauricio; González-Antonio, Oscar; Durán-Valencia, Cecilia; Romero-Ávila, Margarita; Barragán-Aroche, Fernando; López-Ramírez, Simón

    2016-03-22

    The adsorption of surfactants (DTAB, SDS, and CAPB) at the calcite-water interface was studied through surface zeta potential measurements and multiscale molecular dynamics. The ground-state polarization of surfactants proved to be a key factor for the observed behavior; correlation was found between adsorption and the hard or soft charge distribution of the amphiphile. SDS exhibits a steep aggregation profile, reaching saturation and showing classic ionic-surfactant behavior. In contrast, DTAB and CAPB featured diversified adsorption profiles, suggesting interplay between supramolecular aggregation and desorption from the solid surface and alleviating charge buildup at the carbonate surface when bulk concentration approaches CMC. This manifests as an adsorption profile with a fast initial step, followed by a metastable plateau and finalizing with a sharp decrease and stabilization of surface charge. Suggesting this competition of equilibria, elicited at the CaCO3 surface, this study provides atomistic insight into the adsorption mechanism for ionic surfactants on calcite, which is in accordance with experimental evidence and which is a relevant criterion for developing enhanced oil recovery processes. PMID:26915667

  8. Modification of an Iranian clinoptilolite nano-particles by hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium cationic surfactant and dithizone for removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Anari-Anaraki, Mostafa; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2015-02-15

    Natural clinoptilolite tuff was mechanically converted to micro (MCP) and nano (NCP) particles. The MCP and NCP powders were respectively modified with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA) and dithizone (DTZ). The raw and modified samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infra red (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetry (TG) and used for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The results confirm that both ion exchange and complexation processes are responsible for removal of Pb(II) cations in the modified samples, while Pb(II) cations were only removed via an ion exchange process by the raw clinoptilolite. In this sorbent, the anionic removal property of surfactant modified zeolites (SMZs) changed to cationic removal property by an additional modification step. The best removal efficiency was observed by NCP-HDTMA-DTZ at the following experimental conditions: C(Pb(II)): 800 mg L(-1), HDTMA dosage: 0.2 mol L(-1), DTZ dosage: 5 mmol L(-1), contact time of DTZ with NCP-HDTMA: 1800 min and contact time of the sorbent with Pb(II): 360 min. The NCP-HDTMA-DTZ sorbent showed good efficiency for the removal of lead in the presence of different multivalent cations. Adsorption isotherms of Pb(II) ions obey the Langmuir equation that indicate the monolayer sorption of Pb(II). The adsorption kinetics based on the pseudo-second-order rate equation indicates that the rate limiting step involving a chemical reaction. The negative ΔH and ΔG indicate an exothermic and spontaneous process. PMID:25460715

  9. Unusual Fe(CN)₆³⁻/⁴⁻ capture induced by synergic effect of electropolymeric cationic surfactant and graphene: characterization and biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Deng, Sheng-Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Shan, Dan; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Dou, Yan-Zhi; Cosnier, Serge; Zhang, Xue-Ji

    2014-12-10

    Herein, a special microheterogeneous system for Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) capture was constructed based on graphene (GN) and the electropolymeric cationic surfactant, an amphiphilic pyrrole derivative, (11-pyrrolyl-1-yl-undecyl) triethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (A2). The morphology of the system was characterized by scanning electron microscope. The redox properties of the entrapped Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible spectrometry. The entrapped Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) exhibited highly electroactive with stable and symmetrical cyclic voltammetric signal. A dramatic negative shift in the half wave potential can be obtained due to the unusual Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) partitioning in in this microheterogeneous system based on poly(A2+GN). Finally, the entrapped Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) was applied in the construction of the enhanced biosensors to hydrogen peroxide and sulfide. PMID:25409412

  10. Adsorption isotherms and structure of cationic surfactants adsorbed on mineral oxide surfaces prepared by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wangchareansak, Thipvaree; Craig, Vincent S J; Notley, Shannon M

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption isotherms and aggregate structures of adsorbed surfactants on smooth thin-film surfaces of mineral oxides have been studied by optical reflectometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Films of the mineral oxides of titania, alumina, hafnia, and zirconia were produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with low roughness. We find that the surface strongly influences the admicelle organization on the surface. At high concentrations (2 × cmc) of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), the surfactant aggregates on a titania surface exhibit a flattened admicelle structure with an average repeat distance of 8.0 ± 1.0 nm whereas aggregates on alumina substrates exhibit a larger admicelle with an average separation distance of 10.5 ± 1.0 nm. A wormlike admicelle structure with an average separation distance of 7.0 ± 1.0 nm can be observed on zirconia substrates whereas a bilayered aggregate structure on hafnia substrates was observed. The change in the surface aggregate structure can be related to an increase in the critical packing parameter through a reduction in the effective headgroup area of the surfactant. The templating strength of the surfaces are found to be hafnia > alumina > zirconia > titania. Weakly templating surfaces are expected to have superior biocompatibility. PMID:24224944

  11. Fluorescence of aminofluoresceins as an indicative process allowing one to distinguish between micelles of cationic surfactants and micelle-like aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O.; Cheipesh, Tatiana A.; Roshal, Alexander D.; Doroshenko, Andrey O.; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A.

    2016-09-01

    Among the vast set of fluorescein derivatives, the double charged R2‑ anions of aminofluoresceins are known to exhibit only low quantum yields of fluorescence, \\varphi . The \\varphi value becomes as high as that of the fluorescein dianion when the lone electron pair of the amino group is involved in a covalent bond. According to Munkholm et al (1990 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112 2608–12), a much smaller increase in the emission intensity can be observed in the presence of surfactant micelles. However, all these observations refer to aqueous or alcoholic solvents. In this paper, we show that in the non-hydrogen bond donor (or ‘aprotic’) solvents DMSO and acetone, the quantum yields, φ, of the 4‧- (or 5‧)-aminofluorescein R2‑ species amount to 61–67% and approach that of fluorescein (φ  =  87%), whereas in water φ is only 0.6–0.8%. In glycerol, a solvent with an extremely high viscosity, the φ value is only 6–10%. We report on the enhancement of the fluorescence of the aminofluorescein dianions as an indicative process, which allows us to distinguish between the micelle-like aggregates of cationic dendrimers of low generation, common spherical surfactant micelles, and surfactant bilayers. Some of these colloidal aggregates partly restore the fluorescence of aminofluoresceins in aqueous media. By contrast, other positively charged micellar-like aggregates do not enhance the quantum yield of aminofluorescein R2‑ species. Results for several related systems, such as CTAB-coated SiO2 particles and reverse microemulsions, are briefly described, and the possible reasons for the observed phenomena are discussed.

  12. Effect of alkali cations on two-dimensional networks of two new quaternary thioarsenates (III) prepared by a facile surfactant-thermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dongming; Hou, Peipei; Liu, Chang; Chai, Wenxiang; Zheng, Xuerong; Zhang, Luodong; Zhi, Mingjia; Zhou, Chunmei; Liu, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Two new quaternary thioarsenates(III) NaAg2AsS3·H2O (1) and KAg2AsS3 (2) with high yields have been successfully prepared through a facile surfactant-thermal method. It is interesting that 2 can only be obtained with the aid of ethanediamine (en), which indicates that weak basicity of solvent is beneficial to the growth of 2 compared with 1. Both 1 and 2 feature the similar two-dimensional (2D) layer structures. However, the distortion of the primary honeycomb-like nets in 2 is more severe than that of 1, which demonstrates that Na+ and K+ cations have different structure directing effects on these two thioarsenates(III). Both experimental and theoretical studies confirm 1 and 2 are semiconductors with band gaps in the visible region. Our success in preparing these two quaternary thioarsenates(III) proves that surfactant-thermal technique is a powerful yet facile synthetic method to explore new complex chalcogenides.

  13. Formation, characterization and enzyme activity in water-in-hydrophobic ionic liquid microemulsion stabilized by mixed cationic/nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanwen; Yan, Keqian; Huang, Xirong

    2014-10-01

    The phase behavior of the pseudo ternary system 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C14mim]Br)/Triton X-100/H2O/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Bmim]PF6) has been studied at 35°C. With the increase in the mole fraction of Triton X-100 in the mixed surfactants, the water solubilization capacity increases and the monophasic area enlarges. The H2O-in-[Bmim]PF6 (W/IL) microemulsion was identified via electrical conductivity measurement. The existence of bulk water in the W/IL microemulsion was demonstrated based on the change of the O-D vibration frequency with content of D2O added and confirmed using UV-vis technique with CoCl2 as probe. Laccase can be solubilized in the W/IL microemulsion and exhibits a catalytic activity. The interface of the W/IL microemulsion has an inhibitory effect on the expression of the laccase activity, and the inhibitory effect is varied with the molar ratio of the mixed surfactants. PMID:25016546

  14. Bioavailability and detoxification of cationics: II. Relationship between toxicity and CEC of cationic surfactants on Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) in artificial and natural substrates.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Paul C; Velthoven, Kirsten; Geurts, Marc; van Wijk, Dolf

    2009-04-01

    The toxicity of the dialkyl quat, didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), was used as a typical quaternary ammonium compound in studies investigating the role of sorption in reducing DDAB bioavailability in sediment and soil for natural and artificial substrates. Fatty acid derivatives are known to interact ionically with negative charged particles such as clays, humic and fulvic acids, dramatically reducing their bioavailability. Sorption potential was measured using cationic exchange capacities (CEC). The CEC of the substrates was correlated with toxicity of DDAB to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans considered to be representative of soil and sediment dwelling, free-living nematodes in terms of its sensitivity, size and feeding strategy. Decreased toxicity was found with increasing CEC for both laboratory and field substrates when tested under both soil and sediment conditions and QSARs developed. Testing under soil or sediment conditions had less impact on the toxicity than the CEC of the soil/sediment or whether the substrate was artificial or natural. Habitat preferences were observed during a test in which nematodes were placed into substrates with different CECs. The worms favoured mid-range CECs. Similar preference behaviour may be expected in the environment and a threshold CEC for likely presence of nematodes in a substrate is proposed. Coupled with the substrate toxicity QSAR, threshold CEC preference can be used to provide a no observed effect concentration for DDAB. Expressed as a molar fraction of the CEC, the QSAR obtained for DDAB may be extrapolable to other fatty amine derivatives. If supported by further experimentation and complemented with data from other sediment and soil dwellers the QSAR and threshold CEC value can be validated for use in future regulatory risk assessments of fatty amine derivatives. PMID:19286243

  15. The photocatalytic degradation of cationic surfactant from wastewater in the presence of nano-zinc oxide using Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giahi, M.; Moradidoost, A.; Bagherinia, M. A.; Taghavi, H.

    2013-12-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) has been investigated in aqueous phase using ultraviolet (UV) and ZnO nanopowder. Kinetic analysis showed that the extent of surfactant photocatalytic degradation can be fitted with pseudo-first-order model and photochemical elimination of CPC could be studied by Taguchi method. Our experimental design was based on testing five factors, i.e., dosage of K2S2O8, concentration of CPC, amount of ZnO, irradiation time and initial pH. Each factor was tested at four levels. The optimum parameters were found to be pH 5.0; amount of ZnO 11 mg; K2S2O8 3 mM; CPC 10 mg/L; irradiation time, 8 h.

  16. Characterization of iron hydroxide/oxide nanoparticles prepared in microemulsions stabilized with cationic/non-ionic surfactant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bumajdad, Ali; Ali, Sami; Mathew, Asha

    2011-03-15

    Iron oxide-hydroxide (α-Fe(2)O(3); Fe(OH)(3)) nanoparticles have been prepared by a microemulsion route using ammonia (NH(3)) solution or tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) as precipitants. The iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles obtained were characterized by TGA, N(2) sorptiometry, XRD, IR, SEM, HR-TEM, and DLS techniques. Properties such as specific surface area (S(BET)), pore sizes and shapes, average particle size and distribution, crystallite structure, and thermal stability were determined. The properties of nanoparticles prepared using NH(3) and TBAH were compared after drying at 100°C and after being calcined in the temperature range 250-1100°C. It was found that the suspensions prepared using TBAH suffered immediate separation while those prepared using NH(3) resulted in very stable suspensions. Also, it was found that TBAH did not offer any advantage over NH(3) either in terms of specific surface area or in particle size of the prepared nanoparticles. Hence, the later part of the study was concentrated on the NH(3)-precipitated nanoparticles with particular emphasis on finding the most favorable, W (water-to-surfactant ratio) and/or surfactant concentration, S, to obtain the best conditions in terms of higher surface areas and narrower particle size distribution. It was found that the prepared suspension consisted of monodisperse nanoparticles (standard deviations <10%) and after separation and drying, high surface area powders were obtained. The highest surface area (315 m(2) g(-1)) was obtained when the smallest W (=20) and highest S (=0.20 mol L(-1)) were employed. PMID:21232750

  17. Physicochemistry of interaction between the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate in water and isopropyl alcohol-water media.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Suvasree; Dan, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Panda, Amiya K; Moulik, Satya P

    2011-05-01

    The physicochemistry of interaction of the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate was studied in detail using tensiometry, turbidimetry, calorimetry, viscometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fair interaction initially formed induced small micelles of the surfactants and later on produced free normal micelles in solution. The interaction process yielded coacervates that initially grew by aggregation in the aqueous medium and disintegrated into smaller species at higher surfactant concentration. The phenomena observed were affected by the presence of isopropyl alcohol (IP) in the medium. The hydrodynamic sizes of the dispersed polymer and its surfactant-interacted species were determined by DLS measurements. The surface morphologies of the solvent-removed PDADMAC and its surfactant-interacted complexes from water and IP-water media were examined by the SEM technique. The morphologies witnessed different patterns depending on the composition and the solvent environment. The head groups of the dodecyl chain containing surfactants made differences in the interaction process. PMID:21466231

  18. Separation of oil-in-water emulsions by microbubble treatment and the effect of adding coagulant or cationic surfactant on removal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Van Le, Tuan; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Takaya; Doi, Ryosuke; Teeka, Jantima; Xiaofeng, Sun; Teerakun, Mullika

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficiencies of microbubble (MB) treatment, MB treatment with polyaluminium chloride (PAC) as a coagulant, and MB treatment with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as a cationic surfactant in the separation of emulsified oil (EO) by modified column flotation. Batch mode experiments were conducted by synthesizing emulsified palm oil (d<20 μm), and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the influent and effluent was measured to evaluate the treatment performance. MB treatment with PAC and MB treatment with CTAC were found to be more efficient in EO removal than the MB treatment alone. At an EO concentration of ∼1,000 mg L(-1) (pH 7) and under identical treatment conditions (MB generation time: 2.5 min, flotation time: 30 min), MB treatment with PAC (50 mg L(-1)) and that with CTAC (0.5 mg L(-1)) showed equally high EO removal efficiencies of 92 and 89%, respectively. This result is of significant relevance to studies focusing on the development of economical and high-efficiency flotation systems. Furthermore, the effect of pH was investigated by varying the sample pH from 3 to 8, which showed that the EO separation efficiency of MB alone increased drastically from slightly alkaline to acidic condition. PMID:22797232

  19. Analysis of zwitterionic, cationic, and anionic poly- and perfluoroalkyl surfactants in sediments by liquid chromatography polarity-switching electrospray ionization coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Gabriel; Duy, Sung Vo; Labadie, Pierre; Botta, Fabrizio; Budzinski, Hélène; Lestremau, François; Liu, Jinxia; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2016-05-15

    A new analytical method is proposed for the determination of a wide span of fluoroalkylated surfactants (PFASs) of various chain lengths and polarities in sediments, including newly-identified compounds such as zwitterionic and cationic PFASs. Extraction conditions were optimized so as to maintain a common preparation procedure for all analytes (recovery range: 60-110%). Instrumental analysis was performed with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry through polarity-switching electrospray ionization. Calibration curves with excellent coefficients of determination (R(2)>0.994) were generally obtained over 0.002-10ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and limits of detection were in the range 0.0006-0.46 ng g(-1) dw. Intra-day precision remained<9% and inter-day precision<23%. While perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) generally prevailed over other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in sediments from mainland France, fluorotelomer sulfonamide amines and fluorotelomer sulfonamide betaines were also ubiquitous in these samples, especially in the vicinity of airports wherein firefighting training activities may occur on a regular basis. PMID:26992541

  20. Effects of long-chain surfactants, short-chain alcohols and hydrolizable cations on the hydrophobic and hydration forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Vivek

    Various experiments conducted in recent years showed that DLVO theory is applicable only to those particles whose advancing water contact angles (thetaa) are in the range of 15--60°. For example, direct surface force measurements conducted between silica substrates, whose theta a values are less than 15°, exhibited the existence of repulsive hydration forces at relatively short separation distances. On the other hand, substrates, for which thetaa is greater than 60°, exhibit long-range attractive hydrophobic forces not considered in the DLVO theory. It is the objective of the present study to measure the hydrophobic and hydration forces under different conditions. The measurements were conducted using both the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) and the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Mica and Silica were used as substrates, and the effects of dioctylammonium- hydrochloride (DOAHCl), octanol, methanol, ethanol, trifluoroethanol (TTE), pyridine, CaCl2, MgCl2 and sodium oleate were studied. A Mark IV SFA was used to conduct force measurements between mica surfaces in aqueous solutions of DOAHCl. At 7 x 10-6M DOAHCl, the mica surfaces were rendered electrically neutral, and net attractive hydrophobic forces were observed. The measured forces can be represented by a double-exponential function with the larger decay length (D2) of 5.1 nm. The measured hydrophobic forces are substantially stronger than those reported in literature between self-assembled monolayers of soluble single-chain surfactants. Force measurements were also conducted using the AFM between a silica plate and a glass sphere in aqueous solutions of methanol, ethanol, TFE and pyridine to study their effect on the hydration force. In Nanopure water, silica surfaces exhibit a strong shortrange hydration repulsion, which can be represented by a double-exponential function with its longer decay length (D2) of 2.4 nm. In solutions containing 15% methanol, however, the hydration force disappears completely

  1. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG) over nickel catalysts supported on cationic surfactant-templated mesoporous aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Park, Sunyoung; Jung, Ji Chul; Kim, Pil; Chung, Jin Suk; Song, In Kyu

    Two types of mesoporous γ-aluminas (denoted as A-A and A-S) are prepared by a hydrothermal method under different basic conditions using cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) as a templating agent. A-A and A-S are synthesized in a medium of ammonia solution and sodium hydroxide solution, respectively. Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts (Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S) are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of a mesoporous γ-Al 2O 3 support on the catalytic performance of Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 is investigated. The identity of basic solution strongly affects the physical properties of the A-A and A-S supports. The high surface-area of the mesoporous γ-aluminas and the strong metal-support interaction of supported catalysts greatly enhance the dispersion of nickel species on the catalyst surface. The well-developed mesopores of the Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts prohibit the polymerization of carbon species on the catalyst surface during the reaction. In the steam reforming of LNG, both Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts give better catalytic performance than the nickel catalyst supported on commercial γ-Al 2O 3 (Ni/A-C). In addition, the Ni/A-A catalyst is superior to the Ni/A-S catalyst. The relatively strong metal-support interaction of Ni/A-A catalyst effectively suppresses the sintering of metallic nickel and the carbon deposition in the steam reforming of LNG. The large pores of the Ni/A-A catalyst also play an important role in enhancing internal mass transfer during the reaction.

  2. Sequential injection spectrophotometric determination of tetracycline antibiotics in pharmaceutical preparations and their residues in honey and milk samples using yttrium (III) and cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Thanasarakhan, Wish; Kruanetr, Senee; Deming, Richard L; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Wangkarn, Sunantha; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2011-06-15

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) spectrophotometric method for determining tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) in different sample matrices were described. The method was based on the reaction between tetracyclines and yttrium (III) in weak basic micellar medium, yielding the light yellow complexes, which were monitored at 390, 392 and 395 nm, respectively. A cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used to obtain the micellar system. The linear ranges of calibration graphs were between 1.0 × 10(-5) and 4 × 10(-4) mol L(-1), respectively. The molar absorptivities were 5.24 × 10(5), 4.98 × 10(4) and 4.78 × 10(4) L mol(-1)cm(-1). The detection limits (3σ) were between 4.9 × 10(-6) and 7.8 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) whereas the limit of quantitations (10σ) were between 1.63 × 10(-5) and 2.60 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) the interday and intraday precisions within a weak revealed as the relative standard deviations (R.S.D., n=11) were less than 4%. The method was rapid with a sampling rate of over 60 samples h(-1) for the three drugs. The proposed method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of tetracycline and its derivatives in pharmaceutical preparations together with their residues in milk and honey samples collected in Chiang Mai Province. The accuracy was found to be high as the Student's t-values were found to be less than the theoretical ones. The results were compared favorably with those obtained by the conventional spectrophotometric method. PMID:21641459

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF SURFACTANTS IN TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behavior of a number of anionic, nonionic and cationic surfactants in manipulations associated with toxicity identification evaluations was studied. t was found that toxicity of the surfactants could be removed from aqueous samples via aeration, apparently through sublation. ...

  4. Secondary structural changes in guanidinium hydrochloride denatured mammalian serum albumins and protective effect of small amounts of cationic gemini surfactant pentanediyl-α,ω-bis(cetyldimethylammonium bromide) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin: A spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Gull, Nuzhat; Khan, Javed Masood; Ishtikhar, Mohd; Qadeer, Atiyatul; Khan, Rehan Ajmal; Gul, Mudasir; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-02-01

    In the present study the cationic gemini surfactant assisted refolding of guanidinium hydrochloride (GdCl) denatured mammalian serum albumins viz. sheep serum albumin (SSA), rat serum albumin (RSA) and porcine serum albumin (PSA) using a combination of cationic gemini surfactants, pentanediyl-α,ω-bis(cetyldimethylammonium bromide) (C16H33(CH3)2N(+)-(CH2)5-N(+)(CH3)2C16H33)⋅2Br(-) designated as G5 and methyl-β-cyclodextrin in the artificial chaperone assisted two step method, is attempted. The studies were carried out in an aqueous medium (pH 7.4) using dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopy. A perusal of DLS data indicates that against the native hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of 4.3nm in SSA, 3.9nm in PSA and 3.5nm in RSA, the Rh of the said proteins, when refolding is attempted by simple dilution, increases to 21.7nm, 36.6nm and 37.2nm, respectively. Hydrodynamic radii very near to the native protein, i.e., 4.0nm, 4.1nm and 4.4nm for RSA, PSA and SSA respectively, is obtained on the sequential addition of G5 and methyl-β-cyclodextrin to the denatured protein. Circular dichroism studies corroborate with the DLS data. The results obtained from the multi-technique approach are ascribed to the presence of two charged head-groups and two hydrocarbon tails in the gemini surfactants resulting in a very strong electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Based on the present study it is suggested that the gemini surfactants may be utilized in the protein refolding studies and thus may address one of the most pressing demand of biotechnology industry for the development of efficient and inexpensive folding aides. PMID:25463190

  5. Polymeric cationic substituted acrylamide surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, E.C.Y.

    1983-11-15

    A new composition of matter comprises a copolymer of a surface active quaternary ammonium monomer salt and from 50 to 97% by wt of acrylamide. The new copolymers can have molecular weights substantially greater than 10,000 and still remain water soluble and surface active. Copolymers are prepared by polymerization techniques known in the art. The quaternary ammonium monomer is dispersed under inert atmosphere in aqueous solution which may additionally contain dissolved therein a low molecular weight alcohol such as ethanol, isopropanol, and the like. Acidic polymerization initiator such as the azo initiators, organic peroxides, or redox initiators such as the sulfite- persulfate system is then added in an amount calculated to yield a polymer product of desired molecular weight. (14 claims.

  6. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  7. Anionic, Cationic, and Nonionic Surfactants in Atmospheric Aerosols from the Baltic Coast at Askö, Sweden: Implications for Cloud Droplet Activation.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Violaine; Nozière, Barbara; Baduel, Christine; Fine, Ludovic; Frossard, Amanda A; Cohen, Ronald C

    2016-03-15

    Recent analyses of atmospheric aerosols from different regions have demonstrated the ubiquitous presence of strong surfactants and evidenced surface tension values, σ, below 40 mN m(-1), suspected to enhance the cloud-forming potential of these aerosols. In this work, this approach was further improved and combined with absolute concentration measurements of aerosol surfactants by colorimetric titration. This analysis was applied to PM2.5 aerosols collected at the Baltic station of Askö, Sweden, from July to October 2010. Strong surfactants were found in all the sampled aerosols, with σ = (32-40) ± 1 mN m(-1) and concentrations of at least 27 ± 6 mM or 104 ± 21 pmol m(-3). The absolute surface tension curves and critical micelle concentrations (CMC) determined for these aerosol surfactants show that (1) surfactants are concentrated enough in atmospheric particles to strongly depress the surface tension until activation, and (2) the surface tension does not follow the Szyszkowski equation during activation but is nearly constant and minimal, which provides new insights on cloud droplet activation. In addition, both the CMCs determined and the correlation (R(2) ∼ 0.7) between aerosol surfactant concentrations and chlorophyll-a seawater concentrations suggest a marine and biological origin for these compounds. PMID:26895279

  8. Acid-base equilibria involved in secondary reactions following the 4-carboxybenzophenone sensitized photooxidation of methionylglycine in aqueous solution. Spectral and time resolution of the decaying (S...N){sup +} radical cation

    SciTech Connect

    Hug, G.L.; Marciniak, B. |; Bobrowski, K. ||

    1996-09-05

    A radical cation with an intramolecular sulfur-nitrogen bond was formed in the photoinitiated transfer of an electron from the sulfur atom of the dipeptide Met-Gly to 4-carboxybenzophenone in its triplet state. The sulfur-nitrogen coupling involved two-center, three-electron bonds. The kinetics of the reactions of these radical cations, which were initiated by a laser flash, were followed over time. The principal method of implementing the spectral resolutions was accomplished through a multiple linear regression technique. This spectral analysis was repeated for numerous time windows during the lifetime of the transients` decays. The resulting concentrations of the transients were consistent with an independent factor analysis. It was found that the decay of the radical cations was multiexponential and that the decay varied with pH. A simplified reaction scheme was proposed whereby the absorbing radical cations can alternatively decay by an irreversible channel or react reversibly with OH{sup -}. Rate constants for the three elementary reactions of this scheme were determined from an analysis of the decay of the concentration of the radical cations. In addition, the equilibrium constant for the reversible reaction was determined by two separate procedures. 35 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Self-Assembled Cationic Biodegradable Nanoparticles from pH-Responsive Amino-Acid-Based Poly(Ester Urea Urethane)s and Their Application As a Drug Delivery Vehicle.

    PubMed

    He, Mingyu; Potuck, Alicia; Kohn, Julie C; Fung, Katharina; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A; Chu, Chih-Chang

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new family of biodegradable and biologically active copolymers and their subsequent self-assembled cationic nanoparticles as better delivery vehicles for anticancer drugs to achieve the synergism between the cytotoxicity effects of the loaded drugs and the macrophage inflammatory response of the delivery vehicle. This family of cationic nanoparticles was formulated from a new family of amphiphilic cationic Arginine-Leucine (Arg-Leu)-based poly(ester urea urethane) (Arg-Leu PEUU) synthesized from four building blocks (amino acids, diols, glycerol α-monoallyl ether, and 1,6 hexamethylene diisocyanate). The chemical, physical, and biological properties of Arg-Leu PEUU biomaterials can be tuned by controlling the feed ratio of the four building blocks. The Arg-Leu PEUU copolymers have weight-average molecular weights from 13.4 to 16.8 kDa and glass-transition temperatures from -3.4 to -4.6 °C. The self-assembled cationic nanoparticles (Arg-Leu PEUU NPs) were prepared using a facile dialysis method. Arg-Leu PEUU NPs have average diameters ranging from 187 to 272 nm, show good biocompatibility with 3T3 fibroblasts, and they support bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) proliferation and adhesion. Arg-Leu PEUU NPs also enhanced the macrophages' production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO), but produced relatively low levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), and therefore, the antitumor activity of macrophages might be enhanced. Arg-Leu PEUU NPs were taken up by HeLa cells after 4 h of incubation. The in vitro hemolysis assay showed the cationic Arg-Leu PEUU NPs increased their chance of endosomal escape at a more acidic pH. Doxorubicin (DOX) was successfully incorporated into the Arg-Leu PEUU NPs, and the DOX-loaded Arg-Leu PEUU NPs exhibited a pH-dependent drug release profile with accelerated release kinetics in a mild acidic condition. The DOX-loaded 6-Arg-4-Leu-4 A/L-2/1 NPs showed higher HeLa cell

  10. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  11. Molecular exciton theory calculations based on experimental results for Solophenyl red 3BL azo dye-surfactants interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Ali; Zeini-Isfahani, Asghar; Habibi, Mohammad Hossein

    2006-05-01

    The influence of anionic surfactant: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic surfactants: cetyltrimethylammonium bormides (C 16TAB) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) on the electronic spectrum of Solophenyl red 3BL azo dye (C.I. Direct 80) in aqueous solution was studied by means of UV-vis spectroscopy. Since, Solophenyl red 3BL azo dye was an anionic soluble dye, therefore, did not observed any interaction between SDS and 3BL dye. On the other hand, in the case of C 16TAB, aggregation was reflected by a hyosochromic shift of the main absorption band and dye H-aggregation was responsible for the short wavelength absorption band. Also, UV-vis spectra showed that micelle formation occurs for C 16TAB surfactant in 3BL dye aqueous solution in lower concentration in comparison with C 16TAB in aqueous solution lonely. Micelle formation was indicated by a red shift of the whole spectra with respect to monomer location. The importance of hydrophobic interactions was revealed by the dependence of aggregation on the cationic surfactant structure. Further results showed that dye H-aggregation was occurred under the cationic surfactant CPC as well, but in this case micelle formation could not occur. Addition of CPC surfactant into the J-aggregate dye solution in highly acidic aqueous solution was also caused completely disaggregating of dimer molecules, which may be related to occuring an acid-base reaction between them. Applicability of the molecular exciton (Kasha) theory in order to interpret of aggregation results and to estimate dimer structure of 3BL dye under C 16TAB and CPC surfactants addition was very poor and the calculated data based on this model showed that this simple point-dipole model could not describe our experimental results.

  12. [Sensitive Determination of Chondroitin Sulfate by Fluorescence Recovery of an Anionic Aluminum Phthalocyanine-Cationic Surfactant Ion-Association Complex Used as a Fluorescent Probe Emitting at Red Region].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Ping; Yang, Hui-qing; Deng, Ya-bin; Guo, Meng-lin; Li, Dong-hui

    2015-08-01

    Determination of chondroitin sulfate in the biomedical field has an important value. The conventional methods for the assay of chondroitin sulfate are still unsatisfactory in sensitivity, selectivity or simplicity. This work aimed at developing a novel method for sensitive and selective determination of chondroitin sulfate by fluorimetry. We found that some kinds of cationic surfactants have the ability to quench the fluorescence of tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlS4Pc), a strongly fluorescent compound which emits at red region, with high efficiency. But, the fluorescence of the above-mentioned fluorescence quenching system recovered significantly when chondroitin sulfate (CS) exits. Tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride(TDBAC) which was screened from all of the candidates of cationic surfactants was chosen as the quencher because it shows the most efficient quenching effect. It was found that the fluorescence of AlS4Pc was extremely quenched by TDBAC because of the formation of association complex between AlS4Pc and TDBAC. Fluorescence of the association complex recovered dramatically after the addition of chondroitin sulfate (CS) due to the ability of chondroitin sulfate to shift the association equilibrium of the association, leading to the release of AlS4Pc, thus resulting in an increase in the fluorescence of the reaction system. Based on this phenomenon, a novel method with simplicity, accuracy and sensitivity was developed for quantitative determination of CS. Factors including the reaction time, influencing factors and the effect of coexisting substances were investigated and discussed. Under optimum conditions the linear range of the calibration curve was 0.20~10.0 μg · mL(-1). The detection limit for CS was 0.070 μg · mL(-1). The method has been applied to the analysis of practical samples with satisfied results. This work expands the applications of AlS4Pc in biomedical area. PMID:26672294

  13. Clouding behaviour in surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Partha; Padhan, Susanta K; Dash, Sukalyan; Patel, Sabita; Mishra, Bijay K

    2011-02-17

    A study on the phenomenon of clouding and the applications of cloud point technology has been thoroughly discussed. The phase behaviour of clouding and various methods adopted for the determination of cloud point of various surfactant systems have been elucidated. The systems containing anionic, cationic, nonionic surfactants as well as microemulsions have been reviewed with respect to their clouding phenomena and the effects of structural variation in the surfactant systems have been incorporated. Additives of various natures control the clouding of surfactants. Electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, organic substances as well as ionic surfactants, when present in the surfactant solutions, play a major role in the clouding phenomena. The review includes the morphological study of clouds and their applications in the extraction of trace inorganic, organic materials as well as pesticides and protein substrates from different sources. PMID:21296314

  14. Counterion specificity of surfactants based on dicarboxylic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Bordes, Romain; Tropsch, Jürgen; Holmberg, Krister

    2009-10-15

    The behavior in solution of a series of amino acid-based surfactants having two carboxyl groups separated by a spacer of one, two, or three carbon atoms has been investigated. All three surfactants precipitated on addition of acid, but the aspartate surfactant (with a two-carbon spacer) was considerably more resistant to precipitation than the aminomalonate surfactant (one-carbon spacer) and the glutamate surfactant (three-carbon spacer). The interactions with the monovalent counterions lithium, sodium, and potassium were investigated by conductivity. It was found that lithium ions bound the strongest and potassium ions the weakest to the surfactant micelles. These results were interpreted using the hard and soft acid-base theory. Comparing the three surfactants with respect to binding of one specific counterion, sodium, showed that the aminomalonate surfactant, which has the shortest spacer, bound sodium ions the strongest and the glutamate surfactant, which has the longest spacer, had the lowest affinity for the counterion. Also that could be explained by the hard and soft acid-base concept. The glutamate surfactant was found to be considerably more resistant to calcium ions than the two other surfactants. This was attributed to this surfactant forming an intermolecular complex with the calcium ion at the air-water interface while the aminomalonate and the aspartate surfactants, with shorter distance between the carboxylate groups could form six- and seven-membered intramolecular calcium complexes. PMID:19608191

  15. Periparturient effects of feeding a low dietary cation-anion difference diet on acid-base, calcium, and phosphorus homeostasis and on intravenous glucose tolerance test in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Grünberg, W; Donkin, S S; Constable, P D

    2011-02-01

    Feeding rations with low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) to dairy cows during late gestation is a common strategy to prevent periparturient hypocalcemia. Although the efficacy of low-DCAD rations in reducing the incidence of clinical hypocalcemia is well documented, potentially deleterious effects have not been explored in detail. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the effect of fully compensated metabolic acidosis on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, insulin responsiveness, and insulin sensitivity as well as on protein metabolism. Twenty multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups and fed a low-DCAD ration (DCAD = -9 mEq/100g, group L) or a control ration (DCAD = +11 mEq/100g, group C) for the last 3 wk before the expected calving date. Blood and urine samples were obtained periodically between 14 d before to 14 d after calving. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and 24-h volumetric urine collection were conducted before calving as well as 7 and 14 d postpartum. Cows fed the low-DCAD ration had lower urine pH and higher net acid excretion, but unchanged blood pH and bicarbonate concentration before calving. Protein-corrected plasma Ca concentration 1 d postpartum was higher in cows on the low-DCAD diet when compared with control animals. Urinary Ca and P excretion was positively associated with urine net acid excretion and negatively associated with urine pH. Whereas metabolic acidosis resulted in a 6-fold increase in urinary Ca excretion, the effect on renal P excretion was negligible. A more pronounced decline of plasma protein and globulin concentration in the periparturient period was observed in cows on the low-DCAD diets resulting in significantly lower total protein and globulin concentrations after calving in cows on low-DCAD diets. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests conducted before and after calving did not reveal group differences in insulin response or insulin sensitivity. Our

  16. Influence of temperature and organic solvents (isopropanol and 1,4-dioxane) on the micellization of cationic gemini surfactant (14-4-14).

    PubMed

    Das, Sibani; Naskar, Bappaditya; Ghosh, Soumen

    2014-04-28

    The micellar properties of gemini surfactant, tetramethylene-1,4-bis(dimethyltetradecylammonium bromide) (14-4-14) in binary aqueous mixtures of isopropanol (IP) and 1,4-dioxane (DO) were investigated by tensiometric, conductometric and microcalorimetric methods in the temperature range of 298 to 323 K. The values of both critical micelle concentration (cmc) and degree of dissociation increase with increasing temperature and concentration of cosolvent. The energetics of micellization was determined from the temperature dependence of critical micelle concentration values. The standard Gibbs free energy of micellization (ΔG) was found to be negative and the negative value decreases with both temperature and concentration of cosolvent. The Gibbs free energy of micellization (ΔG) is mainly controlled by tail transfer free energy. The enthalpy of micellization obtained from direct calorimetry, Gibbs-Helmholtz equation and van't Hoff methods are presented and compared. Entropic contribution is found to be larger than the enthalpy and for all the systems, an enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon was obtained. Some interfacial parameters, e.g., Gibbs surface excess (Γmax), minimum area per surfactant molecule (Amin), surface pressure (Πcmc) were been calculated. The fluorimetric technique was used to understand the microenvironment of the solution under the influence of cosolvent. The micellar aggregation number of 14-4-14 in a binary mixed solvent was also determined from fluorimetry using pyrene as a probe. Two fluorophores, fluorescein and curcumin delivered the information of the peripheral region of the micellar interface and palisade region. The self-diffusion coefficients of the micellar media were evaluated using the cyclic voltammetry (CV) method. Such multi-technique investigation provides a new look into the role of solvation in micellization. PMID:24668039

  17. Polymer/surfactant transport in micellar flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, C.S.; Kellerhals, G.E.

    1981-10-01

    For the surfactant formulations used (particular surfactant concentration, surfactant type, cosolvent type, cosolvent concentration, etc.), the results show that surfactant systems containing polymer as a mobility control agent may exhibit adverse polymer transport behavior during flow through porous media. Polymer generally lagged behind the surfactant even though the two species were injected simultaneously in the surfactant slug. This poor polymer transport definitely could have a detrimental effect on the efficiency of a micellar flooding process in the field. Phase studies show that when some surfactant systems containing xanthan gum are mixed with crude oil at various salinities, a polymer-rich, gel-like phase forms. The polymer lag phenomenon in core tests can be related to phase separation due to divalent cations generated in situ as a result of ion exchange with the clays and the surfactant. 18 refs.

  18. Preparation and characterization of zwitterionic surfactant-modified montmorillonites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianxi; Qing, Yanhong; Wang, Tong; Zhu, Runliang; Wei, Jingming; Tao, Qi; Yuan, Peng; He, Hongping

    2011-08-15

    A series of zwitterionic surfactant-modified montmorillonites (ZSMMs) were synthesized using montmorillonite and three zwitterionic surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths at different concentrations [0.2-4.0 cation exchange capacity (CEC)]. These ZSMMs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential thermo-gravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses. The zwitterionic surfactant could be intercalated into the interlayer spaces of montmorillonites and causing interlayer space-swelling. From XRD measurements, the amount of the surfactants loaded and the basal spacing increased with surfactant concentration and alkyl chain length. One endothermic DTG peak occurred at ~390 °C, which was assigned to the decomposition of the zwitterionic surfactant on the organo-montmorillonites from 0.2 to 0.6 CEC. When the surfactant loading was increased, a new endothermic peak appeared at ~340 °C. From the microstructures of these ZSMMs, the mechanism of zwitterionic surfactant adsorption was proposed. At relatively low loadings of the zwitterionic surfactant, most of surfactants enter the spacing by an ion-exchange mechanism and are adsorbed onto the interlayer cation sites. When the concentration of the zwitterionic surfactant exceeds the CEC of montmorillonite, the surfactant molecules then adhere to the surface-adsorbed surfactant. Some surfactants enter the interlayers, whereas the others are attached to the clay surface. When the concentration of surfactant increases further beyond 2.0 CEC, the surfactants may occupy the inter-particle space within the house-of-cards aggregate structure. PMID:21575956

  19. Lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, S A

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of pulmonary surfactant are reviewed from a biochemical perspective. The major emphasis is on the lipid components of surfactant. Topics reviewed include surfactant composition, cellular and subcellular sites as well as pathways of biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, disaturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The surfactant system in the developing fetus and neonate is considered in terms of phospholipid content and composition, rates of precursor incorporation, activities of individual enzymes of phospholipid synthesis and glycogen content and metabolism. The influence of the following hormones and other factors on lung maturation and surfactant production is discussed: glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, estrogen, prolactin, cyclic AMP, beta-adrenergic and cholinergic agonists, prostaglandins and growth factors. The influence of maternal diabetes, fetal sex, stress and labor are also considered. Nonphysiologic and toxic agents which influence surfactant in the fetus, newborn and adult are reviewed. PMID:6145585

  20. Interactions of organic contaminants with mineral-adsorbed surfactants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, L.; Chen, B.; Tao, S.; Chiou, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    Sorption of organic contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, and naphthalene) to natural solids (soils and bentonite) with and without myristylpyridinium bromide (MPB) cationic surfactant was studied to provide novel insight to interactions of contaminants with the mineral-adsorbed surfactant. Contaminant sorption coefficients with mineral-adsorbed surfactants, Kss, show a strong dependence on surfactant loading in the solid. At low surfactant levels, the Kss values increased with increasing sorbed surfactant mass, reached a maximum, and then decreased with increasing surfactant loading. The Kss values for contaminants were always higher than respective partition coefficients with surfactant micelles (Kmc) and natural organic matter (Koc). At examined MPB concentrations in water the three organic contaminants showed little solubility enhancement by MPB. At low sorbed-surfactant levels, the resulting mineral-adsorbed surfactant via the cation-exchange process appears to form a thin organic film, which effectively "adsorbs" the contaminants, resulting in very high Kss values. At high surfactant levels, the sorbed surfactant on minerals appears to form a bulklike medium that behaves essentially as a partition phase (rather than an adsorptive surface), with the resulting Kss being significantly decreased and less dependent on the MPB loading. The results provide a reference to the use of surfactants for remediation of contaminated soils/sediments or groundwater in engineered surfactant-enhanced washing.

  1. Surfactant-enhanced low-pH alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A. and Co., Columbia, MD . Research Div.); Lorenz, P.B. )

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports sodium bicarbonate investigated as a potential alkaline agent in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding because it has very little tendency to dissolve silicate minerals. In experiments performed with Wilmington, CA, crude oil and three types of surfactants, the bicarbonate/surfactant combination caused a marked lowering of interfacial tension (IFT). Bicarbonate protected the surfactant against divalent cations and reduced adsorption of surfactant and polymer on various minerals. Coreflood test confirm that sodium bicarbonate plus surfactant can be an effective alternative to the high-pH flooding process.

  2. Bipolar Membranes for Acid Base Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthamatten, Mitchell; Roddecha, Supacharee; Jorne, Jacob; Coughlan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries can provide grid-scale electricity storage to match power generation with consumption and promote renewable energy sources. Flow batteries offer modular and flexible design, low cost per kWh and high efficiencies. A novel flow battery concept will be presented based on acid-base neutralization where protons (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions react electrochemically to produce water. The large free energy of this highly reversible reaction can be stored chemically, and, upon discharge, can be harvested as usable electricity. The acid-base flow battery concept avoids the use of a sluggish oxygen electrode and utilizes the highly reversible hydrogen electrode, thus eliminating the need for expensive noble metal catalysts. The proposed flow battery is a hybrid of a battery and a fuel cell---hydrogen gas storing chemical energy is produced at one electrode and is immediately consumed at the other electrode. The two electrodes are exposed to low and high pH solutions, and these solutions are separated by a hybrid membrane containing a hybrid cation and anion exchange membrane (CEM/AEM). Membrane design will be discussed, along with ion-transport data for synthesized membranes.

  3. DNA interaction with cis- and trans- isomers of photosensitive surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unksov, I. N.; Kasyanenko, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Interaction between DNA and photosensitive cationic surfactant in a solution is studied. Studies were conducted to examine the impact of the surfactant in its cis- conformation on the size of DNA molecule and also to investigate the phase behavior of the system depending on DNA and surfactant concentration. We conclude that trans- isomer of surfactant requires its smaller concentration to reach the DNA compaction compared with cis- isomer received by UV radiation of solutions. Studies of DNA-surfactant systems were performed by means of spectrophotometry and viscometry. Variation of surfactant concentration enables us to determine the precipitation zone on phase diagram. From the viscosity study it can be indicated that precipitation zone is narrower for UV-radiated surfactant and it shifts to higher surfactant concentration. Also we examine the reversibility of DNA compaction in systems with the surfactant in its trans- form.

  4. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, N.J.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO{sub 2}{sup +}) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO{sub 2}{sup +}; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO{sub 2}{sup +} cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO{sub 2}{sup +} species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO{sub 2}{sup +} cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, NpO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}Th{sup 4+}, PuO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and PuO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}Th{sup 4+} at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 {plus_minus} 0.2, 1.8 {plus_minus} 0.9, 2.2 {plus_minus} 1.5, and {approx}0.8 M{sup {minus}1}.

  5. Aqueous Foam Stabilized by Tricationic Amphiphilic Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heerschap, Seth; Marafino, John; McKenna, Kristin; Caran, Kevin; Feitosa, Klebert; Kevin Caran's Research Group Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    The unique surface properties of amphiphilic molecules have made them widely used in applications where foaming, emulsifying or coating processes are needed. The development of novel architectures with multi-cephalic/tailed molecules have enhanced their anti-bacterial activity in connection with tail length and the nature of the head group. Here we report on the foamability of two triple head double, tail cationic surfactants (M-1,14,14, M-P, 14,14) and a triple head single tail cationic surfactant (M-1,1,14) and compare them with commercially available single headed, single tailed anionic and cationic surfactants (SDS,CTAB and DTAB). The results show that bubble rupture rate decrease with the length of the carbon chain irrespective of head structure. The growth rate of bubbles with short tailed surfactants (SDS) and longer, single tailed tricationic surfactants (M-1,1,14) was shown to be twice as high as those with longer tailed surfactants (CTAB, M-P,14,14, M-1,14,14). This fact was related to the size variation of bubbles, where the foams made with short tail surfactants exhibited higher polydispersivity than those with short tails. This suggests that foams with tricationic amphiphilics are closed linked to their tail length and generally insensitive to their head structure.

  6. Structural study of surfactant-dependent interaction with protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2015-06-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the complex structure of anionic BSA protein with three different (cationic DTAB, anionic SDS and non-ionic C12E10) surfactants. These systems form very different surfactant-dependent complexes. We show that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is initiated by the site-specific electrostatic interaction between the components, followed by the hydrophobic interaction at high surfactant concentrations. It is also found that hydrophobic interaction is preferred over the electrostatic interaction in deciding the resultant structure of protein-surfactant complexes.

  7. Probing nanoparticle effect in protein-surfactant complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-06-01

    SANS experiments have been carried to probe the role of anionic silica nanoparticles in the anionic BSA protein-cationic DTAB surfactant complexes. In protein-surfactant complex, surfactant molecules aggregate to form micelle-like clusters along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The nanoparticle aggregation mediated by oppositely charged protein-surfactant complex coexists with the free protein-surfactant complexes in the nanoparticle-protein-surfactant system. There is rearrangement of micelles in adsorbed protein-surfactant complex on nanoparticles in leading to their (nanoparticle) aggregation. On the other hand, the unfolding of protein in free protein-surfactant complex is found to be significantly enhanced in presence of nanoparticles.

  8. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Ooshima, H.; Sakata, M.; Harano, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of surfactants on enzymatic saccharification of cellulose have been studied. Nonionic, amphoteric, and cationic surfactants enhanced the saccharification, while anionic surfactant did not. Cationic and anionic surfactants denatured cellulase in their relatively low concentrations, namely, more than 0.008 and 0.001%, respectively. Using nonionic surfactant Tween 20, which is most effective to the enhancement (e.g., the fractional conversion attained by 72 h saccharification of 5 wt % Avicel in the presence of 0.05 wt % Tween 20 is increased by 35%), actions of surfactant have been examined. As the results, it was suggested that Tween 20 plays an important role in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose and that Tween 20 disturbs the adsorption of endoglucanase on cellulose, i.e., varies the adsorption balance of endo- and exoglucanase, resulting in enhancing the reaction. The influence of Tween 20 to the saccharification was found to remain in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Avicel.

  9. Surfactant compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Novakovic, M.; Abend, P.G.

    1987-09-29

    A surfactant composition is described for subsequent addition to a soap slurring comprising an acyloxy alkane sulfonate salt. The sulfonate salt is present in an amount by weight of about 44 percent of about 56 percent. The polyol is present in an amount by weight of about 2 percent to about 6 percent, and water is present in an amount by weight of 26 to 36 percent. The composition constituting a solid reversible solution at ambient temperature and having a solids content of about 58 to 72 percent, whereby subsequent addition of the surfactant composition to a soap slurry results in formation of a soap/detergent bar having a smooth texture, uniform wear properties and a lack of grittiness.

  10. Responsive Aqueous Foams Stabilized by Silica Nanoparticles Hydrophobized in Situ with a Conventional Surfactant.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue; Pei, Xiaomei; Jiang, Jianzhong; Cui, Zhenggang; Binks, Bernard P

    2015-12-01

    In the recent past, switchable surfactants and switchable/stimulus-responsive surface-active particles have been of great interest. Both can be transformed between surface-active and surface-inactive states via several triggers, making them recoverable and reusable afterward. However, the synthesis of these materials is complicated. In this paper we report a facile protocol to obtain responsive surface-active nanoparticles and their use in preparing responsive particle-stabilized foams. Hydrophilic silica nanoparticles are initially hydrophobized in situ with a trace amount of a conventional cationic surfactant in water, rendering them surface-active such that they stabilize aqueous foams. The latter can then be destabilized by adding equal moles of an anionic surfactant, and restabilized by adding another trace amount of the cationic surfactant followed by shaking. The stabilization-destabilization of the foams can be cycled many times at room temperature. The trigger is the stronger electrostatic interaction between the oppositely charged surfactants than that between the cationic surfactant and the negatively charged particles. The added anionic surfactant tends to form ion pairs with the cationic surfactant, leading to desorption of the latter from particle surfaces and dehydrophobization of the particles. Upon addition of another trace amount of cationic surfactant, the particles are rehydrophobized in situ and can then stabilize foams again. This principle makes it possible to obtain responsive surface-active particles using commercially available inorganic nanoparticles and conventional surfactants. PMID:26542227

  11. Turbulent drag reduction in nonionic surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamano, Shinji; Itoh, Motoyuki; Kato, Katsuo; Yokota, Kazuhiko

    2010-05-01

    There are only a few studies on the drag-reducing effect of nonionic surfactant solutions which are nontoxic and biodegradable, while many investigations of cationic surfactant solutions have been performed so far. First, the drag-reducing effects of a nonionic surfactant (AROMOX), which mainly consisted of oleyldimethylamineoxide, was investigated by measuring the pressure drop in the pipe flow at solvent Reynolds numbers Re between 1000 and 60 000. Second, we investigated the drag-reducing effect of a nonionic surfactant on the turbulent boundary layer at momentum-thickness Reynolds numbers Reθ from 443 to 814 using two-component laser-Doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry systems. At the temperature of nonionic surfactant solutions, T =25 °C, the maximum drag reduction ratio for AROMOX 500 ppm was about 50%, in the boundary layer flow, although the drag reduction ratio was larger than 60% in pipe flow. Turbulence statistics and structures for AROMOX 500 ppm showed the behavior of typical drag-reducing flow such as suppression of turbulence and modification of near-wall vortices, but they were different from those of drag-reducing cationic surfactant solutions, in which bilayered structures of the fluctuating velocity vectors were observed in high activity.

  12. Influence of surfactant charge on antimicrobial efficacy of surfactant-stabilized thyme oil nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Ziani, Khalid; Chang, Yuhua; McLandsborough, Lynne; McClements, David Julian

    2011-06-01

    Thyme oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by a nonionic surfactant (Tween 80, T80) were prepared as potential antimicrobial delivery systems (pH 4). The nanoemulsions were highly unstable to droplet growth and phase separation, which was attributed to Ostwald ripening due to the relatively high water solubility of thyme oil. Ostwald ripening could be inhibited by incorporating ≥75% of corn oil (a hydrophobic material with a low water solubility) into the nanoemulsion droplets. The electrical characteristics of the droplets in the nanoemulsions were varied by incorporating ionic surfactants with different charges after homogenization: a cationic surfactant (lauric arginate, LAE) or an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). The antifungal activity of nanoemulsions containing positive, negative, or neutral thymol droplets was then conducted against four strains of acid-resistant spoilage yeasts: Zygosaccharomyces bailli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, and Brettanomyces naardenensis. The antifungal properties of the three surfactants (T80, LAE, SDS) were also tested in the absence of thymol droplets. Both ionic surfactants showed strong antifungal activity in the absence of thymol droplets, but no antimicrobial activity in their presence. This effect was attributed to partitioning of the antimicrobial surfactant molecules between the oil droplet and microbial surfaces, thereby reducing the effective concentration of active surfactants available to act as antimicrobials. This study shows oil droplets may decrease the efficacy of surfactant-based antimicrobials, which has important consequences for formulating effective antimicrobial agents for utilization in emulsion-based food and beverage products. PMID:21520914

  13. The Influence of Surfactants on the Zeta Potential of Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Marsalek, R.

    2009-07-01

    The surface of three different kinds of coal was modified by three surfactants (cationic, anionic, and non-ionic). Changes on coal surface were examined by the zeta potential technique. The influence of the dispersion of pH, concentration of surfactants, and contact time were investigated. The most significant change in zeta potential resulting from adding surfactants was observed in activated coal (hydrophobic surface, largest BET surface area). Adding the cationic surfactant led to an increase of the zeta potential, contrary to measuring done in water. The anionic surfactant decreased the value of the zeta potential; however, this change was not too remarkable. The results proved that even a very low concentration of the cationic surfactant (0.01 mmol/L) causes a remarkable change of the zeta potential. On the other hand, a similar effect was observed until the concentration of the anionic surfactant reached about 10 mmol/L. The mechanism of binding surfactants is not simple, but preferential hydrophobic interactions were discovered.

  14. Flexible polyelectrolyte conformation in the presence of oppositely charged surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, P S; Diehl, A

    2007-10-01

    Conformational behavior of flexible polyelectrolytes in the presence of monovalent cationic surfactants is examined. A simple model is presented for the formation of polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes in salt-free solutions in the framework of the Debye-Hückel-Bjerrum-Manning and Flory theories, including explicitly the hydrophobic interactions between the associated surfactant molecules on the polyelectrolyte. The distribution of complexes is calculated as a function of the surfactant concentration and a discrete conformational transition between an elongated coil and a compact globule was found, in agreement with experimental observations. PMID:17995019

  15. Solar energy storage using surfactant micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. C.; Marwadi, P. R.; Latha, P. K.; Bhise, S. B.

    1982-09-01

    The results of experiments designed to test the soluble reduced form of thionine dye as a suitable solar energy storage agent inside the hydrophobic core of surfactant micelles are discussed. Aqueous solutions of thionine, methylene blue, cetyl pyridinium bromide, sodium lauryl sulphate, iron salts, and iron were employed as samples of anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants. The solutions were exposed to light until the dye disappeared, and then added drop-by-drop to surfactant solutions. The resultant solutions were placed in one cell compartment while an aqueous solution with Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions were placed in another, with the compartments being furnished with platinum electrodes connected using a saturated KCl-agar bridge. Data was gathered on the short circuit current, maximum power, and internal resistance encountered. Results indicate that dye-surfactant systems are viable candidates for solar energy storage for later conversion to electrical power.

  16. DNA compaction by azobenzene-containing surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Kopyshev, Alexey; Lomadze, Nino; Morozova, Elena; Lysyakova, Ludmila; Kasyanenko, Nina; Santer, Svetlana

    2011-08-01

    We report on the interaction of cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant with DNA investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The properties of the surfactant can be controlled with light by reversible switching of the azobenzene unit, incorporated into the surfactant tail, between a hydrophobic trans (visible irradiation) and a hydrophilic cis (UV irradiation) configuration. The influence of the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene on the compaction process of DNA molecules and the role of both isomers in the formation and colloidal stability of DNA-surfactant complexes is discussed. It is shown that the trans isomer plays a major role in the DNA compaction process. The influence of the cis isomer on the DNA coil configuration is rather small. The construction of a phase diagram of the DNA concentration versus surfactant/DNA charge ratio allows distancing between three major phases: colloidally stable and unstable compacted globules, and extended coil conformation. There is a critical concentration of DNA above which the compacted globules can be hindered from aggregation and precipitation by adding an appropriate amount of the surfactant in the trans configuration. This is because of the compensation of hydrophobicity of the globules with an increasing amount of the surfactant. Below the critical DNA concentration, the compacted globules are colloidally stable and can be reversibly transferred with light to an extended coil state.

  17. DNA compaction by azobenzene-containing surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Kopyshev, Alexey; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana

    2011-08-15

    We report on the interaction of cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant with DNA investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The properties of the surfactant can be controlled with light by reversible switching of the azobenzene unit, incorporated into the surfactant tail, between a hydrophobic trans (visible irradiation) and a hydrophilic cis (UV irradiation) configuration. The influence of the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene on the compaction process of DNA molecules and the role of both isomers in the formation and colloidal stability of DNA-surfactant complexes is discussed. It is shown that the trans isomer plays a major role in the DNA compaction process. The influence of the cis isomer on the DNA coil configuration is rather small. The construction of a phase diagram of the DNA concentration versus surfactant/DNA charge ratio allows distancing between three major phases: colloidally stable and unstable compacted globules, and extended coil conformation. There is a critical concentration of DNA above which the compacted globules can be hindered from aggregation and precipitation by adding an appropriate amount of the surfactant in the trans configuration. This is because of the compensation of hydrophobicity of the globules with an increasing amount of the surfactant. Below the critical DNA concentration, the compacted globules are colloidally stable and can be reversibly transferred with light to an extended coil state.

  18. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna; Domka, Ludwik; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay - hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1‧-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d001) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH2 and CH3 groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  19. Nanoparticles of polystyrene latexes by semicontinuous microemulsion polymerization using mixed surfactants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Jun; Chow, Pei-Yong; Quek, Chai-Hoon; Hng, Huey-Hoon; Gan, Leong-Ming

    2003-06-01

    Nanosized polystyrene (PS) latexes stabilized by the mixture of cationic/cationic, anionic/anionic, or anionic/cationic surfactants of various types with high weight ratios of PS to surfactant (ca. 10:1) have been successfully synthesized by a semicontinuous microemulsion polymerization process. For cationic or anionic systems, spherical latex particles with a weight-averaged diameter (Dw) ranging from about 22 to 53 nm were nearly linearly dependent on the weight ratio of the mixed surfactants with similar charges. Their particle size distributions were rather uniform (Dw/Dn < 1.20). For a system with oppositely charged surfactants at nonequimolar ratios, it could produce stable PS particles up to 94 nm in diameter. High molar masses (Mw) of PS ranging from 1.1 to 1.9 x 10(6) g/mol could easily be obtained for all three systems investigated. For both cationic/cationic and anionic/anionic surfactant systems, the number of PS particles per milliliter of latex (Np) generated in the very early stage of O/W' microemulsion remained rather constant throughout the polymerization. This was controlled by using only 1 wt% of mixed surfactants and the continuous addition of a small amount of styrene. The present polymerization method allows one to synthesize nanoparticles of PS or other polymers of high polymer/surfactant weight ratios at some particle sizes that are unable to achieve them with a single type of surfactant. PMID:14503408

  20. The Kidney and Acid-Base Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeppen, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the topic of the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid base balance was last reviewed from a teaching perspective (Koeppen BM. Renal regulation of acid-base balance. Adv Physiol Educ 20: 132-141, 1998), our understanding of the specific membrane transporters involved in H+, HCO , and NH transport, and especially how these…

  1. The Conjugate Acid-Base Chart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treptow, Richard S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties that beginning chemistry students have in understanding acid-base chemistry. Describes the use of conjugate acid-base charts in helping students visualize the conjugate relationship. Addresses chart construction, metal ions, buffers and pH titrations, and the organic functional groups and nonaqueous solvents. (TW)

  2. Estimation hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number of surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawignya, Harsa; Prasetyaningrum, Aji; Dyartanti, Endah R.; Kusworo, Tutuk D.; Pramudono, Bambang

    2016-02-01

    Any type of surfactant has a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number (HLB number) of different. There are several methods for determining the HLB number, with ohysical properties of surfactant (solubility cloud point and interfacial tension), CMC methods and by thermodynamics properties (Free energy Gibbs). This paper proposes to determined HLB numbers from interfelation methods. The result of study indicated that the CMC method described by Hair and Moulik espesially for nonionic surfactant. The application of exess Gibbs free energy and by implication activity coefficient provides the ability to predict the behavior of surfactants in multi component mixtures of different concentration. Determination of HLB number by solubility and cloud point parameter is spesific for anionic and nonionic surfactant but this methods not available for cationic surfactants.

  3. A study of the thermodynamic properties of surfactant mixtures: Mixed micelle formation and mixed surfactant adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Lopata, J.J.

    1992-12-31

    The volumetric mixing in anionic/nonionic, cationic/nonionic, and anionic/cationic mixed micelles was determined by examining the total surfactant apparent molar volumes at total surfactant concentrations much greater than the mixture critical micelle concentration. The mixed surfactant systems investigated were: sodium dodecyl sulfate and a polyethoxylated nonylphenol, at 0.15 M NaCl and with no added NaCl; cetyl pyridinium chloride and polyethoxylated nonylphenol, at 0.03 M NaCl; and sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl pyridinium chloride, at 0.15 M NaCl. The results of this study suggest that the electrostatic interactions in the mixed micelles do no significantly effect the molar volume of the mixed micelle. Therefore, the micelle hydrophobic core dominates the volumetric mixing in mixed micelles. The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a polyethoxylated nonylphenol and well defined mixtures thereof was measured on gamma alumina. A pseudo-phase separation model to describe mixed anionic/nonionic admicelle (adsorbed surfactant aggregate) formation was developed. In this model, regular solution theory was used to describe the anionic/nonionic surfactant interactions in the mixed admicelle and a patch-wise adsorption model was used to describe surfactant adsorption on a heterogeneous surface. Regular solution theory was tested on specific homogeneous surface patches by examining constant total surfactant adsorption levels. For the adsorption of binary surfactant mixtures adsorbing at total equilibrium concentrations above the mixture critical micelle concentration, simultaneous solution of the pseudo-phase separation models for mixed admicelle and mixed micelle formation predicts that the surfactant compositions in the monomer, micelle, and admicelle pseudo-phases are constant at a constant total adsorption level.

  4. Analysis of supercooling activities of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Terauchi, Ryuji; Tochigi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Hisao; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2014-08-01

    Supercooling-promoting activities (SCAs) of 25 kinds of surfactants including non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric types were examined in solutions (buffered Milli-Q water, BMQW) containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, silver iodide (AgI) or BMQW alone, which unintentionally contained unidentified ice nucleators, by a droplet freezing assay. Most of the surfactants exhibited SCA in solutions containing AgI but not in solutions containing the INB E. ananas or BMQW alone. SCAs of many surfactants in solutions containing AgI were very high compared with those of previously reported supercooling-promoting substances. Cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC), at concentrations of 0.01% (w/v) exhibited SCA of 11.8 °C, which is the highest SCA so far reported. These surfactants also showed high SCAs at very low concentrations in solutions containing AgI. C16TAB exhibited SCA of 5.7 °C at a concentration of 0.0005% (w/v). PMID:24792543

  5. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of sorbed HDTMA and the mechanism of chromate sorption to surfactant-modified clinoptilolite

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E.J.; Bowman, R.S.; Hunter, D.B.

    1998-07-01

    Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has potential use as a sorbent for toxic compounds from contaminated waters, in subsurface permeable barriers, or in ex-situ water treatment systems. The authors examined sorption of the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) to clinoptilolite zeolite and the subsequent sorption of the chromate anion to surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ). They used Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy and batch sorption methods to elucidate the structure of sorbed HDTMA and to determine the mechanisms of chromate sorption. At high HDTMA loading levels (above the zeolite`s external cation exchange capacity, ECEC), the Raman spectra indicated that sorbed HDTMA was similar in conformation to solution micelles and, thus, may contain anion exchange sites. Sorbed HDTMA showed less structuring of tail groups and a decrease in head group hydration. At lower loadings, the sorbed HDTMA tail groups tended to have more disorder, similar to solution monomers. When HDTMA loading rates were greater than 100% of the ECEC, chromate sorbed onto SMZ with near-equivalent Br{sup {minus}} counterion exchange. A peak in the Raman spectrum at 902 cm{sup {minus}1} indicated the presence of sorbed Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2{minus}}, although no bulk solution oligomerized chromate species should have been present at a solution pH of 7. A 30 cm{sup {minus}1} shift in the {nu}{sub 1} peak for sorbed versus solution chromate may indicate the surface-enhanced Lewis acid-base interactions were responsible for some chromate sorption in addition to the predominant anion-exchange mechanism.

  6. Mechanisms of Particle Charging by Surfactants in Nonpolar Dispersions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyung; Zhou, Zhang-Lin; Alas, Guillermo; Behrens, Sven Holger

    2015-11-10

    Electric charging of colloidal particles in nonpolar solvents plays a crucial role for many industrial applications and products, including rubbers, engine oils, toners, or electronic displays. Although disfavored by the low solvent permittivity, particle charging can be induced by added surfactants, even nonionic ones, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood, and neither the magnitude nor the sign of charge can generally be predicted from the particle and surfactant properties. The conclusiveness of scientific studies has been limited partly by a traditional focus on few surfactant types with many differences in their chemical structure and often poorly defined composition. Here we investigate the surface charging of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles dispersed in hexane-based solutions of three purified polyisobutylene succinimide polyamine surfactants with "subtle" structural variations. We precisely vary the surfactant chemistry by replacing only a single electronegative atom located at a fixed position within the polar headgroup. Electrophoresis reveals that these small differences between the surfactants lead to qualitatively different particle charging. In the respective particle-free surfactant solutions we also find potentially telling differences in the size of the surfactant aggregates (inverse micelles), the residual water content, and the electric solution conductivity as well as indications for a significant size difference between oppositely charged inverse micelles of the most hygroscopic surfactant. An analysis that accounts for the acid/base properties of all constituents suggests that the observed particle charging is better described by asymmetric adsorption of charged inverse micelles from the liquid bulk than by charge creation at the particle surface. Intramicellar acid-base interaction and intermicellar surfactant exchange help rationalize the formation of micellar ions pairs with size asymmetry. PMID:26484617

  7. Surfactants selectively ablate enteric neurons of the rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Fox, D A; Epstein, M L; Bass, P

    1983-11-01

    Surfactants, a group of nonspecific membrane perturbating substances, can cause nerve damage. Various concentrations of the cationic surfactants benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and benzethonium chloride, the anionic surfactants sodium ricinoleate, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate and sodium lauryl sulfate and the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 were applied to the serosal surface of the rat jejunum every 5 min for 0.5 hr and then rinsed off with saline. Thirty days after surfactant application, the treated and an untreated segment of jejunum were removed and examined histologically. All surfactants which were tested significantly reduced the number of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus. In addition, sodium ricinoleate significantly reduced the number of ganglion cells in the submucosal plexus. Higher concentrations of the cationic agents BAC and benzethonium chloride caused a generalized tissue damage including disruption of the smooth muscle, lymphocytic infiltration, intestinal perforation and death. Using BAC as a prototype surfactant, peptidergic neuron distribution and gut electrical activity were examined. BAC treatment markedly reduced the immunoreactivity of somatostatin, substance P, met-enkephalin and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the myenteric plexus. In addition, the electric properties of the smooth muscle were altered. BAC treatment resulted in an erratic, markedly distorted basic electric rhythm and an alteration in spike potential generation. These studies demonstrate that surfactants in appropriate concentrations selectively ablate the myenteric neurons and alter peptidergic neuron distribution and gut electrical parameters in the rat jejunum. PMID:6195330

  8. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (SS-6656, Alfoterra 35, 38, 63,65,68) have been identified which can change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. All the carbonate surfaces (Lithographic Limestone, Marble, Dolomite and Calcite) show similar behavior with respect to wettability alteration with surfactant 4-22. Anionic surfactants (5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38 and Alfoterra-68), which lower the interfacial tension with a West Texas crude oil to very low values (<10{sup -2} nM/m), have also been identified. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability, mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  9. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  10. Use of an Acid-Base Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Grover; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Identifies several ways in which an acid-base table can provide students with information about chemical reactions. Cites examples of the chart's use and includes a table which indicates the strengths of some common acids and bases. (ML)

  11. Isolation of Surfactant-Resistant Bacteria from Natural, Surfactant-Rich Marine Habitats▿

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Craig J.; Coe, Kieran M.; Plante, Rebecca G.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental remediation efforts often utilize either biodegradative microbes or surfactants, but not in combination. Coupling both strategies holds the potential to dramatically increase the rate and extent of remediation because surfactants can enhance the bioavailability of contaminants to microbes. However, many surfactants permeabilize bacterial cell membranes and are effective disinfectants. An important goal then is to find or genetically modify microorganisms that possess both desirable degradative capabilities and the ability to thrive in the presence of surfactants. The guts of some marine invertebrates, particularly deposit feeders, have previously been shown to contain high levels of biosurfactants. Our primary aim was to mine these natural, surfactant-rich habitats for surfactant-resistant bacteria. Relative to sediment porewaters, the gut contents of two polychaete deposit feeders, Nereis succinea and Amphitrite ornata, exhibited a significantly higher ratio of bacteria resistant to both cationic and anionic surfactants. In contrast, bacteria in the gut fluids of a holothuroid, Leptosynapta tenuis, showed surfactant susceptibility similar to that of bacteria from sediments. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the majority of surfactant-resistant isolates were previously undescribed species of the genus Vibrio or were of a group most closely related to Spongiobacter spp. We also tested a subset of resistant bacteria for the production of biosurfactants. The majority did produce biosurfactants, as demonstrated via the oil-spreading method, but in all cases, production was relatively weak under the culture conditions employed. Novel surfactant-resistant, biosurfactant-producing bacteria, and the habitats from which they were isolated, provide a new source pool for potential microorganisms to be exploited in the in situ bioremediation of marine sediments. PMID:18586977

  12. Effect of surfactant types and their concentration on the structural characteristics of nanoclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawrah, M. F.; Khattab, R. M.; Saad, E. M.; Gado, R. A.

    2014-03-01

    A series of organo-modified nanoclays was synthesized using three different surfactants having different alkyl chain lengths and concentrations [0.5-5.0 cation exchange capacity (CEC)]. These surfactants were Ethanolamine (EA), Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB) and Tetraoctadecylammoniumbromide (TO). The obtained modified nanoclays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compared with unmodified nanoclay. The results of XRD analysis indicated that the basal d-spacing has increased with increasing alkyl chain length and surfactant concentration. From the obtained microstructures of these organo-modified nanoclays, the mechanism of surfactant adsorption was proposed. At relatively low loading of surfactant, most of surfactant entered the spacing by an ion-exchange mechanism and is adsorbed onto the interlayer cation sites. When the concentration of the surfactant exceeds the CEC of clay, the surfactant molecules then adhere to the surface adsorbed surfactant. Some surfactants entered the interlayers, whereas the others were attached to the clay surface. When the concentration of surfactant increased further beyond 2.0 CEC, the surfactants might occupy the inter-particle space within the house-of-cards aggregate structure.

  13. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  14. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  15. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  16. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of surfactants on silver electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Soncheng; Birke, R.L.; Lombardi, J.R. )

    1990-03-08

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been used to study different kinds of surfactants (cationic, anionic, and nonionic surfactants) adsorbed on a roughened Ag electrode. Spectral assignments are made for the SERS spectrum of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and it is shown that the molecule is oriented with its pyridinium ring end-on at the electrode surface at potentials positive to the point of zero charge (pzc) on Ag.

  17. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau

    2012-05-31

    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  18. Gemini surfactants affect the structure, stability, and activity of ribonuclease Sa.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Razieh; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Laurents, Douglas V

    2014-09-11

    Gemini surfactants have important advantages, e.g., low micromolar CMCs and slow millisecond monomer ↔ micelle kinetics, for membrane mimetics and for delivering nucleic acids for gene therapy or RNA silencing. However, as a prerequisite, it is important to characterize interactions occurring between Gemini surfactants and proteins. Here NMR and CD spectroscopies are employed to investigate the interactions of cationic Gemini surfactants with RNase Sa, a negatively charged ribonuclease. We find that RNase Sa binds Gemini surfactant monomers and micelles at pH values above 4 to form aggregates. Below pH 4, where the protein is positively charged, these aggregates dissolve and interactions are undetectable. Thermal denaturation experiments show that surfactant lowers RNase Sa's conformational stability, suggesting that surfactant binds the protein's denatured state preferentially. Finally, Gemini surfactants were found to bind RNA, leading to the formation of large complexes. Interestingly, Gemini surfactant binding did not prevent RNase Sa from cleaving RNA. PMID:25133582

  19. History of medical understanding and misunderstanding of Acid base balance.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-09-01

    To establish how controversies in understanding acid base balance arose, the literature on acid base balance was reviewed from 1909, when Henderson described how the neutral reaction of blood is determined by carbonic and organic acids being in equilibrium with an excess of mineral bases over mineral acids. From 1914 to 1930, Van Slyke and others established our acid base principles. They recognised that carbonic acid converts into bicarbonate all non-volatile mineral bases not bound by mineral acids and determined therefore that bicarbonate represents the alkaline reserve of the body and should be a physiological constant. They showed that standard bicarbonate is a good measure of acidosis caused by increased production or decreased elimination of organic acids. However, they recognised that bicarbonate improved low plasma bicarbonate but not high urine acid excretion in diabetic ketoacidosis, and that increasing pCO2 caused chloride to shift into cells raising plasma titratable alkali. Both indicate that minerals influence pH. In 1945 Darrow showed that hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis in preterm infants fed milk with 5.7 mmol of chloride and 2.0 mmol of sodium per 100 kcal was caused by retention of chloride in excess of sodium. Similar findings were made but not recognised in later studies of metabolic acidosis in preterm infants. Shohl in 1921 and Kildeberg in 1978 presented the theory that carbonic and organic acids are neutralised by mineral base, where mineral base is the excess of mineral cations over anions and organic acid is the difference between mineral base, bicarbonate and protein anion. The degree of metabolic acidosis measured as base excess is determined by deviation in both mineral base and organic acid from normal. PMID:24179938

  20. [Sorption and mechanism of surfactants on bentonite in combined pollution].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Hui; Lu, Ying-Ying; Chen, Shu-Guang; Li, Ling-Jian; Shen, Xue-You

    2007-04-01

    Sorption of cationic surfactant cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) on bentonite was studied. The influences of cation-exchange capacity (CEC), temperature and salinity on the sorption of CPC were also discussed. The results indicate that the sorption of CPC on Na-bentonite is greater than that of TX-100 and SDBS, and SDBS hardly shows any sorption. CPC is adsorbed to Na-bentonite through a combination of hydrophobic bonding and cation-exchange. While TX-100 is adsorbed to Na-bentonite via the formation of an adsorption layer of twain surfactant molecule and hydrogenolysis of silicon-oxygen surface of bentonite and TX-100. The amount of SDBS adsorbed on Ca-bentonite increases with increasing surfactant concentration, reaching a maximum at 1.5 critical micelle concentration (CMC), and then decreases with increasing surfactant loading. The mechanism of the retention appears to be formation of a sparingly soluble Ca-SDBS species, and dissolution in the micelle. The amount of CPC adsorbed on bentonite decreases with increasing temperature, and increases with increasing CEC. NaCl can enhance the sorption of CPC on bentonite. PMID:17639947

  1. Solution properties and electrospinning of phosphonium gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Sean T; Hudson, Amanda G; Allen, Michael H; Pole, Sandeep S; Moore, Robert B; Long, Timothy E

    2014-06-14

    Bis(diphenylphosphino)alkanes quantitatively react with excess 1-bromododecane to prepare novel phosphonium gemini surfactants with spacer lengths ranging from 2 to 4 methylenes (12-2/3/4-12P). Dodecyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DTPP), a monomeric surfactant analog, was readily water soluble, however, in sharp contrast, phosphonium gemini surfactants were poorly soluble in water due to two hydrophobic tails and relatively hydrophobic cationic head groups containing phenyl substituents. Isothermal titration calorimetry did not reveal a measurable critical micelle concentration for the 12-2-12P phosphonium gemini surfactant in water at 25 °C. Subsequent studies in 50/50 v/v water-methanol at 25 °C showed a CMC of 1.0 mM for 12-2-12P. All phosphonium gemini surfactants effectively complexed nucleic acids, but failed to deliver nucleic acids in vitro to HeLa cells. The solution behavior of phosphonium gemini surfactants was investigated in chloroform, which is an organic solvent where reverse micellar structures are favored. Solution rheology in chloroform explored the solution behavior of the phosphonium gemini surfactants compared to DTPP. The 12-2-12P and 12-3-12P gemini surfactants were successfully electrospun from chloroform to generate uniform fibers while 12-4-12P gemini surfactant and DTPP only electrosprayed to form droplets. PMID:24733359

  2. Washing of soils spiked with various pollutants by surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.C.C.; Chang, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    In this study, the batch-type of washing with surfactant solutions was employed for the treatment of soils artificially contaminated with various volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. 15 industrial grade surfactants were tested. Washing was conducing by adding surfactant solution to the soils and mixing for one hour, then centrifuging it and analyzing the supernatant. Deionized water was used for soil washing for comparison. Results indicated that deionized water performed as well as Surfactant No. 1 in washing VOC-contaminated soils. Therefore, it is concluded that the VOCs tested can be easily washed from soils by rain water. In washing PAH-contaminated soils, nonionic surfactants performed better than anionic surfactants in terms of removal efficiency. The amphoteric surfactant performed worst in washing PAH-contaminated soils. Generally, surfactants are useful in removing cadmium from soils, but are not useful for the removal of lead and copper. Amphoteric, anionic, and low pH cationic surfactants were the most effective of those tested. For PAH/heavy metals-contaminated soils, removal efficiencies were lower than that of soils containing a single contaminant.

  3. [Kidney, Fluid, and Acid-Base Balance].

    PubMed

    Shioji, Naohiro; Hayashi, Masao; Morimatsu, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Kidneys play an important role to maintain human homeostasis. They contribute to maintain body fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base balance. Especially in fluid control, we, physicians can intervene body fluid balance using fluid resuscitation and diuretics. In recent years, one type of fluid resuscitation, hydroxyl ethyl starch has been extensively studied in the field of intensive care. Although their effects on fluid resuscitation are reasonable, serious complications such as kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy occur frequently. Now we have to pay more attention to this important complication. Another topic of fluid management is tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist Recent randomized trial suggested that tolvaptan has a similar supportive effect for fluid control and more cost effective compared to carperitide. In recent years, Stewart approach is recognized as one important tool to assess acid-base balance in critically ill patients. This approach has great value, especially to understand metabolic components in acid-base balance. Even for assessing the effects of kidneys on acid-base balance, this approach gives us interesting insight. We should appropriately use this new approach to treat acid-base abnormality in critically ill patients. PMID:27319095

  4. Aqueous foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids: 1. Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Aqueous foam is a promising drilling fluid for geothermal wells because it will minimize damage to the producing formation and would eliminate the erosion problems of air drilling. Successful use of aqueous foam will require a high foaming surfactant which will: (1) be chemically stable in the harsh thermal and chemical environment, and (2) form stable foams at high temperatures and pressures. The procedures developed to generate and test aqueous foams and the effects of a 260/sup 0/C temperature cycle on aqueous surfactant solutions are presented. More than fifty selected surfactants were evaluated with representatives from the amphoteric, anionic, cationic, and nonionic classes included. Most surfactants were severely degraded by this temperature cycle; however, some showed excellent retention of their properties. The most promising surfactant types were the alkyl and alkyl aryl sulfonates and the ethoxylated nonionics.

  5. The removal of anionic surfactants from water in coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Jadwiga; Elektorowicz, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study on the effectiveness of the coagulation process in removing surfactants from water. The application of traditional coagulants (aluminium sulfate and iron chlorides) has not brought satisfactory results, the reduction in anionic surfactant (AS) content reached 7.6% and 10%, respectively. Adding cationic polyelectrolyte (Zetag-50) increased the removal efficiency to 24%. Coagulation using a polyelectrolyte alone proved to be more efficient, the reduction in surfactant content fluctuated at a level of about 50%. Complete surfactant removal was obtained when powdered activated carbon was added 5 minutes before the basic coagulant to the coagulation process. The efficiency of surfactant coagulation also increased after the application of powdered clinoptilolite, but to a smaller degree. Then the removal of AS was found to be improved by dosing powdered clinoptilolite simultaneously or with short delay after the addition of the basic coagulant. PMID:23837351

  6. Aqueous Gemini Surfactant Self-Assembly into Complex Lyotropic Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanthappa, Mahesh; Sorenson, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    In spite of the potentially wide-ranging applications of aqueous bicontinuous lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs), the discovery of amphiphiles that reliably form these non-constant mean curvature morphologies over large phase windows remains largely serendipitous. Recent work has established that cationic gemini surfactants exhibit a pronounced tendency to form bicontinuous cubic (e.g. gyroid) phases as compared to their parent single-tail amphiphiles. The universality of this phenomenon in other surfactant systems remains untested. In this paper, we will report the aqueous LLC phase behavior of a new class of anionic gemini surfactants derived from long chain carboxylic acids. Our studies show that these new surfactants favor the formation of non-constant mean curvature gyroid and primitive (``Plumber's Nightmare'') structures over amphiphile concentration windows up to 20 wt% wide. Based on these observations, we will discuss insights gained into the delicate force balance governing the self-assembly of these surfactants into aqueous bicontinuous LLCs.

  7. Spectroscopy Study of SWNT in Aqueous Solution With Different Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtsev, V. A.; Glamazda, A. Yu.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Leontiev, V. S.; Plokhotnichenko, A. M.; Roth, S.

    2003-10-01

    Aqueous solutions of HiPCO SWNT with different surfactants (anionic (SDS), cationic (CTAB) and non-ionic (Triton X-100)) have been studied by Raman and Near-infra-red (NIR) absorption spectroscopy. The nanotube interaction with surfactant leads to the spectral shift of lines and its intensity redistribution, compared with the spectrum of SWNT in KBr pellet. The most essential spectral changes are observed for nanotube aqueous solution with the surfactant containing a charge group. Two possible models of micelle formation around the nanotube are discussed.

  8. Peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence enhanced by oligophenylenevinylene fluorophores in the presence of various surfactants.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshiya, Jiro; Takigawa, Setsuko

    2014-11-01

    The effect of several surfactants on peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) using oligophenylenevinylene fluorophores was investigated. Among several oligophenylenevinylenes consisting of stilbene units, linearly conjugated ones, such as distyrylbenzene and distyrylstilbene, effectively enhanced PO-CL efficiency. Various effects of anionic, cationic, amphoteric and non-ionic surfactants on the CL efficiency of PO-CL were determined using three oxalates and the distyrylbenzene fluorophore. Anionic and non-ionic surfactants effectively enhanced CL efficiency, in contrast to the negative effect of cationic and amphoteric surfactants. Non-ionic surfactants were also effective in CL reactions of oxalates bearing dodecyl ester groups by the hydrophobic interaction between their alkyl chains. Considering these results, the surfactants not only increase the concentrations of water-insoluble interacting species in the hydrophobic micelle cores, but also control rapid degradation of the oxalates by alkaline hydrolysis. PMID:24425305

  9. When do water-insoluble polyion-surfactant ion complex salts "redissolve" by added excess surfactant?

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Salomé; Gustavsson, Charlotte; Gudmundsson, Christian; Linse, Per; Piculell, Lennart

    2011-01-18

    The redissolution of water-insoluble polyion-surfactant ion complexes by added excess of surfactant has systematically been investigated in experimental and theoretical phase equilibrium studies. A number of stoichiometric polyion-surfactant ion "complex salts" were synthesized and they consisted of akyltrimethylammonium surfactant ions of two different alkyl chain lengths (C(12)TA(+) and C(16)TA(+)) combined with homopolyions of polyacrylate of two different lengths (PA(-)(25) and PA(-)(6000)) or copolyions of acrylate and the slightly hydrophobic nonionic comonomers N-isopropylacrylamide (PA(-)-co-NIPAM) or N,N-dimethylacrylamide (PA(-)-co-DAM). The complex salts were mixed with water and excess alkyltrimethylammonium surfactant with either bromide or acetate counterions (C(n)TABr or C(n)TAAc). Factors promoting efficient redissolution were (i) very short polyions, (ii) a large fraction of NIPAM or DAM comonomers, and (iii) acetate, rather than bromide, as the surfactant counterion. Added C(12)TAAc gave an efficient redissolution of C(12)TAPA(25) but virtually no redissolution of C(12)TAPA(6000). A very efficient redissolution by added C(12)TAAc was obtained for PA(-)-co-NIPAM with 82 mol % of NIPAM. The C(12)TAPA-co-NIPAM/C(12)TAAc/H(2)O ternary phase diagram closely resembled the corresponding diagram for the much-studied pair cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose-(sodium) dodecyl sulfate. The simple Flory-Huggins theory adopted for polyelectrolyte systems successfully reproduced the main features of the experimental phase diagrams for the homopolyion systems, including the effect of the surfactant counterion. The efficient redissolution found for certain copolyion systems was explained by the formation of soluble polyion-surfactant ion complexes carrying an excess of surfactant ions through an additional hydrophobic attraction. PMID:21166446

  10. Absorption, fluorescence, and acid-base equilibria of rhodamines in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Obukhova, Elena N; Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A; Patsenker, Leonid D; Doroshenko, Andrey O; Marynin, Andriy I; Krasovitskii, Boris M

    2017-01-01

    Rhodamine dyes are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of science. The aim of this paper was to ascertain to what extent the structural peculiarities of the compounds influence their absorption, emission, and acid-base properties under unified conditions. The acid-base dissociation (HR(+)⇄R+H(+)) of a series of rhodamine dyes was studied in sodium n-dodecylsulfate micellar solutions. In this media, the form R exists as a zwitterion R(±). The indices of apparent ionization constants of fifteen rhodamine cations HR(+) with different substituents in the xanthene moiety vary within the range of pKa(app)=5.04 to 5.53. The distinct dependence of emission of rhodamines bound to micelles on pH of bulk water opens the possibility of using them as fluorescent interfacial acid-base indicators. PMID:27423469

  11. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Simulation studies indicate that both wettability alteration and gravity-driven flow play significant role in oil recovery from fractured carbonates. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover about 55% of the oil in about 150 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration and low tension in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 40% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Cationic surfactant, DTAB recovers about 35% of the oil. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  12. Sorption of a fluorescent whitening agent (Tinopal CBS) onto modified cellulose fibers in the presence of surfactants and salt.

    PubMed

    Iamazaki, Eduardo T; Atvars, Teresa D Z

    2007-12-18

    The combined effect of salt (10 mmol L(-1)) and surfactants on the sorption of the fluorescent brightener 4,4'-distyrylbiphenyl sodium sulfonate (Tinopal CBS) onto modified cellulose fibers was studied. Sorption efficiencies with both cationic and anionic surfactants were evaluated. Emission spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis since Tinopal has an intense fluorescence. The sorption efficiency of the brightener is greater for solutions containing a cationic surfactant (DTAC) below the critical micelle concentration (cmc), while for an anionic surfactant (SDS) above its cmc the efficiency is greater. The profile of the sorption isotherms were interpreted in terms of the evolution of surfactant aggregation at the fiber/solution interface. Salt influences the efficiency of the Tinopal sorption on the modified cellulose fibers either because it decreases the cmc of the surfactants or because the ions screen the surface charges of the fiber which decreases the electrostatic interaction among the charged headgroup of the surfactant and the charged fiber surface. PMID:18020381

  13. Surfactant effect on functionalized carbon nanotube coated snowman-like particles and their electro-responsive characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ke; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2012-10-15

    The core–shell structured snowman-like (SL) microparticles coated by functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) were prepared in the presence of different surfactants including cationic surfactant-cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic surfactant-sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS). The effect of surfactants on adsorption onto SL particles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and conductivity. The cationic surfactant is found to be more effective than anionic surfactant for helping nanotube adsorbed onto microparticle due to the presence of electrostatic interaction between the functionalized MWNT and the surfactant. Furthermore, the MWNT/SL particles dispersed in silicone oil exhibited a typical fibril structure of the electrorheological characteristics under an applied electric field observed by an optical microscope (OM), in which the state of nanotubes wrapped on the particles strongly affects their electro-responsive characteristics.

  14. Influence of Structure, Charge, and Concentration on the Pectin-Calcium-Surfactant Complexes.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nidhi; Rawat, Kamla; Bohidar, H B

    2016-05-12

    Polymer-surfactant complex formation of pectin with different types of surfactants, cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide, DTAB), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), and neutral (Triton X-100, TX-100), was investigated at room temperature in the presence and absence of cross-linker calcium chloride using light scattering, zeta potential, rheology, and UV-vis spectroscopic measurements where the surfactant concentration was maintained below their critical micellar concentration (CMC). Results indicated that the interaction of cationic surfactant with pectin in the presence and absence of calcium chloride was much stronger compared to anionic and neutral surfactants. The neutral surfactant showed identifiable interaction despite the absence of any charged headgroup, while anionic surfactant showed feeble or very weak interaction with the polymer. The pectin-CTAB or DTAB complex formation was attributed to associative electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. On comparison between the cationic surfactants, it was found that CTAB interacts strongly with pectin because of its long hydrocarbon chain. The morphology of complexes formed exhibited random coil structures while at higher concentration of surfactant, rod-like or extended random coil structures were noticed. Thus, functional characteristics of the complex could be tuned by varying the type of surfactant (charge and structure) and its concentration. The differential network rigidity (pectin-CTAB versus pectin-DTAB gels) obtained from rheology measurements showed that addition of a very small amount of surfactant (concentration ≪ CMC) was required for enhancing network strength, while the presence of a large amount of surfactant resulted in the formation of fragile gels. No gel formation occurred when the surfactant concentration was close to their CMC values. Considering the importance of pectin in food and pharmaceutical industry, this study is relevant

  15. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

  16. Effect of polymer-surfactant association on colloidal force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, John; Jaykumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, Baldev; Mondain-Monval, O.

    2002-07-01

    We investigate the forces between emulsion droplets in the presence of neutral polymer-surfactant complexes. The polymer used in our experiment was statistical copolymer of polyvinyl alcohol. The anionic surfactant used is sodiumdodecyl sulphate, the cationic surfactants are cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and the nonionic surfactant is nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP10). It has been found that the force profiles in the presence of surfactant-polymer complexes follow an exponential scaling with a characteristic decay length, close to the radius of gyration of the polymer alone. A continuous increase in the onset of repulsion is observed in the case of all three ionic surfactants, whereas no such variation was noticed in the case of nonionic surfactant, NP10. The experimental observations suggest that in the presence of charged surfactant molecules or micelles, the neutral polymer chain at the interface is converted into partial polyelectrolytes, where the charges on the chain repel each other and the electrostatic repulsion collectively leads to chain stretching. These results suggest that the associative polymers can be potential candidates for making the emulsions stable for a sufficiently long period.

  17. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Santer, Svetlana

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes' properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate - for the first time - complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules. PMID:25669583

  18. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes’ properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate – for the first time – complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules.

  19. A novel biosensor method for surfactant determination based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherenko, I. S.; Soldatkin, O. O.; Arkhypova, V. M.; Dzyadevych, S. V.; Soldatkin, A. P.

    2012-06-01

    A novel enzyme biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition for the determination of surfactants in aqueous solutions is described. Acetylcholinesterase-based bioselective element was deposited via glutaraldehyde on the surface of conductometric transducers. Different variants of inhibitory analysis of surfactants were tested, and finally surfactant's concentration was evaluated by measuring initial rate of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Besides, we studied the effect of solution characteristics on working parameters of the biosensor for direct measurement of acetylcholine and for inhibitory determination of surfactants. The biosensor's sensitivity to anionic and cationic surfactants (0.35 mg l-1) was tested. The high operational stability of the biosensor during determination of acetylcholine (RSD 2%) and surfactants (RSD 11%) was shown. Finally, we discussed the selectivity of the biosensor toward surfactants and other AChE inhibitors. The proposed biosensor can be used as a component of the multibiosensor for ecological monitoring of toxicants.

  20. The role of acid-base effects on particle charging in apolar media.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew Michael; Berg, John C

    2015-06-01

    The creation and stabilization of electric charge in apolar environments (dielectric constant≈2) have been an area of interest dating back to when an explanation was sought for the occurrence of what are now known as electrokinetic explosions during the pumping of fuels. More recently attention has focused on the charging of suspended particles in such media, underlying such applications as electrophoretic displays (e.g., the Amazon Kindle® reader) and new printing devices (e.g., the HP Indigo® Digital Press). The endeavor has been challenging owing to the complexity of the systems involved and the large number of factors that appear to be important. A number of different, and sometimes conflicting, theories for particle surface charging have been advanced, but most observations obtained in the authors' laboratory, as well as others, appear to be explainable in terms of an acid-base mechanism. Adducts formed between chemical functional groups on the particle surface and monomers of reverse micelle-forming surfactants dissociate, leaving charged groups on the surface, while the counter-charges formed are sequestered in the reverse micelles. For a series of mineral oxides in a given medium with a given surfactant, surface charging (as quantified by the maximum electrophoretic mobility or zeta potential obtained as surfactant concentration is varied) was found to scale linearly with the aqueous PZC (or IEP) values of the oxides. Different surfactants, with the same oxide series, yielded similar behavior, but with different PZC crossover points between negative and positive particle charging, and different slopes of charge vs. PZC. Thus the oxide series could be used as a yardstick to characterize the acid-base properties of the surfactants. This has led directly to the study of other materials, including surface-modified oxides, carbon blacks, pigments (charge transfer complexes), and polymer latices. This review focuses on the acid-base mechanism of particle

  1. Adsorptive bubble separation of zinc and cadmium cations in presence of ferric and aluminum hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Kazimierz

    2005-06-15

    The adsorptive bubble separation of zinc and cadmium cations from solution in the presence of ferric and aluminum hydroxides was carried out by means of Tween 80 (nonionic surfactant), and sodium laurate and stearate (anionic surfactants). The mechanism of metal removal is different depending on the nature of the surfactant used. The removal of zinc cations by adsorbing colloid flotation is higher than that of cadmium cations. It increases with increases in the amount of hydroxide precipitate and the concentration of Tween 80. The removal of zinc cations by ion flotation is lower than that of cadmium cations. It does not change with increases in the hydroxide amount. It increases, however, with increased sodium laurate or stearate concentration. Both separation methods turned out to be helpful for studying both the solution's structure and the interactions at the solution-solid interface. PMID:15897071

  2. Gaseous protein cations are amphoteric

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, J.L. Jr.; McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-02-19

    Singly- and multiply-protonated ubiquitin molecules are found to react with iodide anions, and certain other anions, by attachment of the anion, in competition with proton transfer to the anion. The resulting adduct ions are relatively weakly bound and dissociate upon collisional activation by loss of the neutral acid derived from the anion. Adduct ions that behave similarly can also be formed via ion/molecule reactions involving the neutral acid. The ion/molecule reaction phenomenology, however, stands in contrast with that expected based on the reaction site(s) being charged. Reaction rates increase inversely with charge state and the total number of neutral molecules that add to the protein cations increases inversely with cation charge. These observations are inconsistent with the formation of proton-bound clusters but are fully consistent with the formation of ion pairs or dipole/dipole bonding involving the neutral acid and neutral basic sites in the protein. The ion/ion reactions can be interpreted on the basis of conjugate acid/base chemistry in which the anion, which is a strong gaseous base, reacts with a protonated site, which is a strong gaseous acid. Adduct ions can also be formed via ion/molecule reaction which, on the basis of microscopic reversibility, implies that the neutral acid interacts with neutral basic sites on the protein cation. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A Function of Lung Surfactant Protein SP-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, M. L.; Bisagno, A. M.; Zasadzinski, J. A. N.; Bruni, R.; Waring, A. J.

    1993-07-01

    The primary function of lung surfactant is to form monolayers at the alveolar interface capable of lowering the normal surface tension to near zero. To accomplish this process, the surfactant must be capable of maintaining a coherent, tightly packed monolayer that avoids collapse during expiration. The positively charged amino-terminal peptide SP-B1-25 of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B increases the collapse pressure of an important component of lung surfactant, palmitic acid (PA), to nearly 70 millinewtons per meter. This alteration of the PA isotherms removes the driving force for "squeeze-out" of the fatty acids from the primarily dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of lung surfactant. An uncharged mutant of SP-B1-25 induced little change in the isotherms, suggesting that a specific charge interaction between the cationic peptide and the anionic lipid is responsible for the stabilization. The effect of SP-B1-25 on fatty acid isotherms is remarkably similar to that of simple poly-cations, suggesting that such polymers might be useful as components of replacement surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

  4. Towards unravelling surfactant transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellier, Mathieu; Panda, Satyananda

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant transport arises in many natural or industrial settings. Examples include lipid tear layers in the eye, pulmonary surfactant replacement therapy, or industrial coating flows. Flows driven by the surface tension gradient which arises as a consequence of surfactant concentration inhomogeneity, also known as Marangoni-driven flows, have attracted the attention of fluid dynamists for several decades and has led to the development of sophisticated models and the undeniable advancement of the understanding of such flows. Yet, experimental confirmation of these models has been hampered by the difficulty in reliably and accurately measuring the surfactant concentration and its temporal evolution. In this contribution, we propose a methodology which may help shed some light on surfactant transport at the surface of thin liquid films. The surface stress induced by surfactant concentration induces a flow at the free surface which is visible and measurable. In the context of thin film flows for which the lubrication approximation hold, we demonstrate how the knowledge of this free surface flow field provides sufficient information to reconstruct the surfactant tension field. From the surface tension and an assumed equation of state, the local surfactant concentration can also be calculated and other transport parameters such as the surfactant surface diffusivity indirectly inferred. In this contribution, the proposed methodology is tested with synthetic data generated by the forward solution of the governing partial differential equations in order to illustrate the feasibility of the algorithm and highlight numerical challenges.

  5. Biomimetic Approach for Ion Channels Based on Surfactant Encapsulated Spherical Porous Metal-Oxide Capsules.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Eugene; Garai, Somenath; Müller, Achim; Barboiu, Mihail

    2015-09-16

    Distinguished hybrid clusters with hydrophilic and hydrophobic interiors embedded within cationic surfactant shells are spontaneously inserted into lipid bilayers, showing well-defined ionic conductance behaviors. The transport via the narrow pore gates acting as selectivity filters is controlled by the dehydration energy of the cations. PMID:26248195

  6. Genetics Home Reference: surfactant dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions surfactant dysfunction surfactant dysfunction Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Surfactant dysfunction is a lung disorder that causes breathing ...

  7. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  8. Treating chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater by electro-coagulation-flotation process with surfactant.

    PubMed

    Hu, C Y; Lo, S L; Li, C M; Kuan, W H

    2005-04-11

    The effect of surfactants on the treatment of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) process was studied. Two surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) were employed in this study to compare the effect of cationic (CTAB) and anodic (SDS) surfactants on ECF. The cationic surfactant can enhance the removal of the turbidity, but anodic surfactant cannot. It can be explained by the hetero-coagulation theory. Moreover, the addition of CTAB in CMP wastewater can reduce the sludge volume and the flotation/sedimentation time in ECF process. The residual turbidity and dissolved silicon dropped with the increase of charge loading. No CTAB pollution problem exists after the ECF process. PMID:15811659

  9. Effect of monovalent salt on the conformation of polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, A.; Kuhn, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    We study the conformation of polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes in the presence of monovalent salt. A simple model for the formation of these structures is presented in the framework of the Debye-Hückel-Bjerrum-Manning and Flory theories, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrocarbon tails of surfactant molecules treated in the spirit of van der Waals theory as an effective attraction. The extension of the polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes is analyzed as a function of the salt concentration and a discrete conformational transition between a compact globule and an elongated coil is found, in agreement with experimental results for the unfolding transition of a DNA-cationic surfactant complex.

  10. Potential irritation of lysine derivative surfactants by hemolysis and HaCaT cell viability.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, L; Mitjans, M; Infante, M R; Vinardell, M P

    2006-02-01

    Surfactants represent one of the most common constituents in topical pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications or cleansers. Since adverse skin and ocular reactions can be caused by them, it is important to evaluate damaging effects. Amino acid-based surfactants deserve particular attention because of their low toxicity and environmental friendly properties. New lysine derivative surfactants associated with heavy and light counterions were tested. The ocular irritancy was assessed by hemolysis, and photohemolysis was employed to evaluate their phototoxicity. Cytotoxicity on HaCaT cells was determined by neutral red uptake and MTT assay to predict skin irritation. All lysine derivative surfactants were less hemolytic and thus less eye-irritating than the commercial surfactants used as model irritants. No phototoxic effects were found. All surfactants presented cytotoxic effects as demonstrated by decrease of neutral red uptake and reduction of MTT salt, with clear concentration-effect profiles. However, the rates of cytotoxicity on HaCaT for the new surfactants suggested that they were less cytotoxic and then, less skin-irritating than the reference ones; surfactants with heavy counterions were the less cytotoxic. The anionic surfactants investigated in the present work may constitute a promising class of surfactants given their low irritancy potential for pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:16135402

  11. Deciphering the role of charge, hydration, and hydrophobicity for cytotoxic activities and membrane interactions of bile acid based facial amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manish; Singh, Ashima; Kundu, Somanath; Bansal, Sandhya; Bajaj, Avinash

    2013-08-01

    We synthesized four cationic bile acid based facial amphiphiles featuring trimethyl ammonium head groups. We evaluated the role of these amphiphiles for cytotoxic activities against colon cancer cells and their membrane interactions by varying charge, hydration and hydrophobicity. The singly charged cationic Lithocholic acid based amphiphile (LCA-TMA1) is most cytotoxic, whereas the triply charged cationic Cholic acid based amphiphile (CA-TMA3) is least cytotoxic. Light microscopy and Annexin-FITC assay revealed that these facial amphiphiles caused late apoptosis. In addition, we studied the interactions of these amphiphiles with model membrane systems by Prodan-based hydration, DPH-based anisotropy, and differential scanning calorimetry. LCA-TMA1 is most hydrophobic with a hard charge causing efficient dehydration and maximum perturbations of membranes thereby facilitating translocation and high cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells. In contrast, the highly hydrated and multiple charged CA-TMA3 caused least membrane perturbations leading to low translocation and less cytotoxicity. As expected, Chenodeoxycholic acid and Deoxycholic acid based amphiphiles (CDCA-TMA2, DCA-TMA2) featuring two charged head groups showed intermediate behavior. Thus, we deciphered that charge, hydration, and hydrophobicity of these amphiphiles govern membrane interactions, translocation, and resulting cytoxicity against colon cancer cells. PMID:23590996

  12. Determination of surfactants by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Heinig, K; Vogt, C

    1999-10-01

    Capillary electrophoresis has been increasingly used during the past few years for the separation and determination of surfactants. These substances are applied in many household and industrial products such as laundry detergents, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, often as homologous and isomeric mixtures. Product development and control as well as toxicological and environmental analyses require selective and sensitive analytical methods. This review presents capillary electrophoretic techniques to determine important representatives of cationic, anionic, and neutral surfactants. The application of different buffer additives such as organic solvents, cyclodextrins or micelles to enhance the resolution of complex mixtures is discussed. Besides direct and indirect UV and fluorescence detection, examples for conductivity and mass spectrometric detection are also given. Derivatization procedures to improve the detectability and implement charge in neutral analytes are described. The successful use of capillary electrophoresis for surfactant determinations has proven that it can serve as a routine technique in many real-world applications. Robust, validated methods for the quantitation of single compounds, such as alkylbenzene sulfonates, sodium dodecyl sulfate and benzalkonium salts, are now available. Characteristic peak patterns (fingerprint analysis) can be used for the identification of surfactants in multicomponent formulations (e.g. ethoxylates and phosphonates). PMID:10596832

  13. Surfactants treatment of crude oil contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Urum, Kingsley; Pekdemir, Turgay; Copur, Mehmet

    2004-08-15

    This study reports experimental measurements investigating the ability of a biological (rhamnolipid) and a synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) surfactant to remove the North Sea Ekofisk crude oil from various soils with different particle size fractions under varying washing conditions. The washing parameters and ranges tested were as follows: temperature (5 to 50 degrees C), time (5 to 20 min), shaking speed (80 to 200 strokes/min), volume (5 to 20 cm3), and surfactant concentration (0.004 to 5 mass%). The contaminated soils were prepared in the laboratory by mixing crude oil and soils using a rotating cylindrical mixer. Two contamination cases were considered: (1) weathered contamination was simulated by keeping freshly contaminated soils in a fan assisted oven at 50 degrees C for 14 days, mimicking the weathering effect in a natural hot environment, and (2) nonweathered contamination which was not subjected to the oven treatment. The surfactants were found to have considerable potential in removing crude oil from different contaminated soils and the results were comparable with those reported in literature for petroleum hydrocarbons. The removal of crude oil with either rhamnolipid or SDS was within the repeatability range of +/-6%. The most influential parameters on oil removal were surfactant concentration and washing temperature. The soil cation exchange capacity and pH also influenced the removal of crude oil from the individual soils. However, due to the binding of crude oil to soil during weathering, low crude oil removal was achieved with the weathered contaminated soil samples. PMID:15271574

  14. Photosensitive surfactants: Micellization and interaction with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Roxlau, Julian; Brezesinski, Gerald; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, photosensitive surfactants have re-attracted considerable attention. It has been shown that their association with oppositely charged biologically important polyelectrolytes, such as DNA or microgels, can be efficiently manipulated simply by light exposure. In this article, we investigate the self-assembly of photosensitive surfactants as well as their interactions with DNA by calorimetric and spectroscopic methods. Critical micelle concentration (CMC), standard micellization enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy were determined in different conditions (ionic strengths and temperatures) for a series of cationic surfactants with an azobenzene group in their tail. It is shown, that aggregation forces of photosensitive units play an important role in the micellization giving the major contribution to the micellization enthalpy. The onset of the aggregation can be traced from shift of the absorption peak position in the UV-visible spectrum. Titration UV-visible spectroscopy is used as an alternative, simple, and sensitive approach to estimate CMC. The titration UV-visible spectroscopy was also employed to investigate interactions (CAC: critical aggregation concentration, precipitation, and colloidal stabilization) in the DNA-surfactant complex.

  15. SURFACTANTS AND SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the limitations of pump-and-trat technology, attention is now focused on the feasibility of surfactant use to increase its efficiency. Surfactants have been studied for use in soil washing and enhanced oil recovery. Although similarities exist between the application...

  16. SURFACTANTS IN LUBRICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surfactants are one of the most widely applied materials by consumers and industry. The application areas for surfactants span from everyday mundane tasks such as cleaning, to highly complex processes involving the formulation of pharmaceuticals, foods, pesticides, lubricants, etc. Even though sur...

  17. Advances in reactive surfactants.

    PubMed

    Guyot, A

    2004-05-20

    The study of reactive surfactants and their applications in the synthesis of latexes for waterborne coatings has been recently boosted by two successive European programmes, involving all together eight academic and five industrial laboratories. The most significant results were obtained using surfactants derived from maleic and related anhydrides, or both nonionic and anionic reactive polymeric surfactants. Such surfactants are able to improve the stability of styrenic and acrylic latexes vs. various constraints, such as electrolyte addition, freeze-thawing tests or extraction with alcohol or acetone. The properties of films used in waterborne coatings are also improved in case of water exposure (less water uptake, dimensional stability), as well as improved weatherability, and blocking properties. Formulations for woodstain varnishes, metal coating of printing inks, based on the use of simple polymerizable surfactants, are now in the market. PMID:15072924

  18. Mechanistic study of wettability alteration of oil-wet sandstone surface using different surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Bao-feng; Wang, Ye-fei; Huang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Different analytical methods including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential measurements, contact angle measurements and spontaneous imbibition tests were utilized to make clear the mechanism for wettability alteration of oil-wet sandstone surface using different surfactants. Results show that among three types of surfactants including cationic surfactants, anionic surfactants and nonionic surfactants, the cationic surfactant CTAB demonstrates the best effect on the wettability alteration of oil-wet sandstone surface. The positively charged head groups of CTAB molecules and carboxylic acid groups from crude oil could interact to form ion pairs, which could be desorbed from the solid surface and solubilized into the micelle formed by CTAB. Thus, the water-wetness of the solid surface is improved. Nonionic surfactant TX-100 could be adsorbed on oil-wet sandstone surface through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interaction to alter the wettability of oil-wet solid surface. The wettability alteration of oil-wet sandstone surface using the anionic surfactant POE(1) is caused by hydrophobic interaction. Due to the electrostatic repulsion between the anionic surfactant and the negatively charged surface, POE(1) shows less effect on the wettability alteration of oil-wet sandstone surface.

  19. Modeling Aggregation of Ionic Surfactants Using a Smeared Charge Approximation in Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Runfang; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2015-09-01

    Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, we explore the specifics of micellization in the solutions of anionic and cationic surfactants and their mixtures. Anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) are chosen as characteristic examples. Coarse-grained models of the surfactants are constructed and parameterized using a combination of atomistic molecular simulation and infinite dilution activity coefficient calibration. Electrostatic interactions of charged beads are treated using a smeared charge approximation: the surfactant heads and dissociated counterions are modeled as beads with charges distributed around the bead center in an implicit dielectric medium. The proposed models semiquantitatively describe self-assembly in solutions of SDS and CTAB at various surfactant concentrations and molarities of added electrolyte. In particular, the model predicts a decline in the free surfactant concentration with the increase of the total surfactant loading, as well as characteristic aggregation transitions in single-component surfactant solutions caused by the addition of salt. The calculated values of the critical micelle concentration reasonably agree with experimental observations. Modeling of catanionic SDS-CTAB mixtures show consecutive transitions to worm-like micelles and then to vesicles caused by the addition of CTAB to micellar solution of SDS. PMID:26241704

  20. Magnetic Surfactants and Polymers with Gadolinium Counterions for Protein Separations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul; Bromberg, Lev; Rial-Hermida, M Isabel; Wasbrough, Matthew; Hatton, T Alan; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2016-01-26

    New magnetic surfactants, (cationic hexadecyltrimethlyammonium bromotrichlorogadolinate (CTAG), decyltrimethylammonium bromotrichlorogadolinate (DTAG), and a magnetic polymer (poly(3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium tetrachlorogadolinate (APTAG)) have been synthesized by the simple mixing of the corresponding surfactants and polymer with gadolinium metal ions. A magnetic anionic surfactant, gadolinium tri(1,4-bis(2-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-dioxobutane-2-sulfonate) (Gd(AOT)3), was synthesized via metathesis. Both routes enable facile preparation of magnetically responsive magnetic polymers and surfactants without the need to rely on nanocomposites or organic frameworks with polyradicals. Electrical conductivity, surface tensiometry, SQUID magnetometry, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) demonstrate surface activity and self-aggregation behavior of the magnetic surfactants similar to their magnetically inert parent analogues but with added magnetic properties. The binding of the magnetic surfactants to proteins enables efficient separations under low-strength (0.33 T) magnetic fields in a new, nanoparticle-free approach to magnetophoretic protein separations and extractions. Importantly, the toxicity of the magnetic surfactants and polymers is, in some cases, lower than that of their halide analogues. PMID:26725503

  1. Interfacial layers of complex-forming ionic surfactants with gelatin.

    PubMed

    Derkach, Svetlana R

    2015-08-01

    This review is devoted to discussing the results of studies of the influence of low-molecular weight surfactant additions on the composition and properties of gelatin adsorbed layers which are spontaneously created at water/air and water/non-polar-liquid interfaces. The interaction of surfactant with gelatin leads to the formation of complexes of variable content in the bulk of the aqueous phase. The composition content is determined by the component ratio and concentration of the added surfactant. The role of surfactants (anionic, cationic, non-ionic) capable of forming complexes with gelatin due to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions is considered. Analysis of the interfacial layer properties is based on literature information, as well as the own author's data. These data include the results of measuring thermodynamic properties (interface tension), laws of formation (adsorption kinetics and thickness), and rheological properties of the layers, which are considered to be dependent on gelatin and surfactant concentration, pH, and temperature. The evolution of the interfacial layers' properties (with increasing surfactant concentration) is discussed in connection with the properties and content of gelatin-surfactant complexes appearing in the aqueous phase. Such an approach allows us to explain the main peculiarities of the layers' behavior including their stabilizing activity in relation to bilateral foam and emulsion films. PMID:24970019

  2. Effects of Surfactants on Chlorobenzene Absorption on Pyrite Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, P. T.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.; Hara, J.

    2007-03-01

    Recently, both surfactant extraction of chlorinated compounds from contaminated soils and chemical reduction of chlorinated compounds by pyrite have had received a lot of attention. The reaction of the natural mineral pyrite was found as a surface controlling process which strongly depends on absorption of contaminants on the surface. Surfactants were not only aggregated into micelle which increase solubility of hydrophobic compounds but also tend to absorb on the solid surface. This study investigated effects of different kinds of Surfactants on absorption of chlorobenzene on pyrite surface in order to identify coupling potential of surfactant application and remediation by pyrite. Surfactants used including non-ionic, anionic and cationic which were Polyoxyethylene (23) Lauryl Ether (Brij35), Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Cetyl TrimethylAmmonium Bromide (CTAB) respectively were investigated with a wide range of surfactant concentration up to 4 times of each critical micelle concentration (CMC). Chlorobenzene was chosen as a representative compound. The enhancement or competition effects of Surfactants on absorption were discussed.

  3. The interfacial interactions of Tb-doped silica nanoparticles with surfactants and phospholipids revealed through the fluorescent response.

    PubMed

    Bochkova, Olga D; Mustafina, Asiya R; Mukhametshina, Alsu R; Burilov, Vladimir A; Skripacheva, Viktoriya V; Zakharova, Lucia Ya; Fedorenko, Svetlana V; Konovalov, Alexander I; Soloveva, Svetlana E; Antipin, Igor S

    2012-04-01

    The quenching effect of dyes (phenol red and bromothymol blue) on Tb(III)-centered luminescence enables to sense the aggregation of cationic and anionic surfactants near the silica surface of Tb-doped silica nanoparticles (SN) in aqueous solutions. The Tb-centered luminescence of non-decorated SNs is diminished by the inner filter effect of both dyes. The decoration of the silica surface by cationic surfactants induces the quenching through the energy transfer between silica coated Tb(III) complexes and dye anions inserted into surfactant aggregates. Thus the distribution of surfactants aggregates at the silica/water interface and in the bulk of solution greatly affects dynamic quenching efficiency. The displacement of dye anions from the interfacial surfactant adlayer by anionic surfactants and phospholipids is accompanied by the "off-on" switching of Tb(III)-centered luminescence. PMID:22209651

  4. Mathematical modeling of acid-base physiology

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F.

    2015-01-01

    pH is one of the most important parameters in life, influencing virtually every biological process at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body level. Thus, for cells, it is critical to regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and, for multicellular organisms, to regulate extracellular pH (pHo). pHi regulation depends on the opposing actions of plasma-membrane transporters that tend to increase pHi, and others that tend to decrease pHi. In addition, passive fluxes of uncharged species (e.g., CO2, NH3) and charged species (e.g., HCO3− , NH4+) perturb pHi. These movements not only influence one another, but also perturb the equilibria of a multitude of intracellular and extracellular buffers. Thus, even at the level of a single cell, perturbations in acid-base reactions, diffusion, and transport are so complex that it is impossible to understand them without a quantitative model. Here we summarize some mathematical models developed to shed light onto the complex interconnected events triggered by acids-base movements. We then describe a mathematical model of a spherical cell–which to our knowledge is the first one capable of handling a multitude of buffer reaction–that our team has recently developed to simulate changes in pHi and pHo caused by movements of acid-base equivalents across the plasma membrane of a Xenopus oocyte. Finally, we extend our work to a consideration of the effects of simultaneous CO2 and HCO3− influx into a cell, and envision how future models might extend to other cell types (e.g., erythrocytes) or tissues (e.g., renal proximal-tubule epithelium) important for whole-body pH homeostasis. PMID:25617697

  5. Surfactant controlled synthesis of crystalline phosphovanadate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Asnani, Minakshi; Thomas, Jency; Sen, Prasenjit; Ramanan, Arunachalam . E-mail: aramanan@chemistry.iitd.ac.in

    2007-04-12

    Phosphovanadate nanorods were obtained in a reaction of vanadium (V) oxide as a precursor and a cationic surfactant, dodecylpyridinium chloride, as structure directing template at pH {approx}3 at room temperature. The composition and morphology of the nanorods was established by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The obtained nanorods have diameters of 40-60 nm with lengths up to 1 {mu}m. The effect of reaction parameters such as concentration of surfactant and pH of the solution on the growth of nanorods has been investigated. A plausible mechanism involving the coalescence of nanoparticle 'seeds' leading to one-dimensional nanorods is also discussed. The same reaction when performed under hydrothermal condition, keeping other reaction parameters unchanged, resulted in the formation of phosphovanadate nanospheres of diameter 10-15 nm.

  6. Potential use of ascorbic acid-based surfactants as skin penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Palma, S D; Maletto, B; Lo Nostro, P; Manzo, R H; Pistoresi-Palencia, M C; Allemandi, D A

    2006-08-01

    6-O-Ascorbic acid alkanoates (ASCn) are amphiphilic molecules having physical-chemical properties that depend on the alkyl chain length. The derivatives of low molecular weight (n < 11) have enough aqueous solubility to produce self-assemblies at room temperature ( approximately 25 degrees C), while those with longer alkyl chains possess a critical micellar temperature (CMT) higher than 30 degrees C. At higher temperatures (T degrees > CMT), ASCn aqueous suspensions turn into either micellar solutions or gel phases, depending on the length of the hydrophobic chain. On cooling, coagels are produced, which possess a lamellar structure that exhibit sharp X-ray diffraction patterns and optical birefringence. The semisolid consistency of such coagels is an interesting property to formulate dermatological pharmaceutical dosage forms able to solubilize and stabilize different drugs. The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the enhancing permeation effect of ASCn with different chain lengths and to correlate permeability changes with histological effects. With this purpose, ASCn coagels containing anthralin (antipsoriasic drug) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, hydrophobic fluorescent marker) were assayed on rat skin (ex vivo) and mice skin (in vivo), respectively. Also, histological studies were performed aimed at detecting some possible side effects of ASCn. No inflammatory cellular response was observed in the skin when ASCn coagels were applied, suggesting non-irritating properties. Light microscopy indicated slight disruption and fragmentation of stratum corneum. The penetration of ASCn through rat skin epidermis was very fast and quantitatively significant. The permeation of anthralin was significantly increased when the drug was vehiculized in ASCn coagels, compared to other pharmaceutical systems. The results indicated that ASC12 seems to have the highest enhancing effect on FITC permeation. ASC12 appears to be the compound that possesses the highest capacity to enhance the penetration of the drugs. Furthermore, it has the highest permeation of the serie. PMID:16908419

  7. Teaching Acid/Base Physiology in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friis, Ulla G.; Plovsing, Ronni; Hansen, Klaus; Laursen, Bent G.; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    Acid/base homeostasis is one of the most difficult subdisciplines of physiology for medical students to master. A different approach, where theory and practice are linked, might help students develop a deeper understanding of acid/base homeostasis. We therefore set out to develop a laboratory exercise in acid/base physiology that would provide…

  8. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  9. Metathesis depolymerizable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    Jamison, Gregory M.; Wheeler, David R.; Loy, Douglas A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Long, Timothy M.; McElhanon, James R.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Staiger, Chad L.

    2008-04-15

    A class of surfactant molecules whose structure includes regularly spaced unsaturation in the tail group and thus, can be readily decomposed by ring-closing metathesis, and particularly by the action of a transition metal catalyst, to form small molecule products. These small molecules are designed to have increased volatility and/or enhanced solubility as compared to the original surfactant molecule and are thus easily removed by solvent extraction or vacuum extraction at low temperature. By producing easily removable decomposition products, the surfactant molecules become particularly desirable as template structures for preparing meso- and microstructural materials with tailored properties.

  10. Controlling colloid charge in nonpolar liquids with surfactants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory N; Eastoe, Julian

    2013-01-14

    The formation of ions in nonpolar solvents (with relative permittivity ε(r) of approximately 2) is more difficult than in polar liquids; however, these charged species play an important role in many applications, such as electrophoretic displays. The low relative permittivities of these solvents mean that charges have to be separated by large distances to be stable (approximately 28 nm or 40 times that in water). The inverse micelles formed by surfactants in these solvents provide an environment to stabilize ions and charges. Common surfactants used are sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT or AOT), polyisobutylene succinimide, sorbitan oleate, and zirconyl 2-ethyl hexanoate. The behavior of charged inverse micelles has been studied on both the bulk and on the microscopic scale and can be used to determine the motion of the micelles, their structure, and the nature of the electrostatic double layer. Colloidal particles are only weakly charged in the absence of surfactant, but in the presence of surfactants, many types, including polymers, metal oxides, carbon blacks, and pigments, have been observed to become positively or negatively charged. Several mechanisms have been proposed as the origin of surface charge, including acid-base reactions between the colloid and the inverse micelle, preferential adsorption of charged inverse micelles, or dissolution of surface species. While most studies vary only the concentration of surfactant, systematic variation of the particle surface chemistry or the surfactant structure have provided insight into the origin of charging in nonpolar liquids. By carefully varying system parameters and working to understand the interactions between surfactants and colloidal surfaces, further advances will be made leading to better understanding of the origin of charge and to the development of more effective surfactants. PMID:23187453

  11. Adsorption of surfactants on sand surface in enhanced oil recovery: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Achinta; Kumar, T.; Ojha, Keka; Mandal, Ajay

    2013-11-01

    Adsorption of surfactants onto reservoir rock surface may result in the loss and reduction of their concentrations in surfactant flooding, which may render them less efficient or ineffective in practical applications of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Surfactant flooding for EOR received attraction due to its ability to increase the displacement efficiency by lowering the interfacial tension between oil and water and mobilizing the residual oil. This article highlights the adsorption of surfactants onto sand surface with variation of different influencing factors. It has been experimentally found that adsorption of cationic surfactant on sand surface is more and less for anionic surfactant, while non-ionic surfactant shows intermediate behaviour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of clean sand particles has been made to determine the main component present in the sand particles. The interaction between sand particles and surfactant has been studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the sand particles before and after aging with surfactant. Salinity plays an important role in adsorption of anionic surfactant. Batch experiments were also performed to understand the effects of pH and adsorbent dose on the sorption efficiency. The sand particles exhibited high adsorption efficiency at low pH for anionic and nonionic surfactants. But opposite trend was found for cationic surfactant. Adsorption data were analyzed by fitting with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips isotherm models. Results show that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics models suit the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption on sand surface. Thermodynamics feasibility of the adsorption process was also studied to verify the spontaneity of the process.

  12. Essentials in the diagnosis of acid-base disorders and their high altitude application.

    PubMed

    Paulev, P E; Zubieta-Calleja, G R

    2005-09-01

    This report describes the historical development in the clinical application of chemical variables for the interpretation of acid-base disturbances. The pH concept was already introduced in 1909. Following World War II, disagreements concerning the definition of acids and bases occurred, and since then two strategies have been competing. Danish scientists in 1923 defined an acid as a substance able to give off a proton at a given pH, and a base as a substance that could bind a proton, whereas the North American Singer-Hasting school in 1948 defined acids as strong non-buffer anions and bases as non-buffer cations. As a consequence of this last definition, electrolyte disturbances were mixed up with real acid-base disorders and the variable, strong ion difference (SID), was introduced as a measure of non-respiratory acid-base disturbances. However, the SID concept is only an empirical approximation. In contrast, the Astrup/Siggaard-Andersen school of scientists, using computer strategies and the Acid-base Chart, has made diagnosis of acid-base disorders possible at a glance on the Chart, when the data are considered in context with the clinical development. Siggaard-Andersen introduced Base Excess (BE) or Standard Base Excess (SBE) in the extracellular fluid volume (ECF), extended to include the red cell volume (eECF), as a measure of metabolic acid-base disturbances and recently replaced it by the term Concentration of Titratable Hydrogen Ion (ctH). These two concepts (SBE and ctH) represent the same concentration difference, but with opposite signs. Three charts modified from the Siggaard-Andersen Acid-Base Chart are presented for use at low, medium and high altitudes of 2500 m, 3500 m, and 4000 m, respectively. In this context, the authors suggest the use of Titratable Hydrogen Ion concentration Difference (THID) in the extended extracellular fluid volume, finding it efficient and better than any other determination of the metabolic component in acid-base

  13. Beneficial effects of synthetic KL₄ surfactant in experimental lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, A; Alvarez, L; Santos, M; López-Sánchez, A; Castillo-Olivares, J L; Varela, A; Segal, R; Casals, C

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intratracheal administration of a new synthetic surfactant that includes the cationic, hydrophobic 21-residue peptide KLLLLKLLLLKLLLLKLLLLK (KL₄), might be effective in reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury after lung transplantation. Single left lung transplantation was performed in Landrace pigs 22 h post-harvest. KL₄ surfactant at a dose of 25 mg total phospholipid·kg body weight⁻¹ (2.5 mL·kg body weight⁻¹) was instilled at 37°C to the donor left lung (n = 8) prior to explantation. Saline (2.5 mL·kg body weight⁻¹; 37°C) was instilled into the donor left lung of the untreated group (n = 6). Lung function in recipients was measured during 2 h of reperfusion. Recipient left lung bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) provided native cytometric, inflammatory marker and surfactant data. KL(4) surfactant treatment recovered oxygen levels in the recipient blood (mean ± sd arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction 424 ± 60 versus 263 ± 101 mmHg in untreated group; p=0.01) and normalised alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference. Surfactant biophysical function was also recovered in KL₄ surfactant-treated lungs. This was associated with decreased C-reactive protein levels in BAL, and recovery of surfactant protein A content, normalised protein/phospholipid ratios, and lower levels of both lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls in large surfactant aggregates. These findings suggest an important protective role for KL₄ surfactant treatment in lung transplantation. PMID:20650990

  14. Tetrazole-5-carboxylic acid based salts of earth alkali and transition metal cations.

    PubMed

    Hartdegen, Vera; Klapötke, Thomas M; Sproll, Stefan M

    2009-10-01

    The tetrazole-5-carboxylate anion was investigated as ligand for earth alkali metal and transition metal complexes. Therefore, the strontium 4a (*3 H(2)O, *2.75 H(2)O, *2.5 H(2)O), barium 4b (*3 H(2)O), copper 4c (*3.5 H(2)O, *4 H(2)O), manganese 4d (*4 H(2)O, *5 H(2)O), and silver tetrazol-5-carboxylate 4e (*1.56 H(2)O) were synthesized and characterized by vibrational spectroscopy (IR), and the crystal structures of 4a (*2.75 H(2)O, *2.5 H(2)O), 4b*3 H(2)O, 4c*4 H(2)O, and 4d*5 H(2)O were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability was investigated by DSC-measurements, and the sensitivity toward impact and friction was determined by BAM-standards. The copper, strontium, and barium tetrazole-5-carboxyate proved to be suitable thermal and physical stable colorants for pyrotechnic compositions. The crystal structure of the tetragonal modification of strontium tetrazole-5-carboxyate possesses channels along the c-axis, leading to a porous material. PMID:19780625

  15. Interaction of diazepam with surfactants. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Guardia, M.; Rodilla, F.

    1986-03-01

    The interaction of diazepam with non-ionic, anionic and cationic surfactants has been studied spectrophotometrically and fluorometrically. It has been verified that the absorption spectrum of diazepam is not modified in micellar medium. However, a dramatic five-fold increase in fluorescence sensitivity is observed in the presence of sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS). The experimental conditions, temperature, pH and surfactant concentration have been optimized to improve the fluorometric determination of diazepam and a detection limit of 0,04 ppmhas been obtained.

  16. Physiological roles of acid-base sensors.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis is essential for life. The macromolecules upon which living organisms depend are sensitive to pH changes, and physiological systems use the equilibrium between carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and protons to buffer their pH. Biological processes and environmental insults are constantly challenging an organism's pH; therefore, to maintain a consistent and proper pH, organisms need sensors that measure pH and that elicit appropriate responses. Mammals use multiple sensors for measuring both intracellular and extracellular pH, and although some mammalian pH sensors directly measure protons, it has recently become apparent that many pH-sensing systems measure pH via bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase. PMID:25340964

  17. Phosphine oxide surfactants revisited.

    PubMed

    Stubenrauch, Cosima; Preisig, Natalie; Laughlin, Robert G

    2016-04-01

    This review summarizes everything we currently know about the nonionic surfactants alkyl dimethyl (C(n)DMPO) and alkyl diethyl (C(n)DEPO) phosphine oxide (PO surfactants). The review starts with the synthesis and the general properties (Section 2) of these compounds and continues with their interfacial properties (Section 3) such as surface tension, surface rheology, interfacial tension and adsorption at solid surfaces. We discuss studies on thin liquid films and foams stabilized by PO surfactants (Section 4) as well as studies on their self-assembly into lyotropic liquid crystals and microemulsions, respectively (Section 5). We aim at encouraging colleagues from both academia and industry to take on board PO surfactants whenever possible and feasible because of their broad variety of excellent properties. PMID:26869216

  18. Surfactant phospholipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Agassandian, Marianna; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2013-03-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is essential for life and is composed of a complex lipoprotein-like mixture that lines the inner surface of the lung to prevent alveolar collapse at the end of expiration. The molecular composition of surfactant depends on highly integrated and regulated processes involving its biosynthesis, remodeling, degradation, and intracellular trafficking. Despite its multicomponent composition, the study of surfactant phospholipid metabolism has focused on two predominant components, disaturated phosphatidylcholine that confers surface-tension lowering activities, and phosphatidylglycerol, recently implicated in innate immune defense. Future studies providing a better understanding of the molecular control and physiological relevance of minor surfactant lipid components are needed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:23026158

  19. Waterflooding employing amphoteric surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Stournas, S.

    1980-08-05

    Process for the recovery of oil from a subterranean oil reservoir involving the injection into the reservoir of an aqueous solution of an amphoteric surfactant having an inner quaternary ammonium group linked to a terminal sulfonate or carboxylate group is described. The amphoteric surfactants may be employed in relatively low concentrations within the range of 0.0005 to 0.1% by weight and injected in a slug of at least 0.5 pv. The apparatus may be applied in situations in which the reservoir waters and/or the waters employed in formulating the surfactant solution contain relatively high amounts of divalent metal ions. Specifically described amphoteric surfactants include hydrocarby dialkyl or dihydroxyalkyl ammonium alkane sulfonates and carboxylates in which the hydrocarbyl group contains from 8 to 26 carbon atoms. 29 claims.

  20. Tuning of protein-surfactant interaction to modify the resultant structure.

    PubMed

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2015-09-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering studies have been carried out to examine the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein with different surfactants under varying solution conditions. We show that the interaction of anionic BSA protein (pH7) with surfactant and the resultant structure are strongly modified by the charge head group of the surfactant, ionic strength of the solution, and mixed surfactants. The protein-surfactant interaction is maximum when two components are oppositely charged, followed by components being similarly charged through the site-specific binding, and no interaction in the case of a nonionic surfactant. This interaction of protein with ionic surfactants is characterized by the fractal structure representing a bead-necklace structure of micellelike clusters adsorbed along the unfolded protein chain. The interaction is enhanced with ionic strength only in the case of site-specific binding of an anionic surfactant with an anionic protein, whereas it is almost unchanged for other complexes of cationic and nonionic surfactants with anionic proteins. Interestingly, the interaction of BSA protein with ionic surfactants is significantly suppressed in the presence of nonionic surfactant. These results with mixed surfactants thus can be used to fold back the unfolded protein as well as to prevent surfactant-induced protein unfolding. For different solution conditions, the results are interpreted in terms of a change in fractal dimension, the overall size of the protein-surfactant complex, and the number of micelles attached to the protein. The interplay of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions is found to govern the resultant structure of complexes. PMID:26465504

  1. Tuning of protein-surfactant interaction to modify the resultant structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2015-09-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering studies have been carried out to examine the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein with different surfactants under varying solution conditions. We show that the interaction of anionic BSA protein (p H 7 ) with surfactant and the resultant structure are strongly modified by the charge head group of the surfactant, ionic strength of the solution, and mixed surfactants. The protein-surfactant interaction is maximum when two components are oppositely charged, followed by components being similarly charged through the site-specific binding, and no interaction in the case of a nonionic surfactant. This interaction of protein with ionic surfactants is characterized by the fractal structure representing a bead-necklace structure of micellelike clusters adsorbed along the unfolded protein chain. The interaction is enhanced with ionic strength only in the case of site-specific binding of an anionic surfactant with an anionic protein, whereas it is almost unchanged for other complexes of cationic and nonionic surfactants with anionic proteins. Interestingly, the interaction of BSA protein with ionic surfactants is significantly suppressed in the presence of nonionic surfactant. These results with mixed surfactants thus can be used to fold back the unfolded protein as well as to prevent surfactant-induced protein unfolding. For different solution conditions, the results are interpreted in terms of a change in fractal dimension, the overall size of the protein-surfactant complex, and the number of micelles attached to the protein. The interplay of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions is found to govern the resultant structure of complexes.

  2. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes using mixed surfactants: experimental and molecular dynamics simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, B; Poorgholami-Bejarpasi, N; Nayeri, N

    2014-03-20

    The ability of cationic-rich and anionic-rich mixtures of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) for dispersing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous media has been studied through both the experimental and molecular dynamics simulation methods. Compared to the pure CTAB and SDS, these mixtures are more effective with the lower concentrations and more individual CNTs, reflecting a synergistic effect in these mixtures. The synergistic effects observed in mixed surfactant systems are mainly due to the electrostatic attractions between surfactant heads. In addition, the surface charge related to the colloidal stability of mixed surfactant-covered nanotubes has been characterized by means of ζ-potential measurements. The results indicate that the hydrophobic interactions between surfactant tails also give rise to the higher adsorption of surfactant molecules. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to provide insight about the structure of surfactant aggregates onto nanotubes and to attempt an explanation of the experimental results. The MD simulation results indicate that the random and disordered adsorption of mixed surfactants onto carbon nanotubes may be preferred for a low surfactant concentration. Our research may provide experimental and theoretical bases for using mixed surfactants to disperse CNTs, which can open an avenue for new applications of mixed surfactants. PMID:24555914

  3. Biocidal activity of some Mannich base cationic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Negm, Nabel A; Morsy, Salwa M I; Said, Medhat M

    2005-11-01

    A novel series of cationic surfactants was prepared based on Mannich base (produced from the condensation of piperidine and/or morpholine as secondary amine and paraformaldehyde in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline). The chemical structures of the synthesized cationic surfactants were confirmed using elemental analyses, FTIR spectroscopy and 1H NMR. Surface activities of the prepared surfactants were measured including: surface tension (gamma), critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness (pi(CMC)), efficiency (Pc20), maximum surface excess (Gamma(max)), minimum surface area (A(min)), interfacial tension (gamma(IT)), emulsification power and foaming power at 25 degrees C. The structural influences on their surface activities and adsorption free energy were discussed. The synthesized cationic surfactants were evaluated for their biocidal activity towards Gram +ve bacteria (Staph. Cocu., Bacillus), Gram -ve bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli), fungi (A. terrus., A. flav.) and yeast (Candida) at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0mg/mL, respectively. The target compounds showed good inhibition towards Gram +ve bacteria, Gram -ve bacteria and yeast. Meanwhile, excellent fungicidal results were obtained against the various types of fungi under investigation. PMID:16154748

  4. Modeling of alkyl quaternary ammonium cations intercalated into montmorillonite lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Daoudi, El Mehdi; Boughaleb, Yahia; El Gaini, Layla; Meghea, Irina; Bakasse, Mina

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The modification of montmorillonites by three surfactants increases the basal spacing. ► The model proposed show a bilayer conformation for the surfactant ODTMA. ► The DODMA and TOMA surfactants adopt a paraffin type arrangement. ► Behavior of surfactants in interlayer space was confirmed by TGA and ATR analysis. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the conformation of the quaternary ammonium cations viz., octadecyl trimethyl ammonium (ODTMA), dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium (DMDOA) and trioctadecyl methyl ammonium (TOMA) intercalated within montmorillonite. The modified montmorillonite was characterized by X-ray diffraction in small angle (SAXS), thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection (ATR). The modification of organophilic montmorillonites by the three surfactants ODTMA, DMDOA and TOMA increases the basal spacing from their respective intercalated distances of 1.9 nm, 2.6 nm and 3.4 nm respectively. The increase in the spacing due to the basic organic modification was confirmed by the results of thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR), and also supported by theoretical calculations of longitudinal and transversal chain sizes of these alkyl quaternary ammonium cations.

  5. Growth kinetics of sulfur nanoparticles in aqueous surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rajib Ghosh; Paria, Santanu

    2011-02-15

    Sulfur is an important element has many practical applications when present as nanoparticles. Despite the practicable applications, limited studies are available in the literature related to synthesis of sulfur nanoparticles. Growth kinetics of colloidal sulfur particles synthesized from aqueous solutions using different surfactants have been studied here. The effects of different parameters such as reactant concentration, temperature, sonication, types of acids, types of surfactants, and even surfactant concentration are studied on the growth kinetics. Since the reaction rate is fast, particle growth depends on the parameters which affect diffusion of sulfur molecules. There is a linear relationship found among the reactant concentration and the particle coarsening rate constant. The growth kinetics was studied in the presence of different surfactants such as nonionic (poly(oxyethylene) p-tert-octylphenyl ether, TX-100), anionic (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, SDBS), cationic (cetyltrimethyammonium bromide, CTAB) and results show the coarsening constant changes according to the following order: water>TX-100>SDBS>CTAB. The particle growth rate also depends on the surfactant concentration, coarsening rate constant decreases with the increase in surfactant concentration and become constant close to the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The coarsening rate constant also highly depends on the types of acid used as catalyst. PMID:21147482

  6. Highly stable surfactant assisted polyaniline nanostructures with enhanced electroactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamdegni, Monika; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2016-05-01

    Different nanostructures of Polyaniline(PANI) i.e. nanospheres, nanorods, nanofibers and layered structures have been successfully synthesized using varied concentration of anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate(SDS) and cationic Hexamethyltriammonium bromide (HTAB) by electrochemical method. Surfactant assisted morphology has been studied using FESEM. Incorporation of surfactants to the polymer matrix has been confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. Electro activity and stability towards reversible redox activity was studied using cyclic voltammatry and chronoamperometry.The anionic surfactant severely enhances electroactivity and areal capacitance (3 Fcm-2) which was found to be two order higher than PANI film prepared without surfactant (0.039 Fcm-2), attributable to its additional doping effect. Immobilization of large surfactant molecule to polymer matrix inhibits its degradation due to nuleophilic attack ascribed to hydrophobic effect of surfactant. For PANI-SDS redox behavior remained almost same after 1000 reverse redox cycles while for PANI-HTAB we got only marginal changes.Our PANI-SDS samples are promising candidates for electro chromic applications.

  7. In Vitro Surfactant Structure-Toxicity Relationships: Implications for Surfactant Use in Sexually Transmitted Infection Prophylaxis and Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Ângela S.; Ramalho-Santos, João; Vaz, Winchil L. C.; Vieira, Otília V.

    2011-01-01

    Background The need for woman-controlled, cheap, safe, effective, easy-to-use and easy-to-store topical applications for prophylaxis against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) makes surfactant-containing formulations an interesting option that requires a more fundamental knowledge concerning surfactant toxicology and structure-activity relationships. Methodology/Principal Findings We report in vitro effects of surfactant concentration, exposure time and structure on the viability of mammalian cell types typically encountered in the vagina, namely, fully polarized and confluent epithelial cells, confluent but non-polarized epithelial-like cells, dendritic cells, and human sperm. Representatives of the different families of commercially available surfactants – nonionic (Triton X-100 and monolaurin), zwitterionic (DDPS), anionic (SDS), and cationic (CnTAB (n = 10 to 16), C12PB, and C12BZK) – were examined. Triton X-100, monolaurin, DDPS and SDS were toxic to all cell types at concentrations around their critical micelle concentration (CMC) suggesting a non-selective mode of action involving cell membrane destabilization and/or destruction. All cationic surfactants were toxic at concentrations far below their CMC and showed significant differences in their toxicity toward polarized as compared with non-polarized cells. Their toxicity was also dependent on the chemical nature of the polar head group. Our results suggest an intracellular locus of action for cationic surfactants and show that their structure-activity relationships could be profitably exploited for STI prophylaxis in vaginal gel formulations. The therapeutic indices comparing polarized epithelial cell toxicity to sperm toxicity for all surfactants examined, except C12PB and C12BZK, does not justify their use as contraceptive agents. C12PB and C12BZK are shown to have a narrow therapeutic index recommending caution in their use in contraceptive formulations. Conclusions/Significance Our results

  8. A1/A2-Diamino-Substituted Pillar[5]arene-Based Acid-Base-Responsive Host-Guest System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei-Bo; Hu, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Liu, Yahu A; Li, Jiu-Sheng; Jiang, Biao; Wen, Ke

    2016-05-01

    An acid-base-responsive supramolecular host-guest system based on a planarly chiral A1/A2-diamino-substituted pillar[5]arene (1)/imidazolium ion recognition motif was created. The pillar[4]arene[1]diaminobenzene 1 can bring an electron-deficient imidazolium cation into its cylindrically shaped cavity under neutral or basic conditions and release it under acidic conditions. PMID:27088317

  9. Ultrafast dynamics of water in cationic micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; Woutersen, Sander; Bakker, Huib J.

    2007-03-01

    The effect of confinement on the dynamical properties of liquid water is investigated for water enclosed in cationic reverse micelles. The authors performed mid-infrared ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy on the OH-stretch vibration of isotopically diluted HDO in D2O in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) reverse micelles of various sizes. The authors observe that the surfactant counterions are inhomogeneously distributed throughout the reverse micelle, and that regions of extreme salinity occur near the interfacial Stern layer. The authors find that the water molecules in the core of the micelles show similar orientational dynamics as bulk water, and that water molecules in the counterion-rich interfacial region are much less mobile. An explicit comparison is made with the dynamics of water confined in anionic sodium bis(2-ethythexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles. The authors find that interfacial water in cationic CTAB reverse micelles has a higher orientational mobility than water in anionic AOT reverse micelles.

  10. Effect of surfactants and temperature on the hyperfiltration performance of poly(ether/urea) membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leban, M. I.; Wydeven, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of pasteurization temperature (347 K) and surfactants (anionic, cationic, and neutral) on a poly(ether/urea) thin-film hyperfiltration membrane were studied. Performance of this positively charged membrane was measured in terms of sodium chloride rejection and water flux. The observed effect was mostly on water flux and minimal on salt rejection. Pasteurization temperature caused an irreversible flux decline (flux decline slope of 0.09). The gradual flux reduction caused by neutral and cationic surfactants was reversible, whereas the flux reduction caused by anionic surfactant was irreversible and of similar magnitude to flux reduction caused by pasteurization temperature. The effects of anionic surfactant and pasteurization temperature were additive. Because of flux decline at elevated temperatures the poly(ether/urea) membrane is not very attractive for long-term spaceflight use.

  11. Comparative study on toxic effects induced by oral or intravascular administration of commonly used disinfectants and surfactants in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuying; Zhang, Shanshan; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yiqing; Hieda, Yoko; Takeshita, Haruo

    2012-07-01

    Accidental ingestion or injection of household products sometimes occurs due to their accessibility, but the toxic manifestations have not been well characterized when they are internally administered. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects induced by ingestion or injection of different ionic surfactants and disinfectants in rats. The test drugs involved benzalkonium and benzethonium (BZK and BZT, both cationic surfactants used as disinfectants), alkyldiaminoethylglycine (AEG, an amphoteric surfactant used as a disinfectant), linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS, an anionic surfactant), polyoxyethylene cetylether (PEC, a nonionic surfactant), chlorhexidine (CHX, not a surfactant but a disinfectant) and saline (control). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered one of the test drugs orally (p.o.), intravenously (i.v.) or intraarterially (i.a.). The fatal effects appeared rapidly (<30 min) in i.v.-administered rats, while taking hours (>5 h) in i.a./p.o.-administered rats after a dose of around LD(50) , although the progress and degree of toxic effects varied among the drugs tested. In intravascular administration, BZK and BZT were fatal at doses of 15-20 mg kg(-1) . Higher concentrations in lung and kidney than in blood were determined. CHX showed a high toxic effect compared with cationic surfactants. The rats administered anionic (LAS) or amphoteric (AEG) surfactant died in less than 24 h at doses over 100 mg kg(-1) . In p.o. administration, the toxic effects were concentration/dose-dependent, and all rats administered high doses of surfactants except for PEC died at 5-20 h. The overall toxic ranks could be: cationic surfactant/CHX> anionic/amphoteric surfactant > nonionic surfactant. PMID:21387348

  12. Genetic disorders of surfactant homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface in the alveolus, thereby maintaining lung volumes during the respiratory cycle. In premature newborn infants, the lack of surfactant causes atelectasis and respiratory failure, characteristic of respiratory of distress syndrome. Surfactant is comprised of lipids and associated proteins that are required for surfactant function. Surfactant proteins B and C and a lamellar body associated transport protein, ABCA3 play critical roles in surfactant synthesis and function. Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins cause lethal respiratory distress in newborn infants. This review discusses the clinical and pathological findings associated with these inherited disorders of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:16798578

  13. Mixed surfactants-directed the mesoporous silica materials with various morphologies and structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Huiming; Qu Fengyu; Wu Xiang; Xue Ming; Zhu Guangshan; Qiu Shilun

    2011-06-15

    A new mixed surfactants system using alkyl carboxylic acids and quaternized poly[bis(2-chloroethyl)ether-alt-1,3-bis[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] urea] (PEPU) as the co-template was used to synthesize mesoporous silica materials with various morphologies and structures, including flakes, regular spheres, nanoparticles, and tube-spheres. The cationic polymer connected the anionic surfactant micelle to the anionic polysilicate species to induce the synthesis of the mesoporous silica materials. The structure and property of the surfactant and the cationic polymer determined the formation of mesoporous silica, and also had a signification influence on the morphology and structure of the final materials. To further explore the possible formation mechanism of these mesoporous materials, zeta potential was utilized to evaluate the interaction between the anionic surfactant and the cationic co-template. In addition, the structure, morphology, and porosity of these materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurements. - Graphical abstract: A new mixed surfactants system using alkyl carboxylic acids and PEPU as the co-template was used to synthesize mesoporous silica materials with various morphologies and structures. Highlights: {yields}A new mixed surfactants system induced the mesoporous silica materials with various morphologies and structure. > It is a development of the type S{sup -}N{sup +}I{sup -} route of the mesoporous formation. > Zeta potential was utilized to evaluate the interaction between the anionic surfactant and the cationic co-template. > The property and amount of surfactant and polymer determined the formation of the mesoporous materials.

  14. Atrazine and Diuron partitioning within a soil-water-surfactant system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Keller, A.

    2006-12-01

    The interaction between pesticide and soil and water is even more complex in the presence of surfactants. In this study, batch equilibrium was employed to study the sorption of surfactants and the partitioning behaviors of Atrazine and Diuron within a soil-water-surfactant system. Five soils and four surfactants (nonionic Triton- 100, cationic Benzalkonium Chloride (BC), anionic Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS), and anionic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)) were used. All surfactant sorption isotherms exhibited an initial linear increase at low surfactant concentrations but reached an asymptotic value as the surfactant concentrations increased. Among the surfactants, BC had the highest sorption onto all soils, followed by Triton-100 and then by LAS and SDS, implying that the nature of the charge significantly influences surfactant sorption. Sorption of either Triton-100 or BC was highly correlated with soil Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) while that of LAS and SDS was complicated by the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the aqueous phase and the CEC sites. Both LAS and SDS formed complexes with Ca2+ and Mg2+, resulting in a significant decrease in the detergency of the surfactants. At high surfactant concentrations and with micelles present in the aqueous phase, the micelles formed a more competitive partitioning site for the pesticides, resulting in less pesticide sorbed to the soil. At low Triton-100 and BC concentration, the sorption of the surfactants first resulted in less Atrazine sorption but more Diuron sorption, implying competition between the surfactants and Atrazine, which serves as an indirect evidence that there is a different sorption mechanism for Atrazine. Atrazine is a weak base and it protonates and becomes positively charged near particle surfaces where the pH is much lower than in the bulk solution. The protonated Atrazine may then be held on the CEC sites via electrostatic attraction. Triton-100, LAS and SDS sorbed on the soil showed similar

  15. Surfactant-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Bricha, Meriame; Belmamouni, Younes; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ferreira, José M F; El Mabrouk, Khalil

    2012-10-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HAp) with a highly ordered nanostructure were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis from calcium chloride, and phosphoric acid, as calcium and phosphorus sources, respectively. Various surfactant families such as cationic (CTAB), anionic (SDS) and nonionic (Triton X-100) were used as regulators of the nucleation and crystal growth. The synthesized nanopowders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrograph (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The rod-like morphology was obtained regardless of the surfactant used during the hydrothermal treatment, but the aspect ratio of the crystals was found to be surfactant dependent. The mechanism of crystal growth as well-oriented nanostructure is discussed. PMID:23421176

  16. Phase Transitions in Nanostructured Polyelectrolyte-Surfactant Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Michael; Strey, Helmut

    2001-03-01

    When a water-soluble polyelectrolyte is combined with an oppositely-charged surfactant solution at a stoichiometric charge ratio, self-assembly into highly-ordered, water-insoluble structures occurs. We have prepared such complexes with poly(sodium acrylate)-co-acrylamide, alginic acid, and chitosan, combined with cationic and anionic surfactants. The phases exhibited by these complexes in aqueous solution are highly sensitive to such factors as osmotic pressure, salt type, ionic strength, and polyelectrolyte charge density. In this study, we have used small angle X-ray scattering to examine osmotic stress-induced structural phase transitions in these complexes under these various environmental conditions. The morphological consequences of combining polyelectrolytes with swollen, emulsion-bound surfactant micelles were also investigated. Results of this work, as well as the potential to use these complexes as nanoporous, biocompatible materials, will be discussed.

  17. Mechanisms of Polyelectrolyte Enhanced Surfactant Adsorption at the Air-Water Interface

    PubMed Central

    Stenger, Patrick C.; Palazoglu, Omer A.; Zasadzinski, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan, a naturally occurring cationic polyelectrolyte, restores the adsorption of the clinical lung surfactant Survanta to the air-water interface in the presence of albumin at much lower concentrations than uncharged polymers such as polyethylene glycol. This is consistent with the positively charged chitosan forming ion pairs with negative charges on the albumin and lung surfactant particles, reducing the net charge in the double-layer, and decreasing the electrostatic energy barrier to adsorption to the air-water interface. However, chitosan, like other polyelectrolytes, cannot perfectly match the charge distribution on the surfactant, which leads to patches of positive and negative charge at net neutrality. Increasing the chitosan concentration further leads to a reduction in the rate of surfactant adsorption consistent with an over-compensation of the negative charge on the surfactant and albumin surfaces, which creates a new repulsive electrostatic potential between the now cationic surfaces. This charge neutralization followed by charge inversion explains the window of polyelectrolyte concentration that enhances surfactant adsorption; the same physical mechanism is observed in flocculation and re-stabilization of anionic colloids by chitosan and in alternate layer deposition of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes on charged colloids. PMID:19366599

  18. Phase behavior of polyion-surfactant ion complex salts: effects of surfactant chain length and polyion length.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Anna; Norrman, Jens; Piculell, Lennart

    2006-06-01

    The aqueous phase behavior of a series of complex salts, containing cationic surfactants with polymeric counterions, has been investigated by visual inspection and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The salts were alkyltrimethylammonium polyacrylates, CxTAPAy, based on all combinations of five surfactant chain lengths (C6, C8, C10, C12, and C16) and two lengths of the polyacrylate chain (30 and 6 000 repeating units). At low water contents, all complex salts except C6TAPA6000 formed hexagonal and/or cubic Pm3n phases, with the hexagonal phase being favored by lower water contents. The aggregate dimensions in the liquid crystalline phases changed with the surfactant chain length. The determined micellar aggregation numbers of the cubic phases indicated that the micelles were only slightly aspherical. At high water contents, the C6TAPAy salts were miscible with water, whereas the other complex salts featured wide miscibility gaps with a concentrated phase in equilibrium with a (sometimes very) dilute aqueous solution. Thus, the attraction between oppositely charged surfactant aggregates and polyions decreases with decreasing surfactant chain length, and with decreasing polyion length, resulting in an increased miscibility with water. The complex salt with the longest surfactant chains and polyions gave the widest miscibility gap, with a concentrated hexagonal phase in equilibrium with almost pure water. A decrease in the attraction led to cubic-micellar and micellar-micellar coexistence in the miscibility gap and to an increasing concentration of the complex salt in the dilute phase. For each polyion length, the mixtures for the various surfactant chain lengths were found to conform to a global phase diagram, where the surfactant chain length played the role of an interaction parameter. PMID:16722736

  19. Renal acid-base metabolism after ischemia.

    PubMed

    Holloway, J C; Phifer, T; Henderson, R; Welbourne, T C

    1986-05-01

    The response of the kidney to ischemia-induced cellular acidosis was followed over the immediate one hr post-ischemia reflow period. Clearance and extraction experiments as well as measurement of cortical intracellular pH (pHi) were performed on Inactin-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Arteriovenous concentration differences and para-aminohippurate extraction were obtained by cannulating the left renal vein. Base production was monitored as bicarbonate released into the renal vein and urine; net base production was related to the renal handling of glutamine and ammonia as well as to renal oxygen consumption and pHi. After a 15 min control period, the left renal artery was snared for one-half hr followed by release and four consecutive 15 min reflow periods. During the control period, cortical cell pHi measured by [14C]-5,5-Dimethyl-2,4-Oxazolidinedione distribution was 7.07 +/- 0.08, and Q-O2 was 14.1 +/- 2.2 micromoles/min; neither net glutamine utilization nor net bicarbonate generation occurred. After 30 min of ischemia, renal tissue pH fell to 6.6 +/- 0.15. However, within 45 min of reflow, cortical cell pH returned and exceeded the control value, 7.33 +/- 0.06 vs. 7.15 +/- 0.08. This increase in pHi was associated with a significant rise in cellular metabolic rate, Q-O2 increased to 20.3 +/- 6.4 micromoles/min. Corresponding with cellular alkalosis was a net production of bicarbonate and a net ammonia uptake and glutamine release; urinary acidification was abolished. These results are consistent with a nonexcretory renal metabolic base generating mechanism governing cellular acid base homeostasis following ischemia. PMID:3723929

  20. Spectroscopic Investigation of Surface Dependent Acid-base Property of Ceria Nanoshapes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Zili; Mann, Amanda K; Li, Meijun; Overbury, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In addition to their well-known redox character, the acid-base property is another interesting aspect of ceria-based catalysts. Herein, the effect of surface structure on the acid-base property of ceria was studied in detail by utilizing ceria nanocrystals with different morphologies (cubes, octahedra and rods) that exhibit crystallographically well-defined surface facets. The nature, type, strength and amount of acid and base sites on these ceria nanoshapes were investigated via in situ IR spectroscopy combined with various probe molecules. Pyridine adsorption shows the presence of Lewis acid sites (Ce cations) on the ceria nanoshapes. These Lewis acid sites are relatively weak andmore » similar in strength among the three nanoshapes according to the probing by both pyridine and acetonitrile. Both Br nsted (hydroxyl group) and Lewis (surface lattice oxygen) base sites are present on the ceria nanoshapes as probed by CO2 adsorption. CO2 and chloroform adsorption indicate that the strength and amount of the Lewis base sites are shape dependent: rods > cubes > octahedra. The weak and strong surface dependence of the acid and base sites, respectively, are a result of interplay between the surface structure dependent coordination unsaturation status of the Ce cations and O anions and the amount of defect sites on the three ceria nanoshapes. Furthermore, it was found that the nature of the acid-base sites of ceria can be impacted by impurities, such as Na and P residues that result from their use as structure-directing reagent in the hydrothermal synthesis of the ceria nanocrystals. This observation calls for precaution in interpreting the catalytic behavior of nanoshaped ceria where trace impurities may be present.« less

  1. NMR spectroscopy of proteins encapsulated in a positively charged surfactant.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Brian G; Liu, Weixia; Peterson, Ronald W; Valentine, Kathleen G; Wand, A Joshua

    2005-07-01

    Traditionally, large proteins, aggregation-prone proteins, and membrane proteins have been difficult to examine by modern multinuclear and multidimensional solution NMR spectroscopy. A major limitation presented by these protein systems is that their slow molecular reorientation compromises many aspects of the more powerful solution NMR methods. Several approaches have emerged to deal with the various spectroscopic difficulties arising from slow molecular reorientation. One of these takes the approach of actively seeking to increase the effective rate of molecular reorientation by encapsulating the protein of interest within the protective shell of a reverse micelle and dissolving the resulting particle in a low viscosity fluid. Since the encapsulation is largely driven by electrostatic interactions, the preparation of samples of acidic proteins suitable for NMR spectroscopy has been problematic owing to the paucity of suitable cationic surfactants. Here, it is shown that the cationic surfactant CTAB may be used to prepare samples of encapsulated anionic proteins dissolved in low viscosity solvents. In a more subtle application, it is further shown that this surfactant can be employed to encapsulate a highly basic protein, which is completely denatured upon encapsulation using an anionic surfactant. PMID:15949753

  2. Direct Observation Of Nanoparticle-Surfactant Interactions Using Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.

    2010-12-01

    Interactions of anionic silica nanoparticles with anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants have directly been studied by contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements are performed on 1 wt% of both silica nanoparticles and surfactants of anionic sodium dodecyle sulphate (SDS), cationic dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) and non-ionic polyoxyethylene 10 lauryl ether (C12E10) in aqueous solution. We show that there is no direct interaction in the case of SDS with silica particles, whereas strong interaction for DTAB leads to the aggregation of silica particles. The interaction of C12E10 is found through the micelles adsorbed on the silica particles.

  3. Effect of surfactants at low concentrations on the sorption of atrazine by natural sediment.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qing H; Wang, Dong S; Tang, Hong X

    2006-07-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to determine the effect of surfactants at low concentrations on the sorption of atrazine by natural sediments. With surfactant concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 mg/ L, anionic and cationic surfactants appreciably reduce the adsorption of atrazine, while nonionic surfactant decreases the adsorption of atrazine at concentrations equal to or less than 1 mg/L and increases adsorption at higher concentrations. Desorption of atrazine in the presence of different sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) concentrations shows that a portion of the bound pesticide resists desorption in the SDBS free system. However, the addition of SDBS accelerates the desorption of atrazine. Furthermore, the nature of sediment and the contacting sequence of SDBS, at 10 mg/L, with the sediment, also influence the adsorption of atrazine. The conclusions in this study could be explained partially by the effect of the type and concentration of surfactants and the characteristics of sediments. PMID:16929634

  4. Influence of the surfactant nature on the calcium carbonate synthesis in water-in-oil emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szcześ, Aleksandra

    2009-02-01

    Calcium carbonate has been precipitated from water-in-oil emulsions consisting of n-hexane/nonionic surfactant (Brij 30) and its mixture with cationic (DTAB) or anionic surfactant (SDS) to which calcium chloride and sodium carbonate were added. It was found that the surfactant kind and its amount can regulate the size, form and morphology of the precipitated particles. In case of nonionic surfactant the water/surfactant ratio is the most important parameter that allows to obtain small and regular calcium carbonate crystals. Addition of the DTAB results in different morphology of particles having the same crystal form, whereas addition of SDS changes the kind of emulsion from water-in-oil to oil-in-water. Moreover, light transmittance and backscattering light measurements have been used as a method to study the kinetics of calcium carbonate precipitation in emulsion systems.

  5. Rheological response of methylcellulose toward alkanediyl-α,ω-bis(dimethylcetylammonium bromide) surfactants with varying spacer length.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rais Ahmad; Chat, Oyais Ahmad; Maswal, Masrat; Rather, Ghulam Mohammad; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad

    2016-06-25

    The modulation of properties of methylcellulose (MC) by cationic gemini surfactants with varying spacer lengths was studied employing tensiometry, rheometry and turbidimetry. Surface tension measurements anticipate that the gemini surfactant with longer spacer chain length saturates MC at lower concentrations owing to its greater hydrophobicity compared to shorter spacer analogues. Rheometric and turbidimetric measurements suggest that at very low concentrations of gemini surfactants, ion-dipole type of interactions between MC and gemini surfactants promote the extension of polymer chains which is manifested by an initial increase in the low shear viscosity and gelation temperature of MC-gemini surfactant systems, and lowering of turbidity. Such interactions were found to be stronger in case of 16-4-16 than 16-5-16, and almost absent in case of 16-6-16 surfactant system. However at concentrations above CAC, hydrophobic forces operative between MC and gemini surfactants were found to be more for 16-6-16 than that of 16-5-16 and 16-4-16. The final levelling of MC viscosity in presence of all the three gemini surfactants and the variation of gelation temperature suggests the solubilization of network junctions in the surfactant micelles. Moreover, the presence of gemini surfactant strongly affects the interaction of MC with a model hydrophobic drug rifampicin.The results highlight the importance of gemini surfactants and their spacer length in controlling the structural dynamics of MC and its effective use in pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:27083805

  6. Surfactant mixing rules applied to surfactant enhanced alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.C. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses surfactant mixing rules which have been used to describe crude oil/alkali/surfactant phase behavior, using David Lloydminster crude oil and the surfactant Neodol 25-3S. It was found that at a fixed salinity and alkali concentration, a specific mole fraction of synthetic surfactant to petroleum soap was required to produce optimal phase behavior as the water-to-oil ratio varied. This methodology is useful in understanding the relationship between the variables of water-to-oil ratio and synthetic surfactant concentration in phase behavior systems that produce a petroleum soap.

  7. Effect of surfactant hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value on mineral oxide charging in apolar media.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew Michael; Berg, John C

    2015-07-01

    The current work examines the role of surfactant hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) on the ability for surfactant reverse micelles to impart charge to particles dispersed in an apolar medium, a study motivated by a number of applications that seek to maximize particle charge in such systems. Previous investigations have shown that relative acid-base properties of the particles and surfactants, as well as surfactant concentration and trace water content, all play a major role in the particle charge obtained. However, the ability of a surfactant to stabilize charge in reverse micelles is also an important aspect of creating charge on a particle surface. It has been previously shown that surfactant HLB value is an important parameter in assessing the size of the polar core of the reverse micelles, thereby impacting the total charge that is generated in the bulk solution as determined by conductivity. In the current study, this theory is extended to investigate the impact on particle charging. To accomplish this, the electrophoretic mobility is determined for a series of mineral oxides dispersed in Isopar-L with either Span 20, Span 80, or Span 85. These three surfactants all have the same head group chemistry, but their HLB value ranges from 1.8 to 8.6. It is found that the maximum observed particle electrophoretic mobility does scale directly with the HLB of the accompanying surfactant. This indicates that there is a direct correlation between a surfactant's ability to stabilize charge and its ability to impart charge to a particle. However, the largest HLB surfactant, Span 20, also exhibited a large amount of charge screening or neutralization at larger surfactant concentrations. This highlights the competition between particle charging and micelle-micelle charging that remains one of the largest obstacles to maximizing particle charge in apolar systems. PMID:25528174

  8. The cubyl cation rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Jalife, Said; Mondal, Sukanta; Cabellos, Jose Luis; Martinez-Guajardo, Gerardo; Fernandez-Herrera, Maria A; Merino, Gabriel

    2016-02-25

    Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations and high-level ab initio computations predict that the cage-opening rearrangement of the cubyl cation to the 7H(+)-pentalenyl cation is feasible in the gas phase. The rate-determining step is the formation of the cuneyl cation with an activation barrier of 25.3 kcal mol(-1) at the CCSD(T)/def2-TZVP//MP2/def2-TZVP level. Thus, the cubyl cation is kinetically stable enough to be formed and trapped at moderate temperatures, but it may be rearranged at higher temperatures. PMID:26880646

  9. Cation-coupled bicarbonate transporters.

    PubMed

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2014-10-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3(-) transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3(-) and associated with Na(+) and Cl(-) movement. The first Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7 gene product); the Na(+)-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger NDCBE (SLC4A8 gene product); and NBCn2/NCBE (SLC4A10 gene product), which has been characterized as an electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter or a Na(+)-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger. Despite the similarity in amino acid sequence and predicted structure among the NCBTs of the SLC4-family, they exhibit distinct differences in ion dependency, transport function, pharmacological properties, and interactions with other proteins. In epithelia, NCBTs are involved in transcellular movement of acid-base equivalents and intracellular pH control. In nonepithelial tissues, NCBTs contribute to intracellular pH regulation; and hence, they are crucial for diverse tissue functions including neuronal discharge, sensory neuron development, performance of the heart, and vascular tone regulation. The function and expression levels of the NCBTs are generally sensitive to intracellular and systemic pH. Animal models have revealed pathophysiological roles of the transporters in disease states including metabolic acidosis, hypertension, visual defects, and epileptic seizures. Studies are being conducted to understand the physiological consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the SLC4-members, which are associated with cancer, hypertension, and drug addiction. Here, we describe the current knowledge regarding the function, structure, and regulation of the mammalian cation-coupled HCO3(-) transporters of the SLC4-family. PMID:25428855

  10. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2016-01-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3− transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3− and associated with Na+ and Cl− movement. The first Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7 gene product); the Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger NDCBE (SLC4A8 gene product); and NBCn2/NCBE (SLC4A10 gene product), which has been characterized as an electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter or a Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger. Despite the similarity in amino acid sequence and predicted structure among the NCBTs of the SLC4-family, they exhibit distinct differences in ion dependency, transport function, pharmacological properties, and interactions with other proteins. In epithelia, NCBTs are involved in transcellular movement of acid-base equivalents and intracellular pH control. In nonepithelial tissues, NCBTs contribute to intracellular pH regulation; and hence, they are crucial for diverse tissue functions including neuronal discharge, sensory neuron development, performance of the heart, and vascular tone regulation. The function and expression levels of the NCBTs are generally sensitive to intracellular and systemic pH. Animal models have revealed pathophysiological roles of the transporters in disease states including metabolic acidosis, hypertension, visual defects, and epileptic seizures. Studies are being conducted to understand the physiological consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the SLC4-members, which are associated with cancer, hypertension, and drug addiction. Here, we describe the current knowledge regarding the function, structure, and regulation of the mammalian cation-coupled HCO3− transporters of the SLC4-family. PMID:25428855

  11. Acid-base properties of titanium-antimony oxides catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zenkovets, G.A.; Paukshtis, E.A.; Tarasova, D.V.; Yurchenko, E.N.

    1982-06-01

    The acid-base properties of titanium-antimony oxide catalysts were studied by the methods of back titration and ir spectroscopy. The interrelationship between the acid-base and catalytic properties in the oxidative ammonolysis of propylene was discussed. 3 figures, 1 table.

  12. A Closer Look at Acid-Base Olfactory Titrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory titrations using raw onions and eugenol as acid-base indicators are reported. An in-depth investigation on olfactory titrations is presented to include requirements for potential olfactory indicators and protocols for using garlic, onions, and vanillin as acid-base olfactory indicators are tested.

  13. What is the Ultimate Goal in Acid-Base Regulation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balakrishnan, Selvakumar; Gopalakrishnan, Maya; Alagesan, Murali; Prakash, E. Sankaranarayanan

    2007-01-01

    It is common to see chapters on acid-base physiology state that the goal of acid-base regulatory mechanisms is to maintain the pH of arterial plasma and not arterial PCO [subscript 2] (Pa[subscript CO[subscript 2

  14. Roles of urea production, ammonium excretion, and amino acid oxidation in acid-base balance.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, W

    1986-02-01

    Atkinson and colleagues recently proposed several concepts that contrast with traditional views: first, that acid-base balance is regulated chiefly by the reactions leading to urea production in the liver; second, that ammonium excretion by the kidney plays no role in acid-base homeostasis; and third, that ammonium does not stimulate ureagenesis (except indirectly). To examine these concepts, plasma ions other than bicarbonate are categorized as 1) fixed cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, symbolized M+) and anions (Cl-), 2) buffer anions (A-), 3) other anions (X-), and 4) ammonium plus charged amino groups (N+). Since electroneutrality dictates that M+ + N+ = Cl- + HCO3- + A- + X-, it follows that delta HCO3- = delta(M+ - Cl-) - delta A- - delta X- + delta N+. Therefore acid-base disturbances (changes in HCO3-) can be categorized as to how they affect bodily content and hence plasma concentration of each of these four types of ions. The stoichiometry of ureagenesis, glutamine hydrolysis, ammonium and titratable acid excretion, oxidation of neutral, acidic, and basic amino acids, and oxidation of methionine, phosphoserine, and protein are examined to see how they alter these quantities. It is concluded that 1) although ureagenesis is pH dependent and also counteracts a tendency of amino acid oxidation to cause alkalosis, this tendency is inherently limited by the hyperammonemia (delta N+) that necessarily accompanies it, 2) ammonium excretion is equivalent to hydrogen excretion in its effects on acid-base balance if, and only if, it occurs in exchange for sodium or is accompanied by chloride excretion and only when the glutamate generated by glutamine hydrolysis is oxidized.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3511732

  15. Oleic acid based heterolipid synthesis, characterization and application in self-microemulsifying drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kalhapure, Rahul S; Akamanchi, Krishnacharya G

    2012-04-01

    There is increasing demand for lipids owing to their use in formulating lipid based drug delivery systems of poorly soluble drugs. The present work discusses the synthesis, characterization of oleic acid based heterolipid and its use as oil in the development of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for parenteral delivery. Synthesis was carried out by Michael addition of tert-butyl acrylate to 3-amino-1-propanol to obtain di-tert-butyl aminopropanol derivative. Reaction of this di-tert-butyl aminopropanol derivative with oleoyl chloride using p-dimethylaminopyridine as a coupling agent gave the desired heterolipid. It was characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS to confirm the structure. It did not exhibit any measurable cytotoxicity, even up to 80μg/ml concentration. Application in parenteral drug delivery was explored using furosemide (FUR), a BCS class IV drug, as a model. FUR showed three times greater solubility in the heterolipid as compared to oleic acid. SMEDDSs were developed using heterolipid as oily phase, Solutol HS 15(®) as surfactant and ethanol as a co-surfactant. Developed SMEDDS could form spontaneous microemulsion on addition to various aqueous phases with mean globule size <70nm without any phase separation or drug precipitation even after 24h, and exhibited negligible hemolytic potential. PMID:22266534

  16. Manipulation of partially oriented hydroxyapatite building blocks to form flowerlike bundles without acid-base regulation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenliang; Wang, Zihao; Chen, Jingdi; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-06-01

    The application of hydroxyapatite (HAP) in different fields depends greatly on its morphology, composition and structure. Besides, the main inorganic building blocks of human bones and teeth are also HAP. Therefore, accurate shape and aggregation control and of hydroxyapatite particles will be of great interest. Herein, oriented bundles of flowerlike HAP nanorods were successfully prepared through hydrothermal treatment without acid-base regulation, with the mono-alkyl phosphate (MAP) and sodium citrate as surfactant and chelating agent, respectively. The prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and zeta potential, the pH value and conductivity value of suspension were characterized by pH meter and conductivity measurement. The results showed that the MAP and citrate play an important role in assembly of HAP nanorods without acid-base regulation. Citrate calcium complex could decompose slowly and release citrate ions at hydrothermal conditions. Besides, the further decomposition of citrate ions could release aconitic acid as the reaction time prolongs. Moreover, the possible scheme for the formation process was discussed in detail. PMID:26930036

  17. Effect of varying nonwoven cotton substrate and the properties of the surfactant solution upon the adsorption of aqueous solutions of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations using UV/vis spectroscopy. Results show greige...

  18. Effect of varying nonwoven cotton substrate and the properties of the surfactant solution upon the adsorption of aqueous solutions of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations and liquor ratios using UV-vis absorption spec...

  19. Surfactant-enhanced bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, P.F.; Dudley, R.J.; Churchill, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of three structurally related, non-ionic surfactants, Triton X-45, Triton X-100 and Triton X-165, as well as the oleophilic fertilizer, Inipol EAP 22, on the rate of biodegradation of phenanthrene by pure bacterial cultures. Each surfactant dramatically increased the apparent aqueous solubility of phenanthrene. Model studies were conducted to investigate the ability of these surfactants to enhance the rate of transport and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into bacterial cells, and to assess the impact that increasing the aqueous solubility of hydrocarbons has on their rate of biodegradation. The results indicate that increasing the apparent aqueous solubility of hydrocarbons can lead to enhanced biodegradation rates by two Pseudomonas saccharophila strains. However, the experiments also suggest that some surfactants can inhibit aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by certain bacteria. The data also support the hypothesis that surface-active components present in the oleophilic fertilizer formulation, Inipol EAP 22, may have significantly contributed to the positive results reported in tests of remedial agent impact on bioremediation, which was used as a supplemental clean-up technology on Exxon Valdez crude oil-contaminated Alaskan beaches.

  20. Binding of 12-s-12 dimeric surfactants to calf thymus DNA: Evaluation of the spacer length influence.

    PubMed

    Sarrión, Beatriz; Bernal, Eva; Martín, Victoria Isabel; López-López, Manuel; López-Cornejo, Pilar; García-Calderón, Margarita; Moyá, María Luisa

    2016-08-01

    Several cationic dimeric surfactants have shown high affinity towards DNA. Bis-quaternary ammonium salts (m-s-m) have been the most common type of dimeric surfactants investigated and it is generally admitted that those that posses a short spacer (s≤3) show better efficiency to bind or compact DNA. However, experimental results in this work show that 12-s-12 surfactants with long spacers make the surfactant/ctDNA complexation more favorable than those with short spacers. A larger contribution of the hydrophobic interactions, which control the binding Gibbs energy, as well as a higher average charge of the surfactant molecules bound to the nucleic acid, which favors the electrostatic attractions, could explain the experimental observations. Dimeric surfactants with intermediate spacer length seem to be the less efficient for DNA binding. PMID:27108208

  1. Copolymer-surfactant complexes obtained in a lamellar lyotropic medium.

    PubMed

    Agzenai, Yahya; Pacios, Isabel E; Renamayor, Carmen S

    2013-03-14

    Polymer-surfactant complexes formed between charged copolymers and oppositely charged surfactants are analyzed as a function of the charge density in the macromolecule. Copolymers of ionizable diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and neutral acrylamide are obtained at different comonomer ratios. When mixed with the lamellar medium formed by the anionic surfactant 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) in water, they give rise to highly condensed lamellar phases in equilibrium with another lyotropic phase. The structure of these phases is studied by SAXS and optical microscopy revealing the formation of copolymer-surfactant complexes which present a lamellar structure. The composition of the phases is inaccessible to direct determination, because they do not separate macroscopically (in most of the samples). Thus, the stoichiometry is determined using a model which considers the charge density of the copolymers. This model allows, from the experimental data provided by SAXS, to calculate the composition and volume ratio of the phases. The results indicate that these complexes are nonstoichiometric, containing a lesser amount of DADMAC than surfactant units. The neutral sequences of acrylamide can be considered as bridges along the water domains remaining anchored to the AOT bilayers by the cationic DADMAC units. When the charge density diminishes, the bridges become longer, rendering structures with higher water content. PMID:23387994

  2. Unusual wetting dynamics of aqueous surfactant solutions on polymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dutschk, Victoria; Sabbatovskiy, Konstantin G; Stolz, Martin; Grundke, Karina; Rudoy, Victor M

    2003-11-15

    Static and dynamic contact angles of aqueous solutions of three surfactants--anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), and nonionic pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C(12)E(5))--were measured in the pre- and micellar concentration ranges on polymer surfaces of different surface free energy. The influence of the degree of substrate hydrophobicity, concentration of the solution, and ionic/nonionic character of surfactant on the drop spreading was investigated. Evaporation losses due to relatively low humidity during measurements were taken into account as well. It was shown that, in contrast to the highly hydrophobic surfaces, contact angles for ionic surfactant solutions on the moderately hydrophobic surfaces strongly depend on time. As far as the nonionic surfactant is considered, it spreads well over all the hydrophobic polymer surfaces used. Moreover, the results obtained indicate that spreading (if it occurs) in the long-time regime is controlled not only by the diffusive transport of surfactant to the expanding liquid-vapor interface. Obviously, another process involving adsorption at the expanding solid-liquid interface (near the three-phase contact line), which goes more slowly than diffusion, has to be active. PMID:14583223

  3. Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  4. Diseases of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Wert, Susan E; Weaver, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  5. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.; Hiller, J.M.

    1998-02-24

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration. 1 fig.

  6. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.; Hiller, John M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration.

  7. Surfactant-Triggered Fluorescence Turn "on/off" Behavior of a Polythiophene-graft-Polyampholyte.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Radhakanta; Das, Sandip; Chatterjee, Dhruba P; Nandi, Arun K

    2016-08-23

    Polythiophene-graft-polyampholyte (PTP) is synthesized using N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and tert-butyl methacrylate monomers by grafting from polythiophene backbone, followed by hydrolysis. The resulting polymer exhibits aqueous solubility via formation of small-sized miceller aggregates with hydrophobic polythiophene at the center and radiating polyionic side chains (cationic or anionic depending on the pH of the medium) at the outer periphery. The critical micelle concentration of PTP in acidic solution (0.025 mg/mL, pH = 2.7) is determined from fluorescence spectroscopy. PTP exhibits reversible fluorescence on and off response in both acidic and basic medium with the sequential addition of differently charged ionic surfactants, repeatedly. The fluorescence intensity of PTP at pH 2.7 increases with the addition of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS), due to the self-aggregation forming compound micelles. The fluorescence intensity of these solutions again decreases on addition of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), because of assembling of SDBS with CTAB, thus deassembling the PTP-SDBS aggregates. At pH 9.2, these turn on and turn off responses are also shown by PTP with the sequential addition of cationic surfactant (CTAB) and anionic surfactant (SDBS), respectively. This result shows that PTP has potential for surfactant-induced reversible fluorescence turn on and off using ionic surfactant (SDBS and CTAB) through self-assembling and deassembling of the ionic aggregates. The reversible aggregation and disaggregation process of PTP with the surfactants at both acidic and basic pH is supported from dynamic light scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology of the above systems studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy also supports the above aggregation and disaggregation process. PMID:27465928

  8. Surfactant studies for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, G.C.

    1990-12-20

    Objectives of this project include: select economical/practical surfactants for use in coal liquefaction; screen surfactants for the proposed work through simple laboratory screening tests; and check the survivability of the selected surfactants at 350{degrees}C and 2000 psi using a 1-hour residence time for the thermal treatment in a stirred autoclave. Surfactant screening studies have shown the lignin sulfonate salt being the best candidate studied. Based upon the findings from the screening studies and practical considerations (e.g., potential cost, thermal survivability and recycling recovery), two surfactant choices in the anionic and nonionic categories were tested further in the autoclave reactor and engineering experiments at JPL. The goal of the autoclave work was to engineering experiments at JPL. The goal of the autoclave work was to determine the effects of surfactants on coal liquefaction performance and to test surfactant survivability. A eight of (8) autoclave experiments using 100 grams of as-received coal were performed. Two commercial surfactant choices were evaluated. They were: Sodium Lignin Sulfonate (LS) as a colloidal (heterogenous) surfactant of anionic type; and Triton X-100 (TRI) (trade name of a polyoxyethylated tert-octyphenol) as a liquid (homogenous) surfactant of nonionic type. Two additional reference tests were performed. 10 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Facile Directed Assembly of Hollow Polymer Nanocapsules within Spontaneously Formed Catanionic Surfactant Vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mariya D.; Dergunov, Sergey; Richter, Andrew; Durbin, Jeffrey; Shmakov, Sergey; Jia, Ying; Kenbeilova, Saltanat; Orazbekuly, Yerbolat; Kengpeiil, Aigerim; Lindner, Erno; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S; Weigand, Steven; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant vesicles containing monomers in the interior of the bilayer were used to template hollow polymer nanocapsules. This study investigated the formation of surfactant/monomer assemblies by two loading methods, concurrent loading and diffusion loading. The assembly process and the resulting aggregates were investigated with dynamic light scattering, small angle neutron scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Acrylic monomers formed vesicles with a mixture of cationic and anionic surfactants in a broad range of surfactant ratios. Regions with predominant formation of vesicles were broader for compositions containing acrylic monomers compared with blank surfactants. This observation supports the stabilization of the vesicular structure by acrylic monomers. Diffusion loading produced monomer-loaded vesicles unless vesicles were composed from surfactants at the ratios close to the boundary of a vesicular phase region on a phase diagram. Both concurrent-loaded and diffusion-loaded surfactant/monomer vesicles produced hollow polymer nanocapsules upon the polymerization of monomers in the bilayer followed by removal of surfactant scaffolds.

  10. Self-assembly of polyelectrolyte surfactant complexes using large scale MD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Monojoy; Sumpter, Bobby

    2014-03-01

    Polyelectrolytes (PE) and surfactants are known to form interesting structures with varied properties in aqueous solutions. The morphological details of the PE-surfactant complexes depend on a combination of polymer backbone, electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions. We study the self-assembly of cationic PE and anionic surfactants complexes in dilute condition. The importance of such complexes of PE with oppositely charged surfactants can be found in biological systems, such as immobilization of enzymes in polyelectrolyte complexes or nonspecific association of DNA with protein. Many useful properties of PE surfactant complexes come from the highly ordered structures of surfactant self-assembly inside the PE aggregate which has applications in industry. We do large scale molecular dynamics simulation using LAMMPS to understand the structure and dynamics of PE-surfactant systems. Our investigation shows highly ordered pearl-necklace structures that have been observed experimentally in biological systems. We investigate many different properties of PE-surfactant complexation for different parameter ranges that are useful for pharmaceutical, engineering and biological applications.

  11. Role of the charge, carbon chain length, and content of surfactant on the skin penetration of meloxicam-loaded liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Duangjit, Sureewan; Pamornpathomkul, Boonnada; Opanasopit, Praneet; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of surfactant charge, surfactant carbon chain length, and surfactant content on the physicochemical characteristics (ie, vesicle size, zeta potential, elasticity, and entrapment efficiency), morphology, stability, and in vitro skin permeability of meloxicam (MX)-loaded liposome. Moreover, the mechanism for the liposome-enhanced skin permeation of MX was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The model formulation used in this study was obtained using a response surface method incorporating multivariate spline interpolation (RSM-S). Liposome formulations with varying surfactant charge (anionic, neutral, and cationic), surfactant carbon chain length (C4, C12, and C16), and surfactant content (10%, 20%, and 29%) were prepared. The formulation comprising 29% cationic surfactant with a C16 chain length was found to be the optimal liposome for the transdermal delivery of MX. The skin permeation flux of the optimal formulation was 2.69-fold higher than that of a conventional liposome formulation. Our study revealed that surfactants affected the physicochemical characteristics, stability, and skin permeability of MX-loaded liposomes. These findings provide important fundamental information for the development of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems. PMID:24851047

  12. Interactions between Surfactants in Solution and Electrospun Protein Fibers: Effects on Release Behavior and Fiber Properties.

    PubMed

    Stephansen, Karen; García-Díaz, María; Jessen, Flemming; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Nielsen, Hanne M

    2016-03-01

    Intermolecular interaction phenomena occurring between endogenous compounds, such as proteins and bile salts, and electrospun compounds are so far unreported, despite the exposure of fibers to such biorelevant compounds when applied for biomedical purposes, e.g., tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery. In the present study, we present a systematic investigation of how surfactants and proteins, as physiologically relevant components, interact with insulin-loaded fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) electrospun fibers (FSP-Ins fibers) in solution and thereby affect fiber properties such as accessible surface hydrophilicity, physical stability, and release characteristics of an encapsulated drug. Interactions between insulin-loaded protein fibers and five anionic surfactants (sodium taurocholate, sodium taurodeoxycholate, sodium glycocholate, sodium glycodeoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate), a cationic surfactant (benzalkonium chloride), and a neutral surfactant (Triton X-100) were studied. The anionic surfactants increased the insulin release in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the neutral surfactant had no significant effect on the release. Interestingly, only minute amounts of insulin were released from the fibers when benzalkonium chloride was present. The FSP-Ins fibers appeared dense after incubation with this cationic surfactant, whereas high fiber porosity was observed after incubation with anionic or neutral surfactants. Contact angle measurements and staining with the hydrophobic dye 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid indicated that the FSP-Ins fibers were hydrophobic, and showed that the fiber surface properties were affected differently by the surfactants. Bovine serum albumin also affected insulin release in vitro, indicating that also proteins may affect the fiber performance in an in vivo setting. PMID:26389817

  13. Tuning metal–carboxylate coordination in crystalline metal–organic frameworks through surfactant media

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Junkuo; Ye, Kaiqi; He, Mi; Xiong, Wei-Wei; Cao, Wenfang; Lee, Zhi Yi; Wang, Yue; Wu, Tom; Huo, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Qichun

    2013-10-15

    Although it has been widely demonstrated that surfactants can efficiently control the size, shape and surface properties of micro/nanocrystals of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) due to the strong interactions between surfactants and crystal facets of MOFs, the use of surfactants as reaction media to grow MOF single crystals is unprecedented. In addition, compared with ionic liquids, surfactants are much cheaper and can have multifunctional properties such as acidic, basic, neutral, cationic, anionic, or even block. These factors strongly motivate us to develop a new synthetic strategy: growing crystalline MOFs in surfactants. In this report, eight new two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) MOFs have been successfully synthesized in an industrially-abundant and environmentally-friendly surfactant: polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200). Eight different coordination modes of carboxylates, ranging from monodentate η{sup 1} mode to tetra-donor coordination µ{sub 3}-η{sup 1}:η{sup 2}:η{sup 1} mode, have been founded in our research. The magnetic properties of Co-based MOFs were investigated and MOF NTU-Z6b showed a phase transition with a Curie temperature (T{sub c}) at 5 K. Our strategy of growing crystalline MOFs in surfactant could offer exciting opportunities for preparing novel MOFs with diverse structures and interesting properties. - Graphical abstract: Surfactants have been used as reaction media to grow MOF single crystals for the first time. Eight new two-dimensional or three-dimensional MOFs were successfully synthesized in surfactant polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200). Coordination modes of carboxylates up to eight were founded. Our strategy of growing crystalline MOFs in surfactant could offer exciting opportunities for preparing novel MOFs with diverse structures and interesting properties. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Surfactant-thermal synthesis of crystalline metal–organic frameworks. • Eight new 2-D or 3-D metal–organic frameworks

  14. Surfactants and atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Seely, S

    1977-01-01

    In previous publications (1,2) the hypothesis was put forward that atheroma is caused by some pathogen or metabolic fault which impairs the transportability of cholesterol in the plasma. The lipoproteins containing the faulty metabolites are assumed to be incapable of traversing the capillary endothelium and continue to circulate uselessly in the blood stream, possibly giving rise to hypercholesterolaemia, until captured by lipophages which, if they can successfully complete their journey, void them into the gall bladder. The present paper takes the argument a step further by pointing out that the types of substances most likely to cause the described impairment are surfactants. A surfactant finding its way into the plasma could separate cholesterol from its carrier protein and itself become its carrier. The complex would still be kept in suspension in the plasma, but unable to cross biological barriers like the capillary endothelium. An important argument in favour of the hypothesis is that it can offer an explanation of the long-standing medical mystery of the connection between atheroma and the hardness or softness of the water supply. Infant deaths from coronary occlusion present a similar enigma. The paper points out that surfactants can conceivably find their way into infants' feeding bottles. PMID:593183

  15. The Bronsted-Lowery Acid-Base Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history of the simultaneous discovery of acid-base relationships by Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry. Provides a brief biographical sketch of each. Discusses their concept of acids and bases in some detail. (CW)

  16. An Olfactory Indicator for Acid-Base Titrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an olfactory acid-base indicator in titrations for visually impaired students is discussed. Potential olfactory indicators include eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol. Titrations performed with each indicator with eugenol proved to be successful. (KR)

  17. Acid-base homeostasis in the human system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Acid-base regulation is a cooperative phenomena in vivo with body fluids, extracellular and intracellular buffers, lungs, and kidneys all playing important roles. The present account is much too brief to be considered a review of present knowledge of these regulatory systems, and should be viewed, instead, as a guide to the elements necessary to construct a simple model of the mutual interactions of the acid-base regulatory systems of the body.

  18. TRANSFUSIONS—Hazardous Acid-Base Changes with Citrated Blood

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Jovita M. San; Iwai, Seizo; Hattori, Mitsuo; Leigh, M. Digby

    1962-01-01

    In a study of the acid-base changes in the blood of rabbits during and following transfusions of citrated blood and of heparinized blood, it was observed that, with citrated blood, pH decreased and carbon dioxide tensions rose. With heparinized blood, the acid-base balance was maintained within normal limits following transfusions. The potential hazards of rapid massive citrated blood transfusions in the anesthetized patient during operation must be kept in mind. PMID:14496706

  19. Ecotoxicities of polyquaterniums and their associated polyelectrolyte-surfactant aggregates (PSA) to Gambusia holbrooki.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Janet L; Hawker, Darryl W; Nugent, Kerry W; Chapman, Heather F

    2008-02-01

    The toxicity of 11 polyquaterniums used in cosmetic applications, and polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (poly(DADMAC)) were studied for toxicity of the polyquaternium alone, and of a polyquaternium/anionic surfactant complex as occurs in some cosmetic formulations. The surfactant used in the study was sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which is used in cosmetic formulations under its International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) name Sodium Laurel Sulfate. In fish immobilization studies with Gambusia holbrooki, the EC(50) of the polyquaternium/surfactant complex was found to be the same as or similar to the EC(50) for the polyquaternium alone. The toxicity of the polyquaterniums investigated was similar to the published values for other cationic polyelectrolytes and cationic surfactants, in the range from < 1.0 to 10 mg/L, with the exception of low charge density cellulosic polyquaterniums. The anionic surfactant alone was not toxic to fish in the concentration range tested. Results thus showed the toxicity of the polyquaternium was not mitigated by the presence of the anionic surfactant. PMID:18172802

  20. Structural features of the nonionic surfactants stabilizing long-lived bubble nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrigo, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the effects of various electrolytes and one organic compound on bubble production in agarose gels is presented. Several preparations of ultrapure agarose were compared for 42 electrolytes and phenol to identify trends in bubble formation. The anion and cation sequences of bubble suppression are similar to processes for salting out of nonionic surfactants. The reduction of bubble number by polyvalent ions and 1% phenol suggests that the polar portions of these nonionic surfactants represent amide groups. The evidence for amide groups is consistent with the relative positions of Mg(2+) in all cation sequences; this result makes it unlikely that either linkages contribute to the hydrophilicity of the nonionic surfactants stabilizing bubble nuclei in the different aqueous gels tested.

  1. Formation of drug/surfactant catanionic vesicles and their application in sustained drug release.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue; Li, Feifei; Luan, Yuxia; Cao, Wenting; Ji, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Lanxia; Zhang, Longlong; Li, Zhonghao

    2012-10-15

    The aggregation behavior of the cationic drug/anionic surfactant vesicles formed by tetracaine hydrochloride (TH) and double-chain surfactant, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT), was investigated. By controlling the molar ratio of TH to AOT, a transition from catanionic vesicles to micelles was observed. The catanionic aggregates exhibited different charge properties, structures, interaction enthalpies and drug release behaviors depending on the composition. To characterize the cationic drug/anionic surfactant system, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), conductivity, turbidity and zeta potential (ζ) measurements were performed. The drug release results indicate that the present drug-containing catanionic vesicles have promising applications in drug delivery systems. Furthermore, the percentage of drug distributed in the catanionic vesicles or micelles can be obtained by comparing the cumulative release of the corresponding aggregates with the pure drug solution. PMID:22871561

  2. Surfactant and process for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, P. R.

    1984-12-11

    A novel surfactant is formed by reacting maleic anhydride with either a petroleum sulfonate or an alkaryl sulfonate. A surfactant system containing the above surfactant useful in enhanced oil recovery processes is also provided.

  3. Cationic additives in nanosystems activate cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of human neutrophils: lipid nanoparticles versus polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    This report compares the effect of lipid and polymeric nanoparticles upon human neutrophils in the presence of cationic surfactants. Nanostructured lipid carriers and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles were manufactured as lipid and polymeric systems, respectively. Some cytotoxic and proinflammatory mediators such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elastase, O2•−, and intracellular Ca2+ were examined. The nanoparticles showed a size of 170–225 nm. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate, the cationic surfactant, converted zeta potential from a negative to a positive charge. Nanoparticles without cationic surfactants revealed a negligible change on immune and inflammatory responses. Cationic surfactants in both nanoparticulate and free forms induced cell death and the release of mediators. Lipid nanoparticles generally demonstrated a greater response compared to polymeric nanoparticles. The neutrophil morphology observed by electron microscopy confirmed this trend. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the coating material showed more significant activation of neutrophils than soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate. Confocal microscope imaging displayed a limited internalization of nanoparticles into neutrophils. It is proposed that cationic nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane, triggering membrane disruption and the following Ca2+ influx. The elevation of intracellular Ca2+ induces degranulation and oxidative stress. The consequence of these effects is cytotoxicity and cell death. Caution should be taken when selecting feasible nanoparticulate formulations and cationic additives for consideration of applicability and toxicity. PMID:25609950

  4. Cationic additives in nanosystems activate cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of human neutrophils: lipid nanoparticles versus polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    This report compares the effect of lipid and polymeric nanoparticles upon human neutrophils in the presence of cationic surfactants. Nanostructured lipid carriers and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles were manufactured as lipid and polymeric systems, respectively. Some cytotoxic and proinflammatory mediators such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elastase, O2(•-), and intracellular Ca(2+) were examined. The nanoparticles showed a size of 170-225 nm. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate, the cationic surfactant, converted zeta potential from a negative to a positive charge. Nanoparticles without cationic surfactants revealed a negligible change on immune and inflammatory responses. Cationic surfactants in both nanoparticulate and free forms induced cell death and the release of mediators. Lipid nanoparticles generally demonstrated a greater response compared to polymeric nanoparticles. The neutrophil morphology observed by electron microscopy confirmed this trend. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the coating material showed more significant activation of neutrophils than soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate. Confocal microscope imaging displayed a limited internalization of nanoparticles into neutrophils. It is proposed that cationic nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane, triggering membrane disruption and the following Ca(2+) influx. The elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) induces degranulation and oxidative stress. The consequence of these effects is cytotoxicity and cell death. Caution should be taken when selecting feasible nanoparticulate formulations and cationic additives for consideration of applicability and toxicity. PMID:25609950

  5. Role of surfactants in the control of dopamine-eumelanin particle size and in the inhibition of film deposition at solid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Florian; Bertani, Philippe; Ball, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Anionic and cationic surfactants such as sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) are able to control the size of "polydopamine" particles produced from dopamine solutions and to simultaneously strongly inhibit the deposition of "polydopamine" on surfaces. Indeed, dynamic light scattering experiments allowed to show that the hydrodynamic radius of polydopamine progressively decreases from about 1 μm to a few nanometer upon an increase in the SDS and CTAB concentration. At the highest surfactant concentration used (50 mM) the size of the aggregates is only slightly larger than the size of the surfactant micelles. On the other hand, the non-ionic Triton X-100 surfactant has no significant influence on both phenomena. It is suggested that the observed effect originates from the anionic and cationic surfactants acting as a template in which the growth of "polydopamine" is confined. PMID:24997433

  6. Angiotensin II modulates respiratory and acid-base responses to prolonged hypoxia in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Heitman, S J; Jennings, D B

    1998-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II (ANG II) contributes to ventilatory and acid-base adaptations during 3-4 h of hypoxia (partial pressure of O2 in arterial blood approximately 43 Torr) in the conscious dog. Three protocols were carried out over 3-4 h in five dogs: 1) air control, 2) 12% O2 breathing, and 3) 12% O2 breathing with ANG II receptors blocked by infusion of saralasin (0. 5 microg . kg-1 . min-1). After 2 h of hypoxia, expired ventilation and alveolar ventilation progressively increased, and the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood and the difference between the arterial concentrations of strong cations and strong anions ([SID]) decreased. When the hypoxic chemoreceptor drive to breathe was abolished transiently for 30 s with 100% O2, the resultant central apneic time decreased between 0.5 and 2.5 h of hypoxia. All these adaptive responses to hypoxia were abolished by ANG II receptor block. Because plasma ANG II levels were lower during hypoxia and hypoxic release of arginine vasopressin from the pituitary into the plasma was prevented by ANG II receptor block, the brain renin-angiotensin system was likely involved. It is possible that ANG II mediates ventilatory and acid-base adaptive responses to prolonged hypoxia via alterations in ion transport to decrease [SID] in brain extracellular fluid rather than acting by a direct neural mechanism. PMID:9688673

  7. A Prebiotic Chemistry Experiment on the Adsorption of Nucleic Acids Bases onto a Natural Zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anizelli, Pedro R.; Baú, João Paulo T.; Gomes, Frederico P.; da Costa, Antonio Carlos S.; Carneiro, Cristine E. A.; Zaia, Cássia Thaïs B. V.; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2015-09-01

    There are currently few mechanisms that can explain how nucleic acid bases were synthesized, concentrated from dilute solutions, and/or protected against degradation by UV radiation or hydrolysis on the prebiotic Earth. A natural zeolite exhibited the potential to adsorb adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil over a range of pH, with greater adsorption of adenine and cytosine at acidic pH. Adsorption of all nucleic acid bases was decreased in artificial seawater compared to water, likely due to cation complexation. Furthermore, adsorption of adenine appeared to protect natural zeolite from thermal degradation. The C=O groups from thymine, cytosine and uracil appeared to assist the dissolution of the mineral while the NH2 group from adenine had no effect. As shown by FT-IR spectroscopy, adenine interacted with a natural zeolite through the NH2 group, and cytosine through the C=O group. A pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of adenine adsorption, which occurred faster in artificial seawaters.

  8. A Prebiotic Chemistry Experiment on the Adsorption of Nucleic Acids Bases onto a Natural Zeolite.

    PubMed

    Anizelli, Pedro R; Baú, João Paulo T; Gomes, Frederico P; da Costa, Antonio Carlos S; Carneiro, Cristine E A; Zaia, Cássia Thaïs B V; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2015-09-01

    There are currently few mechanisms that can explain how nucleic acid bases were synthesized, concentrated from dilute solutions, and/or protected against degradation by UV radiation or hydrolysis on the prebiotic Earth. A natural zeolite exhibited the potential to adsorb adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil over a range of pH, with greater adsorption of adenine and cytosine at acidic pH. Adsorption of all nucleic acid bases was decreased in artificial seawater compared to water, likely due to cation complexation. Furthermore, adsorption of adenine appeared to protect natural zeolite from thermal degradation. The C=O groups from thymine, cytosine and uracil appeared to assist the dissolution of the mineral while the NH2 group from adenine had no effect. As shown by FT-IR spectroscopy, adenine interacted with a natural zeolite through the NH2 group, and cytosine through the C=O group. A pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of adenine adsorption, which occurred faster in artificial seawaters. PMID:25754589

  9. An ethoxylated alkyl phosphate (anionic surfactant) for the promotion of activities of proteases and its potential use in the enzymatic processing of wool.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Smith, Edward; Shen, Jinsong; Bishop, David

    2006-05-01

    Pretreatments of wool fabrics with cationic, anionic or non-ionic surfactants were investigated to reduce surface tension and improve the wettability of the fibres in order to promote protease activity on the fibres in subsequent processes. Results showed that an ethoxylated alkyl phosphate (specific anionic surfactant) as well as the widely used non-ionic surfactant was compatible with proteases in the enzymatic treatment of wool. There is therefore a potential for using specific anionic surfactants to achieve efficient enzymatic scouring processes. PMID:16791726

  10. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine metabolism and surfactant function in preterm, ventilated lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Jobe, A.H.; Ikegami, M.; Seidner, S.R.; Pettenazzo, A.; Ruffini, L.

    1989-02-01

    Preterm lambs were delivered at 138 days gestational age and ventilated for periods up to 24 h in order to study surfactant metabolism and surfactant function. The surfactant-saturated phosphatidylcholine pool in the alveolar wash was 13 +/- 4 mumol/kg and did not change from 10 min to 24 h after birth. Trace amounts of labeled natural sheep surfactant were mixed with fetal lung fluid at birth. By 24 h, 80% of the label had become lung-tissue-associated, yet there was no loss of label from phosphatidylcholine in the lungs when calculated as the sum of the lung tissue plus alveolar wash. De novo synthesized phosphatidylcholine was labeled with choline given by intravascular injection at 1 h of age. Labeled phosphatidylcholine accumulated in the lung tissue linearly to 24 h, and the labeled phosphatidylcholine moved through lamellar body to alveolar pools. The turnover time for alveolar phosphatidylcholine was estimated to be about 13 h, indicating an active metabolic pool. A less surface-active surfactant fraction recovered as a supernatant after centrifugation of the alveolar washes at 40,000 x g increased from birth to 10 min of ventilation, but no subsequent changes in the distribution of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in surfactant fractions occurred. The results were consistent with recycling pathway(s) that maintained surface-active surfactant pools in preterm ventilated lambs.

  11. Interaction of nonionic surfactant AEO9 with ionic surfactants*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-guo; Yin, Hong

    2005-01-01

    The interaction in two mixtures of a nonionic surfactant AEO9 (C12H25O(CH2CH2O)9H) and different ionic surfactants was investigated. The two mixtures were AEO9/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and AEO9/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at molar fraction of AEO9, α AEO9=0.5. The surface properties of the surfactants, critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness of surface tension reduction (γ CMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Γ max) and minimum area per molecule at the air/solution interface (A min) were determined for both individual surfactants and their mixtures. The significant deviations from ideal behavior (attractive interactions) of the nonionic/ionic surfactant mixtures were determined. Mixtures of both AEO9/SDS and AEO9/CTAB exhibited synergism in surface tension reduction efficiency and mixed micelle formation, but neither exhibited synergism in surface tension reduction effectiveness. PMID:15909351

  12. Self-aggregation and liquid crystalline behavior of new ester-functionalized quinuclidinolium surfactants.

    PubMed

    Bhadani, Avinash; Endo, Takeshi; Koura, Setsuko; Sakai, Kenichi; Abe, Masahiko; Sakai, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    A new type of ester-based cationic surfactant having a quinuclidinolium headgroup has been synthesized starting from linear fatty alcohols and has been characterized using spectroscopic techniques. The self-aggregation and thermodynamic properties of these surfactants have been investigated by pendant-drop surface tensiometry and conductivity measurements. The liquid crystalline behaviors of these surfactants were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The quinuclidinolium headgroup demonstrated a unique ability to interlock among themselves thus affecting the physicochemical properties of surfactants in aqueous solution. The current research finding supports the new concept of headgroup interlocking which is supported by 1D and 2D NMR studies. PMID:25058797

  13. Separation of surfactant functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes via free solution electrophoresis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe, Blazej; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Borowiak-Palen, Ewa; Kalenczuk, Ryszard J.

    2011-04-01

    This work presents the application of the free solution electrophoresis method (FSE) in the metallic / semiconductive (M/S) separation process of the surfactant functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The SWCNTs synthesized via laser ablation were purified through high vacuum annealing and subsequent refluxing processes in aqua regia solution. The purified and annealed material was divided into six batches. First three batches were dispersed in anionic surfactants: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium cholate (SC) and sodium deoxycholate (DOC). The next three batches were dispersed in cationic surfactants: cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). All the prepared SWCNTs samples were subjected to FSE separation process. The fractionated samples were recovered from control and electrode areas and annealed in order to remove the adsorbed surfactants on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) surface. The changes of the van Hove singularities (vHS) present in SWCNTs spectra were investigated via UV-Vis-NIR optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS).

  14. Selective adsorption of nonionic surfactant on hexagonal mesoporous silicates (HMSs) in the presence of ionic dyes.

    PubMed

    Punyapalakul, Patiparn; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    Selective adsorption of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APnEOs) from synthetic textile wastewater was investigated using hexagonal mesoporous silicates (HMSs). HMSs are synthetic silicate that have uniform mesopores, large surface areas and uniform surface functional groups. Five different types of HMSs were synthesized by surfactant-templating methods, and three of them were grafted with organic surface functional groups, i.e., n-octyldimethyl-, 3-aminopropyltriethoxy-, and 3-mercaptopropyl-groups. Titanium-substituted HMS was also made in the same way as HMS. Adsorption capacities and selectivities of these HMSs for APnEOs were investigated in batch adsorption experiments either in single-solute APnEO solutions or in mixed solutions with ionic dyes. Triton X-100 was used as a model APnEO and either Basic Yellow 1 or Acid Blue 45 was used as cationic or anionic dyes, respectively. All the HMSs except 3-aminopropyltriethoxy-grafted HMS had higher adsorption capacities of Triton X-100 than powdered activated carbon. HMS and Ti-HMS had the highest BET surface areas and mesopore volumes measured by the nitrogen adsorption method, and thereby the highest adsorption capacities for Triton X-100. Surface charge was the most important attractive force between HMSs and dyes. FT-IR spectra proved that hydrophilic HMSs adsorbed both Basic Yellow 1 and Acid Blue 45 by hydrogen bonding. Acid-base titration experiments revealed that all the HMSs except 3-aminopropyltriethoxy-grafted HMS were negatively charged at neutral pH, whereas PAC and 3-aminopropyltriethoxy-grafted HMS were positively charged. Due to negative surface charge, the anionic dye (Acid Blue 45) was not adsorbed on the four HMSs, which proves high selectivities of these HMSs for Triton X-100 over Acid Blue 45. On the contrary, a small amount of cationic dye (Basic Yellow 1) was adsorbed on all HMSs, but 3-aminopropyltriethoxy-grafted HMS showed the lowest adsorption capacity for Basic Yellow 1 due to positive

  15. Reversible Condensation of DNA using a Redox-Active Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Melissa E.; Jewell, Christopher M.; Lynn, David M.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2008-01-01

    We report characterization of aqueous solutions of dilute Lambda phage DNA containing the redox-active surfactant (11-ferrocenylundecyl)trimethylammonium bromide (FTMA) as a function of the oxidation state of the FTMA. FTMA undergoes a reversible one-electron oxidation from a reduced state that forms micelles in aqueous solution to an oxidized state (containing the ferrocenium cation) that does not selfassociate in solution. This investigation sought to test the hypothesis that FTMA can be used to achieve reversible control over the conformation of DNA-surfactant complexes in solution. Whereas DNA adopts extended coil conformations in aqueous solutions, our measurements revealed that addition of reduced FTMA (2–5μM) to aqueous solutions of DNA (5 μM in nucleotide units) resulted in coexistence of extended coils and compact globules in solution. At higher concentrations of reduced FTMA (up to 30μM), the DNA was present as compact globules only. In contrast, oxidized FTMA had no measurable effect on the conformation of DNA, allowing DNA to maintain an extended coil state up to a concentration of 75μM oxidized FTMA. We further demonstrate that it is possible to chemically or electrochemically transform the oxidation state of FTMA in preformed complexes of FTMA and DNA, thus achieving in situ control over the conformations of the DNA in solution. These results provide guidance for the design of surfactant systems that permit active control of DNA-surfactant interactions. PMID:17428073

  16. Influence of polymer-surfactant aggregates on fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Malcher, Tadeusz; Gzyl-Malcher, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the influence of interactions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles on drag reduction. Since the interactions between PEO and CTAB micelles alone are weak, salicylate ions were used as CTAB counterions. They facilitate formation of polymer-micelle aggregates by screening the electrostatic repulsions between the charged surfactant headgroups. The influence of polymer-surfactant interactions on drag reduction is of biomedical engineering importance. Drag reducing additives introduced to blood produce beneficial effects on blood circulation, representing a novel way to treat cardiovascular disorders. PEO is a blood-compatible polymer. However, it quickly mechanically degrades when subjected to high shear stresses. Thus, there is a need to search for other additives able to reduce drag, which would be more mechanically stable, e.g. polymer-surfactant aggregates. Numerical simulations of the flow were performed using the CFX software. Based on the internal structure of the polymer-surfactant solution, a hypothesis explaining the reason of increase of drag reduction and decrease in dynamic viscosity with increasing shear rate was proposed. It was suggested that the probable reason for the abrupt increase in friction factor, observed when the critical Reynolds number was exceeded, was the disappearance of the difference in the dynamic viscosity. PMID:22357360

  17. Novel Approaches to Surfactant Administration

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Samir; Donn, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Surfactant replacement therapy has been the mainstay of treatment for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome for more than twenty years. For the most part, surfactant is administered intratracheally, followed by mechanical ventilation. In recent years, the growing interest in noninvasive ventilation has led to novel approaches of administration. This paper will review these techniques and the associated clinical evidence. PMID:23243504

  18. Surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Improved process of coal liquefaction utilizing nonaqueous surfactant has increased oil yield from 50 to about 80%. Asphaltene molecule formation of colloid particles is prevented by surfactant. Separated molecules present more surface area for hydrogenation reaction. Lower requirements for temperature, pressure, and hydrogen lead to reduction in capital and operation costs.

  19. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation

    DOEpatents

    Mullen, Ken I.

    1997-01-01

    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  20. NATURAL SURFACTANTS IN PAPER RECYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to introduce new types of surfactants based on renewable materials (sugar surfactants) for use in ink removal from recycled paper. By applying green chemistry approaches we not only will solve an important industry and environmental problem but...

  1. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  2. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: First annual report for the period September 30, 1985-September 30, 1986. [Sandpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1987-05-01

    Surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency is a novel EOR method which utilizes precipitation/coacervation of surfactants to plug the most permeable regions of the reservoir, improving the efficiency of a waterflooding operation. This technique does not rely on reduction of interfacial tension between aqueous and oleic phases to enhance oil recovery. Therefore, even though surfactants are involved, this new technique is not a substitute or improvement on classical surfactant flooding; however, it has the potantial to compete with polymer flooding as an alternative sweep efficiency improvement method. In surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency, a slug containing one kind of surfactant is injected into the reservoir, followed by a brine spacer. This is followed by injection of a second kind of surfactant which has lower adsorption than the first surfactant used. Anionic and cationic surfactants are one possible combination for this application. These may form either a precipitate or a coacervate upon mixing. Phase boundaries for some specific systems of this type have been determined over a wide range of conditions and a model developed to describe this behavior. Another possibility is the use of nonionic surfactants, which may form coacervate under proper conditions. The adsorption behavior of mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants was measured to aid in modeling the chromatographic effects with these surfactants in the reservoir. Studies with sandpacks of different permeabilities in parallel configuration using mixtures of anionic and cationic surfactants have demonstrated the capability of this method to reduce flow rates through a more permeable sandpack more than that through a less permeable sandpack. 4 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. The biocidal effect of a novel synthesized gemini surfactant on environmental sulfidogenic bacteria: planktonic cells and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Labena, A; Hegazy, M A; Horn, H; Müller, E

    2015-02-01

    A cationic gemini surfactant was synthesized and characterized. The surfactant was successfully applied as a biocide against environmental sulfidogenic bacteria in the bulk phase (planktonic) and on the surface (biofilm). The activity of the synthesized surfactant was discussed based on the redox potential and the sulfide productivity in the bulk phase. The cultivated biofilm structure analysis and corrosion rate were estimated on the metal surface. The lowest metal corrosion rate was recognized at a concentration of 1mM with a metal corrosion inhibition efficiency of 95%. The synthesized gemini surfactant prevented the biofilm formation at a concentration of 0.1mM. The synthesized gemini surfactant displayed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25492209

  4. On-line surfactant monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, K.I.; Neal, E.E.; Soran, P.D.; Smith, B.

    1995-04-01

    This group has developed a process to extract metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions. The process uses water soluble polymers to complex metal ions. The metal/polymer complex is concentrated by ultrafiltration and the metals are recovered by a pH adjustment that frees the metal ions. The metal ions pass through the ultrafiltration membrane and are recovered in a concentrated form suitable for reuse. Surfactants are present in one of the target waste streams. Surfactants foul the costly ultrafiltration membranes. It was necessary to remove the surfactants before processing the waste stream. This paper discusses an on-line device the authors fabricated to monitor the process stream to assure that all the surfactant had been removed. The device is inexpensive and sensitive to very low levels of surfactants.

  5. Computer simulations of lung surfactant.

    PubMed

    Baoukina, Svetlana; Tieleman, D Peter

    2016-10-01

    Lung surfactant lines the gas-exchange interface in the lungs and reduces the surface tension, which is necessary for breathing. Lung surfactant consists mainly of lipids with a small amount of proteins and forms a monolayer at the air-water interface connected to bilayer reservoirs. Lung surfactant function involves transfer of material between the monolayer and bilayers during the breathing cycle. Lipids and proteins are organized laterally in the monolayer; selected species are possibly preferentially transferred to bilayers. The complex 3D structure of lung surfactant and the exact roles of lipid organization and proteins remain important goals for research. We review recent simulation studies on the properties of lipid monolayers, monolayers with phase coexistence, monolayer-bilayer transformations, lipid-protein interactions, and effects of nanoparticles on lung surfactant. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg. PMID:26922885

  6. The role of excluded volume and electrostatics from coarse-grain modeling of the interaction of gemini surfactants with like-charged membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Sandra C. C.; Almeida, J. A. S.; Dias, R. S.; Pais, A. A. C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Cationic systems composed of lipids and/or surfactants are of paramount importance in a variety of applications. Within these, gemini have attracted particular attention, mainly due to their improved aggregation properties and to the possibility of tuning offered by the presence of a spacer. In this work, a Monte Carlo simulation study with a coarse-grained model was employed to assess the interaction of cationic gemini surfactants with a like-charged model membrane. Separating the contribution of the excluded volume and that of the electrostatic effects in the organization of gemini-lipid membranes was the first goal of this work and the role of these factors was assessed varying the concentration, the spacer length and the headgroup charge of gemini surfactants. The results provide a new insight on the organization of lipid headgroups in the vicinity of gemini surfactants. It was found that the surfactant-lipid interaction is strongly affected by the surfactant spacer length, being controlled by an overall balance between excluded volume and surfactant-lipid and surfactant-surfactant electrostatic effects. It is also seen that the out-of-plane motion of the spacer has a significant effect upon membrane organization and counterion condensation. Good agreement was found with results previously obtained from atomistic simulation.

  7. Zeta potential of soils with surfactants and its relevance to electrokinetic remediation.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Abidin; Yukselen, Yeliz

    2005-04-11

    There are numerous studies on the application of electrokinetic decontamination technique to remediate heavy metal contaminated fine-grained soils. In recent studies, surfactants have been used to increase the efficiency of contaminant removal. However, there is limited data available on how physicochemical parameters such as zeta potential (zeta) of soils changes in the presence of surfactants. Understanding the zeta potential variations of soils with surfactant addition is important because it controls the direction and magnitude of electro-osmotic permeability, which plays important role on the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation. In this study, zeta potentials of kaolinite, montmorillonite and quartz powder with Li+, Ca+2, Cu+2, Pb+2 and Al+3 in the presence of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants were determined. The results indicate that anionic surfactants produce negative zeta potentials. The other surfactants produce both positive and negative zeta potentials depending on soil type and ion present in the system. The results also indicate that the zeta potential of kaolinite and quartz powder with surfactants showed similar trends; however, the absolute magnitude of the zeta potential of quartz powder is higher than that of kaolinite. The zeta potential of montmorillonite commonly shows a different trend from those of kaolinite and quartz powder. Based on the test results, it is recommended that zeta potential of soils be determined before the electrokinetic decontamination in order to maximize the efficiency of the technique. PMID:15811672

  8. Surfactant-adsorption-induced initial depinning behavior in evaporating water and nanofluid sessile droplets.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Duan, Fei

    2015-05-19

    A surfactant-induced autophobic effect has been observed to initiate an intense depinning behavior at the initial stage of evaporation in both pure water and nanofluid sessile droplets. The cationic surfactant adsorbing to the negatively charged silicon wafer makes the solid surface more hydrophobic. The autophobing-induced depinning behavior, leading to an enlarged contact angle and a shortened base diameter, takes place only when the surfactant concentration is below its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The initial spreading degree right before the droplet retraction, the retracting velocity of the contact line, and the duration of the initial droplet retraction are shown to depend negatively on the surfactant concentration below the cmc. An unexpected enhancement in the initial depinning has been found in the nanofluid droplets, possibly resulting from the hydrophilic interplay between the graphite nanoparticle deposition and the surfactant molecules. Such promotion of the initial depinning due to the nanoparticle deposition makes the droplet retract even at a surfactant concentration higher than the cmc (1.5 cmc). The resulting deposition formed in the presence of the depinning behavior has great enhancement for coffee-ring formation as compared to the one free of surfactant, implying that the formation of a coffee ring does not require the pinning of the contact line during the entire drying process. PMID:25923721

  9. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, other inorganic and polymeric species is being studied. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro and nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the second year of this three year contract, adsorption/desorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures on alumina and silica was studied. Surfactants studied include the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC), nonionic pentadecylethoxylated nonyl phenol (NP-15) and the nonionic octaethylene glycol n-dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}EO{sub 8}) of varying hydrocarbon chain length. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer in terms of micropolarity and aggregation numbers was probed using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactant in the mixed aggregate led to shielding of the charge of the ionic surfactant which in-turn promoted aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution upon adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentrations in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

  10. Predicting cellulose solvating capabilities of acid-base conjugate ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Parviainen, Arno; King, Alistair W T; Mutikainen, Ilpo; Hummel, Michael; Selg, Christoph; Hauru, Lauri K J; Sixta, Herbert; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka

    2013-11-01

    Different acid-base conjugates were made by combining a range of bases and superbases with acetic and propionic acid. Only the combinations that contained superbases were capable of dissolving cellulose. Proton affinities were calculated for the bases. A range, within which cellulose dissolution occurred, when combined with acetic or propionic acid, was defined for further use. This was above a proton affinity value of about 240 kcal mol(-1) at the MP2/6-311+G(d,p)//MP2/ 6-311+G(d,p) ab initio level. Understanding dissolution allowed us to determine that cation acidity contributed considerably to the ability of ionic liquids to dissolve cellulose and not just the basicity of the anion. By XRD analyses of suitable crystals, hydrogen bonding interactions between anion and cation were found to be the dominant interactions in the crystalline state. From determination of viscosities of these conjugates over a temperature range, certain structures were found to have as low a viscosity as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, which was reflected in their high rate of cellulose dissolution but not necessarily the quantitative solubility of cellulose in those ionic liquids. 1,5-Diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium propionate, which is one of the best structures for cellulose dissolution, was then distilled using laboratory equipment to demonstrate its recyclability. PMID:24106149

  11. Surfactant induced autophobing.

    PubMed

    Bera, B; Duits, M H G; Cohen Stuart, M A; van den Ende, D; Mugele, F

    2016-05-18

    Surfactant adsorption in a three-phase system and its influence on wetting properties are relevant in various applications. Here, we report a hitherto not observed phenomenon, namely the retraction of an aqueous drop on hydrophilic solid substrates (which we refer to as 'autophobing') in ambient oil containing water-insoluble fatty acids, caused by the deposition of these fatty acids from the ambient oil onto the solid substrate. AFM measurements confirm that the surfactant is deposited on the solid by the moving contact line. This leads to a more hydrophobic substrate, the retraction of the contact line and a concomitant increase in the contact angle. The deposition process is enabled by the formation of a reaction product between deprotonated fatty acids and Ca(2+) ions at the oil/water interface. We investigate how the transition to a new equilibrium depends on the concentrations of the fatty acids, the aqueous solute, the chain lengths of the fatty acid, and the types of alkane solvent and silica or mica substrates. This phenomenon is observed on both substrates and for all explored combinations of fatty acids and solvents and thus appears to be generic. In order to capture the evolution of the contact angle, we develop a theoretical model in which the rate of adsorption at the oil-water interface governs the overall kinetics of autophobing, and transfer to the solid is determined by a mass flux balance (similar to a Langmuir Blodgett transfer). PMID:27102975

  12. Adsorption of zwitterionic surfactant on limestone measured with high-performance liquid chromatography: micelle-vesicle influence.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Alvarez, David Aaron; Zamudio-Rivera, Luis S; Luna-Rojero, Erick E; Rodríguez-Otamendi, Dinora I; Marín-León, Adlaí; Hernández-Altamirano, Raúl; Mena-Cervantes, Violeta Y; Chávez-Miyauchi, Tomás Eduardo

    2014-10-21

    Herein is presented a new methodology to determine the static adsorption of a zwitterionic surfactant on limestone in three different aqueous media [high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) water, seawater, and connate water] with the use of HPLC at room temperature and 70 °C. The results showed that, in both HPLC water and seawater, the surfactant adsorption followed a monolayer Langmuir tendency. In contrast, for connate water, the surfactant presented a new adsorption profile, characterized by two regions: (i) At surfactant concentrations below 1500 mg L(-1), an increase of adsorption is observed as the amount of divalent cations increases in the aqueous media. (ii) At surfactant concentrations above 1500 mg L(-1), the adsorption decreases because the equilibrium, monomer ⇆ micelle ⇆ vesicle, is shifted to the formation of vesicles, giving as a result a decrease in the concentration of monomers, thus reducing the interaction between the surfactant and the rock, and therefore, lower adsorption values were obtained. The behavior of the surfactant adsorption under different concentrations of divalent cations was well-described by the use of a new modified Langmuir model: (dΓ/dt)ads = k(ads)c(Γ∞ - Γ) - k(cmc)(c - c(cmc))(n)ΓH(c - c(cmc)). It was also observed that, as the temperature increases, the adsorption is reduced because of the exothermic nature of the adsorption processes. PMID:25254947

  13. Local reactivity descriptors to predict the strength of Lewis acid sites in alkali cation-exchanged zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Ramesh Ch.; Kinkar Roy, Ram; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2004-05-01

    Lewis acidity of alkali cation-exchanged zeolite is studied using local reactivity descriptors based on hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concept. The local softness for nucleophilic attack ( sx+), local softness for electrophilic attack ( sx-) and their ratio, which is called `relative electrophilicity' ( sx+/ sx-), are calculated for the exchanged cations and Lewis acidity of the cations is found to decrease in the order: Li + > Na + > K + > Rb + > Cs +. Calculated blue shift of CO vibrational frequency (Δ ν) and interaction energy of CO molecule with alkali cation-exchanged zeolite clusters vary linearly with sx+/ sx- values.

  14. Surfactant protein B deficiency: insights into surfactant function through clinical surfactant protein deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M W

    2001-01-01

    Surfactant protein B (SP-B) deficiency is a disorder of surfactant function with complete or transient absence of SP-B in term neonates. SP-B, 1 of 4 described surfactant-associated proteins, plays a key role in surfactant metabolism, particularly in intracellular packaging of surfactant components, formation of tubular myelin, and the presentation of the surfactant phospholipid monolayer to the air-fluid interface within the alveolus. Neonates with clinical SP-B deficiency best demonstrate the key role of SP-B in surfactant function. "Classic" deficiency results in severe respiratory failure in term infants and death unless lung transplantation is performed. Because the initial description of complete deficiency secondary to a homozygous frameshift mutation in codon 121 of the SP-B cDNA, partial deficiencies with differing genetic backgrounds and less severe clinical courses have been reported. These partial deficiency states may provide a clearer picture of genotype/phenotype relationships in SP-B function and surfactant metabolism. SP-B deficiency or dysfunction may be more common than once thought and may play a significant role in neonatal lung disease. PMID:11202476

  15. Has Stewart approach improved our ability to diagnose acid-base disorders in critically ill patients?

    PubMed

    Masevicius, Fabio D; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2015-02-01

    The Stewart approach-the application of basic physical-chemical principles of aqueous solutions to blood-is an appealing method for analyzing acid-base disorders. These principles mainly dictate that pH is determined by three independent variables, which change primarily and independently of one other. In blood plasma in vivo these variables are: (1) the PCO2; (2) the strong ion difference (SID)-the difference between the sums of all the strong (i.e., fully dissociated, chemically nonreacting) cations and all the strong anions; and (3) the nonvolatile weak acids (Atot). Accordingly, the pH and the bicarbonate levels (dependent variables) are only altered when one or more of the independent variables change. Moreover, the source of H(+) is the dissociation of water to maintain electroneutrality when the independent variables are modified. The basic principles of the Stewart approach in blood, however, have been challenged in different ways. First, the presumed independent variables are actually interdependent as occurs in situations such as: (1) the Hamburger effect (a chloride shift when CO2 is added to venous blood from the tissues); (2) the loss of Donnan equilibrium (a chloride shift from the interstitium to the intravascular compartment to balance the decrease of Atot secondary to capillary leak; and (3) the compensatory response to a primary disturbance in either independent variable. Second, the concept of water dissociation in response to changes in SID is controversial and lacks experimental evidence. In addition, the Stewart approach is not better than the conventional method for understanding acid-base disorders such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis secondary to a chloride-rich-fluid load. Finally, several attempts were performed to demonstrate the clinical superiority of the Stewart approach. These studies, however, have severe methodological drawbacks. In contrast, the largest study on this issue indicated the interchangeability of the Stewart and

  16. Interactions between kappa-carrageenan and some surfactants in the bulk solution and at the surface of alumina.

    PubMed

    Grządka, E

    2015-06-01

    The interactions between surfactants (SDS, CTAB, TX-100 or their equimolar mixtures) and kappa-carrageenan (Carr) in the bulk solution and at the surface of alumina were determined using the surface tension and the spectrophotometric adsorption measurements. The obtained results show that Carr has the ability to create the multilayer complexes with CTAB, TX-100 and the equimolar mixtures of surfactants (CTAB/TX-100), but does not interact with SDS. The created complexes are electrostatic (with CTAB) or they are of different mechanisms such as the hydrogen bonding or the acid-base interactions (with TX-100). The electrokinetic measurements (the surface charge density and the zeta potential) allow to analyze the structure of the adsorption layer: polymer/surfactant/metal oxide. It turned out that the macromolecules of Carr are directly bonded to the surface whereas the surfactants are present in the upper parts of the electrical double layer. PMID:25843828

  17. Factors Affecting the Design of Slow Release Formulations of Herbicides Based on Clay-Surfactant Systems. A Methodological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Jiménez, María del Carmen; Mishael, Yael-Golda; Nir, Shlomo; Morillo, Esmeralda; Undabeytia, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    A search for clay-surfactant based formulations with high percentage of the active ingredient, which can yield slow release of active molecules is described. The active ingredients were the herbicides metribuzin (MZ), mesotrione (MS) and flurtamone (FL), whose solubilities were examined in the presence of four commercial surfactants; (i) neutral: two berols (B048, B266) and an alkylpolyglucoside (AG6202); (ii) cationic: an ethoxylated amine (ET/15). Significant percent of active ingredient (a.i.) in the clay/surfactant/herbicide formulations could be achieved only when most of the surfactant was added as micelles. MZ and FL were well solubilized by berols, whereas MS by ET/15. Sorption of surfactants on the clay mineral sepiolite occurred mostly by sorption of micelles, and the loadings exceeded the CEC. Higher loadings were determined for B266 and ET/15. The sorption of surfactants was modeled by using the Langmuir-Scatchard equation which permitted the determination of binding coefficients that could be used for further predictions of the sorbed amounts of surfactants under a wide range of clay/surfactant ratios. A possibility was tested of designing clay-surfactant based formulations of certain herbicides by assuming the same ratio between herbicides and surfactants in the formulations as for herbicides incorporated in micelles in solution. Calculations indicated that satisfactory FL formulations could not be synthesized. The experimental fractions of herbicides in the formulations were in agreement with the predicted ones for MS and MZ. The validity of this approach was confirmed in in vitro release tests that showed a slowing down of the release of a.i. from the designed formulations relative to the technical products. Soil dissipation studies with MS formulations also showed improved bioactivity of the clay-surfactant formulation relative to the commercial one. This methodological approach can be extended to other clay-surfactant systems for encapsulation and

  18. Factors affecting the design of slow release formulations of herbicides based on clay-surfactant systems. A methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Galán-Jiménez, María Del Carmen; Mishael, Yael-Golda; Nir, Shlomo; Morillo, Esmeralda; Undabeytia, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    A search for clay-surfactant based formulations with high percentage of the active ingredient, which can yield slow release of active molecules is described. The active ingredients were the herbicides metribuzin (MZ), mesotrione (MS) and flurtamone (FL), whose solubilities were examined in the presence of four commercial surfactants; (i) neutral: two berols (B048, B266) and an alkylpolyglucoside (AG6202); (ii) cationic: an ethoxylated amine (ET/15). Significant percent of active ingredient (a.i.) in the clay/surfactant/herbicide formulations could be achieved only when most of the surfactant was added as micelles. MZ and FL were well solubilized by berols, whereas MS by ET/15. Sorption of surfactants on the clay mineral sepiolite occurred mostly by sorption of micelles, and the loadings exceeded the CEC. Higher loadings were determined for B266 and ET/15. The sorption of surfactants was modeled by using the Langmuir-Scatchard equation which permitted the determination of binding coefficients that could be used for further predictions of the sorbed amounts of surfactants under a wide range of clay/surfactant ratios. A possibility was tested of designing clay-surfactant based formulations of certain herbicides by assuming the same ratio between herbicides and surfactants in the formulations as for herbicides incorporated in micelles in solution. Calculations indicated that satisfactory FL formulations could not be synthesized. The experimental fractions of herbicides in the formulations were in agreement with the predicted ones for MS and MZ. The validity of this approach was confirmed in in vitro release tests that showed a slowing down of the release of a.i. from the designed formulations relative to the technical products. Soil dissipation studies with MS formulations also showed improved bioactivity of the clay-surfactant formulation relative to the commercial one. This methodological approach can be extended to other clay-surfactant systems for encapsulation and

  19. Contemporary approach to acid-base balance and its disorders in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Sławuta, P; Nicpoń, J; Skrzypczak, P

    2010-01-01

    The issue of the acid-base balance (ABB) parameters and their disorders in pets is rarely raised and analysed, though it affects almost 30% of veterinary clinics patients. Traditionally, ABB is described by the Henderson-Hasselbach equation, where blood pH is the resultant of HCO3- and pCO2 concentrations. Changes in blood pH caused by an original increase or decrease in pCO2 are called respiratory acidosis or alkalosis, respectively. Metabolic acidosis or alkalosis are characterized by an original increase or decrease in HCO3- concentration in the blood. When comparing concentration of main cations with this of main anions in the blood serum, the apparent absence of anions, i.e., anion gap (AG), is observed. The AG value is used in the diagnostics of metabolic acidosis. In 1980s Stewart noted, that the analysis of: pCO2, difference between concentrations of strong cations and anions in serum (SID) and total concentration of nonvolatile weak acids (Atot), provides a reliable insight into the body ABB. The Stewart model analyses relationships between pH change and movement of ions across membranes. Six basic types of ABB disorders are distinguished. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis, strong ion acidosis, strong ion alkalosis, nonvolatile buffer ion acidosis and nonvolatile buffer ion alkalosis. The Stewart model provides the concept of strong ions gap (SIG), which is an apparent difference between concentrations of all strong cations and all strong anions. Its diagnostic value is greater than AG, because it includes concentration of albumin and phosphate. The therapy of ABB disorders consists, first of all, of diagnosis and treatment of the main disease. However, it is sometimes necessary to administer sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or tromethamine (THAM). PMID:21033575

  20. Genetic disorders of surfactant homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Wert, Susan E; Xu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Adaptation to air breathing at birth requires the precise orchestration of cellular processes to initiate fluid clearance, enhance pulmonary blood flow, and to synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant needed to reduce surface tension at the air-liquid interface in the alveoli. Genetic programs regulating the synthesis of the surfactant proteins and lipids required for the production and function of pulmonary surfactant are highly conserved across vertebrates, and include proteins that regulate the synthesis and packaging of pulmonary surfactant proteins and lipids. Surfactant proteins B and C (SP-B and -C) are small, uniquely hydrophobic proteins that play important roles in the stability and spreading of surfactant lipids in the alveolus. Deletion or mutations in SP-B and -C cause acute and chronic lung disease in neonates and infants. SP-B and -C are synthesized and packaged with surfactant phospholipids in lamellar bodies. Normal lamellar body formation requires SP-B and a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of ATP-dependent membrane-associated transport proteins, ABCA3. Mutations in ABCA3 cause fatal respiratory disease in newborns and severe chronic lung disease in infancy. Expression of SP-B, -C, and ABCA3 are coregulated during late gestation by transcriptional programs influenced by thyroid transcription factor-1 and forkhead box a2, transcription factors that regulate both differentiation of the respiratory epithelium and transcription of genes required for perinatal adaptation to air breathing. PMID:15985750

  1. Surfactant and process for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, P. R.

    1985-03-12

    A novel surfactant is formed by reacting maleic anhydride with a polynuclear aromatic compound having a molecular weight of at least 155. A novel surfactant system useful in enhanced oil recovery containing the above surfactant is also provided. In addition, an improved process for the enhanced recovery of oil is provided utilizing the novel surfactant system.

  2. Mixed surfactants-directed the mesoporous silica materials with various morphologies and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huiming; Qu, Fengyu; Wu, Xiang; Xue, Ming; Zhu, Guangshan; Qiu, Shilun

    2011-06-01

    A new mixed surfactants system using alkyl carboxylic acids and quaternized poly[bis(2-chloroethyl)ether-alt-1,3-bis[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] urea] (PEPU) as the co-template was used to synthesize mesoporous silica materials with various morphologies and structures, including flakes, regular spheres, nanoparticles, and tube-spheres. The cationic polymer connected the anionic surfactant micelle to the anionic polysilicate species to induce the synthesis of the mesoporous silica materials. The structure and property of the surfactant and the cationic polymer determined the formation of mesoporous silica, and also had a signification influence on the morphology and structure of the final materials. To further explore the possible formation mechanism of these mesoporous materials, zeta potential was utilized to evaluate the interaction between the anionic surfactant and the cationic co-template. In addition, the structure, morphology, and porosity of these materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N 2 adsorption-desorption measurements.

  3. Advances in adsorption of surfactants and their mixtures at solid/solution interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Somasundaran, P

    2006-11-16

    Surfactants and their mixtures can drastically change the interfacial properties and hence are used in many industrial processes such as dispersion/flocculation, flotation, emulsification, corrosion inhibition, cosmetics, drug delivery, chemical mechanical polishing, enhanced oil recovery, and nanolithography. A review of studies on adsorption of single surfactant as well as mixtures of various types (anionic-cationic, anionic-nonionic, cationic-nonionic, cationic-zwitterionic and nonionic-nonionic) is presented here along with mechanisms involved. Results obtained using techniques such as zeta potential, flotation, AFM, specular neutron reflectivity, small angle neutron scattering, fluorescence, ESR, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, HPLC and ATR-IR are reviewed along with those from traditional techniques to elucidate the mechanisms of adsorption and particularly to understand synergistic/antagonistic interactions at solution/liquid interfaces and nanostructures of surface aggregates. In addition, adsorption of several mixed surfactant systems is considered due to their industrial relevance. Finally an attempt is made to derive structure-property relationships to provide a solid foundation for the design and use of surfactant formulations for industrial applications. PMID:17052678

  4. Surfactant assisted growth of nanostructured tin oxide films for gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, Kamalpreet Khun; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Porous nanostructured SnO2 films have been prepared using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique in conjunction with cationic, anionic and non ionic surfactants namely CTAB (Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide), SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate) and PEG (polyethylene glycol) respectively. The effect of surfactants on the structural, electrical, optical and gas sensing properties of SnO2 films were investigated by using different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electroscope microscopy (FESEM), two probe technique and Photoluminiscence (PL) studies. The results reveal that the addition of surfactants in the precursor solutions leads to reduction in crystallite size with significant changes in porosity of SnO2 films. PL studies of the films show emissions in the visible region which exhibit changes in the intensities upon variation of surfactants in the precursor solutions. The prepared films were tested for their sensing behaviour towards chlorine and the results reveal that the films prepared in conjunction with cationic surfactant CTAB exhibits a sensing response of 53.5% towards 20 ppm chlorine at a low operating temperature of 150°C.

  5. A new model for assessing the damaging effects of soaps and surfactants on human stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Shukuwa, T; Kligman, A M; Stoudemayer, T J

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the damage to the horny layers of human skin produced by surfactants and soaps, we evaluated the cytological alterations of corneocytes using an in vitro assay. Suction blisters, 8 mm in diameter, were raised on the forearms of young adult Caucasoids. The roofs were cut off and the viable epidermis was removed. The discs of stratum corneum were then agitated for up to 6 h at 60 degrees C in 1% solution of five soap bars of differing irritancy. Additionally, individual examples of anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants were similarly evaluated. Measurements of corneocytes included: (1) the number released with time (disaggregation), (2) size (swelling) and (3) morphologic degradation. The effects of the cationic and non-ionic surfactants did not differ significantly from those of distilled water. The anionic surfactant caused more release and less swelling and morphological change. The test soaps had vastly different effects on the structural integrity of the stratum corneum. The harsher ones caused greater disaggregation, more swelling and greater morphologic deterioration of corneocytes, whereas the milder ones had less marked effects on these parameters. This model would be a useful screening technique for formulating milder soaps and might also provide insights into the complex modes of action of surfactants on the stratum corneum. PMID:9059673

  6. Pulmonary surfactant for neonatal respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jeffrey D; Ballard, Roberta A

    2003-04-01

    Surfactant therapy has revolutionized neonatal care and is used routinely for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Recent investigation has further elucidated the function of surfactant-associated proteins and their contribution toward surfactant and lung immune defense functions. As the field of neonatology moves away from intubation and mechanical ventilation of preterm infants at birth toward more aggressive use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure, the optimal timing of exogenous surfactant therapy remains unclear. Evidence suggests that preterm neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and prolonged mechanical ventilation also experience surfactant dysfunction; however, exogenous surfactant therapy beyond the first week of life has not been well studied. Surfactant replacement therapy has been studied for use in other respiratory disorders, including meconium aspiration syndrome and pneumonia. Commercial surfactant preparations currently available are not optimal, given the variability of surfactant protein content and their susceptibility to inhibition. Further progress in the treatment of neonatal respiratory disorders may include the development of "designer" surfactant preparations. PMID:12640270

  7. Acid-Base Disorders--A Computer Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, David L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes and lists a program for Apple Pascal Version 1.1 which investigates the behavior of the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide buffer system in acid-base disorders. Designed specifically for the preclinical medical student, the program has proven easy to use and enables students to use blood gas parameters to arrive at diagnoses. (DH)

  8. Soil Studies: Applying Acid-Base Chemistry to Environmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Donna M.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory activities for chemistry students focus attention on the use of acid-base chemistry to examine environmental conditions. After using standard laboratory procedures to analyze soil and rainwater samples, students use web-based resources to interpret their findings. Uses CBL probes and graphing calculators to gather and analyze data and…

  9. Using Spreadsheets to Produce Acid-Base Titration Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, Martin James; Parkinson, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes two spreadsheets for producing acid-base titration curves, one uses relatively simple cell formulae that can be written into the spreadsheet by inexperienced students and the second uses more complex formulae that are best written by the teacher. (JRH)

  10. Students' Understanding of Acids/Bases in Organic Chemistry Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartrette, David P.; Mayo, Provi M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding key foundational principles is vital to learning chemistry across different contexts. One such foundational principle is the acid/base behavior of molecules. In the general chemistry sequence, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is stressed, because it lends itself well to studying equilibrium and kinetics. However, the Lewis theory of…

  11. Use of surfactant modified ultrafiltration for perchlorate (Cl(O)(4-)) removal.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaekyung; Yoon, Yeomin; Amy, Gary; Cho, Jaeweon; Foss, David; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2003-05-01

    Determinations of perchlorate anion (ClO(4)(-)) transport and rejection were performed using a surfactant modified ultrafiltration (UF) membrane. Perchlorate anion (at a concentration of 100 microg/L of ClO(4)(-), spiked with KClO(4)) was introduced to the membrane as a pure component, in binary mixtures with other salts, cationic and anionic surfactants, and at various ionic strength conditions (conductivity). Also, a natural source water was spiked with perchlorate in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactants and used to determine the effects of a complex mixture (including natural organic matter (NOM)) on the observed rejection. All filtration measurements were performed at approximately the same permeate flow rate in order to minimize artifacts from mass transfer at the membrane interface. The objective of this study was to modify a negatively charged UF membrane in terms of the fundamental mechanisms, steric/size exclusion and electrostatic exclusion and to enhance perchlorate rejection, with synthetic water and a blend of Colorado River water and State Project water (CRW/SPW). Previous work suggested that perchlorate was dominantly rejected by electrostatic exclusion for charged nanofiltration (NF) and UF membranes (Rejection of perchlorate by reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes: mechanism and modeling. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA, 2001). In that research, perchlorate rejection capability was quickly lost in the presence of a sufficient amount of other ions. However, this study showed that ClO(4)(-) was excluded from a (negatively) charged UF membrane with pores large with respect to the size of the ion. Although perchlorate rejection capability due to apparent electrostatic force was reduced in the presence of a cationic surfactant, a desired amount of the ClO(4)(-) was excluded by steric exclusion. The steric exclusion was due to decreasing membrane pore size caused by the adsorption of the

  12. Effect of protic ionic liquid and surfactant structure on partitioning of polyoxyethylene non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Topolnicki, Inga L; FitzGerald, Paul A; Atkin, Rob; Warr, Gregory G

    2014-08-25

    The partitioning constants and Gibbs free energies of transfer of poly(oxyethylene) n-alkyl ethers between dodecane and the protic ionic liquids (ILs) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and propylammonium nitrate (PAN) are determined. EAN and PAN have a sponge-like nanostructure that consists of interpenetrating charged and apolar domains. This study reveals that the ILs solvate the hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of the amphiphiles differently. The ethoxy groups are dissolved in the polar region of both ILs by means of hydrogen bonds. The environment is remarkably water-like and, as in water, the solubility of the ethoxy groups in EAN decreases on warming, which underscores the critical role of the IL hydrogen-bond network for solubility. In contrast, amphiphile alkyl chains are not preferentially solvated by the charged or uncharged regions of the ILs. Rather, they experience an average IL composition and, as a result, partitioning from dodecane into the IL increases as the cation alkyl chain is lengthened from ethyl to propyl, because the IL apolar volume fraction increases. Together, these results show that surfactant dissolution in ILs is related to structural compatibility between the head or tail group and the IL nanostructure. Thus, these partitioning studies reveal parameters for the effective molecular design of surfactants in ILs. PMID:24862589

  13. The interaction of photo-responsive surfactants with biological macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazwi, Khiza L.

    The interaction of photo-responsive surfactants with proteins has been considered as a means to exert reversible control over a number of aspects of protein structure and function. The azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB) family of cationic surfactants undergo a photo-reversible cis to trans isomerization upon exposure to light of the appropriate wavelength. The trans form of the molecule has a lower dipole moment across its azo linkage, and is more hydrophobic than the cis isomer. This results in a higher binding affinity with proteins for the trans isomer, inducing a greater degree of unfolding of tertiary and secondary structures. The surfactant has been applied to the study of the amyloid fibrillation pathway in insulin, in which the protein self-associates into long, insoluble, rod-like structures. The fibrillation rate in insulin is enhanced in the presence of the trans- isomer while the formation of fibrils is largely inhibited in the presence of the cis- isomer, where amorphous aggregates are observed instead. Additionally early fibrillar species formed in the trans-azoTAB assays exhibit a greater tendency to lateral aggregation than do structures in the pure protein, resulting in a more truncated, bundled final aggregate morphology. Use of the surfactants as a means to control protein quaternary solution structure has also been explored in the subunit dissociation of tetrameric catalase. In the presence of azoTAB surfactants, catalase dissociates first into a super-active dimer, then at higher concentrations into an aggregation prone monomer. Finally, the structural changes associated with azoTAB-induced unfolding of the two domain protein papain are tracked. The denaturation pathway involves a progressive loss in secondary structure with increasing azoTAB concentration, along with a relaxation of the compact tertiary structure, and a spatial separation of the two domains. A number of complementary experimental techniques are combined to determine

  14. Lipoamino acid-based micelles as promising delivery vehicles for monomeric amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Serafim, Cláudia; Ferreira, Inês; Rijo, Patrícia; Pinheiro, Lídia; Faustino, Célia; Calado, António; Garcia-Rio, Luis

    2016-01-30

    Lipoamino acid-based micelles have been developed as delivery vehicles for the hydrophobic drug amphotericin B (AmB). The micellar solubilisation of AmB by a gemini lipoamino acid (LAA) derived from cysteine and its equimolar mixtures with the bile salts sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), as well as the aggregation sate of the drug in the micellar systems, was studied under biomimetic conditions (phosphate buffered-saline, pH 7.4) using UV-vis spectroscopy. Pure surfactant systems and equimolar mixtures were characterized by tensiometry and important parameters were determined, such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Γmax), and minimum area occupied per molecule at the water/air interface (Amin). Rheological behaviour from viscosity measurements at different shear rates was also addressed. Solubilisation capacity was quantified in terms of molar solubilisation ratio (χ), micelle-water partition coefficient (KM) and Gibbs energy of solubilisation (ΔGs°). Formulations of AmB in micellar media were compared in terms of drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, aggregation state of AmB and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The LAA-containing micellar systems solubilise AmB in its monomeric and less toxic form and exhibit in vitro antifungal activity comparable to that of the commercial formulation Fungizone. PMID:26617315

  15. Revisiting the Thermodynamics of Water Surfaces and the Effects of Surfactant Head Group.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan; Mafi, Amirhossein; Chou, Keng C

    2016-03-10

    It is common knowledge that surfactants lower the surface tension of water. The typical textbook explanation of this phenomenon is that the force of attraction between surfactant and water molecules is less than that between two water molecules; hence the surface contraction force decreases in the presence of surfactants; however, this common description, based on the strength of intermolecular interactions, is overly simplified because it ignores an important thermodynamic function: the surface entropy of water. Here we report separate measurements of water's surface enthalpy and surface entropy in the presence of nonionic, zwitterionic, anionic, and cationic surfactants. While all of these surfactants decreased the surface enthalpy of water by 50-70%, the surface entropy of water could drop to near-zero or even negative values for ionic surfactants. Studies of this zero-entropy state of water surface using phase-sensitive sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggested that the zero-entropy state of the water surface was associated with surfactant-induced ordering of water molecules and enhanced hydrogen bond formation at the water surface. Both effects reduce water molecules' degrees of freedom for motion and thus lower the surface entropy of water. The ability of a surfactant to decrease the surface entropy of water is in the order ionic > zwitterionic > nonionic. For all surfactant head groups surface entropy plays a critical role in determining the surface tension of water. The description of water's surface tension is not complete without considering its surface entropy. PMID:26842782

  16. Influence of surfactant on dynamics of photoinduced motions in a dye-doped deoxyribonucleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Parafiniuk, Kacper; Miniewicz, Andrzej; Rau, Ileana; Kajzar, Francois; Niziol, Jacek; Hebda, Edyta; Pielichowski, Jan; Sahraoui, Bouchta

    2012-10-01

    Pure deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is known to be soluble in water only and exhibits poor temperature stability. In contrary, it is well known that the complex of DNA - with cetyltrimethyl ammonium (CTMA) is soluble in alcohols and can be processed into very good optical quality thin films by solution casting and spin deposition. Despite the success of DNA-CTMA, there is still need for new cationic surfactants which would extend the range of available solvents for DNA complex. We test and present experimental results of influence of new surfactants based on benzalkonium chloride (BA), and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDCA) for applications in all optical switching.

  17. Effect of surfactants on the performance of tubular and spherical micromotors – a comparative study†

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Samuel; Chokmaviroj, Sarocha; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel; Baeza, Alejandro; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of artificial micromotors is one of the greatest challenges of modern nanotechnology. Even though many kinds of motors have been published in recent times, systematic studies on the influence of components of the fuel solution are widely missing. Therefore, the autonomous movement of Pt-microtubes and Pt-covered silica particles is comparatively observed in the presence and absence of surfactants in the medium. One representative of each of the three main surfactant classes – anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), cationic (benzalkonium chloride, BACl) and non-ionic (Triton X) – has been chosen and studied. PMID:25364501

  18. Surfactant-enhanced aquifier remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    Surfactants can be used to rapidly remove NAPL from contaminated aquifers. They are effective for virtually any organic contaminant. Use in LNAPL contaminated sites requires adequate hydraulic conductivity and control of flow using either hydraulic or physical methods. The presence of DNAPL requires consideration of vertical mobility; a competent confining layer (aquitard) is required if additional aquifers are present at greater depths. Surfactant processes, whether based upon mobilization or solubilization, can be effective at mass removal, but cannot be expected to provide resortation to drinking water standards. The fraction of mass removal, and the cost of remediation using surfactants are dependent upon a sites hydrogeology. Both minimization of cost and maximization of NAPL removal requires detailed characterization of sites contaminant distribution and hydrogeology. Assessment of the feasibility of surfactant-enhanced remediation is dependent upon a detailed site characterization.

  19. Protein recovery from surfactant precipitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu Ian; Stuckey, David C

    2011-01-01

    The recovery of lysozyme from an aqueous solution containing precipitated lysozyme-AOT complexes formed by the direct addition of sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) to a lysozyme solution was studied using both solvents, and a counterionic surfactant. Ethanol,methanol and solvent mixtures dissolved the surfactant precipitate and recovered lysozyme as a solid. Recovery efficiency and protein stability varied with the type of solvent used. An entirely different method of recovery was also evaluated using a counterionic surfactant: tri-octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC) which bound to AOT releasing lysozyme into solution.Complete recovery (100%) of lysozyme was achieved at a molar ratio of 2:1(TOMAC:AOT), and the original protein activity was maintained in the final aqueous phase.The recovered lysozyme retained its secondary structure as observed in circular dichroism(CD) spectra. Specific activity studies show that counterionic surfactant extraction does not alter the biological activity of the enzyme. PMID:22235487

  20. Surfactants as Microbicides and Contraceptive Agents: A Systematic In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Otilia V.; Oberdoerfer, Daniel; Baptista, Marta; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Almeida, Luis; Ramalho-Santos, João; Vaz, Winchil L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The urgent need for cheap and easy-to-use protection against both unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases has stimulated considerable interest in the use of surfactants as microbicides, anti-viral, and contraceptive agents in recent years. In the present study we report a systematic in vitro evaluation of the microbicidal, anti-viral and contraceptive potential of cationic, anionic, zwitterionic, and non-ionic surfactants. Methodology/Principal Findings Toxicity was evaluated in mammalian columnar epithelial (MDCK) cells, human sperm cells, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis. The inhibition of adenovirus and lentivirus infection of MDCK cells was also tested. A homologous series of cationic surfactants, alkyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromides (CnTAB), with varying alkyl chains were shown to be bactericidal and fungicidal at doses that were related to the surfactant critical micelle concentrations (CMC), all of them at concentrations significantly below the CMC. In general, bacteria were more susceptible to this surfactant group than C. albicans and this organism, in turn, was more susceptible than MDCK cells. This suggests that the CnTAB may be useful as vaginal disinfectants only in so far as bacterial and fungal infections are concerned. None of the surfactants examined, including those that have been used in pre-clinical studies, showed inhibition of adenovirus or lentivirus infection of MDCK cells or spermicidal activity at doses that were sub-toxic to MDCK cells. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study lead us to propose that systematic analysis of surfactant toxicity, such as we report in the present work, be made a mandatory pre-condition for the use of these substances in pre-clinical animal and/or human studies. PMID:18682796

  1. Schiff base structured acid-base cooperative dual sites in an ionic solid catalyst lead to efficient heterogeneous knoevenagel condensations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjue; Zhao, Pingping; Leng, Yan; Chen, Guojian; Wang, Jun; Huang, Jun

    2012-10-01

    An acid-base bifunctional ionic solid catalyst [PySaIm](3)PW was synthesized by the anion exchange of the ionic-liquid (IL) precursor 1-(2-salicylaldimine)pyridinium bromide ([PySaIm]Br) with the Keggin-structured sodium phosphotungstate (Na(3) PW). The catalyst was characterized by FTIR, UV/Vis, XRD, SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theory, thermogravimetric analysis, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS, elemental analysis, and melting points. Together with various counterparts, [PySaIm](3)PW was evaluated in Knoevenagel condensation under solvent and solvent-free conditions. The Schiff base structure attached to the IL cation of [PySaIm](3)PW involves acidic salicyl hydroxyl and basic imine, and provides a controlled nearby position for the acid-base dual sites. The high melting and insoluble properties of [PySaIm](3)PW are relative to the large volume and high valence of PW anions, as well as the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding networks among inorganic anions and IL cations. The ionic solid catalyst [PySaIm](3)PW leads to heterogeneous Knoevenagel condensations. In solvent-free condensation of benzaldehyde with ethyl cyanoacetate, it exhibits a conversion of 95.8 % and a selectivity of 100 %; the conversion is even much higher than that (78.2 %) with ethanol as a solvent. The solid catalyst has a convenient recoverability with only a slight decrease in conversion following subsequent recyclings. Furthermore, the new catalyst is highly applicable to many substrates of aromatic aldehydes with activated methylene compounds. On the basis of the characterization and reaction results, a unique acid-base cooperative mechanism within a Schiff base structure is proposed and discussed, which thoroughly explains not only the highly efficient catalytic performance of [PySaIm](3)PW, but also the lower activities of various control catalysts. PMID:22907828

  2. Stabilization of diketo tautomer of curcumin by premicellar anionic surfactants: UV-Visible, fluorescence, tensiometric and TD-DFT evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Anisha; Boruah, Bornali; Manna, Arun K.; Gohain, Biren; Saikia, Palash M.; Dutta, Robin K.

    2013-03-01

    A newly observed UV band of aqueous curcumin, a biologically important molecule, in presence of anionic surfactants, viz., sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDSN) in buffered aqueous solutions has been studied experimentally and theoretically. The 425 nm absorption band of curcumin disappears and a new UV-band is observed at 355 nm on addition of the surfactants in the submicellar concentration range which is reversed as the surfactant concentration approaches the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The observed spectral absorption, fluorescence intensity and surface tension behavior, under optimal experimental conditions of submicellar concentration ranges of the surfactants in the pH range of 2.00-7.00, indicate that the new band is due to the β-diketo tautomer of curcumin stabilized by interactions between curcumin and the anionic surfactants. The stabilization of the diketo tautomer by submicellar anionic surfactants described here as well as by submicellar cationic surfactant, reported recently, is unique as this is the only such behavior observed in presence of submicellar surfactants of both charge types. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations using ab initio density functional theory combined with time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations.

  3. Pulmonary Surfactant: An Immunological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chroneos, Zissis C.; Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Shepherd, Virginia L.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant has two crucial roles in respiratory function; first, as a biophysical entity it reduces surface tension at the air water interface, facilitating gas exchange and alveolar stability during breathing, and, second, as an innate component of the lung's immune system it helps maintain sterility and balance immune reactions in the distal airways. Pulmonary surfactant consists of 90% lipids and 10% protein. There are four surfactant proteins named SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D; their distinct interactions with surfactant phospholipids are necessary for the ultra-structural organization, stability, metabolism, and lowering of surface tension. In addition, SP-A and SP-D bind pathogens, inflict damage to microbial membranes, and regulate microbial phagocytosis and activation or deactivation of inflammatory responses by alveolar macrophages. SP-A and SP-D, also known as pulmonary collectins, mediate microbial phagocytosis via SP-A and SP-D receptors and the coordinated induction of other innate receptors. Several receptors (SP-R210, CD91/calreticulin, SIRPα, and toll-like receptors) mediate the immunological functions of SP-A and SP-D. However, accumulating evidence indicate that SP-B and SP-C and one or more lipid constituents of surfactant share similar immuno-regulatory properties as SP-A and SP-D. The present review discusses current knowledge on the interaction of surfactant with lung innate host defense. PMID:20054141

  4. Gemini Surfactants Based on Bis-Imidazolium Alkoxy Derivatives as Effective Agents for Delivery of Nucleic Acids: A Structural and Spectroscopic Study.

    PubMed

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Kołodziejska, Żaneta; Weiss, Marek; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The success rate of gene therapy depends on the efficient transfection of genetic material into cells. The golden mean between harmlessness and high effectiveness can be provided by synthetic lipid-like molecules that are similar to the components of biological membranes. Cationic gemini surfactants are one such moiety and because of their favourable physicochemical properties (double positive electric charge, reduced toxicity, low values of critical micelle concentration), they show great potential as delivery system components for genetic material in gene therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the process of the complexation of cationic gemini surfactants with nucleic acids: double-stranded DNA of different sizes (21 bp, ~185 bp, ~20 kbp) and siRNA (21 bp). The tested series of dicationic surfactants consists of bis-imidazolium quaternary salts with varying lengths of hydrophobic side chains (m = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16). On the basis of the data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoresis, we concluded that the studied gemini surfactants with long side chains effectively bind nucleic acids at low concentrations, which leads to the formation of stable lipoplexes. Images obtained by atomic force microscopy also confirmed the formation of vesicular structures, i.e., complexes between DNA and surfactants. The cytotoxicity of selected surfactants was also tested on HeLa cells. The surfactant toxicity significantly depends on surfactant geometry (the length of hydrophobic chain). PMID:26641889

  5. Gemini Surfactants Based on Bis-Imidazolium Alkoxy Derivatives as Effective Agents for Delivery of Nucleic Acids: A Structural and Spectroscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Kołodziejska, Żaneta; Weiss, Marek; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The success rate of gene therapy depends on the efficient transfection of genetic material into cells. The golden mean between harmlessness and high effectiveness can be provided by synthetic lipid-like molecules that are similar to the components of biological membranes. Cationic gemini surfactants are one such moiety and because of their favourable physicochemical properties (double positive electric charge, reduced toxicity, low values of critical micelle concentration), they show great potential as delivery system components for genetic material in gene therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the process of the complexation of cationic gemini surfactants with nucleic acids: double-stranded DNA of different sizes (21 bp, ~185 bp, ~20 kbp) and siRNA (21 bp). The tested series of dicationic surfactants consists of bis-imidazolium quaternary salts with varying lengths of hydrophobic side chains (m = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16). On the basis of the data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoresis, we concluded that the studied gemini surfactants with long side chains effectively bind nucleic acids at low concentrations, which leads to the formation of stable lipoplexes. Images obtained by atomic force microscopy also confirmed the formation of vesicular structures, i.e., complexes between DNA and surfactants. The cytotoxicity of selected surfactants was also tested on HeLa cells. The surfactant toxicity significantly depends on surfactant geometry (the length of hydrophobic chain). PMID:26641889

  6. Soap opera : polymer-surfactant interactions on thin film surfaces /

    SciTech Connect

    Ozer, B. H.; Johal, M. S.; Wang, H. L.; Robinson, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Surfactants are macromolecules with unique properties. They commonly contain a polar head group with a nonpolar hydrocarbon chain. These properties allow surfactants to solubilize greases and other nonpolar molecules. One particular way that this is accomplished is through the formation of micelles. Micelles are formed at the critical micelle concentration (cmc), which varies depending upon the nature of the surfactant and also the media in which the surfactant resides. These micelles can take a variety of shapes, but are generally characterized by surrounding the grease with the nonpolar hydrocarbon chains, exposing only the polarized head groups to the media, usually water. This property of easy solubilization has made surfactants a very attractive industrial agent, They are used most conventionally as industrial cleaning agents and detergents. However, they also have lesser-known applications in conjunction with polymers and other macromolecular mixtures, often creating a system with novel properties, such as increased solubilization and smoother mixture consistency. A recently developed field has investigated the self-assembly of polymers and polyelectrolytes onto thin film surfaces. There are many reasons for studying this process, such as for second harmonic generation purposes and bioassays. In this study, the interaction between the anionic polyelectrolyte poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and two surfactants of opposite charge, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Dodecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (DTAB), in their assembly onto thin film surfaces was investigated. The kinetics of adsorbance onto the thin films was examined, followed by construction of 10-bilayer films using an alternating layer of the cationic polyelectrolyte poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) to provide the electrostatic means for the PAZO/surfactant combination to assemble onto the thin film. The kinetics of adsorption is being

  7. Influence of surfactants on the morphology of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals prepared via a hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Mi; Gao Yanfeng; Dai Lei; Cao Chuanxiang; Guo Xuhong

    2012-05-15

    Nanoscaled SnO{sub 2} with different morphologies has been synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process at 180 Degree-Sign C using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) or tetrapropyl ammonium bromide (TPAB) as surfactant. All the prepared SnO{sub 2} are of a tetragonal crystal structure. Nanocubes, nanorods, nanosheets, nanobelts and nanoparticles were prepared when changing the type and dosage of organic surfactants. It is shown that anionic surfactant (SDS) and cationic surfactant (CTAB or TPAB) at their suitable addition amounts can largely influence the morphologies of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals. The effect is significantly dependent on the solvent types: water or ethanol. The non-ionic surfactant (PVP) can also change the morphologies like SDS but the impacts are less obvious. The effect of surfactants on the shape and size of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was discussed in detail. The particle growth mechanism is described based on the electrostatic interactions and Van der Waals' forces. - Graphical abstract: SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals with controllable morphologies were prepared via a hydrothermal method with surfactants. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals were prepared via a hydrothermal method with surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SnO{sub 2} morphologies changed with the type and the dosage of surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of surfactants on the growth of crystal planes was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The controlling mechanisms of surfactants on SnO{sub 2} morphologies were discussed.

  8. Influence of Corona Structure on Binding of an Ionic Surfactant in Oppositely Charged Amphiphilic Polyelectrolyte Micelles.

    PubMed

    Delisavva, Foteini; Uchman, Mariusz; Škvarla, Juraj; Woźniak, Edyta; Pavlova, Ewa; Šlouf, Miroslav; Garamus, Vasil M; Procházka, Karel; Štěpánek, Miroslav

    2016-04-26

    Interaction of polystyrene-block-poly(methacrylic acid) micelles (PS-PMAA) with cationic surfactant N-dodecylpyridinium chloride (DPCl) in alkaline aqueous solutions was studied by static and dynamic light scattering, SAXS, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. ITC and fluorescence measurements show that there are two distinct regimes of surfactant binding in the micellar corona (depending on the DPCl content) caused by different interactions of DPCl with PMAA in the inner and outer parts of the corona. The compensation of the negative charge of the micellar corona by DPCl leads to the aggregation of PS-PMAA micelles, and the micelles form colloidal aggregates at a certain critical surfactant concentration. SAXS shows that the aggregates are formed by individual PS-PMAA micelles with intact cores and collapsed coronas interconnected with surfactant micelles by electrostatic interactions. Unlike polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed by free polyelectrolyte chains, the PMAA/DPCl complex with collapsed corona does not contain surfactant micelles. PMID:27054848

  9. Exploring the Effects of Different Types of Surfactants on Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xu; Sun, Mingzhu; Wei, Zhuo; Wang, Yu; Gao, Aiai; Chen, Dongyan; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2015-01-01

    Currently, surfactants are widely distributed in the environment. As organic pollutants, their toxicities have drawn extensive attention. In this study, the effects of anionic [sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) ], cationic [dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (1227)] and non-ionic [fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether (AEO) ] surfactants on zebrafish larval behaviour were evaluated. Five behavioural parameters were recorded using a larval rest/wake assay, including rest total, number of rest bouts, rest bouts length, total activity and waking activity. The results revealed that 1227 and AEO at 1 μg/mL were toxic to larval locomotor activity and that SDS had no significant effects. Moreover, we tested the toxicities of the three surfactants in developing zebrafish embryos. AEO exposure resulted in smaller head size, smaller eye size and shorter body length relative to SDS and 1227. All three surfactants incurred concentration-dependent responses. Furthermore, in situ hybridisation indicated that smaller head size may be associated with a decreased expression of krox20. The altered expression of ntl demonstrated that the developmental retardation stemmed from inhibited cell migration and growth. These findings provide references for ecotoxicological assessments of different types of surfactants, and play a warning role in the application of surfactants. PMID:26053337

  10. Sorption of uranium(6+) and neptunium(5+) by surfactant-modified natural zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Prikryl, J.D.; Pabalan, R.T.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the ability of surfactant-modification to enhance the ability of natural zeolites to sorb U(6+) and Np(5+). Natural zeolite material, comprised mainly of clinoptilolite and treated with the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium-bromide (HDTMA), was reacted with U(6+) and Np(5+) solutions open to the atmosphere and having a range of radionuclide concentration, pH, and NaCl concentration. The results indicate surfactant-modification of the zeolite enhances its ability to sorb U(6+), particularly at pHs greater than six where U(6+) sorption on unmodified zeolite is typically low due to formation of anionic U(6+) aqueous carbonate complexes. In contrast, there is little enhancement of Np(5+) sorption onto surfactant-modified zeolite. The presence of chloride anions in solution makes surfactant-modification less effective. The enhanced sorption of U(6+) is interpreted to be due to anion exchange with counterions on the external portion of a surfactant bilayer or admicelles.

  11. Exploring the Effects of Different Types of Surfactants on Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xu; Sun, Mingzhu; Wei, Zhuo; Wang, Yu; Gao, Aiai; Chen, Dongyan; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2015-01-01

    Currently, surfactants are widely distributed in the environment. As organic pollutants, their toxicities have drawn extensive attention. In this study, the effects of anionic [sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)], cationic [dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (1227)] and non-ionic [fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether (AEO)] surfactants on zebrafish larval behaviour were evaluated. Five behavioural parameters were recorded using a larval rest/wake assay, including rest total, number of rest bouts, rest bouts length, total activity and waking activity. The results revealed that 1227 and AEO at 1 μg/mL were toxic to larval locomotor activity and that SDS had no significant effects. Moreover, we tested the toxicities of the three surfactants in developing zebrafish embryos. AEO exposure resulted in smaller head size, smaller eye size and shorter body length relative to SDS and 1227. All three surfactants incurred concentration-dependent responses. Furthermore, in situ hybridisation indicated that smaller head size may be associated with a decreased expression of krox20. The altered expression of ntl demonstrated that the developmental retardation stemmed from inhibited cell migration and growth. These findings provide references for ecotoxicological assessments of different types of surfactants, and play a warning role in the application of surfactants. PMID:26053337

  12. Solubilization of naphthalene in the presence of plant-synthetic mixed surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Jagajjanani; Paria, Santanu

    2009-01-15

    Solubilization efficiencies of naphthalene by micellar solution of a plant-based surfactant extracted from fruit of Sapindus mukorossi (reetha) and the synthetic surfactants like nonionic (Triton X-100 or TX-100), cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or CTAB), and anionic (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate or SDBS; dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate or AOT; sodium octanesulfonate or SOS) in their single and as well as binary mixed (plant-synthetic) systems were measured and compared. The solubilization efficiency of single surfactants shows that reetha is less effective than TX-100, similar to SDBS, and more than AOT and SOS. The mixed surfactant systems show negative deviation in molar solubilization ratio (MSR) from ideality. The ascending order of percent change in MSR (Delta(MSR)) is TX-100-reetha < CTAB-reetha < SDBS-reetha < AOT-reetha < SOS-reetha. The mixed micellar solution for a particular combination also shows that Delta(MSR) is more negative when the interaction parameter for the mixed micelle (beta) is more negative. The results of this study may be useful for the applications of natural or natural-synthetic mixed surfactants in surfactant-enhanced remediation or detergency. PMID:19099430

  13. Biomimicry of surfactant protein C.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nathan J; Johansson, Jan; Barron, Annelise E

    2008-10-01

    Since the widespread use of exogenous lung surfactant to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, premature infant survival and respiratory morbidity have dramatically improved. Despite the effectiveness of the animal-derived surfactant preparations, there still remain some concerns and difficulties associated with their use. This has prompted investigation into the creation of synthetic surfactant preparations. However, to date, no clinically used synthetic formulation is as effective as the natural material. This is largely because the previous synthetic formulations lacked analogues of the hydrophobic proteins of the lung surfactant system, SP-B and SP-C, which are critical functional constituents. As a result, recent investigation has turned toward the development of a new generation of synthetic, biomimetic surfactants that contain synthetic phospholipids along with a mimic of the hydrophobic protein portion of lung surfactant. In this Account, we detail our efforts in creating accurate mimics of SP-C for use in a synthetic surfactant replacement therapy. Despite SP-C's seemingly simple structure, the predominantly helical protein is extraordinarily challenging to work with given its extreme hydrophobicity and structural instability, which greatly complicates the creation of an effective SP-C analogue. Drawing inspiration from Nature, two promising biomimetic approaches have led to the creation of rationally designed biopolymers that recapitulate many of SP-C's molecular features. The first approach utilizes detailed SP-C structure-activity relationships and amino acid folding propensities to create a peptide-based analogue, SP-C33. In SP-C33, the problematic and metastable polyvaline helix is replaced with a structurally stable polyleucine helix and includes a well-placed positive charge to prevent aggregation. SP-C33 is structurally stable and eliminates the association propensity of the native protein. The second approach follows the same design

  14. Nucleic acid-based approaches to STAT inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sen, Malabika; Grandis, Jennifer R

    2012-10-01

    Silencing of abnormally activated genes can be accomplished in a highly specific manner using nucleic acid based approaches. The focus of this review includes the different nucleic acid based inhibition strategies such as antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, small interfering RNA (siRNA), dominant-negative constructs, G-quartet oligonucleotides and decoy oligonucleotides, their mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these approaches to targeting the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins in cancer. Among the STAT proteins, especially STAT3, followed by STAT5, are the most frequently activated oncogenic STATs, which have emerged as plausible therapeutic cancer targets. Both STAT3 and STAT5 have been shown to regulate numerous oncogenic signaling pathways including proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and migration/invasion. PMID:24058785

  15. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanodevices in Biological Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Veetil, Aneesh T; Jaffrey, Samie R; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2016-06-01

    The nanoscale engineering of nucleic acids has led to exciting molecular technologies for high-end biological imaging. The predictable base pairing, high programmability, and superior new chemical and biological methods used to access nucleic acids with diverse lengths and in high purity, coupled with computational tools for their design, have allowed the creation of a stunning diversity of nucleic acid-based nanodevices. Given their biological origin, such synthetic devices have a tremendous capacity to interface with the biological world, and this capacity lies at the heart of several nucleic acid-based technologies that are finding applications in biological systems. We discuss these diverse applications and emphasize the advantage, in terms of physicochemical properties, that the nucleic acid scaffold brings to these contexts. As our ability to engineer this versatile scaffold increases, its applications in structural, cellular, and organismal biology are clearly poised to massively expand. PMID:27294440

  16. Surfactant selection principle for reducing critical micelle concentration in mixtures of oppositely charged gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhang; Fan, Yaxun; Tian, Maozhang; Wang, Ruijuan; Han, Yuchun; Wang, Yilin

    2014-07-15

    Cationic quaternary ammonium gemini surfactants C(n)H(2n+1)(CH3)2N(+)CH2CHCHCH2(CH3)2N(+)C(n)H(2n+1)2Br(-) (C(n)C4C(n), n = 12, 8, 6) with alkyl spacers, C(n)H(2n+1)(CH3)2N(+)CH2CHOHCHOHCH2(CH3)2N(+)C(n)H(2n+1)2Br(-) (C(n)C4(OH)2C(n), n = 12, 8, 6, 4) with two hydroxyl groups in alkyl spacers, and cationic ammonium single-chain surfactants C(n)H(2n+1)(CH3)2N(+)Br(-) (C(n)TAB, n = 12, 8, 6) have been chosen to fabricate oppositely charged surfactant mixtures with anionic sulfonate gemini surfactant C12H25N(CH2CH2CH2SO3(-))CH2CH2CH2(CH3)2N(CH2CH2CH2SO3(-))C12H252Na (C12C3C12(SO3)2). Surface tension, electrical conductivity, and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) were used to study their surface properties, aggregation behaviors, and intermolecular interactions. The mixtures of C12C3C12(SO3)2/C(n)C4(OH)2C(n) (n = 12, 8) and C12C3C12(SO3)2/C12C4C12 show anomalous larger critical micelle concentration (CMC) than C12C3C12(SO3)2, while the mixtures of C12C3C12(SO3)2/C(n)C4(OH)2C(n) (n = 6, 4), C12C3C12(SO3)2/C(n)C4(OH)2C(n) (n = 6, 4), and C12C3C12(SO3)2/C(n)TAB (n = 12, 8, 6) exhibit much lower CMC than C12C3C12(SO3)2. The results indicate that strong hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains assisted by strong electrostatic attractions between the headgroups and hydrogen bonds between the spacers lead to the formation of less surface active premicellar aggregates in bulk solution, resulting in the increase of CMC. If these interactions are weakened or inhibited, less surface active premicellar aggregates are no longer formed in the mixtures, and thus the CMC values are reduced. The work reveals that the combination of two surfactants with great self-assembling ability separately may have strong intermolecular binding interactions; however, their mixtures do not always generate superior synergism properties. Only moderate intermolecular interaction can generate the strongest synergism in CMC reduction. PMID:24933418

  17. Comparison of the coating properties and corrosion rates in electroless Ni-P/PTFE composites prepared by different types of surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafi, Iman R.; Dehghanian, Changiz

    2011-08-01

    The effects of the addition of three types of surfactants (cationic, anionic, non-ionic) at different concentrations in the plating bath on the deposition rate, PTFE content and surface morphology of electroless Ni-P/PTFE composite coatings were investigated. It was demonstrated that the cationic and non-ionic surfactants created a uniform distribution of PTFE particles in the coatings. The effects of the surfactant type and concentration on the corrosion properties of Ni-P/PTFE coatings were also studied. The corrosion resistance was increased by the incorporation of PTFE particles into the Ni-P matrix. The level of improvement depended largely on the type and concentration of the applied surfactants.

  18. Micellization Behavior of Long-Chain Substituted Alkylguanidinium Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Bouchal, Roza; Hamel, Abdellah; Hesemann, Peter; In, Martin; Prelot, Bénédicte; Zajac, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Surface activity and micelle formation of alkylguanidinium chlorides containing 10, 12, 14 and 16 carbon atoms in the hydrophobic tail were studied by combining conductivity and surface tension measurements with isothermal titration calorimetry. The purity of the resulting surfactants, their temperatures of Cr→LC and LC→I transitions, as well as their propensity of forming birefringent phases, were assessed based on the results of ¹H and (13)C NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and polarizing microscopy studies. Whenever possible, the resulting values of Krafft temperature (TK), critical micelle concentration (CMC), minimum surface tension above the CMC, chloride counter-ion binding to the micelle, and the standard enthalpy of micelle formation per mole of surfactant (ΔmicH°) were compared to those characterizing alkyltrimethylammonium chlorides or bromides with the same tail lengths. The value of TK ranged between 292 and 314 K and increased strongly with the increase in the chain length of the hydrophobic tail. Micellization was described as both entropy and enthalpy-driven. Based on the direct calorimetry measurements, the general trends in the CMC with the temperature, hydrophobic tail length, and NaCl addition were found to be similar to those of other types of cationic surfactants. The particularly exothermic character of micellization was ascribed to the hydrogen-binding capacity of the guanidinium head-group. PMID:26861309

  19. Micellization Behavior of Long-Chain Substituted Alkylguanidinium Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Bouchal, Roza; Hamel, Abdellah; Hesemann, Peter; In, Martin; Prelot, Bénédicte; Zajac, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Surface activity and micelle formation of alkylguanidinium chlorides containing 10, 12, 14 and 16 carbon atoms in the hydrophobic tail were studied by combining conductivity and surface tension measurements with isothermal titration calorimetry. The purity of the resulting surfactants, their temperatures of Cr→LC and LC→I transitions, as well as their propensity of forming birefringent phases, were assessed based on the results of 1H and 13C NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and polarizing microscopy studies. Whenever possible, the resulting values of Krafft temperature (TK), critical micelle concentration (CMC), minimum surface tension above the CMC, chloride counter-ion binding to the micelle, and the standard enthalpy of micelle formation per mole of surfactant (ΔmicH°) were compared to those characterizing alkyltrimethylammonium chlorides or bromides with the same tail lengths. The value of TK ranged between 292 and 314 K and increased strongly with the increase in the chain length of the hydrophobic tail. Micellization was described as both entropy and enthalpy-driven. Based on the direct calorimetry measurements, the general trends in the CMC with the temperature, hydrophobic tail length, and NaCl addition were found to be similar to those of other types of cationic surfactants. The particularly exothermic character of micellization was ascribed to the hydrogen-binding capacity of the guanidinium head-group. PMID:26861309

  20. Controlled synthesis of gold nanostars by using a zwitterionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Casu, Alberto; Cabrini, Elisa; Donà, Alice; Falqui, Andrea; Diaz-Fernandez, Yuri; Milanese, Chiara; Taglietti, Angelo; Pallavicini, Piersandro

    2012-07-23

    By replacing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with the zwitterionic lauryl sulfobetaine (LSB) surfactant in the classical seed-growth synthesis, monocrystalline gold nanostars (m-NS) and pentatwinned gold asymmetric nanostars (a-NS) were obtained instead of nanorods. The main product under all synthetic conditions was a-NS, which have branches with high aspect ratios (AR), thus leading to LSPR absorptions in the 750-1150 nm range. The percentage of m-NS versus a-NS, the aspect ratio of the a-NS branches, and consequently the position of their LSPR absorption can be finely tuned simply by regulating the concentration of reductant, the concentration of surfactant, or the concentration of the "catalytic" Ag(+) cation. The m-NS have instead shorter and larger branches, the AR of which is poorly influenced by synthetic conditions and displays an LSPR positioned around 700 nm. A growth mechanism that involves the direct contact of the sulfate moiety of LSB on the surface of the nano-object is proposed, thereby implying preferential coating of the {111} Au faces with weak interactions. Consistent with this, we also observed the straightforward complete displacement of the LSB surfactant from the surface of the nanostars. This was obtained by the simple addition of thiols in aqueous solution to yield extremely stable coated a-NS and m-NS that are resistant to highly acidic, basic, and in similar to in vivo conditions. PMID:22736477

  1. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Aquatic Systems: Surfactant Displacement in the Presence of Humic Acid.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaojun; Bouchard, Dermont C

    2016-09-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) facilitates multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) debundling and enhances nanotube stability in the aqueous environment by adsorbing on the nanotube surfaces, thereby increasing repulsive electrostatic forces and steric effects. The resulting SDS-wrapped MWCNTs are utilized in industrial applications and have been widely employed in environmental studies. In the present study, MWCNTs adsorbed SDS during ultrasonication to form stable MWCNTs suspensions. Desorption of SDS from MWCNTs surfaces was then investigated as a function of Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) and background electrolyte concentrations. Due to hydrophobic effects and π-π interactions, MWCNTs exhibit higher affinity for SRHA than SDS. In the presence of SRHA, SDS adsorbed on MWCNTs was displaced. Cations (Na(+), Ca(2+)) decreased SDS desorption from MWCNTs due to charge screening effects. Interestingly, the presence of the divalent calcium cation facilitated multilayered SRHA adsorption on MWCNTs through bridging effects, while monovalent sodium reduced SRHA adsorption. Results of the present study suggest that properties of MWCNTs wrapped with commercial surfactants will be altered when these materials are released to surface waters and the surfactant coating will be displaced by natural organic matter (NOM). Changes on their surfaces will significantly affect MWCNTs fate in aquatic environments. PMID:27500910

  2. Comments on the Treatment of Aromaticity and Acid-Base Character of Pyridine and Pyrrole in Contemporary Organic Chemistry Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Hugh J.; Bauer, Ludwig

    1999-08-01

    Presentations of aromaticity and acid-base character of pyridine and pyrrole in 18 contemporary organic chemistry textbooks were surveyed. Superficially, each of these two monoaza aromatic heterocycles retains an electron pair on its sp2-hybridized ring nitrogen, ostensibly available for neutralization with a proton to form a salt. The two nonbonded electrons in pyridine, in an sp2-hybridized orbital outside the ring, are not interacting with the 6p-electron aromatic sextet and thus are fully available for neutralization to form an N+-H pyridinium cation. However, in pyrrole, the nonbonded electron pair on nitrogen is part of the aromatic 6p- electron sextet and is not available for NH salt formation, since this would generate an aliphatic (highly reactive) diene imminium cation, which would destroy pyrrole's aromaticity. However, electrophilic attack of a proton in an irreversible manner attacks C-2 of pyrrole to form a resonance-stabilized cationic intermediate capable of further transformations. Pyridine is classified correctly as a weak base, while pyrrole in aqueous solutions is classified essentially neutral. In reality, pyrrole is a weak acid, neutralized by strong bases to generate a stable aromatic and highly reactive nucleophilic anion. Most authors fail to stress the acidic property of pyrrole and some organic texts need revision to eliminate some misconceptions and omissions.

  3. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Carneiro-Freire, Natalia; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Rañal-Muíño, Eva; López-Pereiro, Yosua

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis). By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations. PMID:24877130

  4. Structure-property relationship of quinuclidinium surfactants--Towards multifunctional biologically active molecules.

    PubMed

    Skočibušić, Mirjana; Odžak, Renata; Štefanić, Zoran; Križić, Ivana; Krišto, Lucija; Jović, Ozren; Hrenar, Tomica; Primožič, Ines; Jurašin, Darija

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by diverse biological and pharmacological activity of quinuclidine and oxime compounds we have synthesized and characterized novel class of surfactants, 3-hydroxyimino quinuclidinium bromides with different alkyl chains lengths (CnQNOH; n=12, 14 and 16). The incorporation of non conventional hydroxyimino quinuclidinium headgroup and variation in alkyl chain length affects hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of surfactant molecule and thereby physicochemical properties important for its application. Therefore, newly synthesized surfactants were characterized by the combination of different experimental techniques: X-ray analysis, potentiometry, electrical conductivity, surface tension and dynamic light scattering measurements, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Comprehensive investigation of CnQNOH surfactants enabled insight into structure-property relationship i.e., way in which the arrangement of surfactant molecules in the crystal phase correlates with their solution behavior and biologically activity. The synthesized CnQNOH surfactants exhibited high adsorption efficiency and relatively low critical micelle concentrations. In addition, all investigated compounds showed very potent and promising activity against Gram-positive and clinically relevant Gram-negative bacterial strains compared to conventional antimicrobial agents: tetracycline and gentamicin. The overall results indicate that bicyclic headgroup with oxime moiety, which affects both hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of CnQNOH molecule in addition to enabling hydrogen bonding, has dominant effect on crystal packing and physicochemical properties. The unique structural features of cationic surfactants with hydroxyimino quinuclidine headgroup along with diverse biological activity have made them promising structures in novel drug discovery. Obtained fundamental understanding how combination of different functionalities in a single surfactant molecule affects its physicochemical

  5. Surfactant therapy and spontaneous diuresis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, R; John, E; Diaz-Blanco, J; Ortega, R; Fornell, L; Vidyasagar, D

    1989-03-01

    The effect of artificial surfactant therapy on renal function and the onset of spontaneous diuresis was prospectively evaluated in 19 infants with hyaline membrane disease in a double-blind, controlled study. Twelve infants were in the surfactant group; seven infants received placebo (0.9% saline solution). There was no difference in the time of onset of spontaneous diuresis (as defined by output greater than or equal to 80% of intake). The glomerular filtration rate, determined by endogenous creatinine clearance, was also similar in the surfactant- and placebo-treated infants during the first 3 days of life. The fractional excretion of sodium was significantly higher in the placebo group at 24 hours and 36 hours. Infants in the placebo group had a higher negative sodium balance than those in the surfactant group. Ventilatory status improved significantly soon after surfactant treatment, as evidenced by improvement in the alveolar/arterial oxygen pressure ratio and by a lower mean airway pressure. These data suggest that ventilatory status can be improved without diuresis; the factors that regulate diuresis are multiple and not fully understood. PMID:2646416

  6. Surfactant-modified zeolites as permeable barriers to organic and inorganic groundwater contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R.S.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1995-10-01

    We have shown in laboratory experiments that natural zeolites treated with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) are effective sorbents for nonpolar organics, inorganic cations, and inorganic anions. Due to their low cost ({approximately}$0.75/kg) and granular nature, HDTMA-zeolites appear ideal candidates for reactive, permeable subsurface barriers. The HDTMA-zeolites are stable over a wide range of pH (3-13), ionic strength (1 M Cs{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+}), and in organic solvents. Surfactant-modified zeolites sorb nonpolar organics (benzene, toluene, xylene, chlorinated aliphatics) via a partitioning mechanism, inorganic cations (Pb{sup 2+}) via ion exchange and surface complexation, and inorganic anions (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) via surface precipitation.The goal of this work is to demonstrate the use of surfactant-modified zeolite as a permeable barrier to ground water contaminants.

  7. Influence of various surfactants on magnetic property of cobalt ferrite prepared by Co-precipitation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Neha; Khatri, Hemal; Jotania, R. B.

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt Ferrite (CoFe2O4) particles were synthesised using a Co-precipitation method. Influence of three different surfactants i.e. (1) Cationic - CTAB (Cetyl Tri-Methyl Ammonium Bromide), (2) Anionic - SDBS (Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulphonate) and (3) Nonionic - Triton X-100, on magnetic property of Cobalt Ferrite were investigated. Magnetic property of Cobalt ferrite powder was studied at room temperature using Vibrating Sample Measurements (VSM) technique under an applied magnetic field of 15kOe. The results show maximum value of saturation magnetization - Ms (81.87 emu/g) for the sample synthesised without surfactant and Coercivity value found maximum (2086 kOe) for the sample synthesized in presence of surfactant SDBS.

  8. Structural diversity, physicochemical properties and application of imidazolium surfactants: Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Bhadani, Avinash; Misono, Takeshi; Singh, Sukhprit; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    The current review covers recent advances on development and investigation of cationic surfactants containing imidazolium headgroup, which are being extensively investigated for their self-aggregation properties and are currently being utilized in various conventional and non-conventional application areas. These surfactants are being used as: soft template for synthesis of mesoporous/microporous materials, drug and gene delivery agent, stabilizing agent for nanoparticles, dispersants for single/multi walled carbon nanotubes, antimicrobial and antifungal agent, viscosity modifiers, preparing nanocomposite materials, stabilizing microemulsions, corrosion inhibitors and catalyst for organic reactions. Recently several structural derivatives of these surfactants have been developed having many interesting physicochemical properties and they have demonstrated enormous potential in the area of nanotechnology, material science and biomedical science. PMID:27063924

  9. Charged nanoparticles as supramolecular surfactants for controlling the growth and stability of microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Bartlomiej; Bishop, Kyle J. M.; Lagzi, Istvan; Wang, Dawei; Wei, Yanhu; Han, Shuangbing; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2012-03-01

    Microcrystals of desired sizes are important in a range of processes and materials, including controlled drug release, production of pharmaceutics and food, bio- and photocatalysis, thin-film solar cells and antibacterial fabrics. The growth of microcrystals can be controlled by a variety of agents, such as multivalent ions, charged small molecules, mixed cationic-anionic surfactants, polyelectrolytes and other polymers, micropatterned self-assembled monolayers, proteins and also biological organisms during biomineralization. However, the chief limitation of current approaches is that the growth-modifying agents are typically specific to the crystalizing material. Here, we show that oppositely charged nanoparticles can function as universal surfactants that control the growth and stability of microcrystals of monovalent or multivalent inorganic salts, and of charged organic molecules. We also show that the solubility of the microcrystals can be further tuned by varying the thickness of the nanoparticle surfactant layers and by reinforcing these layers with dithiol crosslinks.

  10. Conductive Hybrid Crystal Composed from Polyoxomolybdate and Deprotonatable Ionic-Liquid Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Jun; Kawahara, Ryosuke; Uchida, Sayaka; Koguchi, Shinichi; Ito, Takeru

    2016-01-01

    A polyoxomolybdate inorganic-organic hybrid crystal was synthesized with deprotonatable ionic-liquid surfactant. 1-dodecylimidazolium cation was employed for its synthesis. The hybrid crystal contained δ-type octamolybdate (Mo8) isomer, and possessed alternate stacking of Mo8 monolayers and interdigitated surfactant bilayers. The crystal structure was compared with polyoxomolybdate hybrid crystals comprising 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium surfactant, which preferred β-type Mo8 isomer. The less bulky hydrophilic moiety of the 1-dodecylimidazolium interacted with the δ-Mo8 anion by N–H···O hydrogen bonds, which presumably induced the formation of the δ-Mo8 anion. Anhydrous conductivity of the hybrid crystal was estimated to be 5.5 × 10−6 S·cm−1 at 443 K by alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy. PMID:27347926

  11. Conductive Hybrid Crystal Composed from Polyoxomolybdate and Deprotonatable Ionic-Liquid Surfactant.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Kawahara, Ryosuke; Uchida, Sayaka; Koguchi, Shinichi; Ito, Takeru

    2016-01-01

    A polyoxomolybdate inorganic-organic hybrid crystal was synthesized with deprotonatable ionic-liquid surfactant. 1-dodecylimidazolium cation was employed for its synthesis. The hybrid crystal contained δ-type octamolybdate (Mo₈) isomer, and possessed alternate stacking of Mo₈ monolayers and interdigitated surfactant bilayers. The crystal structure was compared with polyoxomolybdate hybrid crystals comprising 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium surfactant, which preferred β-type Mo₈ isomer. The less bulky hydrophilic moiety of the 1-dodecylimidazolium interacted with the δ-Mo₈ anion by N-H···O hydrogen bonds, which presumably induced the formation of the δ-Mo₈ anion. Anhydrous conductivity of the hybrid crystal was estimated to be 5.5 × 10(-6) S·cm(-1) at 443 K by alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy. PMID:27347926

  12. Decisive Interactions between the Heterocyclic Moiety and the Cluster Observed in Polyoxometalate-Surfactant Hybrid Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Otobe, Saki; Fujioka, Natsumi; Hirano, Takuro; Ishikawa, Eri; Naruke, Haruo; Fujio, Katsuhiko; Ito, Takeru

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid crystals were successfully obtained as single crystals by using polyoxotungstate anion and cationic dodecylpyridazinium (C12pda) and dodecylpyridinium (C12py) surfactants. The decatungstate (W10) anion was used as the inorganic component, and the crystal structures were compared. In the crystal comprising C12pda (C12pda-W10), the heterocyclic moiety directly interacted with W10, which contributed to a build-up of the crystal structure. On the other hand, the crystal consisting of C12py (C12py-W10) had similar crystal packing and molecular arrangement to those in the W10 crystal hybridized with other pyridinium surfactants. These results indicate the significance of the heterocyclic moiety of the surfactant to construct hybrid crystals with polyoxometalate anions. PMID:25894221

  13. Size dependent fractal aggregation mediated through surfactant in silica nanoparticle solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2012-06-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study aggregation of anionic silica nanoparticles in presence of cationic surfactant (DTAB) in aqueous solution. The measurements were carried out for different sizes of nanoparticles (8.2, 16.4 and 26.4 nm) at fixed (1 wt%) nanoparticles and surfactant concentration. It is found that the adsorption of surfactant micelles on the silica nanoparticles leads to the aggregation of nanoparticles, which is characterized by a fractal structure. The number of adsorbed micelles on nanoparticle increases from 7 to 152 with the increase in the size of the nanoparticle from 8.2 to 26.4 nm, whereas interestingly the fractal dimension remains same. The aggregate morphology in these systems is expected to be governed by the diffusion limited aggregation.

  14. Understanding of ZnO morphologies in the presence of surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Baljinder; Kaura, Aman; Singh, Gurinder; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (dumbbell, flower and tablets) are synthesized using zinc precursor, anionic surfactant Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and cationic surfactant Dodecyl Trimethyl Ammonium bromide (DTAB) by chemical route. Inadequate covering of ZnO with SDS leads to ZnO dumbbells, which are assembled to form flower like geometry. Mixture of SDS and DTAB retards the growth along polar planes i.e. (0001) and (000 1 ¯) respectively, resulting in the formation of tablets. The experimental results are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis), which indicates that chemical nature of surfactants, is responsible for the variation of ZnO morphologies.

  15. Flotation of algae for water reuse and biomass production: role of zeta potential and surfactant to separate algal particles.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dong-Heui; Kim, Mi-Sug

    2015-01-01

    The effect of chemical coagulation and biological auto-flocculation relative to zeta potential was examined to compare flotation and sedimentation separation processes for algae harvesting. Experiments revealed that microalgae separation is related to auto-flocculation of Anabaena spp. and requires chemical coagulation for the whole period of microalgae cultivation. In addition, microalgae separation characteristics which are associated with surfactants demonstrated optimal microalgae cultivation time and separation efficiency of dissolved CO2 flotation (DCF) as an alternative to dissolved air flotation (DAF). Microalgae were significantly separated in response to anionic surfactant rather than cationic surfactant as a function of bubble size and zeta potential. DAF and DCF both showed slightly efficient flotation; however, application of anionic surfactant was required when using DCF. PMID:26287835

  16. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSOPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-04-30

    The aim of the project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on the solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems will be conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals used have been characterized, for particle size distribution and surface area. Also a series of novel cationic Gemini surfactants: butane-1,4-bis(quaternary ammonium chloride), has been synthesized. The solution and adsorption behavior of individual surfactants, the highly surface-active Gemini surfactant C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12}, the sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and their mixture has been studied. DM alone shows low adsorption on silica because of the lack of any electrostatic attraction between the surfactant and the silica particle. On the other hand, the cationic Gemini adsorbs markedly on the oppositely charged silica surface. Marked synergism has been observed in the case of DM/C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} mixture adsorption on silica. Adsorption of DM from the mixtures increases dramatically in both the rising part and the plateau regions. Adsorption of the cationic Gemini C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} from the mixture on the other hand increases in the rising part, but decreases in the plateau regions due to the

  17. Ternary system based on fluorophore-surfactant assemblies--Cu²⁺ for highly sensitive and selective detection of arginine in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianhua; Ding, Liping; Hu, Wenting; Chen, Xiangli; Chen, Xiao; Fang, Yu

    2014-12-23

    A new cationic dansyl derivative-based (DIlSD) fluorescence probe was designed and synthesized. Its combination with anionic surfactant SDS assemblies shows enhanced fluorescence intensity and blue-shifted maximum wavelength. Its fluorescence can be slightly quenched by Cu(2+); however, the fluorescence quenching efficiency by Cu(2+) is highly increased upon titration of arginine (Arg). As a result, the ternary system containing the cationic fluorophore, anionic surfactant, and Cu(2+) functions as a highly sensitive and selective sensor to Arg. The optimized sensor system displays a detection limit of 170 nM, representing the highest sensitivity to Arg in total aqueous solution by a fluorescent sensor. Control experiments reveal that the imidazolium groups in the fluorophore, the anionic surfactant, and Cu(2+) all play important roles in the process of sensing Arg. The electrostatic interaction between the cationic fluorophore and anionic surfactants facilitates the binding of imidazolium rings with Cu(2+), the surfactant surface-anchored Cu(2+) is responsible for further binding of Arg, and the electrostatic interaction between anionic surfactants and positively charged amino acids accounts for the selective responses to Arg. PMID:25453500

  18. MLKL forms cation channels

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Bingqing; Fang, Sui; Chen, Xueqin; Hu, Hong; Chen, Peiyuan; Wang, Huayi; Gao, Zhaobing

    2016-01-01

    The mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein is a key factor in tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis. Recent studies on necroptosis execution revealed a commitment role of MLKL in membrane disruption. However, our knowledge of how MLKL functions on membrane remains very limited. Here we demonstrate that MLKL forms cation channels that are permeable preferentially to Mg2+ rather than Ca2+ in the presence of Na+ and K+. Moreover, the N-terminal domain containing six helices (H1-H6) is sufficient to form channels. Using the substituted cysteine accessibility method, we further determine that helix H1, H2, H3, H5 and H6 are transmembrane segments, while H4 is located in the cytoplasm. Finally, MLKL-induced membrane depolarization and cell death exhibit a positive correlation to its channel activity. The Mg2+-preferred permeability and five transmembrane segment topology distinguish MLKL from previously identified Mg2+-permeable channels and thus establish MLKL as a novel class of cation channels. PMID:27033670

  19. Biofoams and natural protein surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring foam constituent and surfactant proteins with intriguing structures and functions are now being identified from a variety of biological sources. The ranaspumins from tropical frog foam nests comprise a range of proteins with a mixture of surfactant, carbohydrate binding and antimicrobial activities that together provide a stable, biocompatible, protective foam environment for developing eggs and embryos. Ranasmurfin, a blue protein from a different species of frog, displays a novel structure with a unique chromophoric crosslink. Latherin, primarily from horse sweat, but with similarities to salivary, oral and upper respiratory tract proteins, illustrates several potential roles for surfactant proteins in mammalian systems. These proteins, together with the previously discovered hydrophobins of fungi, throw new light on biomolecular processes at air–water and other interfaces. This review provides a perspective on these recent findings, focussing on structure and biophysical properties. PMID:20615601

  20. Composition of surfactants in the sea-surface microlayer and atmospheric aerosols around coastal areas of the Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talib Latif, Mohd; Ili Hamizah Mustaffa, Nur

    2013-04-01

    Surfactants are seen as potentially important in environmental chemistry because of their ability to alter the movement of materials across aqueous interfaces and to affect the solubility of compounds in aqueous systems. In atmospheric chemistry, the composition of the organic surfactant which typically covers the surface of atmospheric particles is expected to affect all of the surface related aerosol properties. This study aimed to determine the concentrations of surfactants on the sea-surface microlayer and in atmospheric aerosols in several coastal areas around the Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of anionic and cationic surfactants from the sea-surface microlayer (collected using rotation drum) and from aerosols (collected using High Volume Sampler, HVS) were analysed as Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and Disulphine Blue Active Substances (DBAS) respectively through the colorimetric method using an Ultra Violet (UV) visible spectrophotometer. The results of this study showed that the average concentrations of surfactants in the sea-surface microlayer around the coastal area in Peninsular Malaysia ranged between undetected and 0.36 ± 0.12 µmolL-1 for MBAS, and between 0.10 ± 0.01 and 0.33 ± 0.02 µmolL-1 for DBAS. The concentration of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols ranged between 38.38 ± 7.25 and 137.13 ± 34.91 pmolm-3 for MBAS, and between 27.82 ± 3.32 and 104.21 ± 18.02 pmolm-3 for DBAS. Both surfactants in surfactants sea-surface microlayer and atmospheric aerosols were influenced by anthropogenic sources. The contribution of surfactants from the sea-surface microlayer to the composition of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols appears to be very minimal and more dominant in fine mode aerosols.

  1. Removal of surfactants from hydrocarbons with alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, R.P.; Poling, D.E.; Stefanidakis, G.

    1984-02-07

    A method is disclosed for removing hydrocarbon-soluble anionic surfactants from gasoline or kerosene boiling range hydrocarbons. The method comprises (a) contacting a hydrocarbon mixture containing surfactants with a lower alcohol which is miscible with the hydrocarbon mixture to extract the surfactants; (b) contacting the mixture with water or caustic solution to extract the lower alcohol and surfactants from the hydrocarbon mixture; (c) separating the water or caustic solution from the hydrocarbons; and (d) removing the hydrocarbons.

  2. Enhancement of percutaneous absorption of finasteride by cosolvents, cosurfactant and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Javadzadeh, Yousef; Shokri, Javad; Hallaj-Nezhadi, Somayeh; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2010-12-01

    The enhancing effects of routinely used co-solvents, propylene glycol and 2-propanol, anionic and cationic surfactants and a co-surfactant with different concentrations were evaluated on the skin permeation of Finasteride. In vitro permeation experiments with rat skin revealed that the solvent mixture is a very important factor in the penetration of Finasteride through the skin. Unexpectedly, cationic and anionic surfactants in various concentrations did not show any enhancement effect on drug transdermal absorption but co-surfactant Transcutol P increased skin penetration of Finastride significantly. Transcutol P with 0.25% and 1% showed the best enhancement in the initial and final sampling time, respectively. Transcutol P in a concentration of 0.25% increased skin absorption of the drug nearly 3.6 times in the first 15 min. The highest enhancement ratio (ER) was gained in the presence of 1% Transcutol P (ER = 5.98). In this study, among the different topical Finastride formulations, Transcutol P 1% in combination with water, propylene glycol and 2-propanol (30, 10, and 60) showed the highest enhancement ratio. PMID:19929166

  3. Size-dependent interaction of silica nanoparticles with different surfactants in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, Vinod K; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2012-06-26

    The size-dependent interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles with ionic (anionic and cationic) and nonionic surfactants has been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The surfactants used are anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and nonionic decaoxyethylene n-dodecylether (C(12)E(10)). The measurements have been carried out for three different sizes of silica nanoparticles (8, 16, and 26 nm) at fixed concentrations (1 wt % each) of nanoparticles and surfactants. It is found that irrespective of the size of the nanoparticles there is no significant interaction evolved between like-charged nanoparticles and the SDS micelles leading to any structural changes. However, the strong attraction of oppositely charged DTAB micelles with silica nanoparticles results in the aggregation of nanoparticles. The number of micelles mediating the nanoparticle aggregation increases with the size of the nanoparticle. The aggregates are characterized by fractal structure where the fractal dimension is found to be constant (D ≈ 2.3) independent of the size of the nanoparticles and consistent with diffusion-limited-aggregation-type fractal morphology in these systems. In the case of nonionic surfactant C(12)E(10), micelles interact with the individual silica nanoparticles. The number of adsorbed micelles per nanoparticle increases drastically whereas the percentage of adsorbed micelles on nanoparticles decreases with the increase in the size of the nanoparticles. PMID:22655980

  4. Effect of Different Surfactants on the Interfacial Behavior of the n-Hexane-Water System in the Presence of Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Nihar Ranjan; Rangera, Naveen; Singh, Jayant K

    2016-07-28

    This paper presents the effect of negatively charged silica nanoparticles (NPs) on the interfacial tension of the n-hexane-water system at variable concentrations of four different surfactants, viz., an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and two nonionic surfactants, Tween 20 and Triton X-100 (TX-100). The presence of negatively charged silica nanoparticles is found to have a different effect depending on the type of surfactant. In the case of ionic surfactants, SDS and CTAB, silica NPs reduce the interfacial tension of the system. On the contrary, for nonionic surfactants, Tween 20 and TX-100, silica NPs increase the interfacial tension. The increasing/decreasing nature of the interfacial tension in the presence of NPs is well supported by the calculated surface excess concentrations. The diffusion kinetic control (DKC) and statistical rate theory (SRT) models are used to understand the behavior of dynamic interfacial tension of the surfactant-NP-oil-water system. The DKC model is found to describe the studied surfactant-NP-oil-water systems more aptly. PMID:27367433

  5. Genetic Disorders of Surfactant Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wert, Susan E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Nogee, Lawrence M.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding the surfactant proteins B and C (SP-B and SP-C) and the phospholipid transporter, ABCA3, are associated with respiratory distress and interstitial lung disease in the pediatric population. Expression of these proteins is regulated developmentally, increasing with gestational age, and is critical for pulmonary surfactant function at birth. Pulmonary surfactant is a unique mixture of lipids and proteins that reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface, preventing collapse of the lung at the end of expiration. SP-B and ABCA3 are required for the normal organization and packaging of surfactant phospholipids into specialized secretory organelles, known as lamellar bodies, while both SP-B and SP-C are important for adsorption of secreted surfactant phospholipids to the alveolar surface. In general, mutations in the SP-B gene SFTPB are associated with fatal respiratory distress in the neonatal period, and mutations in the SP-C gene SFTPC are more commonly associated with interstitial lung disease in older infants, children, and adults. Mutations in the ABCA3 gene are associated with both phenotypes. Despite this general classification, there is considerable overlap in the clinical and histologic characteristics of these genetic disorders. In this review, similarities and differences in the presentation of these disorders with an emphasis on their histochemical and ultrastructural features will be described, along with a brief discussion of surfactant metabolism. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of lung disease caused by mutations in these genes will also be discussed. PMID:19220077

  6. Physical Property Requirements of Ion-exchange Polymer Membranes for Acid-base Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddecha, Supacharee; Thayer, Peter; Jorne', Jacob; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2013-03-01

    Flow batteries offer feasible solutions to grid-scale storage of intermittent power. We are developing a new type of flow battery that reversibly controls an acid-base neutralization reaction. The battery consists of two highly reversible hydrogen gas electrodes that are exposed to low and high pH process streams. A brine solution runs between the acid and base streams and is separated by cationic and anionic exchange membranes. For both charge and discharge phases, hydrogen gas is produced at one electrode and consumed at the other. During charging, an external potential is applied across the two electrodes to electrochemically produce acid and base from the fed brine solution. Discharge involves electrochemical neutralization of acid and base streams, resulting in current flow through an external load. Several charge and discharge cycles were performed to demonstrate proof of concept. Experiments were conducted to determine the physical property requirements of the ionic exchange polymer layers. Properties including ion conductivity, permselectivity, and membrane stability will be discussed.

  7. Surfactants as bubble surface modifiers in the flotation of algae: dissolved air flotation that utilizes a chemically modified bubble surface.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Rita K; Parsons, Simon A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present an investigation into the use of bubbles modified with surfactants in dissolved air flotation (DAF). Bubble modification was investigated by dosing surfactants of varying character into the saturator of a DAF unit in turn. The cell removal efficiency only improved when using a cationic surfactant where optimum removal of Microcystis aeruginosa cells was obtained when using 0.0022-0.004 mequiv L(-1) surfactant. However, the magnitude of the removal differed according to the hydrophobicity of the surfactant. Typically, the more efficiently the surfactant adsorbed at the bubble interface, the better the removal efficiency. When the dose to saturator ratio was kept constant and the recycle ratio varied, the removal efficiency improved with increasing recycle ratio, reaching a maximum removal efficiency of 87% for M. aeruginosa. This value was comparable with that predicted by a theoretical model. The bubble collection efficiency of a maximum of two cells per bubble was constant irrespective of the influent cell number or recycle ratio. Treatment of additional species in this way revealed a relationship between increasing size and both increasing removal efficiency and decreasing surfactant dose, which is supported by theoretical relationships. PMID:18678021

  8. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sett, Arghya; Das, Suradip; Bora, Utpal

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to replace conventional chromatographic methods for environmental monitoring with cheaper and easy to use biosensors for precise detection and estimation of hazardous environmental toxicants, water or air borne pathogens as well as various other chemicals and biologics are gaining momentum. Out of the various types of biosensors classified according to their bio-recognition principle, nucleic-acid-based sensors have shown high potential in terms of cost, sensitivity, and specificity. The discovery of catalytic activities of RNA (ribozymes) and DNA (DNAzymes) which could be triggered by divalent metallic ions paved the way for their extensive use in detection of heavy metal contaminants in environment. This was followed with the invention of small oligonucleotide sequences called aptamers which can fold into specific 3D conformation under suitable conditions after binding to target molecules. Due to their high affinity, specificity, reusability, stability, and non-immunogenicity to vast array of targets like small and macromolecules from organic, inorganic, and biological origin, they can often be exploited as sensors in industrial waste management, pollution control, and environmental toxicology. Further, rational combination of the catalytic activity of DNAzymes and RNAzymes along with the sequence-specific binding ability of aptamers have given rise to the most advanced form of functional nucleic-acid-based sensors called aptazymes. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors (FNASs) can be conjugated with fluorescent molecules, metallic nanoparticles, or quantum dots to aid in rapid detection of a variety of target molecules by target-induced structure switch (TISS) mode. Although intensive research is being carried out for further improvements of FNAs as sensors, challenges remain in integrating such bio-recognition element with advanced transduction platform to enable its use as a networked analytical system for tailor made analysis of environmental

  9. Agglutination of lung surfactant with glucan.

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, A J; Brogden, K A; French, A D

    1992-01-01

    Respirable cotton dust, implicated in the pathogenesis of byssinosis, contains a number of bioactive compounds. These include lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tannins, bacterial peptides, byssinosin, iacinilene C, and 1,3-beta-D-glucan. The exact aetiological agent of byssinosis in such dust has not been definitively identified nor has its mechanism of action on lower lung surfaces been determined. In the present study 1,3-beta-D-glucan, Enterobacter agglomerans LPS, and ovine pulmonary surfactant were mixed in varying combinations. After incubation, their characteristics were determined by sucrose density centrifugation, TLC, and carbohydrate analysis. Precipitates were found in mixtures containing surfactant-glucan and surfactant-glucan-LPS, but not in surfactant-LPS. Precipitates were not seen in the surfactant, LPS, and glucan controls. The formation of a precipitate did not increase the density of the surfactant glucan mixture when compared by density gradient centrifugation with the surfactant control. The interaction between surfactant and glucan was analysed by molecular modelling. The energy of a surfactant-glucan complex (60.07 kcal/mol) was calculated to be much lower than the sum of glucan (47.09 kcal/mol) and surfactant (30.98 kcal/mol) when added separately. The results indicate that 1,3-beta-D-glucan does interact with surfactant and this complex may play a part in the pathogenesis of byssinosis by altering lung physiology maintained by pulmonary surfactant. Images PMID:1463675

  10. Imidazolium-based ionic liquid-type surfactant as pseudostationary phase in micellar electrokinetic chromatography of highly hydrophilic urinary nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Rageh, Azza H; Pyell, Ute

    2013-11-01

    Ionic liquid (IL)-type surfactants have been shown to interact more strongly with polar compounds than traditionally used quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants. The aim of this study is to provide an alternative micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method (MEKC) for the analysis of urinary nucleosides in their ionic form at low surfactant concentration. This approach could overcome the use of high surfactant concentrations typically associated with the analysis of these highly hydrophilic metabolites as neutral species, which is frequently accompanied by high electric current, Joule heating and long analysis time. The investigated IL-type surfactant; 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C14MImBr) is similar to the commonly employed cationic surfactant; tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) but it provides a different separation selectivity. We employed C14MImBr micelles for the MEKC analysis of seven urinary nucleosides. The studied analytes possess a negative charge at pH 9.38 (exceptions are adenosine and cytidine which are neutral at this pH value). Borate imparts an additional negative charge to these compounds after complexation with the cis-diol functionality of the ribose unit, which in turn enables them to interact with the oppositely charged C14MImBr micelles via electrostatic (Coulomb) forces. The effect of the concentration of borate (the complexing, competing and buffering ion) on the effective electrophoretic mobilities and on the retention factors was investigated. The effective electrophoretic mobility data show that complexation between these nucleosides and borate occurs with high degree of complexation even at very low borate concentration (2.5 mmol L(-1) disodium tetraborate). In addition, we found that the retention factors are strongly dependent on the borate concentration being the highest when using the lowest borate concentration and they can be regulated by variation of either tetraborate concentration or the pH of the

  11. Biofuncationalized microfiber Bragg grating for acid-based sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Yang; Huang, Yunyun; Shen, Xiang; Sun, Dandan; Wang, Xiuxin; Jin, Long; Li, Jie; Guan, Baiou

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate an acid-based sensor from the biofuncationalized microfiber Bragg grating. By electrostatic selfassembly layer-by-layer technique, the film consisting of sodium alginate which has hygroscopic response to the potential of hydrogen is coated on the fiber surface. Consequently, the refractive index variation of the sensing film caused by water absorption can be measured by mFBG's higher order mode peak which can be translated into pH value information. The sensitivity of the sensor is received as high as 265pm/pH.

  12. The comprehensive acid-base characterization of glutathione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzahosseini, Arash; Somlyay, Máté; Noszál, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione in its thiol (GSH) and disulfide (GSSG) forms, and 4 related compounds were studied by 1H NMR-pH titrations and a case-tailored evaluation method. The resulting acid-base properties are quantified in terms of 128 microscopic protonation constants; the first complete set of such parameters for this vitally important pair of compounds. The concomitant 12 interactivity parameters were also determined. Since biological redox systems are regularly compared to the GSH-GSSG pair, the eight microscopic thiolate basicities determined this way are exclusive means for assessing subtle redox parameters in a wide pH range.

  13. Acid-Base Homeostasis: Overview for Infusion Nurses.

    PubMed

    Masco, Natalie A

    2016-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis is essential to normal function of the human body. Even slight alterations can significantly alter physiologic processes at the tissue and cellular levels. To optimally care for patients, nurses must be able to recognize signs and symptoms that indicate deviations from normal. Nurses who provide infusions to patients-whether in acute care, home care, or infusion center settings-have a responsibility to be able to recognize the laboratory value changes that occur with the imbalance and appreciate the treatment options, including intravenous infusions. PMID:27598068

  14. SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION WITH SURFACTANT REGENERATION/REUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation was conducted during the spring of 1999 at Marine Corps Base, Camp LeJeune, NC. A PCE-DNAPL zone was identified and delineated by extensive soil sampling in 1997, and was further characteized by a partitioning interwell t...

  15. A Computer-Based Simulation of an Acid-Base Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boblick, John M.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews the advantages of computer simulated environments for experiments, referring in particular to acid-base titrations. Includes pre-lab instructions and a sample computer printout of a student's use of an acid-base simulation. Ten references. (PR)

  16. Acid-base actuation of [c2]daisy chains.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Wu, Jishan; Olson, Mark A; Spruell, Jason M; Trabolsi, Ali; Yang, Ying-Wei; Elhabiri, Mourad; Albrecht-Gary, Anne-Marie; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2009-05-27

    A versatile synthetic strategy, which was conceived and employed to prepare doubly threaded, bistable [c2]daisy chain compounds, is described. Propargyl and 1-pentenyl groups have been grafted onto the stoppers of [c2]daisy chain molecules obtained using a template-directed synthetic protocol. Such [c2]daisy chain molecules undergo reversible extension and contraction upon treatment with acid and base, respectively. The dialkyne-functionalized [c2]daisy chain (AA) was subjected to an [AA+BB] type polymerization with an appropriate diazide (BB) to afford a linear, mechanically interlocked, main-chain polymer. The macromolecular properties of this polymer were characterized by chronocoulometry, size exclusion chromatography, and static light-scattering analysis. The acid-base switching properties of both the monomers and the polymer have been studied in solution, using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, UV/vis absorption spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The experimental results demonstrate that the functionalized [c2]daisy cha