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Sample records for acid-fast bacilli afb

  1. Decentralization of Acid Fast Bacilli(AFB) External Quality Assurance Using Blind Rechecking for Sputum Smear Microscopy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Muluken; Jerene, Degu; Alem, Genetu; Seid, Jemal; Belachew, Feleke; Kassie, Yewulsew; Habte, Dereje; Negash, Solomon; Ayana, Gonfa; Girma, Belaineh; Haile, Yared K.; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Suarez, Pedro G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia achieved a rapid expansion of TB microscopic centers for acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, external quality assurance (EQA) services were, until recently, limited to few regional and sub-regional laboratories. In this paper, we describe the decentralization experience and the result of EQA using random blinded rechecking. Materials and Methods The routine EQA quarterly report was compiled and analyzed. A positive result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported negative result is categorized as false positive (FP). A negative result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported positive is considered false negative (FN). The reading of EQA centers was considered a gold standard to compute the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the readings of microscopic centers. Results We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs) to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I), the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs). In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively. Conclusion Decentralizing blinded rechecking of sputum smear microscopy is feasible in low-income settings. While a comprehensive laboratory improvement strategy enhanced the quality of microscopy, laboratory professionals’ capacity in slide reading and smear quality requires continued

  2. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S.; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A. K.; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Interpretation and Conclusion: Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity. PMID:26425006

  3. Use and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative acid-fast bacilli and fungal cultures in assessing infection of joint arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Wadey, Veronica M; Huddleston, James I; Goodman, Stuart B; Schurman, David J; Maloney, William J; Baron, Ellen J

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine a protocol for collecting acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and fungal intraoperative cultures during orthopedic procedures. An observational study was undertaken. Four hundred forty-six AFB cultures and 486 fungal cultures were processed over a 2-year period. The number of positive cultures was determined. A protocol specific to handling these types of specimens was developed. Cost analysis was completed to determine both the time and money saved if the new protocol was implemented. The infrequency of positive AFB and fungal cultures in this study suggests that it is only necessary to routinely request AFB and fungal cultures on 1 of 5 samples. Implementation of this protocol has potential to lead to substantial cost reduction and resource savings without diminishing patient outcomes. PMID:19879728

  4. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  5. Improved Sensitivity of Sputum Smear Microscopy after Processing Specimens with C18-Carboxypropylbetaine To Detect Acid-Fast Bacilli: a Study of United States-Bound Immigrants from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Laserson, K. F.; Yen, N. T. N.; Thornton, C. G.; Mai, V. T. C.; Jones, W.; An, D. Q.; Phuoc, N. H.; Trinh, N. A.; Nhung, D. T. C.; Lien, T. X.; Lan, N. T. N.; Wells, C.; Binkin, N.; Cetron, M.; Maloney, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the specimen-processing method that uses the detergent C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) on the sensitivity of acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Vietnamese immigrants with abnormal chest radiographs provided up to three sputum specimens, which were examined for acid-fast bacilli by use of direct auramine and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The remaining sputum was split; half was cultured, and the other half was incubated with CB-18 for 24 h, centrifuged, and examined for AFB by both staining methods. CB-18 processing improved the sensitivity of AFB staining by 20 to 30% (only differences in auramine sensitivity were statistically significant) but reduced specificity by ≈20% (P < 0.05). These findings have direct utility for overseas migrant tuberculosis screening programs, for which maximizing test sensitivity is a major objective. PMID:16000478

  6. Demonstration of acid-fast bacilli in buffy coat and bone marrow smear--a diagnostic tool in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sen, R; Singh, S; Singh, H P; Sen, J; Yadav, M S; Arora, B R

    1996-10-01

    Buffy coat smears prepared from peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate obtained from proved 60 untreated cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen method and thoroughly screened for presence of tubercle bacilli. Acid-fast bacilli were detected in 55% cases in buffy coat, 48.3% cases in bone marrow, 38.3% cases both in buffy coat and bone marrow and 65% cases either in buffy coat or in bone marrow or in both. Considering the fact that demonstration of acid-fast bacilli may not be possible in more than 25-50% of the suspected cases of tuberculosis, these techniques are recommended for evaluation of their utility in establishing diagnosis of tuberculosis, particularly in reference to sputum negative cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculosis of inaccessible extrapulmonary sites. PMID:9141877

  7. Mistaken identity: Legionella micdadei appearing as acid fast bacilli on lung biopsy of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Paul Ravi; Martin, Brock A.; Ho, Dora Y.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella micdadei is a potential cause of invasive lung infections in immunocompromised hosts. On biopsy specimens, it can appear as an acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and can be mistaken for a member of genus Mycobacterium. As Legionella requires selective media to grow in culture, and a commonly used, commercially available urine antigen test for Legionella only detects Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 but not L. micdadei, it is important to consider this organism in the differential diagnosis for AFB in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of Legionella micdadei infection, which was initially treated empirically for non-tuberculous mycobacteria based on acid fast staining of biopsy tissue before the final diagnosis was made. PMID:25573597

  8. Anisotropic tubular filtering for automatic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Shan-e.-Ahmed; Marjan, M. Q.; Arif, Muhammad; Butt, Farhana; Sultan, Faisal; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main factors for high workload in pulmonary pathology in developing countries is the relatively large proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases which can be detected with high throughput using automated approaches. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which appears as thin, rod-shaped acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smear samples. In this paper, we present an algorithm for automatic detection of AFB in digitized images of ZN stained sputum smear samples under a light microscope. A key component of the proposed algorithm is the enhancement of raw input image using a novel anisotropic tubular filter (ATF) which suppresses the background noise while simultaneously enhancing strong anisotropic features of AFBs present in the image. The resulting image is then segmented using color features and candidate AFBs are identified. Finally, a support vector machine classifier using morphological features from candidate AFBs decides whether a given image is AFB positive or not. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ATF method with two different feature sets by showing that the proposed image analysis pipeline results in higher accuracy and F1-score than the same pipeline with standard median filtering for image enhancement.

  9. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated. Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment. Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second

  10. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB.This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated.Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment.Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second-line anti

  11. Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion.

    PubMed

    Farnia, P; Mohammadi, F; Zarifi, Z; Tabatabee, D J; Ganavi, J; Ghazisaeedi, K; Farnia, P K; Gheydi, M; Bahadori, M; Masjedi, M R; Velayati, A A

    2002-02-01

    In order to try to improve the results of direct smear microscopy, we used the mucus-digesting quality of chitin in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. For this purpose, a total of 430 sputum specimens were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquefaction, chitin sedimentation, and direct microscopy methods. Then, the smear sensitivity for acid-fast bacillus detection by chitin-treated sputum was compared with the sensitivity of smears prepared by other methods. Our results showed that the chitin solution took less time to completely homogenize the mucoid sputum than did the N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NaOCl methods. The N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration method demonstrated sensitivity and specificity levels of 83 and 97%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of chitin sedimentation was 80%, with a specificity of 96.7%. The NaOCl liquefaction method showed a sensitivity of 78%, with a specificity of 96%. Finally, the sensitivity of direct microscopy was lower than those of the other tested methods and was only 46%, with a specificity of 90%. The chitin and NaOCl liquefaction methods are both easy to perform, and they do not require additional equipment (centrifuges). Also, our results demonstrated that the chitin method is less time-consuming than the NaOCl method, since only 30 min of incubation is required to bring complete sedimentation of bacilli in chitin-treated sputum whereas the NaOCl method needs 10 to 12 h to give the same results in the same sputum specimens. Therefore, the chitin liquefaction and sedimentation method may provide better results in TB laboratories of developing countries than the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, NaOCl overnight sedimentation, and direct smear microscopy methods. PMID:11825964

  12. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS IN A RESOURCE - LIMITED SETTING: IS ACID-FAST BACILLI MICROSCOPY ALONE SUFFICIENT?

    PubMed Central

    Odubanjo, M.O.; Dada-Adegbola, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to audit the processes for the microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in our resource-limited setting. A total of 694 specimens were received from 333 patients. 129 (38.7%) of these patients were positive for TB. 78 (60.5%) were positive on AFB microscopy alone, 13 (10.0%) on culture alone and 38 (29.5%) on both culture and AFB microscopy. Fifty-one (51) cases were positive on culture, 38 of these (74.5%) had growth on Lowensen-Jensen culture medium alone, 11 (19.6%) on Pyruvic Acid Enhanced Medium (PAEM) and 3 (5.9%) on both culture media. AFB microscopy showed a diagnostic specificity of 71.6% and a sensitivity of 74.5%. M. Bovis appears to be prevalent and we suggest the need for speciation. If AFB microscopy is to be routinely used alone, without confirmation by culture, then the overriding need is for quality to be fully assured in its use. PMID:25161484

  13. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  14. Cytochemical Reactions of Human Leprosy Bacilli and Mycobacteria: Ultrastructural Implications

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Clark A.; Barksdale, Lane

    1973-01-01

    Leprosy bacilli harvested from freshly biopsied tissue from cases of lepromatous, borderline and histoid leprosy were, in conjunction with Mycobacterium lepraemurium and representative mycobacteria, examined cytochemically with and without their pyridine-extractable acid-fastness. Unlike the mycobacteria, unextracted leprosy bacilli failed to give a positive response to the periodic acid Schiff test or to take up Sudan black B, toluidine blue O, alkaline methylene blue or safranin O. Once their acid-fastness was removed with pyridine, leprosy bacilli were stained by all of the foregoing dyes except Sudan black B, under this condition they remained gram positive. While permanent loss of acid-fastness from leprosy bacilli always resulted in a loss of acid hematein-fixing material (Smith-Dietrich-Baker tests), the reverse was not true. Mild aqueous saponification, bromination, or sequential treatment with lipase and phospholipase D resulted in a loss of acid hematein-positivity but not acid-fastness. After pyridine extraction, bromination, or aqueous saponification, true mycobacteria lost neither their acid hematein-positivity nor their acid-fastness. The acid hematein-positive material and the acid-fastness of both leprosy bacilli and mycobacteria were lost after treatment with alkaline ethanol. These cytochemical findings are discussed in the light of what is known of the ultrastructure of leprosy bacilli and mycobacteria, and of the occurrence of a dl-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine oxidase in leprosy bacilli but not in mycobacteria. An effort is made to explain the rather unique cytochemical properties of leprosy bacilli. Since pyridine-extractable acid-fastness (and acid hematein-positivity) serve to distinguish human leprosy bacilli from M. lepraemurium, one or the other, or both, are suggested as bases for differentiating these two organisms in animal experiments designed to show the in vivo propagation of human leprosy bacilli. PMID:4120605

  15. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  16. Improved polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum with formalin-fixed tubercle bacilli for training of tuberculosis microscopists.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi; Wahyunitisari, Manik Rento; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Fujiki, Akiko

    2011-10-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method for detecting tubercle bacilli when there are more than 10,000 bacilli/ml in the original sputum. Furthermore, because the microscopic method provides not only quantitative, but also qualitative information, such as the shape of bacilli, it has remained significant. We have previously developed and reported panel test slides made from polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum (PBAS) mixed with both cultured THP-1 cells and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. In this paper, we report an improved preparation method for PBAS for panel test slides that provides a simplified method and enhanced availability with high consistency in each grade and in which only negative PBAS is prepared from polyacrylamide and cultured THP-1 cells and mixed with graded formalin-fixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis solution (FFTBS) containing oral flora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the slides. In the smears prepared using this improved method, the numbers (average ± standard deviation [SD]) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 300 fields (2- by 3-cm smear) in eight smears of each grade ranged from 5 to 9 (6.4 ± 1.4), from 59 to 88 (74.6 ± 10.0), from 503 to 912 (705.0 ± 145.7), and from 1,819 to 3,256 (2133.3 ± 478.0) in ±, +, ++, and +++ smears, respectively. In addition, this preparation method provided high similarity to the microscopic appearance of bacilli and background seen in the actual patient sputum, with high feasibility. These results revealed that our new PBAS had high authenticity in the appearance and consistency in each grade, which could make it valuable as a reliable artificial sputum for the training of microscopists. PMID:21813720

  17. Improved Polyacrylamide-Based Artificial Sputum with Formalin-Fixed Tubercle Bacilli for Training of Tuberculosis Microscopists▿†

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi; Wahyunitisari, Manik Rento; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Fujiki, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method for detecting tubercle bacilli when there are more than 10,000 bacilli/ml in the original sputum. Furthermore, because the microscopic method provides not only quantitative, but also qualitative information, such as the shape of bacilli, it has remained significant. We have previously developed and reported panel test slides made from polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum (PBAS) mixed with both cultured THP-1 cells and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. In this paper, we report an improved preparation method for PBAS for panel test slides that provides a simplified method and enhanced availability with high consistency in each grade and in which only negative PBAS is prepared from polyacrylamide and cultured THP-1 cells and mixed with graded formalin-fixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis solution (FFTBS) containing oral flora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the slides. In the smears prepared using this improved method, the numbers (average ± standard deviation [SD]) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 300 fields (2- by 3-cm smear) in eight smears of each grade ranged from 5 to 9 (6.4 ± 1.4), from 59 to 88 (74.6 ± 10.0), from 503 to 912 (705.0 ± 145.7), and from 1,819 to 3,256 (2133.3 ± 478.0) in ±, +, ++, and +++ smears, respectively. In addition, this preparation method provided high similarity to the microscopic appearance of bacilli and background seen in the actual patient sputum, with high feasibility. These results revealed that our new PBAS had high authenticity in the appearance and consistency in each grade, which could make it valuable as a reliable artificial sputum for the training of microscopists. PMID:21813720

  18. Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  19. Identification of AFB1-interacting proteins and interactions between RPSA and AFB1.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhenhong; Huang, Yaling; Yang, Yanling; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-15

    A method using immobilized affinity chromatography (IAC) was developed to screen for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-binding proteins. AFB1 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) coupled protein (BSA-AFB1) was prepared using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride. The resulting coupled compound was immobilized onto PVDF transfer membranes, which were then incubated with total protein from mouse liver. AFB1-binding proteins were eluted, after non-specific washing, by specific elution, and the eluted proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two candidate AFB1-binding proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as the 40S ribosomal protein SA (RPSA) and a putative uncharacterized protein. RPSA and AFB1 interactions were further analyzed by ELISA in vitro and laser confocal immunofluorescence analysis in vivo. The results from ELISA and immunofluorescence showed that RPSA efficiently bound AFB1 in vitro and in vivo. This study's conclusion laid the foundation for further exploration of the role of AFB1-binding proteins in AFB1 toxicology towards hepatocytes and the entry pathway of AFB1 into hepatocytes. PMID:26372695

  20. Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase

  1. Cytological and Transcript Analyses Reveal Fat and Lazy Persister-Like Bacilli in Tuberculous Sputum

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, Anna L; Lee, Su-Min; Smith, Rebecca J; Senner, Claire; Hinds, Jason; Rajakumar, Kumar; Adegbola, Richard A; Besra, Gurdyal S; Butcher, Philip D; Barer, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Background Tuberculous sputum provides a sample of bacilli that must be eliminated by chemotherapy and that may go on to transmit infection. A preliminary observation that Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells contain triacylglycerol lipid bodies in sputum, but not when growing in vitro, led us to investigate the extent of this phenomenon and its physiological basis. Methods and Findings Microscopy-positive sputum samples from the UK and The Gambia were investigated for their content of lipid body–positive mycobacteria by combined Nile red and auramine staining. All samples contained a lipid body–positive population varying from 3% to 86% of the acid-fast bacilli present. The recent finding that triacylglycerol synthase is expressed by mycobacteria when they enter in vitro nonreplicating persistence led us to investigate whether this state was also associated with lipid body formation. We found that, when placed in laboratory conditions inducing nonreplicating persistence, two M. tuberculosis strains had lipid body levels comparable to those found in sputum. We investigated these physiological findings further by comparing the M. tuberculosis transcriptome of growing and nonreplicating persistence cultures with that obtained directly from sputum samples. Although sputum has traditionally been thought to contain actively growing tubercle bacilli, our transcript analyses refute the hypothesis that these cells predominate. Rather, they reinforce the results of the lipid body analyses by revealing transcriptional signatures that can be clearly attributed to slowly replicating or nonreplicating mycobacteria. Finally, the lipid body count was highly correlated (R2 = 0.64, p < 0.03) with time to positivity in diagnostic liquid cultures, thereby establishing a direct link between this cytological feature and the size of a potential nonreplicating population. Conclusion As nonreplicating tubercle bacilli are tolerant to the cidal action of antibiotics and resistant to

  2. Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli in Saliva using Papanicolaou Stain Induced Fluorescence Method Versus Fluorochrome Staining: An Evaluative Study

    PubMed Central

    (Munot), Priya P Lunawat; Mhapuskar, Amit A; Ganvir, S M; Hazarey, Vinay K; Mhapuskar, Madhavi A; Kulkarni, Dinraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fifty years after effective chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) still remains leading infectious cause of adult mortality. The aim of present study was to evaluate diagnostic utility of papanicolaou (Pap) stain induced fluorescence microscopic examination of salivary smears in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of 100 individuals clinically suspected of suffering from active pulmonary TB. Control group – 50 individuals are suffering from any pulmonary disease other than TB such as pneumonia or bronchiogenic carcinoma. Fluorescence microscopic examination of two salivary smears stained by Pap stain and auramine-rhodamine (A-R) stain respectively for each patient. Ziehl–Neelsen stained sputum smear examined under the light microscope for each patient. Culture was done in all the patients for microbiological confirmation. McNemar's Chi-square analysis, Kappa test, and Z-test. Results: The sensitivities of the three staining methods using culture as a reference method were 93.02%, 88.37% and 87.20% for Pap, A-R and Ziehl–Neelson respectively. Conclusion: Pap-induced fluorescence of salivary smears is a safe, reliable and rapid method, which can prove as a valuable diagnostic tool for diagnosis of TB. PMID:26229384

  3. Characteristics of endobronchial tuberculosis patients with negative sputum acid-fast bacillus

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, Pınar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is defined as a tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence, with or without parenchymal involvement. In this study, clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic characteristics of cases diagnosed to have EBTB were evaluated. Methods Sixteen patients with at least three negative sputum examinations for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and diagnosed as having EBTB on the histopathological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens showing granulomatous structures with caseation necrosis and/or positive AFB-culture on the microbiological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens were included in our study. Age, sex, symptoms, tuberculin skin test (TST), microbiological examination results and radiological findings were recorded. Bronchoscopical lesions were classified according to Chung classification. Results EBTB was found to be more common in females. Most common symptoms were cough (100%), sputum (75%), weight loss (62.5%), hemoptisis (37.5%), chest pain (25%) and dyspnea (12.5%). Radiological examination findings revealed consolidations/infiltrations (87.5%), nodular lesions (37.5%), cavitary lesions (25%), unilateral (43.7%) or bilateral hilar widening (31.2%) and atelectasia (25%). Middle lob syndrome was seen in three cases. Most common lesions observed bronchoscopically were active caseous lesions, granular lesions, edematous hyperemic lesions, tumorous lesions, fibrostenotic lesions respectively. In all cases “granulomatous inflammation showing caseation” was shown in the histopathological examination of biopsy specimens. Conclusions EBTB can cause various radiological and bronchoscopical findings. In most of the cases distinct response is seen to antituberculous treatment. Bronchial stenosis is an important complication. Treatment should be given as soon as possible to avoid it. PMID:24409353

  4. Sequential adaptation in latent tuberculosis bacilli: observation by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

    PubMed

    Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Zhavnerko, Gennady Konstantinovich; Merza, Muayad Aghali; Ghanavi, Jalladein; Tabarsi, Payam; Farnia, Poopak; Poleschuyk, Nikolai Nikolaevich; Ignatyev, George

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can persist within the human host for years without causing disease, in a syndrome known as latent tuberculosis. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis establishes a latent metabolic state is unknown, but it is hypothesized that reduced oxygen tension may trigger the bacillus to enter a state of latency. Therefore, we are studying anaerobic culture of M. tuberculosis (H37RV) as a model of latency. For the first time, the sequential adaptation of latent bacilli (every 90 days for 48 months) viewed under Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Two types of adaptation were observed and are described here. First, cells are undergoing temporary adaptation (from 1 to 18 months of latency) that includes; thickening of cell wall (20.5±1.8 nm versus 15.2±1.8 nm, P<0.05), formation of ovoid cells by "folding phenomena"(65-70%), size reduction (0.8±0.1 μm versus 2.5±0.5 μm), and budding type of cell division (20-25%).A second feature include changes that accompany development of specialized cells i.e., production of spore like cells (0.5±0.2 μm) and their progeny (filterable non -acid fast forms; 150 to 300 μm in size). Although, these cells were not real spore because they fail to form a heat resistant colony forming units, after incubation for 35-40 min at 65°C. The filterable non-acid fast forms of bacilli are metabolically active and increased their number by symmetrical type of cell-division. Therefore, survival strategies that developed by M. tuberculosis under oxygen limited condition are linked to its shape, size and conspicuous loss of acid fastness. PMID:21977232

  5. STUDIES ON THE VIRULENCE OF TUBERCLE BACILLI

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Hubert; Noll, Hans

    1953-01-01

    Tubercle bacilli were grown in the presence of different concentrations of tween 80, ranging from 0.05 to 2.1 per cent. Equal numbers of viable bacteria from these cultures were compared in infection experiments in the mouse. The average survival time of the mice was used as a criterion for the virulence of the bacilli. High tween concentrations in the culture medium caused a reduction of the bacterial virulence. The reduction was slight in bacterial suspensions from cultures with tween 80 ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 per cent, but considerable in cultures with 2.1 per cent tween. Bacteria grown in the presence of 2.1 per cent tween gave rise to the same number of colonies, in vitro, as bacteria grown in ordinary media. Their oxygen uptake was increased as compared with that of bacilli grown in media containing less tween. Virulent bacteria grown in the presence of high amounts of tween 80 decolorized methylene blue in a test in which organisms from the same virulent strain but cultured without tween, or with only small proportions of the detergent in the medium, did not reduce the dye. A positive methylene blue test is typical of non-virulent tubercle bacilli and of saprophytic mycobacteria. Essentially the same changes occurred when virulent tubercle bacilli were grown in the presence of 0.5 µg./ml. of para-formacetanilide thiosemicarbazone (TBI). This small amount of the substance was not sufficient to prevent the growth of bacteria, or to reduce the number of viable cells in a culture, but it reduced the virulence of the bacteria considerably and rendered them capable of decolorizing methylene blue. Cord factor, a lipid constituent of virulent bacteria which is toxic for mice, was shown to be present in filtrates from cultures of virulent bacteria when the media contained 2 per cent tween 80, but no such material could be recovered from culture filtrates containing the usual 0.05 per cent tween. On the other hand, no toxic material could be extracted from bacteria

  6. Mishap Investigation Team (MIT) - Barksdale AFB, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The Shuttle Program is organized to support a Shuttle mishap using the resources of the MIT. The afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale AFB. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO). Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team executed a short-term plan that included search, recovery, and identification including coordination with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Temporary operations was set up at Barksdale Air Force Base for two weeks. During this time, coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, AFIP personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. In addition, the crewmember families and NASA management were updated daily. The medical team also dealt with public reports and questions concerning biological and chemical hazards, which were coordinated with SPACEHAB, Inc., Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Medical Operations and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Space Medicine office. After operations at Barksdale were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term search, recovery and identification plan was developed.

  7. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including “Mycobacterium canettii” are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699

  8. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Lisa M.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  9. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  10. The Arabidopsis Auxin Receptor F-Box Proteins AFB4 and AFB5 Are Required for Response to the Synthetic Auxin Picloram

    PubMed Central

    Prigge, Michael J.; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Santner, Aaron; Castillejo, Cristina; Mutka, Andrew M.; O’Malley, Ronan C.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Kunkel, Barbara N.; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is perceived by a family of F-box proteins called the TIR1/AFBs. Phylogenetic studies reveal that these proteins fall into four clades in flowering plants called TIR1, AFB2, AFB4, and AFB6. Genetic studies indicate that members of the TIR1 and AFB2 groups act as positive regulators of auxin signaling by promoting the degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. In this report, we demonstrate that both AFB4 and AFB5 also function as auxin receptors based on in vitro assays. We also provide genetic evidence that AFB4 and AFB5 are targets of the picloram family of auxinic herbicides in addition to indole-3-acetic acid. In contrast to previous studies we find that null afb4 alleles do not exhibit obvious defects in seedling morphology or auxin hypersensitivity. We conclude that AFB4 and AFB5 act in a similar fashion to other members of the family but exhibit a distinct auxin specificity. PMID:26976444

  11. The Arabidopsis Auxin Receptor F-Box Proteins AFB4 and AFB5 Are Required for Response to the Synthetic Auxin Picloram.

    PubMed

    Prigge, Michael J; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Santner, Aaron; Castillejo, Cristina; Mutka, Andrew M; O'Malley, Ronan C; Ecker, Joseph R; Kunkel, Barbara N; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is perceived by a family of F-box proteins called the TIR1/AFBs. Phylogenetic studies reveal that these proteins fall into four clades in flowering plants called TIR1, AFB2, AFB4, and AFB6. Genetic studies indicate that members of the TIR1 and AFB2 groups act as positive regulators of auxin signaling by promoting the degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. In this report, we demonstrate that both AFB4 and AFB5 also function as auxin receptors based on in vitro assays. We also provide genetic evidence that AFB4 and AFB5 are targets of the picloram family of auxinic herbicides in addition to indole-3-acetic acid. In contrast to previous studies we find that null afb4 alleles do not exhibit obvious defects in seedling morphology or auxin hypersensitivity. We conclude that AFB4 and AFB5 act in a similar fashion to other members of the family but exhibit a distinct auxin specificity. PMID:26976444

  12. Measurement of AFB in B± meson production at D0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoganon, J.; D0 Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We present a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in the production of B± mesons, AFB( B±) , using B± → J/ ψ K± decays in 10.4 fb-1 of p bar{{p}} collisions at √{{s}} = 1.96 TeV collected by the D0 experiment during Run II of the Tevatron collider. A nonzero asymmetry would indicate a preference for a particular flavor, i.e., b quark or bar{{b}} antiquark, to be produced in the direction of the proton beam. We extract AFB( B±) from a maximum-likelihood fit to the difference between the numbers of forward- and backward-produced B± mesons. We measure an asymmetry consistent with zero: AFB( B±) = [- 0.24±0.41(stat)±0.19(syst)]%.

  13. AFB/open cycle gas turbine conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, T. W.; Tashjian, R.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed gas turbine systems in industrial cogeneration are identified. Based on site-specific conceptual designs, the potential benefits of the AFB/gas turbine system were compared with an atmospheric fluidized design steam boiler/steam turbine system. The application of these cogeneration systems at four industrial plant sites is reviewed. A performance and benefit analysis was made along with a study of the representativeness of the sites both in regard to their own industry and compared to industry as a whole. A site was selected for the conceptual design, which included detailed site definition, AFB/gas turbine and AFB/steam turbine cogeneration system designs, detailed cost estimates, and comparative performance and benefit analysis. Market and benefit analyses identified the potential market penetration for the cogeneration technologies and quantified the potential benefits.

  14. Characterization of Afb, a novel bifunctional protein in Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Dehbashi, Sanaz; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Mashhadi, Rahil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in newborns and results in pneumonia and bacteremia in adults. A number of S. agalactiae components are involved in colonization of target cells. Destruction of peptidoglycan and division of covalently linked daughter cells is mediated by autolysins. In this study, autolytic activity and plasma binding ability of AFb novel recombinant protein of S. agalactiae was investigated. Materials and Methods: The gbs1805 gene was cloned and expressed. E. coli strains DH5α and BL21 were used as cloning and expression hosts, respectively. After purification, antigenicity and binding ability to plasma proteins of the recombinant protein was evaluated. Results: AFb, the 18KDa protein was purified successfully. The insoluble mature protein revealed the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This insoluble mature protein revealed that it has the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin plasma proteins. Furthermore, in silico analysis demonstrated the AFb has an autolytic activity. Conclusions: AFb is a novel protein capable of binding to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This findings lay a ground work for further investigation of the role of the bacteria in adhesion and colonization to the host. PMID:27092228

  15. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  16. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  17. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  18. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  19. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  20. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys of mallards fed lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Irby, H.D.

    1966-01-01

    Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of mallards fed one, two, three or eight number 6 lead shot and maintained on cracked or whole corn and on grain-duck pellet diets. No acid-fast inclusion bodies were found in mallards fed one or three lead shot but maintained on a duck pellet ration. Dietary factors may be responsible for the failure of mallards fed a duck pellet ration to develop lead Inclusion bodies when treated with one or three lead shot. The authors suggest these inclusion bodies can be used as presumptive evidence for lead intoxication in mallards.

  1. Building Energy Audit Report, for Hickam AFB, HI

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A building energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Hickam AFB, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This documents reports the results of that assessment.

  2. ACID-FAST BACTERIA AND YEASTS AS INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the coliform group of organisms is considered to be less resistant to chlorine than some bacterial and viral pathogens, the utility of both yeast and acid-fast oganisms as potntial indicators of disinfection efficiency was evaluated. In most laboratory studies these two gro...

  3. RNA structures regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis in bacilli.

    PubMed

    Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M

    2013-07-01

    In Bacilli, there are three experimentally validated ribosomal-protein autogenous regulatory RNAs that are not shared with E. coli. Each of these RNAs forms a unique secondary structure that interacts with a ribosomal protein encoded by a downstream gene, namely S4, S15, and L20. Only one of these RNAs that interacts with L20 is currently found in the RNA Families Database. We created, or modified, existing structural alignments for these three RNAs and used them to perform homology searches. We have determined that each structure exhibits a narrow phylogenetic distribution, mostly relegated to the Firmicute class Bacilli. This work, in conjunction with other similar work, demonstrates that there are most likely many non-homologous RNA regulatory elements regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis that still await discovery and characterization in other bacterial species. PMID:23611891

  4. RNA structures regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis in bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    In Bacilli, there are three experimentally validated ribosomal-protein autogenous regulatory RNAs that are not shared with E. coli. Each of these RNAs forms a unique secondary structure that interacts with a ribosomal protein encoded by a downstream gene, namely S4, S15, and L20. Only one of these RNAs that interacts with L20 is currently found in the RNA Families Database. We created, or modified, existing structural alignments for these three RNAs and used them to perform homology searches. We have determined that each structure exhibits a narrow phylogenetic distribution, mostly relegated to the Firmicute class Bacilli. This work, in conjunction with other similar work, demonstrates that there are most likely many non-homologous RNA regulatory elements regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis that still await discovery and characterization in other bacterial species. PMID:23611891

  5. Macrophage takeover and the host-bacilli interplay during tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hussain Bhat, Khalid; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are key type of antigen-presenting cells that arbitrate the first line of defense against various intracellular pathogens. Tuberculosis, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, is an infectious disease of global concern caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacillus is a highly successful pathogen and has acquired various strategies to downregulate critical innate-effector immune responses of macrophages, such as phagosome-lysosome fusion, autophagy, induction of cytokines, generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antigen presentation. In addition, the bacilli also subvert acquired immunity. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of different antimycobacterial immune functions of macrophage and the strategies adopted by the bacilli to manipulate these functions to favor its survival and replication inside the host. PMID:26000654

  6. [Epidemiology of multi-drug resistant gramnegative bacilli].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, P; Cantón, R

    2016-09-01

    Current antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacilli is particularly worrisome due to development of resistance to all available antimicrobial agents. This situation dramatically limits therapeutic options. The microorganisms acquire a multiresistance phenotype as a consequence of different complex processes in which the antimicrobials acts as selective driver of resistance. Dissemination of multiresistant bacteria is driven by the expansion of the high-risk clones. These clones can be selected in the presence of antimicrobials allowing their persistence over time. PMID:27608308

  7. Ascites produced in rats without tubercle bacilli or tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Levine, S; Saltzman, A

    1999-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of rats with two doses of pertussis vaccine produces a small amount of ascitic fluid. Much larger amounts of fluid are produced when two spaced injections of the vaccine are preceded by a small amount of liquid petrolatum. A similar result is obtained by a single injection of pertussis vaccine emulsified in liquid petrolatum and Arlacel A. Ascites produced without tubercle bacilli or tumor cells may increase the use of rats for antibody production. PMID:10574628

  8. The Culture of Tubercle Bacilli from Laryngeal Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Nassau, E.

    1941-01-01

    In a considerable proportion of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis there is no spontaneous expectoration, especially in female patients and patients under collapse treatment. A simple and efficient method is described to obtain suitable material for bacteriological examination in these cases. A laryngeal swab, made up from a piece of wire with cotton-wool wrapped round its end, is passed down the larynx and the patient asked to cough. Two swabs are taken from each patient. The swabs are passed through sterile test tubes containing 10% sulphuric acid and 2% sodium hydroxide solutions for five minutes in each and 2 Petragnani media inoculated with each swab. The cultures are examined after five days for contamination, and after twenty-eight days for macroscopical colonies of tubercle bacilli. The results obtained in two groups of cases of 166 and 107 patients were: 37.95% and 54.20% positive cultures respectively. The highest positive figures were obtained in female patients. Thus tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in a considerable proportion of cases previously regarded as sputum-negative or having no sputum. Apart from diagnosis the method gives valuable help in judging the efficiency of treatment. The finding of bacilli in early infiltrative lesions is of considerable practical as well as theoretical importance. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:19992349

  9. Phosphate-containing cell wall polymers of bacilli.

    PubMed

    Potekhina, N V; Streshinskaya, G M; Tul'skaya, E M; Kozlova, Yu I; Senchenkova, S N; Shashkov, A S

    2011-07-01

    Anionic phosphate-containing cell wall polymers of bacilli are represented by teichoic acids and poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates). Different locations of phosphodiester bonds in the main chain of teichoic acids as well as the nature and combination of the constituent structural elements underlie their structural diversity. Currently, the structures of teichoic acids of bacilli can be classified into three types, viz. poly(polyol phosphates) with glycerol or ribitol as the polyol; poly(glycosylpolyol phosphates), mainly glycerol-containing polymers; and poly(acylglycosylglycerol phosphate), in which the components are covalently linked through glycosidic, phosphodiester, and amide bonds. In addition to teichoic acids, poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates) with mono- and disaccharide residues in the repeating units have been detected in cell walls of several Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains. The known structures of teichoic acids and poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates) of B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. stearothermophilus, B. coagulans, B. cereus as well as oligomers that link the polymers to peptidoglycan are surveyed. The reported data on the structures of phosphate-containing polymers of different strains of B. subtilis suggest heterogeneity of the species and may be of interest for the taxonomy of bacilli to allow differentiation of closely related organisms according to the "structures and composition of cell wall polymers" criterion. PMID:21999535

  10. Ground winds and winds aloft for Edwards AFB, California (1978 revision)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Brown, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    Ground level runway wind statistics for the Edwards AFB, California area are presented. Crosswind, headwind, tailwind, and headwind reversal percentage frequencies are given with respect to month and hour for the two major Edwards AFB runways. Also presented are Edwards AFB bivariate normal wind statistics for a 90 degree flight azimuth for altitudes 0 through 27 km. Wind probability distributions and statistics for any rotation of axes can be computed from the five given parameters.

  11. Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Electric baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  12. Bulk growth of high quality nonlinear optical crystals of L-arginine tetrafluoroborate (L-AFB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, C.; Bhat, K.; Wang, W. S.; Tan, A.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    2001-05-01

    Bulk single crystals of L-arginine tetrafluoroborate (L-AFB) a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material has been successfully grown from solution by the temperature lowering method. Solubility of L-AFB was measured in various solvents such as ethanol, methanol, acetone and water. L-AFB was found to have extremely low solubility in acetone, ethanol and methanol. Therefore, it was not feasible to grow L-AFB single crystals using these solvents. However, high quality crystals of L-AFB were successfully grown from aqueous solution by the temperature lowering method, even though the mother liqueur became viscous. Large single crystals of L-AFB were grown with dimensions 78×50×35 mm3 in eight weeks. Growth rate and effects of seed orientation on morphologies of L-AFB crystals were studied. L-AFB crystals belong to a class of organic-inorganic complexes in which the high optical nonlinearity of a pure organic compound is combined with the favorable mechanical and thermally stable properties of an inorganic compound. Bulk single crystals of L-AFB are potential materials for applications in blue-green wavelength region.

  13. 75 FR 32268 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall AFB, FL.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... direct final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on April 1, 2010 (75 FR 16331... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall AFB... Federal Register April 1, 2010 that establishes Class E airspace at Tyndall AFB, Panama City, FL....

  14. Inhibition of bacilli in industrial starches by nisin.

    PubMed

    Pirttijärvi, T S; Wahlström, G; Rainey, F A; Saris, P E; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

    2001-03-01

    The properties of Bacillus coagulans and of other bacilli that contaminate paper and paperboard manufacturing processes were investigated under simulated industrial conditions. Nisin (0.05 to 0.125 microg ml(-1) blocked growth of indigenous bacilli that contaminate sizing starches. B. coagulans starch isolates, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. stearothermophilus grew at > or = 50 degrees C in industrial starch and produced alpha-glucosidase and cyclodextrins. The industrial isolates and reference strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. coagulans, B. flexus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. sporothermodurans, B. stearothermophilus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris were inhibited by < or = 0.125 microg of nisin on agar. B. coagulans and B. stearothermophilus were similarly inhibited by < or = 0.025 microg of nisin ml(-1) and by 3 microg of the biocide DBNPA ml(-1) in industrial starch. B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens strains were less sensitive. About 40% of nisin added to starch was retained after cooking. Fifty percent of the nisin remained active after 11 h of storage at 60 degrees C. The results show that nisin has potential as a preservative for modified industrial starches. PMID:11420648

  15. McClellan AFB Management Action Plan (MAP) submittal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-23

    This Management Action Plan ('Action Plan' or 'MAP') contains a status summary of the McClellan Air Force Base (McAFB) environmental restoration and compliance programs and presents a comprehensive strategy for implementing response actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. This strategy integrates activities under both the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) and the Environmental Compliance Program (ECP). This Action Plan is a dynamic document that will be updated on a regular basis using the change-a-page looseleaf binder concept for day-to-day revisions along with a subsection at the end of each chapter to highlight any modifications or innovations since the previous major annual review/update.

  16. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.

  17. Aerospace medicine at Brooks AFB, TX: hail and farewell.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, Sarah A; Webb, James T

    2011-05-01

    With the impending termination of USAF operations at Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in San Antonio, TX, it is time to consider its historic role in Aerospace Medicine. The base was established in 1917 as a flight training center for the U.S. Army Air Service and in 1926 became home to its School of Aviation Medicine. The school moved to San Antonio's Randolph Field in 1931, but in 1959 it returned to Brooks where it occupied new facilities to support its role as a national center for U.S. Air Force aerospace medicine, including teaching, clinical medicine, and research. The mission was then expanded to encompass support of U.S. military and civilian space programs. With the abrupt termination of the military space program in 1969, research at Brooks focused on clinical aviation medicine and support of advanced military aircraft while continuing close cooperation with NASA in support of orbital spaceflight and the journey to the Moon. Reorganization in the 1990s assigned all research functions at Brooks to the Human Systems Division and its successors, leaving to USAFSAM the missions related to clinical work and teaching. In 2002 the USAF and the city of San Antonio implemented shared operation of Brooks as a "City-Base" in the hope of deflecting threatened closure. Nevertheless, under continuing pressure to consolidate military facilities in the United States, the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission ordered Brooks closed by 2011, with its aerospace medicine functions relocated to new facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH. PMID:21614874

  18. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  19. Bioremediation of a Large Chlorinated Solvent Plume, Dover AFB, DE

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Aleisa C

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation of a Large Chlorinated Solvent Plume, Dover AFB, DE Aleisa Bloom, (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA) Robert Lyon (bob.lyon@aecom.com), Laurie Stenberg, and Holly Brown (AECOM, Germantown, Maryland, USA) ABSTRACT: Past disposal practices at Dover Air Force Base (AFB), Delaware, created a large solvent plume called Area 6 (about 1 mile long, 2,000 feet wide, and 345 acres). The main contaminants are PCE, TCE, and their degradation products. The remedy is in-situ accelerated anaerobic bioremediation (AAB). AAB started in 2006 and is focusing on source areas and downgradient plume cores. Direct-push injections occurred in source areas where contamination is typically between 5 and 20 feet below ground surface. Lower concentration dissolved-phased contamination is present downgradient at 35 and 50 feet below ground surface. Here, permanent injection/extraction wells installed in transects perpendicular to the flow of groundwater are used to apply AAB. The AAB substrate is a mix of sodium lactate, emulsified vegetable oil, and nutrients. After eight years, dissolved contaminant mass within the main 80-acre treatment area has been reduced by over 98 percent. This successful application of AAB has stopped the flux of contaminants to the more distal portions of the plume. While more time is needed for effects to be seen in the distal plume, AAB injections will soon cease, and the remedy will transition to natural attenuation. INTRODUCTION Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Science Division (ORNL) and AECOM (formerly URS Corporation) have successfully implemented in situ accelerated anaerobic bioremediation (AAB) to remediate chlorinated solvent contamination in a large, multi-sourced groundwater plume at Dover Air Force Base (AFB). AAB has resulted in significant reductions of dissolved phase chlorinated solvent concentrations. This plume, called Area 6, was originally over 1 mile in length and over 2,000 feet wide (Figure 1

  20. AFB as a discovery tool for Z' bosons at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomando, E.; Belyaev, A.; Fiaschi, J.; Mimasu, K.; Moretti, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Forward-Backward Asymmetry (AFB) in Z' physics is commonly only perceived as the observable which possibly allows one to interpret a Z' signal by distinguishing different models of such (heavy) spin-1 bosons. In this article, we examine the potential of AFB in setting bounds on or even discovering a Z' at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and show that it might be a powerful tool for this purpose. We analyze two different scenarios: Z' s with a narrow and wide width, respectively. We find that in both cases AFB can complement the cross section in accessing Z' signals.

  1. Persistent BCG bacilli perpetuate CD4 T effector memory and optimal protection against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kaveh, Daryan A; Carmen Garcia-Pelayo, M; Hogarth, Philip J

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important infectious diseases of man and animals, and the only available vaccine (BCG) requires urgent replacement or improvement. To facilitate this, the protective mechanisms induced by BCG require further understanding. As a live attenuated vaccine, persistence of BCG bacilli in the host may be a crucial mechanism. We have investigated the long term persistence of BCG following vaccination and the influence on the induced immune response and protection, using an established murine model. We sought to establish whether previously identified BCG-specific CD4 TEM cells represent genuine long-lived memory cells of a relatively high frequency, or are a consequence of continual priming by chronically persistent BCG vaccine bacilli. By clearing persistent bacilli, we have compared immune responses (spleen and lung CD4: cytokine producing T effector/TEM; TCR-specific) and BCG-induced protection, in the presence and absence of these persisting vaccine bacilli. Viable BCG bacilli persisted for at least 16 months post-vaccination, associated with specific CD4 T effector/TEM and tetramer-specific responses. Clearing these bacilli abrogated all BCG-specific CD4 T cells whilst only reducing protection by 1log10. BCG may induce two additive mechanisms of immunity: (i) dependant on the presence of viable bacilli and TEM; and (ii) independent of these factors. These data have crucial implications on the rational generation of replacement TB vaccines, and the interpretation of BCG induced immunity in animal models. PMID:25444816

  2. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendix A, contains the analytical results.

  3. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal, to be avoided during drilling activities. This report contains appendices E and F with information on the following: soil boring logs, and data validation of samples analyzed.

  4. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. Geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendices B, C, and D contains information on the following: geophysical contour maps and profile plots; human health risk assessment; and ecological risk assessment.

  5. Compliance through pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Edwards AFB -- Development, results and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Beutelman, H.P.; Lawrence, A.

    1999-07-01

    Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), located in the Mojave Desert of southern California, is required to comply with environmental requirements for air pollution emissions, hazardous waste disposal, and clean water. The resources required to meet these many compliance requirements represents an ever increasing financial burden to the base, and to the Department of Defense. A recognized superior approach to environmental management is to achieve compliance through a proactive pollution prevention (P2) program which mitigates, and when possible, eliminates compliance requirements and costs, while at the same time reducing pollution released to the environment. At Edwards AFB, the Environmental Management Office P2 Branch developed and implemented a strategy that addresses this concept, better known as Compliance Through Pollution Prevention (CTP2). At the 91st AWMA Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Edwards AFB presented a paper on its strategy and implementation of its CTP2 concept. Part of that strategy and implementation included accomplishment of process specific focused P2 opportunity assessments (OAs). Starting in 1998, Edwards AFB initiated a CTP2 OA project where OAs were targeted on those operational processes, identified as compliance sites, that contributed most to the compliance requirements and costs at Edwards AFB. The targeting of these compliance sites was accomplished by developing a compliance matrix that prioritized processes in accordance with an operational risk management approach. The Edwards AFB CTP2 PPOA project is the first of its kind within the Air Force Material Command, and is serving as a benchmark for establishment of the CTP2 OA process.

  6. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI)-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut. PMID:21892951

  7. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ruppé, Étienne; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Barbier, François

    2015-12-01

    The burden of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) now represents a daily issue for the management of antimicrobial therapy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In Enterobacteriaceae, the dramatic increase in the rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins mainly results from the spread of plasmid-borne extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), especially those belonging to the CTX-M family. The efficacy of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor associations for severe infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae has not been adequately evaluated in critically ill patients, and carbapenems still stands as the first-line choice in this situation. However, carbapenemase-producing strains have emerged worldwide over the past decade. VIM- and NDM-type metallo-beta-lactamases, OXA-48 and KPC appear as the most successful enzymes and may threaten the efficacy of carbapenems in the near future. ESBL- and carbapenemase-encoding plasmids frequently bear resistance determinants for other antimicrobial classes, including aminoglycosides (aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes or 16S rRNA methylases) and fluoroquinolones (Qnr, AAC(6')-Ib-cr or efflux pumps), a key feature that fosters the spread of multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. In non-fermenting GNB such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, multidrug resistance may emerge following the sole occurrence of sequential chromosomal mutations, which may lead to the overproduction of intrinsic beta-lactamases, hyper-expression of efflux pumps, target modifications and permeability alterations. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii also have the ability to acquire mobile genetic elements encoding resistance determinants, including carbapenemases. Available options for the treatment of ICU-acquired infections due to carbapenem-resistant GNB are currently scarce, and recent reports emphasizing the spread of colistin resistance in environments with high

  8. Comparison of Integrated Gasifier-Combined Cycle and AFB-steam turbine systems for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Abbott, J. M.; Burns, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    In the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS) a number of advanced coal fired systems were examined and systems using a integrated coal gasifier IGCC or a fluid bed combustor AFB were found to yield attractive cogeneration results in industrial cogeneration applications. A range of site requirements and cogeneration sizing strategies using ground rules based on CTAS were used in comparing an IGCC and an AFB. The effect of time variations in site requirements and the sensitivity to fuel and electricity price assumptions are examined. The economic alternatives of industrial or utility ownership are also considered. The results indicate that the IGCC system has potentially higher fuel and emission savings and could be an attractive option for utility ownership. The AFB steam turbine system has a potentially higher return on investment and could be attractive assuming industrial ownership.

  9. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Edwards AFB Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable workhorse, the B-52 mothership, rolls out on the Edwards AFB runway after a test flight in 1996. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the X-38, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket

  10. Sustainability of TCE Removal in the Mulch Biowalls at Altus AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A permeable mulch biowall was installed in June 2002 at Landfill 3 (LF-03), Operable Unit 1 (OU-1), Altus AFB, Oklahoma. The demonstration was conducted by Parsons for the AFCEE Technology Transfer Outreach Office. The biowall is approximately 455 feet long, by 24 feet deep, by...

  11. 76 FR 55553 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... D airspace in the Eglin AFB, FL area (76 FR 38580) Docket No. FAA-2011-0087. Subsequent to... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...

  12. 77 FR 4457 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Altus AFB, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class D airspace for Altus AFB, OK (76 FR 66866) Docket No. FAA-2011-0630... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  13. ASCANs Harris, Helms, and McArthur during survival training at Fairchild AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidates (ASCANs) (left to right) Bernard J. Harris, Jr, Susan J. Helms, and William S. McArthur, Jr open dehydrated food packages during wilderness survival training at Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) in Spokane, Washington. The training was conducted in the mountain forests of Washington from 08-26-90 through 08-30-90.

  14. 33 CFR 334.748 - Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the area bounded by a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at...

  15. 33 CFR 334.748 - Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the area bounded by a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at...

  16. 33 CFR 334.748 - Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the area bounded by a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at...

  17. Response of a WB-47E Airplane to Runway Roughness at Eielson AFB, Alaska, September 1964

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Garland J.; Hall, Albert W.

    1965-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to measure the response of a WB-47E airplane to the roughness of the runway at Eielson AFB, Alaska. The acceleration level in the pilot's compartment and the pitching oscillation of the airplane were found to be sufficiently high to possibly cause pilot discomfort and have an adverse effect on the precision of take-off.

  18. Astronaut Jack R. Lousma in Water Survival Training near Homestead AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Three views documenting Astronaut Jack R. Lousma in Water Survival Training at the Air Force School at Turkey Point, near Homestead AFB. Views include long range view of Lousma parasailing, with tether attached to unseen craft (34035); view of Lousma in water with floatation devices attached to his arms (34036); close-up view of Lousma during parasailing training (34037).

  19. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, lands on Edwards AFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down at a speed of approximately 205 knots (235 miles per hour) on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Nose landing gear (NLG) is deployed and rides above runway surface prior touchdown. Mojave desert scrub brush appears in the foreground with mountain range appearing in the background.

  20. 76 FR 38580 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB,...

  1. Studies on the biological functions of CPS1 in AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Fu, Rao; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-10-10

    Carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as treated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogenesis mycotoxin. In this study, we firstly confirmed that AFB1 down-regulated the expression of CPS1 in a dose-dependent manner. At the meantime, both siRNA knock down of CPS1 and AFB1 treatment inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis. To further analysis the function of CPS1, the interacting proteins of CPS1 were searched by Co-IP, and three interacting proteins including type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT1), albumin (ALB), and ubiquitin C (UBC) were found. Both KRT1 and ALB were new interacting proteins for CPS1. Our further study showed that CPS1 was regulating interacted and colocalized with KRT1 and ALB, and the intensity correlation was changed by AFB1. KRT1, ALB and CPS1 were all reported to play an important role in differentiation and tissue specialization. These results may offer an increasing understand that CPS1 might have a function in differentiation. PMID:27425868

  2. ASCAN Helms sets up tent during survival training at Fairchild AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Susan J. Helms gathers pine branches to create bedding under a tent she has constructed from a parachute. Helms, along with her classmates, is participating in wilderness survival training at Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) Spokane, Washington. The training was conducted in the mountain forests of Washington from 08-26-90 through 08-30-90.

  3. Source-emission testing of the Rail Shop Media Blast Booth, Hill AFB, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, R.J.

    1990-10-01

    At the request of HQ Ogden ALC/EM, personnel of the AFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source emission testing for particulates on the Rail Shop Media Blast Booth at Hil AFB. Testing was performed on 29 and 30 Aug 90. The Utah Bureau of Air Quality required testing for approval order compliance. Particulate emissions were above the emission limits allowed by the State of Utah. Action is recommended to bring the media blast booth into compliance.

  4. ASCAN Precourt floats on life raft during Elgin AFB water survival training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Charles J. Precourt, wearing helmet and flight suit, floats in pool using an underarm flotation device and a single person life raft at Elgin Air Force Base (AFB) in Pensacola, Florida, during water survival exercises. The training familiarized the candidates with survival techniques necessary in the event of a water landing. ASCANs participated in the exercises from 08-14-90 through 08-17-90.

  5. Group 13, 1990 ASCAN Ellen Ochoa during Elgin AFB water survival training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Group 13, 1990 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Ellen Ochoa, wearing flight suit and underarm flotation device (life jacket), examines survival equipment (shaped like an anchor) as a training instructor describes its operation. Ochoa and the instructor stand on the poolside of a training facility at Elgin Air Force Base (AFB) in Pensacola, Florida. Ochoa, along with 22 other ASCANs, is participating in water survival training from 08-14-90 through 08-17-90.

  6. Bioventing pilot test results at the low point drain area, Offutt AFB, Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Werner, F T; Walters, J E; Keefer, G B

    1997-11-21

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the application of bioventing technology at the LPD site at Offutt AFB, Nebraska and present the results of the 15-month pilot test. The preliminary tests indicated sufficient hydrocarbon contamination was present with the necessary soil characteristics to warrant an extended bioventing pilot test. The six month in situ respiration test indicated that progress was being made in reducing the TVH concentrations and biological activity was still occurring. Laboratory analysis of the final soil samples confirmed the reduction in TRPH and BTEX concentrations indicating that the site is close to complete remediation. However, owing to reduced air flow at greater distances from the VW, more biodegradation is still needed near MPB. The reduced biodegradation at MPB could also be due to the high water tables resulting from heavy rains during the summer and fall of 1993. The local water table was above the VW and MP screens for several months. The operation of the blower will continue until the site is completely remediated. The single VW pilot test at the LPD site at Offutt AFB has proven the effectiveness of bioventing in reducing TRPH and BTEX contamination in the subsurface. The installation, operation and maintenance costs were minimal. The effectiveness of this application has resulted in three additional bioventing applications at Offutt AFB including the first, full-scale system located in the state of Nebraska. PMID:9472326

  7. Nitrate-responsive miR393/AFB3 regulatory module controls root system architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Elena A; Araus, Viviana; Lu, Cheng; Parry, Geraint; Green, Pamela J; Coruzzi, Gloria M; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2010-03-01

    One of the most striking examples of plant developmental plasticity to changing environmental conditions is the modulation of root system architecture (RSA) in response to nitrate supply. Despite the fundamental and applied significance of understanding this process, the molecular mechanisms behind nitrate-regulated changes in developmental programs are still largely unknown. Small RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as master regulators of gene expression in plants and other organisms. To evaluate the role of sRNAs in the nitrate response, we sequenced sRNAs from control and nitrate-treated Arabidopsis seedlings using the 454 sequencing technology. miR393 was induced by nitrate in these experiments. miR393 targets transcripts that code for a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor and for the auxin receptors TIR1, AFB1, AFB2, and AFB3. However, only AFB3 was regulated by nitrate in roots under our experimental conditions. Analysis of the expression of this miR393/AFB3 module, revealed an incoherent feed-forward mechanism that is induced by nitrate and repressed by N metabolites generated by nitrate reduction and assimilation. To understand the functional role of this N-regulatory module for plant development, we analyzed the RSA response to nitrate in AFB3 insertional mutant plants and in miR393 overexpressors. RSA analysis in these plants revealed that both primary and lateral root growth responses to nitrate were altered. Interestingly, regulation of RSA by nitrate was specifically mediated by AFB3, indicating that miR393/AFB3 is a unique N-responsive module that controls root system architecture in response to external and internal N availability in Arabidopsis. PMID:20142497

  8. Resistance of gram-negative bacilli as related to hospital use of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, M Y; Goldstein, E J; Friedman, M H; Anderson, M S; Mulligan, M E

    1983-01-01

    The development of resistance of gram-negative bacilli, which are common nosocomial pathogens, is an increasing problem. It is generally accepted that this resistance may directly reflect the frequency of use of various antimicrobial agents. Because our institution experienced in 1976 a dramatic change in the pattern of antimicrobial use, primarily a marked decrease in prescribing cephalosporins, we attempted to evaluate retrospectively the effects of this change upon the resistance of gram-negative bacilli that are common nosocomial pathogens. Susceptibilities of Klebsiella and Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens were determined for the years 1975 to 1979. Not unexpectedly, we observed a substantial decrease in cephalosporin resistance. An unexpected finding was a decrease in aminoglycoside resistance, despite increased use of these agents. The possibility that decreased cephalosporin use may lead to decreased aminoglycoside resistance is an intriguing and provocative thesis which can only be speculative at this time but which would seem worthy of additional formal investigation. PMID:6638994

  9. Discrimination of Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schaumann, Reiner; Knoop, Nicolas; Genzel, Gelimer H; Losensky, Kevin; Rosenkranz, Christiane; Stîngu, Catalina S; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Rodloff, Arne C; Eschrich, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination of Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be an effective identification tool in medical microbiology. Discrimination to subspecies or serovar level has been found to be challenging using commercially available identification software. By forming our own reference database and using alternative analysis methods, we could reliably identify all implemented Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting gram negative bacilli by MALDI-TOF MS and even succeeded to distinguish Shigella sonnei from Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Enteritidis from Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Furthermore, the method showed the ability to separate Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) from non-enteropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23919091

  10. Discrimination of Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Schaumann, Reiner; Knoop, Nicolas; Genzel, Gelimer H; Losensky, Kevin; Rosenkranz, Christiane; Stîngu, Catalina S; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Rodloff, Arne C; Eschrich, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination of Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be an effective identification tool in medical microbiology. Discrimination to subspecies or serovar level has been found to be challenging using commercially available identification software. By forming our own reference database and using alternative analysis methods, we could reliably identify all implemented Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting gram negative bacilli by MALDI-TOF MS and even succeeded to distinguish Shigella sonnei from Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Enteritidis from Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Furthermore, the method showed the ability to separate Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) from non-enteropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23919091

  11. Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli by Use of Vitek MS

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Maria; Pincus, David H.; Wilkey, Kathy; Sercia, Linda; LaSalvia, Margaret; Wilson, Deborah; Procop, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of Vitek MS mass spectrometric identifications was assessed for 206 clinically significant isolates of aerobic Gram-positive bacilli representing 20 genera and 38 species. The Vitek MS identifications were correct for 85% of the isolates (56.3% to the species level, 28.6% limited to the genus level), with misidentifications occurring for 7.3% of the isolates. PMID:24501030

  12. Nematicidal spore-forming Bacilli share similar virulence factors and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ziqiang; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhang, Zhengming; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the soil environment, Bacilli can affect nematode development, fecundity and survival. However, although many Bacillus species can kill nematodes, the virulence mechanisms Bacilli utilize remain unknown. In this study, we collected 120 strains comprising 30 species across the Bacillaceae and Paenibacillaceae families of the Bacillales order and measured their nematicidal activities in vitro. Comparison of these strains’ nematicidal capacities revealed that nine species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. firmus, B. toyonensis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Brevibacillus laterosporus and B. brevis, were highly nematicidal, the first of which showed the highest activity. Genome sequencing and analysis identified many potential virulence factors, which grouped into five types. At least four possible mechanisms were deduced on the basis of the combination of these factors and the bacterial nematicidal activity, including a pore-forming mechanism of crystal proteins, an inhibition-like mechanism of thuringiensin and a degradation mechanism of proteases and/or chitinases. Our results demonstrate that 120 spore-forming Bacilli across different families share virulence factors that may contribute to their nematicidal capacity. PMID:27539267

  13. Nematicidal spore-forming Bacilli share similar virulence factors and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ziqiang; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhang, Zhengming; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the soil environment, Bacilli can affect nematode development, fecundity and survival. However, although many Bacillus species can kill nematodes, the virulence mechanisms Bacilli utilize remain unknown. In this study, we collected 120 strains comprising 30 species across the Bacillaceae and Paenibacillaceae families of the Bacillales order and measured their nematicidal activities in vitro. Comparison of these strains' nematicidal capacities revealed that nine species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. firmus, B. toyonensis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Brevibacillus laterosporus and B. brevis, were highly nematicidal, the first of which showed the highest activity. Genome sequencing and analysis identified many potential virulence factors, which grouped into five types. At least four possible mechanisms were deduced on the basis of the combination of these factors and the bacterial nematicidal activity, including a pore-forming mechanism of crystal proteins, an inhibition-like mechanism of thuringiensin and a degradation mechanism of proteases and/or chitinases. Our results demonstrate that 120 spore-forming Bacilli across different families share virulence factors that may contribute to their nematicidal capacity. PMID:27539267

  14. Biofilms of thermophilic bacilli isolated from dairy processing plants and efficacy of sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Sara A; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve H

    2014-01-01

    In many environments, bacteria can attach to a surface and grow into multicellular structures, otherwise known as biofilms. Many systems for studying these biofilms in the laboratory are available. To study biofilms of the thermophilic bacilli in milk powder-manufacturing plants, standard laboratory biofilm techniques need to be adapted. The focus of this chapter is on techniques that can be used for growing and analyzing biofilms of thermophilic bacilli that are isolated from dairy processing plants. These techniques include laboratory methods as well as how to set up a pilot-scale experiment. The laboratory methods consist of a microtiter plate assay, which is used for strain selection, and the CDC reactor, which is used for testing sanitizers and antimicrobial surfaces. In dairy processing, if a new sanitizer or antimicrobial surface appears to be promising, it is useful to carry out pilot-scale experiments before introducing it to a manufacturing plant. We describe how to set up a pilot-scale experiment for testing the efficacy of sanitizers against the thermophilic bacilli. PMID:24664846

  15. Cold active hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from three sub-glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of culturable, cold-active enzymes producing Bacilli was investigated from three sub-glacial lakes of north western Indian Himalayas. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using three restriction enzymes Alu I, Msp I, and Hae III led to the clustering of 136 Bacilli into 26, 23, and 22 clusters at 75% similarity index from Chandratal Lake, Dashair Lake, and Pangong Lake, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 35 Bacilli that could be grouped in seven families viz.: Bacillaceae (48%), Staphylococcaceae (14%), Bacillales incertae sedis (13%), Planococcaceae (12%), Paenibacillaceae (9%), Sporolactobacillaceae (3%), and Carnobacteriaceae (1%), which included twelve different genera Bacillus, Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, and Virgibacillus. Based on their optimal temperature for growth, 35 Bacilli were grouped as psychrophilic (11 strains), psychrotrophic (17 strains), or psychrotolerant (7 strains), respectively. The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for cold-active enzyme activities. Amylase, β-glucosidase, pectinase, and protease activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 80% of the strains while approximately 40, 31, 23, 14, 11, and 9% of strains possessed cellulase, xylanase, β-galactosidase, laccase, chitinase, and lipase activity, respectively. Among 35 Bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus marisflavi, Exiguobacterium indicum, Paenibacillus terrae, Pontibacillus sp., Sporosarcina globispora, and Sporosarcina psychrophila were efficient producers of different cold-active enzymes. These cold-adapted Bacilli could play an important role in industrial and agricultural processes. PMID:26933936

  16. Compliance testing of Consumat and Fairchild Hiller silver-reclamation incinerators, Offutt AFB, Nebraska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    At the request of HQ SAC/SGPB, compliance testing for particulate emissions was conducted on four silver-reclamation incinerators located in Bldg D, Offutt AFB NE. Testing was accomplished on 1-11 Nov 1988. Testing was required by the State of Nebraska Department of Environmental Control. The State of Nebraska requested the evaluation of emissions for hydrogen chloride and heavy metal (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc) even though a standard does not exist for these pollutants. Results indicate that incinerators 1, 2 and 3 are in compliance with applicable state standards. Incinerator 4 failed to meet standard with respect to visible and particulate emissions.

  17. Diversity and specificity: auxin perception and signaling through the TIR1/AFB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renhou; Estelle, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Auxin is a versatile plant hormone that plays an essential role in most aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin regulates various growth processes by modulating gene transcription through a SCF(TIR1/AFB)-Aux/IAA-ARF nuclear signaling module. Recent work has generated clues as to how multiple layers of regulation of the auxin signaling components may result in diverse and specific response outputs. In particular, interaction and structural studies of key auxin signaling proteins have produced novel insights into the molecular basis of auxin-regulated transcription and may lead to a refined auxin signaling model. PMID:25032902

  18. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, lands on Edwards AFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down at a speed of approximately 205 knots (235 miles per hour) on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Nose landing gear (NLG) is deployed and rides above runway surface prior touchdown. Rear view captures OV-103 as it glides past photographer to wheel stop showing the tail section (speedbrake/rudder) and three space shuttle main engines (SSMEs). Mojave desert scrub brush appears in the foreground with aircraft hangar appearing in the background.

  19. ASCAN Ochoa floats in pool during Elgin AFB water survival training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Ellen Ochoa, wearing helmet and flight suit, climbs into a single person life raft while floating in a pool at Elgin Air Force Base (AFB) in Pensacola, Florida, during water survival exercises. Ochoa's underarm flotation device holds her above the water as she pulls herself into the life raft. The training familiarized the candidates with survival techniques necessary in the event of a water landing. ASCANs participated in the exercises from 08-14-90 through 08-17-90.

  20. Error-prone replication bypass of the primary aflatoxin B1 DNA adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Li, Liang; Makarova, Alena V; Burgers, Peter M; Stone, Michael P; Lloyd, R Stephen

    2014-06-27

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The highest rates of early onset HCCs occur in geographical regions with high aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure, concomitant with hepatitis B infection. Although the carcinogenic basis of AFB1 has been ascribed to its mutagenic effects, the mutagenic property of the primary AFB1-DNA adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua, in mammalian cells has not been studied extensively. Taking advantage of the ability to create vectors containing a site-specific DNA adduct, the mutagenic potential was determined in primate cells. This adduct was highly mutagenic following replication in COS-7 cells, with a mutation frequency of 45%. The spectrum of mutations was predominantly G to T base substitutions, a result that is consistent with previous mutation data derived from aflatoxin-associated HCCs. To assess which DNA polymerases (pol) might contribute to the mutational outcome, in vitro replication studies were performed. Unexpectedly, replicative pol δ and the error-prone translesion synthesis pol ζ were able to accurately bypass AFB1-N7-Gua. In contrast, replication bypass using pol κ was shown to occur with low fidelity and could account for the commonly detected G to T transversions. PMID:24838242

  1. Determination of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Busman, Mark; Liu, Jihong; Zhong, Hongjian; Bobell, John R; Maragos, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionisation coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of a common form of aflatoxin, AFB1, extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument parameter settings were optimised to obtain sensitive and accurate determination of aflatoxin AFB1. 84:16 acetonitrile water extracts of corn were analysed by DART-MS. The lowest calibration level (LCL) for aflatoxin AFB1 was 4 μg kg⁻¹. Quantitative analysis was performed with the use of matrix-matched standards employing the ¹³C-labelled internal standard for AFB1. DART-MS of spiked corn extracts gave linear response in the range 4-1000 μg kg⁻¹. Good recoveries (94-110%) and repeatabilities (RSD = 0.7-6.9%) were obtained at spiking levels of 20 and 100 μg kg⁻¹ with the use of an isotope dilution technique. Trueness of data obtained for AFB1 in maize by DART-MS was demonstrated by analysis of corn certified reference materials. PMID:24588621

  2. Aptamer induced assembly of fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots on gold nanoparticles for sensitive detection of AFB1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Yanfen; Wu, Yuanya; Weng, Bo; Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong; Li, Chang Ming; Yu, Cong

    2016-04-15

    Novel fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N,C-dots) were synthesized and assembled on aptamer modified gold nanoparticles (Aptamer/AuNPs) for the super sensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Positively charged N,C-dots were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of pancreatin. The prepared N,C-dots were assembled on aptamer/AuNPs by electrostatic interactions. The fluorescence of the N,C-dots was efficiently quenched. When AFB1 was added to the assay solution, specific interactions between AFB1 and the aptamer caused release of the N,C-dots. The fluorescence of the N,C-dots recovered and the intensity increase could be used to calculate the amount of AFB1 added. The assay exhibits super-high sensitivity with a detection limit of 5 pg/mL (16 pM) and a wide range of linear response of 5 pg/mL to 2.00 ng/mL. A novel aptasensor is thus successfully constructed, it provides an efficient way for sensitive AFB1 sensing as well as a new technique for aptamer based novel sensor construction. PMID:26584079

  3. Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Detection in Gram-negative Bacilli of Nosocomial Origin

    PubMed Central

    Tsering, Dechen C; Das, Shyamasree; Adhiakari, Luna; Pal, Ranabir; Singh, Takhellambam SK

    2009-01-01

    Background: Resistance to third generation cephalosporins by acquisition and expression of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) enzymes among gram-negative bacilli is on a rise. The presence of ESBL producing organisms significantly affects the course and outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to infection management worldwide. Materials and Methods: In the period from June 2007 to 2008, we collected 1489 samples from patients suspected of nosocomial infection. The isolates were identified based on colony morphology and biochemical reaction. Gram negative bacilli resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL by double disc synergy test (DDST- a screening test)and then phenotypic confirmatory test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: From the sample of 238 gram-negative bacilli, we isolated Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii and Enterobacter cloacae. Following both methods, 34% isolates were ESBL-positive. The ESBL producing isolates were significantly resistant (p < 0.01) to ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin as compared to non-ESBL producers. Multidrug resistance was significantly (p < 0.01) higher (69.14%) in ESBL positive isolates than non-ESBL isolates (21.66%). Conclusion: High prevalence of ESBL in our hospital cannot be ignored. ESBL producers can be detected by DDST and phenotypic confirmatory test with equal efficacy. The sensitivity of screening test improved with the use of more than one antibiotic and addition of one or two antibiotics would not increase cost and labor. We recommend DDST using multiple antibiotics in all microbiology units as a routine screening test. PMID:20300397

  4. SCFTIR1/AFB-auxin signalling regulates PIN vacuolar trafficking and auxin fluxes during root gravitropism

    PubMed Central

    Baster, Paweł; Robert, Stéphanie; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Vanneste, Steffen; Kania, Urszula; Grunewald, Wim; De Rybel, Bert; Beeckman, Tom; Friml, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the phytohormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant development including growth response to gravity. Gravitropic root curvature involves coordinated and asymmetric cell elongation between the lower and upper side of the root, mediated by differential cellular auxin levels. The asymmetry in the auxin distribution is established and maintained by a spatio-temporal regulation of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporter activity. We provide novel insights into the complex regulation of PIN abundance and activity during root gravitropism. We show that PIN2 turnover is differentially regulated on the upper and lower side of gravistimulated roots by distinct but partially overlapping auxin feedback mechanisms. In addition to regulating transcription and clathrin-mediated internalization, auxin also controls PIN abundance at the plasma membrane by promoting their vacuolar targeting and degradation. This effect of elevated auxin levels requires the activity of SKP-Cullin-F-boxTIR1/AFB (SCFTIR1/AFB)-dependent pathway. Importantly, also suboptimal auxin levels mediate PIN degradation utilizing the same signalling pathway. These feedback mechanisms are functionally important during gravitropic response and ensure fine-tuning of auxin fluxes for maintaining as well as terminating asymmetric growth. PMID:23211744

  5. SCFTIR1/AFB-Based Auxin Perception: Mechanism and Role in Plant Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Salehin, Mohammad; Bagchi, Rammyani; Estelle, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Auxin regulates a vast array of growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Auxin responses are highly context dependent and can involve changes in cell division, cell expansion, and cell fate. The complexity of the auxin response is illustrated by the recent finding that the auxin-responsive gene set differs significantly between different cell types in the root. Auxin regulation of transcription involves a core pathway consisting of the TIR1/AFB F-box proteins, the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, and the ARF transcription factors. Auxin is perceived by a transient coreceptor complex consisting of a TIR1/AFB protein and an Aux/IAA protein. Auxin binding to the coreceptor results in degradation of the Aux/IAAs and derepression of ARF-based transcription. Although the basic outlines of this pathway are now well established, it remains unclear how specificity of the pathway is conferred. However, recent results, focusing on the ways that these three families of proteins interact, are starting to provide important clues. PMID:25604443

  6. Normal probabilities for Vandenberg AFB wind components - monthly reference periods for all flight azimuths, 0- to 70-km altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falls, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB), California, wind component statistics are presented to be used for aerospace engineering applications that require component wind probabilities for various flight azimuths and selected altitudes. The normal (Gaussian) distribution is presented as a statistical model to represent component winds at Vandenberg AFB. Head tail, and crosswind components are tabulated for all flight azimuths for altitudes from 0 to 70 km by monthly reference periods. Wind components are given for 11 selected percentiles ranging from 0.135 percent to 99.865 percent for each month. The results of statistical goodness-of-fit tests are presented to verify the use of the Gaussian distribution as an adequate model to represent component winds at Vandenberg AFB.

  7. Spatial Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Buruli Ulcer Lesions: Implications for Laboratory Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bolz, Miriam; Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F.; Bratschi, Martin W.; Sopho, Ghislain Emmanuel; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Um Boock, Alphonse; Junghanss, Thomas; Pluschke, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Background Current laboratory diagnosis of Buruli ulcer (BU) is based on microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), histopathology or cultivation. Insertion sequence (IS) 2404 qPCR, the most sensitive method, is usually only available at reference laboratories. The only currently available point-of-care test, microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB), has limited sensitivity and specificity. Methodology/ Principal Findings Here we analyzed AFB positive tissue samples (n = 83) for the presence, distribution and amount of AFB. AFB were nearly exclusively present in the subcutis with large extracellular clusters being most frequently (67%) found in plaque lesions. In ulcerative lesions small clusters and dispersed AFB were more common. Beside this, 151 swab samples from 37 BU patients were analyzed by IS2404 qPCR and ZN staining in parallel. The amount of M. ulcerans DNA in extracts from swabs correlated well with the probability of finding AFB in direct smear microscopy, with 56.1% of the samples being positive in both methods and 43.9% being positive only in qPCR. By analyzing three swabs per patient instead of one, the probability to have at least one positive swab increased from 80.2% to 97.1% for qPCR and from 45% to 66.1% for AFB smear examination. Conclusion / Significance Our data show that M. ulcerans bacteria are primarily located in the subcutis of BU lesions, making the retrieval of the deep subcutis mandatory for examination of tissue samples for AFB. When laboratory diagnosis is based on the recommended less invasive collection of swab samples, analysis of three swabs from different areas of ulcerative lesions instead of one increases the sensitivity of both qPCR and of smear microscopy substantially. PMID:27253422

  8. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in the Fecal Microflora of Children

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xuan; Razia, Yasmin; Johnson, James R.; Stapp, Jennifer R.; Boster, Daniel R.; Tsosie, Treva; Smith, Donna L.; Braden, Christopher R.; Gay, Kathryn; Angulo, Frederick J.; Tarr, Phillip I.

    2006-01-01

    The extent to which antibiotic-resistant bacteria are excreted by humans who have not been exposed to antibiotics is not known. Children, who rarely receive fluoroquinolones, provide opportunities to assess the frequency of fecal excretion by fluoroquinolone-naïve hosts of fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Fresh nondiarrheal stools from children were processed by screening them on agar containing ciprofloxacin to recover ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Resistant isolates were identified, and ciprofloxacin MICs were determined. Resistant Escherichia coli isolates were also analyzed for urovirulence-associated loci. Thirteen (2.9%) of 455 stools yielded ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli (seven children), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (four children), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Enterobacter aerogenes (one child each). Neither the subjects themselves nor members of their households used fluoroquinolones in the 4 weeks preceding collection. Six of the seven resistant E. coli isolates belonged to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, in which extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli bacteria are frequently found. All resistant E. coli isolates contained at least three putative E. coli virulence loci. Most ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria were resistant to additional antibiotics. Potentially pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to therapeutically important antimicrobial agents are excreted by some humans, despite these persons' lack of exposure to the particular drugs. The sources of these resistant organisms are unknown. This underrecognized reservoir of drug-resistant potential pathogens poses public health challenges. PMID:17005812

  9. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature. PMID:26934782

  10. Neuro-Sweet disease with positive modified acid-fast staining of the cerebrospinal fluid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JUAN-FANG; LI, YUAN; LI, KAI; ZHANG, XIAO; YANG, YI-NING; ZHAO, GANG; LIU, ZHI-RONG

    2016-01-01

    Neuro-Sweet disease (NSD) is Sweet disease with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. To the best of our knowledge, the present case report is the first to describe NSD complicated by endogenous infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present case report describes a male patient who developed NSD-induced meningitis, which initially manifested as a fever, headache and neck stiffness. Painful erythematous plaques subsequently developed on his face, neck and upper trunk. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed and the results were normal, whereas modified acid-fast stain analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provided a positive result. The patient was thus diagnosed with viral meningitis and tuberculosis. However, subsequent skin biopsy results demonstrated neutrophilic infiltration into the dermis without vasculitis, and subsequent human leukocyte antigen typing was positive for Cw1 and negative for B51 and the patient was diagnosed with NSD. Following treatment with corticosteroids, and antiviral and anti-tuberculotic agents, the clinical symptoms were reduced and the previously abnormal findings in the CSF examinations and associated laboratory data were improved. The present case indicates that the diagnosis of NSD is not easily achieved, and early skin biopsy is vital to ensure a fast and effective diagnosis. In addition to systemic corticosteroids, comprehensive treatment is also recommended for patients with NSD complicated by additional complex medical problems. PMID:27073429

  11. [Non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli: their distribution to clinical materials and antibiotic susceptibility (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Akalin, H E; Baykal, M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 7898 non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from various clinical materials. Pseudomonas (7526) was the most common among them. Alcaligenes faecalis (273), Acinetobacter sp. (93) and Flavobacterium (6) were the other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Most of them were found in urine and pus cultures, however they were also isolated from sputum, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. Gentamicin was the most effective antibiotic in vitro. Fifty four per cent of Pseudomonas, 100% of Acinetobacter, and 70% of Alcaligenes faecalis were inhibited by tobramycin. PMID:7453583

  12. Blytheville AFB, Arkansas. Water quality management survey. Final report 11-14 Apr 83

    SciTech Connect

    New, G.R.; Gibson, D.P. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    The USAF OEHL conducted an on site water quality management survey at Blytheville AFB. Main areas of interest were (1) the wastewater treatment plant effluent fecal coliform count, and residual chlorine content, and (2) the stream sampling protocol. The drinking water plant, landfill and industrial shops were also included in the survey. Results of the survey indicated that the low residual chlorine content caused high fecal coliform counts in the wastewater effluent. The chemical parameters sampled in the stream monitoring program did not coincide with the requirements of the State of Arkansas and required modification. Recommendations were made to increase the residual chlorine content of the wastewater effluent and to increase the mixing of the chlorine contact chamber. A list of the chemical parameters was included in the report for stream monitoring.

  13. Noise assessment of the rocket sled test track operation at Jolloman AFB, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, W.J.

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the results of noise data measurements of the Holloman AFB rocket-sled test-track operations. Impulse and community noise measurements were made to determine the impact of the rocket-sled noise on the surrounding community. A worst case sled run was measured and used to determine that the rocket sled has very little impact on the community for a worst-case rocket-sled run and little or no impact for the majority of the runs. Recommendations were made to limit the number of people exposed to the rocket sled noise and require test-track personnel to wear hearing protection. Sonic-boom measurement equipment should be purchased to document all sonic booms created by the rocket sled.

  14. Characterization of the geothermal resource at Lackland AFB, San Antonio, Texas. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, T.W.; Malone, C.R.; Allman, D.W.; Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.

    1983-06-01

    The geothermal resource under Lackland Air Force Base (AFB), San Antonio, Texas was studied. It is the conclusion of the investigators that a geothermal well drilled at the site recommended by this study has a high probability of delivering geothermal fluids in sufficient quantity and at adequate temperatures to support a projected space and domestic hot water heating system. An exploratory production well location is recommended in the southwest sector of the base, based upon geologic conditions and the availability of sufficient open space to support the drilling operation. It is projected that a production well drilled at the recommended location would produce geothermal fluid of 130 to 145/sup 0/F at a rate of approximately 1000 gpm with reasonable fluid drawdowns. The Environmental Assessment for the drilling portion of the project has been completed, and no irreversible or irretrievable impacts are anticipated as a result of this drilling program. The permitting process is proceeding smoothly.

  15. Appendix C -- Soil gas analysis of vadose zone monitoring system installation report for McClellan AFB

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-31

    This appendix compiles the data from gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy measurements of gas samples from McClellan AFB soils collected and analyzed in December, 1995. Compounds detected include: vinyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroethanes, chloroethenes, benzene, chlorobenzenes, propylene, trimethylbenzenes, acetone, toluene, xylenes.

  16. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. 334.1130 Section 334.1130 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB... Point Arguello, unless prior permission is obtained from the Commander, Western Space and Missile...

  1. The lithostratigraphy of a marine kame delta-outwash fan complex at Pease AFB, Newington, NH

    SciTech Connect

    Dineen, R.J.; Manning, S.; McGeehan, K. )

    1993-03-01

    The overburden stratigraphy at Pease AFB is based on over 1,200 wells, borings, piezometers, and test pits, and includes five lithologic units: Fill, Upper Sand (US), Marine Clay and Silt (MCS), Lower Sand (LS), and Till (GT). The US is a yellow brown, poorly sorted sand to silty sand and is massive to laminated, and locally has hummocky bedding. The MCS (the Presumpscot Formation) is a dark gray, massive to laminated sandy to silty clay, and is locally interbedded with silty sand. The MCS contains a trace of organic matter, primarily as fine particles of peat. The LS is a gray to brown, poorly sorted, silty sand to gravelly sand that is massive to planar bedded and locally grades down into GT and/or upward into MCS. The GT consists of a massive to crudely bedded dark gray to dark brown, very poorly sorted, sandy silt to gravelly, silty sand. The US, MCS, LS and upper part of the GT were deposited in a marine environment at or near the ice margin. Pease AFB is built on two large fans of gravelly sand (LS plus US) that are bordered to the east by NW-SE till ridges (drumlins ). The northern-most fan is flat-topped with a surface elevation of 30 m ASL. The southern fan is more hummocky, with a surface elevation of 18.5 m ASL. Both fans coarsen towards the NW, and are interbedded with MCS towards the SE. The apices of the fans overlie deeply-scoured troughs in the rock surface. The fans are interpreted to be kame deltas or submarine outwash fans that are deposited along the retreating Wisconsinan ice margin by concentrated meltwater flow. Later, the US may have been deposited by marine shoreface erosion of the emergent fans as the ice front retreated and sea level fell.

  2. Manual and Automated Instrumentation for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae and Other Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Caroline M.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of gram-negative bacilli, both enteric and nonenteric, by conventional methods is not realistic for clinical microbiology laboratories performing routine cultures in today's world. The use of commercial kits, either manual or automated, to identify these organisms is a common practice. The advent of rapid or “spot” testing has eliminated the need for some commonly isolated organisms to be identified with the systems approach. Commercially available systems provide more in-depth identification to the species level as well as detect new and unusual strains. The answers obtained from these systems may not always be correct and must be interpreted with caution. The patient demographics, laboratory workload and work flow, and technologist's skill levels should dictate the system of choice. Cost considerations introduce another variable into the equation affecting choice. Each system has its own strengths and weaknesses, and each laboratory must decide on the level of sophistication that fulfills its particular needs. PMID:15653824

  3. NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo beta lactamase-1) producing Gram-negative bacilli: Emergence & clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Khan, Asiya; Zahoor, Danish

    2014-01-01

    Backgound & objectives: Resistance to carbapenems in Gram-negative bacteria conferred by NDM-1 is a global health problem. We investigated the occurrence of NDM-1 in clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli in a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir valley, India. Methods: Gram-negative bacilli from different clinical isolates were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and interpreted using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Isolates resistant to carbapenems were subjected to different phenotypic test such as modified Hodge test (MHT), boronic acid and oxacillin based MHT (BA-MHT and OXA-MHT), combined disk test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with imipenem and imipenem -EDTA for determination of class B metallo enzymes. Presence of blaNDM-1 gene was established by PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Results: Of the total 1625 Gram-negative isolates received, 100 were resistant to imipenem. Of the 100 isolates, 55 (55%) were positive by modified Hodge test indicating carbapenemase production. Of the 100 isolates tested by MHT, BA-MHT and OXA-MHT, 29 (29%) isolates belonged to Class A and 15 (15%) to Class B, while 56 (56%) isolates were negative. Of the 15 class B metallo beta lactamase producers, nine carried the blaNDM-1 gene. NDM-1 was found among Escherichia coli (2 isolates), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 isolates), Citrobacter freundii (3 isolates), Acinetobacter spp (1 isolate), and one isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates were resistant to all antibiotic tested except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed the presence of clinical isolates expressing NDM-1 in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India. These isolates harbour plasmid mediated multiple drug resistant determinants and can disseminate easily across several unrelated genera. To halt their spread, early identification of these isolates is mandatory. PMID:25579151

  4. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  5. The genotypic diversity and lipase production of some thermophilic bacilli from different genera

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Melih; Cokmus, Cumhur; Cihan, Arzu Coleri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thermophilic 32 isolates and 20 reference bacilli were subjected to Rep-PCR and ITS-PCR fingerprinting for determination of their genotypic diversity, before screening lipase activities. By these methods, all the isolates and references could easily be differentiated up to subspecies level from each other. In screening assay, 11 isolates and 7 references were found to be lipase producing. Their extracellular lipase activities were measured quantitatively by incubating in both tributyrin and olive oil broths at 60 °C and pH 7.0. During the 24, 48 and 72-h period of incubation, the changes in the lipase activities, culture absorbance, wet weight of biomass and pH were all measured. The activity was determined by using pNPB in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 at 60 °C. The lipase production of the isolates in olive oil broths varied between 0.008 and 0.052, whereas these values were found to be 0.002-0.019 (U/mL) in the case of tyributyrin. For comparison, an index was established by dividing the lipase activities to cell biomass (U/mg). The maximum thermostable lipase production was achieved by the isolates F84a, F84b, and G. thermodenitrificans DSM 465T (0.009, 0.008 and 0.008 U/mg) within olive oil broth, whereas G. stearothermophilus A113 displayed the highest lipase activity than its type strain in tyributyrin. Therefore, as some of these isolates displayed higher activities in comparison to references, new lipase producing bacilli were determined by presenting their genotypic diversity with DNA fingerprinting techniques. PMID:26691464

  6. Immuno-physiological alterations from AFB1 in rats counteracted by treatments with Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 and montmorillonite clay mixture.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Jebali, Rania; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Oueslati, Ridha; Abbès, Samir

    2016-09-01

    High contamination by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been detected in Beja province (Tunisia) in many dairy products and animal feed, which has resulted in many tons of cereals and cereals being removed from the market, causing economic loss. While removal represents a means of reducing risk, exposures still occur. Studies have increasingly focused on means of AFB1 biodegradation/elimination using lactic acid bacteria and clay mineral. In the study here, Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 (LP) and montmorilonite clay (MT) were used to reduce the physio-/immunotoxicologic disorders that could develop in rats that underwent AFB1 exposures for a total of 7 consecutive days. The results indicated that rats treated with AFB1 (80 μg/kg BW) alone had significant decreases in lymphocytes in their blood (including B-lymphocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte subtypes, and NK cells), immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) and pro-inflammatory cytokines; these rats also had altered oxidative stress status. In contrast, in rats treated with LP + MT (2 × 10(9) cfu/ml [∼ 2 mg/kg] + 0.5 mg MT/kg BW) for a total of 7 days before, concurrent with or after AFB1 treatment, there was a significant blockade/mitigation of each AFB1-impacted parameter. Moreover, treatment with the mixture at any point in relation to AFB1 treatment expectedly caused enhanced TNFα and IL-1β expression relative to control values; all other parameters were comparable to values noted in control rats. Alone, the mixture had no impact on host parameters. From the results here it may be concluded the the LP + MT mixture was effective in protecting these hosts against AFB1-induced immunologic/physiologic disorders and that LP + MT could prevent and/or mitigate AFB1 toxicities in vivo. PMID:27294391

  7. Ultra-rapid real-time PCR for the detection of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB).

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Do-Bu; Lee, Dong-Woo; Kim, Eul-Hwan; Yoon, Byoung-Su

    2008-09-01

    A novel micro-PCR-based detection method, termed ultra-rapid real-time PCR, was applied to the development of a rapid detection for Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB). This method was designed to detect the 16S rRNA gene of P. larvae with a micro-scale chip-based real-time PCR system, GenSpector TMC-1000, which has uncommonly fast heating and cooling rates (10 degrees C per second) and small reaction volume (6microl). In the application of ultra-rapid real-time PCR detection to an AFB-infected larva, the minimum detection time was 7 min and 54s total reaction time (30 cycles), including the melting temperature analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this novel detection method is one of the most rapid real-time PCR-based detection tools. PMID:18571197

  8. Wastewater characterization survey, Victor Valley Wastewater Reclamation Authority and hazardous-waste survey at George AFB, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Binovi, R.D.; Ng, E.K.; Tetla, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is a report of a survey of the Victor Wastewater Reclamation Authority Sewerage system, the sewage treatment plant, and effluent from the various operations at George AFB, California. The scope of work included the characterization of the wastewater from George AFB, as well as characterization of effluents from 29 oil/water separators servicing industrial operations on base, flow measurements at three locations on base, a microbiological evaluation of aeration basin foam, bench-scale activated-sludge studies, and a review of results from previous surveys. Recommendations: (1) AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming Foam) should never be discharged to the sewer. (2) Programming for pretreatment should proceed at selected operations. (3) More waste and wastestream analysis be performed. (4) Upgrade waste accumulation points. (5) Implement an aggressive inspection program for oil/water separators. (6) Cut down on nonessential washing.

  9. Installation restoration program. Phase I. Records search for the 5073rd Air Base Group, Shemya AFB, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greiling, R.W.; Abbott, D.W.; O'Flaherty, P.M.; Steiner, G.J.

    1984-09-21

    A search of USAF, state, and federal agency records and interviews with past and present base personnel and agency representatives was conducted to identify past hazardous-waste generation and disposal practices at Shemya AFB, Alaska. The AFB occupies the entirety of Shemya Island, located at the western end of the Aleutian Islands. Twenty-eight sites were identified and inspected as potential hazardous-waste sites. Numerical ranking of 20 sites was warranted based upon potential for contaminant release and environmental degradation. Petroleum storage, waste disposal, and spills account for the most-frequent and severe problems. Follow-on recommendations include site cleanup and closure, confirmation studies in the vicinity of past spill sites, and enhanced protection of the shallow groundwater aquifer.

  10. Vadose zone monitoring system installation report for McClellan AFB

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.; Faybishenko, B.; James, A.; Freifeld, B.; Salve, R.

    1996-10-31

    Two vadose zone monitoring systems (VZMS) have been installed at Site S-7, in Investigation Cluster 34 (IC 34), in Operable Unit A (OU A) of McClellan AFB. The two boreholes, VZMS-A and VZMS-B were instrumented at depths ranging from approximately 6 ft to 113 ft. Instruments were installed in clusters using a custom-made stainless steel cage with a spring-loaded mechanism allowing instruments to be in contact with the well bore wall once in place. Each cluster contains a tensiometer, suction lysimeter, soil gas probe and thermistor for measuring hydraulic potential, liquid- and gas-phase pressure, temperature of the formation and for collecting samples for chemical analyses in both the liquid and gas phases. Neutron probe logging is performed in two separate, smaller borings, VZMS-NP-1 and VZMS-NP-2, to obtain soil moisture content data. Preliminary details of soil gas analyses, laboratory field testing of soil samples, particle size analyses and neutron probe data are presented.

  11. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 2, Appendix A: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendix A, contains the analytical results.

  12. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 4, Appendixes E and F: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal, to be avoided during drilling activities. This report contains appendices E and F with information on the following: soil boring logs, and data validation of samples analyzed.

  13. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 1: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.

  14. Source-emission testing of classified-waste incinerator, Griffiss AFB, New York. Final report, 19-23 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.T.

    1989-04-01

    At the request of 416 Strategic Hospital/SGPB, personnel of the AFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source-emission testing for particulates, hydrogen chloride, and opacity on the classified-waste incinerator at Griffiss AFB. The New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC) required testing for permit compliance. Particulate emissions were well above the emission limits allowed by the State of New York. Action is recommended to bring the classified waste incinerator into compliance.

  15. Detection of serum AFB1-lysine adduct in Malaysia and its association with liver and kidney functions.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, S; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, A M; Nurul 'Aqilah, A R; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Kang, Min-Su; Zuraini, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin is ubiquitously found in many foodstuffs and produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Of many aflatoxin metabolites, AFB1 is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group one carcinogen and linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study on molecular biomarker of aflatoxin provides a better assessment on the extent of human exposure to aflatoxin. In Malaysia, the occurrences of aflatoxin-contaminated foods have been documented, but there is a lack of data on human exposure to aflatoxin. Hence, this study investigated the occurrence of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum samples and its association with liver and kidney functions. 5ml fasting blood samples were collected from seventy-one subjects (n=71) for the measurement of AFB1-lysine adduct, albumin, total bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen). The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in all serum samples (100% detection rate) with a mean of 6.85±3.20pg/mg albumin (range: 1.13-18.85pg/mg albumin). Male subjects (mean: 8.03±3.41pg/mg albumin) had significantly higher adduct levels than female subjects (mean: 5.64±2.46pg/mg albumin) (p<0.01). It was noteworthy that subjects with adduct levels greater than average (>6.85pg/mg albumin) had significantly elevated level of total bilirubin (p<0.01), GGT (p<0.05) and creatinine (p<0.01). Nevertheless, only the level of total bilirubin, (r=0.347, p-value=0.003) and creatinine (r=0.318, p-value=0.007) showed significant and positive correlation with the level of AFB1-lysine adduct. This study provides a valuable insight on human exposure to aflatoxin in Malaysia. Given that aflatoxin can pose serious problem to the health, intervention strategies should be implemented to limit/reduce human exposure to aflatoxin. Besides, a study with a big sample size should be warranted in

  16. Carbapenem-Resistant Non-Glucose-Fermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli: the Missing Piece to the Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Gniadek, Thomas J; Carroll, Karen C; Simner, Patricia J

    2016-07-01

    The non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are increasingly acquiring carbapenem resistance. Given their intrinsic antibiotic resistance, this can cause extremely difficult-to-treat infections. Additionally, resistance gene transfer can occur between Gram-negative species, regardless of their ability to ferment glucose. Thus, the acquisition of carbapenemase genes by these organisms increases the risk of carbapenemase spread in general. Ultimately, infection control practitioners and clinical microbiologists need to work together to determine the risk carried by carbapenem-resistant non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (CR-NF) in their institution and what methods should be considered for surveillance and detection of CR-NF. PMID:26912753

  17. Mosquitocidal toxins of bacilli and their genetic manipulation for effective biological control of mosquitoes.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, A G; Davidson, E W; Liu, J W

    1993-01-01

    The identification, cloning, and characterization of protein toxins from various species of bacilli have demonstrated the existence of mosquitocidal toxins with different structures, mechanisms of action, and host ranges. A start has been made in understanding the polypeptide determinants of toxicity and insecticidal activity, and the purification of toxins from recombinant organisms may lead to the elucidation of their X-ray crystal structures and the cloning of brush border membrane receptors. The results of cloning mosquitocidal toxins in heterologous microorganisms show the potential of expanding the range of susceptible mosquito species by combining several toxins of different host specificity in one cell. Toxins have been expressed in new microorganisms with the potential for increasing potency by persisting at the larval feeding zone. The powerful tools of bacterial genetics are being applied to engineer genetically stable, persistent toxin expression and expand the insecticidal host ranges of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. These techniques, together with modern formulation technology, should eventually lead to the construction of mosquitocidal microorganisms which are effective enough to have a real impact on mosquito-borne diseases. Images PMID:7905597

  18. Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Pilani, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, “de novo.” Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy. PMID:25396142

  19. Insight into the evolution and origin of leprosy bacilli from the genome sequence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pushpendra; Benjak, Andrej; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium lepromatosis is an uncultured human pathogen associated with diffuse lepromatous leprosy and a reactional state known as Lucio's phenomenon. By using deep sequencing with and without DNA enrichment, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of M. lepromatosis present in a skin biopsy from a Mexican patient, and compared it with that of Mycobacterium leprae, which has undergone extensive reductive evolution. The genomes display extensive synteny and are similar in size (∼3.27 Mb). Protein-coding genes share 93% nucleotide sequence identity, whereas pseudogenes are only 82% identical. The events that led to pseudogenization of 50% of the genome likely occurred before divergence from their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and both M. lepromatosis and M. leprae have since accumulated new pseudogenes or acquired specific deletions. Functional comparisons suggest that M. lepromatosis has lost several enzymes required for amino acid synthesis whereas M. leprae has a defective heme pathway. M. lepromatosis has retained all functions required to infect the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system and therefore may also be neuropathogenic. A phylogeographic survey of 227 leprosy biopsies by differential PCR revealed that 221 contained M. leprae whereas only six, all from Mexico, harbored M. lepromatosis. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that M. lepromatosis is closer than M. leprae to the MRCA, and a Bayesian dating analysis suggests that they diverged from their MRCA approximately 13.9 Mya. Thus, despite their ancient separation, the two leprosy bacilli are remarkably conserved and still cause similar pathologic conditions. PMID:25831531

  20. Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease.

    PubMed

    Vora, Rita V; Pilani, Abhishek

    2014-10-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, "de novo." Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy. PMID:25396142

  1. Insight into the evolution and origin of leprosy bacilli from the genome sequence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushpendra; Benjak, Andrej; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Cole, Stewart T

    2015-04-01

    Mycobacterium lepromatosis is an uncultured human pathogen associated with diffuse lepromatous leprosy and a reactional state known as Lucio's phenomenon. By using deep sequencing with and without DNA enrichment, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of M. lepromatosis present in a skin biopsy from a Mexican patient, and compared it with that of Mycobacterium leprae, which has undergone extensive reductive evolution. The genomes display extensive synteny and are similar in size (∼3.27 Mb). Protein-coding genes share 93% nucleotide sequence identity, whereas pseudogenes are only 82% identical. The events that led to pseudogenization of 50% of the genome likely occurred before divergence from their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and both M. lepromatosis and M. leprae have since accumulated new pseudogenes or acquired specific deletions. Functional comparisons suggest that M. lepromatosis has lost several enzymes required for amino acid synthesis whereas M. leprae has a defective heme pathway. M. lepromatosis has retained all functions required to infect the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system and therefore may also be neuropathogenic. A phylogeographic survey of 227 leprosy biopsies by differential PCR revealed that 221 contained M. leprae whereas only six, all from Mexico, harbored M. lepromatosis. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that M. lepromatosis is closer than M. leprae to the MRCA, and a Bayesian dating analysis suggests that they diverged from their MRCA approximately 13.9 Mya. Thus, despite their ancient separation, the two leprosy bacilli are remarkably conserved and still cause similar pathologic conditions. PMID:25831531

  2. Plant polysaccharides initiate underground crosstalk with bacilli by inducing synthesis of the immunogenic lipopeptide surfactin.

    PubMed

    Debois, Delphine; Fernandez, Olivier; Franzil, Laurent; Jourdan, Emmanuel; de Brogniez, Alix; Willems, Luc; Clément, Christophe; Dorey, Stephan; De Pauw, Edwin; Ongena, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Some plant-associated bacteria such as Bacillus sp. can protect their host from pathogen ingress and this biocontrol activity correlates with their potential to form multiple antibiotics upon in vitro growth. However, our knowledge on antibiotic production by soil bacilli evolving on roots in natural conditions is still limited. In this work, antibiome imaging first revealed that the lipopeptide surfactin is the main bacterial ingredient produced in planta within the first hours of interaction with root tissues. We further demonstrated that surfactin synthesis is specifically stimulated upon perception of plant cell wall polymers such as xylan or arabinogalactan, leading to fast accumulation of micromolar amounts in the root environment. At such concentrations, the lipopeptide may not only favour the ecological fitness of the producing strain in term of root colonization, but also triggers systemic resistance in the host plant. This surfactin-induced immunity primes the plant to better resist further pathogen ingress, and involves only limited expression of defence-related molecular events and does not provoke seedling growth inhibition. By contrast with the strong response mounted upon perception of pathogens, this strongly attenuated defensive reaction induced by surfactin in plant tissues should help Bacillus to be tolerated as saprophytic partner by its host. PMID:25731631

  3. [Bioactive effectiveness of selected disinfective agents on Gram-negative bacilli isolated from hospital environment].

    PubMed

    Pancer, Katarzyna W; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Mikulak, Ewa; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Staniszewska, Monika; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna

    2004-01-01

    In our study the susceptibility (MIC) of chosen 21 strains of Gram-negative bacilli isolated in hospitals to disinfectant agents (glucoprotamine, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, potassium persulfate), the effectiveness of these disinfectants against selected bacteria and their effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria was determined. It was found that glucoprotamine showed the highest activity to Gram-negative bacteria. Obtained MIC values for glucoprotamine (except 1 strain of S. marcescens) were 16-64 times lower that MICs for sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 4-32 times lower that MICs for potassium persulfate. The effectiveness of disinfectants containing potassium persulfate or sodium dichloroisocyanurate was 100% tested by carrier method. Glucoprotamine was ineffective against 2 out of 9 strains (18%): E. cloacae and S. marcescens. It was found that disinfectants were more effective against Gram-negative bacteria in carrier methods than for biofilm forming bacteria. 86% of bacteria growing 5 days on a catheter were resistant to working solution of disinfectant containing glucoprotamine (5200 mg/L) or potassium persulfate (4300 mg/L); 66.6% of tested bacteria were resistant to working solution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (1795.2 mg/L). In our study the highest effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria showed disinfectant with sodium dichloroisocyanurate, the lowest--with glucoprotamine. PMID:15810507

  4. Facing the challenge of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in Australia.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patrick; Paterson, David; Rogers, Benjamin

    2015-03-16

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are now globally widespread and present a major challenge to modern medical practice. Resistance to common antibiotics such as ceftriaxone is becoming more frequent in Australia, primarily mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes in common organisms such as Escherichia coli, and may occur in both hospital- and community-acquired infections. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have emerged rapidly in recent years and are well established in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Although rare at present in Australia, they have caused significant nosocomial outbreaks. GNB have numerous mechanisms by which they can develop antibiotic resistance. Genes that encode extended-spectrum β-lactamases or carbapenemases are frequently co-located with multiple other resistance determinants on highly transmissible genetic structures such as plasmids. A key risk factor for infection with MDR GNB is travel to countries with high rates of resistance, especially with health care exposure. With limited prospects for new antibiotics in late-stage development that are active against MDR GNB, our national response to these challenges will require a multifaceted approach, including widespread implementation of antimicrobial stewardship, enhanced surveillance, targeted screening of at-risk patients and improved infection control practices. In the longer term, restriction of agricultural use of antibiotic classes critical to human medicine, removal of barriers to new drug development, and technological advances in rapid microbiological diagnostics will be required. PMID:25758692

  5. Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. PMID:22882546

  6. Comparison of an acid-fast stain and a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorescence reagent for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal specimens from cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Quílez, J; Sánchez-Acedo, C; Clavel, A; del Cacho, E; López-Bernad, F

    1996-12-01

    A commercially available direct immunofluorescence (IF) assay with monoclonal antibodies (Monofluo Kit Cryptosporidium, Diagnostics Pasteur, France) was compared with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) acid-fast technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples from cattle and pigs. Stool specimens individually collected from 108 bovines and 90 pigs were examined in a blind test. The results of the two procedures corresponded (both positive or negative) in 102 (94.4%) cattle samples and 80 (88.9%) pig faecal samples. However, the remaining six (5.5%) cattle specimens and 10 (11.1%) pig stool samples, all of them harboring few oocysts (0-1 oocysts per 20 x field), were negative by MZN and positive by IF. False-negative results of the acid-fast stain occurred in suckling (17.2% of discrepant results) and weaned calves (2.9%) as well as weaned piglets (43.7%) and fattening pigs (10%). Stool specimens from the remaining age groups were negative by both techniques. The MacNemar's chi-square test showed that differences between both methods were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with immunofluorescence procedure, the sensitivity of MZN technique in samples from cattle and pigs was 79.3% and 67.7% and the negative predictive value was 92.9% and 85.5% respectively. The specificity and positive predictive values of the acid-fast stain were 100% in both animal species. It is concluded that the monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorescence reagent evaluated is more efficient that the MZN technique, especially for detecting a low number of Cryptosporidium oocysts, in faecal specimens from both cattle and pigs. PMID:9011016

  7. Accuracy and reproducibility of the Oxi/Ferm system in identifying a select group of unusual gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, H; George, H; Barr, J

    1979-01-01

    The Oxi/Ferm (O/F) identification system was compared in a double-blind study to a conventional test battery for the characterization of 96 reference and clinical strains consisting of 83 nonfermentative and 13 oxidase-producing, fermentative gram-negative bacilli. The O/F tube and supplemental tests correctly identified 84% of the nonfermentative and 77% of the oxidase-producing, fermentative bacilli. However, when the supplemental tests were excluded and the biochemical profiles generated by all nine O/F tube reactions were examined, the profile accuracy reached 95% (79 of 83) for the nonfermentative and 93% (12 of 13) for oxidase-producing, fermentative bacilli. Seven of the nine O/F substrate reactions demonstrated less than or equal to 89% agreement with conventional reactions, whereas the urea and arginine reactions provided 82 and 85% agreement, respectively. Replicate O/F tests with six selected organisms demonstrated 97% identification reproducibility and 84% overall substrate reproducibility. The mean O/F identification time was 2.6 days as compared to 3.3 days for the conventional system. Although this study suggests that the O/F system is a convenient, rapid, and accurate alternative to conventional identification methods, several modifications are recommended. PMID:372222

  8. Immunogenomics for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs: a review focusing on Gram-negative bacilli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years, infectious disease has caused enormous economic loss in pig industry. Among the pathogens, gram negative bacteria not only cause inflammation, but also cause different diseases and make the pigs more susceptible to virus infection. Vaccination, medication and elimination of sick pigs are major strategies of controlling disease. Genetic methods, such as selection of disease resistance in the pig, have not been widely used. Recently, the completion of the porcine whole genome sequencing has provided powerful tools to identify the genome regions that harboring genes controlling disease or immunity. Immunogenomics, which combines DNA variations, transcriptome, immune response, and QTL mapping data to illustrate the interactions between pathogen and host immune system, will be an effective genomics tool for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs. These genes will be potential targets for disease resistance in breeding programs. This paper reviewed the progress of disease resistance study in the pig focusing on Gram-negative bacilli. Major porcine Gram-negative bacilli and diseases, suggested candidate genes/pathways against porcine Gram-negative bacilli, and distributions of QTLs for immune capacity on pig chromosomes were summarized. Some tools for immunogenomics research were described. We conclude that integration of sequencing, whole genome associations, functional genomics studies, and immune response information is necessary to illustrate molecular mechanisms and key genes in disease resistance. PMID:23137309

  9. Lack of intracellular replication of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG caused by delivering bacilli to lysosomes in murine brain microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Sakamoto, Kaori; Quinn, Frederick D.; Chen, Huanchun; Fu, Zhenfang

    2015-01-01

    Invasion and traversal of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause meningeal tuberculosis (TB) in the central nervous system (CNS). Meningeal TB is a serious, often fatal disease that disproportionately affects young children. The mechanisms involved in CNS invasion by M. tuberculosis bacilli are poorly understood. In this study, we microscopically examined endosomal trafficking and measured survival of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) bacilli in murine brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). The results show that both species internalize but do not replicate in BMECs in the absence of a cytotoxic response. Confocal microscopy indicates that bacilli-containing vacuoles are associated with the early endosomal marker, Rab5, late endosomal marker, Rab7, and lysosomal marker, LAMP2, suggesting that bacilli-containing endosomes mature into endolysosomes in BMECs. Our data also show that a subset of intracellular M. tuberculosis, but not BCG bacilli, escape into the cytoplasm to avoid rapid lysosomal killing. However, the intracellular mycobacteria examined cannot spread cell-to-cell in BMECs. Taken together, these data show that with the exception of the small terminal cytoplasmic population of bacilli, M. tuberculosis does not modulate intracellular trafficking in BMECs as occurs in macrophages and lung epithelial and endothelial cells. PMID:26440149

  10. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces AFB1 and FB1 biomarkers in rats exposed to single and co-exposures of aflatoxin and fumonisin

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicole J.; Xue, Kathy S.; Lin, Shuhan; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Brown, Kristal A.; Elmore, Sarah E.; Tang, Lili; Romoser, Amelia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) can co-contaminate foodstuffs and have been associated with hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas in humans at high risk for exposure. One strategy to reduce exposure (and toxicity) from contaminated foodstuffs is the dietary inclusion of a montmorillonite clay (UPSN) that binds AFs and FBs in the GI tract. In this study, the binding capacity of UPSN was evaluated for AFB1, FB1 and a combination thereof in Fischer-344 rats. Rats were pre-treated with different dietary levels of UPSN (0.25 or 2%) for 1 week. Rats were gavaged with a single dose of either 0.125 mg AFB1 or 25 mg FB1/kg b.w. and a combination thereof in the presence and absence of an aqueous solution of UPSN. The kinetics of mycotoxin excretion were monitored by analyzing serum AFB1-albumin, urinary AF (AFM1), and FB1 biomarkers over a period of 72 hr. UPSN decreased AFM1 excretion by 88-97%, indicating highly effective binding. FB1 excretion was reduced, to a lesser extent, ranging between 45 to 85%. When in combination, both AFB1 and FB1 binding occurred, but capacity was decreased by almost half. In the absence of UPSN, the combined AFB1 and FB1 treatment decreased the urinary biomarkers by 67 and 45% respectively, but increased levels of AFB1-albumin, presumably by modulating its cytochrome metabolism. UPSN significantly reduced bioavailability of both AFB1 and FB1 when in combination; suggesting that it can be utilized to reduce levels below their respective thresholds for affecting adverse biological effects. PMID:24193864

  11. Efficacy of enterocin AS-48 against bacilli in ready-to-eat vegetable soups and purees.

    PubMed

    Grande, Maria J; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Ben Omar, Nabil; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    The broad-spectrum bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested for biopreservation of ready-to-eat vegetable foods (soups and purees) against aerobic mesophilic endospore-forming bacteria. By adding AS-48 (10 microg/ml), Bacillus cereus LWL1 was completely inhibited in all six vegetable products tested (natural vegetable cream, asparagus cream, traditional soup, homemade-style traditional soup, vegetable soup, and vichyssoise) for up to 30 days at 6, 15, and 22 degrees C. A collection of strains isolated from spoiled purees showed slightly higher resistance to AS-48 in the order Paenibacillus sp. > Bacillus macroides > B. cereus, although they were also completely inhibited in natural vegetable cream by AS-48 at 10 microg/ml. However, cocktails of five or eight strains composed of B. cereus (three strains), B. macroides (two strains), and Paenibacillus sp., Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus showed higher bacteriocin resistance with AS-48 of up to 50 microg/ml required for complete inactivation in natural vegetable cream stored at 22 degrees C. Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis showed that paenibacilli (along with some B. cereus) was the predominant survivor in the cocktails after bacteriocin treatment. To increase the effectiveness of enterocin AS-48, the bacteriocin was tested (at 20 microg/ml) against the eight-strain cocktail in natural vegetable cream in combination with other antimicrobials. The combination of AS-48 and nisin had a slight but significant additive effect. Bactericidal activity was greatly enhanced by phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and hydrocinnamic acid), achieving a rapid and complete inactivation of bacilli in the tested puree at 22 degrees C. PMID:17969616

  12. The Relationship between Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang-nan; Zhang, Xian-xin; He, Xiao-chun; Yang, Guo-ru; Zhang, Xiao-qi; Li, Huai-chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) is unclear. Identification of the relationship between XDR-TB and MDR-GNB would have important implications for patient care. Methods We conducted a retrospective study reviewing the records of patients admitted with a confirmed pulmonary TB from 2011 to 2014. To identify the relationship between XDR-TB and MDR-GNB, univariable comparison and multivariable logistic regression were performed. Results Among 2962 pulmonary TB patients, 45(1.5%) patients had a diagnosis of XDR-TB. A total of 165 MDR-GNB strains were detected in 143 (4.8%) pulmonary TB patients. XDR-TB patients had a significantly higher occurrence of MDR-GNB than non-XDR-TB patients (24.4% vs. 4.5%; P<0.001). Age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), hypoalbuminemia (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.18–1.85), chronic renal failure (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.42–31.47), chronic hepatic insufficiency (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.15–3.43), presence of XDR-TB (OR 6.56, 95% CI 1.61–26.69), and duration of TB diagnostic delay (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.02) were the independent risk factors for MDR-GNB infection. Conclusions Patients with XDR-TB have a significantly higher risk of being affected by MDR-GNB pathogen. The underlying mechanism association warrant further studies. PMID:26230499

  13. In vitro activity of cefoperazone-sulbactam combination against gram negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, N; Gyawali, N; Gurung, R; Bhattarai, N R; Baral, R; Khanal, B; Shrestha, S; Amatya, R; Bhattacharya, S K

    2012-03-01

    Cefoperazone is a â-lactam antimicrobial and Sulbactam is an irreversible â-lactamase inhibitor. The objective of this study was to know the susceptibility pattern of gram negative bacilli (GNB) towards cefoperazone-sulbactum. All GNB isolated from different clinical samples during the period of May, 2010 to Aug, 2010 were tested for susceptibility to cefoperazone-sulbactum, meropenem, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloromphenicol, cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, carbenicillin and piperacillin using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing method. The susceptibilities were recorded according to CLSI guidelines. A total of 406 GNB were isolated (urine: 66.7%, pus: 19.2%, and blood: 7.9%). Escherichia coli (54.4%) was most frequently isolated organisms followed by Acinetobacter species (17.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.1%) and Pseudomonas species (6.1%). Overall, 11.8% of isolates showed resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam. Frequencies of isolates showing resistance to meropenem and amikacin were 14.7% and 26.25% respectively. Only 3.9% of Escherichia coli isolates showed resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam. For other organisms, their lowest frequency ranging from 0-20%, exhibited resistance to meropenem. In Pseudomonas spp, in-vitro activity of amikacin was also better as only 11.1% isolates showed resistance to it. This study demonstrated the in-vitro synergistic effect of cefoperazonerazone-sulbactam and meropenem having good activity against GNB compared to the activity of other commonly tested antimicrobials. Cefoperazone-sulbactam can be recommended for the clinical practice against GNB exhibiting resistant to other antimicrobials as it is cheaper alternative to meropenem. Our results also focused on the continuous surveillance of the trends and features of resistance of common antimicrobials. PMID:23441486

  14. Defining Binding Efficiency and Specificity of Auxins for SCFTIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA Co-receptor Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Structure–activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure–activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding. PMID:24313839

  15. Installation-restoration program (IRP) Stage 7, remedial investigation/feasibility study comprehensive CERCLA work plan for McClellan AFB/EM, McClellan AFB, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    In 1979, officials at McClellan Air Force Base (AFB) in California began to suspect that past waste disposal practices may be contaminating the ground water in the area. At least four areas of potential ground water contamination needing further investigation. A comprehensive program was developed to maintain drinking water quality and to remediate the contamination. Through the operation and maintenance of aircraft, McClellan AFB has been engaged in operations that involve the use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials including: industrial solvents, caustic cleaners, electroplating chemicals, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), low-level radioactive wastes, and a variety of fuel oils and lubricants. Hazardous substances have percolated into aquifers. Ground water testing identified the presence of volatile organic compounds in on- and off-base wells. Surface water drainage includes several creeks within the area watersheds. These creeks receive contaminants and toxic hazards from on base drainage and then in turn merge with several tributaries, and exit to the west.

  16. The Increasing Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Giuffrè, Mario; Geraci, Daniela M.; Bonura, Celestino; Saporito, Laura; Graziano, Giorgio; Insinga, Vincenzo; Aleo, Aurora; Vecchio, Davide; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported. We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital “Paolo Giaccone,” Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools. During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin–sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case. Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an

  17. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Özlem; Öztürk, Selma; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF) specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1. PMID:27529243

  18. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays.

    PubMed

    De Guzman, Zenaida M; Cervancia, Cleofas R; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Tolentino, Mitos M; Abrera, Gina B; Cobar, Ma Lucia C; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Sabino, Noel G; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C; Feliciano, Chitho P

    2011-10-01

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a ⁶⁰Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D₁₀) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10⁵- 9 × 10³ spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D(min)) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to γ-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. PMID:21683605

  19. The bactericidal activities of HMR 3004, HMR 3647 and erythromycin against gram-positive bacilli and development of resistance.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roblas, R; Calvo, R; Esteban, J; Bryskier, A; Soriano, F

    1999-02-01

    The bactericidal activities of two new ketolides, HMR 3004 and HMR 3647, and the potential to develop resistance to these two antibiotics were studied in Gram-positive bacilli. As judged by time-kill kinetics both ketolides were mostly bacteriostatic, being bactericidal against only highly susceptible isolates of Corynebacterium striatum (two isolates) and Corynebacterium minutissimum (one isolate). Spontaneous resistant mutants were detected in seven of 30 strains tested, mainly in Rhodococcus equi, C. minutissimum and C. striatum, with a very low frequency of mutation (10(-12)-10(-15)). PMID:11252337

  20. Public health assessment for USAF Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home AFB, Elmore County, Idaho, Region 10. CERCLIS Number ID3572124557; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-25

    Mountain Home Air Force Base (Mountain Home AFB) is located approximately 50 miles southeast of Boise and 10 miles southwest of the city of Mountain Home in Elmore County, Idaho. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed Mountain Home AFB on the National Priority List on August 30, 1990, as a result of concerns regarding groundwater contamination throughout the base, and soil contamination at the Fire Training Area and a closed sanitary landfill. Contaminants of potential concern are metals, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum hydrocarbons. On the basis of a review of available information on contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water and sediment, ATSDR concludes that Mountain Home AFB should be assigned to the No Apparent Public Health Hazard category.

  1. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding β-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

  2. F. E. Warren AFB, Cheyenne, Wyoming. Revised uniform summary of surface weather observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This report is a six-part statistical summary of surface weather observations for F E Warren AFB, Cheyenne, Wyoming. It contains the following parts: (A) Weather Conditions; Atmospheric Phenomena; (B) Precipitation, Snowfall and Snow Depth (daily amounts and extreme values); (C) Surface winds; (D) Ceiling Versus Visibility; Sky Cover; (E) Psychrometric Summaries (daily maximum and minimum temperatures, extreme maximum and minimum temperatures, psychrometric summary of wet-bulb temperature depression versus dry-bulb temperature, means and standard deviations of dry-bulb, wet-bulb and dew-point temperatures and relative humidity); and (F) Pressure Summary (means, standard, deviations, and observation counts of station pressure and sea-level pressure). Data in this report are presented in tabular form, in most cases in percentage frequency of occurrence or cumulative percentage frequency of occurrence tables.

  3. Effect of Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations on the Performance of AFB-MFC Enriched with High-Strength Synthetic Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian-sheng; Yang, Ping; Li, Chong-ming; Guo, Yong; Lai, Bo; Wang, Ye; Feng, Li; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of nitrite and nitrate on the performance of microbial fuel cell, a system combining an anaerobic fluidized bed (AFB) and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was employed for high-strength nitrogen-containing synthetic wastewater treatment. Before this study, the AFB-MFC had been used to treat high-strength organic wastewater for about one year in a continuous flow mode. The results showed that when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased from 1700 mg/L to 4045 mg/L and 545 mg/L to 1427 mg/L, respectively, the nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen removal efficiencies were both above 99%; the COD removal efficiency went up from 60.00% to 88.95%; the voltage was about 375 ± 15 mV while the power density was at 70 ± 5 mW/m2. However, when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were above 4045 mg/L and 1427 mg/L, respectively, the removal of nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, COD, voltage, and power density were decreased to be 86%, 88%, 77%, 180 mV, and 17 mW/m2 when nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased to 4265 mg/L and 1661 mg/L. In addition, the composition of biogas generated in the anode chamber was analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Nitrogen gas, methane, and carbon dioxide were obtained. The results indicated that denitrification happened in anode chamber. PMID:26495144

  4. The clinical impact of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the management of septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Vicas, Aurora; Opal, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Multi-antibiotic drug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli are becoming a major threat to the standard care of septic patients. Empiric antimicrobial drug regimens to cover likely bacterial pathogens have to be altered in keeping with the spread of MDR pathogens in the health care setting and in the community. Reliable antibiotics for broad spectrum coverage for sepsis such as extended spectrum β-lactam antibiotics, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones can no longer be counted upon to provide activity against a range of common, virulent pathogens that cause sepsis. In some regions of Asia, South America, and Eastern Europe in particular, MDR pathogens have become a major concern, necessitating the use of potentially toxic and costly antibiotic combinations as initial antibiotic therapy for septic shock. In this brief review, we will focus on the emergence of MDR gram-negative pathogens, resistance mechanisms, and suggest some management and prevention strategies against MDR pathogens. PMID:24200870

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Soriano, F; Zapardiel, J; Nieto, E

    1995-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 265 strains of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. Most strains were susceptible to vancomycin, doxycycline, and fusidic acid. Corynebacterium jeikeium and Corynebacterium urealyticum were the most resistant organisms tested. Resistance to beta-lactams, clindamycin, erythromycin, azythromycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was common among strains of Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Ampicillin resistance among Listeria monocytogenes was more prevalent than previously reported. Optochin, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin showed very little activity against most organisms tested, but the use of nitrofurantoin as a selective agent in culture medium may prevent the recovery of some isolates. Except for the unvarying activity of vancomycin against Corynebacterium species, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the latter to other antibiotics are usually unpredictable, such that susceptibility tests are necessary for selecting the best antimicrobial treatment. PMID:7695308

  6. Detect-to-treat: development of analysis of bacilli spores in nasal mucus by surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    As the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq continue, future attacks both abroad and in the U.S.A. are expected. In an effort to aid civilian and military personnel, we have been investigating the potential of using a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling device to detect Bacillus anthracis spores in nasal swab samples. Such a device would be extremely beneficial to medical responders and management in assessing the extent of a bioterrorist attack and making detect-to-treat decisions. The disposable sample device consists of a glass capillary filled with a silver-doped sol-gel that is capable of extracting dipicolinic acid (DPA), a chemical signature of Bacilli, and generating SERS spectra. The sampling device and preliminary measurements of DPA extracted from spores and nasal mucus will be presented.

  7. French regional surveillance program of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: results from a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Pantel, A; Boutet-Dubois, A; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2014-12-01

    In February 2011, the CARB-LR group was created as a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network to control the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in a French Southern Region. We report the epidemiological results of a 2-year study. All the Gram-negative bacilli isolates detected in the different labs (hospital and community settings) of a French Southern Region and with reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and/or imipenem were characterised with regard to antibiotic resistance, bla genes content, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 221 strains were analysed. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing bacteria, with a majority of OXA-23 producers (n = 37). One isolate co-produced OXA-23 and OXA-58 enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) (OXA-48 producer: n = 29, KPC producer: n = 1), followed by Escherichia coli (OXA-48 producer: n = 8, KPC producer: n = 1) and Enterobacter cloacae (OXA-48 producer, n = 1). One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a VIM-1 carbapenemase. A clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli was noted with different MLSTs. On the other hand, almost all OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains belonged to the widespread ST2/international clone II. The link between the detection of CR GNB and a foreign country was less obvious, suggesting the beginning of a local cross-transmission. The number of CR GNB cases in our French Southern Region has sharply increased very recently due to the diffusion of OXA-48 producers. PMID:25037867

  8. ['In vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli, excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp].

    PubMed

    Vay, C A; Almuzara, M N; Rodríguez, C H; Pugliese, M L; Lorenzo Barba, F; Mattera, J C; Famiglietti, A M R

    2005-01-01

    Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli (NFB) are widely spread in the environment. Besides of difficulties for identification, they often have a marked multiresistance to antimicrobial agents, including those active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the 'in vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on 177 gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli isolates (excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp.) isolated from clinical specimens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined according to the Mueller Hinton agar dilution method against the following antibacterial agents: ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, sulbactam, cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, colistin, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and minocycline. Seven isolates: Sphingobacterium multivorum (2), Sphingobacteriumspiritivorum (1), Empedobacterbrevis (1), Weeksella virosa (1), Bergeyella zoohelcum (1) and Oligella urethralis (1), were tested for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin-sulbactam susceptibility, and susceptibility to cefoperazone or sulbactam was not determined. Multiresistance was generally found in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, Chryseobacterium spp., Myroides spp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Ochrobactrum anthropi isolates. On the other hand, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella putrefaciens-algae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Weeksella virosa and Oligella urethralis were widely susceptible to the antibacterial agents tested. As a result of the wide variation in antimicrobial susceptibility shown by different species, a test on susceptibility to different antibacterial agents is essential in order to select an adequate therapy. The marked multiresistance evidenced by some species

  9. [Evaluation of the GNF computer-coding system for the identification of non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli].

    PubMed

    Tarng, C M; Chen, M M; Tsai, W C

    1983-05-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the GNF computer-coding system for the identification of glucose non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli, we employed 406 strains of bacteria including 367 clinical isolates and 39 standard strains for testing. These strains were inoculated into the following eleven conventional biochemical test media: Triple Sugar Iron Agar, Simmon's Citrate Agar, Christensen's Urea Agar, Sulfide-Indole-Motility Medium, Semisolid Voges-Proskauer Test Medium, Moeller's Ornithine Decarboxylase Test Medium, Pyocyanin Test Medium, Oxidation/Fermentation (O/F) Glucose, O/F Fructose, Nitrate Broth, Moeller's Arginine Dihydrolase Test Medium. The results of these tests plus those from the hanging drop motility test and the oxidase test were converted into bacterial code number and then checked with the GNF computer-coding system. It was found that the first preference of agreement was 75.6%, second 15.3%, third 5.9%, and fourth or more 3.2%. In regard to the speed of bacterial identification by using the GNF system and information from hemolysis pattern and flagella stain, it was indicated that 84.7% would be correctly identified within 36-48 hours after isolation. If more confirmational tests were employed, the accurate identification rate would reach to 98.7% after 4 days of isolation. In addition, the use of the GNF computer-coding system can standardize identification procedures, shorten the identification period, and save cost in terms of materials supply, inoculation time, media preparation and media-storing space. Therefore, we conclude that the GNF computer-coding system is an effective tool in the identification of the glucose non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. PMID:6617315

  10. STUDIES IN ATYPICAL FORMS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI ISOLATED DIRECTLY FROM THE HUMAN TISSUES IN CASES OF PRIMARY CERVICAL ADENITIS

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Charles W.

    1909-01-01

    The four cultures which form the basis of this communication were recovered from peculiar cases of primary cervical adenitis in man, three of which terminated fatally of disseminated acute miliary tuberculosis in four to six weeks. A careful comparative study shows that Culture II corresponds closely with the "human" and Culture IV with the "bovine" type of tubercle bacilli; while Cultures I and III present variations from the standard types and are to be retarded as "intermediate" or "atypical" forms. Culture I is of unusual interest because of its remarkable variations. The clinical picture of the case, the rapid course of the infection, the enormous number of the bacilli in the tissue, their tendency to occur in "heaps" like the leprosy bacillus, the high degree of virulence alike for rabbits and guinea-pigs, the production of lesions in chickens, the case of cultivation and the prolonged viability under unfavorable conditions, all mark the organism as a decided atypical form of tubercle bacillus in man. The prolonged viability, the production of lesions in the chicken and the great profusion of bacillary growth in the tissues would indicate an avian type. Though for years the reaction curve was atypical it has since changed completely to the "avian" curve. In this connection it is of interest to note that L. Rabinowitsch (3) states that she has isolated avian tubercle bacilli from two cases of tuberculosis in man. Cultures II and III undoubtedly belong to the human type of the tubercle family though they were under cultivation and were repeatedly tested upon glycerine broth over a period of months before their identity was definitely established. Culture IV completely corresponds in growth and reaction in glycerine bouillon to the bovine strain; however, it manifests a low degree of virulence for rabbits which is exceptional for bovine cultures. The old belief that bovine bacilli are more slender and beaded in the tissues and are thicker and shorter in culture

  11. Molecular diversity and multifarious plant growth promoting attributes of Bacilli associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rhizosphere from six diverse agro-ecological zones of India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Yadav, Ajar Nath; Khannam, Kazy Sufia; Kumar, Sanjay; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Suman, Archna

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of culturable Bacilli was investigated in six wheat cultivating agro-ecological zones of India viz: northern hills, north western plains, north eastern plains, central, peninsular, and southern hills. These agro-ecological regions are based on the climatic conditions such as pH, salinity, drought, and temperature. A total of 395 Bacilli were isolated by heat enrichment and different growth media. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes AluI, MspI, and HaeIII led to the clustering of these isolates into 19-27 clusters in the different zones at >70% similarity index, adding up to 137 groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 55 distinct Bacilli that could be grouped in five families, Bacillaceae (68%), Paenibacillaceae (15%), Planococcaceae (8%), Staphylococcaceae (7%), and Bacillales incertae sedis (2%), which included eight genera namely Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Planomicrobium, Sporosarcina, and Staphylococcus. All 395 isolated Bacilli were screened for their plant growth promoting attributes, which included direct-plant growth promoting (solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc; production of phytohormones; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity and nitrogen fixation), and indirect-plant growth promotion (antagonistic, production of lytic enzymes, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia). To our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of Bacillus endophyticus, Paenibacillus xylanexedens, Planococcus citreus, Planomicrobium okeanokoites, Sporosarcina sp., and Staphylococcus succinus in wheat rhizosphere and exhibit multifunctional PGP attributes. These niche-specific and multifarious PGP Bacilli may serve as inoculants for crops growing in respective climatic conditions. PMID:26567901

  12. Giant tuberculoma in an adolescent: atypical form of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Maria Inês; Pacheco, Susana; Silvestre, Catarina; Felix, Francisco; Brito, Maria João; Correia, Paula

    2012-01-01

    A tuberculoma is a rare form of presentation of tuberculosis (TB) in children. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl, with 3 weeks of progressive tiredness and asthenia and a 48 h fever and cough. Physical examination revealed diminished pulmonary sounds in the left lower hemithorax. A chest radiograph showed an oval hypotransparency image in this location. The TB skin test was anergic and sputum was negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The thoracic CT revealed a cystic mass in the left lower half hemithorax, compressing the adjacent pulmonary lobe, with double non-calcificated membrane. The exeresis of the pulmonary mass was performed and the anatomopathological study revealed a tuberculoma with AFB. TB treatment was established with a favourable clinical and radiological evolution. TB is a prevalent disease around the world. In this case, due to the mass dimensions and adjacent-organ compression, surgery was essential for a favourable clinical evolution. PMID:23001104

  13. Control efficiency determination of sudden expansion incinerator bldg 348, Kelly AFB, Texas. Final report, 19 July 1995-11 January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Compliance emissions testing and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) destruction efficiency determination were conducted on the Sudden Expansion (SUE) Incinerator located at the Kelly AFB Fuel Accessory Test Facility, Bldg 348. The purpose of the Kelly AFB SUE Incinerator is to destroy calibration fluid vapors emitted from fuel accessory test stands located in Bldg 348. The incinerator can also be used to destroy liquid waste calibration fluid by burning it as a supplemental fuel. Emissions testing was conducted during combustion of both vapors and liquid calibration fluid. For purposes of determining the incinerator VOC destruction efficiency, monitoring for Total VOC concentration in the inlet air stream was conducted on 19-20 July 1995. Emissions testing of the incinerator exhaust was conducted on 10-11 January 1996 and included monitoring for Total VOC, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and visible emissions.

  14. Source-emission testing of hospital and classified-waste incinerators, Plattsburgh AFB, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Source-emission testing for particulates and hydrogen chloride emissions was conducted on the USAF Hospital pathological incinerator at Plattsburgh AFB. This survey was requested to evaluate emissions with respect to a proposed New York State Standard for medical care facility-waste incinerators. The 380 BMW/MSS classified-waste incinerator was also tested because of concerns that similar emissions could be produced from this unit. Results indicate that the hospital incinerator did not meet the present air-emission standards or proposed standards with the exception of hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions. The classified-waste incinerator met both standards with respect to visible emissions but did not meet the standards for particulate emissions. Although not required by present or proposed regulations, the classified waste incinerator was evaluated for HCl emissions; results indicate that this unit met the proposed HCl emissions standards for infectious waste incinerators. Since only one sample run of the three required by testing methods could be accomplished on the classified-waste unit, results should only be used as an indicator of performance and not as definite evidence of either meeting or failing to meet regulations.

  15. Hazardous-waste technical-assistance survey, McChord AFB, Washington. Final report, 22-26 Oct 90

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, L.B.

    1991-03-01

    A hazardous waste survey was conducted at McChord AFB, Washington, from 22-26 Oct 90 which addressed hazardous waste management and waste disposal practices, explored opportunities for waste minimization, and determined waste-streams. Recommendations include: (1) Shops using aircraft soap should switch to a milder soap; (2) Consider using a siliceous-based absorbant; (3) Use a contractor who accepts wet batteries or neutralize the acid; (4) Accumulation point managers should maintain a log; (5) Conduct frequent refresher training; (6) Upgrade accumulation sites; (7) Analyze used paint filters; (8) Dispose of anti-freeze in the sanitary sewer; (9) Sample NDI chemicals to determine if hazardous; (10) Update the Waste Analysis Plan; (11) Find a method to recover solvent from the washrack; (12) Entomology needs to comply with FIFRA; (13) Triple-rinse pesticide containers; (14) List all accumulation sites and managers in the hazardous waste management plan; (15) Use an off-the-shelf filtration unit in the waterfall paint booths; (16) Label all hazardous waste drums; (17) Dispose of waste latex paint as municiple waste; (18) Disposal of old hazardous waste drums; and (19) Analyze shop rags from CATM to determine toxicity.

  16. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 3, Appendixes B, C, and D: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. Geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendices B, C, and D contains information on the following: geophysical contour maps and profile plots; human health risk assessment; and ecological risk assessment.

  17. Evaluation of different modifications of acid-fast staining techniques and stool enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detecting fecal Cryptosporidium in diarrheic HIV seropositive and seronegative patients

    PubMed Central

    Parghi, Ekta; Dash, Lona; Shastri, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Rational: The role of Cryptosporidium as an agent of human diarrhea has been redefined over the past decade following recognition of the strong association between cases of cryptosporidiosis and immune deficient individuals (such as those with AIDS). Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of enteric parasites and to compare the diagnostic utility of stool enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with various modifications of acid-fast (AF) staining in detection of Cryptosporidium in stool samples of diarrheic patients. Materials and Methods: Stool samples from 186 cases comprising of 93 HIV seropositive and 93 seronegative patients were included. These were subjected to routine and microscopic examination as well as various modifications of AF staining for detection of coccidian parasites and ELISA for the detection of Cryptosporidium. Results: The prevalence of enteric parasites was 54.8% and of Cryptosporidium was 17.2% in HIV seropositive patients while it was 29.0% and 5.4%, respectively in seronegative patients. Of the 186 cases, 33 cases (17.7%) were positive for Cryptosporidium by stool ELISA as compared to 21 (11.3%) by modified AF staining (gold standard) showing sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 92.7%, respectively. The maximum cases of Cryptosporidium (21; 11.3%) were detected by AF staining using 3% acid alcohol. Conclusion: ELISA is a simple, useful, and rapid tool for detection of Cryptosporidium in stool, especially for large scale population studies. However, the role of modified AF staining in detection of Cryptosporidium and other coccidian parasites is important. Based on the results of various modifications of AF staining, the present study recommends the use of 3% acid alcohol along with 10% H2SO4. PMID:25250230

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of PCR for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is one of the most prominent health problems in the world, causing 1.75 million deaths each year. Rapid clinical diagnosis is important in patients who have co-morbidities such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Direct microscopy has low sensitivity and culture takes 3 to 6 weeks [1-3]. Therefore, new tools for TB diagnosis are necessary, especially in health settings with a high prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection. Methods In a public reference TB/HIV hospital in Brazil, we compared the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for diagnosis of pulmonary TB: Acid fast bacilli smear microscopy by Ziehl-Neelsen staining (AFB smear) plus culture and AFB smear plus colorimetric test (PCR dot-blot). From May 2003 to May 2004, sputum was collected consecutively from PTB suspects attending the Parthenon Reference Hospital. Sputum samples were examined by AFB smear, culture, and PCR dot-blot. The gold standard was a positive culture combined with the definition of clinical PTB. Cost analysis included health services and patient costs. Results The AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot require the lowest laboratory investment for equipment (US$ 20,000). The total screening costs are 3.8 times for AFB smear plus culture versus for AFB smear plus PCR dot blot costs (US$ 5,635,760 versus US$ 1,498, 660). Costs per correctly diagnosed case were US$ 50,773 and US$ 13,749 for AFB smear plus culture and AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot, respectively. AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot was more cost-effective than AFB smear plus culture, when the cost of treating all correctly diagnosed cases was considered. The cost of returning patients, which are not treated due to a negative result, to the health service, was higher in AFB smear plus culture than for AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot, US$ 374,778,045 and US$ 110,849,055, respectively. Conclusion AFB smear associated with PCR dot-blot associated has the potential to be a cost-effective tool in the fight against PTB for

  19. Evaluation of CHROMagar Orientation for differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species.

    PubMed Central

    Merlino, J; Siarakas, S; Robertson, G J; Funnell, G R; Gottlieb, T; Bradbury, R

    1996-01-01

    A new chromogenic plate medium, CHROMagar Orientation, was evaluated for use in the differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species by a multipoint inoculation (replicator) technique. In this study, 1,404 gram-negative bacilli and 74 enterococcal isolates were tested on CHROMagar Orientation. Six control American Type Culture Collection strains were also included with the testing to ensure quality control of the media. Of the Escherichia coli isolates (n = 588) tested, 99.3% produced a pink-to-red color. Only in four isolates that were O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) negative did this result differ. Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris were well differentiated on this medium. P. mirabilis (n = 184) produced a clear colony with diffusible brown pigment around the periphery. By contrast, 15 of 16 P. vulgaris isolates produced bluish-green colonies with a slight brown background. All Aeromonas hydrophila isolates (n = 26) tested produced clear to pink colonies at 35 to 37 degrees C. This colony color changed to blue after 2 to 3 h of incubation at room temperature. A. hydrophila exhibited stronger color and better growth at 30 degrees C. Serratia marcescens (n = 29) demonstrated an aqua blue color that deepened to a darker blue when exposed to room temperature. All enterococcal isolates (n = 74) resulted in a blue color and gave pinpoint colonies on purity subcultures at 35 to 37 degrees C after 18 h of incubation. Similarity in color resulted in failure to discriminate accurately between Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter species. However, these species could be readily differentiated from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 151) was easily differentiated from members of the Enterobacteriaceae but was less easily distinguishable from other gram-negative nonmembers of the Enterobacteriaceae. The medium was found to facilitate easy visual detection of mixed

  20. Characterization of Bacilli Isolated from the Confined Environments of the Antarctic Concordia Station and the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmery, Sophie; Hu, Xiaomin; Mahillon, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread.

  1. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing gram negative bacilli in a tertiary referral hospital of Assam--experience with two methods.

    PubMed

    Nath, Reema; Saikia, Lahari; Mahanta, J

    2006-10-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes produced in some gram negative bacilli that mediate resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins. 683 clinical isolates of Escherisia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were studied for their capacity to produce ESBL. Isolates showing resistance to at least two of the third generation cephalosporins were studied for ESBL production by Jarlier technique and combination disc methods. Out of the 457 E. Coli and 226 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in Assam Medical College, 29.76% and 53.1% were resistant to two cephalosporins of which 29.41% and 29.16% strains showed production of ESBL. However, 6 (4.41%) and 16 (13.34%) strains additionally showed production of ESBL when tested with combination disc method. Though the Jarlier technique is popular, for detection of ESBL, yet false negative results warrants for alternative method. In the absence of molecular detection methods in routine clinical microbiology laboratory, combination disc method appears to be a better option. PMID:17183880

  2. In vitro activities of quinolones, beta-lactams, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Fass, R J; Barnishan, J; Solomon, M C; Ayers, L W

    1996-06-01

    From 1991 to 1995, 8,975 nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli were isolated from patients at The Ohio State University Medical Center: 71% Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 14% Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 7.6% Acinetobacter baumannii, and < 2% each of 25 other species. The MICs of trovafloxacin (CP-99,219), ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, imipenem, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) were determined for 308 isolates, representing 13 species, by a standardized broth microdilution method. The activities of all drugs were species dependent. The fluoroquinolones had inconsistent activity against most species, although several relatively uncommon nonfermenters were consistently susceptible or resistant. Trovafloxacin was considerably more active than ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against S. maltophilia, A. baumannii, and several less common species. Among the beta-lactams, relative activities varied considerably; overall, imipenem had the broadest spectrum of activity but was inactive against S. maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia isolates. Tobramycin and TMP-SMZ had stereotypic spectra of activity. Tobramycin was active against most species except S. maltophilia, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans, Burkholderia spp., and Weeksella virosa. TMP-SMZ was active against most species except P. aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens-putida. A review of laboratory records indicated few changes in susceptibility patterns from 1991 to 1995; the only clear trend was toward increasing P. aeruginosa resistance to all classes of drugs. PMID:8726011

  3. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for species identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Traglia, Germán; Famiglietti, Angela; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Vay, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify 396 Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli clinical isolates was evaluated in comparison with conventional phenotypic tests and/or molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS identified to species level 256 isolates and to genus or complex level 112 isolates. It identified 29 genera including uncommon species. PMID:25765149

  4. The Performance of Direct Disk Diffusion for Community Acquired Bacteremia due to Gram-Negative Bacilli and Its Impact on Physician Treatment Decisions.

    PubMed

    Daley, Peter; Comerford, Adam; Umali, Jurgienne; Penney, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background. Direct disk diffusion susceptibility testing provides faster results than standard microtitre susceptibility. The direct result may impact patient outcome in sepsis if it is accurate and if physicians use the information to promptly and appropriately change antibiotic treatment. Objective. To compare the performance of direct disk diffusion with standard susceptibility and to consider physician decisions in response to these early results, for community acquired bacteremia with Gram-negative Bacilli. Methods. Retrospective observational study of all positive blood cultures with Gram-negative Bacilli, collected over one year. Physician antibiotic treatment decisions were assessed by an infectious diseases physician based on information available to the physician at the time of the decision. Results. 89 bottles growing Gram-negative Bacilli were included in the analysis. Direct disk diffusion agreement with standard susceptibility varied widely. In 47 cases (52.8%), the physician should have changed to a narrower spectrum but did not, in 18 cases (20.2%), the physician correctly narrowed from appropriate broad coverage, and in 8 cases (9.0%), the empiric therapy was correct. Discussion. Because inoculum is not standardized, direct susceptibility results do not agree with standard susceptibility results for all drugs. Physicians do not act on direct susceptibility results. Conclusion. Direct susceptibility should be discontinued in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:27366172

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of "last-resort" antibiotics against unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, Herve; Le Monnier, Alban; Carbonnelle, Etienne; Corvec, Stephane; Illiaquer, Marina; Bille, Emmanuelle; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Jauréguy, Françoise; Fihman, Vincent; Tankovic, Jacques; Cattoir, Vincent

    2012-08-01

    In this prospective multicentric study, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem), tigecycline, and colistin against 166 unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) clinical isolates collected from nine French hospitals during a 6-month period (from December 1, 2008, to May 31, 2009). All NF-GNB isolates were included, except those phenotypically identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents were determined by using the E-test technique. The following microorganisms were identified: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n=72), Pseudomonas spp. (n=30), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (n=25), Acinetobacter spp. (n=18), Burkholderia cepacia complex (n=9), Alcaligenes faecalis (n=7), and Delftia spp. (n=5). All isolates of Acinetobacter spp., A. faecalis, and Delftia spp. were susceptible to the three carbapenems. Imipenem exhibited the lowest MICs against Pseudomonas spp., and meropenem, as compared with imipenem and doripenem, displayed an interesting antimicrobial activity against A. xylosoxidans and B. cepacia complex isolates. Conversely, no carbapenem exhibited any activity against S. maltophilia. Except for S. maltophilia isolates, tigecycline and colistin exhibited higher MICs than carbapenems, but covered most of the microorganisms tested in this study. To our knowledge, no prior study has compared antimicrobial activity of these five antibiotics, often considered as "last-resort" treatment options for resistant Gram-negative infections, against unusual NF-GNB clinical isolates. Further studies should be carried out to assess the potential clinical use of these antibiotics for the treatment of infections due to these microorganisms. PMID:22335615

  6. Assessment of functional and genetic diversity of aerobic endospore forming Bacilli from rhizospheric soil of Phyllanthus amarus L.

    PubMed

    Kadyan, Sangeeta; Panghal, Manju; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Khushboo; Yadav, Jaya Parkash

    2013-09-01

    Fifty two aerobic and endospore forming Bacilli (AEFB) strains were recovered from rhizospheric soil of Phyllanthus amarus. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization by 16S rDNA gene sequencing has shown that these bacterial strains belong to six different genera of AEFB i.e. Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Terribacillus and Jeotgalibacillus. Analysis of their PGP activities has shown that 92.30 % strains produced indole acetic acid hormone, 86.53 % of the strains solubilized Phosphate and 44.23 % strains produced siderophore. Chitinase production activity was shown by 42.30 % of the strains and 21.15 % of the strains produced 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. 46.15 % of isolates have shown antagonistic activity against common fungal pathogen of the plant i.e. Corynespora cassiicola. Among all of the isolated strains B. Cereus JP44SK22 and JP44SK42 have shown all of the six plant growth promoting traits tested. B. megaterium strains (JP44SK18 and JP44SK35), Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains (JP44SK3 and JP44SK4) and Brevibacillus laterosporus strain JP44SK51 have also shown multiple PGP activities except ACC deaminase production activity. In the present study bacterial strain belonging to genera Jeotgalibacillus sp. JP44SK37 has been reported first time as a member of rhizospheric soil habitat and has also shown PGP activities. It can be concluded that Rhizosphere of P. amarus has harboured a good diversity of AEFB bacterial strains having a lot of biofertilizing and biocontrol abilities. PMID:23526192

  7. Isolation and characterisation of aerobic endospore forming Bacilli from sugarcane rhizosphere for the selection of strains with agriculture potentialities.

    PubMed

    de Los Milagros Orberá Ratón, Teresa; Yano, Ricardo; Rodríguez Gámez, Odalys; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; de Jesús Serrat Díaz, Manuel; Barbosa, Heloíza Ramos

    2012-04-01

    Eighteen aerobic endospore forming strains were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere in N-free medium. A phenotypic description and analysis of the 5' end hypervariable region sequences of 16S rRNA revealed a high diversity of Bacillus and related genera. Isolates were identified, and four genera were obtained: seven strains belonged to Bacillus (Bacillaceae family), four belonged to Paenibacillus, six belonged to Brevibacillus and one strain was identified as Cohnella (Paenibacillaceae family). Four Brevibacillus strains showed in vitro inhibitory activity against plant pathogens fungi Curvularia and Fusarium. Seventy-four percent of the isolated bacteria grew on pectin as the only carbon source, showing polygalacturonase activity. Pectate lyase activity was detected for the first time in a Brevibacillus genus strain. All isolates showed endoglucanase activity. Calcium phosphate solubilisation was positive in 83.3% of the isolates, with higher values than those reported for Bacillus inorganic phosphate solubilising strains. High ethylene plant hormone secretion in the culture medium was detected in 22% of the bacteria. This is the first report of ethylene secretion in Paenibacillaceae isolates. Indole-3-acetic acid production was found in a Brevibacillus genus isolate. It was reported for the first time the presence of Cohnella genus strain on sugarcane rhizosphere bearing plant growth promoting traits. The sugarcane isolate Brevibacillus B65 was identified as a plant growth inoculant because it showed wider spectra of plant stimulation capabilities, including an antifungal effect, extracellular hydrolases secretion, inorganic phosphate solubilisation and plant hormone liberation. In this work, sugarcane was shown to be a suitable niche for finding aerobic endospore forming 'Bacilli' with agriculture biotechnological purposes. PMID:22805941

  8. Monitoring and data analysis for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS), McClellan AFB. Quarterly status report, May 15, 1997--August 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Salve, R.; Freifeld, B.

    1997-08-01

    This report contains information on field and laboratory work performed between May 15th and August 15th 1997 at site S-7 in IC 34, at McClellan AFB. At this location, a Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is currently being used to collect subsurface data including hydraulic potential, soil gas pressure, moisture content, water chemistry, gas chemistry, and temperature. This report describes: (1) re-calibration of pressure transducers; (2) moisture content changes, based on neutron logging; (3) gas-phase VOC concentrations; (4) aqueous-phase VOC concentrations; (5) temperature profiles; and (6) pressure readings.

  9. Compliance testing of phosphoric acid anodizing line wet scrubber, metal bonding facility, Building 375, Kelly AFB, Texas. Final report, 5 January-10 January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-06-01

    At the request of HQ-SA-ALC/EM, personnel of the AFOEHL Air-Quality Function conducted source-emission testing of the exhaust from the phosphoric acid anodizing tank line, metal-bonding facility, Bldg 375, Kelly AFB TX. The survey was conducted to satisfy special conditions of Texas Air Control Board (TACB) Permit Exemption X-16361 which required determination of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, total chromium, and hexavalent chromium emissions from the wet scrubber control device on the anodizing-line exhaust system. TACB will analyze the emission results and make the final determination as to whether additional control is needed on the anodizing-line exhaust.

  10. Monitoring and Data Analysis for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS), McClellan AFB. Quarterly Status Report (2/20/98 - 5/20/98)

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Mountford, H.S.Monitoring and Data Analysis; for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System; Mountford, H.S.; Dahlquist, R.; Rodriguez, S.J.

    1998-06-18

    This report contains information on field and laboratory work performed between February 20th, 1998 and May 20th, 1998, at site S-7 in IC 34, at McClellan AFB. At this location, a Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) (LBNL, 1996) is currently being used to collect subsurface data including hydraulic potential, soil gas pressure, moisture content, water chemistry, gas chemistry, and temperature. This report describes: moisture content changes, based on neutron logging; gas-phase VOC concentrations; aqueous-phase VOC concentrations; temperature profiles; and installation of new instrument cluster.

  11. Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hamdy Mohammed, El Sayed; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Mohammed El Sayed, Hanan; Al Johery, Said Abd Elmohsen; Abdel Ghani Hassanein, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli resulting from β-lactamases have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and are a critical therapeutic problem worldwide. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolates and detection of bla VIM, bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M-1, and bla CTX-M-9 genes in these clinical isolates in Egyptian hospitals. The isolates were collected from various clinical samples, identified by conventional methods and confirmed by API 20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by Kirby-Bauer technique and interpreted according to CLSI. Production of bla VIM, bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX-M genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Direct sequencing from PCR products was subsequently carried out to identify and confirm these β-lactamases genes. Out of 65 isolates, (46.1%) Escherichia coli, (26.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, and (10.7%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified as the commonest Gram-negative bacilli. 33(50.8%) were imipenem-resistant isolates. 22 isolates (66.7%) carried bla VIM, 24(72.7%) had bla TEM, and 5(15%) showed bla SHV, while 12(36%), 6(18.2%), and 0(0.00%) harbored bla CTX-M-1, bla CTX-M-9, and bla CTX-M-8/25, respectively. There is a high occurrence of β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates and sequence analysis of amplified genes showed differences between multiple SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in the same gene among local isolates in relation to published sequences. PMID:27123005

  12. Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy Mohammed, El sayed; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Mohammed El sayed, Hanan; Al Johery, Said abd Elmohsen; Abdel Ghani Hassanein, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli resulting from β-lactamases have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and are a critical therapeutic problem worldwide. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolates and detection of blaVIM, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1, and blaCTX-M-9 genes in these clinical isolates in Egyptian hospitals. The isolates were collected from various clinical samples, identified by conventional methods and confirmed by API 20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by Kirby-Bauer technique and interpreted according to CLSI. Production of blaVIM, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Direct sequencing from PCR products was subsequently carried out to identify and confirm these β-lactamases genes. Out of 65 isolates, (46.1%) Escherichia coli, (26.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, and (10.7%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified as the commonest Gram-negative bacilli. 33(50.8%) were imipenem-resistant isolates. 22 isolates (66.7%) carried blaVIM, 24(72.7%) had blaTEM, and 5(15%) showed blaSHV, while 12(36%), 6(18.2%), and 0(0.00%) harbored blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9, and blaCTX-M-8/25, respectively. There is a high occurrence of β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates and sequence analysis of amplified genes showed differences between multiple SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in the same gene among local isolates in relation to published sequences. PMID:27123005

  13. In Vitro Activities of Ceftazidime-Avibactam, Aztreonam-Avibactam, and a Panel of Older and Contemporary Antimicrobial Agents against Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A.; Cole, Nicolynn C.; Kohner, Peggy C.; Menon, Sanjay R.; Krause, Kevin M.; Harris, Kelly A.; De, Partha P.; Koh, Tse Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Among 177 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (108 KPC, 32 NDM, 11 IMP, 8 OXA-48, 4 OXA-181, 2 OXA-232, 5 IMI, 4 VIM, and 3 SME producers), aztreonam-avibactam was active against all isolates except two NDM producers with elevated MICs of 8/4 and 16/4 mg/liter; ceftazidime-avibactam was active against all KPC-, IMI-, SME-, and most OXA-48 group-producing isolates (93%) but not metallo-β-lactamase producers. Among older and contemporary antimicrobials, the most active were colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, with overall susceptibilities of 88%, 79%, and 78%, respectively. PMID:26392487

  14. In Vitro Activities of Ceftazidime-Avibactam, Aztreonam-Avibactam, and a Panel of Older and Contemporary Antimicrobial Agents against Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A; Cole, Nicolynn C; Kohner, Peggy C; Menon, Sanjay R; Krause, Kevin M; Harris, Kelly A; De, Partha P; Koh, Tse Hsien; Patel, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Among 177 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (108 KPC, 32 NDM, 11 IMP, 8 OXA-48, 4 OXA-181, 2 OXA-232, 5 IMI, 4 VIM, and 3 SME producers), aztreonam-avibactam was active against all isolates except two NDM producers with elevated MICs of 8/4 and 16/4 mg/liter; ceftazidime-avibactam was active against all KPC-, IMI-, SME-, and most OXA-48 group-producing isolates (93%) but not metallo-β-lactamase producers. Among older and contemporary antimicrobials, the most active were colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, with overall susceptibilities of 88%, 79%, and 78%, respectively. PMID:26392487

  15. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern in urinary isolates of gram negative bacilli with special reference to AmpC β-lactamase in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh H.; Trivedi, Grishma R.; Patel, Sachin M.; Vegad, Mahendra M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Resistance to higher antimicrobial agent is commonly seen in gram negative bacilli. This issue is a challenging problem to the medical practitioners in addition to it is financial impact on the health care system. Objectives: To document the prevalence of multi drug resistant gram negative bacilli isolated from urine of patients attending the Urology Department of Tertiary care Hospital of western India in year 2008. Results: Out of total 328 isolates, 118 (35.98%) E.coli, 72 (21.95 %) Klebsiella, 64 (19.51%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 30 (9.15%) Acinetobacter, 18 (5.49%) Proteus vulgaris, 18 (5.49%) Proteus mirabilis, 6 (1.83%) Providencia rettgerii, 2 (0.61%) Citrobacter freundii. Out of these isolates, 228 (69.51%) were β-lactamase positive, while 100 (30.51%) were β-lactamase negative. Out of 228 β-lactamase positive, 104 (45.61%) were AmpC β-lactamase positive. Conclusions: Stringent protocol such as Antibiotic policy and Hospital infection control program are mandatory to curb these microbes in a tertiary care hospital. PMID:20842250

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Small Membrane Filtration Method for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a High-HIV-Prevalence Setting.

    PubMed

    Boum, Yap; Kim, Soyeon; Orikiriza, Patrick; Acuña-Villaorduña, Carlos; Vinhas, Solange; Bonnet, Maryline; Nyehangane, Dan; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Fennelly, Kevin P; Jones-López, Edward C

    2016-06-01

    Sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy has suboptimal sensitivity but remains the most commonly used laboratory test to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We prospectively evaluated the small membrane filtration (SMF) method that concentrates AFB in a smaller area to facilitate detection to improve the diagnostic performance of microscopy. We enrolled adults with suspicion of pulmonary TB from health facilities in southwestern Uganda. Clinical history, physical examination, and 3 sputum samples were obtained for direct fluorescent AFB smear, SMF, Xpert MTB/RIF, and MGIT culture media. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated for SMF, AFB smear, and Xpert MTB/RIF, using MGIT as the reference standard. The analysis was stratified according to HIV status. From September 2012 to April 2014, 737 participants were included in the HIV-infected stratum (146 [20.5%] were culture positive) and 313 were in the HIV-uninfected stratum (85 [28%] were culture positive). In HIV-infected patients, the sensitivity of a single SMF was 67.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.9% to 74.1%); for AFB, 68.0% (95% CI, 60.6% to 74.6%); and for Xpert MTB/RIF, 91.0% (95% CI, 85.0% to 94.8%). In HIV-uninfected patients, the corresponding sensitivities were 72.5% (95% CI, 62.1% to 80.9%), 80.3% (95% CI, 70.8% to 87.2%), and 93.5% (95% CI, 85.7% to 97.2%). The specificity for all 3 tests in both HIV groups was ≥96%. In this setting, the SMF method did not improve the diagnostic accuracy of sputum AFB. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay performed well in both HIV-infected and -uninfected groups. PMID:27030493

  17. Structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing properties of heteroglycan isolated from a somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv1aFB) of Pleurotus florida and Volvariella volvacea.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sukesh; Maity, Kankan K; Bhunia, Sanjay K; Dey, Biswajit; Mandal, Soumitra; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2011-09-27

    A water soluble polysaccharide isolated from the hot aqueous extract of the fruit bodies of the somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv1aFB), raised through protoplast fusion between the strains of Pleurotus florida and Volvariella volvacea was found to consist of d-glucose, d-galactose, and d-mannose in a molar ratio of nearly 4:1:1 and showed macrophage, splenocyte, and thymocyte activation. On the basis of sugar analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC and HMBC), the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as: [structure: see text]. PMID:21742315

  18. [The incidence of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli in the environment of the transplant unit, department of hemato-oncology, university hospital Olomouc].

    PubMed

    Matoušková, Ivanka; Raida, Luděk; Holý, Ondřej

    2012-12-01

    A study entitled "Surveillance of Infectious Complications in Hemato-oncological Patients" was conducted at the Department of Hemato-Oncology, University Hospital Olomouc from 1 July 2010 to 31 August 2011. During the study period, a total of 63 patients were hospitalized at that department and 33 stem cell transplants were performed, 21 autologous and 12 allogeneic. Microbial contamination was monitored in indoor air, on selected surfaces, and in health care providers (right hand smear, left and right nostril swabs and scalp hair smear). Gram-negative bacteria detected by culture were identified biochemically. Special attention was paid to nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli which, based on the recent literature, should be considered as emerging causative agents of hospital infections. PMID:23301626

  19. Evaluation of Five Chromogenic Agar Media and the Rosco Rapid Carb Screen Kit for Detection and Confirmation of Carbapenemase Production in Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Matthew W.; DeGagne, Pat; Nichol, Kim; Karlowsky, James A.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient workflow to screen for and confirm the presence of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli was developed by evaluating five chromogenic screening agar media and two confirmatory assays, the Rapid Carb screen test (Rosco Diagnostica A/S, Taastrup, Denmark) and the modified Hodge test. A panel of 150 isolates was used, including 49 carbapenemase-producing isolates representing a variety of β-lactamase enzyme classes. An evaluation of analytical performance, assay cost, and turnaround time indicated that the preferred workflow (screening test followed by confirmatory testing) was the chromID Carba agar medium (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France), followed by the Rapid Carb screen test, yielding a combined sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 100%. As an optional component of the workflow, a determination of carbapenemase gene class via molecular means could be performed subsequent to confirmatory testing. PMID:25355764

  20. [Two cases of pulmonary infection by Mycobacterium abscessus in which drug susceptibility testing results conflicted with clinical courses].

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Yoriko; Fujimura, Masaki; Tagami, Atsurou; Abo, Miki; Honjyo, Chihiro; Yasui, Masahide; Nakao, Shinji

    2005-04-01

    We encountered two cases of pulmonary infection by Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus). [Case 1] A 66-year-old man who had been treated for non-tuberculous mycobacterium in the past was admitted because of productive cough. His chest X-ray film showed cavitation and direct microscopy of sputum revealed positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB). He was given rifampicin (RFP), ethambutol (EB), and clarythromycin (CAM), and then his symptoms and radiographic findings improved. [Case 2] A 74-year-old man with multiple myeloma as an underlying disease was admitted because of a cavitation found on chest radiography and a positive result for AFB in his sputum. Standard antituberculous drug therapy with isoniazid (INH), RFP, EB, and pyradinamide (PZA) was initiated and then the chest radiographic findings improved. As M. abscessus was isolated two weeks after the induction of therapy, the therapeutic regimen was changed to another combination therapy consisting of EB, clarithromycin (CAM) and ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and then his symptoms and radiographic findings were further improved. In both cases, the bacilli found in their sputum were identified as M. abscessus by DNA hybridization. They were completely resistant to all anti-tuberculosis agents and many antibiotics with a high value of MIC. However, their symptoms, radiographic abnormalities and the results of sputum examination improved following chemotherapy. The results obtained by MIC measurement were inconsistent with the clinical outcomes. The measurement of the MIC value of antibiotics do not necessarily predict its therapeutic effect. PMID:15966372

  1. Co-infection of Scedosporium apiospermum and Mycobacterium chelonae in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Seok; Choi, Misoo; Nam, Chan Hee; Kim, Jee Young; Hong, Seung Phil; Kim, Myung Hwa; Park, Byung Cheol

    2014-10-01

    A 75-year-old man presented with multiple, scaly, erythematous, grouped papules, nodules and plaques with tenderness ranging from the right forearm to hand dorsum and the right lower leg for 2-3 months. Five months prior to presentation, the patient had received an antibiotic skin test on his right forearm. Lesions appeared approximately 2-3 months after the antibiotic skin test, slowly progressing without clinical improvement. Culture for fungus on the right forearm revealed growth of Scedosporium apiospermum. The tissue acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture for the right forearm and right leg revealed growth of non-tuberculous mycobacteria which was Mycobacterium chelonae, and subsequent tissue polymerase chain reaction of both sites reported positive signs of M. chelonae. On diastase periodic acid-Schiff stain of the biopsy specimen of the right forearm, fungal hyphae were found while rod-shaped bacilli could be seen in AFB stain for the biopsy specimen of the right leg. The patient was treated with oral clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin along with an oral antifungal agent for 13 weeks. After the treatment, the lesions subsided and left a scar. We report a rare case of co-infection of S. apiospermum and M. chelonae in an immunocompetent host. PMID:25228156

  2. Characterization of tuberculous granulomas in different stages of progression and associated tertiary lymphoid tissue in goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis.

    PubMed

    Schinköthe, Jan; Köhler, Heike; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Oral infection of goats with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) resulted in a large variety of granulomas in organized gut-associated lymphatic tissues and intestinal lymph nodes. To characterize the cellular composition of granulomas, CD4(+), CD8(+), γδ, B lymphocytes and plasma, CD25(+), CD68(+), MHC-II(+), Ki67(+) and endothelial cells were labeled in consecutive frozen sections by immunohistochemistry and acid fast bacilli (AFB) by Kinyoun stain. Granulomas with extensive necrosis, little mineralization and variable numbers of AFB surrounded by many CD4(+) T cells, but only few epitheloid macrophages were observed in severely sick goats at 2-3mpi. They were interpreted as exuberant immune reaction. Organized granulomas with very few AFB were seen in clinically healthy goats at 13mpi. The necrotic cores were surrounded by a zone of granulomatous infiltrate with many epitheloid macrophages and few lymphocytes. This zone was initially wide and highly vascularized and became progressively smaller. It was enclosed by an increasing layer of connective tissue. All organized granulomas were surrounded by compartimentalized tertiary lymphoid tissue. The granulomas in experimental infection of goats with MAH reflect the heterogeneity of lesions seen in mycobacterial infections of humans and ruminants and are therefore valuable for comparative research. PMID:27477506

  3. Sensitivity of PCR Targeting the IS2404 Insertion Sequence of Mycobacterium ulcerans in an Assay Using Punch Biopsy Specimens for Diagnosis of Buruli Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, R.; Horsfield, C.; Kuijper, S.; Lartey, A.; Tetteh, I.; Etuaful, S.; Nyamekye, B.; Awuah, P.; Nyarko, K. M.; Osei-Sarpong, F.; Lucas, S.; Kolk, A. H. J.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.

    2005-01-01

    Punch biopsy specimens from Mycobacterium ulcerans disease lesions were used to compare the sensitivities and specificities of direct smear, culture, PCR, and histopathology in making a diagnosis of M. ulcerans disease in a field setting. PCR for the insertion element IS2404 was modified to include uracil-N-glycosylase and deoxyuridine triphosphate instead of deoxythymidine triphosphate to reduce the risk of cross contamination. The “gold standard” for confirmation of clinically diagnosed Buruli ulcer was a definite histological diagnosis, a positive culture for M. ulcerans, or a smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), together with a possible histological diagnosis. For 70 clinically diagnosed cases of M. ulcerans disease, the modified PCR was 98% sensitive and gave a rapid result. The sensitivities of microscopy, culture, and histology were 42%, 49%, and 82%, respectively. The use of a 4-mm punch biopsy specimen was preferred to a 6-mm punch biopsy specimen since the wound was less likely to bleed and to need stitching. Given adequate technical expertise and the use of controls, the PCR was viable in a teaching hospital setting in Ghana; and in routine practice, we would recommend the use of Ziehl-Neelsen staining of biopsy specimens to detect AFB, followed by PCR, in AFB-negative cases only, in order to minimize costs. Histology and culture remain important as quality control tests, particularly in studies of treatment efficacy. PMID:16081892

  4. Enhanced data analysis for the VZMS: Conceptual model design and initial application for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS), McClellan AFB. 1998 semi-annual report

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    1998-06-14

    The VZMS project at McClellan AFB involves both vadose zone data collection as well as enhanced data analysis. The purpose of enhanced data analysis is to develop conceptual models to carry out model validation and evaluation, as well as sensitivity and predictive modeling studies. Enhanced data analysis consists primarily of T2VOC forward simulations and ITOUGH2 inverse modeling. The methodology the authors employ in the VZMS project involves developing a conceptual model and iteratively updating it based on the agreement between model results and VZMS data. They demonstrate the development of an initial T2VOC conceptual model for the S-7 site based on data from instrument cluster VZMS-B. Lithologic data from the drilling logs along with empirical relations for estimating permeability and sediment moisture retention characteristics are used to define the layering of four different sediment types. The authors adjusted the layering of the sediments manually until the sediment moisture content profile from the T2VOC simulation of the gravity-capillary equilibrium agreed well with observed neutron probe data. Using this updated conceptual model, they performed inverse modeling using ITOUGH2 to find bet-fit absolute permeability values based on the minimization of differences between simulated and actual soil-gas pressure measurements.

  5. First Airswot Interferometric Radar Water Surface Elevations and Flooded Inundation Extent from the Sacramento River and Edwards AFB Wetland Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, L. H.; Smith, L. C.; Gleason, C. J.; Baney, O. N.; Chu, V. W.; Bennett, M. M.; Pavelsky, T.; Sadowy, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's forthcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission aims to quantify global freshwater fluxes from space using Ka-band interferometric radar. AirSWOT is the airborne calibration/validation instrument for SWOT with first-pass data collected over the Sacramento River in May 2013 and a wetland complex on Edwards AFB (Piute Ponds) in May 2014. Here, AirSWOT elevation and coherence data are compared with high resolution airborne imagery and concurrent in-situ field mappings of inundation area and water surface elevation. For the Sacramento River, AirSWOT water surface elevations are compared with field-surveyed elevations collected using a high precision GPS Lagrangian river drifter escorted down 30 km of river length. Additionally, field mapped river shorelines are compared with shorelines extracted from AirSWOT coherence data. For the Piute Ponds, we use an exhaustive field mapping of inundation extent and flooded vegetation to assess the ability of AirSWOT coherence and backscatter to map shorelines in a complex lake and wetland environment containing varying vegetation and soil moisture conditions.

  6. Measurement of the Inclusive Forward-Backward top quark-antitop quark Production Asymmetry and its Rapidity Dependence dAfb/d(delta y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strycker, Glenn Lloyd

    Early measurements of a large forward-background asymmetry at the CDF [1, 2, 3, 4] and Dempty [5, 6] experiments at Fermilab have generated much recent interest, but were hampered by large uncertainties. We present here a new measurement of the corrected forward-backward asymmetry of pair-produced top quarks, using a high-statistics sample with much improved precision. We study the rapidity, ytop, of the top quark production angle with respect to the incoming parton momentum in both the lab and tt¯ rest frames. We find the corrected forward-backward asymmetries to be Appfb=0.150+/- 0.050stat+/-0.024syst Attfb=0.158+/-0 .072stat+/-0.024syst These results should be compared with the small lab pp¯ frame charge asymmetry expected in QCD at NLO, Afb = 0.050 +/- 0.015 [7, 8, 9, 10]. Additionally, we introduce a measurement of the A fb rapidity dependence dAfbd Dy . We find this to be Attfb Dy<1.0 =0.026+/-0.104stat+/-0.012 syst Attfb Dy>1.0=0.6 11+/-0.210stat+/-0.246syst which we compare with model predictions 0.039 +/- 0.006 and 0.123 +/- 0.018 for the inner and outer rapidities, respectively.

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): American Lake Gardens (McCord AFB - Area D), Pierce County, WA. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-19

    The American Lake Gardens (McChord AFB-Area D) site is an active U.S. Air Force base located at McChord Air Force Base, Pierce County, Washington. The site consists of two areas, Area D and American Lake Garden Tract (ALGT). From the mid-1940's to the present, no known industrial activities have occurred in the ALGT area; however, seven waste disposal sites have operated within the Area D portion of the site. Concurrent with DOD investigations, EPA discovered TCE in ground water monitoring wells installed at the ALGT, and in 1984, concluded that waste disposal sites in Area D were the likely source of ground water contamination. The ROD addresses remediation of the contaminated onsite and offsite ground water plume, as a final remedy. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; other organics; and metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  8. [Isolation of environmental mycobacteria from soils of Córdoba city Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ballarino, Guillermo J; Eseverri, M Verónica; Salas, Andrea V; Giayetto, Víctor O; González, Silvia; Wolff, Lidia; Pessah, Oscar

    2002-01-01

    The interest for the research on enviromental mycobacteria has risen over the last decades, in part, due to a significant incidence rate rise. Reports from all over the world address the soil as the major source for human contamination. In Argentina two documents report the prevalence of atypical mycobacteriosis at Córdoba (1997), and the isolation of enviromental mycobacteria from soils of the Province of La Pampa (1999) respectively. The aim of our study was to confirm the presence of enviromental mycobacteria in soil of the city of Córdoba. The map of the city was divided in 9 regions according to avenues and major streets distribution. A total of 120 soil samples were recollected with spatula from a 10 x 10 cm square up to 1 cm deep. Samples were kept at 4 degrees C no more than 7 days. Soil samples were homogenized with destilled water in a 1:1 proportion, and decontaminated according to Petroff's method. The cultures were made in Lowestein-Jehnsen media and incubated at 37 degrees C controlling development every 7 days for 2 months. An acid-fast-bacilli smear was made from colonies obtained. Twenty three cultures (19%) were discarded due to contamination. Twenty cultures (17%) developed acid fast bacilli (AFB). Colonies obtained were sent to the Mycobacteria Service of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán, in the city of Buenos Aires, for identification. A single isolation was identified as Mycobacterium triviale. A positive correlation was observed between the frequency of positive AFB isolation and the number of samples taken from park areas. The presence of enviromental mycobacteria in soils of Córdoba was confirmed. Results suggest higher odds of isolation in parklands and soils where animals live. Extensive works are needed to asset the features that allow and contribute the proliferation of mycobacteria in soils. PMID:12934243

  9. Changing trend of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative bacilli isolated from lower respiratory tract of ICU patients: A 5-year study

    PubMed Central

    Gagneja, Deep; Goel, Nidhi; Aggarwal, Ritu; Chaudhary, Uma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the most frequent infections among patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Aim: To track the resistance rate among the causative agents causing LRTI in the ICU patients. Design and Settings: This is a retrospective study done in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Transtracheal or bronchial aspirates from 2776 patients admitted to the ICU were cultured and identified, and antibiotic sensitivity was performed by standard methods. Results: Of 2776 specimens, 1233 (44.41%) isolates were recovered, of which 1123 (91.07%) were gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and 110 (8.92%) were gram-positive organisms. From 2004 to 2009, Pseudomonas aeruginosa remained the most common pathogen. In phase I, high level of resistance (79–98%) was observed against all GNB. During phase II increasing trend in resistance to cephalosporins and declining trend in resistance to aminoglycosides against most GNB were observed. Multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more than three drugs) was observed in 83% of total isolates. Conclusions: Gram-negative organisms are the predominant pathogens causing LRTI in ICU. The increasing trend of resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems in gram-negative organisms is very disturbing. Judicious use of antimicrobial agents is essential to prevent the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the ICU. PMID:22013308

  10. Pomegranate pericarp extract enhances the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Dey, Diganta; Debnath, Sukalyani; Hazra, Sudipta; Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Ray, Ratnamala; Hazra, Banasri

    2012-12-01

    A methanolic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit pericarp (PGME) was tested in combination with ciprofloxacin against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which were screened for their resistance profile against fluoroquinolone antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ciprofloxacin and PGME, alone, were determined, and synergy of ciprofloxacin-PGME combinations evaluated by checkerboard assay and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC). Nineteen out of forty-nine strains exhibited synergy with ciprofloxacin (FIC of 0.125-0.5 for ciprofloxacin) further verified by agar-well assay. This could be due to the bacterial efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) activity of the polyphenolic constituents of PGME. However, the isolates exhibiting a high level of ciprofloxacin resistance did not respond to ciprofloxacin-PGME combinations, which could be due to target site modification not influenced further by EPI activity of PGME. Again, some strains were sensitive or weakly resistant to ciprofloxacin, which exhibited 'indifference' to the combination, probably due to a lack of over-expressed efflux mechanism. Thus, a synergy of a ciprofloxacin-PGME combination was demonstrated for the first time against ESBL- and MBL-producing Gram-negative bacilli, and the efficacy of an existing drug improved with the help of an inexpensive alternative therapy. PMID:22982804

  11. Laboratory diagnosis, clinical management and infection control of the infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli: a Chinese consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Guan, X; He, L; Hu, B; Hu, J; Huang, X; Lai, G; Li, Y; Liu, Y; Ni, Y; Qiu, H; Shao, Z; Shi, Y; Wang, M; Wang, R; Wu, D; Xie, C; Xu, Y; Yang, F; Yu, K; Yu, Y; Zhang, J; Zhuo, C

    2016-03-01

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are defined as bacterial isolates susceptible to two or fewer antimicrobial categories. XDR-GNB mainly occur in Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The prevalence of XDR-GNB is on the rise in China and in other countries, and it poses a major public health threat as a result of the lack of adequate therapeutic options. A group of Chinese clinical experts, microbiologists and pharmacologists came together to discuss and draft a consensus on the laboratory diagnosis, clinical management and infection control of XDR-GNB infections. Lists of antimicrobial categories proposed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing were created according to documents from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Multiple risk factors of XDR-GNB infections are analyzed, with long-term exposure to extended-spectrum antimicrobials being the most important one. Combination therapeutic regimens are summarized for treatment of XDR-GNB infections caused by different bacteria based on limited clinical studies and/or laboratory data. Most frequently used antimicrobials used for the combination therapies include aminoglycosides, carbapenems, colistin, fosfomycin and tigecycline. Strict infection control measures including hand hygiene, contact isolation, active screening, environmental surface disinfections, decolonization and restrictive antibiotic stewardship are recommended to curb the XDR-GNB spread. PMID:26627340

  12. Collaborative evaluation of the Abbott Avantage system for identification of frequently isolated nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, J H; Dyke, J W; Helgeson, N G; Cooper, B H; Redding, J S; Crawford, S A; Andruszewski, M T; Prowant, S A

    1984-01-01

    The capability of the Abbott Avantage system to identify 10 species of commonly isolated glucose nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli in a 5-h test period was evaluated in a collaborative study. The Avantage nonenteric data base uses 20 biochemical test reactions performed in an expanded Abbott bacterial identification cartridge plus the results of a manual oxidase test. The species included in the Avantage data base are Acinetobacter anitratus, Acinetobacter Iwoffi, Aeromonas hydrophila, Flavobacterium meningosepticum-IIb group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens-putida group, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Pasteurella multocida, and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The collaborative study included the testing of 200 coded challenge strains in all three laboratories and the subsequent testing of an additional group of 100 to 200 clinical isolates recovered independently by each laboratory. Reference identifications for all isolates were determined by conventional biochemical test reactions. The overall accuracy of identification of the coded challenge strains for the three laboratories was 97%, whereas 95% of 437 clinical isolates and selected stock cultures of clinical derivation were identified correctly. PMID:6392323

  13. Disk Carbapenemase Test for the Rapid Detection of KPC-, NDM-, and Other Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Sung, Ji Yeon; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Song, Wonkeun; Chong, Yunsop

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is required for optimal treatment of infected patients. We developed and assessed a new disk carbapenemase test (DCT). Methods Paper disks containing 0.3 mg of imipenem and bromothymol blue indicator were developed, and the performance of the DCT were evaluated by using 742 strains of GNB with or without carbapenemases. Results The paper disks were simple to prepare, and the dried disks were stable at -20℃ and at 4℃. The DCT detected 212 of 215 strains (98.6% sensitivity with 95% confidence interval [CI] 96.0-99.5%) of GNB with known class A (KPC and Sme) and class B (NDM, IMP, VIM, and SIM) carbapenemases within 60 min, but failed to detect GES-5 carbapenemase. The DCT also detected all two Escherichia coli isolates with OXA-48, but failed to detect GNB with OXA-232, and other OXA carbapenemases. The DCT showed 100% specificity (95% CI, 99.2-100%) in the test of 448 imipenem-nonsusceptible, but carbapenemase genes not tested, clinical isolates of GNB. Conclusions The DCT is simple and can be easily performed, even in small laboratories, for the rapid detection of GNB with KPC, NDM and the majority of IMP, VIM, and SIM carbapenemases. PMID:27374708

  14. T cell response to purified filtrate antigen 85 from Mycobacterium bovis Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in leprosy patients.

    PubMed Central

    Launois, P; Huygen, K; De Bruyn, J; N'Diaye, M; Diouf, B; Sarthouj, L; Grimaud, J; Millan, J

    1991-01-01

    T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 25 healthy controls and 39 leprosy patients were tested against BCG-bacilli and culture filtrate. Mycobacterium leprae and purified antigen 85 (the major secreted 30-32 kD protein antigen) from M. bovis strain BCG. In lepromin negative healthy controls, blastogenesis was low to M. leprae and completely negative to antigen 85. IFN-gamma levels were very low, close to detection limits. In all lepromin positive controls, significant proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion was found in response to M. leprae and antigen 85. In the group of lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients, 25/29 of patients (with either positive (13) or negative (12) lymphoproliferative response to BCG) were unreactive to M. leprae or to antigen 85. Four LL patients with positive T cell response to BCG responded with detectable lymphoproliferative response and IFN-gamma secretion to antigen 85. All tuberculoid (TT) leprosy patients responded to BCG, M. leprae and antigen 85. Hence, T cells from leprosy patients and controls demonstrate a marked parallelism of responsiveness towards whole M. leprae and purified antigen 85 from M. bovis BCG, suggesting strong cross-reactivity between the two species and underlining the biological importance of such secreted antigens. PMID:1934596

  15. In vitro susceptibilities of aerobic and facultative non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and 14 other antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Soriano, F; Fernández-Roblas, R; Calvo, R; García-Calvo, G

    1998-05-01

    The comparative in vitro activity of the ketolide HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and those of structurally related macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin compounds (erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin, lincomycin, pristinamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin) as well as those of benzylpenicillin, doxycycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, levofloxacin, and rifapentine against 247 aerobic and facultative non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli were determined by an agar dilution method. The ketolide was active against most organisms tested except Corynebacterium striatum, coryneform CDC group 12, and Oerskovia spp. The frequency of resistance to erythromycin and other macrolides as well as that to lincomycin was high. Pristinamycin and, to a lesser extent, quinupristin-dalfopristin were very active, but resistance to these agents was present in some strains of Rhodococcus equi, Listeria spp., C. striatum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Oerskovia spp. HMR 3647 was very active against all erythromycin-sensitive and many erythromycin-nonsusceptible strains, especially Corynebacterium minutissimum, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, Corynebacterium amycolatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium. In vitro resistance to benzylpenicillin was common, but doxycycline, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were very active against most organisms tested except E. rhusiopathiae, against which glycopeptide antibiotics were not active. The in vitro activity of levofloxacin was remarkable, but resistance to this agent was common for C. amycolatum, Corynebacterium urealyticum, C. jeikeium, and Oerskovia spp. strains. Rifapentine was also very active in vitro against many organisms, but resistance to this agent was always present in E. rhusiopathiae and was very common in C. striatum and C. urealyticum. PMID:9593121

  16. System design study to reduce capital and operating cost of a moving distributor, AFB advanced concept - comparison with an oil-fired boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mah, C.S.; West, L.K.; Anderson, R.E.; Berkheimer, I.L.; Cahill, D.V.

    1985-12-01

    The Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, under contract with the United States Department of Energy, has performed a comparative economic study of the Aerojet Universal Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (UAFBC) system and a coventional atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. The program title, ''System Design Study to Reduce Capital and Operating Cost and Bench Scale Testing of a Moving Distributor, AFB Concept,'' is a good description of the general objective of the program. The specific objective was to compare the UAFBC with the conventional AFBC in terms of normalized steam cost. The boilers were designed for 150,00 lb/hr of steam at 650 psig and 750/sup 0/F. The reference coal used in the analysis was Pittsburgh No. 8 coal with a sulfur content of 4.3% and a higher heating value of 12,919 Bru/lb. The analysis assumed a plant life of 20 years and a discount rate of 15%. The UAFBC systems included the usual elements of the conventional cola-fired AFBC steam plant, but the coal preparation sysbsystem for the UAFBC was considerably simpler because the system can use ''run-of-mine'' coal. The UAFBC boiler itself consisted of a staged-combustion fluidized-bed, superimposed over a static bed, the latter supported by a moving distributor. It incorporated a fines burnup combustor, an entrained reciculating gas cleanup bed, and conventional convection boiler. The key features of the UAFBC design were: High fuel flexibility; low NO/sub x/ emission; and superior turndown capability. 30 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. 10 × '20 Progress—Development of New Drugs Active Against Gram-Negative Bacilli: An Update From the Infectious Diseases Society of America

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Helen W.; Talbot, George H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J.; Jones, Ronald N.; Murray, Barbara E.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Gilbert, David

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the “ESKAPE” pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's “10 × '20 Initiative.” PMID:23599308

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aerobic and Facultative Gram-Negative Bacilli from Intra-abdominal Infections in Patients from Seven Regions in China in 2012 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Liao, Kang; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Wang, Yong; Wu, Anhua; Feng, Xianju; Luo, Yanping; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Chen, Shulan; Cao, Bin; Su, Jianrong; Gui, Bingdong; Duan, Qiong; Zhang, Shufang; Shao, Haifeng; Kong, Haishen; Badal, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli that caused hospital-acquired and community-acquired intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China between 2012 and 2013, we determined the susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobials and the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) statuses of 3,540 IAI isolates from seven geographic areas in China in a central laboratory using CLSI broth microdilution and interpretive standards. Most infections were caused by Escherichia coli (46.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.7%). Rates of ESBL-producing E. coli (P = 0.031), K. pneumoniae (P = 0.017), and Proteus mirabilis (P = 0.004) were higher in hospital-acquired IAIs than in community-acquired IAIs. Susceptibilities of enterobacteriaceae to ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem were 71.3% to 100%, 81.3% to 100%, 64.7% to 100%, and 83.1% to 100%, respectively, but imipenem was ineffective against P. mirabilis (<20%). Although most ESBL-positive hospital-acquired isolates were resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the majority were susceptible to cefoxitin (47.9% to 83.9%). Susceptibilities of ESBL-positive isolates to ampicillin-sulbactam (<10%) were low, whereas susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin (0% to 54.6%) and levofloxacin (0% to 63.6%) varied substantially. The prevalences of cephalosporin-susceptible E. coli and K. pneumoniae were higher in the northeastern and southern regions than in the central and eastern regions, reflecting the ESBL-positive rates in these areas, and were lowest in the Jiangsu-Zhejiang (Jiang-Zhe) area where the rates of carbapenem resistance were also highest. Ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem are the most efficacious antibiotics for treating IAIs in China, especially those caused by E. coli or K. pneumoniae. Resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems is more common in the Jiang-Zhe area than in other regions in China. PMID:26482308

  19. Distribution of 16S rRNA methylases among different species of Gram-negative bacilli with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Yu, H; Guo, Q; Xu, X; Ye, X; Wu, S; Guo, Y; Wang, M

    2010-11-01

    16S rRNA methylases confer high-level resistance to most aminoglycosides in Gram-negative bacteria. Seven 16S rRNA methylase genes, armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE and npmA, have been identified since 2003. We studied the distribution of methylase genes in more than 200 aminoglycoside-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates collected in 2007 at our hospital in Shanghai, China. 16S rRNA methylase genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) among 217 consecutive clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to gentamicin and amikacin by a disk diffusion method. 16S rRNA methylase genes were present in 97.5% (193/198) of clinical isolates highly resistant to amikacin (≥512 μg/ml), with armA and rmtB detected in 67.2 and 30.3% of strains, respectively, while no 16S rRNA methylase genes were detected in 19 strains with amikacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤256 μg/ml. armA or rmtB genes were detected in 100% of 104 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, and these two genes were equally represented (49 vs. 55 strains). Genes for armA or rmtB were detected in 94.7% (89/94) of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, and armA was predominant (84 vs. 5 strains with rmtB). No rmtA, rmtC, rmtD or npmA genes were found. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC-PCR) indicated that armA and rmtB genes were spread by both horizontal transfer and clonal dissemination. PMID:20614151

  20. Risk factors and Outcomes of Infections Caused by Extremely Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sameer J.; Oliveira, André P.; Zhou, Juyan Julia; Alba, Luis; Furuya, E. Yoko; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Jia, Haomiao; Clock, Sarah A.; Kubin, Christine J.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Schuetz, Audrey N.; Behta, Maryam; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Whittier, Susan; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Extremely drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (XDR-GNB) increasingly cause healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods A matched case-control (1:2) study was conducted from February 2007 to January 2010 in 16 ICUs. Case and control subjects had HAIs caused by GNB susceptible to ≤1 antibiotic versus ≥2 antibiotics, respectively. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression assessed risk factors for HAIs and predictors of mortality, respectively. Results Overall, 103 case and 195 control subjects were enrolled. An immunocompromised state (OR=1.55, p=0.047) and exposure to amikacin (OR=13.81, p<0.001), levofloxacin (OR=2.05, p=0.005), or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (OR=3.42, p=0.009) were factors associated with XDR-GNB HAIs. Multiple factors in both case and control subjects significantly predicted increased mortality at different time intervals after HAI diagnosis. At 7 days, liver disease (Hazard Ratio [HZ]=5.52), immunocompromised state (HR=3.41), and bloodstream infection (HR=2.55) predicted mortality; at 15 days, age (HR=1.02 per year increase), liver disease (HR=3.34), and immunocompromised state (HR 2.03) predicted mortality; and at 30 days, age (HR=1.02 per one year increase), liver disease (HR=3.34), immunocompromised state (HR=2.03), and hospitalization in a medical ICU (HR=1.85) predicted mortality. Conclusions HAIs caused by XDR-GNB were associated with potentially modifiable factors. Age, liver disease, and immunocompromised state, but not XDR-GNB HAIs, were associated with mortality. PMID:24725516

  1. Isolation and Screening of Thermophilic Bacilli from Compost for Electrotransformation and Fermentation: Characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a New Biocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, Elleke F.; van de Weijer, Antonius H. P.; Daas, Martinus J. A.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli that are genetically accessible and have potential as platform organisms. From compost, we isolated 267 strains that produced acids from C5 and C6 sugars at temperatures of 55°C or 65°C. Subsequently, 44 strains that showed the highest production of acids were screened for genetic accessibility by electroporation. Two Geobacillus thermodenitrificans isolates and one Bacillus smithii isolate were found to be transformable with plasmid pNW33n. Of these, B. smithii ET 138 was the best-performing strain in laboratory-scale fermentations and was capable of producing organic acids from glucose as well as from xylose. It is an acidotolerant strain able to produce organic acids until a lower limit of approximately pH 4.5. As genetic accessibility of B. smithii had not been described previously, six other B. smithii strains from the DSMZ culture collection were tested for electroporation efficiencies, and we found the type strain DSM 4216T and strain DSM 460 to be transformable. The transformation protocol for B. smithii isolate ET 138 was optimized to obtain approximately 5 × 103 colonies per μg plasmid pNW33n. Genetic accessibility combined with robust acid production capacities on C5 and C6 sugars at a relatively broad pH range make B. smithii ET 138 an attractive biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid and potentially other green chemicals. PMID:25556192

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aerobic and Facultative Gram-Negative Bacilli from Intra-abdominal Infections in Patients from Seven Regions in China in 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Liao, Kang; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Wang, Yong; Wu, Anhua; Feng, Xianju; Luo, Yanping; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Chen, Shulan; Cao, Bin; Su, Jianrong; Gui, Bingdong; Duan, Qiong; Zhang, Shufang; Shao, Haifeng; Kong, Haishen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli that caused hospital-acquired and community-acquired intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China between 2012 and 2013, we determined the susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobials and the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) statuses of 3,540 IAI isolates from seven geographic areas in China in a central laboratory using CLSI broth microdilution and interpretive standards. Most infections were caused by Escherichia coli (46.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.7%). Rates of ESBL-producing E. coli (P = 0.031), K. pneumoniae (P = 0.017), and Proteus mirabilis (P = 0.004) were higher in hospital-acquired IAIs than in community-acquired IAIs. Susceptibilities of enterobacteriaceae to ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem were 71.3% to 100%, 81.3% to 100%, 64.7% to 100%, and 83.1% to 100%, respectively, but imipenem was ineffective against P. mirabilis (<20%). Although most ESBL-positive hospital-acquired isolates were resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the majority were susceptible to cefoxitin (47.9% to 83.9%). Susceptibilities of ESBL-positive isolates to ampicillin-sulbactam (<10%) were low, whereas susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin (0% to 54.6%) and levofloxacin (0% to 63.6%) varied substantially. The prevalences of cephalosporin-susceptible E. coli and K. pneumoniae were higher in the northeastern and southern regions than in the central and eastern regions, reflecting the ESBL-positive rates in these areas, and were lowest in the Jiangsu-Zhejiang (Jiang-Zhe) area where the rates of carbapenem resistance were also highest. Ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem are the most efficacious antibiotics for treating IAIs in China, especially those caused by E. coli or K. pneumoniae. Resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems is more common in the Jiang-Zhe area than in other regions in China. PMID:26482308

  3. Correlation between in vitro and in vivo activity of antimicrobial agents against gram-negative bacilli in a murine infection model.

    PubMed Central

    Fantin, B; Leggett, J; Ebert, S; Craig, W A

    1991-01-01

    We studied the relationship between in vitro susceptibility tests (MICs, MBCs) and in vivo activity of tobramycin, pefloxacin, ceftazidime, and imipenem against 15 gram-negative bacilli from five different species in a murine thigh infection model. Complete dose-response curves were determined for each antimicrobial agent against each strain, and three parameters of in vivo activity were defined: maximal attainable antimicrobial effect (i.e., reduction in log10 CFU per thigh compared with untreated controls) at 24 h (Emax), total dose required to reach 50% of maximal effect (P50), and total dose required to achieve a bacteriostatic effect (static dose). Pefloxacin demonstrated the greatest Emax (P less than 0.05). Tobramycin was the most potent antimicrobial agent, as indicated by its having the lowest static dose/MIC ratio (P less than 0.002). Log10 P50s and static doses correlated significantly with log10 MICs or MBCs for the 15 strains of each antibiotic (P less than 0.01) except imipenem (P greater than 0.50). The greater potency of imipenem against the three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains than against strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae (P less than 0.01) explained this lack of correlation. A longer duration of postantibiotic effect for imipenem against P. aeruginosa (P = 0.02) contributed to its increased potency against these strains. We conclude that in vitro susceptibility tests correlated well with in vivo activity in this animal model and that variations in potency among the four antimicrobial agents could be explained by differences in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamic activity. PMID:1929302

  4. Aminoglycoside Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Gram Negative Bacilli at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica: Comparison of Two Time Periods

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds-Campbell, G; Nicholson, A; Christian, N; Hardie, R; Cook, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Aminoglycosides were introduced into use over 60 years ago. The University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), a tertiary care teaching hospital, in Kingston, Jamaica, introduced the use of gentamicin in 1973 and amikacin in 1980. This report examined the susceptibility patterns to these agents in 1547 consecutive isolates of Gram negative bacilli (GNB) encountered between September 1 and November 30, 2011, at UHWI and compares the data with that observed previously in 1981 at the same institution. Methods: The Vitek 2 (bioMeriéux, Durham, NC) was used for isolate identification, minimum inhibitory concentration determination and aminoglycoside susceptibility testing. Quality control was done using American Type Culture Collection standard strains of E coli (ATCC 25922) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). Results: Of the 1547 organisms, 267 had resistance to one or both aminoglycosides. Amikacin resistance increased from 0.6% (1981) to 7.2% [2011] (p < 0.05), while gentamicin resistance increased from 6.7% to 14.8% (p < 0.05) for the corresponding period. The majority of samples with aminoglycoside resistant organisms came from the intensive care unit and surgical inpatients. Urine samples persistently produced the largest amount of gentamicin resistant isolates. Conclusions: Although there has been a statistically significant rise in aminoglycoside resistance, aminoglycosides continue to remain highly effective against approximately 83% of GNB despite continuous usage at this institution for over three decades. Continued national surveillance, implementation of infection control policies and antibiotic stewardship are all essential in retaining low resistance levels. PMID:26360679

  5. 10 x '20 Progress--development of new drugs active against gram-negative bacilli: an update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Helen W; Talbot, George H; Benjamin, Daniel K; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J; Jones, Ronald N; Murray, Barbara E; Bonomo, Robert A; Gilbert, David

    2013-06-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the "ESKAPE" pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's "10 × '20 Initiative." PMID:23599308

  6. OsTIR1 and OsAFB2 Downregulation via OsmiR393 Overexpression Leads to More Tillers, Early Flowering and Less Tolerance to Salt and Drought in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaojin; Fang, Zhongming; Tian, Changen; Duan, Jun; Wang, Yaqin; Zhang, Mingyong

    2012-01-01

    The microRNA miR393 has been shown to play a role in plant development and in the stress response by targeting mRNAs that code for the auxin receptors in Arabidopsis. In this study, we verified that two rice auxin receptor gene homologs (OsTIR1 and OsAFB2) could be targeted by OsmiR393 (Os for Oryza sativa). Two new phenotypes (increased tillers and early flowering) and two previously observed phenotypes (reduced tolerance to salt and drought and hyposensitivity to auxin) were observed in the OsmiR393-overexpressing rice plants. The OsmiR393-overexpressing rice demonstrated hyposensitivity to synthetic auxin-analog treatments. These data indicated that the phenotypes of OsmiR393-overexpressing rice may be caused through hyposensitivity to the auxin signal by reduced expression of two auxin receptor genes (OsTIR1 and OsAFB2). The expression of an auxin transporter (OsAUX1) and a tillering inhibitor (OsTB1) were downregulated by overexpression of OsmiR393, which suggested that a gene chain from OsmiR393 to rice tillering may be from OsTIR1 and OsAFB2 to OsAUX1, which affected the transportation of auxin, then to OsTB1, which finally controlled tillering. The positive phenotypes (increased tillers and early flowering) and negative phenotypes (reduced tolerance to salt and hyposensitivity to auxin) of OsmiR393-overexpressing rice present a dilemma for molecular breeding. PMID:22253868

  7. Cost-Effective and Rapid Presumptive Identification of Gram-Negative Bacilli in Routine Urine, Pus, and Stool Cultures: Evaluation of the Use of CHROMagar Orientation Medium in Conjunction with Simple Biochemical Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ohkusu, Kiyofumi

    2000-01-01

    The algorithm for a new identification system was designed on the basis of colony color and morphology on CHROMagar Orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests such as indole (IND), lysine decarboxylase (LDC), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) utilization tests with gram-negative bacilli isolated from urine samples as well as pus, stool, and other clinical specimens by the following colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and serological results: pinkish to red, IND positive (IND+), Escherichia coli; metallic blue, IND+, LDC+, and ODC negative (ODC−), Klebsiella oxytoca; IND+, LDC−, and ODC+, Citrobacter diversus; IND+ or IND−, LDC−, and ODC−, Citrobacter freundii; IND−, LDC+, and ODC+, Enterobacter aerogenes; IND−, LDC−, and ODC+, Enterobacter cloacae; IND−, LDC+, and ODC−, Klebsiella pneumoniae; diffuse brown and IND+, Morganella morganii; IND−, Proteus mirabilis; aqua blue, Serratia marcescens; bluish green and IND+, Proteus vulgaris; transparent yellow-green, serology positive, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; clear and serology positive, Salmonella sp.; other colors and reactions, the organism was identified by the full identification methods. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this new system were prospectively evaluated. During an 8-month period, a total of 345 specimens yielded one or more gram-negative bacilli. A total of 472 gram-negative bacillus isolates were detected on CHROMagar Orientation medium. For 466 of the isolates (98.7%), no discrepancies in the results were obtained on the basis of the identification algorithm. The cost of identification of gram-negative bacilli during this period was reduced by about 70%. The results of this trial for the differentiation of the most commonly encountered gram-negative pathogens in clinical specimens with the new algorithm were favourable in that it permitted reliable detection and presumptive identification. In addition, this rapid identification system not only

  8. Mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium genavense in birds kept in a zoo: 11-year survey.

    PubMed Central

    Portaels, F; Realini, L; Bauwens, L; Hirschel, B; Meyers, W M; de Meurichy, W

    1996-01-01

    We report on a disease in 27 birds (1 bird belonging to the order Coraciiformes, 3 to Piciformes, 4 to Galliformes, 7 to Psittaciformes, and 12 to Passeriformes) caused by fastidious mycobacteria. All birds were caged at the Antwerp Zoo and died suddenly between 1983 and 1994. Seventeen birds had no previous signs of disease, and 10 birds showed emaciation. Gross necropsy findings were generally nonspecific, but all the birds were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Histopathologic evaluation performed on 14 birds revealed predominantly intracellular AFB. Extracellular AFB were more abundant in advanced lesions, especially in necrotic areas. In the intestine the mucosal area was generally heavily infiltrated, suggesting an intestinal origin of the infection. There was extensive invasion of the lungs in most birds. In 11 birds sparse growth was obtained after at least 6 months of incubation on Löwenstein-Jensen medium or on Ogawa medium supplemented with mycobactin. Subculture was unsuccessful in all instances. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the cultured organisms or tissues from seven birds revealed the characteristic signature sequence for Mycobacterium genavense. Direct bird-to-bird transmission in the zoo was unlikely, and the pathogenicity of M. genavense in birds seems to be limited. The source of M. genavense in nature and the epidemiology of the disease in birds remain obscure. As suspected for human cases of M. genavense infection, an oral route of infection has been suggested, and contaminated local water distribution systems may have been the source of the infection. Our study confirms that infections caused by M. genavense should be suspected in birds (especially in Passeriformes and Psittaciformes orders) that die suddenly without previous symptoms and that have AFB in tissues that are difficult to grow on conventional media. PMID:8789007

  9. Microbial effects on sorption and transport of actinides in tuff samples from the Nevada Test Site and soils from McGuire AFB, NJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.; Gostic, R.; Gostic, J.; Czerwinski, K.; Moser, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    The sorption and behavior of various actinides were examined for two sets of environmental samples. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) harbors a variety of radionuclides resulting from atomic weapons testing from the 1950s-1990s. Modeling the transport of radionuclides at the NTS is difficult because each detonation cavity is a unique environment with distinct hydrologic characteristics, chemical composition, and microbial community structure. McGuire AFB was the site of an explosion that resulted in the burning of a BOMARC nuclear missile and deposition of particles containing high-fired oxides of Am, Pu, and U in soils on the base. Analysis of the NTS samples focused on sorption/desorption of 233-U and 241-Am in the presence/absence of bacteria, and work on the BOMARC cores addressed the potential role of microorganisms in mediating particle degradation and movement. Batch experiments with various NTS tuff samples and strains of bacteria showed that sorption of actinides may be enhanced by >25% under certain conditions by bacteria. Sorption of 233-U was highly dependent on carbonate concentrations in the liquid matrix, while 241-Am was unaffected. Different bacterial species also affected sorption differently. Sorption kinetics for both actinides were rapid, with maximum sorption usually occurring within 4 hours. Actinides bound tightly to tuff and little desorption occurred in carbonate-free batch experiments. Column experiments showed that bacterial cultures in minimal salts buffer desorbed significantly more 233-U from tuff than low carbonate NTS water, but less than 30 mM bicarbonate buffer. Hot particles in the BOMARC cores were located using CT mapping and were extracted from the soil prior to analysis of core sections by gamma spectroscopy. Subcores for DNA extraction and culturing were collected from soil in direct contact with hot particles. The extracted particles consisted of a mixture of weapons-grade Pu, 241-Am and 235-U and ranged in activity from 5-66 k

  10. Comparison of the Cathra Repliscan II, the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card, and the Micro-Media System Fox Panel for dilution susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Reiber, N E; Kelly, M T; Latimer, J M; Tison, D L; Hysmith, R M

    1985-06-01

    A comparative evaluation was done to test the accuracy of the Cathra Repliscan II agar dilution system (Diagnostic Equipment, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.), the AutoMicrobic system with Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and the Micro-Media Fox Panel micro broth dilution system (Micro-Media Systems, Inc., San Jose, Calif.) in determining MICs of 12 antibiotics for 200 gram-negative bacilli. Of the 200 strains tested, 12 isolates did not grow in one of the three systems. The 188 remaining organisms included 158 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 20 Pseudomonas spp., 5 Acinetobacter sp., 3 Aeromonas spp., and 2 Vibrio spp. A total of 2,256 organism-antibiotic combinations were analyzed for each system. An MIC was considered correct if two of the three systems were in agreement. When disagreements occurred, correct MICs were determined by the standard agar dilution method. With this criterion, overall agreements of the Cathra Repliscan II system, AutoMicrobic system, and Micro-Media Fox Panel system were 94.7, 94.9, and 95.5%, respectively. Tetracycline (20%), nitrofurantoin (20%), and ampicillin (16%) accounted for 56% of the discrepancies observed. These results indicate that all three systems perform with a high degree of accuracy for susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli. PMID:4008625

  11. Editorial: Current status and perspective on drug targets in tubercle bacilli and drug design of antituberculous agents based on structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Haruaki

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) remains the most frequent and important infectious disease causing morbidity and death. However, the development of new drugs for the treatment and prophylaxis of TB, particularly those truly active against dormant and persistent types of tubercle bacilli, has been slow, although some promising drugs, such as diarylquinoline TMC207, nitroimidazopyran PA-824, nitroimidazo-oxazole Delamanid (OPC-67683), oxazolidinone PNU-100480, ethylene diamine SQ-109, and pyrrole derivative LL3858, are currently under phase 1 to 3 clinical trials. Therefore, novel types of antituberculous drug, which act on unique drug targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) pathogens, particularly drug targets related to the establishment of mycobacterial dormancy in the host's macrophages, are urgently needed. In this context, it should be noted that current anti-TB drugs mostly target the metabolic reactions and proteins which are essential for the growth of MTB in extracellular milieus. It may also be promising to develop another type of drug that exerts an inhibitory action against bacterial virulence factors which cross-talk and interfere with signaling pathways of MTB-infected immunocompetent host cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, thereby changing the intracellular milieus that are favorable to intramacrophage survival and the growth of infected bacilli. This special issue contains ten review articles, dealing with recent approaches to identify and establish novel drug targets in MTB for the development of new and unique antitubercular drugs, including those related to mycobacterial dormancy and crosstalk with cellular signaling pathways. In addition, this special issue contains some review papers with special reference to the drug design based on quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, especially three-dimensional (3D)-QSAR. New, critical information on the entire genome of MTB and mycobacterial virulence genes is

  12. Effect of diabetes on tuberculosis presentation and outcomes in Kiribati

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, J.; Viney, K.; Kienene, T.; Harley, D.; Kelly, P. M.; Sleigh, A.; O’Connor, J.; Mase, S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the association between diabetes and the clinical features and treatment outcomes of TB in Kiribati. METHODS We enrolled consecutive patients with TB who presented from August 2010 to February 2012 and compared clinical features and TB treatment outcomes for patients with and without diabetes, as measured by haemoglobin A1c assay. Poor outcome was defined as death, default or treatment failure, and good outcome as treatment success or cure. RESULTS Two hundred and seventy-five eligible persons with TB disease were enrolled; 101 (37%) had diabetes. TB patients with diabetes were more likely to have acid-fast bacilli (AFB) seen on sputum smear microscopy (RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.03–1.62). The risk of poor outcome did not differ between patients with or without diabetes (RR: 1.1; 95% CI: 0.5–2.7). CONCLUSION TB patients with diabetes are more likely than those without to have sputum with AFB on microscopy. This could increase transmission in the community. Early detection of TB by screening patients with diabetes, and the converse, could be important public health interventions where diabetes and TB are prevalent. PMID:25630576

  13. Diagnostic value of the strand displacement amplification method compared to those of Roche Amplicor PCR and culture for detecting mycobacteria in sputum samples.

    PubMed Central

    Ichiyama, S; Ito, Y; Sugiura, F; Iinuma, Y; Yamori, S; Shimojima, M; Hasegawa, Y; Shimokata, K; Nakashima, N

    1997-01-01

    We compared the ability of the semiautomated BDProbeTec-SDA system, which uses the strand displacement amplification (SDA) method, with that of the Roche Amplicor-PCR system and the Septi-Chek AFB culture system to directly detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and other mycobacteria in sputum samples. A total of 530 sputum samples from 299 patients were examined in this study. Of the 530 samples, 129 were culture positive for acid-fast bacilli with the Septi-Chek AFB system; 95 for MTB, 29 for M. avium-M. intracellulare complex (MAC), and 5 for other mycobacteria. The BDProbeTec-SDA system detected 90 of the 95 samples culture positive for MTB (sensitivity, 94.7%), and the Amplicor-PCR system detected 85 of the 95 samples culture positive for MTB (sensitivity, 89.5%). The specificity of each system, based on the clinical diagnosis, was 99.8% for SDA and 100% for PCR, respectively. Among the 29 samples culture positive for MAC, the BDProbeTec-SDA system detected MAC in 24 samples (sensitivity, 82.8%), whereas the Amplicor-PCR system detected MAC in 23 samples (sensitivity, 79.3%). The specificities of the systems were 98.3 and 100%, respectively. The high degrees of sensitivity and specificity of the BDProbeTec-SDA system suggest that it should be very useful in clinical laboratories for the rapid detection of mycobacteria in sputum samples. PMID:9399498

  14. Mutations in the rpoB Gene of Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Spain and Their Rapid Detection by PCR–Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lucia; Alonso-Sanz, Mercedes; Rebollo, Maria J.; Tercero, Juan C.; Chaves, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Genetic alterations in the rpoB gene were characterized in 50 rifampin-resistant (Rifr) clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from Spain. A rapid PCR–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for the identification of rpoB mutations was evaluated with isolates of the M. tuberculosis complex and clinical specimens from tuberculosis patients that were positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Sequence analysis demonstrated 11 different rpoB mutations among the Rifr isolates in the study. The most frequent mutations were those associated with codon 531 (24 of 50; 48%) and codon 526 (11 of 50; 22%). Although the PCR-ELISA does not permit characterization of the specific Rifr allele within each strain, 10 of the 11 Rifr genotypes were correctly identified by this method. We used the PCR-ELISA to predict the rifampin susceptibility of M. tuberculosis complex organisms from 30 AFB-positive sputum specimens. For 28 samples, of which 9 contained Rifr organisms and 19 contained susceptible strains, results were concordant with those based on culture-based drug susceptibility testing and sequencing. Results from the remaining two samples could not be interpreted because of low bacillary load (microscopy score of 1+ for 1 to 9 microorganisms/100 fields). Our results suggest that the PCR-ELISA is an easy technique to implement and could be used as a rapid procedure for detecting rifampin resistance to complement conventional culture-based methods. PMID:11325996

  15. Secondary Buruli Ulcer Skin Lesions Emerging Several Months after Completion of Chemotherapy: Paradoxical Reaction or Evidence for Immune Protection?

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Chauty, Annick; Adeye, Ambroise; Ardant, Marie-Françoise; Koussemou, Hugues; Johnson, Roch Christian; Pluschke, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Background The neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer (BU) caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is an infection of the subcutaneous tissue leading to chronic ulcerative skin lesions. Histopathological features are progressive tissue necrosis, extracellular clusters of acid fast bacilli (AFB) and poor inflammatory responses at the site of infection. After the recommended eight weeks standard treatment with rifampicin and streptomycin, a reversal of the local immunosuppression caused by the macrolide toxin mycolactone of M. ulcerans is observed. Methodology/Principal Findings We have conducted a detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of tissue specimens from two patients developing multiple new skin lesions 12 to 409 days after completion of antibiotic treatment. Lesions exhibited characteristic histopathological hallmarks of Buruli ulcer and AFB with degenerated appearance were found in several of them. However, other than in active disease, lesions contained massive leukocyte infiltrates including large B-cell clusters, as typically found in cured lesions. Conclusion/Significance Our histopathological findings demonstrate that the skin lesions emerging several months after completion of antibiotic treatment were associated with M. ulcerans infection. During antibiotic therapy of Buruli ulcer development of new skin lesions may be caused by immune response-mediated paradoxical reactions. These seem to be triggered by mycobacterial antigens and immunostimulators released from clinically unrecognized bacterial foci. However, in particular the lesions that appeared more than one year after completion of antibiotic treatment may have been associated with new infection foci resolved by immune responses primed by the successful treatment of the initial lesion. PMID:21829740

  16. Giant tuberculoma in an adolescent: atypical form of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Maria Inês; Pacheco, Susana; Silvestre, Catarina; Felix, Francisco; Brito, Maria João; Correia, Paula

    2012-01-01

    A tuberculoma is a rare form of presentation of tuberculosis (TB) in children. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl, with 3 weeks of progressive tiredness and asthenia and a 48 h fever and cough. Physical examination revealed diminished pulmonary sounds in the left lower hemithorax. A chest radiograph showed an oval hypotransparency image in this location. The TB skin test was anergic and sputum was negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The thoracic CT revealed a cystic mass in the left lower half hemithorax, compressing the adjacent pulmonary lobe, with double non-calcificated membrane. The exeresis of the pulmonary mass was performed and the anatomopathological study revealed a tuberculoma with AFB. TB treatment was established with a favourable clinical and radiological evolution. TB is a prevalent disease around the world. In this case, due to the mass dimensions and adjacent-organ compression, surgery was essential for a favourable clinical evolution. PMID:23001104

  17. Association of Serum Vitamin D Levels with Bacterial Load in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yuvaraj, B.; Kumar, S. Vinod; Kadhiravan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is known to have diverse effects on various systems in the body. There is evidence to suggest that a link exists between the serum vitamin D status and tuberculosis. The present study was designed to assess the alterations in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in newly diagnosed sputum acid fast bacilli (AFB) positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and to study the association, if any, between serum vitamin D levels and different levels of sputum smear positivity. Methods Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were estimated in 65 sputum AFB positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 65 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Results The levels of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D in tuberculosis patients were not statistically different from the levels of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D in healthy controls. However, among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D and levels of sputum positivity. Conclusion Serum vitamin D levels negatively correlates with bacterial load in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:27433175

  18. LED fluorescence microscopy in the diagnosis of tuberculosis: Fading and restaining of smears for external quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Allassia, Sonia; Aranibar, Mónica; Boutonnet, Mónica; Caserío, Viviana; Etchart, Ana Alicia; Fajardo, Sandra; García, Mónica; Gomez, Noemí; Gunia, Alba Marisa; Gustincic, María Virginia; Izquierdo, Viviana; Jara, Arnaldo Andrés; Kozicky, Graciela; Matteo, Mario; Pellegrini, Carlos; Pellegrino, Silvia; Pérez Catalán, Sebastián; Poggi, Susana; Sacramone, Carina; Santiso, Gabriela María; Souto, Alejandro; Togneri, Ana María; Wolff, Lidia; Vilche, Sandra; Eletti, Daniel; Imaz, María Susana

    2016-01-01

    Blinded rechecking is a method proposed for external quality assurance (EQA) of auramine-stained acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears using fluorescence microscopy (FM), however, this procedure is not well developed and slides fading over time could compromise its implementation. Since bleaching of fluorescent molecules involves temperature-dependent chemical reactions, it is likely that low temperatures could slow down this process. We stored auramine-stained slides under different environmental conditions, including -20°C, and examined them over time. The slides stored in all the environments faded. At -20°C, fading was not reduced in relation to room temperature. Restaining and re-examining smears after five months showed that the slides containing saliva and storage at -20°C were associated with failure in AFB reappearance. In conclusion, the practice of freezing slides until they are viewed should be discouraged as it has a negative effect on blinded rechecking by reducing reading concordance after restaining. Specimen quality should be considered when interpreting FM-EQA results. PMID:27291283

  19. Early Detection of Mycobacteria Using a Novel Hydrogel Culture Method

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mi Hee; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Chang-Ki; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Eun Yup

    2014-01-01

    Background Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37℃ for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. Results The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; P<0.0001). Conclusions The hydrogel scaffold culture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. PMID:24422192

  20. Heteroglycan from an alkaline extract of a somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv1aFB) of Pleurotus florida and Volvariella volvacea: structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing properties.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Sanjoy Kumar; Dey, Biswajit; Maity, Kankan K; Patra, Sukesh; Mandal, Soumitra; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2012-06-01

    A water soluble heteroglycan, isolated from the alkaline extract of the fruit bodies of the somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv1aFB), raised through protoplast fusion between the strains of Pleorutus florida and Volverilla volvacea, was found to consist of (1→3)-, (1→6)-, (1→3,4)-linked, and terminal β-D-Glcp along with (1→2,6)-α-D-Galp and terminal α-D-Manp in a relative proportion of approximately 1:1:1:1:1:1. This polysaccharide exhibited strong immunostimulating activity of macrophages as well as splenocytes and thymocytes. Structural investigation was carried out using sugar analysis, methylation analysis; periodate oxidation study, and NMR experiments ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of the above mentioned experiments, the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as: [formula see text]. PMID:22572124

  1. Comparative study of clinico-bacterio-radiological profile and treatment outcome of smokers and nonsmokers suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Deepti; Arora, Piyush; Meena, Manoj; Sarin, Rohit; Chakraborty, Pitambar; Jaiswal, Anand; Goyal, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide. Tobacco smoking has been linked as a risk factor for TB. This study was aimed to affirm the strength of association between smoking and pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: Pulmonary TB patients aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled and followed-up until treatment completion. Two consecutive sputum smears were examined from each patient for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl–Neelsen technique. Radiological severity of disease was assessed using guidelines of National TB Association of USA. Sputum smears for AFB were graded for positivity as per WHO Revised National TB Control Programme criteria. Response was determined in terms of sputum conversion at the end of intensive phase and final treatment outcomes. Results: Sputum smear grading of 3+ increased from 12.5% to 68.18% and 66.66% as smoking index increased from <100 to 100–299 and >300 (P < 0.05). In nonsmokers, 79.2% patients had minimal disease while only 4.2% had advanced disease as compared to smokers where 52.4% had moderate disease, 26.2% advanced disease, and 21.4% minimal disease (P < 0.01). Smokers had significantly lower treatment success rate (69%) as against nonsmokers and former smokers (93.8% and 90.9%, respectively, P = 0.001) owing to a higher default rate among smokers (28.5%) than nonsmokers (6.3%) and former smokers (9.1%). Conclusion: Smokers during initial presentation, as well as at end of the treatment demonstrate more radiological findings, cavitary disease, and worse sputum AFB smear grading. Smokers also have a poorer treatment success rate largely due to high percentage of default rate thus suggesting noncompliance as a main confounder to treatment success. Focus needs to be made to reduce defaulters which are more common among smokers. PMID:27625444

  2. Drug resistance pattern of mycobacterial isolates in HIV and non-HIV population in South India

    PubMed Central

    Shivaswamy, Umamaheshwari; Neelambike, Sumana M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Emergence of drug resistance has complicated the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). WHO reports India to be one among 27 “high burden” multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB countries. Objective: To diagnose TB and detect drug resistance of mycobacterial isolates in acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear negative HIV reactive patients (Group A) and compare them with HIV seropositive AFB smear positive (Group B) and HIV-seronegative AFB positive cases (Group C). Materials and Methods: Clinical specimens collected in all groups were processed as per the standard protocol except blood, which was processed by lysis centrifugation technique. They were then inoculated with Lowenstein-Jensen media and the isolates obtained were subjected to drug susceptibility test (DST) by proportion method and genotype MTBDR plus assay. Results: In Group A, 162 patients were included. Of the 443 clinical samples collected, 76 mycobacterial strains were obtained from 67 (41%) patients. Of these, 50 (65.8%) were sensitive to all drugs and 26 (34.2%) resistant to one or more anti-tubercular drugs. Antibiogram of Group A when compared with Group B and C showed that the MDR rate 6.6%, 6.7% and 8% respectively) did not differ much; but resistance to at least single drug was (26 [34.2%], 3 [10%], and 8 [16%]), respectively. Conclusion: Our study suggests that HIV has no influence on the anti-tubercular resistance pattern, but increased MDR rate along with HIV in high TB burden setting stresses the need for early diagnosis and DST in providing proper regimens and improve prognosis. PMID:26933303

  3. Comparative Study of GeneXpert with ZN Stain and Culture in Samples of Suspected Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Ashish; Bhatia, Vinay; Dutt, Sarjana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis remains one of the deadliest communicable diseases. There are number of tests available for the diagnosis of tuberculosis but conventional microscopy has low sensitivity and culture although gold standard, but takes longer time for positivity. On the other side, Nucleic acid amplification techniques due to its rapidity and sensitivity not only help in early diagnosis and management of tuberculosis especially in patients with high clinical suspicion like immunocompromised patients, history of contact with active tuberculosis patient etc., but also curtail the transmission of the disease. Aim To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Nucleic acid amplification assay (GeneXpert) using respiratory samples in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis and compare with AFB smear microscopy (Ziehl Neelsen stain) and Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) culture. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the respiratory samples of suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (including Bronchoalveolar lavage and sputum) of 170 patients from Jan 2015 to Nov 2015 for ZN stain, culture and GeneXpert (Xpert® MTB/Rif assay). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of GeneXpert and ZN microscopy were calculated using Liquid culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as gold standard. Results A total of 170 patient samples were evaluated in final analysis. Of these, 14 samples were positive by all three methods used in our study. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of GeneXpert were 86.8%, 93.1%, 78.5% and 96% respectively and for BAL sample, 81.4%, 93.4%, 73.3% and 95.7% respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity of AFB smear microscopy were 22.2%, % and 78.5% respectively and for BAL sample 22.2% and 100% respectively. For AFB negative samples sensitivity and specificity were 79.1% and 93.1% respectively. Conclusion GeneXpert has a higher sensitivity than AFB smear microscopy in

  4. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections in China: the 2002-2009 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwen; Wang, Hui; Chen, Minjun; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Hu, Yunjian; Ye, Huifen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China. From 2002 to 2009, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 14 antibiotics for 3420 aerobic and facultative GNB from up to eight hospitals in six cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82.9% (2834/3420) of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (49.2%) being the most commonly isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.8%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.3%). Amongst the antimicrobial agents tested, the three carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 96.1-99.6% (2002-2009), 98.2-100% (2002-2009) and 99.6-100% (2002-2004), respectively, followed by amikacin (86.8-95.1%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (84.5-94.3%). Susceptibility rates of all tested third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacteriaceae declined by nearly 30%, with susceptibility rates of 40.2%, 39.1%, 56.3% and 51.8% in 2009 for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases increased rapidly, especially for E. coli (from 20.8% in 2002 to 64.9% in 2009). Susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 57.6% in 2002 to 24.2% in 2009. The least active agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) (25.3-44.3%). In conclusion, Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 8-year study period. Third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and SAM may not be ideal choices for empirical therapy of IAIs in China. PMID:21036547

  5. X-31 in Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, turns tightly over the desert floor on a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

  6. ENHANCED REMEDIATION DEMONSTRATIONS AT HILL AFB: INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine enhanced aquifer remediation technologies were demonstrated side-by-side at a Hill Air Force Base Chemical Disposal Pit/Fire Training Area site. The demonstrations were performed inside 3 x 5 m cells isolated from the surrounding shallow aquifer by steel piling. The site w...

  7. System design study to reduce capital and operating costs and bench-scale testing of a circulating-bed AFB [atmospheric pressure fluidized bed] advanced concept: Phase 1, Design, cost estimate, and cost comparison for MWK circulating fluid bed combustor and oil-fired boilers: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhukhan, P.; Lin, Y.Y.; Hsiao, K.H.; Richards, S.R.; Wagner, C.; Settle, W.H.; Bryant, J.; Gorman, W.A.; Newlin, T.; Shires, P.J.; James, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued an RFP for a "System Design Study to Reduce Capital and Operating Cost and Bench Scale Testing of a Circulating-Bed AFB Advanced Concept." The design and cost study of a 150,000 pounds per hour steam boiler comprised Phase-I of the RFP. The objective was to produce a design with improved performance and reduced capital and operating costs compared with conventional atmospheric pressure fluidized bed (AFB) boilers. The final result was a significant reduction of capital cost - 36% below the lowest AFB plant cost. The steam cost was 24% below the corresponding cost for the AFB process. In June 1985, DOE issued a Change Order (C001) to the Phase-I study in order for MWK to design and estimate the cost for a scaled-down coal-fired (Illinois No. 6, 3% S) CFBC plant producing low pressure and low temperature steam (75,000lbs/hr, 200 psig, 387{degree}F), and to compare the costs -capital and steam costs -with those for a packaged high sulfur (3%) fuel oil-fired boiler, which is of the same capacity and requires SO{sub 2} removal. An additional objective was to estimate the cost for a No. 2 fuel oil-fired boiler that does not need any SO{sub 2} scrubber. An evaluation of the sensitivity of the steam cost to the oil-fired boiler capital cost and to fuel prices was also to be undertaken. The cost of steam produced by the No. 6 fuel oil boiler is 52% higher than the cost for CFBC, and the corresponding cost for the No. 2 fuel oil plant is 43% higher. Again, a large advantage for the CFBC comes from the low price of coal relative to that of oil. The large cost advantage of steam calculated for the MWK CFBC using coal as a fuel over the oil-fired boilers would remain even in the worst case scenario of a declining oil price accompanied by a steady coal price. 7 refs., 25 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. OBSERVATIONS ON THE AVIAN PARATYPHOID BACILLI.

    PubMed

    Mulsow, F W

    1919-07-01

    This investigator presents a detailed discussion of certain types of avian bacteria, which will be of interest to specialists. He notes some reactions not observed before and the agglutinative relations. PMID:18010130

  9. Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Rózalski, A; Sidorczyk, Z; Kotełko, K

    1997-01-01

    The object of this review is the genus Proteus, which contains bacteria considered now to belong to the opportunistic pathogens. Widely distributed in nature (in soil, water, and sewage), Proteus species play a significant ecological role. When present in the niches of higher macroorganisms, these species are able to evoke pathological events in different regions of the human body. The invaders (Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, and P. penneri) have numerous factors including fimbriae, flagella, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide, capsule antigen, urease, immunoglobulin A proteases, hemolysins, amino acid deaminases, and, finally, the most characteristic attribute of Proteus, swarming growth, enabling them to colonize and survive in higher organisms. All these features and factors are described and commented on in detail. The questions important for future investigation of these facultatively pathogenic microorganisms are also discussed. PMID:9106365

  10. Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli.

    PubMed

    Rózalski, A; Sidorczyk, Z; Kotełko, K

    1997-03-01

    The object of this review is the genus Proteus, which contains bacteria considered now to belong to the opportunistic pathogens. Widely distributed in nature (in soil, water, and sewage), Proteus species play a significant ecological role. When present in the niches of higher macroorganisms, these species are able to evoke pathological events in different regions of the human body. The invaders (Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, and P. penneri) have numerous factors including fimbriae, flagella, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide, capsule antigen, urease, immunoglobulin A proteases, hemolysins, amino acid deaminases, and, finally, the most characteristic attribute of Proteus, swarming growth, enabling them to colonize and survive in higher organisms. All these features and factors are described and commented on in detail. The questions important for future investigation of these facultatively pathogenic microorganisms are also discussed. PMID:9106365

  11. Diagnosis of Tuberculosis by Using a Nucleic Acid Amplification Test in an Urban Population with High HIV Prevalence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Miwako; Ray, Susan M.; Hanfelt, John; Wang, Yun F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) has been recommended on respiratory specimens submitted for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) testing. It also helps distinguish between TB and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species in a setting where NTM rates are relatively high. The purposes of this study are to describe the trend and characteristics of all AFB smear-positive respiratory samples that underwent amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct (MTD) testing, a type of NAAT, and to evaluate the clinical utility and necessity of the test for diagnosis of TB in a population with high-HIV prevalence. Methods Prospective diagnostic testing and retrospective data analyses were conducted on all AFB smear-positive respiratory samples that underwent MTD testing from 2001 to 2011 at Grady Memorial Hospital (GMH), Atlanta, USA. The test performance was compared to culture. Results A total of 2,240 AFB smear-positive specimens from 1,412 patients were tested and analyzed in the study. The proportion of specimens that were culture-positive for TB was 28.5%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the MTD were 99.0%, 98.0%, 95.3% and 99.6%, respectively. A downward trend was observed in the yearly numbers as well as the proportions of MTD-positive specimens during the study period (p<0.01). There were 2,027 (90.5%) specimens from patients with known HIV status, of which 70.6% was HIV positive and the majority of them (81.8%) had CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/µL. HIV-positives were more likely to have NTM compared to HIV negatives (67.7% vs. 35.4%, p<0.01). Conclusion Despite the decrease in the incidence of TB, NAAT continues to be an accurate and important diagnostic test in a population with high HIV prevalence, and it differentiates TB and NTM organisms. PMID:25340424

  12. Pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii Infection Mimicking Malignancy on the 18F-FDG PET Scan in a Patient Receiving Etanercept: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Amlani, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old male presented with chest pain, malaise, generalized weakness, and weight loss. He had been receiving etanercept injection for rheumatoid arthritis. Chest X-ray revealed a right upper lobe mass. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a right apical mass, highly suggestive of a Pancoast tumor. The thoracic fluorine-18 fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan demonstrated significantly high metabolic pulmonary lesions with the standardized uptake value (SUV) of 12.5, consistent with lung cancer. The patient underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). BAL cytology was negative for malignant cells. BAL acid fast bacilli (AFB) smears were positive, and Mycobacterium kansasii was eventually isolated. He received a 12-month course of rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol. Interval resolution of pulmonary lesions was noted on follow-up serial CT chest studies. There has been increasing incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections reported in patients treated with the antitumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF-alpha) agents. Infectious foci have an increased glucose metabolism which potentially causes a high FDG uptake on the 18F-FDG PET scan, leading to undue anxiety and cost to the patients. This is the first reported case of pulmonary M. kansasii infection with a positive thoracic 18F-FDG PET study mimicking malignancy in a patient on etanercept. PMID:25389506

  13. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, Oğuz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi. PMID:17001542

  14. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Haftka, Alexis; Porter, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB). We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as well as in the inferior parietal lobe on the left. The patient was placed on an empiric antibiotic regimen. Preliminary testing for infectious causes was negative. Chest radiography and CT of chest showed no positive findings. He was not on any immunosuppressive medications and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test was negative. A subsequent MRI one month later showed profound worsening of the lesions with increasing vasogenic edema and newly found mass effect impinging on the fourth ventricle. Brain biopsy showed focal exudative cerebellitis and inflamed granulation tissue consistent with formation of abscesses. The diagnosis of CNS TB was finally confirmed by positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) cultures. The patient was started on standard tuberculosis therapy but expired due to renal failure and cardiac arrest. PMID:25478256

  15. Impact of the Mycobaterium africanum West Africa 2 Lineage on TB Diagnostics in West Africa: Decreased Sensitivity of Rapid Identification Tests in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Ofori-Anyinam, Boatema; Kanuteh, Fatoumatta; Okoi, Catherine; Dolganov, Gregory; Schoolnik, Gary; Secka, Ousman; Antonio, Martin; de Jong, Bouke C.; Gehre, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background MPT64 rapid speciation tests are increasingly being used in diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacterium africanum West Africa 2 (Maf 2) remains an important cause of TB in West Africa and causes one third of disease in The Gambia. Since the introduction of MPT64 antigen tests, a higher than expected rate of suspected non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was seen among AFB smear positive TB suspects, which led us to prospectively assess sensitivity of the MPT64 antigen test in our setting. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the abundance of mRNA encoded by the mpt64 gene in sputa of patients with untreated pulmonary TB caused by Maf 2 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Subsequently, prospectively collected sputum samples from presumptive TB patients were inoculated in the BACTEC MGIT 960 System. One hundred and seventy-three acid fast bacilli (AFB)-positive and blood agar negative MGIT cultures were included in the study. Cultures were tested on the day of MGIT positivity with the BD MGIT TBc Identification Test. A random set of positives and all negatives were additionally tested with the SD Bioline Ag MPT64 Rapid. MPT64 negative cultures were further incubated at 37°C and retested until positive. Bacteria were spoligotyped and assigned to different lineages. Maf 2 isolates were 2.52-fold less likely to produce a positive test result and sensitivity ranged from 78.4% to 84.3% at the beginning and end of the recommended 10 day testing window, respectively. There was no significant difference between the tests. We further showed that the decreased rapid test sensitivity was attributable to variations in mycobacterial growth behavior and the smear grades of the patient. Conclusions/Significance In areas where Maf 2 is endemic MPT64 tests should be cautiously used and MPT64 negative results confirmed by a second technique, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, to avoid their misclassification as NTMs. PMID:27387550

  16. Epidemiology of Rifampicin Resistant Tuberculosis and Common Mutations in rpoB Gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Retrospective Study from Six Districts of Punjab (India) Using Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Jindal, Neerja; Arora, Shilpa; Kataria, Shajla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Xpert MTB/RIF assay has revolutionized the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) by simultaneously detecting the bacteria and resistance to rifampicin (RIF), a surrogate marker for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in <2 h. The RIF resistance pattern in Malwa region of Punjab, India, is not documented. Here, we report the epidemiology of RIF-resistant TB and mutations in rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Materials and Methods: A total of 1612 specimens received between October 2013 and February 2015 were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF assay following manufacturer's instructions. The results thus obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) statistical software. Result: RIF resistance was statistically higher in previously treated patients in comparison to the new patients (P = 0.006) and in patients with acid fast-Bacilli (AFB) positive smears to AFB-negative smears (P = 0.048). RIF resistance mutations in 130 specimens revealed frequency of E 73/130 (56%), B 28/130 (21.5%), D 18/130 (13.8%), A 11/130 (8.4%), and C 1/130 (0.7%) while in one specimen, mutation combination, i.e., mutations associated with more than one probe (A and B both) was present. Conclusion: Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a user-friendly screening tool for detection of MTB and RIF resistance from suspected TB/MDR cases in a shorter period of time. It could also serve as a useful technique to have simultaneous preliminary information regarding the mutation pattern of RIF resistance in MTB isolates. PMID:27365918

  17. Etiological study of lymphadenopathy in HIV-infected patients in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Dipanwita; Dey, Sumedha; Nandi, Ayandip; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Roychowdhury, Debjani; Roy, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a global pandemic. Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) is very common manifestation of HIV infection. Moreover, different opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and malignancies may present with lymphadenopathy. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is most common with cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ count ≤50 cells/μL. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) offers a simple and effective modality for obtaining a representative sample of the material from lymph nodes, permitting cytological evaluation and other investigations. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to find out the different etiologies of lymphadenopathy in HIV-infected patients and to establish a possible correlation with CD4+ count. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 HIV-infected patients having significant (>1 cm) extrainguinal lymphadenopathy were studied in 1 year at the Department of Pathology by FNAC and the stains used were Leishman–Giemsa, Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN), Papanicoloau, and Gram stains. For tubercular culture, Löwenstein–Jensen (LJ) medium was used. CD4+count was done by flow cytometer. Result: The present study revealed four types of cytomorphological variants in lymphadenopathy cases by FNAC, which include: Reactive hyperplasia and caseation necrosis; caseation necrosis and ill-formed granuloma; well-formed granuloma without any necrosis; and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The highest acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positivity was among the patients showing caseation necrosis. Tubercular culture in LJ media turned out as a more sensitive method for diagnosis than routine ZN staining. The 2 cases that showed well-formed epithelioid granuloma without any necrosis turned out to be histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis, respectively. In this study, we found 2 cases of NHL. The study also revealed that caseation necrosis and AFB positivity along with opportunistic infections increases with

  18. Acute lower respiratory infections in ≥5 year -old hospitalized patients in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country: clinical characteristics and pathogenic etiology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few data exist on viral and bacterial etiology of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in ≥5 year –old persons in the tropics. Methods We conducted active surveillance of community-acquired ALRI in two hospitals in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country. Patients were tested for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by direct sputum examination, other bacteria by blood and/or sputum cultures, and respiratory viruses using molecular techniques on nasopharyngeal/throat swabs. Pulmonologists reviewed clinical/laboratory data and interpreted chest X-rays (CXR) to confirm ALRI. Results Between April 2007 - December 2009, 1,904 patients aged ≥5 years were admitted with acute pneumonia (50.4%), lung sequelae-associated ALRI (24.3%), isolated pleural effusions (8.9%) or normal CXR-related ALRI (17.1%); 61 (3.2%) died during hospitalization. The two former diagnoses were predominantly due to bacterial etiologies while viral detection was more frequent in the two latter diagnoses. AFB-positive accounted for 25.6% of acute pneumonia. Of the positive cultures (16.8%), abscess-prone Gram-negative bacteria (39.6%) and Haemophilus influenzae (38.0%) were most frequent, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.7%). Of the identified viruses, the three most common viruses included rhinoviruses (49.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (17.7%) and influenza viruses (12.1%) regardless of the diagnostic groups. Wheezing was associated with viral identification (31.9% vs. 13.8%, p < 0.001) independent of age and time-to-admission. Conclusions High frequency of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae infections support the need for introduction of the respective vaccines in the national immunization program. Tuberculosis was frequent in patients with acute pneumonia, requiring further investigation. The relationship between respiratory viruses and wheezing merits further studies. PMID:23432906

  19. A First Insight into High Prevalence of Undiagnosed Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Northern Ethiopian Prisons: Implications for Greater Investment and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Rodloff, Arne C.; Sack, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) transmission in prisons poses significant risks to inmates as well as the general population. Currently, there are no data on smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in prisons and by extension no data on the impact such cases have on TB incidence. This study was designed to obtain initial data on the prevalence of smear-negative cases of TB in prisons as well as preliminary risk factor analysis for such TB cases. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2013 at eight main prisons located in the state of Amhara, Ethiopia. Interviews using a structured and pretested questionnaire were done first to identify symptomatic prisoners. Three consecutive sputum samples were collected and examined using acid fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy at the point of care. All smear-negative sputum samples were taken for culture and Xpert testing. Descriptive and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results Overall the prevalence of smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in the study prisons was 8% (16/200). Using multivariate analysis, a contact history to TB patients in prison, educational level, cough and night sweating were found to be predictors of TB positivity among smear-negative pulmonary TB cases (p≤ 0.05). Conclusions In the studied prisons, high prevalence of undiagnosed TB cases using AFB microscopy was documented, which is an important public health concern that urgently needs to be addressed. Furthermore, patients with night sweating, non-productive cough, a contact history with TB patients and who are illiterate merit special attention, larger studies are warranted in the future to assess the associations more precisely. Further studies are also needed to examine TB transmission dynamics by patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB in a prison setting. PMID:25203007

  20. Active detection of tuberculosis and paragonimiasis in the remote areas in North-Eastern India using cough as a simple indicator.

    PubMed

    Rekha Devi, Kangjam; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Deori, Rumi; Lego, Kabang; Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kumar Rajguru, Sanjib; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    One of the essential steps in targeting tuberculosis (TB) intervention is early diagnosis and treatment of patients by reducing the reservoir of infection in the community. In the North-Eastern (NE) region of India pulmonary TB and paragonimiasis are overlapping public health issues. We performed a cross-sectional study in 63 remote villages from the two states Arunachal Pradesh (AP) and Assam to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and paragonimiasis cases using cough as a simple indicator. In AP, 2961 individuals aged five years and above were examined and 1108 (37·4%) were found to have cough for one week or more. Of the 417 individuals who provided sputum, 11 (2·64%) were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). All these cases were yet undiagnosed, thus the prevalence of new smear positive TB in AP was 0·37%. In Assam on the other hand 331 (23·5%) subjects out of 1410 individuals who were examined had a cough for one week or more and of the 112 individuals who provided sputum, 13 (11·6%) were smear positive for AFB. The prevalence of new smear positive TB cases was 0·78% in Assam. Sero-positivity of paragonimiasis in coughers of AP was 7·6% (n = 1091), which was significantly higher (p < 0·01) as compared to that in Assam (1·2%, n = 321). The findings of the present study suggest that TB remains a major public health concern in the NE region of India especially in the remote places and there is need to strengthen early case detection of TB. PMID:23683370

  1. Sensitivity of EIA in the diagnosis of tuberculosis using 38-kDa antigen.

    PubMed

    Chander, J; Subrahmanyan, S; Gupta, R

    1996-10-01

    Patients, who reported to Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh with suspected signs and symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, were examined. Their sputum was investigated for the presence of acid-fast bacilli, using the routine Ziehl-Neelsen staining, for 3 consecutive days. The positive cases were referred for treatment and the rest were referred for supplementary tests like x-ray, Mantoux test, FNAC and the presence of IgG antibodies in their serum against recombinant 38-kDa antigen derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using micro-ELISA plates. It was found that 37.8% of the cases who were negative for acid-fast bacilli found to be positive for the presence of antimycobacterial IgG antibodies with an antibody titre greater than the cut off value in addition to one of the above mentioned positive supplementary finding. Hence, EIA for tuberculosis is more sensitive as compared to the routine acid-fast bacilli staining. PMID:9141876

  2. Pott's Disease? AIDS-Associated Mycobacterium heckeshornense Spinal Osteomyelitis and Diskitis

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Paul C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) spinal osteomyelitis in a patient with AIDS is often presumed to be caused by reactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, other AFB pathogens can mimic M. tuberculosis and, to ensure appropriate and adequate therapy, should be considered by clinicians. We present a case of aggressive spinal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in an AIDS patient; a review of the literature is also included. PMID:25428153

  3. [The results of patients follow up at Gaziantep Number II Dispensary of Tuberculosis Control in the year 2004].

    PubMed

    Elbek, Osman; Yardi, Ahmet Doğan; Uyar, Meral; Tanriöver, Mustafa; Börekçi, Sermin; Dikensoy, Oner

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to investigate the performance of number-II Dispensary of Tuberculous Control (DTC) in Gaziantep in 2004. The patients diagnosed to have tuberculosis between 2004 January 1st and 2004 December 31st were included. The patients registries were evaluated retrospectively. The mean age of the patients was 28.92+/-14.43 years (ranged between 1-68), 70.5% of the cases were male, and 72.5% of the cases were between 15-44 years old. Forty-two (82.3%) of the cases had the diagnosis of lung tuberculosis. 47% of them did not have any health insurance. The symptoms detected in the patients were cough, night sweats, sputum and hemoptysis respectively. There was no symptom registry in ten patients (19.6%). Sputum analysis to detect acid-fast bacilli (AFB) was done in 18 patients (19.6%). AFB was perfomed in 3.9% of the patients following two-months of therapy, and in 1.9% of the patients at the end of the therapy. Diagnostic tuberculous culture was performed in only one patient (1.9%). There was no tuberculous culture performed neither at the second month nor at the end of the therapy course. AFB was found to be positive in direct or concentrated sputum samples in eight (44.4%) of the patients. All the patients were evaluated with radiographies. The eritrocyte sedimentation rate was measured in 33.3%, 9.8%, and 15.6% of the patients before the therapy, at the end of the two months of therapy, and at the end of the therapy, respectively. The diagnosis was established with radiology clinical findings in 34 patients (66.6%). Directly observed therapy was performed in one patient (1.9%). The cure rate among smear positive patients was 12.5%, and the 100% of the patients were completed the therapy. There exists many problems with tuberculosis "warfare" and we believe the solution lies in DOTS. PMID:17203420

  4. Osteomyelitis associated with Nocardiopsis composta in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Elisa N.; Royal, Debra; Kurz, Lance; Loy, J. Dustin

    2015-01-01

    We report the first detection of Nocardiopsis composta in association with osteomyelitis in a young male miniature Australian shepherd dog. Findings included suppurative osteomyelitis containing intralesional Fite’s acid fast bacilli, aerobic culture of branching Gram-positive rods, and positive identification via phenotypic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. PMID:25969577

  5. Brown-Pigmented Mycobacterium mageritense as a Cause of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis and Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, Allison R.; Mattar, Caline; Kirmani, Nigar

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium spp. are a rare cause of endocarditis. Herein, we describe a case of Mycobacterium mageritense prosthetic valve endocarditis. This organism produced an unusual brown pigment on solid media. Cultures of valve tissue for acid-fast bacilli might be considered in some cases of apparently culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis. PMID:26063854

  6. Usefulness of lymphoid granulomatous inflammation culture obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in a fungal endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Berger, John; Zamora, Felix; Podgaetz, Eitan; Andrade, Rafael; Dincer, H. Erhan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is the procedure of choice for the evaluation of mediastinal/hilar lymph node enlargements. Granulomatous inflammation of the mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes is often identified on routine histology. In addition, mediastinal lymphadenopathy may be present with undiagnosed infection. We sought to determine the usefulness of routine cultures and histology for infectious etiologies in a fungal endemic area when granulomatous inflammation is identified. Materials and Methods: We identified 56 of 210 patients with granulomatous inflammation on EBUS-TBNA biopsies from October 2012 through October 2014. An onsite cytologist evaluated all biopsies and an additional TBNA pass for microbiologic stains and cultures were obtained in those with granulomatous inflammation. Results: Of the 56 patients with granulomatous inflammation, 20 patients had caseating (necrotizing) granulomas while noncaseating (nonnecrotizing) granulomas were detected in 36 of the remainder patients. In patients with caseating granulomas, fungal elements were identified in 6 of 20 (30%) patients (histoplasma; N = 5, blastomyces; N = 1) on Grocott methenamine silver (GMS) stain. Lymph node cultures identified 3 of 20 (20%) patients as being positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (N = 1), Histoplasma capsulatum (N = 1), and Blastomyces dermatitidis (N = 1). Among patients with noncaseating granulomas, only 2 out of 36 (5%) were positive for fungal elements on GMS stain, identified as Histoplasma, although the lymph node cultures remained negative. Conclusion: The incidence of granulomatous inflammation of mediastinal lymph nodes was 26.6% in our series. Of these patients, noncaseating granulomas were more common (64% vs. 36%). Infectious organisms, fungal or acid-fast bacilli (AFB), on either staining or lymph node culture were rarely identified in noncaseating granulomas, 5% and none, respectively

  7. A 30-year-old female Behçet’s disease patient with recurrent pleural and pericardial effusion and elevated adenosine deaminase levels: case report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Jung, Jung Im; Lee, Kyo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Behçet’s disease is a systemic disease which may involve various organs. We describe a case of a patient diagnosed as pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease. A 30-year-old woman visited our clinic presented with left pleuritic chest pain for s days. She had been diagnosed as Behçet’s disease and admitted to our clinic due to pericardial and pleural effusion repeatedly in past two years. In the previous studies, effusion analysis revealed to be lympho-dominant exudate with high adenosine deaminase level. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mycobacterial tuberculosis (M.TB) were negative in the pericardial tissue, and pathologic finding showed mild endothelitis with micro-thrombi formation in the lumen. The patient had been treated with antituberculous medication for a year. In the current admission, chest computed tomography (CT) again showed left pleural effusion without other significant lesion. Pleural fluid analysis was similar with the previous study. Video-assisted thoracoscopic pleural biopsy was performed to obtain the definite diagnosis. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis as pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease, and we treated the patient with oral steroid in the out-patient department. Pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease may mimic TB pleurisy or pericarditis due to high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level in effusion analysis. Clinicians should keep in mind that Behçet’s disease may manifest as pleural or pericardial effusion, and pathologic confirmation could be helpful for the definite diagnosis. PMID:27499994

  8. Tuberculous pleural effusions: advances and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Brian W.; Diacon, Andreas H.; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.

    2015-01-01

    On a global scale, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has evolved and what was once thought to be an effusion as a result of a pure delayed hypersensitivity reaction is now believed to be the consequence of direct infection of the pleural space with a cascade of events including an immunological response. Pulmonary involvement is more common than previously believed and induced sputum, which is grossly underutilised, can be diagnostic in approximately 50%. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli (AFB). In high burden settings, however, the diagnosis is frequently inferred in patients who present with a lymphocytic predominant exudate and a high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, which is a valuable adjunct in the diagnostic evaluation. ADA is generally readily accessible, and together with lymphocyte predominance justifies treatment initiation in patients with a high pre-test probability. Still, false-negative and false-positive results remain an issue. When adding closed pleural biopsy to ADA and lymphocyte count, diagnostic accuracy approaches that of thoracoscopy. The role of other biomarkers is less well described. Early pleural drainage may have a role in selected cases, but more research is required to validate its use and to define the subpopulation that may benefit from such interventions. PMID:26150911

  9. GeneXpert assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens from a high TB endemic area of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shakir Ullah; Rahman, Hazir; Ayaz, Sultan; Qasim, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Khurshid, Mohsin; Hussain, Mubashir; Muhammad, Niaz; Rehman, Shoaib Ur; Ali, Nawab

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis is a global health problem, and its early diagnosis is the ultimate strategy for prevention and control. The current study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and molecular diagnostic assays for the detection of mycobacteria in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region of Pakistan. A total of 259 clinically suspected patients of TB were processed for Zeihl Neelsen (ZN) microscopy, BACTEC MGIT liquid culture and GeneXpert assay. Among 259 samples, 28 (10.81%) were positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB) on ZN microscopy. In liquid culture, the growth of mycobacterium species was obtained in 36 (13.89%) samples while the GeneXpert assay detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 49 (18.91%) samples. Detection rate of MTB was significantly high (n = 49, p < 0.0095) on GeneXpert as compared to microscopy (n = 28); however no significant difference (p = 0.1230) was observed on GeneXpert (n = 49) and culture (n = 36) based detection of MTB. The strength of agreement between GeneXpert and microscopy was also poor (Kappa value < 0.114, 95% CI: -0.72 - 0.301) which support our results. MTB detection rate among female was high as compared to male TB patients while in age wise, the age group 55-64 years has almost high detection rate on microscopy, culture and GeneXpert assay. Findings of the present study highlighted that GeneXpert is more efficient tool for timely diagnosis and proper TB control in high TB endemic area. PMID:27032999

  10. Experimental Infection of the Pig with Mycobacterium ulcerans: A Novel Model for Studying the Pathogenesis of Buruli Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bolz, Miriam; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Ricklin, Meret E.; Zimmer, Gert; Pluschke, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a slowly progressing, necrotising disease of the skin caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. Non-ulcerative manifestations are nodules, plaques and oedema, which may progress to ulceration of large parts of the skin. Histopathologically, BU is characterized by coagulative necrosis, fat cell ghosts, epidermal hyperplasia, clusters of extracellular acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the subcutaneous tissue and lack of major inflammatory infiltration. The mode of transmission of BU is not clear and there is only limited information on the early pathogenesis of the disease available. Methodology/Principal Findings For evaluating the potential of the pig as experimental infection model for BU, we infected pigs subcutaneously with different doses of M. ulcerans. The infected skin sites were excised 2.5 or 6.5 weeks after infection and processed for histopathological analysis. With doses of 2×107 and 2×106 colony forming units (CFU) we observed the development of nodular lesions that subsequently progressed to ulcerative or plaque-like lesions. At lower inoculation doses signs of infection found after 2.5 weeks had spontaneously resolved at 6.5 weeks. The observed macroscopic and histopathological changes closely resembled those found in M. ulcerans disease in humans. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate that the pig can be infected with M. ulcerans. Productive infection leads to the development of lesions that closely resemble human BU lesions. The pig infection model therefore has great potential for studying the early pathogenesis of BU and for the development of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. PMID:25010421

  11. Vitamin D status and incidence of tuberculosis infection conversion in contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Arnedo-Pena, A; Juan-Cerdán, J V; Romeu-García, M A; García-Ferrer, D; Holguín-Gómez, R; Iborra-Millet, J; Pardo-Serrano, F

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between serum vitamin D (VitD) status and tuberculosis (TB) infection conversion (TBIC), measured by the tuberculin skin test (TST) and an interferon-gamma release assay, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test, in the contacts of pulmonary TB patients in Castellon (Spain) in a prospective cohort study from 2010 to 2012. Initially, the participants were negative to latent TB infection after a screening that included TST and QFT-GIT tests, and other examinations. A baseline determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was obtained by chemiluminescence immunoassay. After 8-10 weeks, participants were screened for a second time to determine TB infection conversion (TBIC). Poisson regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Of the 247 participants in the cohort, 198 (80·2%) were screened twice and 18 (9·1%) were TBIC cases. The means of VitD concentration in the TBIC cases and the non-cases were 20·7±11·9 and 27·2±11·4 ng/ml (P = 0·028), respectively. Adjusted for high exposure and TB sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive index case, higher serum VitD concentration was associated with low incidence of TBIC (P trend = 0·005), and an increase of 1 ng/ml VitD concentration decreased the incidence of TBIC by 6% (relative risk 0·94, 95% confidence interval 0·90-0·99, P = 0·015). The results suggest that sufficient VitD level could be a protective factor of TBIC. PMID:25274036

  12. Tuberculous pleural effusions: advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Morné J; Allwood, Brian W; Diacon, Andreas H; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N

    2015-06-01

    On a global scale, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has evolved and what was once thought to be an effusion as a result of a pure delayed hypersensitivity reaction is now believed to be the consequence of direct infection of the pleural space with a cascade of events including an immunological response. Pulmonary involvement is more common than previously believed and induced sputum, which is grossly underutilised, can be diagnostic in approximately 50%. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli (AFB). In high burden settings, however, the diagnosis is frequently inferred in patients who present with a lymphocytic predominant exudate and a high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, which is a valuable adjunct in the diagnostic evaluation. ADA is generally readily accessible, and together with lymphocyte predominance justifies treatment initiation in patients with a high pre-test probability. Still, false-negative and false-positive results remain an issue. When adding closed pleural biopsy to ADA and lymphocyte count, diagnostic accuracy approaches that of thoracoscopy. The role of other biomarkers is less well described. Early pleural drainage may have a role in selected cases, but more research is required to validate its use and to define the subpopulation that may benefit from such interventions. PMID:26150911

  13. Possible Airborne Person-to-Person Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis - Nebraska 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Buss, Bryan F; Keyser-Metobo, Alison; Rother, Julie; Holtz, Laura; Gall, Kristin; Jereb, John; Murphy, Caitlin N; Iwen, Peter C; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Holcomb, Melissa A; Infield, Pat

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, one of several mycobacteria of the M. tuberculosis complex, is a global zoonotic pathogen that primarily infects cattle. Humans become infected by consuming unpasteurized dairy products from infected cows; possible person-to-person airborne transmission has also been reported. In April 2014, a man in Nebraska who was born in Mexico was determined to have extensive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) caused by M. bovis after experiencing approximately 3 months of cough and fever. Four months later, a U.S.-born Hispanic girl from a nearby town who had been ill for 4-5 months was also determined to have pulmonary TB caused by M. bovis. The only social connection between the two patients was attendance at the same church, and no common dietary exposure was identified. Both patients had pulmonary cavities on radiography and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) on sputum-smear microscopy, indicators of being contagious. Whole-genome sequencing results of the isolates were nearly indistinguishable. Initial examination of 181 contacts determined that 39 (22%) had latent infection: 10 (42%) of 24 who had close exposure to either patient, 28 (28%) of 100 who were exposed to one or both patients in church, and one (2%) of 57 exposed to the second patient at a school. Latent infection was diagnosed in six contacts on follow-up examination, 2 months after an initial negative test result, for an overall latent infection rate of 25%. No infected contacts recalled consuming unpasteurized dairy products, and none had active TB disease at the initial or secondary examination. Persons who have M. bovis TB should be asked about consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and contact investigations should follow the same guidance as for M. tuberculosis TB. PMID:26938831

  14. Mycobacterial antigen-induced T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from diabetic and non-diabetic tuberculosis patients and Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette–Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attiyah, R J; Mustafa, A S

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus are more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB), and the clinical conditions of diabetic TB patients deteriorate faster than non-diabetic TB patients, but the immunological basis for this phenomenon is not understood clearly. Given the role of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in providing protection against TB, we investigated whether CMI responses in diabetic TB patients are compromised. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from diabetic TB patients, non-diabetic TB patients and Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette–Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated healthy subjects were cultured in the presence of complex mycobacterial antigens and pools of M. tuberculosis regions of difference (RD)1, RD4, RD6 and RD10 peptides. The PBMC were assessed for antigen-induced cell proliferation and secretion of T helper 1 (Th1) [interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-β], and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10) cytokines as CMI parameters. All the complex mycobacterial antigens and RD1pool stimulated strong proliferation of PBMC of all groups, except moderate responses to RD1pool in healthy subjects. In response to complex mycobacterial antigens, both IFN-γ and TNF-β were secreted by PBMC of all groups whereas diabetic TB patients secreted IL-10 with concentrations higher than the other two groups. Furthermore, in response to RD peptides, IFN-γ and IL-10 were secreted by PBMC of diabetic TB patients only. The analyses of data in relation to relative cytokine concentrations showed that diabetic TB patients had lower Th1 : Th2 cytokines ratios, and a higher Th2 bias. The results demonstrate a shift towards Th2 bias in diabetic TB patients which may explain, at least in part, a faster deterioration in their clinical conditions. PMID:19737232

  15. Bovine Tuberculosis at the Wildlife-Livestock-Human Interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tschopp, Rea; Aseffa, Abraham; Schelling, Esther; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Habtamu, Meseret; Argaw, Kifle; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT) was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay) and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes) techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%–2%) with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%–5.4%) with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4%) yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC) was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research. PMID:20808913

  16. A comparison between the efficiency of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and nested PCR in identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis during routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Hong; Woo, Heungjeong; Kim, Changhwan; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Jang, Seung-Hun; Park, Sang Myeon; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Hyun, Jeongwon; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is more sensitive, specific, and rapid than the conventional methods of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and culture. The aim of this study was to determine if the Xpert MTB/rifampicin (RIF) assay had additional advantages over nested PCR for the detection of MTB in a geographical area with intermediate tuberculosis (TB) incidence. Methods Between February and December 2013, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR, as well as AFB smear and culture, were simultaneously performed on 198 clinical samples (160 pulmonary and 38 non-pulmonary specimens) collected from 171 patients hospitalized at Hallym University Medical Center for possible TB. The accuracy of the diagnosis of MTB culture-positive TB and the turnaround time of reporting laboratory results were calculated and compared. Rifampin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay was reviewed with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST). Results The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR for diagnosis of MTB culture-positive pulmonary TB were 86.1% vs. 69.4% (P=0.1563), 97.8% vs. 94.1% (P=0.2173), 91.2% vs. 75.8% (P=0.1695), and 96.4% vs. 92.0% (P=0.2032), respectively. The median turnaround times of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR were 0 [0-4] days and 4 [1-11] days, respectively (P<0.001). Two cases of rifampin resistance, as determined by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, were found to be multi-drug resistant (MDR) pulmonary TB by DST. Conclusions The Xpert MTB/RIF assay seemed to be sensitive, specific, and comparable to nested PCR for identifying MTB among clinically suspected TB patients, and the assay can be valuable in giving a timely identification of resistance to rifampin. PMID:24976983

  17. Comparison of two laboratory-developed PCR methods for the diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Brazilian patients with and without HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Direct smear examination with Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is cheap and easy to use, but its low sensitivity is a major drawback, particularly in HIV seropositive patients. As such, new tools for laboratory diagnosis are urgently needed to improve the case detection rate, especially in regions with a high prevalence of TB and HIV. Objective To evaluate the performance of two in house PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction): PCR dot-blot methodology (PCR dot-blot) and PCR agarose gel electrophoresis (PCR-AG) for the diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) in HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative patients. Methods A prospective study was conducted (from May 2003 to May 2004) in a TB/HIV reference hospital. Sputum specimens from 277 PTB suspects were tested by Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) smear, Culture and in house PCR assays (PCR dot-blot and PCR-AG) and their performances evaluated. Positive cultures combined with the definition of clinical pulmonary TB were employed as the gold standard. Results The overall prevalence of PTB was 46% (128/277); in HIV+, prevalence was 54.0% (40/74). The sensitivity and specificity of PCR dot-blot were 74% (CI 95%; 66.1%-81.2%) and 85% (CI 95%; 78.8%-90.3%); and of PCR-AG were 43% (CI 95%; 34.5%-51.6%) and 76% (CI 95%; 69.2%-82.8%), respectively. For HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative samples, sensitivities of PCR dot-blot (72% vs 75%; p = 0.46) and PCR-AG (42% vs 43%; p = 0.54) were similar. Among HIV seronegative patients and PTB suspects, ROC analysis presented the following values for the AFB smear (0.837), Culture (0.926), PCR dot-blot (0.801) and PCR-AG (0.599). In HIV seropositive patients, these area values were (0.713), (0.900), (0.789) and (0.595), respectively. Conclusion Results of this study demonstrate that the in house PCR dot blot may be an improvement for ruling out PTB diagnosis in PTB suspects assisted at hospitals with a high prevalence of TB/HIV. PMID:21447159

  18. [Rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain isolated from an infant with NEMO mutation].

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Cengiz; Edeer Karaca, Neslihan; Azarsız, Elif; Ulusoy, Ezgi; Kütükçüler, Necil

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that disseminated Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection is developed after BCG vaccination in infants with congenital cellular immune deficiencies such as mutations in genes along the interleukin (IL)-12/interferon (IFN)-γ pathway and mutations in nuclear factor-kB essential modulator (NEMO). In this report, a rifampicin-resistant M.bovis BCG strain isolated from an infant with NEMO defect was presented. An 8-month-old male infant with NEMO defect admitted to the pediatric outpatient clinic of our hospital with fever, generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Microscopic examination of the smears prepared from lymph node and liver biopsy specimens revealed abundant amount (3+) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Rifampicin-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) was detected by real-time PCR (GeneXpert MTB/RIF; Cepheid, USA) in the samples. The growth of mycobacteria was determined on the 20th day of culture performed in MGIT960 system (Becton Dickinson, USA). The isolate was identified as M.bovis BCG by GenoType MTBC kit (Hain Lifescience, Germany) and defined as M.bovis BCG [SIT 482 (BOV_1)] by spoligotyping. In the primary anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility test performed by MGIT960 system, the isolate was found susceptible to rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), streptomycin (STM) and ethambutol (EMB). Then anti-tuberculosis treatment was started to the patient. However, the patient at the age of 2 years, re-admitted to the hospital with the complaint of hepatosplenomegaly. Smear of spontaneously draining abscess material obtained from subcutaneous nodules revealed intensive AFB positivity (3+) once again. In the present instance RIF-resistant MTC was detected with GeneXpert system in the specimen. The growth of mycobacteria was determined on the 13th day of culture and isolate was identified as M.bovis BCG. The present isolate was found susceptible to INH, STM and EMB but resistant to RIF. A mutation in the rpoB gene (codon 531, S

  19. TRANSECT STUDY OF THE INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION TEST PLOT: DOVER AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work described in this report is part of a project undertaken by the Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Action Team of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum, a joint U.S. Federal agency-industry collaboration, to study the natural attenuation of chlorinated ethen...

  20. X-31 in Banked Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, turns tightly over the desert floor on a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

  1. X-31 #1 in Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The first X-31 (Bu. No. 164584) flies over Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1993. Aircraft 584 completed 292 flights during the Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) program before being lost on January 19, 1995 when icing in the nose probe caused the flight control computer to receive bad data. German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang ejected after the aircraft became uncontrollable. The program continued, using the second aircraft (Bu. No. 164585). The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

  2. STREAM INJECTION INTO FRACTURE BEDROCK AT LORING AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine, was used for the disposal of drums containing spent chlorinated solvents, mainly tetrachloroethene (PCE). After closure of the base, surface geophysics were used to locate the drums, and they were removed. Subs...

  3. First Apollo 11 sample return containers arrive at Ellington AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The first Apollo 11 sample return container, containing lunar surface material, arrives at Ellington Air Force Base by air from the Pacific recovery area. Happily posing for photographs with the rock box are (left to right) George M. Low, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC); U.S. Air Force Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA HQ.; George S. Trimble, MSC Deputy Director (almost obscured); Eugene G. Edmonds, MSC Photographic Technology Laboratory; RIchard S. Johnston (in back), Special Assistant to the MSC Director; Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director.

  4. Dog Guide Training: AFB Directory of Services Listings

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nypl.org/locations/tid/55/node/36647 New York State Education Department: Adult Career and Continuing Education Services 99 Washington Avenue One Commerce Plaza Albany, NY 12234 (518) 474-1711 (Local) ( ...

  5. PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF THE PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER AT DOVER AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on column tests conducted between February and June 1997, NERL recommended that in terms of effectiveness in achieving cleanup standards and kinetics, a pyrite-iron combination ranked as the best reactive medium (EPA, 1997). Based on this recommendation, in December 1997 B...

  6. AFB's Computerized Travel Aid: Two Years of Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Progress on the computerized travel aid, an electronic device, using elements of the Polaroid Sonar Camera and a microprocessor, for visually handicapped persons is reviewed, and research on the effectiveness of various models noted. Recommended modifications touch on aspects of mounting, beam shape, and audible outputs. (CL)

  7. Ground winds and winds aloft Edwards AFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Brown, S. C.

    1977-01-01

    Ground level runway wind statistics cover crosswind, tailwind, and headwind reversal percentage frequencies with respect to month and hour for the two major runways. Also presented are bivariate normal wind statistics for a 90 degree flight azimuth for altitudes 0 through 27 km. Wind probability distributions, synthetic vector wind profiles, and statistics for any rotation of axes are computed from five given parameters.

  8. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Outside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., a crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite is lowered to the ground before being moved inside. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite is moved inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. NOAA-L is part of the Polar- Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the uncrating of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite arrives at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. Perseus B over Edwards AFB on a Development Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely-piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in April1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  9. Perseus B Heads for Landing on Edwards AFB Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft nears touchdown at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  10. Perseus B Heads for Landing on Edwards AFB Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft approaches the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center in April 1998. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  11. Critique and Summary of the Chanute AFB CBE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himwich, H. A., Ed.

    Chanute Air Force Base was the first military training center to undertake an extensive investigation of the use of the PLATO IV system in technical training. The service test was to compare a conventionally taught course in general vehicle maintenance with a course taught with computer-based instructional materials. Part I of this document is the…

  12. Astronaut Virgil Grissom and family at Patrick AFB airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom and his family are shown at the airport at Patrick Air Force Base facing a crowd of news media representatives. Grissom is speaking into microphones for the news media.

  13. Discrimination of Spore-Forming Bacilli Using spoIVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; LaDuc, Myron; Stuecker, Tara

    2009-01-01

    A method of discriminating between spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria is based on a combination of simultaneous sporulation-specific and non-sporulation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs). The method was invented partly in response to the observation that for the purposes of preventing or reducing biological contamination affecting many human endeavors, ultimately, only the spore-forming portions of bacterial populations are the ones that are problematic (or, at least, more problematic than are the non-spore-forming portions). In some environments, spore-forming bacteria constitute small fractions of the total bacterial populations. The use of sporulation-specific primers in Q-PCR affords the ability to assess the spore-forming fraction of a bacterial population present in an environment of interest. This assessment can provide a more thorough and accurate understanding of the bacterial contamination in the environment, thereby making it possible to focus contamination- testing, contamination-prevention, sterilization, and decontamination resources more economically and efficiently. The method includes the use of sporulation-specific primers in the form of designed, optimized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial spoIVA gene (see table). [In "spoIVA," "IV" signifies Roman numeral four and the entire quoted name refers to gene A for the fourth stage of sporulation.] These primers are mixed into a PCR cocktail with a given sample of bacterial cells. A control PCR cocktail into which are mixed universal 16S rRNA primers is also prepared. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] Following several cycles of heating and cooling according to the PCR protocol to amplify amounts of DNA molecules, the amplification products can be analyzed to determine the types of bacterial cells present within the samples. If the amplification product is strong, relative to the product of a control PCR sequence, then it is concluded that the bacterial population in the sample consists predominantly of spore-forming cells. If the amplification product is weak or nonexistent, then it is concluded that the bacterial population in the sample consists predominantly or entirely of non-spore-forming cells.

  14. Genetic Requirements for the Survival of Tubercle Bacilli in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Noton K.; Mehra, Smriti; Didier, Peter J.; Roy, Chad J.; Doyle, Lara A.; Alvarez, Xavier; Ratterree, Marion; Be, Nicholas A.; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Jain, Sanjay K.; Lacey, Michelle R.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Kaushal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Background TB leads to the annual death of 1.7 million people. The failure of the BCG vaccine, synergy between AIDS and TB, and the emergence of drug-resistance have worsened this situation. It is imperative to delineate the mechanisms employed by Mtb to successfully infect and persist in mammalian lungs. Methods NHPs are arguably the best animal system to model critical aspects of human TB. We studied genes essential for growth/survival of Mtb in the lungs of NHPs experimentally exposed to aerosols of an Mtb transposon mutant library. Results Mutants in 108 Mtb genes (33.13% of all tested) were attenuated for in-vivo growth. Comparable studies have reported the attenuation of only ~6% of mutants in mice. The Mtb mutants attenuated for in-vivo survival in primates were involved in the transport of various biomolecules including lipid virulence factors; biosynthesis of cell-wall arabinan and peptidoglycan; DNA repair; sterol metabolism and mammalian cell-entry. Conclusions Our study highlights the various virulence-mechanisms employed by Mtb to overcome the hostile environment encountered during infection of primates. Prophylactic approaches aimed against bacterial factors which respond to such in-vivo stressors, have the potential to prevent infection at an early stage, thus likely reducing the extent of transmission of Mtb. PMID:20394526

  15. In vitro activity of imipenem towards gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Speciale, A; Caccamo, F; Pellegrino, M B; Blandino, G; Nicoletti, G

    1986-10-01

    The authors studied the in vitro antimicrobial activity of imipenem towards 355 gram-negative bacterial strains, taking into particular consideration unusual or dangerous species. The study was carried out on a comparative basis with piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and gentamicin. Ninety percent of the fermentative gram-negative strains were inhibited at concentrations less than or equal to 2 mg/l. Imipenem inhibited 100% of strains of Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans, Flavobacterium odoratum, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Acinetobacter anitratum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas stutzeri and 90% of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The excellent bactericidal activity of imipenem was indicated by its minimum bactericidal concentrations equal to or slightly greater than its minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). As far as the other parameters were concerned (influence of the dimensions of inoculum and culture medium on MICs), imipenem confirmed its excellent in vitro microbiologic characteristics. PMID:3466723

  16. Intramolecular amide bonds stabilize pili on the surface of bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Budzik, Jonathan M.; Poor, Catherine B.; Faull, Kym F.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; He, Chuan; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-01-12

    Gram-positive bacteria elaborate pili and do so without the participation of folding chaperones or disulfide bond catalysts. Sortases, enzymes that cut pilin precursors, form covalent bonds that link pilin subunits and assemble pili on the bacterial surface. We determined the x-ray structure of BcpA, the major pilin subunit of Bacillus cereus. The BcpA precursor encompasses 2 Ig folds (CNA{sub 2} and CNA{sub 3}) and one jelly-roll domain (XNA) each of which synthesizes a single intramolecular amide bond. A fourth amide bond, derived from the Ig fold of CNA{sub 1}, is formed only after pilin subunits have been incorporated into pili. We report that the domains of pilin precursors have evolved to synthesize a discrete sequence of intramolecular amide bonds, thereby conferring structural stability and protease resistance to pili.

  1. Genomic comparison of sporeforming bacilli isolated from milk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sporeformers in the order Bacillales are important contributors to spoilage of pasteurized milk. While only a few Bacillus and Viridibacillus strains can grow in milk at 6°C, the majority of Paenibacillus isolated from pasteurized fluid milk can grow under these conditions. To gain a better understanding of genomic features of these important spoilage organisms and to identify candidate genomic features that may facilitate cold growth in milk, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of selected dairy associated sporeformers representing isolates that can and cannot grow in milk at 6°C. Results The genomes for seven Paenibacillus spp., two Bacillus spp., and one Viridibacillus sp. isolates were sequenced. Across the genomes sequenced, we identified numerous genes encoding antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, bacteriocins, and pathways for synthesis of non-ribosomal peptide antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis placed genomes representing Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Viridibacillus into three distinct well supported clades and further classified the Paenibacillus strains characterized here into three distinct clades, including (i) clade I, which contains one strain able to grow at 6°C in skim milk broth and one strain not able to grow under these conditions, (ii) clade II, which contains three strains able to grow at 6°C in skim milk broth, and (iii) clade III, which contains two strains unable to grow under these conditions. While all Paenibacillus genomes were found to include multiple copies of genes encoding β-galactosidases, clade II strains showed significantly higher numbers of genes encoding these enzymes as compared to clade III strains. Genome comparison of strains able to grow at 6°C and strains unable to grow at this temperature identified numerous genes encoding features that might facilitate the growth of Paenibacillus in milk at 6°C, including peptidases with cold-adapted features (flexibility and disorder regions in the protein structure) and cold-adaptation related proteins (DEAD-box helicases, chaperone DnaJ). Conclusions Through a comparative genomics approach we identified a number of genomic features that may relate to the ability of selected Paenibacillus strains to cause spoilage of refrigerated fluid milk. With additional experimental evidence, these data will facilitate identification of targets to detect and control Gram positive spore formers in fluid milk. PMID:24422886

  2. In vitro drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium other than tubercle bacilli.

    PubMed

    Imwidthaya, P; Komolpis, P; Suthiravitayavaniz, K; Rienthong, S

    1990-08-01

    MOTT were isolated from clinical specimens from the Division of Mycobacteriology, Department of Microbiology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, and also from natural sources, namely water and soil in the Bangkok area from January to December, 1987. The strains isolated were as follows: 30 M. fortuitum fortuitum, 5 M. fortuitum peregrinum 3 M. fortuitum 3 rd. biovariant complex, 3 M. chelonae chelonae, 7 M. chelonae abscessus. Of these, 5 strains were isolated from clinical specimens and the other 43 were from the environment. The pattern of drug susceptibility to antituberculous and antimicrobial agents revealed that they were resistant to antituberculous agents but susceptible to aminoglycosides (which contain a central ring of 2-deoxystreptamine) such as amikacin (83% of cultures), netilmicin (83%), gentamicin (77%) and kanamycin (75%). Some strains were sensitive to tetracyclines (35%), but all were resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins. PMID:2262746

  3. Effect of different laser irradiation on the dysentery bacilli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Lin; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yanjiao; Li, Depin; Wen, Caixia

    1998-08-01

    The S. flexnesi, which have high drug-resistance especially in Cm, Sm, Tc, SD, were irradiated by Ar+ laser at 488 nm and semiconductor laser at 808 nm. The experiment results have shown that both Ar+ laser and semiconductor laser with power density of 1.7 w/cm2 and irradiation dose of 2000 J/cm2 can conduce to the bacterial lethality and increase the mutation rates of the bacterial drug-sensitivity, and 'Colony Count' method have the superiority over the 'Inhibacteria Ring' method. At the mean time it further indicate that the high power semiconductor laser would play an important role in the sciences of laser biological medicine. But the effect of the near infrared semiconductor laser is far lower than that of Ar+ laser of shorter wavelength at the same irradiation dose. It is clear that the output and irradiation dose of near infrared semiconductor laser shall be increased in order to get the same rates of the bacterial lethality and the drug-sensitivity mutation as Ar+ laser's.

  4. Amplification of fluorescently labelled DNA within gram-positive and acid-fast bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vaid, A; Bishop, A H

    1999-10-01

    Representative organisms from a variety of Gram-positive genera were subjected to varying regimes in order to optimise the intracellular amplification of DNA. The bacteria were subjected to treatments with paraformaldehyde, muramidases and mild acid hydrolysis to discover which regime made each organism permeable to the amplification reagents yet allowed retention of the fluorescein-labelled amplified products within the cell. Scanning electron micrographs were used to corroborate the effectiveness of the treatments, as seen by fluorescent photomicrographs, with the damage caused to the bacterial walls. A combination of mutanolysin and lysozyme was found most effective for Bacillus cereus, whereas permeabilisation of Streptomyces coelicolor, Lactococcus lactis and Clostridium sporogenes was most effective when exposed to lysozyme only. Surprisingly, direct amplification with no pre-treatment gave the brightest fluorescence in Mycobacterium phlei. Comparing the techniques of whole cell PCR, primed in situ labelling (PRINS), and cycle PRINS showed that under the conditions used the strongest intensity of fluorescence was obtained with in situ PCR; only L. lactis and M. phlei produced signals with cycle PRINS, fluorescence was not seen for any of the organisms with PRINS. PMID:10520585

  5. Acid-fast lipids are important structural components of oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp.cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while congenital Toxoplasma infections causes blindness and death. Eimeria kills chickens, so all poultry feed contain antibioti...

  6. ENHANCED DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN THE ACID-FAST STAIN. (R826138)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Leprous neuromyositis: A rare clinical entity and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shubhanker; Gunasekaran, Karthik; Chacko, Geeta; Hansdak, Samuel George

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy (Hansen's disease), is a slow growing intracellular acid-fast bacillus that affects the skin, peripheral nerves and respiratory tract. In patients with suppressed cell-mediated immunity, the infiltration of the Bacilli can produce disseminated illness such as leprous neuromyositis. We reported a case of 56-year-old gentleman presenting with pyrexia of unknown origin, asymmetric sensory motor axonal polyneuropathy and was on chronic exogenous steroid therapy. On evaluation, his skin, muscle, nerve and bone marrow biopsy showed numerous globi of acid-fast Bacilli suggestive of leprous neuromyositis, a rare form of disseminated Hansen's disease. We reported this case in view of its rarity, atypical manifestation of a relatively rare disease and literature review on poor electrophysiological correlation in the diagnosis of leprous neuromyositis as compared to the histopathological examination. PMID:26776128

  8. Pearls and oy-sters: tuberculous meningitis: not a diagnosis of exclusion.

    PubMed

    Jongeling, Amy C; Pisapia, David

    2013-01-22

    febrile and comatose. He did not open his eyes to pain, pupils were 7 mm minimally reactive, brainstem reflexes were intact, and he exhibited extensor posturing to pain. Mannitol was given, corticosteroid therapy was started, and an extraventricular drain was placed. The next day, his right pupil was 8 mm and nonreactive. MRI showed diffuse contrast enhancement of the arachnoid, extensive infarction of basal ganglia, midbrain, and pons, and small ring-enhancing lesions in the cerebellum (figure 1, A-D). Repeat lumbar puncture showed red blood cells: 550 × 10(3)/μL; white blood cells: 250/μL (14% neutrophils, 80% lymphocytes, 6% monocytes); protein: 65 mg/dL; and glucose: <10 mg/dL (CSF/serum glucose ratio = 0.08). CSF testing for Cryptococcus and toxoplasmosis was negative. CSF acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear was negative ×2, and CSF nucleic acid amplification test was also negative for tuberculosis. Serum HIV test was negative. Not until 14 days after initial presentation and 3 days after transfer to the intensive care unit was antituberculosis therapy finally started, because the pattern of infarcts on the MRI suggested basilar meningitis and he had not improved on broad-spectrum antibiotics. That same day, the first sputum AFB smear was positive, as were all succeeding daily sputum AFB smears. Tuberculosis nucleic acid amplification was positive from the sputum, but persistently negative from the CSF. Daily portable chest radiographs had been normal (read as likely atelectasis), but chest CT showed dense consolidations in the left lung and diffuse micronodular opacities throughout both lungs. Two days later, only 21 days after the onset of his headache, the patient died of cardiopulmonary arrest secondary to transtentorial cerebral herniation. Thirteen days later, the CSF culture became positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensitive to streptomycin, isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampin, and pyrazinamide. PMID:23339213

  9. CT-Guided Transthoracic Core Biopsy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Diagnostic Value of the Histopathological Findings in the Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Hozumi Ibukuro, Kenji; Tsukiyama, Toshitaka; Ishii, Rei

    2004-09-15

    We evaluated the value of CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy for the diagnosis of mycobacterial pulmonary nodules. The 30 subjects in this study had pulmonary nodules that had been either diagnosed histopathologically as tuberculosis or were suspected as tuberculosis based on a specimen obtained by CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy. The histopathological findings, the existence of acid-fast bacilli in the biopsy specimens, and the clinical course of the patients after the biopsy were reviewed retrospectively. Two of the three histological findings for tuberculosis that included epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells and caseous necrosis were observed in 21 of the nodules which were therefore diagnosed as histological tuberculosis. Six of these 21 nodules were positive for acid-fast bacilli, confirming the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Thirteen of the 21 nodules did not contain acid-fast bacilli but decreased in size in response to antituberculous treatment and were therefore diagnosed as clinical tuberculosis. Seven nodules with only caseous necrosis were diagnosed as suspected tuberculosis, with a final diagnosis of tuberculosis being made in 4 of the nodules and a diagnosis of old tuberculosis in 2 nodules. Two nodules with only multinucleated giant cells were diagnosed as suspected tuberculosis with 1 of these nodules being diagnosed finally as tuberculosis and the other nodule as a nonspecific granuloma. When any two of the three following histopathological findings - epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells or caseous necrosis - are observed in a specimen obtained by CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy, the diagnosis of tuberculosis can be established without the detection of acid-fast bacilli or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  10. Tuberculosis of the Thyroid in a Child: A Rare cause of Thyromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sugandha; Girhotra, Manish; Zafar, Naushad

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis of thyroid gland is extremely rare in children. We describe the case of a 6-year girl child, presenting with a multinodular thyroid swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed extensive necrosis with few epithelioid cell granulomas and occasional acid-fast bacilli, suggesting a diagnosis of tuberculosis. The child was put on anti-tuberculous drugs with significant improvement. Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland, although rare, should be considered in differential diagnosis of thyroid swelling, especially in endemic areas. PMID:26816678

  11. Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Shephard, Lisa; Bastian, Ivan; Globan, Maria; Fyfe, Janet A M; Cousins, Debby V; Machado, Aaron; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first case in South Australia, Australia, of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia with intrahistocytic acid-fast beaded filamentous bacilli was seen on histology. M. pinnipedii was confirmed by full 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spillover concerns for public health and cattle are discussed. PMID:25632695

  12. Leprosy with neurofibromatosis--a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Chander; Lohra, Manmohan; Nanda, Soni; Reddy, B S N

    2005-03-01

    The coexistence of leprosy with neurofibromatosis is a rare finding and can pose a diagnostic dilemma. Neurofibromatosis coexisting with borderline tuberculoid leprosy has previously not been reported. We report such a case in a 13-year-old boy where biopsy of clinically uninvolved nerve revealed the presence of acid-fast bacilli. A careful diagnostic workup is needed in such cases to ensure proper treatment. Both disorders affect Schwann cells and their relationship merits further consideration. PMID:15881040

  13. [Reconsideration of the admission and discharge criteria of tuberculosis patients in Japan].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Hidenori; Igari, Hidetoshi

    2013-03-01

    public in September 2007. This modified notice brought in a prolonged period of hospitalization and created confusion in clinical practice. Based on the result of our study for infectiousness, it is appropriate to use the guideline in January 2005. 3. Consideration of the standard for leaving TB hospital: Masako WADA (Chemotherapy Research Institute, Kaken Hospital) In Japan, infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patients are ordered to receive chemotherapy in admission to tuberculosis treatment facilities according to Infectious Diseases Control Law. Infectious pulmonary tuberculosis is defined as sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) even it is questionable. And there consecutive negative sputum smear for AFB is needed as a criteria for discharge. In this study we defined our own admission criteria as follows, medical service is needs owing to serious pulmonary tuberculosis, meningitis and other complications. We simulated the cost for hospitalization. During study period 170 patients were admitted and only 36 patients (21%) were needed hospitalization on our own criteria. The other 134 patients were admitted because of infectiousness. The average hospital stay was 63.0 days and 64.8 days, respectively. Total cost of patients cares were 26 million yen and 100 million yen respectively. On the points of saving medical costs, Infectious Diseases Control Law should be revised. 4. Recent problems in tuberculosis hospitalization and countermeasures related to patients support in urban area: Michihiko YOSHIDA (Infectious Control Section, Health and Safety Division, Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Govenment) Standard treatment for tuberculosis led to a shortening of hospitalization days. After discharge most patients are treated as outpatient. In the outpatient, the decreased numbers and the bias in the geographical distribution of tuberculosis hospitals impair patients' accessibility and may lead to increase of drop out cases. And there

  14. Asymptomatic Unilateral Hyperlucent Lung in a Prospective Kidney Donor.

    PubMed

    Lunia, Prajay; Karkhanis, Vinaya; Joshi, J M

    2015-09-01

    A 50 year old lady, prospective kidney donor was referred to our department for opinion in view of abnormal clinical findings during preoperative evaluation. She was asymptomatic from respiratory point of view. Her vital parameters were normal and on auscultation found to have decreased breath sounds and fine crackles throughout left hemithorax. Chest x-ray (CXR) showed left sided hyperlucency with small hilum (Figure 1). High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed scattered areas of bronchiectasis with associated air trapping throughout left lung with small left pulmonary artery (Figure 2). Sputum for acid fast bacilli (AFB) was negative. Spirometry showed moderate obstructive abnormality with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) - 51% predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC) - 60% and FEV1/FVC - 76% with no bronchodilator reversibility. On post bronchodilator study there was paradoxical fall in FEV1/FVC to 72% consistent with small airway disease. Arterial blood gas analysis was normal. Technetium (Tc) 99m MAA lung perfusion scan (Figure3) showed normal perfusion of right lung contributing 75.4% of relative function and left lung contributing only 24.6%. Diagnosis of Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome (SJMS) probably due to a childhood viral infection was made. Operative complications in such cases like difficult weaning and extubation, post-operative respiratory infections, collapse and respiratory failure are likely. However, our patient had an uneventful operative and post-operative course. SJMS is characterized by unilateral hyperlucency of a part of or the entire lung which was first described in 1953 by Swyer and James and later in 1954 by Macleod.1,2 It is considered to be an acquired disease as a result of post-infectious obliterative bronchiolitis. Productive cough, shortness of breath and sometimes hemoptysis are presenting symptoms. Some patients are asymptomatic and not diagnosed until they are adults.3 Radiologically it presents as predominant

  15. Half of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases Were Left Undiagnosed in Prisons of the Tigray Region of Ethiopia: Implications for Tuberculosis Control

    PubMed Central

    Adane, Kelemework; Spigt, Mark; Ferede, Semaw; Asmelash, Tsehaye; Abebe, Markos; Dinant, Geert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prison settings have been often identified as important but neglected reservoirs for TB. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed pulmonary TB and assess the potential risk factors for such TB cases in prisons of the Tigray region. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2013 and February 2014 in nine prisons. A standardized symptom-based questionnaire was initially used to identify presumptive TB cases. From each, three consecutive sputum samples were collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy and culture. Blood samples were collected from consented participants for HIV testing. Result Out of 809 presumptive TB cases with culture result, 4.0% (95% CI: 2.65–5.35) were confirmed to have undiagnosed TB. The overall estimated point prevalence of undiagnosed TB was found to be 505/100,000 prisoners (95% CI: 360–640). Together with the 27 patients who were already on treatment, the overall estimated point prevalence of TB would be 793/100,000 prisoners (95% CI: 610–970), about four times higher than in the general population. The ratio of active to passive case detection was 1.18:1. The prevalence of HIV was 4.4% (36/809) among presumptive TB cases and 6.3% (2/32) among undiagnosed TB cases. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, chewing Khat (adjusted OR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.02–7.75) and having had a close contact with a TB patient (adjusted OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.05–4.51) were found to be predictors of undiagnosed TB among presumptive TB cases. Conclusions This study revealed that at least half of symptomatic pulmonary TB cases in Northern Ethiopian prisons remain undiagnosed and hence untreated. The prevalence of undiagnosed TB in the study prisons was more than two folds higher than in the general population of Tigray. This may indicate the need for more investment and commitment to improving TB case detection in the study prisons. PMID:26914770

  16. Comparative Evaluation of GenoType MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay with Solid Culture Method in Early Diagnosis of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at a Tertiary Care Centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Raj N.; Singh, Binit K.; Sharma, Surendra K.; Sharma, Rohini; Soneja, Manish; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Myneedu, Vithal P.; Hanif, Mahmud; Kumar, Ashok; Sachdeva, Kuldeep S.; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu N.; Vollepore, Balasangameshwra; Thakur, Rahul; Raizada, Neeraj; Arora, Suresh K.; Sinha, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to compare the performance of line probe assay (GenoType MTBDRplus) with solid culture method for an early diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and to study the mutation patterns associated with rpoB, katG and inhA genes at a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 269 previously treated sputum-smear acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from January to September 2012 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi. Line probe assay (LPA) was performed directly on the sputum specimens and the results were compared with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) on solid media [Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) method]. Results DST results by LPA and LJ methods were compared in 242 MDR-TB suspects. The LPA detected rifampicin (RIF) resistance in 70 of 71 cases, isoniazid (INH) resistance in 86 of 93 cases, and MDR-TB in 66 of 68 cases as compared to the conventional method. Overall (rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB) concordance of the LPA with the conventional DST was 96%. Sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 99% respectively for detection of RIF resistance; 92% and 99% respectively for detection of INH resistance; 97% and 100% respectively for detection of MDR-TB. Frequencies of katG gene, inhA gene and combined katG and inhA gene mutations conferring all INH resistance were 72/87 (83%), 10/87 (11%) and 5/87 (6%) respectively. The turnaround time of the LPA test was 48 hours. Conclusion The LPA test provides an early diagnosis of monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin and is highly sensitive and specific for an early diagnosis of MDR-TB. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the LPA test can be useful in early diagnosis of drug resistant TB in high TB burden countries. PMID:24039735

  17. Additional role of second washing specimen obtained during single bronchoscopy session in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchial washing is a useful procedure for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), when a patient cannot produce sputum spontaneously or when sputum smears are negative. However, the benefit of gaining serial bronchial washing specimens for diagnosis of TB has not yet been studied. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to determine the diagnostic utility of additional bronchial washing specimens for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in suspected patients. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 174 patients [sputum smear-negative, n = 95 (55%); lack of sputum specimen, n = 79 (45%)] who received flexible bronchoscopy with two bronchial washing specimens with microbiological confirmation of pulmonary TB in Samsung Medical Center, between January, 2010 and December, 2011. Results Pulmonary TB was diagnosed by first bronchial washing specimen in 141 patients (81%) out of 174 enrolled patients, and an additional bronchial washing specimen established diagnosis exclusively in 22 (13%) patients. Smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) was positive in 46 patients (26%) for the first bronchial washing specimen. Thirteen patients (7%) were positive only on smear of an additional bronchial washing specimen. Combined smear positivity of the first and second bronchial washing specimens was significantly higher compared to first bronchial washing specimen alone [Total cases: 59 (34%) vs. 46 (26%), p < 0.001; cases for smear negative sputum: 25 (26%) vs. 18 (19%), p = 0.016; cases for poor expectoration: 34 (43%) vs. 28 (35%), p = 0.031]. The diagnostic yield determined by culture was also significantly higher in combination of the first and second bronchial washing specimens compared to the first bronchial washing. [Total cases: 163 (94%) vs. 141 (81%), p < 0.001; cases for smear negative sputum: 86 (91%) vs. 73 (77%), p < 0.001; cases for poor expectoration: 77 (98%) vs. 68 (86%), p = 0

  18. Management of pulmonary tuberculosis in health clinics in the Gombak district: How are we doing so far?

    PubMed

    Ariffin, F; Ahmad Zubaidi, A Z; Md Yasin, M; Ishak, R

    2015-01-01

    This audit report assessed the structure, processes and outcome of the pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) management in adults conducted at eight government health clinics within the high TB burden Gombak district. All newly diagnosed PTB patients from November 2012 to November 2013 were identified from the tuberculosis registry. Patients less than 18 years old, were transferred out or extrapulmonary tuberculosis was excluded from the study. The assessment criteria for PTB were defined according to the latest Malaysian TB clinical practice guidelines (TB CPG) 2012. A total of 117 patients were included in this report and data were extracted and analysed using SPSS version 20.0. The mean age of patients was 40.4 ± 14.4 SD. Majority was men (63.2%). Out of 117 patients, 82.1% were Malaysian citizens and 17.9% were foreigners. Malays were the majority (65%) followed by 7.7% Chinese, 10.3% Indian and 17.1% others. The most common clinical feature was cough (88.0%) followed by loss of weight (58.1%), loss of appetite (57.3%), fever (56.4%), night sweat (30.8%) and haemoptysis (32.5%). Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear was positive in 94% of cases. Chest X-ray and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening results were available for 89.1 and 82.1% cases respectively. The results for the sputum culture were available in 27.4% of patients and 54.7% were documented as done but pending results. The clinics have a successful directly observed therapy (DOT) program with 94.0% patients documented under DOT. Out of 53 patients on maintenance phase, 47.2% were identified as cured. Cure rate for those completed treatment was 100%. The defaulter rate was 17.1%. This audit demonstrated the attempt made by the clinics to adhere to the recommended guidelines. However, improvements are to be made in the documentation of medical records, tracing of investigation results and reduction of the number of defaulters. PMID:26425292

  19. Pulmonary tuberculosis in severely-malnourished or HIV-infected children with pneumonia: a review.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Pietroni, Mark A C; Faruque, Abu S G; Ashraf, Hasan; Bardhan, Pradip K; Hossain, Iqbal; Das, Sumon Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2013-09-01

    Presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as acute pneumonia in severely-malnourished and HIV-positive children has received very little attention, although this is very important in the management of pneumonia in children living in communities where TB is highly endemic. Our aim was to identify confirmed TB in children with acute pneumonia and HIV infection and/or severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (weight-for-length/height or weight-for-age z score <-3 of the WHO median, or presence of nutritional oedema). We conducted a literature search, using PubMed and Web of Science in April 2013 for the period from January 1974 through April 2013. We included only those studies that reported confirmed TB identified by acid fast bacilli (AFB) through smear microscopy, or by culture-positive specimens from children with acute pneumonia and SAM and/or HIV infection. The specimens were collected either from induced sputum (IS), or gastric lavage (GL), or broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), or percutaneous lung aspirates (LA). Pneumonia was defined as the radiological evidence of lobar or patchy consolidation and/or clinical evidence of severe/ very severe pneumonia according to the WHO criteria of acute respiratory infection. A total of 17 studies met our search criteria but 6 were relevant for our review. Eleven studies were excluded as those did not assess the HIV status of the children or specify the nutritional status of the children with acute pneumonia and TB. We identified only 747 under-five children from the six relevant studies that determined a tubercular aetiology of acute pneumonia in children with SAM and/or positive HIV status. Three studies were reported from South Africa and one each from the Gambia, Ethiopia, and Thailand where 610, 90, 35, and 12 children were enrolled and 64 (10%), 23 (26%), 5 (14%), and 1 (8%) children were identified with active TB respectively, with a total of 93 (12%) children with active TB. Among 610 HIV-infected children in three studies

  20. A Comparative Study of Induced Sputum and Bronchial Washings in Diagnosing Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mandava, Venu; Namballa, Usha Rani; Makala, Sravani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis is one of the most important public health problem worldwide. Detecting patients with active pulmonary Koch’s disease is an important component of tuberculosis control programs. However, at times in patients even with a compatible clinical picture, sputum smears do not reveal acid-fast bacilli and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis remains a common problem. Aim The present study is aimed to compare the results of induced sputum and bronchial washings smear in patients suspected to have sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods A prospective study conducted from August 2014 to July 2015, comprising 120 patients fulfilling study criteria. Patients with respiratory symptoms and chest roentgenogram suspicious of pulmonary tuberculosis with no previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment and two spontaneous sputum smear samples negative for acid fast bacilli were included. Patients with active haemoptysis and sputum positive were excluded from the study. Sputum induction was done by using 5-10 ml of 3% hypertonic saline through ultrasonic nebulizer taking safety precautions. All the patient underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy after six hours fasting on the same day. About 20 ml of normal saline instilled into the suspected pathology area and washings were taken with gentle suction. The sample processing and fluorescent staining for acid fast bacilli was done in a designated microscopy lab. Results Out of 120 sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients, induced sputum smear examination detected acid fast bacilli in 76 patients (63.3%) and acid fast bacilli detected from bronchial washings in 94 patients (78.3%). Smear positivity was higher in cavitary and infiltrative lesions as compared to consolidation and infrahilar pattern disease. Conclusion Even though both induced sputum and bronchial washings procedures were valuable for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative, sputum induction with hypertonic

  1. Treatability study for Hill AFB`s Operable Unit-1: Enhanced microaerobic dechlorination using various electron donors. MasMajor report

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, P.G.

    1999-05-13

    A treatability study of the microaerobic biodegradation of cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE) was completed using a series of eight continuously operated columns filled with contaminated soils from Hill Air Force Base`s Operable Unit 1. Columns were supplied groundwater from the site, vitamins and yeast, and an electron donor solution containing one of the following donors: n-butyric acid, benzoic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, n-propanol, or toluene. Concentrations of c-DCE varied over six months and ranged from 2736 micrograms/L to 30 micrograms/L. Though attempted as an anaerobic study, the ability to continuously eliminate oxygen from an active system proved difficult and columns operated as microaerobic systems. In all columns the degradation of c-DCE was observed, however, the removal efficiencies determined by comparing the influent and effluent concentrations were highly inconsistent throughout the experiment. By comparing the background columns to the columns supplied electron donors, it does not appear the addition of vitamins or electron donors enhance the indigenous microorganism`s ability to remove c-DCE. While c-DCE removal within the background column averaged 17%, the vitamin amended control column averaged only 7% c-DCE removal within the column and the electron donor supplied columns averaged between 7% removal and 5% apparent production. Of the electron donors supporting c-DCE removal, benzoic acid demonstrated 7% removal followed closely by propionic acid and n-propanol, both showing 5% c-DCE removal.

  2. Occurrence and Distribution of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Slaughtered cattle in the abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Okolocha, E. C.; Gamawa, A. A.; Babashani, M.; Bakari, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, Nigeria. The cause (s) of grossly suspected bTB lesions encountered at the abattoirs during post-mortem (PM), as whether due to Mycobacterium bovis alone or together with other acid fast bacilli (AFB). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional abattoir based study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the Northern, Central and Southern zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria, from June to August 2013; using PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN) and confirmatory polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results: The occurrence of bTB lesions from the organs of slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, showed that the lungs had the highest number of suspected tissues 65 (54.20%), followed by the lymph nodes 28 (23.30%) while the heart, liver, spleen, intestines and mammary glands had the other 8.3%, 6.7%, 5.0%, 1.7%, and 0.8%, suspected tissues respectively. By ZN microscopic staining all 100% (2/2) of the intestines were positive for bTB, followed by the heart with 50% (5/10), then the lungs 29.23% (19/65); while the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen had 25%, 21.43% and 16.67% respectively were tested positive for bTB. It was only the mammary gland that tested negative for bTB in all the suspected tissues sampled. By PCR, the intestines had the highest positive bTB with 100% (2/2), followed by the liver with 12.5% (1/8), and then the lungs with 7.8% (5/65). The lymph nodes had 7.14% (2/28) tissues that tested positive for bTB. However, the spleen, heart and mammary gland were all tested negative with 0%; indicating that the false positive for bTB detected by ZN were confirmed by PCR. While based on the location of the abattoirs in the three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Bauchi zonal abattoir had the highest number of suspected bTB cases 75 (62.50%), followed by Katagum zonal slaughter house with 32 (26.7%) and then Misau with 13 (10

  3. Histoid leprosy: case report.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Attia, Aballa Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare but well-defined entity with specific clinical, histopathologic, and bacteriologic features. We present a case of histoid leprosy in an 84-year-old Egyptian male in view of the rarity of this condition. The patient presented with erythematous itchy discrete and coalescent papules that were distributed bilaterally and symmetrically on the front and back of the trunk. Before approaching us, he was initially misdiagnosed as a case of pityriasis rosea. There was no mucosal or facial affection and the patient's general examination was normal. Routine hematologic investigations, urine analysis, liver and renal function tests were all normal. Slit skin smear revealed acid-fast bacilli of BI - 6+ and MI - 50-60%. Histopathologic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained section revealed atrophic epidermis with flattened rete ridges and dermal infiltration by nodular granulomata formed of spindle shaped histiocytes with pyknotic nuclei oriented in a storiform pattern. Fite's stain for lepra bacilli showed plenty of acid fast bacilli. So, the diagnosis of histoid leprosy was made. Therefore, ROM therapy (rifampicin 600 mg, ofloxacin 400 mg, minocycline 200 mg) was started and followed by multi-drug therapy for 2 years. PMID:23317487

  4. LCD array and IS900 efficiency in relation to traditional diagnostic techniques for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in cattle in Egypt.

    PubMed

    ElSayed, Mohamed Sabry Abd ElRaheam

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare traditional tests (Johnin test, fecal staining and fecal culture) with advanced laboratory tests (ELISA, LCD array and IS900 PCR) for detection of Johne's disease. A total of 365 Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle (40 express profuse diarrhea unresponsive to treatment and 325 contacting them) tested with Johnin test, blood collected for ELISA and fecal samples for fecal staining as well as fecal culture, application of LCD array and PCR using IS900 on DNA extracted from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis bacilli (from feces and culture). Johnin test was 40/40 (100%) and 25/325 (7.69%), fecal staining was 13 (37.1%) and 2 (50%), ELISA was 35/40 (87.5%) and 4/25 (16%) for clinical cattle and apparently healthy contacting them respectively. Isolation was 12/13 (92.3%) of the (Johnin test +ve, ELISA +ve and Acid Fast Bacilli +ve) from the clinically positive cattle and 1/2 (50%) of the (Johnin test +ve, ELISA +ve and Acid Fast Bacilli +ve) from apparently healthy contacting them while LCD array and IS900 gave 100% confirming the isolation results. In conclusion, LCD array depending on 16S RNA and DNA hybridization with specific probes for detection of M. paratuberculosis are fast, sensitive and labor-saving when combined with IS900. PMID:26786331

  5. Remedial investigation/feasibility study analysis asphalt storage area, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report is focused on an abandoned material storage area located on Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska. The site is located approximately 2000 feet from the east end of the east/west runway and includes approximately 25 acres. The site was used for asphalt storage and preparation activities during the 1940s and 1950s. Approximately 4,500 drums of asphalt and 29 drums of unknown materials have been abandoned at the site. The drums are located in 32 areas throughout the 25-acre site. Following several decades of exposure to the elements, many of the drums have corroded and leaked to the ground surface. Several acres of soil are inundated with liquid asphalt that has leaked from the drums. Depths of the asphalt range from 6 to 10 inches in areas where surface anomalies have created depressions, and thus a collection point for the asphalt. A 14-x 18-x 4 foot wood frame pit used to support previous asphalt operations is located at the north end of the site. The pit contains approximately 2300 gallons of asphalt. There are also locations where the soil appears to be contaminated by petroleum products other than asphalt.

  6. Pilot-scale in situ vitrification at Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold AFB, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Lominac, J.K.; Edwards, R.C. ); Timmerman, C.L. )

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Defense has the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to identify and permanently remediate hazardous material disposal sites at its military bases across the United States. Pursuant to this guidance, Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) selected In Situ Vitrification (ISV) to remediate an old fire training area, Fire Protection Training Area (FPTA) No. 2. The ISV technology was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA, for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and will allow for the destruction and encapsulation of the petroleum-oil-lubricants (POL) and heavy metal-constituents found at the FPTA and adjacent overflow pond. ISV operates by passing a measured current of electricity into the ground through a set of electrodes. The resulting heat causes the soil to melt and form a solid vitreous (glass) mass similar to naturally occurring obsidian or basalt. In the process, organic constituents will be pyrolyzed (changed by heat) by the ensuing heat whereas the non-organic material will be incorporated into the glass matrix. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  7. 78 FR 17085 - Amendment of Multiple Restricted Areas; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... promulgated, will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the... follows: PART 73--SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE 0 1. The authority citation for part 73 continues to read...

  8. 75 FR 16331 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall...

  9. Views of STS-4 crew and families at Ellington AFB departing for KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Views of STS-4 crew and families at Ellington Air Force Base departing for Kennedy Space Center. Astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly, II., right, and Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr. on the Ellington Air Force Base runway. Behind them are the T-38's they will be flying to the Kennedy Space Center (32917,32924); Mattingly climbs aboard NASA aircraft 918, a T-38 jet, as he prepares to leave Ellington for KSC (32918); Mattingly seating in T-38 with canopy up preparing to leave (32919,32925); Hartsfield prepares to board NASA aircraft 919, a T-38 jet, at Ellington (32920); Hartsfield seated in T-38 with canopy up preparing to leave Ellington (32921,32923); The family of Astronuat Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr. stands near the NASA Gulfstream aircraft priot to boarding it for Florida. Astronaut Bryan D. O'Conner talks with the family - from the left, daughters Judy Lynn, Keely Warren and wife Judy Frances Hartsfield (32922).

  10. EPA EVALUATION OF BAHCO INDUSTRIAL BOILER SCRUBBER SYSTEM AT RICKENBACKER AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive test program which characterized the particulate removal, sulfur dioxide removal, operating costs, maintenance costs, waste product properties operating experience and capacity of a size 50 R-C/Bahco scrubbing system installed to treat flue gas from coal fired boi...

  11. STS-48 Discovery, OV-103, lands at night on lit Edwards AFB runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Spotlights illuminate the approach of STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, above concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) during its night landing sequence. With nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) deployed, OV-103 nears touchdown which occurred at 12:38:38 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). Runway marker '2' is visible in the foreground. OV-103's starboard side glows in the runway lights while the rest of the orbiter blends into the shadowy darkness.

  12. 76 FR 66866 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Altus AFB, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... implemented to enhance safety for aircraft operating in the vicinity of Altus/Quartz Mountain Regional...

  13. Compliance testing of hot-water and steam boilers, Shaw Afb, South Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    At the request of HQ TAC/DEEV, personnel of the USAFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source testing of eighteen small hot water and steam boilers to determine stack-gas moisture content and velocity. The data obtained during the survey was necessary for boiler operating application.

  14. NOAA-L satellite is mated to Apogee Kick Motor at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (below) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite above. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. OPTIMIZATION OF IN-SITU THERMAL REMEDIATION: THE LORING AFB STEAM INJECTION PROJECT EXAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental remediation programs require that adequate planning be done before field work for characterization or remediation is undertaken. However, the heterogeneous nature of the subsurface can often thwart our best planning efforts. More recently, dynamic work plans which...

  15. Characterization of AFB sapphire single crystal composites for infrared window application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.-C.; Meissner, H. E.

    2007-04-01

    Next generation weapons platforms may require 30" x 30" sapphire windows. Since these sizes exceed what can be manufactured directly, a concept is proposed and experimental data are furnished in this report on the viability of increasing the window dimensions by Adhesive-Free-Bonding (AFB®) of smaller starting components by their edges. The bonding scheme has been evaluated for single crystal sapphire but is expected to also work equally well for other IR window materials. The bonding mechanism is explained with Van der Waals theory of attractive forces and confirmed experimentally by applying the bending plate theory. The gap at the interface between two components is deduced from the measured roughness of the polished surfaces that are brought into optical contact and subsequently heat-treated, and is estimated to be about 2 Å rms. Stress relief at AFB® interfaces has been established. Experimental data of flexural strength determined by four-point bending at room temperature is reported. The data indicates that AFB® composite specimens and equivalently prepared blank samples fracture at statistically same loads under standardized testing conditions. Failure of composites has not been observed at the interface and only at random flaws that are a result of sample preparation.

  16. 78 FR 33016 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... presented are particularly helpful in developing reasoned regulatory decisions on the proposal. Comments are... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  17. ARAC dispersion modeling support for January-March 1995 Vandenberg AFB launches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskett, R. L.; Pace, J. C.

    1995-05-01

    The Glory Trip (GT) 17-PA Peacekeeper launch originally scheduled at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) between 15 and 20 November 1994 was cancelled based on modeled toxic exhaust cloud calculations. The Missile Flight Control Branch, 30th Space Wing Safety Office (30 SW/SEY), made several successive 'No Go' decisions using Version 7.05 Rocket Exhaust Effluent Dispersion Model (REEDM) with forecasted meteorological conditions. REEDM runs made from T-14 hours to T-30 minutes predicted that ground-level concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas from the catastrophic abort case would exceed 5 ppM, the 'instantaneous' ambient air concentration 'Tier 2' limit at that time, modeled as a peak 1-minute cloud centerline concentration. Depending on the forecasted wind direction and speed at launch time, this limit was predicted to be exceeded sometimes at Base Housing, approximately 10 km southeast of the launch, and during other launch windows at the town of Casmalia, about 5 km east- southeast. In late December 1994, the LLNL Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) program modeled the aborted November 1994 Peacekeeper launch and compared its results with REEDM. This initial comparison showed that the ARAC model predicted values about 1/3 as large as REEDM for the limiting case at Base Housing. Subsequently ARAC was asked to provide real-time modeling support to 30 SW/SEY during the rescheduled Peacekeeper GT 17-PA launch in January 1995 and two Minuteman launches in February and March. This report first briefly discusses the model differences and then summarizes the results of the three supported launches.

  18. Soil Flushing Through a Thick Vadose Zone: Perchlorate Removal Documented at Edwards AFB, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battey, T. F.; Shepard, A. J.; Tait, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    There are currently few viable alternatives for perchlorate remediation in the vadose zone, particularly for the relatively thick vadose zones that are typical in the arid southwest where many perchlorate sites occur. Perchlorate in the vadose zone occurs in the form of highly soluble salts that may represent a risk to human or ecological receptors, and may also represent a threat to the underlying groundwater. A soil flushing treatability study was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base in the Mojave Desert of southern California at a site with a 129-foot thick vadose zone consisting primarily of clayey sand. This study utilized an infiltration gallery in conjunction with extraction, treatment, and re-injection of groundwater at the site, which contained perchlorate-contaminated soil and groundwater. The study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the infiltration gallery to 1) introduce treated groundwater back into the aquifer and 2) wash the perchlorate from the vadose zone soils to the aquifer. The infiltration gallery consisted of slotted PVC pipes within a highly permeable engineered bed of washed gravel. The initial water introduced into the gallery was amended with potassium bromide tracer. A downhole neutron probe was used to track the movement of the wetting front downward and outward from the gallery. Successive neutron measurements in vertical access tubes revealed that the introduced water reached the 125-foot bottom of the access tubes 14 weeks after the water was introduced into the gallery. The bromide tracer was detected in groundwater immediately below the gallery approximately 1 week later. The infiltration gallery was able to sustain an average flow rate of 2.3 gallons per minute. Prior to infiltration, the perchlorate concentration in groundwater below the gallery was 4,500 µg/L. Approximately 18 weeks after the start of infiltration, a perchlorate spike of 72,400 µg/L was detected below the gallery. The increase in perchlorate groundwater concentrations indicates the transfer of perchlorate from the vadose zone to the saturated zone, where it was readily captured by an adjacent groundwater extraction well. Continued flushing of treated water through the vadose and saturated zones resulted in a rapid decline in perchlorate groundwater concentrations. Confirmation soil boreholes documented the effectiveness of the soil treatment after perchlorate groundwater concentrations returned to their pre-soil flushing levels. This treatability study demonstrates that perchlorate can be removed from a thick sandy vadose zone by controlled infiltration with associated hydraulic control of groundwater to capture the leached perchlorate. The treatability study results also indicates that an infiltration gallery may provide 1) a cost-effective alternative to injection wells for reintroducing treated groundwater to the aquifer and 2) an effective mechanism for the delivery of amendments to the vadose zone and aquifer for promoting enhanced biodegradation of perchlorate in soil and groundwater.

  19. Experimental plan and construction guidance for Hanford Protective Barrier Test at Hill AFB, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, R.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    Permanent isolation surface barriers are needed to fully isolate buried waste materials for long periods of time from the general environment. Multi-layer surface barriers that use natural earthen materials overlying bio-intrusion layers of rock and/or asphalt are expected to reduce infiltration or deep percolation to less than 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) of water. The layering also reduces root penetration, preventing uptake and translocation of hazardous materials to the surface vegetation. The opportunity exists to test the Hanford Barrier in a wetter, colder climate at an existing lysimeter facility located at Hill Air Force Base near Salt Lake, Utah. The use of an existing lysimeter facility simplifies the construction effort and allows comparison of the Hanford Protective Barrier with an existing US Environmental Protection Agency-Resource Conservation and Recovery Act clay cap already undergoing tests at the lysimeter site. This document presents the experimental plan for testing the Hanford Protective Barrier in a wetter, colder climate.

  1. Genotyping and Resolution of a Case of Osteomyelitis in a 16-Month-Old Boy of Hispanic/African American Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Wachira, Eunice; Tran, Kayla; Taylor, Sara; Hoger, Sally; Dunn, James

    2016-02-01

    Most cases of osteomyelitis in children are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, although Kingella kingae, various streptococci, and Salmonella species also underlie this condition. Organisms such as Mycobacterium, Histoplasma, and Cryptococcus are much less commonly identified as etiologic agents in osteomyelitis. This case report describes a 16-month-old boy of Hispanic/African American ethnicity who had extensive inflammation of and discharge from his right ankle. Imaging studies supported a diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and routine wound cultures were ordered on the wound discharge. The AFB culture yielded a positive result for Mycobacterium bovis, and molecular diagnostic testing further genotyped the microorganism as Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Herein, we report a rare case of osteomyelitis that we believe resulted from a BCG vaccine that the patient had received outside the United States. PMID:26715611

  2. Interpretation Criteria for Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in Maroua Area of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Awah-Ndukum, J; Temwa, J; Ngwa, V Ngu; Mouiche, M M; Iyawa, D; Zoli, P A

    2016-01-01

    Intradermal tuberculin test (TST) is the choice method for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in live animals. This work was done to assess the performance of single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test in randomly selected cattle in Maroua, Cameroon, against detection of Tb lesions and detection of Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli in lesions. While 22.28% of slaughtered cattle presented Tb lesions at meat inspection, detection rates of anti-bovine-Tb antibody, Tb lesions, and Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli were 68.57%, 32.95%, and 22.35%, respectively. SICCT-bovine-Tb positive cattle were 35.29%, 29.41%, 25.88%, 24.7%, and 21.18% at ≥2 mm, ≥2.5 mm, ≥3 mm, ≥3.5 mm, and ≥4 mm cut-offs, respectively. Higher sensitivity and predictive values were obtained at severe interpretations. The best performance was at ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Against detection of Tb lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 94.7% and 96.5%, respectively. For detection of Tb lesions accompanied with acid fast bacilli in lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 92.4% and 93.9%, respectively. These findings revealed that interpretations of SICCT-bovine-Tb should be at ≥3 mm and/or ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Severe interpretation of TST is essential for optimal diagnosis of bovine Tb in cattle in Maroua, Cameroon. PMID:27563481

  3. Interpretation Criteria for Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in Maroua Area of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Temwa, J.; Mouiche, M. M.; Iyawa, D.; Zoli, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Intradermal tuberculin test (TST) is the choice method for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in live animals. This work was done to assess the performance of single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test in randomly selected cattle in Maroua, Cameroon, against detection of Tb lesions and detection of Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli in lesions. While 22.28% of slaughtered cattle presented Tb lesions at meat inspection, detection rates of anti-bovine-Tb antibody, Tb lesions, and Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli were 68.57%, 32.95%, and 22.35%, respectively. SICCT-bovine-Tb positive cattle were 35.29%, 29.41%, 25.88%, 24.7%, and 21.18% at ≥2 mm, ≥2.5 mm, ≥3 mm, ≥3.5 mm, and ≥4 mm cut-offs, respectively. Higher sensitivity and predictive values were obtained at severe interpretations. The best performance was at ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Against detection of Tb lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 94.7% and 96.5%, respectively. For detection of Tb lesions accompanied with acid fast bacilli in lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 92.4% and 93.9%, respectively. These findings revealed that interpretations of SICCT-bovine-Tb should be at ≥3 mm and/or ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Severe interpretation of TST is essential for optimal diagnosis of bovine Tb in cattle in Maroua, Cameroon. PMID:27563481

  4. Alternative Differential Identification Approaches for 2 Similar Bacilli Commonly Studied in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.

    1991-01-01

    Alternatives to the traditional unknown tests that permit a clear and unequivocal differential identification decision between Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium are presented. Plates of Phenylethyl Alcohol agar with Blood (PEAB), slants of Bile Esculin agar and plates of DNA agar are used. The materials, methods, results, and conclusions…

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Biosurfactant-Producing Halothermophilic Bacilli From Iranian Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Saeed; Ramezani, Amin; Ostvar, Sassan; Rezaei, Rasool; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petroleum reservoirs have long been known as the hosts of extremophilic microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms are known for their potential biotechnological applications, particularly production of extra and intracellular polymers and enzymes. Objectives: Here, 14 petroleum liquid samples from southern Iranian oil reservoirs were screened for presence of biosurfactant‐producing halothermophiles. Materials and Methods: Mixture of the reservoir fluid samples with a minimal growth medium was incubated under an N2 atmosphere in 40°C; 0.5 mL samples were transferred from the aqueous phase to agar plates after 72 hours of incubation; 100 mL cell cultures were prepared using the MSS-1 (mineral salt solution 1) liquid medium with 5% (w/v) NaCl. The time-course samples were analyzed by recording the absorbance at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer. Incubation was carried out in 40°C with mild shaking in aerobic conditions. Thermotolerance was evaluated by growing the isolates at 40, 50, 60 and 70°C with varying NaCl concentrations of 5% and 10% (w/v). Halotolerance was evaluated using NaCl concentrations of 5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% (w/v) and incubating them at 40°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Different phenotypic characteristics were evaluated, as outlined in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Comparing 16S rDNA sequences is one of the most powerful tools for classification of microorganisms. Results: Among 34 isolates, 10 demonstrated biosurfactant production and growth at temperatures between 40°C and 70°C in saline media containing 5%‐15% w/v NaCl. Using partial 16S rDNA sequencing (and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis [ARDRA]) and biochemical tests (API tests 20E and 50 CHB), all the 10 isolates proved to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive moderate thermohalophiles of the genus Bacillus (B. thermoglucosidasius, B. thermodenitrificans, B. thermoleovorans, B. stearothermophilus and B. licheniformis), exhibiting surface-active behaviors. Conclusions: General patterns include decreasing the thermotolerance with increasing the salt concentrations and also more halotolerance in the aerobic environment compared with anaerobic conditions. The results demonstrated that Iranian petroleum reservoirs enjoy a source of indigenous extremophilic microorganisms with potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery and commercial enzyme production. PMID:25485045

  6. Evolution of the SpoIISABC Toxin-Antitoxin-Antitoxin System in Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Gabriško, Marek; Barák, Imrich

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death in bacteria is generally associated with two-component toxin-antitoxin systems. The SpoIISABC system, originally identified in Bacillus subtilis, consists of three components: a SpoIISA toxin and the SpoIISB and SpoIISC antitoxins. SpoIISA is a membrane-bound protein, while SpoIISB and SpoIISC are small cytosolic antitoxins, which are able to bind SpoIISA and neutralize its toxicity. In the presented bioinformatics analysis, a taxonomic distribution of the genes of the SpoIISABC system is investigated; their conserved regions and residues are identified; and their phylogenetic relationships are inferred. The SpoIISABC system is part of the core genome in members of the Bacillus genus of the Firmicutes phylum. Its presence in some non-bacillus species is likely the result of horizontal gene transfer. The SpoIISB and SpoIISC antitoxins originated by gene duplications, which occurred independently in the B. subtilis and B. cereus lineages. In the B. cereus lineage, the SpoIIS module is present in two different architectures. PMID:27294956

  7. Production and immobilization of a novel thermoalkalophilic extracellular amylase from bacilli isolate.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, Birnur; Yenidunya, Ali Fazil; Akkaya, Recep

    2012-05-01

    A Thermoalkalophilic amylase was produced from an environmental bacterial isolate. The enzyme was then immobilized through its amino groups onto the epoxy rings of magnetic poly glycidyl methacrylate [m-poly (GMA)] beads. The free enzyme was active within a large pH range, between 7 and 12 and displayed the optimum activity at 95°C and pH 10. The immobilization appeared to increase the stability of the enzyme as its bound form showed optimum activity at 105°C and pH 11.0. Kinetic studies demonstrated that immobilized enzyme had higher K(m) and lower V(max) values. The activity of the free and bound enzyme was determined, at 37°C and pH 10.0 and pH 11.0, respectively, in the presence of various organic solvents and detergents (5%, v/v). Results obtained indicated that detergents, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and TritonX-100, caused six fold increase and that various organic solvents also increased the activity of the amylase. PMID:22387519

  8. Chloramphenicol – A Potent Armament Against Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Gram Negative Bacilli?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria cause infections which are hard to treat and cause high morbidity and mortality. Due to limited therapeutic options there is a renewed interest upon older antimicrobials which had fallen into disuse as a result of toxic side effects. One such antibiotic is chloramphenicol which was sidelined due to reports linking its use with the development of aplastic anaemia. Aim A study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of chloramphenicol in light of the emerging problem of multi-drug resistant gram negative bacteria (MDR GNB). Materials and Methods A total of 483 MDR GNB of the 650 consecutive Gram Negative Bacteria isolated from various clinical samples of patients admitted at a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur between January-June 2014 were screened for chloramphenicol susceptibility by the disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. Results The MDR GNB isolates were obtained from 217 (45%) urine, 163 (34%) from respiratory samples, 52(11%) from pus, 42 (9%) from blood and 9 (2%) from body fluids. A 68% of the MDR GNB isolates were found to be sensitive to chloramphenicol. Conclusion Clinicians should always check for the local susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria to chloramphenicol. This antibiotic has a potential to play a role in the therapeutic management of infections due to MDR GNB pathogens. PMID:27042458

  9. Evolution of the SpoIISABC Toxin-Antitoxin-Antitoxin System in Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Gabriško, Marek; Barák, Imrich

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death in bacteria is generally associated with two-component toxin-antitoxin systems. The SpoIISABC system, originally identified in Bacillus subtilis, consists of three components: a SpoIISA toxin and the SpoIISB and SpoIISC antitoxins. SpoIISA is a membrane-bound protein, while SpoIISB and SpoIISC are small cytosolic antitoxins, which are able to bind SpoIISA and neutralize its toxicity. In the presented bioinformatics analysis, a taxonomic distribution of the genes of the SpoIISABC system is investigated; their conserved regions and residues are identified; and their phylogenetic relationships are inferred. The SpoIISABC system is part of the core genome in members of the Bacillus genus of the Firmicutes phylum. Its presence in some non-bacillus species is likely the result of horizontal gene transfer. The SpoIISB and SpoIISC antitoxins originated by gene duplications, which occurred independently in the B. subtilis and B. cereus lineages. In the B. cereus lineage, the SpoIIS module is present in two different architectures. PMID:27294956

  10. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness.

    PubMed

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by diverse members of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are motile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their high catalase activities and superoxide contents the bacteria potentially manipulate the host's redox status. Superoxide-driven cell expansion enables quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment. Quinoa's immediate confrontation with "foreign" reactive oxygen species and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase) and cosmetics (catalase) industry. This work also discusses the potential of transferring quinoa's microbiome to improve stress resistance in other plant species. PMID:26834724

  11. Conjugative reporter system for the use in Bacillus licheniformis and closely related Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Hertel, R; Volland, S; Liesegang, H

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus wild-type strains are genetically difficult to manipulate, and thus, the options for rational strain investigation and design are limited. Here, we present a set of small conjugative shuttle vectors for the use in Bacillus licheniformis and related, genetically difficult accessible wild-type strains. The vector set comprises the modular general-purpose vector pV2 and its derivatives pV3SDlacZ and pV3lacZ. The pV3 vectors are designed for the investigation of transcriptional and translational activities of regulatory regions like promoters and ribosomal binding sites (RBS). The vector set has been tested for investigating gene regulation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. PMID:25363901

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacilli Degrading Cinnamic, 4-Coumaric, and Ferulic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xue; Misawa, Norihiko; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-four thermophilic Bacillus sp. strains were isolated from decayed wood bark and a hot spring water sample based on their ability to degrade vanillic acid under thermophilic conditions. It was found that these bacteria were able to degrade a wide range of aromatic acids such as cinnamic, 4-coumaric, 3-phenylpropionic, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, ferulic, benzoic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. The metabolic pathways for the degradation of these aromatic acids at 60°C were examined by using one of the isolates, strain B1. Benzoic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were detected as breakdown products from cinnamic and 4-coumaric acids, respectively. The β-oxidative mechanism was proposed to be responsible for these conversions. The degradation of benzoic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids was determined to proceed through catechol and gentisic acid, respectively, for their ring fission. It is likely that a non-β-oxidative mechanism is the case in the ferulic acid catabolism, which involved 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-β-hydroxypropionic acid, vanillin, and vanillic acid as the intermediates. Other strains examined, which are V0, D1, E1, G2, ZI3, and H4, were found to have the same pathways as those of strain B1, except that strains V0, D1, and H4 had the ability to transform 3-hydroxybenzoic acid to gentisic acid, which strain B1 could not do. PMID:12620824

  13. Some biological features of Proteus bacilli. 1. Comparison of Proteus mirabilis strains provided from various sources.

    PubMed

    Kotelko, K; Rozalski, A; Deka, M; Kaca, W; Sidorczyk, Z; Gromska, W; Zych, K

    1983-01-01

    Some properties which may contribute to the pathogenicity of Proteus mirabilis were compared in urinary isolates and in strains provided from soil and from culture collection. Clinical isolates revealed the higher expression of all the features examined in this report: swarming growth, haemagglutination, adherence to human uroepithelial cells, urease activity and haemolytic activity. Noteworthy is the higher mean value of adherence to the uroepithelial cells in clinical strains. Three P. mirabilis urinary isolates were detected which produce an as yet unreported filterable haemolysin. However, the loss of this ability within a few months seems to suggest the temporary presence of a plasmid rapidly eliminated by the Proteus strains. PMID:6202101

  14. Cellulolytic Activity of Thermophilic Bacilli Isolated from Tattapani Hot Spring Sediment in North West Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Priya, Indu; Dhar, M K; Bajaj, B K; Koul, Sanjana; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2016-06-01

    Eight thermophilic bacterial strains were isolated from Tattapani Hot spring and screened for various hydrolytic enzymes including cellulases. The isolated bacterial strains were identified as Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IP_WH1(KP842609), Bacillus licheniformis IP_WH2(KP842610), B. aerius IP_WH3(KP842611), B. licheniformis IP_WH4(KP842612), B. licheniformis IP_60Y(KP842613), G. thermodenitrificans IP_60A1(KP842614), Geobacillus sp. IP_60A2(KP842615) and Geobacillus sp. IP_80TP(KP842616) after 16S ribotying. Out of the eight isolates Geobacillus sp. IP_80TP grew best at 80 °C whereas rest of the isolates showed optimal growth at 60 °C. G. thermodenitrificans IP_WH1 produced a thermotolerant cellulase with maximum activity at 60 °C. PMID:27570317

  15. Structure and antigenicity of the phosphorylated lipopolysaccharide antigens from the leprosy and tubercle bacilli.

    PubMed

    Hunter, S W; Gaylord, H; Brennan, P J

    1986-09-15

    A family of major arabinose- and mannose-containing phosphorylated lipopolysaccharides was isolated from Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The only antigenic member of the family, lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-B, was purified by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography in detergent and recovered in large quantities (15 mg/g of bacteria). It yielded a broad diffuse band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but appeared homogeneous by this criterion and gel filtration. Besides arabinose and mannose, it contained glycerol and a polyol phosphate and was acylated by lactate, succinate, palmitate, and 10-methyloctadecanoate. The phosphate was released by alkalinolysis and identified by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as myoinositol 1-phosphate. Thus, the group-specific "arabinomannan" of the genus Mycobacterium in the native state is acylated, contains the substituents of phosphatidylinositol, and is apparently membrane associated. LAM-B is one of the dominant immunogens of the leprosy bacillus reacting readily with antibodies from lepromatous leprosy patients and monoclonal antibodies in plate and nitrocellulose enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and on electrophoretic immunoblots. It is immunologically cross-reactive with a like product from M. tuberculosis. LAM-B is clearly the pervasive "glycoprotein" antigen of the leprosy bacillus and may be the long sought lipoteichoic acid-like polymer of Mycobacterium with a role in cell wall physiology, macrophage recognition, and perhaps an involvement in cross-protective immunity. PMID:3091602

  16. Improved Production of Cyclodextrins by Alkalophilic Bacilli Immobilized on Synthetic or Loofa Sponges

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Delani, Tieles Carina; Pazzetto, Rúbia; Mangolim, Camila Sampaio; Fenelon, Vanderson Carvalho; Moriwaki, Cristiane; Matioli, Graciette

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the production of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) by microbial cells immobilized on synthetic or loofa sponges both with and without the use of alginate or chitosan. The most suitable matrix for the immobilization of Bacillus firmus strain 7B was synthetic sponge and for Bacillus sphaericus strain 41 was loofa sponge. After 330 days of storage, the β-CD production by Bacillus firmus and Bacillus sphaericus remained at around 41% and 49%, respectively, of initial levels. After 24 days of immobilization on loofa sponge, Bacillus sphaericus strain 41 achieved an improved operational stability, reaching 86.6 mM β-CD after 20 days of production, compared to only 32.8 mM of β-CD produced by free Bacillus sphaericus strain 41 cells. The expected increase in β-CD production by immobilized cells of Bacillus firmus strain 7B on synthetic sponge for 4 days was not statistically different to that for cells immobilized for 24 days. The application of this process on an industrial scale using loofa sponge, an inexpensive and renewable matrix, will allow the stable production of β-CD. PMID:23202953

  17. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by diverse members of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are motile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their high catalase activities and superoxide contents the bacteria potentially manipulate the host’s redox status. Superoxide-driven cell expansion enables quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment. Quinoa’s immediate confrontation with “foreign” reactive oxygen species and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase) and cosmetics (catalase) industry. This work also discusses the potential of transferring quinoa’s microbiome to improve stress resistance in other plant species. PMID:26834724

  18. Primary Cutaneous Actinomycosis:A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Ranadeep; Mukherjee, Kheya; Ghoshal, Loknath

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a subacute or chronic suppurative bacterial infection caused by filamentous gram positive, anaerobic to microaerophilic non acid fast bacilli primarily of the genus Actinomyces that normally colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis is a rare entity and is generally associated with trauma. We report a case of primary cutaneous actinomycosis of the back and left axilla in a 32-year-old female patient with no suggestive history of trauma.The diagnosis was suggested by the characteristic lesions with multiple discharging sinuses draining sero-sanguinous fluid scattered all over the lesions. Gram positive bacilli with plenty of pus cells were demonstrated in the direct examination of the discharging pus. Diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of the organisms by anaerobic culture giving typical molar tooth colonies. Final confirmation was done by histopathological examination. PMID:25177623

  19. Histoid leprosy: a prospective diagnostic study in 38 patients.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, V N; Srivastava, G

    1988-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a fascinating expression of multibacillary leprosy, the incidence of which was 3.6%. It was seen predominantly in males of the younger age group, who were on inadequate and irregular dosage of diaminodiphenyl sulfone. Papules, cutaneous and/or subcutaneous nodules and plaques appearing over apparently normal skin were its exquisite prospective clinical features. It was invariably supported by enormous, uniformly solid staining discrete bacilli from the lesions, in contrast to their virtual absence from the surrounding normal-appearing skin. Encapsulated tumorous mass, formed primarily by spindle-shaped histocytes, displayed either in intertwining, criss-cross or whorled fashion in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, were supplementary. The morphology of acid-fast bacilli was, however, similar to skin-slit smears. PMID:3224729

  20. Primary actinomycosis of breast-A diagnosis on cytology.

    PubMed

    Gosavi, Alka Vikas; Anvikar, Arti Rameshrao; Sulhyan, Kalpana Ranjitsingh; Manek, Dhruti Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Primary actinomycosis of breast is a rare disease with only a few cases reported in the literature. We present a case of a 25-year-old lactating woman with primary actinomycosis of breast which was diagnosed on cytology. The patient presented with lump in left breast with dull aching pain. Fine-needle aspiration cytology smears showed acute suppurative inflammation with presence of fluffy basophilic colonies on Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and branched, Gram positive filamentous bacilli on Gram staining. The bacilli were non-acid fast with 1% Zeihl Neelsen stain. A diagnosis of actinomycosis was suggested on cytology. Histopathological examination revealed an abscess with few Gram positive basophilic granules surrounded by eosinophilic Splendore-Hoeppli material thus confirming the diagnosis of actinomycosis. Meticulous search for microorganisms with the aid of special stains should be done on cytology smears before labeling an inflammatory lesion as nonspecific. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:693-695. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27238823

  1. Co-existent Ascariasis and Multiloculated Tuberculous Pleurisy Treated with Intrapleural Streptokinase.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Talha; Naeem, Omer Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    This case describes a young male with pleuro-pulmonary tuberculosis having one-week history of fever and hemoptysis along with a multiloculated right sided exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. His pulmonary diagnostic confusion was due to passage of adult Ascaris lumbricoides per orally but that was found to be of intestinal origin. Pleural tissue histopathology revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and right upper lobe bronchial washings were positive for acid fast bacilli. His multiloculated pleural effusion was successfully resolved with intrapleural streptokinase injections via a 10 French pleural catheter. Treatment with class-I anti-tuberculous drugs led to complete clearance of remaining pleuro-pulmonary shadowing. PMID:26522189

  2. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a 10-year-old girl masquerading as tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Baro, Abhamoni; Shah, Ira; Chandane, Parmarth; Khosla, Indu

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease. Diagnosis is established by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), which has macroscopic 'milky appearance', and in the presence of typical computed tomography, findings are diagnostic of PAP but, however, the feature of periodic acid-Schiff-positive eosinophilic proteinaceous fluid raises the confidence of the diagnosis. We report late-onset PAP in a 10-year-old girl who had acid fast bacilli on an initial BAL examination, but was subsequently diagnosed as PAP. PMID:26069841

  3. Haematological profile in leprosy. Part I--general findings.

    PubMed

    Karat, A B; Rao, P S

    1977-04-01

    Haematological studies in 904 adult leprosy patients with different types of leprosy, in various stages of the disease and treatment are described. Haemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum albumin and serum iron are significantly lower among lepromatous leprosy patients as compared with non-lepromatous patients. The serum B12 levels were significantly higher among the lepromatous group. Acid fast bacilli have been demonstrated in skin smear negative leprosy patients with indeterminate and tuberculoid leprosy, suggesting occurrence of bacillaemia in these groups of patients. PMID:909286

  4. Mycobacterial Infection after Cosmetic Procedure with Botulinum Toxin A

    PubMed Central

    Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Solis-Arreola, Gerardo-Victor

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of mycobacterial infection at the sites of previous injections of botulinum toxin A in a 45-year-old woman. She presented with erythematous, swollen, warm, and tender plaques and nodules at the points of injection from which a biopsy was taken, demonstrating a deep dermal and hypodermal abscessified epithelioid granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate in which some acid-fast bacilli were identified with Ziehl-Neelsen and Fite-Faraco stains. The lesion was first treated with clarithromycin plus azithromycin, to which rifampicin was later added. A good therapeutic response was obtained. PMID:26023629

  5. [Oral blastomycosis, laryngeal papillomatosis and esophageal tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Montoya, Manuel; Chumbiraico, Robert; Ricalde, Melvin; Cazorla, Ernesto; Hernández-Córdova, Gustavo

    2012-06-01

    Esophageal involvement is an extremely rare complication of tuberculosis even in countries with high prevalence of infection. We report the case of a 57 year-old hiv-seronegative patient with simultaneous diagnoses of oral blastomycosis and laryngeal papillomatosis. Both were confirmed by anatomopathological analysis. The esophageal biopsy revealed granulomatous esophagitis with necrosis and ziehl-neelsen stain showed acid-fast alcohol resistant bacilli suggestive of tuberculosis. The patient's history included pulmonary tuberculosis twice and previous abandonment of therapy. Thus, it was necessary to use oral itraconazole combined with second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs administered through a gastrostomy tube. The clinical development was favorable. PMID:22858774

  6. Tenosynovitis and carpal tunnel syndrome from mycobacterium tuberculosis - a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Marques, V B; Vieira, H P; Alcantara, A C C; Braga, F N; Rocha, F A; Medeiros, M C

    2010-01-01

    Tenosynovitis caused by tuberculosis (TB) is a rare presentation of this disease usually reported in immunocompromised patients. We describe a patient diagnosed with TB tenosynovitis of the left upper limb with no history of immunodeficiency. Although appearing in an endemic area the time to diagnosis was 6 years due to the absence of acid-fast stained bacilli in the first cultures despite histopathology showing a granulomatous lesion. Institution of pharmacological treatment and surgical debridément led to improvement within one month. The authors emphasize the need for early intervention in order to halt disease progression and avoid sequelae. PMID:20518148

  7. Systemic Mycobacteriosis in an Aborted Thoroughbred Fetus in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SANO, Yuto; MATSUDA, Kazuya; OSAKI, Keisuke; MIYASHO, Taku; TSUDA, Tomonori; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    A male Thoroughbred fetus was aborted on day 251 of pregnancy. Gross and histological examinations detected systemic granulomatous lesions in many superficial and visceral lymph nodes and organs including the liver, tonsils, lungs, thymus, spleen, right thyroid gland and gastrointestinal tract, and suppurative placentitis, pyogranulomatous amnionitis and intralesional acid-fast bacilli were also detected. An examination of the DNA base sequence of the β subunit of RNA polymerase demonstrated that Mycobacterium avium strain 104 had infected several organs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of equine fetal mycobacterial infection in Japan. PMID:25649944

  8. Severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related immune reconstitution syndrome in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Rajagopala, Srinivas; Chandrasekharan, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    We present a young immunocompetent male with diagnosed sputum culture-positive tuberculosis on intensive phase with observed daily four-drug antituberculosis therapy. He presented at 1-month of treatment with sequential bilateral pneumothoraces, increase in cavitation and consolidation and respiratory failure. Repeat smears for acid-fast bacilli had downgraded, and cultures were negative. Quantiferon-GOLD (initially negative) was now strongly positive. A diagnosis of possible immune reconstitution syndrome was considered and 0.25 mg/kg/day oral steroids administered. We also discuss an approach to differential diagnosis of a patient worsening on treatment for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis in this manuscript. PMID:25624652

  9. Severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related immune reconstitution syndrome in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopala, Srinivas; Chandrasekharan, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    We present a young immunocompetent male with diagnosed sputum culture-positive tuberculosis on intensive phase with observed daily four-drug antituberculosis therapy. He presented at 1-month of treatment with sequential bilateral pneumothoraces, increase in cavitation and consolidation and respiratory failure. Repeat smears for acid-fast bacilli had downgraded, and cultures were negative. Quantiferon-GOLD (initially negative) was now strongly positive. A diagnosis of possible immune reconstitution syndrome was considered and 0.25 mg/kg/day oral steroids administered. We also discuss an approach to differential diagnosis of a patient worsening on treatment for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis in this manuscript. PMID:25624652

  10. [A case of Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infection; effectiveness of clarithromycin, amikacin and imipenem/cilastatin].

    PubMed

    Shikama, Yusuke; Kamio, Yoshito; Kuriu, Kazuyuki; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Satoshi; Nakajima, Hiroaki

    2006-11-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented with persistent cough, bloody sputum and fever. Her chest X-ray film showed an infiltrative shadow with cavitation in the upper lobe of the left lung. Acid-fast-bacilli were shown by sputum smear staining. The anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, refampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide were prescribed, but her symptoms and chest X-ray findings did not improve. Findings of MTD and MAC-PCR were negative but Mycobacterium abscessus was confirmed by sputum culture with the DNA hybridization method. Combination therapy with clarithromycin, amikacin and imipenem/cilastatin for one month improved her symptoms and chest X-ray shadow, and clarithromycin monotherapy was carried out for another ten months. Drug susceptibility tests revealed this mycobacterium was sensitive to clarithromycin and amikacin. To determine the environmental factors related to this infection, several samples were examined. Acid-fast-bacilli were present in a smear from the bath room drain. However, to confirm the infectious routes, longer observation is needed. Moreover, serum amyloid protein A and ESR were useful markers to estimate the clinical course. PMID:17144576

  11. Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer from Virginia and subsequent surveillance for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Rohm, John H; Sims, Jerry P; Sanchez, Susan; Gerhold, Richard W; Keel, M Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) was diagnosed in a 2-yr-old, male, free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Fauquier County, Virginia, USA, based on histopathology and culture for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Clinical and pathologic findings included emaciation; loss of body fat; chronic diarrhea; severe, chronic, diffuse granulomatous colitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; moderate, chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; as well as moderate chronic, multifocal, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis. These findings are consistent with previous reports of Johne's disease in cervids. Subsequent targeted surveillance of 10 emaciated deer with diarrhea, as well as sampling of 72 asymptomatic deer for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using culture of multiple tissue types, as well as serology using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) optimized for cervid antibody detection, did not reveal any additional cases of infection in this geographic region. To date, this appears to be an isolated case of Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer, and infection with the causative agent for Johne's disease appears to be an infrequent occurrence in deer from this region. The origin of infection was most likely domestic ruminants. This is the first report of clinical Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer outside of the Florida Keys, USA. Stressors, such as high deer population density and low selenium levels, may have contributed to the development of clinical disease in this case and warrant further investigation. PMID:19204350

  12. Notes from the Field: Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Meningoencephalitis from a Household Rodent Infestation - Minnesota, 2015.

    PubMed

    Talley, Pamela; Holzbauer, Stacy; Smith, Kirk; Pomputius, William

    2016-03-11

    On April 20, 2015, a female aged 15 years sought care at her pediatrician's office after 5 days of fever, myalgia, left parietal headache, and photophobia. A rapid influenza assay was negative, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and total white blood cell count were normal. She improved with symptomatic care at home, but returned to her pediatrician's office on April 28, reporting recurrence of her headache and photophobia and new onset of a stiff neck. She was admitted to the hospital, where she was febrile to 102.9°F (39.4°C) and had meningismus. Computed tomography scan of her head was normal, and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a markedly elevated white blood cell count with 68% lymphocytes, low glucose, and a negative Gram stain. She was treated empirically for both bacterial and herpes simplex virus meningitis. The patient's hospital course was notable for hypotension (blood pressure 81/50), irritability, and pancreatitis with a peak lipase of 8,627 U/L. CSF cultures yielded no growth, and CSF polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for herpes simplex virus was negative. Nucleic acid amplification testing, acid-fast bacilli stain, and acid-fast bacilli cultures of CSF were negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results of investigations for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, Lyme disease, human herpesvirus 6 and 7, and species of Babesia, Toxoplasma, Histoplasma, Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, and Brucella were negative. She recovered and was discharged on hospital day 11 with no apparent sequelae. PMID:26963688

  13. Mixed metazoan and bacterial infection of the gas bladder of the lined seahorse-a case report.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paul A; Petty, Barbara D

    2013-03-01

    Five wild-caught Lined Seahorses Hippocampus erectus from an aquarium system presented with altered buoyancy and distended upper trunks. Radiography of one specimen revealed a reduced air volume in the gas bladder. Pneumocystocentesis revealed a brown exudate of numerous leukocytes, parasite ova, and Gram- and acid-fast-positive bacilli under wet mounts and stains. Necropsies revealed enlarged, friable kidneys and distended gas bladders containing copious purulent exudate, necrotic tissue, and adult digeneans Dictysarca virens. Bacterial isolates from exudate cultures grown on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as Gordonia sp. and Mycobacterium poriferae by high-performance liquid chromatography and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Histopathology demonstrated a histiocytic response in kidney and gas bladder exudate, inflammation of the gas bladder wall, and infection of the gas bladder lumen with parasite ova and acid-fast-positive and Gomori's methenamine silver-positive bacilli. Praziquantel is prescribed for digenean infections but dissolves incompletely in seawater and is toxic to this host. Eradication of intermediate host vectors is a management option. Treatment of Gordonia infection has not been addressed in nonhuman animals, and there is no known effective treatment for Mycobacterium spp. infection in fishes. This is the first case report of digenean infection of the gas bladder in a syngnathid, Gordonia sp. infection in a nonhuman animal, and M. poriferae infection in a fish. PMID:23343385

  14. Mycobacterium marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus).

    PubMed

    Haridy, M; Tachikawa, Y; Yoshida, S; Tsuyuguchi, K; Tomita, M; Maeda, S; Wada, T; Ibi, K; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2014-01-01

    Four Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus) were presented with emaciation, abdominal distention and ulcerative and nodular cutaneous lesions affecting the brisket, limbs, digits and ventral abdomen. Another three frogs had been found dead in the same tank 1 year previously. Necropsy examination of these seven frogs revealed splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with multiple tan-yellow nodular foci present in the liver, spleen, heart, lungs, ovaries and kidneys. Microscopically, five frogs had necrosis and surrounding granulomatous inflammation in the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, intestine and ovaries, with numerous acid-fast bacilli in the areas of necrosis. Two frogs had granulomatous lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen, heart, coelomic membrane, stomach and intestinal wall. These lesions had no or minimal necrosis and few acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium spp. was cultured from three frogs and identified as Mycobacterium marinum by colony growth rate and photochromogenicity and DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs. PMID:25047922

  15. Local Cellular Immune Responses and Pathogenesis of Buruli Ulcer Lesions in the Experimental Mycobacterium Ulcerans Pig Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Bolz, Miriam; Ruggli, Nicolas; Borel, Nicole; Pluschke, Gerd; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease of the skin that is caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. We recently established an experimental pig (Sus scrofa) infection model for Buruli ulcer to investigate host-pathogen interactions, the efficacy of candidate vaccines and of new treatment options. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we have used the model to study pathogenesis and early host-pathogen interactions in the affected porcine skin upon infection with mycolactone-producing and non-producing M. ulcerans strains. Histopathological analyses of nodular lesions in the porcine skin revealed that six weeks after infection with wild-type M. ulcerans bacteria extracellular acid fast bacilli were surrounded by distinct layers of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes. Upon ulceration, the necrotic tissue containing the major bacterial burden was sloughing off, leading to the loss of most of the mycobacteria. Compared to wild-type M. ulcerans bacteria, toxin-deficient mutants caused an increased granulomatous cellular infiltration without massive tissue necrosis, and only smaller clusters of acid fast bacilli. Conclusions/Significance In summary, the present study shows that the pathogenesis and early immune response to M. ulcerans infection in the pig is very well reflecting BU disease in humans, making the pig infection model an excellent tool for the profiling of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. PMID:27128097

  16. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Severely-malnourished or HIV-infected Children with Pneumonia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Pietroni, Mark A.C.; Faruque, Abu S.G.; Ashraf, Hasan; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Hossain, Md. Iqbal; Das, Sumon Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2013-01-01

    Presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as acute pneumonia in severely-malnourished and HIV-positive children has received very little attention, although this is very important in the management of pneumonia in children living in communities where TB is highly endemic. Our aim was to identify confirmed TB in children with acute pneumonia and HIV infection and/or severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (weight-for-length/height or weight-for-age z score <-3 of the WHO median, or presence of nutritional oedema). We conducted a literature search, using PubMed and Web of Science in April 2013 for the period from January 1974 through April 2013. We included only those studies that reported confirmed TB identified by acid fast bacilli (AFB) through smear microscopy, or by culture-positive specimens from children with acute pneumonia and SAM and/or HIV infection. The specimens were collected either from induced sputum (IS), or gastric lavage (GL), or broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), or percutaneous lung aspirates (LA). Pneumonia was defined as the radiological evidence of lobar or patchy consolidation and/or clinical evidence of severe/very severe pneumonia according to the WHO criteria of acute respiratory infection. A total of 17 studies met our search criteria but 6 were relevant for our review. Eleven studies were excluded as those did not assess the HIV status of the children or specify the nutritional status of the children with acute pneumonia and TB. We identified only 747 under-five children from the six relevant studies that determined a tubercular aetiology of acute pneumonia in children with SAM and/or positive HIV status. Three studies were reported from South Africa and one each from the Gambia, Ethiopia, and Thailand where 610, 90, 35, and 12 children were enrolled and 64 (10%), 23 (26%), 5 (14%), and 1 (8%) children were identified with active TB respectively, with a total of 93 (12%) children with active TB. Among 610 HIV-infected children in three studies

  17. Immunopathological studies on feline cutaneous and (muco)cutaneous mycobacteriosis.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Schiller, I; Baumgärtner, W

    2003-02-10

    Eight cases of feline (muco)cutaneous mycobacteriosis were studied to identify the causative agent and examine for phenotype and functional characteristics (expression of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) of the inflammatory cells. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing identified the causative agents as Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. avium complex in each four cases. Lesions were characterised by pyogranulomatous infiltration, with variability in the presence and size of necrotic areas, the presence of multinucleated giant cells and the degree of lymphocyte infiltration. Macrophages were positive for myeloid/histiocyte antigen (calprotectin), suggesting they represented freshly recruited monocytes; further differentiation to epithelioid cells and multinucleated giant cells was associated with loss of the myeloid/histiocyte antigen. Lymphocytes were found disseminated in the infiltrate (predominantly T cells) and as B cell-dominated accumulations mainly in the periphery of the lesions. Acid-fast bacilli were numerous. In M. tuberculosis complex infection, extracellular bacilli were most prominent, whereas in M. avium complex infection, bacilli were mainly located intracellularly. All cytokines examined as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were variably expressed by macrophages, epithelioid cells and multinucleated giant cells. Expression was most intense in degenerating macrophages loaded with intracellular bacilli, but was also seen cell-free within necrotic areas. The intense induction of cytokine and iNOS expression especially in infected macrophages suggests a relatively low virulence for these infectious agents in cats. Furthermore, the confinement of the bacilli to lesions indicates a successful response to infection. PMID:12586480

  18. THE CULTIVATION OF THE LEPROSY BACILLUS AND THE EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION OF LEPROSY IN THE JAPANESE DANCING MOUSE.

    PubMed

    Duval, C W

    1910-09-01

    Pure cultures of an acid-fast bacillus were cultivated upon special media from the human tissues in four cases of leprosy. The nature of the growth, morphological characters and tinctorial properties do not differ for any of the cultures and correspond closely to the bacilli in the human leprous tubercles. That the bacillus of leprosy will multiply and continue to do so indefinitely outside of the animal body was first demonstrated by Clegg who cultivated an acid-fast organism from leprosy tissue in the presence of ameba and their symbiotics. Not only have I been able to confirm Clegg's work, but in addition I have succeeded in growing the bacillus in pure culture and in reproducing the disease in the Japanese dancing mouse, thereby establishing its identity. This species of animal acquires the infection in four to six weeks after intraperitoneal or subcutaneous inoculation with either emulsions of fresh leprous tissue or the pure cultures of B. leprae. Comparatively few bacilli are necessary to infect the mouse; and the mode of inoculation does not seem to make any appreciable difference in respect to the nature and time of development of the lesion. The experimental lesions are proliferative in character and identical with those in the human subject. Macroscopically they appear as glistening, white nodules which, in the early stages of development, resemble miliary tubercles. In my experience neither the cultures nor the bacilli directly from the human tissues have shown any evidence of multiplication or given rise to lesions when injected into the ordinary laboratory animals such as guinea pigs, rabbits, gray and white mice and rats, although repeated attempts have been made to infect these animals. B. leprae will not only multiply but it will colonize on a plain agar medium seeded with a pure culture of encysted ameba (Plate LVIII, Fig. 5), and upon an agar or banana medium prepared with a I per cent. solution of cystein and tryptophane. Colonization occurs in

  19. Rate of recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from frozen acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive sputum samples subjected to long-term storage in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at -20 °C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at -20 °C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  20. Variation in Gamma Interferon Responses to Different Infecting Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear-Positive Patients and Household Contacts in Antananarivo, Madagascar▿

    PubMed Central

    Rakotosamimanana, Niaina; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Soares, Jean-Louis; Doherty, T. Mark; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Ramarokoto, Herimanana; Zumla, Alimuddin; Huggett, Jim; Rook, Graham; Richard, Vincent; Gicquel, Brigitte; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy

    2010-01-01

    The majority of healthy individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis will not develop tuberculosis (TB), though many may become latently infected. More precise measurement of the human immune response to M. tuberculosis infection may help us understand this difference and potentially identify those subjects most at risk of developing active disease. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production has been widely used as a proxy marker to study infection and to examine the human immune response to specific M. tuberculosis antigens. It has been suggested that genetically distinct M. tuberculosis strains may invoke different immune responses, although how these differences influence the immune responses and clinical outcome in human tuberculosis is still poorly understood. We therefore evaluated the antigen-specific IFN-γ production responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two cohorts of subjects recruited in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from 2004 to 2006 and examined the influence of the infecting M. tuberculosis strains on this response. The cohorts were sputum-positive index cases and their household contacts. Clinical strains isolated from the TB patients were typed by spoligotyping. Comparison of the IFN-γ responses with the spoligotype of the infecting clinical strains showed that “modern” M. tuberculosis strains, like Beijing and Central Asian (CAS) strains, tended to induce lower IFN-γ responses than “ancient” strains, like East African-Indian (EAI) strains, in index cases and their household contacts. These results suggest that new strains may have evolved to induce a host response different from that of ancient strains. These findings could have important implications in the development of therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. PMID:20463103

  1. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis FAS-II condensing enzymes: their role in mycolic acid biosynthesis, acid-fastness, pathogenesis and in future drug development.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Apoorva; Molle, Virginie; Besra, Gurdyal S; Jacobs, William R; Kremer, Laurent

    2007-06-01

    Mycolic acids are very long-chain fatty acids representing essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. Considering their importance, characterization of key enzymes participating in mycolic acid biosynthesis not only allows an understanding of their role in the physiology of mycobacteria, but also might lead to the identification of new drug targets. Mycolates are synthesized by at least two discrete elongation systems, the type I and type II fatty acid synthases (FAS-I and FAS-II respectively). Among the FAS-II components, the condensing enzymes that catalyse the formation of carbon-carbon bonds have received considerable interest. Four condensases participate in initiation (mtFabH), elongation (KasA and KasB) and termination (Pks13) steps, leading to full-length mycolates. We present the recent biochemical and structural data for these important enzymes. Special emphasis is given to their role in growth, intracellular survival, biofilm formation, as well as in the physiopathology of tuberculosis. Recent studies demonstrated that phosphorylation of these enzymes by mycobacterial kinases affects their activities. We propose here a model in which kinases that sense environmental changes can phosphorylate the condensing enzymes, thus representing a novel mechanism of regulating mycolic acid biosynthesis. Finally, we discuss the attractiveness of these enzymes as valid targets for future antituberculosis drug development. PMID:17555433

  2. A mimic's imitator: a cavitary pneumonia in a myasthenic patient with history of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Raquel Ramos; Bhanot, Nitin; Min, Zaw

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old man with myasthenia gravis receiving prednisone and plasmapheresis was found to have right upper lobe cavitary pneumonia on radiological imaging studies after thymectomy. He had a remote history of treated pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) at the age of 19. On the basis of history of TB and current prednisone therapy, reactivation of pulmonary TB was highly suspected. Branching Gram-positive bacilli were identified on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). BAL Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-fast bacilli stain was negative, but a modified Kinyoun stain revealed branching, beaded, filamentous bacilli, suggestive of Nocardia spp. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica grew from the BAL culture. Cerebral MRI demonstrated a right frontal lobe lesion, clinically correlated to be nocardial brain abscess. The patient was treated with three-drug antimicrobial therapy (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, meropenem, linezolid) for 2 months, followed by an additional 10 months of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Amikacin would have been included in the initial three-drug regimen, but its use was contraindicated in our myasthenic patient because aminoglycoside would trigger fatal myasthenic crisis by neuromuscular blockage. Follow-up imaging studies revealed resolution of the lung and brain lesions. PMID:26150643

  3. Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at Thule AFB (76.5 N) from January 28 - February 15, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, G. H.; Sanders, R. W.; Jakoubek, R. O.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.; Solomon, S.

    1988-01-01

    Near-ultraviolet and visible spectrographs identical to those employed at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (77.8 S) during the austral spring seasons of 1986 and 1987 were used to study the stratosphere above Thule, Greenland (76.5 N) during early spring, 1988. Observations were carried out both at night using the direct moon as a light source, and during the day by collecting the scattered light from the zenith sky when solar zenith angles were less than about 94.5 degrees. Excellent meteorological conditions prevailed in the troposphere and stratosphere at Thule. Surface weather was extremely clear over most of the period, facilitating measurements of the direct light from the moon. The lower stratospheric arctic polar vortex was located very near Thule throughout the observing period, and temperature at the 30 mbar level were typically below -80 C above Thule, according to the National Meteorological Center daily analyses. Thus conditions were favorable for polar stratospheric cloud formation above Thule. Total column ozone abundances were about 350 to 400 Dobson units, and did not suggest a clear temporal trend over the observing period. Stratospheric nitrogen dioxide measurements were complicated by the presence of a large component of tropospheric pollution on many occasions. Stratospheric nitrogen dioxide could be identified on most days using the absorption in the scattered light from the zenith sky, which greatly enhances the stratospheric airmass while suppressing the tropospheric contribution. These measurements suggest that the total vertical column abundance of nitrogen dioxide present over Thule in February was extremely low, sometimes as low as 3 x 10 to the 14th per sq cm. The abundance of nitrogen dioxide increased systemically from about 3 x 10 to the 14th in late January to 1.0 x 10 to the 15th per sq cm in mid-February, perhaps because of photolysis of N2O5 in the upper part of the stratosphere, near 25 to 35 km.

  4. The second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted for mating at the launch tower, Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the launch tower, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., the second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted to vertical. The Titan will power the launch of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. Multiscale Speciation of U and Pu at Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, McGuire AFB, Mayak, and Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Batuk, Olga N; Conradson, Steven D; Aleksandrova, Olga N; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Burakov, Boris E; Clark, David L; Czerwinski, Ken R; Felmy, Andrew R; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Moore, Dean A; Myasoedov, Boris F; Reed, Donald T; Reilly, Dallas D; Roback, Robert C; Vlasova, Irina E; Webb, Samuel M; Wilkerson, Marianne P

    2015-06-01

    The speciation of U and Pu in soil and concrete from Rocky Flats and in particles from soils from Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, and McGuire Air Force Base and bottom sediments from Mayak was determined by a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) element maps. These experiments identify four types of speciation that sometimes may and other times do not exhibit an association with the source terms and histories of these samples: relatively well ordered PuO2+x and UO2+x that had equilibrated with O2 and H2O under both ambient conditions and in fires or explosions; instances of small, isolated particles of U as UO2+x, U3O8, and U(VI) species coexisting in close proximity after decades in the environment; alteration phases of uranyl with other elements including ones that would not have come from soils; and mononuclear Pu-O species and novel PuO2+x-type compounds incorporating additional elements that may have occurred because the Pu was exposed to extreme chemical conditions such as acidic solutions released directly into soil or concrete. Our results therefore directly demonstrate instances of novel complexity in the Å and μm-scale chemical speciation and reactivity of U and Pu in their initial formation and after environmental exposure as well as occasions of unexpected behavior in the reaction pathways over short geological but significant sociological times. They also show that incorporating the actual disposal and site conditions and resultant novel materials such as those reported here may be necessary to develop the most accurate predictive models for Pu and U in the environment. PMID:25815708

  5. Analysis of wind bias change with respect to time at Cape Kennedy, Florida, and Vandenberg AFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    A statistical analysis is presented of the temporal variability of wind vectors at 1 km altitude intervals from 0 to 27 km altitude after applying a digital filter to the original wind profile data sample.

  6. AFB Directory of Services for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons in the United States and Canada. 26th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    This directory is a broad-based compilation of schools, agencies, organizations, and programs in the governmental and private, non-profit sectors that provide a wide variety of direct and indirect services, information, and other assistance to individuals with blindness or visual impairments. Organized information on producers and distributors of…

  7. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of programmed…

  8. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for a Mutagenic Mode of Action for Cancer: AFB1 and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AOPs provide a framework to describe a sequence of measureable key events (KEs), beginning with a molecular initiating event (MIE), followed by a series of identified KEs linked to one another by KE Relationships (KERs), all anchored by a specific adverse outcome (AO). Each KE/KE...

  9. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): USAF Homestead AFB, Operable Unit 3, Site SS-13, FL, September 16, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the PCB Spill Area (Site SS-13) Operable Unit No. 3 at Homestead Air Force Base in Homestead, Florida. The State of Florida, US EPA, and the US Air Force concur with the selected remedy of 'no action'.

  10. Mycobacterial disease in a population of 339 cats in Great Britain: II. Histopathology of 225 cases, and treatment and outcome of 184 cases.

    PubMed

    Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A; McFarland, Sarah E; Schock, Alex; Brewer, Jacqueline I; Crawshaw, Tim R; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Shaw, Darren J

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated 339 cases of feline mycobacterial infection, with histopathology findings from 225 cases, and treatment and outcome information from 184 cases. Tissue samples from cats with cutaneous lesions or suspicious masses at exploratory laparotomy were submitted to the Veterinary Laboratories Agency for mycobacterial culture over a 4-year period to December 2008. The study reviewed the files for information about histopathology, treatment and outcome, and blindly reviewed histopathological changes (including staining for acid-fast bacteria [AFB]) in a sub-set of 45 cases. When a cat is suspected of having a mycobacterial infection, accurate identification of the species involved helps to determine possible treatment options and prognosis. The study confirmed that histopathology and the presence of AFB are useful tools in the recognition of mycobacterial infection. Unfortunately, they did little to help determine the species of mycobacteria involved. The study identified a group of cats that were negative for AFB at the primary laboratory, but from which mycobacteria could be cultured; commonly Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. The study also identified a group of cats which where culture negative, despite typical signs of mycobacterial infection and positive AFB staining. Many cases responded favourably to treatment (56% of the cases where information was available), and many cats gained complete remission (42%). However, relapses were common (64%) and often followed by pulmonary and/or systemic spread that may have resulted from treatment with short courses of single drugs. This study shows that the diagnosis and treatment of feline mycobacteriosis is complex and challenging. PMID:22061264

  11. Detection of Colonization by Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli in Patients by Use of the Xpert MDRO Assay

    PubMed Central

    Canton, Rafael; Kop, JoAnn; Chan, Ryan; Ryan, Jamie; Weir, Fred; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; LaBombardi, Vincent; Persing, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting colonization of patients with carbapenemase-producing bacteria can be difficult. This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of a PCR-based method (Xpert MDRO) for detecting blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaVIM carbapenem resistance genes using GeneXpert cartridges to the results of culture with and without a broth enrichment step on 328 rectal, perirectal, and stool samples. The culture method included direct inoculation of a MacConkey agar plate on which a 10-μg meropenem disk was placed and plating on MacConkey agar after overnight enrichment of the sample in MacConkey broth containing 1 μg/ml of meropenem. Forty-three (13.1%) samples were positive by PCR for blaKPC and 11 (3.4%) were positive for blaVIM; none were positive for blaNDM. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the PCR assay for blaKPC were 100%, 99.0%, 93.0%, and 100%, respectively, compared to broth enrichment culture and sequencing of target genes. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the assay for blaVIM were 100%, 99.4%, 81.8%, and 100%, respectively. Since none of the clinical samples contained organisms with blaNDM, 66 contrived stool samples were prepared at various dilutions using three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates containing blaNDM. The PCR assay showed 100% positivity at dilutions from 300 to 1,800 CFU/ml and 93.3% at 150 CFU/ml. The Xpert MDRO PCR assay required 2 min of hands-on time and 47 min to complete. Rapid identification of patients colonized with carbapenemase-producing organisms using multiplex PCR may help hospitals to improve infection control activities. PMID:24006011

  12. Prevalence of Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Bloodstream Infection in Febrile Neutropenia Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Ying; Fan, Xing; Tang, Wei; Hu, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bloodstream infection (BSI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To evaluate the causative bacteria and identify risk factors for BSI associated mortality in febrile neutropenia patients undergoing HSCT, we collected the clinical and microbiological data from patients underwent HSCT between 2008 and 2014 and performed a retrospective analysis. Throughout the study period, among 348 episodes of neutropenic fever in patients underwent HSCT, 89 episodes in 85 patients had microbiological defined BSI with a total of 108 isolates. Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were the most common isolates (76, 70.3%) followed by gram-positive bacteria (GPB, 29, 26.9%) and fungus (3, 2.8%). As to the drug resistance, 26 multiple drug resistance (MDR) isolates were identified. Resistant isolates (n = 23) were more common documented in GNB, mostly Escherichia coli (9/36, 25%) and Klebsiella pneumonia (6/24, 25%). A total of 12 isolated were resistant to carbapenem including 4 K pneumoniae (4/24, 16.7%), 3 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other 4 GNB isolates (Citrobacter freumdii, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Chryseobacterium indologenes). As to the GPB, only 3 resistant isolates were documented including 2 methicillin-resistant isolates (Staphylococcus hominis and Arcanobacterium hemolysis) and 1 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Among these 85 patients with documented BSI, 11 patients died of BSI as primary or associated cause with a BSI-related mortality of 13.1 ± 3.7% and 90-day overall survival after transplantation at 80.0 ± 4.3%. Patients with high-risk disease undergoing allo-HSCT, prolonged neutropenia (≥15 days) and infection with carbapenem-resistant GNB were associated with BSI associated mortality in univariate and multivariate analyses. Our report revealed a prevalence of GNB in BSI of neutropenic patients undergoing HSCT. Patients with high-risk diseases with prolonged neutropenia and carbapenem-resistant GNB were independent risk factors for BSI-related mortality. PMID:26559260

  13. Comparative genome analysis of central nitrogen metabolism and its control by GlnR in the class Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The assimilation of nitrogen in bacteria is achieved through only a few metabolic conversions between alpha-ketoglutarate, glutamate and glutamine. The enzymes that catalyze these conversions are glutamine synthetase, glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase. In low-GC Gram-positive bacteria the transcriptional control over the levels of the related enzymes is mediated by four regulators: GlnR, TnrA, GltC and CodY. We have analyzed the genomes of all species belonging to the taxonomic families Bacillaceae, Listeriaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae and Streptococcaceae to determine the diversity in central nitrogen metabolism and reconstructed the regulation by GlnR. Results Although we observed a substantial difference in the extent of central nitrogen metabolism in the various species, the basic GlnR regulon was remarkably constant and appeared not affected by the presence or absence of the other three main regulators. We found a conserved regulatory association of GlnR with glutamine synthetase (glnRA operon), and the transport of ammonium (amtB-glnK) and glutamine/glutamate (i.e. via glnQHMP, glnPHQ, gltT, alsT). In addition less-conserved associations were found with, for instance, glutamate dehydrogenase in Streptococcaceae, purine catabolism and the reduction of nitrite in Bacillaceae, and aspartate/asparagine deamination in Lactobacillaceae. Conclusions Our analyses imply GlnR-mediated regulation in constraining the import of ammonia/amino-containing compounds and the production of intracellular ammonia under conditions of high nitrogen availability. Such a role fits with the intrinsic need for tight control of ammonia levels to limit futile cycling. PMID:22607086

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility and beta-lactamase production of selected gram-negative bacilli from two Croatian hospitals: MYSTIC study results.

    PubMed

    Bedenic, B; Goic-Barisic, I; Budimir, A; Tonkic, M; Mihajkevic, L J; Novak, A; Sviben, M; Plecko, V; Punda-Polic, V; Kalenic, S

    2010-06-01

    The meropenem yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC) programme is a global, longitudinal resistance surveillance network that monitors the activity of meropenem and compares its activity with other broadspectrum antimicrobial agents. We now report the antimicrobial efficacy of meropenem compared to other broad-spectrum agents within the selective Gram-negative pathogen groups from two Croatian Hospitals investigated between 2002-2007. A total of 1510 Gram-negative pathogens were tested and the minimum-inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution method according to CLSI.There was no resistance to either imipenem or meropenem observed for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in both medical centers. High resistance rates of K. pneumoniae to ceftazidime (18%), cefepime (17%) and gentamicin (39%) are raising concern. Acinetobacter baumannii turned out to be the most resistant Gram-negative bacteria with 81% resistant to ceftazidime, 73% to cefepime, 69% to gentamicin and 71% to ciprofloxacin. Almost 20% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were resistant to imipenem, 13% to meropenem, 69% to gentamicin and 38% to ciprofloxacin.The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in E. coli was 10% and in K. pneumoniae 49%. PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of SHV-5 in nine E. coli strains and additional tem-1 beta-lactamase five strains. Five K. pneumoniae strains were positive for bla(SHV-5 )gene. Eight ESBL positive Enterobacter spp. strains were found to produce tem and CtX-m beta-lactamases. Plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases were not found among K. pneumoniae, E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Three A. baumannii strains from Zagreb University Center were identified by multiplex PCR as OXA-58 like producers. Six A. baumannii strains from Split University Center were found to possess an ISAba1 insertion sequence upstream of bla(OXA-51 )gene. According to our results meropenem remains an appropriate antibiotic for the treatment of severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. These data indicate that despite continued use of meropenem, carbapenem resistance is not increasing among species tested, except for A. Baumannii, in the two study hospitals and suggest that clinicians can still administer carbapenems as a reliable and effective choice in managing serious nosocomial infections. PMID:20566417

  15. Bioprospecting of Plant Growth Promoting Bacilli and Related Genera Prevalent in Soils of Pristine Sacred Groves: Biochemical and Molecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lyngwi, Nathaniel A.; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Kalita, Debajit; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus spp. and related genera native to soils of the pristine sacred groves from Meghalaya, India were characterized using biochemical and 16S rRNA gene analysis which revealed dominance of Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridibacillus in the groves. Biochemical estimation was carried out for in vitro testing of plant growth promoting traits present in these isolates. PCR screening were performed for plant growth-promoting related genes involved in the biosynthesis of acid phosphatase (AcPho), indolepyruvate decarboxylase (ipdC), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (accd) and siderophore biosynthesis protein (asbA). 76% of the sacred grove isolates gave an amplified fragment for AcPho. Three of the isolates gave an amplified fragment for IpdC gene. Apart from 2 isolates, all the other isolates including the reference strains were positive for the amplification of the accd gene indicating their potential to produce ACC deaminase enzyme. 42% of the isolates gave an amplified fragment for asbA gene indicating the potential ability of these isolates to produce the catechol type siderophore, petrobactin. Overall findings indicated multiple PGP genetic traits present in these isolates which suggested that these isolates are capable of expressing multiple PGP traits. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of accd and asbA genes from the isolates revealed that asbA genes from Paenibacillus taichungiensis SG3 and Paenibacillus tylopili SG24 indicated the occurrence of intergeneric horizontal transfer between Paenibacillus and Bacillus. PMID:27111883

  16. Selective pressures and lipopolysaccharide subunits as determinants of resistance of clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli to human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Porat, R; Johns, M A; McCabe, W R

    1987-01-01

    Differences in molecular composition of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) between serum-sensitive (S) clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and serum-resistant (R) clones derived by serial passage in serum were demonstrated to determine sensitivity or resistance to killing by normal human serum (NHS). LPS from R clones had a greater proportion of higher-molecular-weight, more highly O-antigen-substituted subunits than LPS from their serum S parents. Utilization of a liposomal model with inserted LPS simulating bacterial cell walls established LPS as the site of serum bactericidal action. Liposomes containing S LPS were lysed, while liposomes containing R LPS were unaffected by NHS. R and S LPS were fractionated into higher (F1)- and lower (F2)-molecular-weight fractions. Liposomes containing R LPS or the F1 fraction of S and R LPS were not lysed by serum. Liposomes containing the F2 fraction of S or R LPS were lysed by serum analogous to that observed with liposomes containing intact S LPS. These findings establish LPS to be one site of serum bactericidal activity and demonstrate that the higher-molecular-weight, highly O-antigen-substituted LPS subunits mediate resistance to killing by NHS. Images PMID:3804440

  17. Mycobacterial Bacilli Are Metabolically Active during Chronic Tuberculosis in Murine Lungs: Insights from Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic tuberculosis represents a major health problem for one third of the world’s population today. A key question relevant to chronic tuberculosis is the physiological status of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during this important stage of infection. Previous work on chronic tuberculosis revealed t...

  18. Evaluation of β-1,4-endoglucanases produced by bacilli isolated from paper and pulp mill effluents irrigated soil.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sangeeta; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Singh, Surender; Nain, Lata; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2014-08-01

    A total of 10 cellulase-producing bacteria were isolated from soil samples irrigated with paper and pulp mill effluents. The sequencing of 16S rRNA gene revealed that all isolates belonged to different species of genus Bacillus. Among the different isolates, B. subtilis IARI-SP-1 exhibited a high degree of β-1,4-endoglucanase (2.5 IU/ml), β-1,4-exoglucanase (0.8 IU/ml), and β-glucosidase (0.084 IU/ml) activity, followed by B. amyloliquefaciens IARI-SP-2. CMC was found to be the best carbon source for production of endo/exoglucanase and β-glucosidase. The β-1,4-endoglucanase gene was amplified from all isolates and their deduced amino acid sequences belonged to glycosyl hydrolase family 5. Among the domains of different isolates, the catalytic domains exhibited the highest homology of 93.7%, whereas the regions of signal, leader, linker, and carbohydrate-binding domain indicated low homology (73-74%). These variations in sequence homology are significant and could contribute to the structure and function of the enzyme. PMID:24743572

  19. Long-term survival and virulence of Mycobacterium leprae in amoebal cysts.

    PubMed

    Wheat, William H; Casali, Amy L; Thomas, Vincent; Spencer, John S; Lahiri, Ramanuj; Williams, Diana L; McDonnell, Gerald E; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Brennan, Patrick J; Jackson, Mary

    2014-12-01

    Leprosy is a curable neglected disease of humans caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin and peripheral nerves and manifests clinically in various forms ranging from self-resolving, tuberculoid leprosy to lepromatous leprosy having significant pathology with ensuing disfiguration disability and social stigma. Despite the global success of multi-drug therapy (MDT), incidences of clinical leprosy have been observed in individuals with no apparent exposure to other cases, suggestive of possible non-human sources of the bacteria. In this study we show that common free-living amoebae (FLA) can phagocytose M. leprae, and allow the bacillus to remain viable for up to 8 months within amoebic cysts. Viable bacilli were extracted from separate encysted cocultures comprising three common Acanthamoeba spp.: A. lenticulata, A. castellanii, and A. polyphaga and two strains of Hartmannella vermiformis. Trophozoites of these common FLA take up M. leprae by phagocytosis. M. leprae from infected trophozoites induced to encyst for long-term storage of the bacilli emerged viable by assessment of membrane integrity. The majority (80%) of mice that were injected with bacilli extracted from 35 day cocultures of encysted/excysted A. castellanii and A. polyphaga showed lesion development that was similar to mice challenged with fresh M. leprae from passage mice albeit at a slower initial rate. Mice challenged with coculture-extracted bacilli showed evidence of acid-fast bacteria and positive PCR signal for M. leprae. These data support the conclusion that M. leprae can remain viable long-term in environmentally ubiquitous FLA and retain virulence as assessed in the nu/nu mouse model. Additionally, this work supports the idea that M. leprae might be sustained in the environment between hosts in FLA and such residence in FLA may provide a macrophage-like niche contributing to the higher-than-expected rate of leprosy transmission despite a significant decrease in human reservoirs

  1. Long-term Survival and Virulence of Mycobacterium leprae in Amoebal Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, William H.; Casali, Amy L.; Thomas, Vincent; Spencer, John S.; Lahiri, Ramanuj; Williams, Diana L.; McDonnell, Gerald E.; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Brennan, Patrick J.; Jackson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy is a curable neglected disease of humans caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin and peripheral nerves and manifests clinically in various forms ranging from self-resolving, tuberculoid leprosy to lepromatous leprosy having significant pathology with ensuing disfiguration disability and social stigma. Despite the global success of multi-drug therapy (MDT), incidences of clinical leprosy have been observed in individuals with no apparent exposure to other cases, suggestive of possible non-human sources of the bacteria. In this study we show that common free-living amoebae (FLA) can phagocytose M. leprae, and allow the bacillus to remain viable for up to 8 months within amoebic cysts. Viable bacilli were extracted from separate encysted cocultures comprising three common Acanthamoeba spp.: A. lenticulata, A. castellanii, and A. polyphaga and two strains of Hartmannella vermiformis. Trophozoites of these common FLA take up M. leprae by phagocytosis. M. leprae from infected trophozoites induced to encyst for long-term storage of the bacilli emerged viable by assessment of membrane integrity. The majority (80%) of mice that were injected with bacilli extracted from 35 day cocultures of encysted/excysted A. castellanii and A. polyphaga showed lesion development that was similar to mice challenged with fresh M. leprae from passage mice albeit at a slower initial rate. Mice challenged with coculture-extracted bacilli showed evidence of acid-fast bacteria and positive PCR signal for M. leprae. These data support the conclusion that M. leprae can remain viable long-term in environmentally ubiquitous FLA and retain virulence as assessed in the nu/nu mouse model. Additionally, this work supports the idea that M. leprae might be sustained in the environment between hosts in FLA and such residence in FLA may provide a macrophage-like niche contributing to the higher-than-expected rate of leprosy transmission despite a significant decrease in human reservoirs

  2. THE BEHAVIOR OF BACILLUS LEPRAE IN COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    Couret, M

    1911-05-01

    intraperitoneally with a heavy suspension of Bacillus leprae. These animals were killed and examined three days later, but the bacilli were not demonstrable from the regions about the sites of inoculation. Pigeons are likewise refractory. It is impossible to cause a local reaction in these birds, and the injected bacilli disappear rapidly. Hence, probably no multiplication takes place in them. Goats, young pigs, and white and dancing mice are in a degree susceptible to injections, and though undoubted lesions are produced, and multiplication of the bacilli occurs, the lesions and bacilli disappear after a limited time. Acid-fast bacilli which are recovered from the lesions are long, slim, and beaded, though the organisms used in the inoculations were short, unbeaded, and coccoid. Monkeys inoculated with cultures of the short unbeaded forms react promptly. The lesions resulting, though confined in most instances to the site of inoculation, occasionally appear at distant points. The number of bacilli present in the nodules and their arrangement within typical lepra cells show that multiplication has taken place. The organism has, however, changed from the short coccoid form to the long, slender, beaded form. Though the lesions induced and the bacilli present are in every way similar to those found in man, their tendency to disappear gradually after a quiescent stage clearly denotes that the tissues of the monkey, although less refractory than the tissues of the animals previously mentioned, still offer resistance to invasion. While mammals react but poorly to inoculations of the leprosy bacillus, this reaction manifests itself in various ways in different species. For example, while multiplication of the organism with the production of lesions occurs in some species, in others that are more refractory, the injected bacilli assume the involuted or beaded forms and do not multiply or produce lesions; in others, still more resistant to the action of the leprosy bacillus, the organisms

  3. Making a timely diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Making a timely diagnosis of adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is critical to interrupting transmission and optimizing treatment outcomes. A hypothesis based on clinical experience is that a timely diagnosis may be made by addressing seven clinical rubrics: six related to history, one to the laboratory. Responses may be considered to be part of a clinical heuristic for making a timely diagnosis of pulmonary TB. The larger the number of affirmative responses, the more likely the diagnosis, although it is probable some questions carry more weight than others. The radiograph is key and may almost be considered to be confirmatory of the history. Collectively, the responses should prompt suspicion of pulmonary TB – submission of sputum for acid-fast bacilli smear and culture, and respiratory isolation. PMID:26469154

  4. [Pharyngeal tuberculosis: Case report].

    PubMed

    Spini, Roxana Gabriela; Bordino, Lucas; Cohen, Daniela; Martins, Andrea; Ramírez, Zaida; González, Norma E

    2015-08-01

    Pharyngeal tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation. In Argentina, the number of cases of tuberculosis reported in children under 19 years in 2012 was 1752. Only 12.15% had extrapulmonary manifestation. A case of a 17 year old girl with pharyngeal tuberculosis is reported. The patient presented intermittent fever and swallowing pain for 6 months, without response to conventional antibiotic treatment. Chest X-ray showedbilateral micronodular infiltrate, so hospitalization was decided to study and treat. The sputum examination for acid-fast resistant bacilli was positive and treatment with four antituberculous drugs was started, with good evolution and disappearance of symptoms. Diagnostic confirmation with the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum culture was obtained. The main symptoms of pharyngeal tuberculosis are sore throat and difficulty in swallowing of long evolution. It is important to consider tuberculosis as differential diagnosis in patients with chronic pharyngitis unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:26172025

  5. Tinea Barbae: In Released from Treatment (RFT) Hansen's Disease Patient.

    PubMed

    Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Giri, Vc; Singh, Hosanna; Kumar, Vinod; Ali, Showkath

    2014-07-01

    Hansen Disease (leprosy) is a chronic inflammatory infectious disease that primarily targets skin, nerves and other internal organs (testis, liver etc.) caused by the acid fast intracellular bacilli, Mycobacterium leprae. Clinical presentation occurs with a wide spectrum including hypo pigmented anaesthetic patches, raised erythematous plaques and nodules and thickened peripheral nerves showing tenderness. The most important complication is the disability and deformity. The diagnosis of leprosy is frequently delayed because of its similarity with other more common skin conditions prevailing in some non endemic areas. We present a rare case report of tinea barbae in an old treated case of leprosy. This case is one of the rarest fungal infection in leprosy patient searched in PUBMED as there were other more tinea infection involving various sites in body which sometimes misdiagnosed as leprosy. PMID:25177622

  6. Mycobacterium genavense infection in a patient with long-standing chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Krebs, T; Zimmerli, S; Bodmer, T; Lämmle, B

    2000-10-01

    We describe the first case of disseminated infection with Mycobacterium genavense in an HIV-seronegative patient with a chronic haematological disorder. Our patient, an 80-year-old woman, had been under long-term treatment with chlorambucil (partially in combination with prednisone) for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). When she developed general fatigue and progressive anaemia, as well as progressive lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, bone marrow biopsy revealed granulomas with acid-fast bacilli, and cultures of both bone marrow and blood grew M. genavense. The patient's CD4+ cell count was approximately 100 microL(-1). Treatment with clarithromycin, ethambutol and rifabutin resulted in improvement of anaemia and general health as well as in regression of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:11086646

  7. An update on lower urinary tract tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wise, Gilbert J; Shteynshlyuger, Alex

    2008-07-01

    Tuberculosis of the genitourinary tract presents with atypical manifestations. Only 20% to 30% of patients with genitourinary tuberculosis have a history of pulmonary infection. Tuberculosis often affects the lower genitourinary system rather than the kidney. Tuberculosis of the lower genitourinary tract most commonly affects the epididymis and the testis, followed by bladder, ureter, prostate, and penis. Use of bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for bladder cancer can cause symptomatic tubercular infections of the lower genitourinary tract. Tuberculosis of the lower genitourinary tract can present with irritative voiding symptoms, hematuria, epididymo-orchitis, prostatitis, and fistulas. Tuberculosis of the seminal vesicles, vas, fallopian tubes, and the uterus can cause infertility. Urinalysis may demonstrate sterile pyuria, hematuria, or albuminuria. Identification of acid-fast bacilli in culture or tissue or by polymerase chain reaction studies is diagnostic. Medical treatment may not result in resolution of symptoms. Surgical intervention and reconstruction of the urinary tract are frequently indicated. PMID:18765130

  8. A Case of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Leprosy Discovered after 9 Years of Misdiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ramarozatovo, Lala S.; Ranaivo, Irina M.; Andrianarison, Malalaniaina; Cambau, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of misdiagnosed leprosy in a 21-year-old Malagasy male, who, improperly treated, developed secondary mycobacterial resistance to fluoroquinolone. The patient contracted the infection 9 years prior to the current consultation, displaying on the right thigh a single papulonodular lesion, which progressively spread to the lower leg, back, and face. Initial administration of ciprofloxacin and prednisolone led to temporary and fluctuating improvement. Subsequent long-term self-medication with ciprofloxacin and corticosteroid did not heal the foul and nonhealing ulcers on the legs and under the right sole. Histopathological findings were compatible with lepromatous leprosy. Skin biopsy was positive for acid-fast bacilli and PCR assay confirmed the presence of a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain of Mycobacterium leprae (gyrA A91V). After 6 months of standard regimen with rifampicin, clofazimine, and dapsone, clinical outcome significantly improved. Clinical characteristics and possible epidemiological implications are discussed. PMID:27579195

  9. Isolated Tenosynovitis as a Sole Manifestation: The Great Mimicker Still Continues to Surprise Us

    PubMed Central

    De, Abhishek; Surana, Trupti V; Biswas, Saugato; Reja, Abu Hena Hasanoor; Chatterjee, Gobinda

    2015-01-01

    A middle aged male presented with non-tender cystic swelling over left distal forearm since 1 year. No other cutaneous abnormality could be found except mild paresthesia of the overlying skin and equivocal thickening of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve. Routine investigation was within normal limits. Detailed workup of the patient including MRI of the lesion suggested the diagnosis as tenosynovitis with a soft tissue mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the cyst showed foamy macrophages and acid fast bacilli; while PCR of the aspirate confirmed the etiological agent as M. leprae. We, thus, report a unique case of isolated tenosynovitis as a sole manifestation of pure neural leprosy which is extremely rare in world literature. PMID:25814736

  10. Type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome-like presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Chiaratti, Francielle Chiavelli; Daxbacher, Egon Luiz Rodrigues; Neumann, Antonielle Borges Faria; Jeunon, Thiago

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease characterized by manifestations in the peripheral nerves and skin. The course of the disease may be interrupted by acute phenomena called reactions. This article reports a peculiar case of type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome-like features as the first clinical manifestation of leprosy, resulting in a delay in the diagnosis due to unusual clinical presentation. The patient had clinical and histopathological features reminiscent of Sweet's syndrome associated with clusters of vacuolated histiocytes containing acid-fast bacilli isolated or forming globi. Herein, it is discussed how to recognize type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome features, the differential diagnosis with type 1 leprosy reaction and the treatment options. When this kind of reaction is the first clinical presentation of leprosy, the correct diagnosis might be not suspected clinically, and established only with histopathologic evaluation. PMID:27438203

  11. A case of testicular tuberculosis mimicking malignancy in a healthy young man

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sherly; Izaguirre Anariba, Dora Ernestina; Dua, Kirandeep; Mir, Mohammad; Ankireddypalli, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis represents a form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis that occurs in the kidneys, ureters, seminal vesicles, prostate, testis, vas deferens, and epididymis. Isolated testicular involvement is unusual, and differential diagnosis includes testicular tumor, acute infection, infarction, and granulomatous infection. We report a case of a 36-year-old Ecuadorian man residing in New York, New York, who presented with a painful scrotal mass, weight loss, and purulent discharge from ulcerated lesion in scrotal area 10 years following his immigration to the United States. No other systemic symptoms were noted. Positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold and radio imaging results led to the diagnosis. After extensive workup, acid fast bacilli positive cultures obtained by computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy was initiated after sensitivity tests were confirmed. Significant recovery after 3 months of directly observed therapy was accomplished. PMID:27536355

  12. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with nested polymerase chain reaction analysis in enucleated eye ball in Eales' disease.

    PubMed

    Verma, Aditya; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Dhanurekha, L; Gayathri, R; Lily Therese, K

    2016-06-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was performed on enucleated eyeball for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) genome in a patient with Eales' disease. PCR analysis in all previous studies has been done mainly using aqueous, vitreous and epiretinal membranes from these patients. Paraffin wax embedded tissue section of the enucleated eyeball was analyzed by histopathology and nPCR targeting MPB64 gene and IS6110 region of M. tb genome. Lymphocytic infiltration was seen in the vitreous, iris and the retinal tissue. Ziehl Neelsen stain was negative for acid fast bacilli. Caseation necrosis was not seen in any section. Agarose gel electrophoretogram showed positive results with 200 bp specific amplified product targeting MPB64 gene, whereas nPCR targeting IS6110 region was negative. Since biopsy proven M. tb is extremely difficult in ocular tissues due to extensive necrosis, the nPCR technique aided in the diagnosis. PMID:26499903

  13. Detection of lipoarabinomannan as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sada, E; Aguilar, D; Torres, M; Herrera, T

    1992-01-01

    A coagglutination technique was established for the detection of lipoarabinomannan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human serum samples and evaluated for its utility in the diagnosis of tuberculosis at the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias in Mexico City. The test had a sensitivity of 88% in patients with sputum-smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis. The sensitivity in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis negative for acid-fast bacilli in sputum was 67%. Less favorable results were obtained for patients with AIDS and tuberculosis, with a sensitivity of 57%. The specificity in control patients with lung diseases different from tuberculosis and in healthy subjects was 100%. The positive predictive value was 100%, and the negative predictive value for patients with sputum-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis was 97%. The results of this study suggest that the detection of lipoarabinomannan is an accurate test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:1401008

  14. Disseminated tuberculosis with acute respiratory distress syndrome lacking granuloma formation in the lung.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Akira; Ishii, Hiroshi; Igata, Fumiyasu; Kushima, Hisako; Fujita, Masaki; Hisano, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2016-09-01

    A 66-year-old woman, who had been treated with systemic corticosteroids for four months for vasculitis of unknown etiology, was referred to our department due to a fever, dyspnea and patchy ground-glass opacities on chest computed tomography. As transbronchial biopsy specimens were suggestive of interstitial pneumonia, the prescribed dose of corticosteroids was increased. However, the patient developed pyrexia and presented diffuse ground-glass attenuation in the lungs bilaterally. Antituberculous drugs were administered because a previous blood interferon-gamma release assay was positive, however, the patient died of severe respiratory failure within several days, and cultures of her blood, urine and bone marrow posthumously revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An autopsy revealed multiple foci of air-space pneumonia containing numerous acid-fast bacilli without granuloma formation, accompanied by diffuse alveolar damage. An immunosuppressive condition might inhibit air-space pneumonia to become granulomatous inflammation as an initial stage of pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:26972247

  15. Non-tuberculous mycobacterium skin infections after tattooing in healthy individuals: A systematic review of case reports.

    PubMed

    Mudedla, Sreenuvasu; Avendano, Esther E; Raman, Gowri

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, several case reports and outbreaks reported occurrence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections within 6 months after receiving a tattoo in healthy individuals. NTM species (e.g., Chelonae, Fortuitum, Hemophillum, and Abscessus) are widespread in the environment and it is often suspected that contamination may occur through unsterile instrumentation or unsterile water used for diluting tattoo ink to dilute color. In reported cases, lesions were mainly restricted to a single color 'gray' part of the tattoo. Mycobacterium Chelonae was the most common cause of tattoo associated NTM infections. Less than 50% of the case reports tested tattoo ink for acid fast bacilli stains and cultures. Subjects required treatment with either clarithromycin alone or in combination with quinolones for 6 to 9 months. An increase in NTM skin infections in healthy individuals after tattooing indicates the need for sterile standards during tattooing and improved local and regional regulatory oversight. PMID:26158355

  16. A Case of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Leprosy Discovered after 9 Years of Misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Raharolahy, Onivola; Ramarozatovo, Lala S; Ranaivo, Irina M; Sendrasoa, Fandresena A; Andrianarison, Malalaniaina; Andrianarivelo, Mala Rakoto; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Rabenja, Fahafahantsoa Rapelanoro

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of misdiagnosed leprosy in a 21-year-old Malagasy male, who, improperly treated, developed secondary mycobacterial resistance to fluoroquinolone. The patient contracted the infection 9 years prior to the current consultation, displaying on the right thigh a single papulonodular lesion, which progressively spread to the lower leg, back, and face. Initial administration of ciprofloxacin and prednisolone led to temporary and fluctuating improvement. Subsequent long-term self-medication with ciprofloxacin and corticosteroid did not heal the foul and nonhealing ulcers on the legs and under the right sole. Histopathological findings were compatible with lepromatous leprosy. Skin biopsy was positive for acid-fast bacilli and PCR assay confirmed the presence of a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain of Mycobacterium leprae (gyrA A91V). After 6 months of standard regimen with rifampicin, clofazimine, and dapsone, clinical outcome significantly improved. Clinical characteristics and possible epidemiological implications are discussed. PMID:27579195

  17. Mycobacterium genavense Infections in a Tertiary Hospital and Reviewed Cases in Non-HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Santos, M.; Gil-Brusola, A.; Escandell, A.; Blanes, M.; Gobernado, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium genavense is a relatively new species of nontuberculous mycobacterium reported to cause disseminated infections in patients with AIDS and later on in non-HIV immunosuppressed patients. We describe clinical and laboratory features and response to therapy in 7 patients, three of them with HIV infection and four non-HIV—three organ transplant recipients and one with hyper-IgE syndrome—in Valencia, Spain, in a ten years period. We then summarize the published cases of M. avium complex infection, with invasion of peripheral blood, liver, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and lungs. In clinical samples a large number of acid-fast bacilli were observed. M. genavense grew only from liquid media and after a prolonged incubation period. Its identification was accomplished through molecular methods. Patients were treated with prolonged combinations of antimicrobial agents. There was clinical favourable outcome in 4 patients. PMID:24693456

  18. Case report of fatal Mycobacterium tilburgii infection.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Timur; Bakkaloglu, Oguz K; Ince, Burak; Tufan, Fatih; Kose, Murat; Poda, Mehves; Tascioglu, Didem; Koksalan, O Kaya; Saka, Bulent; Erten, Nilgun; Buyukbabani, Nesimi; Kilicaslan, Zeki; Tascioglu, Cemil

    2015-07-01

    There are few reports concerning Mycobacterium tilburgii infection in humans because this bacterium is non-cultivatable. Herein, using new molecular techniques, we report the case of an immunocompromised patient with fatal disseminated lymphadenitis that was caused by M. tilburgii.26 years old Caucasian HIV negative female patient presented with abdominal pain. Her clinical assessment revealed disseminated lymphadenitis, that was acid fast bacilli positive. Further molecular evaluation showed the causative agent as M. tilburgii. Despite anti mycobacterial therapy and careful management of intervening complications patient died because of an intraabdominal sepsis. This is the first fatal M. tilburgii infection in the literature. This case points the importance of careful management of patient's immune status and intervening infections besides implementation of effective drug treatment. PMID:25818194

  19. Tuberculosis of the Breast: An Initial Presentation of the Metabolic Syndrome with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Young Nigerian Woman.

    PubMed

    Adeiza, M A; Yusuf, R; Liman, A A; Abur, P; Bello, F; Abba, A A

    2016-01-01

    Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon presentation of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. A 40-year-old obese woman presented with a right breast abscess which had failed to heal after surgical drainage. There was no family history of breast disease. Biopsy and histology of the lesion showed chronic granulomatous inflammation with positive stains for acid fast bacilli compatible with tuberculosis. Further evaluation confirmed metabolic syndrome with type 2 diabetes mellitus. She was placed on antituberculosis chemotherapy and appropriate therapy for diabetes mellitus with complete resolution of the lesion. We report this case because of its rarity and to highlight the association between tuberculosis an infectious disease and overnutrition in diabetes mellitus, a noncommunicable disease. PMID:27034859

  20. Leprosy: An Overview of Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ramesh Marne; Prakash, Chaitra

    2012-01-01

    Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a microorganism that has a predilection for the skin and nerves. The disease is clinically characterized by one or more of the three cardinal signs: hypopigmented or erythematous skin patches with definite loss of sensation, thickened peripheral nerves, and acid-fast bacilli detected on skin smears or biopsy material. M. leprae primarily infects Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves leading to nerve damage and the development of disabilities. Despite reduced prevalence of M. leprae infection in the endemic countries following implementation of multidrug therapy (MDT) program by WHO to treat leprosy, new case detection rates are still high-indicating active transmission. The susceptibility to the mycobacteria and the clinical course of the disease are attributed to the host immune response, which heralds the review of immunopathology of this complex disease. PMID:22988457

  1. A case of testicular tuberculosis mimicking malignancy in a healthy young man.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sherly; Izaguirre Anariba, Dora Ernestina; Dua, Kirandeep; Mir, Mohammad; Ankireddypalli, Arvind

    2016-06-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis represents a form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis that occurs in the kidneys, ureters, seminal vesicles, prostate, testis, vas deferens, and epididymis. Isolated testicular involvement is unusual, and differential diagnosis includes testicular tumor, acute infection, infarction, and granulomatous infection. We report a case of a 36-year-old Ecuadorian man residing in New York, New York, who presented with a painful scrotal mass, weight loss, and purulent discharge from ulcerated lesion in scrotal area 10 years following his immigration to the United States. No other systemic symptoms were noted. Positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold and radio imaging results led to the diagnosis. After extensive workup, acid fast bacilli positive cultures obtained by computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy was initiated after sensitivity tests were confirmed. Significant recovery after 3 months of directly observed therapy was accomplished. PMID:27536355

  2. Thin layer microcolony culture associated with PCR for early identification of Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Roxo, Eliana; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2014-01-01

    The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff’s method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12nd and 25th day of culture). PMID:24948936

  3. Assessment of the BD MGIT TBc Identification Test for the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Network of Mycobacteriology Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Jorge; Couto, Isabel; Narciso, Inácio; Coelho, Elizabeth; Viegas, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of the TBcID assay in a panel of 100 acid-fast bacilli cultures. Sixty-four isolates were TBcID positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), whereas 36 gave negative results. These included 28 nontuberculous mycobacteria, one nonmycobacterial isolate, one M. tuberculosis, and six M. bovis BCG strains. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 90.14%, specificity of 100%, and positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 80.55%, respectively. The test is rapid, easy to perform and interpret, and does not require sample preparation or instrumentation. However, a negative result does not exclude the presence of a strain belonging to MTBC, especially when mutations in mpb64 gene are present or some M. bovis BCG strains are isolated. The TBcID showed potential to assist in the identification of MTBC when the implementation and usage of molecular methods are often not possible, principally in resource-limited countries. PMID:24587985

  4. Tuberculosis and AIDS Co-Morbidity in Children: Linkage of Databases from Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Reynaldo; Maciel, Ethel L.; Prado, Thiago N.; Caus, Antonio L.; Silva, Murilo M.; Golub, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of AIDS among children diagnosed with active tuberculosis (TB) in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, by linking TB and AIDS surveillance databases using Reclink software and SPSS. Among 411 pediatric TB cases from 2000 to 2006, 27 (7%) were co-infected with AIDS. Most children were unable to provide a sputum specimen; co-infected patients were more likely to be smear negative for acid-fast bacilli (83% vs 46%; p = 0.07) and culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (44% vs 19%; p < 0.001). In all, 57% of co-infected patients did not react to tuberculin skin test compared with 17% of TB patients (p < 0.001). This report emphasizes the significance of AIDS in pediatric TB cases and highlights the importance of evaluating surveillance databases for gaining a better understanding of the burden of co-infection. PMID:20876684

  5. Aquarium-borne Mycobacterium marinum skin infection. Report of 15 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; De Vito, Daniela; Vestita, Michelangelo; Delvecchio, Susanna; Ranieri, Luigi Davide; Santantonio, Marilina; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum is a non-tuberculous photochromogenic mycobacterium, commonly responsible for fish and amphibious infections world-wide. Contagion in humans typically follows minor hand trauma from aquarium keeping and manifests as a granulomatous infection of the skin. Dissemination is rare and almost exclusive to immunosuppressed hosts. 15 cases of M. marinum fish tank related infection are hereby reported. The site of infection was the upper limbs in all cases. 3 patients presented a single papulo-verrucous lesion, while the remaining 12 showed a sporotrichoid clinical pattern. Diagnosis was reached by history and clinical examination and further supported by one or more of the following criteria: histology, culture, acid fast bacilli identification from histologic specimen and PCR. 2 to 3 months minocycline treatment showed efficacy in 13 individuals, another case was treated with rifampicin-isoniazid association, yet another showed spontaneous regression over a 3 month period. PMID:24002023

  6. Successful medical treatment of multiple cryptococcomas: report of a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Arayawichanont, A; Prayoonwiwat, N; Churojana, A; Sangruchi, T; Poungvarin, N

    1999-10-01

    We report a 35-year-old man diagnosed as having CNS cryptococcosis with multiple cryptococcomas, presenting with headache, papilloedema and impaired mental function in a previously healthy man. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis with low glucose level. Gram's stain, acid fast bacilli stain and Indian ink examination were all negative. CSF cryptococcal antigen was positive, however, several fungal cultures were negative. Early cranial CT scan showed focal cerebritis over the right temporal lobe while subsequent imaging studies showed multiple contrast-enhancing masses with severe surrounding brain oedema over bilateral frontoparietal areas. Brain biopsy showed cryptococcal granulomatous lesions. Treatment was successful with antifungal agents and steroids without surgical removal. PMID:10561961

  7. [Mycobacterium marinum. A rare cause of infection of the skin and joints].

    PubMed

    Byg, K E; Milman, N; Clausen, P P; Radulescu, B

    1997-09-01

    Mycobacterium marinum is a rare cause of disseminated infection in man. The case report describes an 80-year-old woman, who had been treated with oral corticosteroids for bronchial asthma for 40 years, and in the same period had been swimming daily in swimming pools. At the first admission, the symptoms and clinical findings were interpreted as seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. After eight years of disease with recurrent infections of the skin, periarticular tissues and joints in the hands and one elbow, a biopsy specimen from an abscess showed granulomatous inflammation and acid fast bacilli. Culture for mycobacteria grew M. marinum. There was a severe, destructive monoarthritis in the right second metacarpophalangeal joint. The patient recovered completely on treatment with clarithromycin and doxycycline. PMID:9304271

  8. Complicated coexisting pyogenic and tuberculous otitis media affecting the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas: report of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Brar, Tripti; Mrig, Sumit; Passey, J C; Agarwal, A K; Jain, Shayma

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case in which a 28-year-old woman presented with a long-standing history of ear discharge, hearing loss, facial weakness with ipsilateral facial swelling and cellulitis, a postauricular fistula, and an abscess of the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas. The pus stained positive for bacteria and acid-fast bacilli, and culture was positive for Proteus vulgaris and mycobacteria. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of tuberculous otitis media with complications was made. Computed tomography showed extensive destruction of the tympanic and mastoid part of the temporal bone, as well as lytic lesions in the skull. The patient was placed on antituberculosis drug therapy. Although her facial nerve palsy and hearing loss persisted, she otherwise responded well and did not require surgery. PMID:23354894

  9. Tuberculous Panophthalmitis with Lymphadenitis and Central Nervous System Tuberculoma

    PubMed Central

    Srichatrapimuk, Sirawat; Wattanatranon, Duangkamon

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease that spreads globally. The ocular manifestations of TB are uncommon and diverse. TB panophthalmitis has been rarely reported. Here, we described a 38-year-old Thai man presenting with panophthalmitis of the right eye. Further investigation showed that he had concurrent TB lymphadenitis and central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma, as well as HIV infection, with a CD4 cell count of 153 cells/mm3. Despite the initial response to antituberculous agents, the disease had subsequently progressed and enucleation was required. The pathological examination revealed acute suppurative granulomatous panophthalmitis with retinal detachment. Further staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in the tissue. Colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained from tissue culture. He was treated with antiretroviral agents for HIV infection and 12 months of antituberculous agents. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of TB in the differential diagnosis of endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, especially in regions where TB is endemic. PMID:27051539

  10. Detection of Microorganisms in Granulomas That Have Been Formalin-Fixed: Review of the Literature Regarding Use of Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Guarner, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Granuloma is an organized aggregate of immune cells that under the microscope appear as epithelioid macrophages. A granuloma can only be diagnosed when a pathologist observes this type of inflammation under the microscope. If a foreign body or a parasite is not observed inside the granuloma, stains for acid-fast bacilli and fungi are ordered since mycobacteria and fungi are frequently the cause of this type of inflammation. It is calculated that 12 to 36% of granulomas do not have a specific etiology and many have wondered if with new molecular methods we could reduce this number. This paper will summarize the frequently known causes of granulomas and will present the recent literature regarding the use of molecular techniques on tissue specimens and how these have helped in defining causative agents. We will also briefly describe new research regarding formation and function of granulomas and how this impacts our ability to find an etiologic agent. PMID:24278704

  11. Tuberculous Gastric Abscess in a Patient with AIDS: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Nayyar, Ekta; Torres, Julian A.; Malvestutto, Carlos D.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a healthcare concern that affects millions of individuals around the globe. Coinfection with HIV has changed both the clinical presentation and the outcome of the disease dramatically in the last few decades. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is seen more frequently in the immunocompromised host. An unusual case of gastric tuberculosis in an AIDS patient is reported here. A 49-year-old female with AIDS was admitted for fever and epigastric pain. A gastric submucosal abscess was observed on imaging and confirmed by biopsy showing numerous neutrophils and acid-fast bacilli. Aspirate grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This report highlights a very unusual presentation of tuberculosis in an immunodeficient patient. High clinical suspicion for opportunistic infections in unusual locations should be maintained in these patients presenting with clinical syndromes that do not respond to standard treatments. New diagnostic modalities facilitate accurate identification of these infections. PMID:27239353

  12. Distal cord-predominant longitudinally extensive myelitis with diffuse spinal meningitis and dural abscesses due to occult tuberculosis: A rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Kasundra, Gaurav M; Sood, Isha; Bhushan, Bharat; Bhargava, Amita Narendra; Shubhkaran, Khichar

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous myelitis usually involves thoracic and only rarely, distal cord. Longitudinal lesions more than three spinal segments long in tuberculosis (TB) are usually due to intramedullary tuberculomas and not infectious myelitis. We report a 17-year-old male with acute myelitis from D7 to conus medullaris, diffuse spinal meningitis, subdural and epidural abscesses, normal vertebrae, intervertebral discs, and brain imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed raised proteins, lymphocytosis, hypoglycorrhagia, and positive TB-polymerase chain reaction. Chest X-ray was normal, and sputum was negative for acid-fast Bacilli. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed endobronchial TB. The patient was successfully treated with antitubercular drugs and steroids. In endemic areas, a high index of suspicion should be kept for TB in patients with myelitis, especially those with spinal abscesses and a suggestive CSF report. In selected cases, there may be a role of CT scan inspite of normal X-ray. PMID:27195042

  13. Distal cord-predominant longitudinally extensive myelitis with diffuse spinal meningitis and dural abscesses due to occult tuberculosis: A rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kasundra, Gaurav M.; Sood, Isha; Bhushan, Bharat; Bhargava, Amita Narendra; Shubhkaran, Khichar

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous myelitis usually involves thoracic and only rarely, distal cord. Longitudinal lesions more than three spinal segments long in tuberculosis (TB) are usually due to intramedullary tuberculomas and not infectious myelitis. We report a 17-year-old male with acute myelitis from D7 to conus medullaris, diffuse spinal meningitis, subdural and epidural abscesses, normal vertebrae, intervertebral discs, and brain imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed raised proteins, lymphocytosis, hypoglycorrhagia, and positive TB-polymerase chain reaction. Chest X-ray was normal, and sputum was negative for acid-fast Bacilli. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed endobronchial TB. The patient was successfully treated with antitubercular drugs and steroids. In endemic areas, a high index of suspicion should be kept for TB in patients with myelitis, especially those with spinal abscesses and a suggestive CSF report. In selected cases, there may be a role of CT scan inspite of normal X-ray. PMID:27195042

  14. Fatal aortic pseudoaneurysm from disseminated Mycobacterium kansasii infection: case report.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Laleh; Reddy, Sujan C; Mosunjac, Mario; Kraft, Colleen S; Guarner, Jeannette

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium kansasii is a photochromogenic, slow-growing mycobacterium species that can cause pulmonary infection in patients with predisposing lung diseases, as well as extrapulmonary or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a patient with a myelodysplastic syndrome, disseminated M kansasii infection, and ruptured aortic aneurysm. He had a recent diagnosis of mycobacterium cavitary lung lesions and was transferred to our facility for possible surgical intervention of an aortic aneurysm. Few hours after admission, the patient suddenly collapsed and died despite resuscitation efforts. A complete autopsy was performed and showed ruptured ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm with hemopericardium, disseminated necrotizing and nonnecrotizing granulomas with acid-fast bacilli in the aortic wall, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys. Further genetic studies were consistent with monocytopenia and mycobacterial infection syndrome. PMID:25537975

  15. An outbreak of tuberculosis in Lleyn sheep in the UK associated with clinical signs.

    PubMed

    van der Burgt, G M; Drummond, F; Crawshaw, T; Morris, S

    2013-01-19

    This case report describes an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection a Lleyn sheep flock associated with clinical signs of illthrift. There was no known direct contact with tuberculous cattle although bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in the area. The spoligotype isolated from the diseased sheep was the local spoligotype. The repeated use of the comparative intradermal tuberculin test, and the subsequent removal of reactor animals, resulted in apparent elimination of bTB from the flock. Lesions caused by M bovis in sheep may contain very few acid-fast bacilli, and gross lesions may resemble those found in cases of Caseous Lymphadenitis. Routine meat inspection may, therefore, not always easily detect this notifiable disease. PMID:23118053

  16. [The presence of mycobacteria in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from an immunocompetent patient does not necessarily imply tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Vandenbos, Frédéric; Marcq, Laurent; Novellas, Sébastien; Chyderiotis, Georges; Haudebourg, Juliette; Benchetrit, Maxime; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most frequently identified mycobacterium in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of immunocompetent patients. Lung infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are rare in such patients and then often occur in the context of pre-existing chronic lung disease. We report the case of an immunocompetent 85-year-old woman without pre-existing lung disease in whom M. abscessus was recovered from BALF. Cytological examination of the BALF revealed an increased number of neutrophils and some acid-fast bacilli, all located within neutrophil cytoplasm. This case report contributes a cytological description of BALF in the context of M. abscessus infection, which is poorly detailed in the literature. PMID:20005441

  17. Multifocal Tubercular Osteomyelitis with Tubercular Breast Abscess: An Atypical Presentation of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Mita; Santra, Tuhin; Guha, Pradipta; Agrawal, Neha; Adhikary, Apu; Das, Anirban; Mahapatra, Chanchal

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis of spine is common in a developing country like India. However, involvement of spine at multiple levels along with involvement of rib and tubercular breast abscess in an immunocompetent patient without any pulmonary involvement is extremely rare. Here we report a case of 53-year-old immunocompetent lady who presented with quadriparesis and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of spine revealed multiple lesions involving cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral region without any involvement of intervertebral disc. On detailed examination she was found to have a lump in right breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology of both paravertebral collection and breast lump revealed presence of acid fast bacilli. She was put on antitubercular drug for one year and she responded well to therapy. PMID:26064720

  18. Tuberculosis of the Breast: An Initial Presentation of the Metabolic Syndrome with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Young Nigerian Woman

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, R.; Liman, A. A.; Abur, P.; Bello, F.

    2016-01-01

    Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon presentation of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. A 40-year-old obese woman presented with a right breast abscess which had failed to heal after surgical drainage. There was no family history of breast disease. Biopsy and histology of the lesion showed chronic granulomatous inflammation with positive stains for acid fast bacilli compatible with tuberculosis. Further evaluation confirmed metabolic syndrome with type 2 diabetes mellitus. She was placed on antituberculosis chemotherapy and appropriate therapy for diabetes mellitus with complete resolution of the lesion. We report this case because of its rarity and to highlight the association between tuberculosis an infectious disease and overnutrition in diabetes mellitus, a noncommunicable disease. PMID:27034859

  19. Disseminated mycobacteriosis manifesting as paraplegia in two Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) naturally exposed to Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed

    Robveille, Cynthia; Albaric, Olivier; Gaide, Nicolas; Abadie, Jérome

    2015-11-01

    Two captive female Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) died after a history of flaccid paraplegia. On postmortem examination, granulomatous and suppurative osteomyelitis involving the left ischium and the lumbosacral region, with meningeal extension at the cauda equina, and caseonecrotic mastitis were the most significant changes. Multiple small nodules in the liver and spleen, and an enlargement of some lymph nodes with central caseous necrosis were also observed. Microscopically, a disseminated granulomatous inflammation with numerous multinucleate giant cells was seen. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were detected in macrophages, in multinucleated giant cells, and free in the central necrosis and suppurative exudate. After culture, polymerase chain reaction assays were carried out to detect the 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and insertion sequences (IS)1245 and IS900. The causative agent was identified as Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. PMID:26450834

  20. Added value of molecular assay Xpert MTB/RIF compared to sputum smear microscopy to assess the risk of tuberculosis transmission in a low-prevalence country.

    PubMed

    Opota, O; Senn, L; Prod'hom, G; Mazza-Stalder, J; Tissot, F; Greub, G; Jaton, K

    2016-07-01

    Airborne precautions are required at hospital admission for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The isolation is maintained until 3 serially collected sputum smears are acid-fast bacilli negative, a time- and labor-intensive method with limited sensitivity and specificity, which has a great impact on patient flow management. We evaluated the possibility of replacing the result of microscopy by the semiquantitative result of the molecular point-of-care test Xpert MTB/RIF to assess patients' transmission risk to quickly guide airborne isolation decisions in low-endemic countries. The performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF, used as a first-line test, was compared to the results of microscopy for specimens (n=242) collected from May 2010 to December 2014 in Lausanne, Switzerland. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF were 91.5% (65/71) and 99.6% (170/171), respectively, vs. 64.8% (46/71) and 94.2% (161/171) for microscopy. Samples with negative Xpert MTB/RIF were all smear negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (negative predictive value, 100%). The semiquantitative results of Xpert MTB/RIF-high, medium, low or very low-were found to correlate with acid-fast bacilli detection: positive predictive value of 100% (6/6), 96.5% (27/28), 52.2% (12/23) and 11.1% (1/9) respectively. Finally, when including clinical criteria, we identified 11 smear-negative but Xpert MTB/RIF-positive patients with a significant transmission potential. In conclusion, our data support the introduction of an Xpert MTB/RIF-based strategy as a replacement of smear microscopy for a faster and more accurate management of tuberculosis patients' transmission risk in a low-prevalence country. PMID:27139592

  1. The first case of cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum.

    PubMed

    Zong, Wenkai; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Hongsheng; Xu, Xiu Lian; Wang, Qiuling; Tian, Weiwei; Jin, Ya Li; Wu, Qinxue; Tang, Meiyu

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the first, to the best of their knowledge, reported case of cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum. A 42-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic reddish papules, nodules, plaques, and patches on the right side of her face and on her forehead that had persisted for 5 years, with the lesions gradually increasing in size over that time. No previous intervening medical treatment had been applied. No history or evidence of immunosuppression was found. A skin biopsy was performed for routine histological examination. Samples of lesioned skin were inoculated on Löwenstein-Jensen medium to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Ziehl-Neelsen staining was used to confirm the presence of the organism. In vitro drug susceptibility testing was conducted using the microtiter plate method. Mycobacterium was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes. Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as fungus, were also conducted. Routine histopathology revealed granulomatous changes without caseation. Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed that the organisms in both the lesions and the cultures were acid-fast bacilli. The cultured colonies were grown in Löwenstein-Jensen medium and incubated at two different temperatures (32°C and 37°C) for 2-3 weeks, developing pigmentation both in the dark and in the light. In vitro drug susceptibility tests showed that the organism was sensitive to clarithromycin and moxifloxacin. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes confirmed that the isolated organisms were M. parascrofulaceum. Fungal and other standard bacterial cultures were negative. In conclusion, identification and diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria should be performed promptly to obtain better prognoses. Empirical treatments may be feasible, and drug

  2. Comparison of the recovery of Mycobacterium bovis isolates using the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, BACTEC 460 system, and Middlebrook 7H10 and 7H11 solid media.

    PubMed

    Hines, Nichole; Payeur, Janet B; Hoffman, Lorraine J

    2006-05-01

    The BACTEC Microbacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system was evaluated to determine how it compares with the BACTEC 460 radiometric system and solid media for recovery of Mycobacterium bovis from tissue samples. A total of 506 bovine lymph node samples were collected from abattoirs in the United States and Mexico between November 2003 and September 2004. Processed samples were inoculated into an MGIT 960 tube, BACTEC 460 vial, and Middlebrook 7H10 and Middlebrook 7H11 solid media. Ziehl-Neelsen slides were prepared to check for contaminants and confirm the presence of acid-fast positive bacilli. Samples containing acid-fast bacilli were confirmed as members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by a nucleic acid assay. Niacin and nitrate biochemical tests were used to distinguish M. bovis from M. tuberculosis isolates. Statistical analyses were performed to compare recovery rate, mean time to detection, contamination rates, as well as pair-wise comparisons in each category. The results showed that the MGIT 960 system had a higher recovery rate of M. bovis (122/129) than did the BACTEC 460 (102/129) and solid media system (96/129). The average time to detection was 15.8 days for the MGIT 960 system, 28.2 days for the BACTEC 460 system, and 43.4 days for solid media. Contamination rates were 6.9% for the MGIT 960 system, 3.4% for the BACTEC 460 system, and 21.7% for solid media. These results indicate the MGIT 960 system can be used as an alternative to the BACTEC 460 system for recovering M. bovis from tissue samples. PMID:16789711

  3. Characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Humans and Cattle in Namwala District, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Munyeme, Musso; Mbulo, Grace; Muwonge, Adrian; Djønne, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Zambia. While human to human transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic, the impact of Mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed at molecular characterization of M. bovis in humans and cattle. A total of 100 human sputum samples and 67 bovine tissues were collected and analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria. Of 65 human samples that harbored acid fast bacteria (AFB), 55 isolates were obtained of which 34 were identified as M. tuberculosis and 2 as M. bovis. AFB-positive bovine samples (n = 67) yielded 47 mycobacterial isolates among which 25 were identified as M. bovis and no M. tuberculosis was found. Among the M. bovis isolates, spoligotyping revealed a high homogeneity in genotypes circulating in Namwala district. Human and cattle isolates shared identical MIRU-VNTR genotypes, suggesting that transmission between the two hosts may occur. Therefore, this study has documented zoonotic TB in human patients in Namwala district of Zambia. However, further molecular epidemiological studies in the study area are recommended. PMID:24847441

  4. Neurotuberculosis in cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry. PMID:27026233

  5. Pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules of the gynaecological tract: review of a diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Pritt, B; Mount, S L; Cooper, K; Blaszyk, H

    2006-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium actinomyces can cause serious gynaecological tract infections, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubo-ovarian abscess. Thus, definitive diagnosis of actinomycotic granules (AMGs) in gynaecological specimens is clinically important. Non-infectious pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules (PAMRAGs) can mimic the microscopic appearance of AMGs. PAMRAGs may be more common than actinomycotic infections in specimens from patients using intrauterine devices and may be seen in patients with PID. Although the composition and aetiology of PAMRAGs is unclear and variable, a panel of histochemical stains can aid in diagnosis. On haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections, AMGs show as distinct granules with basophilic peripheral radiating filaments and a dense central eosinophilic core, whereas H&E stained sections of PAMRAGs feature refractile granules with irregular club-like peripheral projections and no central dense core. The filaments of AMGs are Gram positive on Brown and Brenn (B&B) stain and are highlighted with Gomori methenamine silver stain (GMS). They stain negatively with a modified acid fast bacillus (AFB) stain, aiding in the distinction of actinomyces from nocardia. PAMRAGs show negative or non-specific staining with B&B, GMS, and AFB stains. Therefore, knowledge of these staining properties and the distinguishing characteristics of PAMRAGs and AMGs enables recognition of this important diagnostic pitfall. PMID:16394276

  6. Nosocomial spread of Mycobacterium bovis in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aisling; Dineen, Andrea; Kelly, Pamela; McGoey, Karen; Madigan, Gillian; NiGhallchoir, Eadaoin; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A

    2015-02-01

    Five domestic cats were euthanased owing to confirmed or suspected Mycobacterium bovis infection. The initial source of infection remains unclear. Cat A was presented to a veterinary clinic in County Kildare, Ireland, with a discharging submandibular lesion. The infection appears to have been transmitted to four other cats through direct (cats B and C living in the same household as cat A) and non-direct (nosocomial spread during routine operations; cats D and E) contact over a 13.5-week period. Of the five cases, two (B and D) had post-mortem examinations in which gross changes consistent with tuberculosis were seen, moderate numbers of acid-fast bacteria (AFB) were seen on microscopy and M bovis (spoligotype SB0978) was confirmed on culture. Of the remaining three cats, one had a swab taken from its draining ovariohysterectomy wound, which revealed large numbers of AFB with morphology consistent with M bovis (cat E). Two cases were euthanased without diagnostic tests; however, their history and clinical presentations were highly suggestive of tuberculosis (cats A and C). To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of nosocomial spread of M bovis in cats. PMID:24710594

  7. ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE STREPTOTHRICES, PARTICULARLY IN THEIR RELATION TO BACTERIA.

    PubMed

    Claypole, E J

    1913-01-01

    It is impossible from any point of view, morphological, biological or serological, to draw a sharp dividing line in this series. The forms change gradually from the mycelial organism to the bacillary, acid-fast organism. It is biologically a group complex and should be so considered. No doubt experiments with a larger series of species would yield results giving a possibility of closer classification and the introduction of some of the forms now in a debatable position, as Bacillus diphtheriae and Bacillus mallei, and other organisms, sometimes called, on account of their morphological irregularities, corynebacterium and mycobacterium, would help to show their real relation to both the Streptothrices and the true bacteria. The latter in many ways are acknowledged to be far from primitive; their endospores, flagella, and food habits all indicate a relatively high degree of specialization. Hence it would seem biologically more reasonable to look upon this group of Streptothrices with their variable morphology and close relationships as representing the ancestral type that gave rise to both the higher fungi and true bacteria, and not as being themselves higher bacteria. The various bacteria, other than the acid-fast forms, can readily have arisen from the non-acid-fast bacillary types, or even as non-acid-fast specializations of the mixed types. All the various forms shown at present by the bacteria,-cocci, spirilla, bacilli, etc.,-either separate or in chains and masses, are to be recognized in this group, and specializations in one or another line in the past would readily have given rise to the types we consider true bacteria. The processes of evolution have carried them far away from the parent stock and made them into this group. The recognition of this group complex and of the intermediate forms indicates clearly the past history and present relations of these interesting organisms. These relations may be represented by the following scheme. See PDF for

  8. The Burden of Mycobacterial Disease in Ethiopian Cattle: Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Stefan; Firdessa, Rebuma; Habtamu, Meseret; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Mengistu, Araya; Yamuah, Lawrence; Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Robertson, Brian D.; Smith, Noel H.; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a debilitating disease of cattle. Ethiopia has one of the largest cattle populations in the world, with an economy highly dependent on its livestock. Furthermore, Ethiopia has one of the highest incidence rates of human extrapulmonary TB in the world, a clinical presentation that is often associated with transmission of M. bovis from cattle to humans. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present a comprehensive investigation of the prevalence of bTB in Ethiopia based on cases identified at slaughterhouses. Out of approximately 32,800 inspected cattle, ∼4.7% showed suspect tuberculous lesions. Culture of suspect lesions yielded acid-fast bacilli in ∼11% of cases, with M. bovis accounting for 58 of 171 acid-fast cultures, while 53 isolates were non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Strikingly, M. tuberculosis was isolated from eight cattle, an unusual finding that suggests human to animal transmission. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis has revealed that bTB is widely spread throughout Ethiopia, albeit at a low prevalence, and provides underpinning evidence for public health policy formulation. PMID:19352493

  9. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria: baseline data from three sites in Papua New Guinea, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Serej; Carter, Robyn; Millan, Korai; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pandey, Sushil; Coulter, Christopher; Siba, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in samples of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases from Papua New Guinea who were diagnosed using acid-fast microscopy. Methods As part of a case detection study for TB, conducted in three provincial hospitals in Papua New Guinea, sputum samples of suspected tuberculous cases aged 15 years or older were collected from November 2010 to July 2012. Mycobacterial species isolated from sputum and grown in culture were examined to distinguish between NTM and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Results NTM were detected in 4% (9/225) of sputum samples grown in culture. Five (2.2%) of them were identified as NTM only and four (1.8%) were identified as mixed cultures containing both MTBC and NTM. Four different NTM species were identified; M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. terrae and M. avium. Discussion This is the first report from Papua New Guinea identifying NTM in three different locations. As NTM cannot be distinguished from M. tuberculosis through smear microscopy, the presence of NTM can lead to a false-positive diagnosis of tuberculosis. The prevalence of NTM should be determined and a diagnostic algorithm developed to confirm acid-fast bacilli in a smear as M. tuberculosis. PMID:26798558

  10. Preventing Infectious Pulmonary Tuberculosis Among Foreign-Born Residents of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Dolly; Ghosh, Smita; Blumberg, Henry; Tamhane, Ashutosh; Sevilla, Anna; Reves, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We described risk factors associated with infectious tuberculosis (TB) and missed TB-prevention opportunities in foreign-born US residents, who account for almost two thirds of the nation’s TB patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study at 20 US sites of foreign-born persons diagnosed with TB in 2005 through 2006, we collected results of sputum smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (a marker for infectiousness) and data on visa status, sociodemographics, TB-related care seeking, and latent TB infection (LTBI) diagnosis opportunities. Results. Among 980 persons with pulmonary TB who reported their visa status, 601 (61%) were legal permanent residents, 131 (13.4%) had temporary visas, and 248 (25.3%) were undocumented. Undocumented persons were more likely than permanent residents to have acid-fast bacilli–positive smears at diagnosis (risk ratio = 1.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 1.4). Of those diagnosed 1 year or more after arrival, 57.3% reported LTBI screening opportunities; fewer than 25% actually were. Undocumented persons reported fewer LTBI screening opportunities and were less likely to be tested. Conclusions. Progress toward TB elimination in the United States depends upon expanding opportunities for regular medical care and promotion of LTBI screening and treatment among foreign-born persons. PMID:26180947

  11. DIAGNOSTIC TEST OF SPUTUM GENEXPERT MTB/RIF FOR SMEAR NEGATIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS.

    PubMed

    Reechaipichitkul, Wipa; Phetsuriyawong, Attawoot; Chaimanee, Prajuab; Ananta, Pimjai

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Gene-Xpert MTB/RIF sputum test for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among patients sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear negative results in Thailand, a country with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. We studied 151 patients who presented to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand with a 2 week or more history of fever and/or cough and an abnormal chest radiograph between 2010 and 2014; these patients had at least 2 negative sputum AFB smear results. Of these, 76 were diagnosed as having either confirmed or probable pulmonary TB: the 32 confirmed cases were those with a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the 44 probable case were those with clinical and radiographic findings consistent with TB and who had a response to anti-TB therapy. Seventy-five cases were diagnosed as not having pulmonary TB. Of the 32 patients with a positive sputum culture for MTB, 26 had a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF sputum test. Compared to sputum culture for MTB the GeneXpert MTB/ RIF test gave a sensitivity of 83.9% (95% CI: 66.3-94.5) and a specificity of 92.1% (95% CI: 83.6-97), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.3% (95% CI: 63.6-92.8) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.3% (95% CI: 85.1-97.8). The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test had a fair sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing smear negative pulmonary TB. It may be useful for diagnosing pulmonary TB in patients with a negative sputum AFB smear. The assay is faster than culture and can detect rifampicin resistant strains of MTB. PMID:27405129

  12. Inhibitory effects of polyoxyethylene stearate, PANTA, and neutral pH on growth of Mycobacterium genavense in BACTEC primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Realini, L; Van Der Stuyft, P; De Ridder, K; Hirschel, B; Portaels, F

    1997-11-01

    We report on the influences of polyoxyethylene stearate (POES), PANTA, and pH on primary cultures of Mycobacterium genavense in BACTEC vials. As a model for primary cultures from tissue, seven different strains first isolated from AIDS patients (five from Switzerland and two from the United States) were inoculated into nude mice in order to obtain large amounts of bacilli to test different conditions simultaneously. Our results demonstrate that the size of the inoculum (10[6] acid-fast bacilli/vial), an acid pH (pH 6.0), and the absence of additives (POES and PANTA) significantly (P < 0.001) increased the probability of a successful culture in 1 month, considering growth index (GI) of > or =100 or a GI of > or =999 as criterion of success. In logistic regression analysis, all factors maintained a significant (P < 0.001) independent effect, and no interactions were observed between them. The best conditions for the primary cultures of M. genavense were the use of Middlebrook 7H12 medium at pH 6.0 without any additives. PMID:9350735

  13. [The bacteriology of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infections].

    PubMed

    Wyplosz, B; Truffot-Pernot, C; Robert, J; Jarlier, V; Grosset, J

    1997-12-01

    Changing incidence and nature of mycobacterial infections subsequent to the historical regression of tuberculosis and the acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, as well as the development of new technical tools for molecular biology, have profoundly modified the methods used for the bacteriological diagnosis of mycobacteria infections. Although microscopic search for acid-fast bacilli, culture and antibiotic resistance tests on Löwenstein-Jensen medium remain the reference methods, more rapid and sophisticated methods are now available. Culture on radiolabeled media using the Bactec system has shortened the delay for positive culture and interpretable antibiotic sensitivity tests. Molecular techniques allow: 1) rapid identification of the most frequently isolated mycobacteria strains, including the most frequent laboratory contaminant M. gordonae, with genome probes; 2) genome typing of M. tuberculosis strains to trace interhuman transmission, detect recurrence or exogenous reinfection or demonstrate laboratory contamination; 3) rapid detection of rifampicin resistance; and 4) direct detection of M. tuberculosis and M. avium in pathological specimens. The role of mycobacteria in the environment causing opportunistic infections, atypical mycobacteria or non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM), particularly the aviaire complex, has grown considerably. Isolation and identification relies on methods used to detect bacilli as well as blood cultures and analysis of fecal matter. NTM are naturally resistant to most of the antituberculosis antibiotics but are sometimes sensitive to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones or new macrolides. PMID:9496590

  14. A Histomorphological Pattern Analysis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lung Autopsy and Surgically Resected Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Flora D.; Adiga, Deepa Sowkur Anandarama

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many cases are diagnosed on autopsy and a subset of patients may require surgical intervention either due to the complication or sequelae of TB. Materials and Methods. 40 cases of resected lung specimens following surgery or autopsy in which a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was made were included. Histopathological pattern analysis of pulmonary tuberculosis along with associated nonneoplastic changes and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli was done. Results. The mean age of diagnosis was 41 years with male predominance (92.5%). Tuberculosis was suspected in only 12.1% of cases before death. Seven cases were operated upon due to associated complications or suspicion of malignancy. Tubercular consolidation was the most frequent pattern followed by miliary tuberculosis. The presence of necrotizing granulomas was seen in 33 cases (82.5%). Acid fast bacilli were seen in 57.5% cases on Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Conclusion. Histopathology remains one of the most important methods for diagnosing tuberculosis, especially in TB prevalent areas. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all respiratory diseases because of its varied clinical presentations and manifestations. PMID:27088035

  15. Concurrent atypical diffused tuberculosis and macrorhabdosis in a canary (Serinus canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Seyed Ahmad; Haddad-Marandi, Mohammad Reza; Arabkhazaeli, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    A dead canary from a mixed species zoological garden was presented for diagnostic necropsy. Cachexia with prominent atrophy of pectoral muscles, yellowish brown discoloration of the liver and kidney, dark brown to black intestinal contents and moderate proventricular dilatation with some degree of catarrhal gastritis were the significant macroscopic findings. Parenchymatous organs like the liver, the spleen, the lung and the kidneys were extremely affected by massive diffuse necrosis and heavy infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, histopathologically. Many giant bacilli resembling Macrorrhabdus ornithogaster were seen microscopically in the wet smear of the isthmus mucosa. Ghost-like unstained bacilli were revealed in the Giemsa stained contact smears of the liver and spleen. No typical mycobacterial granulomatous lesion was found in different tissues, but in Ziehl-Neelsen stained thin layer histologic sections from the liver, spleen, lung and kidney, numerous acid fast organisms were diffusely distributed. The case was diagnosed an atypical avian tuberculosis with concurrent macrorhabdosis. Mycobacterium sp. are capable of giving rise to a progressive disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Cases of avian tuberculosis might be overlooked for lack of pathognomonic lesions suggestive of mycobacteriosis. PMID:25992258

  16. [Lupus vulgaris as a complication of pulmonary tuberculosis--case report].

    PubMed

    Owczarek, Witold; Targowski, Tomasz; Kozera-Zywczyk, Anna; Paluchowska, Elwira; Patera, Janusz

    2009-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease induced by Mycobacterium species, acid-fast bacilli. These are mostly human type--Mycobacterium tuberculosis, less often cattle type--mycobacterium bovis or other: mycobacterium avium, kansasii, marinom, scrofulaceum, heamophilium, gordonae. The infection can affect all organs, but pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common form. The importance of tuberculosis is definitely rising in the context of massive population migrations in regions affected by its higher incidence, increased HIV infections and AIDS development. Cutaneous tuberculosis is a particular tuberculosis form with differentiated clinical picture. Non-typicalness of skin changes and oligobacilleous course of extrapulmonary tuberculosis forms are repeatedly causing difficulties in adequate diagnosis and early treatment. In differential diagnostics of cutaneous tuberculosis one must take leishmaniasis, actinomycosis, leprosy, syphilis and deep mycosis (among others) into consideration. The study is presenting a case of lupus vulgaris as a complication of past pulmonary tuberculosis. In bacteriological diagnostics of skin changes bioptates, no tuberculosis mycobacteria were found. The disease was diagnosed based on specific granulation presence in histopathology test, tuberculin hypersensivity, bacilli DNA presence in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and skin changes regression after anti-mycobacterium treatment. According to authors of the study, the described case confirms the usefulness of PCR nucleonic acids amplification test in cutaneous tuberculosis diagnosis. PMID:19928663

  17. Interferon-γ Is a Crucial Activator of Early Host Immune Defense against Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bieri, Raphael; Bolz, Miriam; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Pluschke, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a chronic necrotizing human skin disease associated with the production of the cytotoxic macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Despite extensive research, the type of immune responses elicited against this pathogen and the effector functions conferring protection against BU are not yet fully understood. While histopathological analyses of advanced BU lesions have demonstrated a mainly extracellular localization of the toxin producing acid fast bacilli, there is growing evidence for an early intra-macrophage growth phase of M. ulcerans. This has led us to investigate whether interferon-γ might play an important role in containing M. ulcerans infections. In an experimental Buruli ulcer mouse model we found that interferon-γ is indeed a critical regulator of early host immune defense against M. ulcerans infections. Interferon-γ knockout mice displayed a faster progression of the infection compared to wild-type mice. This accelerated progression was reflected in faster and more extensive tissue necrosis and oedema formation, as well as in a significantly higher bacterial burden after five weeks of infection, indicating that mice lacking interferon-γ have a reduced capacity to kill intracellular bacilli during the early intra-macrophage growth phase of M. ulcerans. This data demonstrates a prominent role of interferon-γ in early defense against M. ulcerans infection and supports the view that concepts for vaccine development against tuberculosis may also be valid for BU. PMID:26863011

  18. Evaluation of Standard Chemotherapy in the Guinea Pig Model of Tuberculosis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, Diane J.; Shanley, Crystal A.; Caraway, Megan L.; Orme, Eileen A.; Bucy, Daniel S.; Hascall-Dove, Laurel; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Harton, Marisa R.; Shang, Shaobin; Ackart, David; Kraft, Susan L.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Orme, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was 2-fold. First, we evaluated standard chemotherapy in the guinea pig model of tuberculosis to determine if this animal species could productively be used for this purpose. Second, given the similarities of the pathology of disease in guinea pigs and humans, we wished to evaluate additional parameters, including magnetic resonance imaging, microscopy, and cytokine expression and lymphocyte phenotypes, in response to an infection treated with drug therapy. This study shows that conventional rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide chemotherapy significantly decreased the numbers of the highly virulent Erdman K01 strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with most of the bacilli being eliminated in a month. Despite this result, bacteria could still be detected in the lungs and other tissues for at least another 3 to 4 months. Resolution of the nonnecrotic granulomas in the lungs and lymph nodes could be clearly visualized by magnetic resonance imaging at the macroscopic level. Microscopically, the majority of the pulmonary and extrapulmonary inflammation resolved spontaneously, leaving residual lesions composed of dystrophic calcification and fibrosis marking the site of necrosis of the primary lesion. Residual calcified lesions, which were also associated with pulmonary lymphangitis, contained acid-fast bacilli even following aggressive chemotherapy. The presence of intact extracellular bacilli within these lesions suggests that these could serve as the primary sites of disease reactivation. The chemotherapy reduced the level of T-cell influx into infected tissues and was accompanied by a large and sustained increase in TH1 cytokine expression. Chemotherapy also prevented the emergence in lung tissues of high levels of interleukin-10 and Foxp3-positive cells, known markers of regulatory T cells. PMID:20160055

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) EVALUATION OF WATER PLANT LIME SLUDGE IN AN INDUSTRIAL BOILER FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) SYSTEM AT RICKENBACKER AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a September 1978-February 1979 test program to evaluate lime water softening waste sludge as an alternate reagent for a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on an industrial boiler at Rickenbacker Air Force Base, Ohio. The study also included assessin...

  20. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-18

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report as part of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to present results of RI/FS activities at five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation. The IRP provides for investigating, quantifying, and remediating environmental contamination from past waste management activities at Air Force installations throughout the United States.

  1. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study Point Lay Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-04

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report to present the results of RI/FS activities at four sites located at the Point Lay radar installation. The remedial investigation (RI) field activities were conducted at the Point Lay radar installation during the summer of 1993. The four sites at Point Lay were investigated because they were suspected of being contaminated with hazardous substances. RI activities were conducted using methods and procedures specified in the RI/FS Work Plan, Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), and Health and Safety Plan.

  2. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-18

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Bullen Point Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The presence of chemical contamination in the soil, sediments, and surface water at the installation was evaluated and reported in the Bullen Point Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) (U.S. Air Force 1996). The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the five sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks.

  3. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment Point Lonely Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-04-01

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Point Lonely Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Twelve sites at the Point Lonely radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The Vehicle Storage Area (SS14) was combined with the Inactive Landfill because the two sites were essentially co-located and were sampled during the RI as a single unit. Therefore, 11 sites are discussed in this risk assessment. The presence of chemical contamination in the soil, sediments, and surface water at the installation was evaluated and reported in the Point Lonely Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the 11 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks, chlorinated solvents, and manganese. The 11 sites investigated and the types of samples collected at each site are presented.

  4. Effect of acid deposition on potentially sensitive soil-plant systems at Vandenberg AFB, California. Final report, 1 September 1984-1 September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Zedler, P.H.; Marion, G.

    1988-04-30

    The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of the acid deposition expected from rocket launches on natural coastal vegetation and soils. Interest was directed primarily toward the longer-term and more-subtle effects of acidity, and the degree of sensitivity of different soil-plant systems. A study area was established along a topographic chronosequence that ranged from stabilized dunes to residual soils over bedrock. Soils and plants were collected from this region and used in three main studies. A leaching study measured the changes in chemical properties of four soils subjected to repeated acid additions. A second study treated seeds of wide variety of native or spontaneous species with HC1 on the four soils to establish the sensitivity of the vegetation to deposition events during the fall to winter germination pulse characteristic of California coastal ecosystems. A third study examined the effect of acid treatments on the growth of and competition between two common woody plants -- Artemisia californica and Pinus muricata. A fourth study partially supported by this grant studied the invasion of an exotic species in a recently burned site on one of the four study soils. The studies collectively show that, although the soil-plant systems are well buffered against moderate and low inputs of acidity, the effect of acid additions differed among soil types and from species to species. Overall the hypothesis that acidic deposition could affect plant-plant and soil-plant interactions was supported, but some of these effects are subtle and not all appear to be deleterious.

  5. Site S-7 Representative Model and Application for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) McClellan AFB - 1998 Semi-Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    1998-12-01

    Vadose zone data collection and enhanced data analysis are continuing for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) installed at site S-7 in IC 34 at McClellan MB. Data from core samples from boreholes drilled in 1998 and from VZMS continuous monitoring are evaluated and compared to previously collected data and analyses. The suite of data collected to date is used to develop and constrain a spatially averaged, one-dimensional site S-7 representative model that is implemented into T2VOC. Testing of the conceptual model under conditions of recharge of 100 mm/yr produces plausible moisture contents relative to data from several sources. Further scoping calculations involving gas-phase TCE transport in the representative model were undertaken. We investigate the role of recharge on TCE transport as well as the role of ion- and gas-phase flow driven by density and barometric pumping effects. This report provides the first example of the application of the site S-7 representative model in th e investigation of subsurface VOC movement.

  6. Biological control of AFB1-producing Aspergillus section Flavi strains isolated from brewer's grains, alternative feed intended for swine production in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Asurmendi, Paula; García, María J; Ruíz, Francisco; Dalcero, Ana; Pascual, Liliana; Barberis, Lucila

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from brewer's grains on Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin B1 production. The Aspergillus strains tested were inhibited by all the LAB strains assayed. The isolates Lactobacillus brevis B20, P. pentosaceus B86, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis B87, L. brevis B131, and Lactobacillus sp. B144 completely suppressed the fungal growth and reduced aflatoxin B1 production. In conclusion, LAB isolated from brewer's grains show a high inhibitory activity on fungal growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Further studies must be conducted to evaluate the success of in vitro assays under food environment conditions and to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of these strains. PMID:27070819

  7. FIELD STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF A GASOHOL SPILL ON NATURAL ATTENUATION OF PRE-EXISTING BTEX/MTBE CONTAMINATION (VANDENBERG AFB, CALIFORNIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    (1) Measure the seepage velocity of the ground water using travel time of tracers to monitoring wells.
    (2) Measure the concentration of benzene, the other BTEX compounds, and ethanol in monitoring wells along the flow path of the tracer plume.
    (3) Calculate and compare ...

  8. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 2. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    ;Contents: Field Parameters for Water Samples (1992-3); Organic Analyses for Water and Soil Samples (1992-4); Inorganic Analyses for Water and Soil Samples (1992-4); Organic Analyses for Soil Samples (DRM, BLM-1993); and Inorganic Analyses for Soil Samples (DRM-1993).

  9. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska installation restoration program, remedial investigation/feasibility study, Galena Airport, Alaska. Treatability study report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-27

    The USAF contracted Radian Corporation to perform treatability studies to evaluate soil vacuum extraction (SVE) and biodegradation technologies for remediating soil contaminated with motor and jet fuel at the Petroleum, Oils, and Lubricants (POL) Tank Farm, Galena Airport, Alaska. This technical report describes the experimental methods and interprets the analytical and operational results from the bench-scale biotreatment tests and pilot-scale SVE tests conducted between July 1992 and February 1994.

  10. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis: Petroleum, oil, and lubricants area, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action for the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST005, otherwise known as the POL Tank Farm, at Galena Airport, Alaska. This decision is based on the administrative record for this site, specifically the draft Remedial Investigation Report (March 1995) and the Treatability Study Report (January 1995) (PB95-225314). The information from these documents is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  11. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 1. Text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has conducted a Remedial Investigation (RI) at the Galena Airport (formerly Galena Air Force Station) and Campion Air Station (AS), Alaska. The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities and findings of the investigation and, on the basis of this information, make recommendations on future activities at the Galena Airport and Campion AS sites. Information from the RI at these sites was also used to support a baseline risk assessment.

  12. Waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey, Mather AFB California. Final report, 28 November-9 December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.P.; Hedgecock, N.S.

    1989-10-01

    Personnel from the AFOEHL conducted a waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey at MAFB from 28 Nov to 9 Dec 1988. The scope of this survey was to characterize the waste-water, address hazardous-waste-management practices, and explore opportunities for hazardous waste minimization. The waste water survey team analyzed the base's industrial effluent, effluent from oil/water separators, and storm water. The team performed a shop-by-shop evaluation of chemical-waste-management practices. Survey results showed that MAFB needs to improve its hazardous-waste-management program. Recommendations for improvement include: (1) Collecting two additional grab samples on separate days from the hospital discharge. Analyze for EPA Method 601 to determine if the grab sample from the survey gives a true indication of what is being discharged. (2) Locate the source and prevent mercury from the hospital from discharging into the sanitary sewer. (3) Dilute the soaps used for cleaning at the Fuels Lab, Building 7060. (4) Investigate the source of chromium from the Photo Lab. (5) Clean out the sewer system manhole directly downgradient from the Photo Lab. (6) Locate the source of contamination in the West Ditch Outfall. (7) Reconnect the two oil/water separators that discharge into the storm sewerage system. (8) Investigate the source of methylene chloride coming on the base. (9) Investigate the source of mercury at Fuel Cell Repair, building 7005.

  13. Evaluation of two line probe assays for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance, and non-TB Mycobacteria in HIV-infected individuals with suspected TB.

    PubMed

    Luetkemeyer, Anne F; Kendall, Michelle A; Wu, Xingye; Lourenço, Maria Cristina; Jentsch, Ute; Swindells, Susan; Qasba, Sarojini S; Sanchez, Jorge; Havlir, Diane V; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Sanne, Ian M; Firnhaber, Cynthia

    2014-04-01

    Limited performance data from line probe assays (LPAs), nucleic acid tests used for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are available for HIV-infected individuals, in whom paucibacillary TB is common. In this study, the strategy of testing sputum with GenoType MTBDRplus (MTBDR-Plus) and GenoType Direct LPA (Direct LPA) was compared to a gold standard of one mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture. HIV-positive (HIV(+)) individuals with suspected TB from southern Africa and South America with <7 days of TB treatment had 1 sputum specimen tested with Direct LPA, MTBDR-Plus LPA, smear microscopy, MGIT, biochemical identification of mycobacterial species, and culture-based drug-susceptibility testing (DST). Of 639 participants, 59.3% were MGIT M. tuberculosis culture positive, of which 276 (72.8%) were acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear positive. MTBDR-Plus had a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 100%, with sensitivities of 44.1% in AFB smear-negative versus 94.6% in AFB smear-positive specimens. For specimens that were positive for M. tuberculosis by MTBDR-Plus, the sensitivity and specificity for rifampin resistance were 91.7% and 96.6%, respectively, and for isoniazid (INH) they were 70.6% and 99.1%. The Direct LPA had a sensitivity of 88.4% and a specificity of 94.6% for M. tuberculosis detection, with a sensitivity of 72.5% in smear-negative specimens. Ten of 639 MGIT cultures grew Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium kansasii, half of which were detected by Direct LPA. Both LPA assays performed well in specimens from HIV-infected individuals, including in AFB smear-negative specimens, with 72.5% sensitivity for M. tuberculosis identification with the Direct LPA and 44.1% sensitivity with MTBDR-Plus. LPAs have a continued role for use in settings where rapid identification of INH resistance and clinically relevant NTM are priorities. PMID:24430455

  14. Potency and Spectrum of Activity of AN3365, a Novel Boron-Containing Protein Synthesis Inhibitor, Tested against Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Alley, M. R. K.; Sader, Helio S.; Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2013-01-01

    AN3365 (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 μg/ml) was active against Enterobacteriaceae, including a subset of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae strains (MIC50/90, 1/2 μg/ml). AN3365 inhibited 98.0 and 92.2% of wild-type (MIC50/90, 2/8 μg/ml) and carbapenem-resistant (MIC50/90, 4/8 μg/ml) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, respectively, at ≤8 μg/ml. AN3365 also demonstrated activity against wild-type Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC50/90, 2/8 μg/ml) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (MIC50/90, 2/4 μg/ml), while it was less active against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MIC50/90, 8/16 μg/ml) and Burkholderia cepacia (MIC50/90, 8/32 μg/ml). PMID:23507283

  15. [A new, automatic, non-radiometric system for culturing MB/BACT bacilli and its value in the microbiologic diagnosis of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Zofia, Z; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, E; Klatt, M

    1998-01-01

    The MB/BacT is a fully automated, rapid, non-radiometric system, for the culture of Mycobacteria for clinical samples other than blood. CO2 production is measured and reported as reflective units from the MB/BacT Process Bottle colorimetric sensor. We are evaluating the MB/BacT system in comparison to our routine culture method--culture on egg media (glycerol and puruvate), in the Bactec 460-Tb radiometric machine and in MB Redox. A total of 286 clinical samples from respiratory tract were inoculated into three or four culture systems and incubated at 37 degrees C. There was only little difference in mean time to detection between the MB/BacT and Bactec system (for M.tuberculosis 11 days versus 9 days), but both systems were faster than egg media (16 days). Contamination rates for MB/BacT system was 8.4%, and for Bactec 6.9%. The colorimetric technology used in the MB/BacT is a rapid and sensitive for the measurement of mycobacterial growth. PMID:9658878

  16. Vaccination of calves with Mycobacteria bovis Bacilli Calmete Guerin (BCG) induced rapid increase in the proportion of peripheral blood gammadelta T cells.

    PubMed

    Buza, Joram; Kiros, Tadele; Zerihun, Adama; Abraham, Isaac; Ameni, Gobena

    2009-08-15

    Changes in the proportion of peripheral blood T cell subsets after subcutaneous inoculation of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were studied. Calves were injected with approximately 8 x 10(6) BCG bacillus and blood samples collected at weekly intervals for flow-cytometric analyses to determine the proportion of CD4+, CD8+ and gammadelta T cells. In addition, whole blood samples were stimulated in vitro with M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) and the secreted IFN-gamma quantified by ELISA. Results showed cellular and cytokine changes which could be categorized into three phases. The first phase occurred within the first 2 weeks after vaccination involving an increase in proportion of WC1+ gammadelta T cells and a concomitant increase in the secretion of IFN-gamma. These two responses peaked at 2 weeks and waned thereafter. The second phase involved an increase in the CD4/CD8 ratio as a result of an increase in the proportion of CD4+ T cells between 4 and 6 weeks. The third phase involved a decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio due to an increase in the proportion of CD8+ T cells between 8 and 10 weeks. Surprisingly, the IFN-gamma response was associated with changes in the gammadelta rather than the CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, suggesting that this cytokine was secreted by gammadelta-T cells. These results are consistent with the reported ability of gammadelta T cells to act rapidly and bridging the innate and classically adaptive immune responses. PMID:19178951

  17. Metallo-beta-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacilli: laboratory-based surveillance in cooperation with 13 clinical laboratories in the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Hisaaki; Komatsu, Masaru; Shibata, Naohiro; Shimakawa, Kouichi; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Ura, Toshiro; Satoh, Kaori; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Wada, Yasunao; Orita, Tamaki; Kofuku, Tomomi; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Sakamoto, Masako; Kinoshita, Shohiro; Aihara, Masanori; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2004-11-01

    A total of 19,753 strains of gram-negative rods collected during two 6-month periods (October 2000 to March 2001 and November 2001 to April 2002) from 13 clinical laboratories in the Kinki region of Japan were investigated for the production of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs). MBLs were detected in 96 (0.5%) of the 19,753 isolates by the broth microdilution method, the 2-mercaptopropionic acid inhibition test, and PCR and DNA sequencing analyses. MBL-positive isolates were detected in 9 of 13 laboratories, with the rate of detection ranging between 0 and 2.6% for each laboratory. Forty-four of 1,429 (3.1%) Serratia marcescens, 22 of 6,198 (0.4%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 21 of 1,108 (1.9%) Acinetobacter spp., 4 of 544 (0.7%) Citrobacter freundii, 3 of 127 (2.4%) Providencia rettgeri, 1 of 434 (0.2%) Morganella morganii, and 1 of 1,483 (0.1%) Enterobacter cloacae isolates were positive for MBLs. Of these 96 MBL-positive strains, 87 (90.6%), 7 (7.3%), and 2 (2.1%) isolates carried the genes for IMP-1-group MBLs, IMP-2-group MBLs, and VIM-2-group MBLs, respectively. The class 1 integrase gene, intI1, was detected in all MBL-positive strains, and the aac (6')-Ib gene was detected in 37 (38.5%) isolates. Strains with identical PCR fingerprint profiles in a random amplified polymorphic DNA pattern analysis were isolated successively from five separate hospitals, suggesting the nosocomial spread of the organism in each hospital. In conclusion, many species of MBL-positive gram-negative rods are distributed widely in different hospitals in the Kinki region of Japan. The present findings should be considered during the development of policies and strategies to prevent the emergence and further spread of MBL-producing bacteria. PMID:15528723

  18. Prevalence of Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Bloodstream Infection in Febrile Neutropenia Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single Center Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Ying; Fan, Xing; Tang, Wei; Hu, Jiong

    2015-11-01

    Bloodstream infection (BSI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To evaluate the causative bacteria and identify risk factors for BSI associated mortality in febrile neutropenia patients undergoing HSCT, we collected the clinical and microbiological data from patients underwent HSCT between 2008 and 2014 and performed a retrospective analysis. Throughout the study period, among 348 episodes of neutropenic fever in patients underwent HSCT, 89 episodes in 85 patients had microbiological defined BSI with a total of 108 isolates. Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were the most common isolates (76, 70.3%) followed by gram-positive bacteria (GPB, 29, 26.9%) and fungus (3, 2.8%). As to the drug resistance, 26 multiple drug resistance (MDR) isolates were identified. Resistant isolates (n = 23) were more common documented in GNB, mostly Escherichia coli (9/36, 25%) and Klebsiella pneumonia (6/24, 25%). A total of 12 isolated were resistant to carbapenem including 4 K pneumoniae (4/24, 16.7%), 3 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other 4 GNB isolates (Citrobacter freumdii, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Chryseobacterium indologenes). As to the GPB, only 3 resistant isolates were documented including 2 methicillin-resistant isolates (Staphylococcus hominis and Arcanobacterium hemolysis) and 1 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Among these 85 patients with documented BSI, 11 patients died of BSI as primary or associated cause with a BSI-related mortality of 13.1 ± 3.7% and 90-day overall survival after transplantation at 80.0 ± 4.3%. Patients with high-risk disease undergoing allo-HSCT, prolonged neutropenia (≥15 days) and infection with carbapenem-resistant GNB were associated with BSI associated mortality in univariate and multivariate analyses. Our report revealed a prevalence of GNB in BSI of neutropenic patients undergoing HSCT. Patients with high-risk diseases with prolonged neutropenia and carbapenem-resistant GNB were independent risk factors for BSI-related mortality. PMID:26559260

  19. Recovery of commercially produced Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus from tires and prevalence of bacilli in artificial and natural containers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J P; Smith, A R; Novak, R J

    2001-03-01

    We conducted surveys to identify the species of spore-forming bacteria present in natural and artificial containers. Most of our samples came from Illinois. Identification was based on the cellular fatty acid composition of the bacterial cell wall. In addition, we utilized a custom database for commercially produced strains of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus, to differentiate between larvicidal isolates with commercial or native origin. Native Bti was present at low levels in almost all habitats but was not recovered from bromeliads and metal containers. In temporary woodland pools, 27.9% of the colonies recovered were native Bti. We did not recover larvicidal B. sphaericus in untreated habitats. VectoBac and VectoLex were applied to tires containing water and the tires were sampled 3 months and 9 months after treatment. Isolates of Bti and B. sphaericus with commercial origin were recovered as long as 9 months after application. We noticed numerous cadavers of Aedes triseriatus in several tires 9 months after treatment with VectoBac. We could not determine if this mortality resulted from recycling of Bti in these tires or whether insecticidal crystal proteins from the original treatment were resuspended. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis isolates with commercial ancestry were recovered from untreated tires 9 months after application. Isolates of larvicidal B. sphaericus that differed from the bacteria in VectoLex were also recovered from untreated tires. PMID:11345416

  20. Digital data for quick response (QR) codes of alkalophilic Bacillus pumilus to identify and to compare bacilli isolated from Lonar Crator Lake, India

    PubMed Central

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N.; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N.

    2016-01-01

    Microbiologists are routinely engaged isolation, identification and comparison of isolated bacteria for their novelty. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus pumilus were retrieved from NCBI repository and generated QR codes for sequences (FASTA format and full Gene Bank information). 16SrRNA were used to generate quick response (QR) codes of Bacillus pumilus isolated from Lonar Crator Lake (19° 58′ N; 76° 31′ E), India. Bacillus pumilus 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to generate CGR, FCGR and PCA. These can be used for visual comparison and evaluation respectively. The hyperlinked QR codes, CGR, FCGR and PCA of all the isolates are made available to the users on a portal https://sites.google.com/site/bhagwanrekadwad/. This generated digital data helps to evaluate and compare any Bacillus pumilus strain, minimizes laboratory efforts and avoid misinterpretation of the species. PMID:27141529

  1. Evaluation of the Andromas Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Aerobically Growing Gram-Positive Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Farfour, E.; Leto, J.; Barritault, M.; Barberis, C.; Meyer, J.; Dauphin, B.; Le Guern, A.-S.; Leflèche, A.; Badell, E.; Guiso, N.; Leclercq, A.; Le Monnier, A.; Lecuit, M.; Rodriguez-Nava, V.; Bergeron, E.; Raymond, J.; Vimont, S.; Bille, E.; Carbonnelle, E.; Guet-Revillet, H.; Lécuyer, H.; Beretti, J.-L.; Vay, C.; Berche, P.; Ferroni, A.; Nassif, X.

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-associated laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid and simple microbial identification method. Previous reports using the Biotyper system suggested that this technique requires a preliminary extraction step to identify Gram-positive rods (GPRs), a technical issue that may limit the routine use of this technique to identify pathogenic GPRs in the clinical setting. We tested the accuracy of the MALDI-TOF MS Andromas strategy to identify a set of 659 GPR isolates representing 16 bacterial genera and 72 species by the direct colony method. This bacterial collection included 40 C. diphtheriae, 13 C. pseudotuberculosis, 19 C. ulcerans, and 270 other Corynebacterium isolates, 32 L. monocytogenes and 24 other Listeria isolates, 46 Nocardia, 75 Actinomyces, 18 Actinobaculum, 11 Propionibacterium acnes, 18 Propionibacterium avidum, 30 Lactobacillus, 21 Bacillus, 2 Rhodococcus equi, 2 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and 38 other GPR isolates, all identified by reference techniques. Totals of 98.5% and 1.2% of non-Listeria GPR isolates were identified to the species or genus level, respectively. Except for L. grayi isolates that were identified to the species level, all other Listeria isolates were identified to the genus level because of highly similar spectra. These data demonstrate that rapid identification of pathogenic GPRs can be obtained without an extraction step by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. PMID:22692743

  2. Isolation of haemolytic bacilli from field-collected Culicoides oxystoma and Culicoides peregrinus: potential vectors of bluetongue virus in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Harsha, R; Pan, B; Ghosh, K; Mazumdar, A

    2015-06-01

    Two haemolytic bacterial strains of Bacillus pumilus (CU1A, CU1B) and one blood-utilizing strain of Bacillus licheniformis (CU2B) were isolated from relatively low numbers of field-collected females of Culicoides oxystoma and Culicoides peregrinus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). A total of 36 females, including 18 of each of C. oxystoma and C. peregrinus (consisting of one and a pool of eight blood-engorged specimens, and one and a pool of eight non-engorged specimens for each species), were tested. In C. oxystoma, all three strains of bacteria were isolated from the one non-engorged, the pool of non-engorged and the pool of blood-engorged females tested, but CU1A and CU2B were not found in the one blood-engorged female tested. In C. peregrinus, all three strains were present in the pool of blood-engorged females. However, the strain CU2B was not found in the pool of non-engorged females. In the one blood-engorged and one non-engorged female tested, CU1A and CU2B were detected. The bacterial strains were identified based on Gram staining, enzyme activity (amylase and protease) and alignment of the 16S rRNA partial gene sequence to that available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database GenBank. The functional role and significance of these haemolytic and blood-digesting bacteria within the genus Culicoides remain to be determined. PMID:25644315

  3. Evaluation of the ID 32E for the identification of Gram-negative glucose-fermenting and glucose-non-fermenting bacilli.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Caroline Mohr; Miller, J. Michael

    1999-05-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ID 32E bacterial identification system for accuracy in the identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter baumannii/Iwoffii. METHODS: Stock cultures of 497 Enterobacteriaceae and 27 commonly encountered non-enteric Gram-negative rods were tested in the ID 32E system. For each isolate, the resulting 11-digit profile number was converted to an identification using the APILAB Plus software (version 3.2.2). This identification was then compared to the reference identification obtained using conventional biochemicals. RESULTS: Of the 524 isolates tested, 405 (77.3%) were identified correctly; 52 (9.9%) were identified incorrectly. Sixty-seven (12.8%) identifications were either doubtful or unacceptable, and were not limited to any particular genus or species, with the exception of Ewingella americana and Serratia plymuthica, which did not grow well enough in the strip at 35 degrees C to be correctly identified. All five isolates of Acinetobacter Iwoffii were misidentified as Alcaligenes spp. CONCLUSIONS: With this challenge set of organisms, the ID 32E correctly identified 77.3% of the isolates tested. For commonly encountered isolates, the accuracy approached 90%. We conclude that the ID 32E offers an alternative for the identification of common clinical isolates. PMID:11856267

  4. Digital data for quick response (QR) codes of alkalophilic Bacillus pumilus to identify and to compare bacilli isolated from Lonar Crator Lake, India.

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2016-06-01

    Microbiologists are routinely engaged isolation, identification and comparison of isolated bacteria for their novelty. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus pumilus were retrieved from NCBI repository and generated QR codes for sequences (FASTA format and full Gene Bank information). 16SrRNA were used to generate quick response (QR) codes of Bacillus pumilus isolated from Lonar Crator Lake (19° 58' N; 76° 31' E), India. Bacillus pumilus 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to generate CGR, FCGR and PCA. These can be used for visual comparison and evaluation respectively. The hyperlinked QR codes, CGR, FCGR and PCA of all the isolates are made available to the users on a portal https://sites.google.com/site/bhagwanrekadwad/. This generated digital data helps to evaluate and compare any Bacillus pumilus strain, minimizes laboratory efforts and avoid misinterpretation of the species. PMID:27141529

  5. 77 FR 62249 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    .../out compromising nat'l security Reasons: Secured Area New Mexico 3 Buildings Kirtland AFB Kirtland AFB... access w/out comprising nat'l security Reasons: Secured Area Bldg. 30116 5801 Manzano St SE Kirtland AFB... nat'l security Reasons: Secured Area 6 Buildings Kirtland AFB Kirtland AFB NM 87117 Landholding...

  6. 7 CFR 354.2 - Administrative instructions prescribing commuted traveltime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Angeles 4 March AFB Ontario 3 Martinez San Francisco 3 Mather Field AFB Travis AFB 3 Mather...

  7. 7 CFR 354.2 - Administrative instructions prescribing commuted traveltime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Angeles 4 March AFB Ontario 3 Martinez San Francisco 3 Mather Field AFB Travis AFB 3 Mather...

  8. 7 CFR 354.2 - Administrative instructions prescribing commuted traveltime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Angeles 4 March AFB Ontario 3 Martinez San Francisco 3 Mather Field AFB Travis AFB 3 Mather...

  9. 7 CFR 354.2 - Administrative instructions prescribing commuted traveltime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Angeles 4 March AFB Ontario 3 Martinez San Francisco 3 Mather Field AFB Travis AFB 3 Mather...

  10. 7 CFR 354.2 - Administrative instructions prescribing commuted traveltime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Angeles 4 March AFB Ontario 3 Martinez San Francisco 3 Mather Field AFB Travis AFB 3 Mather...

  11. Containment of Bioaerosol Infection Risk by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay and Its Applicability to Point-of-Care Settings ▿

    PubMed Central

    Banada, Padmapriya P.; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Blakemore, Robert; Boehme, Catharina; Perkins, Mark D.; Fennelly, Kevin; Alland, David

    2010-01-01

    The recently introduced Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) has point-of-care potential, but its capacity for biohazard containment remained to be studied. We compared the bioaerosols generated by the Xpert assay to acid-fast bacillus (AFB) microscope slide smear preparation. The Xpert assay sample treatment reagent (SR) was also studied for its sterilizing capacity, stability, and effect on assay sensitivity after prolonged treatment. During the preparation of AFB smears, sputum samples spiked with Mycobacterium bovis BCG at 5 × 108 CFU/ml produced 16 and 325 CFU/m3 air measured with an Andersen impactor or BioSampler, respectively. In contrast, neither the sample preparation steps for the Xpert assay nor its automated processing produced any culturable bioaerosols. In testing of SR sterilizing capacity, clinical sputum samples from strongly smear-positive tuberculosis patients treated with SR at a 2:1 ratio eliminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth in all but 1/39 or 3/45 samples cultured on solid or liquid medium, respectively. These few unsterilized samples had a mean 13.1-day delay in the time to positive culture. SR treatment at a 3:1 ratio eliminated growth in all samples. SR retained a greater than 6-log-unit killing capacity despite storage at temperatures spanning 4 to 45°C for at least 3 months. The effect of prolonged SR sample treatment was also studied. Spiked sputum samples could be incubated in SR for up to 3 days without affecting Xpert sensitivity for M. tuberculosis detection and up to 8 h without affecting specificity for rifampin resistance detection. These results suggest that benchtop use of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay limits infection risk to the user. PMID:20720033

  12. Factors influencing development and mortality of acute respiratory failure in hospitalized patient with active pulmonary tuberculosis: a 10-year retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Maneenil, Kunlatida

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary tuberculosis with acute respiratory failure is fatal and is a burden in the intensive care units and leads to mortality. This retrospective study identifies the factors influencing the development of pulmonary tuberculosis requiring mechanical ventilation (TBMV) and mortality in the hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods The medical records of hospitalized adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, clinical presentations, radiographic findings, biochemical tests, and clinical outcomes were collected. Data were compared by Student’s t-test and Chi-square test between groups. Select variables that were statistically significant with P values <0.1 were introduced into a forward, stepwise, logistic regression model. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) identified the independent influencing factors in the development of TBMV and mortality. Results Of 268 enrolled patients, 185 (69.0%) were male. The patients were equally divided between the TBMV and non-TBMV groups. The shorter duration of illness (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–0.99), underlying disease of AIDS (OR, 14.55; 95% CI, 1.71–123.91), presentation of fever (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.20–3.71) and dyspnea (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 2.02–6.11), large amount of acid fast bacilli on sputum smear (OR, 3.76; 95% CI, 1.90–7.47), lower serum albumin level (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.26–0.59), and delayed initiation of anti-tuberculosis agents (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00–1.12) were independent factors to develop TBMV. Male gender (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.01–4.61), consolidation pattern on chest X-ray (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.17–4.98), and lower serum albumin (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.21–0.71) were correlated to mortality. Conclusions The incidence and mortality rate of TBMV patients were high. Acute tuberculous pneumonia, underlying disease of AIDS, amount of acid fast bacilli, and delayed administration of anti-tuberculosis agents

  13. NOCARDIOSIS REVEALED BY THYROID ABSCESS AND PNEUMONIA IN A LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT.

    PubMed

    Reechaipichitkul, Wipa; Thanasatirakul, Pachara

    2015-11-01

    Nocardia thyroid abscess with pneumonia is a rare clinical presentation. We reported a liver transplant recipient with Nocardia thyroiditis and pneumonia after receiving high dose immunosuppressants to preserve his graft. The patient is a 50-year-old male who developed hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis and received a liver transplant. Seven months post-transplantation the patient developed graft rejection, which was treated with 3 days pulse dose methyl-prednisolone followed by an increased dose of his tracolimus, mycophenolate and prednisolone. He presented to the hospital with a 2 week history of fever, tenderness in his anterior neck and dry cough. On admission his temperature was 39.5°C. The right wing of his thyroid gland was swollen to 3 cm in size, fluctuant and tender. On auscultation of his lungs there were fine crepitations and increased vocal resonance in the right middle lung field. On laboratory testing, a complete blood count (CBC) revealed leukocytosis (19,900/mm3) with neutrophils (97%). A chest X-ray showed an patchy infiltrates and round circumscribed densities in the superior segment of the right lower lobe of his lung. A CT scan of his neck revealed a diffusely enlarged right wing of the thyroid gland, 3.8 cm in diameter that had an abnormal hyposignal area. A CT of his chest revealed consolidation of the superior segment of the right lower lobe and necrotic right paratracheal lymph nodes with inflamed strap muscles. Fine needle aspiration of the right lobe of thyroid gland was performed. Modified acid-fast bacilli (MAFB) staining showed partially acid-fast beaded branching filamentous organisms and a culture grew out Nocardia asteroides. He was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 6 months. He improved clinically and his chest X-ray also cleared. PMID:26867364

  14. Rapid detection of tuberculosis using droplet-based microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Liat; Cheng, Yunfeng; Rao, Jianghong; Tang, Sindy K. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most deadly diseases that kills over one million people each year and infects one-third of the world's population. The disease is spread by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Owing to its airborne transmission, early diagnosis is critical to the prevention and control of TB. Standard diagnostic methods, acid-fast smear from sputum, often do not become positive until after transmission occurs, which allows the spread of the disease. Culture-based techniques are more sensitive, but take weeks to obtain results because of the extremely slow growth rate of Mtb. In this study a new method to detect indicator enzyme based on the isolation of tubercle bacillus in a large number of picoliter droplets combined with a fluorescent probe has been developed. We use BlaC (an enzyme naturally expressed/secreted by tubercle bacilli) as a marker and a designed BlaC-specific fluorogenic substrates as probes for Mtb detection. We present here a new method to detect the indicator enzyme based on the isolation, digitization and concentration of bacteria samples in a large number of picoliter drops. We show that by controlling the size of the droplets we can control the rate of conversion. Hence rapid increase in signal has been observed as the size of the drops has been decreased. Our vision is that this tool will be able to detect tubercle bacilli in a sensitive, rapid, specific and quantitative manner in vitro at a low cost, particularly in resource limited settings where TB is the most prevalent.

  15. Genotype diversity of Mycobacterium isolates from children in Jimma, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is poorly addressed in Ethiopia and information about its magnitude and the genotype distribution of the causative Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains responsible for its spread are scanty. Methods Gastric lavage or sputum samples were collected from consecutively enrolled TB suspect children visiting Jimma University Hospital in 2011 and cultured on Middlebrook 7H11 and Löwenstein-Jensen media. Acid fast bacterial (AFB) isolates were subjected to molecular typing targeting regions of difference (RDs), 16S rDNA gene and the direct repeat (DR) region using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), gene sequencing and spoligotyping, respectively. Molecular drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis isolates was performed by Genotype®MTBDRplus line probe assay (LPA) (Hain Life Sciences, Germany). Results Gastric lavage (n = 43) or sputum (n = 58) samples were collected from 101 children and 31.7% (32/101) of the samples were positive for AFB by microscopy, culture and/or PCR. Out of 25 AFB isolates, 60% (15/25) were identified as M. tuberculosis by PCR, and 40% isolates (10/25) were confirmed to be non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) by genus typing and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Lineage classification assigned the M. tuberculosis strains into Euro-American (EUA, 66.7%; 10/15), East-African-Indian (EAI; 2/15), East-Asian (EA; 1/15) and Indio-Oceanic (IO; 1/15) lineages. Seven M. tuberculosis strains were new to the SpolDB4 database. All of the M. tuberculosis isolates were susceptible to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), except for one strain (of spoligotype SIT-149 or T3_ETH family) which had a mutation at the inhA locus which often confers resistance to INH (low level) and ethionamide. Conclusions Analysis of the genetic population structure of paediatric M. tuberculosis strains suggested similarity with that of adults, indicating an on-going and active transmission of M. tuberculosis from adults to children

  16. Role of medical thoracoscopy in the treatment of tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xusheng; Zhu, Huaiyang; Ding, Caihong

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibrous tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) represents common disease in tuberculous clinic. Medical thoracoscopy has been used to treat pleural empyema and shown promising outcomes, but data of its use in multiloculated and organized TPE remains limited to know. Methods The study was performed on 430 cases with TPE. The cases were divided into free-flowing, multiloculated effusion and organized effusion group. Each group was subdivided into two or three types of therapeutic approaches: ultrasound guided pigtail catheter, large-bore tube chest drainage and medical thoracoscopy. Patients with multiloculated or organized effusions received streptokinase, introduced into the pleural cavity via chest tubes. The successful effectiveness of the study was defined as duration of chest drainage, time from treatment to discharge days and no further managements. Results Patients with organized effusion were older than those with free-flowing effusion and incidence of organized effusion combined with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was higher than those of multiloculated effusion and free-flowing effusion respectively. Positive tuberculosis of pleural fluid culture was higher in organized effusion than that in free-flowing effusion. Sputum positive for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in organized effusion was higher than that in multiloculated effusion and free-flowing effusion. Medical thoracoscopy showed significant efficacy in the group of multiloculated effusion and organized effusion but free-flowing effusion. No chronic morbidity and mortality related to complications was observed. Conclusions Medical thoracoscopy was a safe and successful method in treating multiloculated and organized TPE. PMID:26904212

  17. A case of surgically treated peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Khajehnoori, Masoomeh; O'Brien, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum (PPG) is a rare subtype of pyoderma gangrenosum that is difficult to diagnose and treat. It is characterized by the rapid progression of painful necrotic ulcer surrounding an area of abdominal stoma. It is almost exclusively associated with inflammatory bowel disease even after bowel surgery and is associated with significant morbidity. Diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum is based on exclusion of other disorders replicating some of its clinical features and histopathological evidence.This is a case report of a 56-year-old lady with rheumatoid arthritis who presented with rapidly progressing abdominal ulcer 8 months after a Hartmanns procedure for perforated diverticulitis. The ulcer had formed a large cavity causing faecal filling in the dependent defect. The other causes of ulcer were excluded with negative histopathology, negative polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium ulcerans and negative acid fast bacillus (AFB) test. She was diagnosed with PPG which is routinely treated medically due to risk of setting off a second focus of pyoderma if surgically intervened. However due to increased risk of faecal peritonitis, it was decided to proceed with surgical debridement. This article will discuss the case in more detail and briefly discuss diagnosis and treatment options for PPG. PMID:27302499

  18. A case of surgically treated peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Khajehnoori, Masoomeh; O'Brien, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum (PPG) is a rare subtype of pyoderma gangrenosum that is difficult to diagnose and treat. It is characterized by the rapid progression of painful necrotic ulcer surrounding an area of abdominal stoma. It is almost exclusively associated with inflammatory bowel disease even after bowel surgery and is associated with significant morbidity. Diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum is based on exclusion of other disorders replicating some of its clinical features and histopathological evidence. This is a case report of a 56-year-old lady with rheumatoid arthritis who presented with rapidly progressing abdominal ulcer 8 months after a Hartmanns procedure for perforated diverticulitis. The ulcer had formed a large cavity causing faecal filling in the dependent defect. The other causes of ulcer were excluded with negative histopathology, negative polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium ulcerans and negative acid fast bacillus (AFB) test. She was diagnosed with PPG which is routinely treated medically due to risk of setting off a second focus of pyoderma if surgically intervened. However due to increased risk of faecal peritonitis, it was decided to proceed with surgical debridement. This article will discuss the case in more detail and briefly discuss diagnosis and treatment options for PPG. PMID:27302499

  19. 77 FR 34056 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... access w/out comprising nat'l security Reasons: Secured Area New Mexico 3 Buildings Kirtland AFB Kirtland... St SE Kirtland AFB NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property Number: 18201220012 Status.../out comprising nat'l security. Reasons: Secured Area 6 Buildings Kirtland AFB Kirtland AFB NM...

  20. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sgarioni, Sônia Aparecida; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; de Andrade Leite, Sergio Roberto; Filho, Dirceu Vedovello; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw) from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5-10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25%) raw and 2 (4%) pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum). M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil. PMID:25242962