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Sample records for acid-fast bacilli culture

  1. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-01-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol. Images PMID:7687254

  2. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-06-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol.

  3. Comparison of culture and acid-fast bacilli stain to PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Aslanzadeh, J; de la Viuda, M; Fille, M; Smith, W B; Namdari, H

    1998-08-01

    The major drawback in effective use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in clinical samples is the presence of PCR inhibitors and unique cell components of the organism that complicate DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification. A PCR assay with a unique multistep DNA extraction method that minimizes these problems was compared in a prospective study to acid-fast bacilli stain (AFBS) and culture for detecting MTB in clinical samples. A total of 254 clinical specimens in two separate studies were processed for MTB by these techniques. While PCR and culture were 100% sensitive and specific, culture required up to 8 weeks of incubation and additional time to perform biochemical testing to identify the isolated micro-organism. Acid-fast bacilli stain had a specificity of about 87% and did not differentiate among Mycobacterial species. In contrast, the results from PCR were available within 48 h and did not require additional testing to attain a final result. Polymerase chain reaction was highly reliable for detection and confirmation and interpretation of positive AFBS results. The assay was easy to perform with a turn around time of about 2 days.

  4. Acid-fast bacilli in sputum: a case of Legionella micdadei pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, E; Freedman, R A; Cintron, F; Isenberg, H D; Singer, C

    1986-01-01

    Legionella micdadei has been implicated as a cause of nosocomial pneumonia. There are no reports of L. micdadei pneumonia diagnosed by acid-fast stain of expectorated sputum. We report a case of L. micdadei pneumonia in which expectorated sputum harbored acid-fast bacteria that reacted specifically with fluorescent antiserum to L. micdadei, confirmed by culture. In a patient at risk for nosocomial infection, the differential diagnosis of a positive sputum stain for acid-fast bacilli should include L. micdadei in addition to mycobacteria. Therapy for L. micdadei infection should be considered pending confirmation of the diagnosis. Images PMID:2430995

  5. Ultraviolet Light Enhances the Bovine Serum Albumin Fixation for Acid Fast Bacilli Stain

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Pei-Yin; Lee, Shih-Yi; Chou, Yu-Ching; Fu, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chen-Cheng; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi

    2014-01-01

    The use of a liquid culture system such as MGIT broth has greatly improved the sensitivity of isolating mycobacteria in clinical laboratories. Microscopic visualization of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the culture positive MGIT broth remains the first routine step for rapidly indicating the presence of mycobacteria. We modified an ultraviolet (UV) light fixation process to increase AFB cells adherence to the slide. The retained haze proportion of a 1-cm circle marked area on the smear slide was quantified after the staining procedure indicating the adherence degree of AFB cells. More AFB cells were preserved on the slide after exposure to UV light of either germicidal lamp or UV crosslinker in a time-dependent manner. We demonstrated both the bovine serum albumin (BSA) in MGIT media and UV light exposure were required for enhancing fixation of AFB cells. While applying to AFB stains for 302 AFB positive MGIT broths in clinics, more AFB cells were retained and observed on smear slides prepared by the modified fixation procedure rather than by the conventional method. The modified fixation procedure was thus recommended for improving the sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis of AFB cells in culture positive MGIT broth. PMID:24586725

  6. Bleach processed smear for Acid fast bacilli staining in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Makaen, Johnson; Maure, Tobbias

    2014-01-01

    The conventional method of processing sputum for acid fast bacilli microscopy has been a primary tool for laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea. In routine preparation, untreated sputum is directly smeared on a glass slide without undergoing any stage of processing. Mounting evidence suggests that direct smearing is less sensitive and, to a certain degree, compromises infection control. A few alternatives for processing sputum have been recommended in the literature; however, their consumables are not easily accessible and are expensive for wide use in rural laboratories. The bleach concentration and processing method appears to be the most preferable choice because bleach is inexpensive, readily available, and has bactericidal properties.

  7. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  8. Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion.

    PubMed

    Farnia, P; Mohammadi, F; Zarifi, Z; Tabatabee, D J; Ganavi, J; Ghazisaeedi, K; Farnia, P K; Gheydi, M; Bahadori, M; Masjedi, M R; Velayati, A A

    2002-02-01

    In order to try to improve the results of direct smear microscopy, we used the mucus-digesting quality of chitin in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. For this purpose, a total of 430 sputum specimens were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquefaction, chitin sedimentation, and direct microscopy methods. Then, the smear sensitivity for acid-fast bacillus detection by chitin-treated sputum was compared with the sensitivity of smears prepared by other methods. Our results showed that the chitin solution took less time to completely homogenize the mucoid sputum than did the N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NaOCl methods. The N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration method demonstrated sensitivity and specificity levels of 83 and 97%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of chitin sedimentation was 80%, with a specificity of 96.7%. The NaOCl liquefaction method showed a sensitivity of 78%, with a specificity of 96%. Finally, the sensitivity of direct microscopy was lower than those of the other tested methods and was only 46%, with a specificity of 90%. The chitin and NaOCl liquefaction methods are both easy to perform, and they do not require additional equipment (centrifuges). Also, our results demonstrated that the chitin method is less time-consuming than the NaOCl method, since only 30 min of incubation is required to bring complete sedimentation of bacilli in chitin-treated sputum whereas the NaOCl method needs 10 to 12 h to give the same results in the same sputum specimens. Therefore, the chitin liquefaction and sedimentation method may provide better results in TB laboratories of developing countries than the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, NaOCl overnight sedimentation, and direct smear microscopy methods.

  9. Decentralization of Acid Fast Bacilli(AFB) External Quality Assurance Using Blind Rechecking for Sputum Smear Microscopy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Muluken; Jerene, Degu; Alem, Genetu; Seid, Jemal; Belachew, Feleke; Kassie, Yewulsew; Habte, Dereje; Negash, Solomon; Ayana, Gonfa; Girma, Belaineh; Haile, Yared K.; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Suarez, Pedro G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia achieved a rapid expansion of TB microscopic centers for acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, external quality assurance (EQA) services were, until recently, limited to few regional and sub-regional laboratories. In this paper, we describe the decentralization experience and the result of EQA using random blinded rechecking. Materials and Methods The routine EQA quarterly report was compiled and analyzed. A positive result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported negative result is categorized as false positive (FP). A negative result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported positive is considered false negative (FN). The reading of EQA centers was considered a gold standard to compute the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the readings of microscopic centers. Results We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs) to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I), the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs). In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively. Conclusion Decentralizing blinded rechecking of sputum smear microscopy is feasible in low-income settings. While a comprehensive laboratory improvement strategy enhanced the quality of microscopy, laboratory professionals’ capacity in slide reading and smear quality requires continued

  10. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated. Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment. Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second

  11. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB.This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated.Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment.Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second-line anti

  12. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S.; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A. K.; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Interpretation and Conclusion: Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity. PMID:26425006

  13. Anisotropic tubular filtering for automatic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Shan-e.-Ahmed; Marjan, M. Q.; Arif, Muhammad; Butt, Farhana; Sultan, Faisal; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main factors for high workload in pulmonary pathology in developing countries is the relatively large proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases which can be detected with high throughput using automated approaches. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which appears as thin, rod-shaped acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smear samples. In this paper, we present an algorithm for automatic detection of AFB in digitized images of ZN stained sputum smear samples under a light microscope. A key component of the proposed algorithm is the enhancement of raw input image using a novel anisotropic tubular filter (ATF) which suppresses the background noise while simultaneously enhancing strong anisotropic features of AFBs present in the image. The resulting image is then segmented using color features and candidate AFBs are identified. Finally, a support vector machine classifier using morphological features from candidate AFBs decides whether a given image is AFB positive or not. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ATF method with two different feature sets by showing that the proposed image analysis pipeline results in higher accuracy and F1-score than the same pipeline with standard median filtering for image enhancement.

  14. The Culture of Tubercle Bacilli from Laryngeal Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Nassau, E.

    1941-01-01

    In a considerable proportion of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis there is no spontaneous expectoration, especially in female patients and patients under collapse treatment. A simple and efficient method is described to obtain suitable material for bacteriological examination in these cases. A laryngeal swab, made up from a piece of wire with cotton-wool wrapped round its end, is passed down the larynx and the patient asked to cough. Two swabs are taken from each patient. The swabs are passed through sterile test tubes containing 10% sulphuric acid and 2% sodium hydroxide solutions for five minutes in each and 2 Petragnani media inoculated with each swab. The cultures are examined after five days for contamination, and after twenty-eight days for macroscopical colonies of tubercle bacilli. The results obtained in two groups of cases of 166 and 107 patients were: 37.95% and 54.20% positive cultures respectively. The highest positive figures were obtained in female patients. Thus tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in a considerable proportion of cases previously regarded as sputum-negative or having no sputum. Apart from diagnosis the method gives valuable help in judging the efficiency of treatment. The finding of bacilli in early infiltrative lesions is of considerable practical as well as theoretical importance. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:19992349

  15. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental contamination of the samples during the collection and laboratory process, and proper handling of the...

  16. Identification and Differentiation of Clinically Relevant Mycobacterium Species Directly from Acid-Fast Bacillus-Positive Culture Broth ▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haijing; Turhan, Vedat; Chokhani, Laxmi; Stratton, Charles W.; Dunbar, Sherry A.; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium species cause a variety of clinical diseases, some of which may be species specific. Therefore, it is clinically desirable to rapidly identify and differentiate mycobacterial isolates to the species level. We developed a rapid and high-throughput system, MycoID, to identify Mycobacterium species directly from acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-positive mycobacterial culture broth. The MycoID system incorporated broad-range PCR followed by suspension array hybridization to identify 17 clinically relevant mycobacterial complexes, groups, and species in one single reaction. We evaluated a total of 271 AFB-positive culture broth specimens, which were identified by reference standard methods in combination with biochemical and molecular tests. The overall identification agreement between the standard and the MycoID system was 89.7% (perfect match) or 97.8% (one match in codetection). In comparison to the standard, the MycoID system possessed an overall sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 98.8%. The 159 Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex isolates were further identified to the species level by MycoID as being M. avium (n = 98; 61.1%), M. intracellulare (n = 57; 35.8%), and mixed M. avium and M. intracellulare (n = 2; 1.3%). M. avium was recovered more frequently from sterile sites than M. intracellulare (odds ratio, 4.6; P = 0.0092). The entire MycoID procedure, including specimen processing, can be completed within 5 h, providing rapid and reliable identification and differentiation of mycobacterium species that is amenable to automation. Additional differentiation of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex strains into M. avium and M. intracellulare may provide a tool to better understand the role of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex isolates in human disease. PMID:19794046

  17. Rapid Differentiation of Fermentative from Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Bacilli in Positive Blood Cultures by an Impedance Method

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tsung Chain; Huang, Ay Huey

    2000-01-01

    Rapid differentiation of fermentative gram-negative bacilli (fermenters) from nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli (nonfermenters) in positive blood cultures may help physicians to narrow the choice of appropriate antibiotics for empiric treatment. An impedance method for direct differentiation of fermenters from nonfermenters was investigated. The bacterial suspensions (or positive culture broths containing gram-negative bacteria) were inoculated into the module wells of a Bactometer (bioMérieux, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) containing 1 ml of Muller-Hinton broth. The inoculated modules were incubated at 35°C, and the change in impedance in each well was continuously monitored. The amount of time required to cause a series of significant deviations from baseline impedance values was defined as the detection time (DT). The percent change of impedance was defined as the change of impedance at the time interval from DT to DT plus 1 h. After testing 857 strains of pure cultures (586 strains of fermenters and 271 strains of nonfermenters), a breakpoint (2.98%) of impedance change was obtained by discriminant analysis. Strains displaying impedance changes of greater than 2.98% were classified as fermenters; the others were classified as nonfermenters. By using this breakpoint, 98.6% (340 of 345) of positive blood cultures containing fermenters and 98% (98 of 100) of positive blood cultures containing nonfermenters were correctly classified. The impedance method was simple, and the results were normally available within 2 to 4 h after direct inoculation of positive blood culture broths. PMID:11015369

  18. Preparation of acid-fast microscopy smears for proficiency testing and quality control.

    PubMed Central

    Smithwick, R W; Stratigos, C B

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for preparing smears for proficiency testing and quality control in acid-fast microscopy. The work was prompted by the increased demand for acid-fast bacilli positive smears with characteristic microscopic appearance and among-smear uniformity. PMID:353070

  19. Diversity and phylogeny of culturable spore-forming Bacilli isolated from marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Ettoumi, Besma; Raddadi, Noura; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur

    2009-09-01

    Members of the genus Bacillus and related genera are ubiquitous in nature. However, Bacillus species isolated from marine sediments have attracted less interest respect to their terrestrial relatives. Here, we report the phylogenetic diversity of a collection of 96 Bacilli, isolated from 17 distinct stations of 5 oceanographic campaigns. The diversity was analysed by phenotypic and molecular approaches based on the amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), amplification of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-PCR) and on 16S rRNA sequencing. Intra-specific polymorphism was efficiently detected by biochemical analysis and ARDRA while results of ITS-PCR were in agreement with 16S rRNA sequencing. The identification results assigned 68% of the isolates to the species B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus and B. cereus. Phylogenetic analysis allowed the separation of 9 isolates in a clade that may represent a group of obligate marine Bacillus since they clustered with B. firmus, B. foraminis and marine isolates with metal oxidation and bioaccumulation capabilities. The remaining isolates showed a close affiliation to the genera Virgibacillus, Gracilibacillus and Paenibacillus. The widespread of Bacilli and their high diversity level observed in this work point out the need of more extensive studies to understand their distribution and ecology in deep-sea environments. PMID:19322832

  20. Multicenter evaluation of a new shortened peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization procedure for species identification of select Gram-negative bacilli from blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Margie; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Salimnia, Hossein; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Wu, Fann; Crystal, Benjamin S

    2010-06-01

    A shortened protocol for two peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assays for the detection of Gram-negative bacilli from positive blood cultures was evaluated in a multicenter trial. There was 100% concordance between the two protocols for each assay (368 of 368 and 370 of 370 results) and 99.7% (367 of 368 and 369 of 370 results) agreement with routine laboratory techniques.

  1. Improved polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum with formalin-fixed tubercle bacilli for training of tuberculosis microscopists.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi; Wahyunitisari, Manik Rento; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Fujiki, Akiko

    2011-10-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method for detecting tubercle bacilli when there are more than 10,000 bacilli/ml in the original sputum. Furthermore, because the microscopic method provides not only quantitative, but also qualitative information, such as the shape of bacilli, it has remained significant. We have previously developed and reported panel test slides made from polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum (PBAS) mixed with both cultured THP-1 cells and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. In this paper, we report an improved preparation method for PBAS for panel test slides that provides a simplified method and enhanced availability with high consistency in each grade and in which only negative PBAS is prepared from polyacrylamide and cultured THP-1 cells and mixed with graded formalin-fixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis solution (FFTBS) containing oral flora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the slides. In the smears prepared using this improved method, the numbers (average ± standard deviation [SD]) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 300 fields (2- by 3-cm smear) in eight smears of each grade ranged from 5 to 9 (6.4 ± 1.4), from 59 to 88 (74.6 ± 10.0), from 503 to 912 (705.0 ± 145.7), and from 1,819 to 3,256 (2133.3 ± 478.0) in ±, +, ++, and +++ smears, respectively. In addition, this preparation method provided high similarity to the microscopic appearance of bacilli and background seen in the actual patient sputum, with high feasibility. These results revealed that our new PBAS had high authenticity in the appearance and consistency in each grade, which could make it valuable as a reliable artificial sputum for the training of microscopists.

  2. Improved Polyacrylamide-Based Artificial Sputum with Formalin-Fixed Tubercle Bacilli for Training of Tuberculosis Microscopists▿†

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi; Wahyunitisari, Manik Rento; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Fujiki, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method for detecting tubercle bacilli when there are more than 10,000 bacilli/ml in the original sputum. Furthermore, because the microscopic method provides not only quantitative, but also qualitative information, such as the shape of bacilli, it has remained significant. We have previously developed and reported panel test slides made from polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum (PBAS) mixed with both cultured THP-1 cells and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. In this paper, we report an improved preparation method for PBAS for panel test slides that provides a simplified method and enhanced availability with high consistency in each grade and in which only negative PBAS is prepared from polyacrylamide and cultured THP-1 cells and mixed with graded formalin-fixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis solution (FFTBS) containing oral flora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the slides. In the smears prepared using this improved method, the numbers (average ± standard deviation [SD]) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 300 fields (2- by 3-cm smear) in eight smears of each grade ranged from 5 to 9 (6.4 ± 1.4), from 59 to 88 (74.6 ± 10.0), from 503 to 912 (705.0 ± 145.7), and from 1,819 to 3,256 (2133.3 ± 478.0) in ±, +, ++, and +++ smears, respectively. In addition, this preparation method provided high similarity to the microscopic appearance of bacilli and background seen in the actual patient sputum, with high feasibility. These results revealed that our new PBAS had high authenticity in the appearance and consistency in each grade, which could make it valuable as a reliable artificial sputum for the training of microscopists. PMID:21813720

  3. Improved polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum with formalin-fixed tubercle bacilli for training of tuberculosis microscopists.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi; Wahyunitisari, Manik Rento; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Fujiki, Akiko

    2011-10-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method for detecting tubercle bacilli when there are more than 10,000 bacilli/ml in the original sputum. Furthermore, because the microscopic method provides not only quantitative, but also qualitative information, such as the shape of bacilli, it has remained significant. We have previously developed and reported panel test slides made from polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum (PBAS) mixed with both cultured THP-1 cells and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. In this paper, we report an improved preparation method for PBAS for panel test slides that provides a simplified method and enhanced availability with high consistency in each grade and in which only negative PBAS is prepared from polyacrylamide and cultured THP-1 cells and mixed with graded formalin-fixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis solution (FFTBS) containing oral flora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the slides. In the smears prepared using this improved method, the numbers (average ± standard deviation [SD]) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 300 fields (2- by 3-cm smear) in eight smears of each grade ranged from 5 to 9 (6.4 ± 1.4), from 59 to 88 (74.6 ± 10.0), from 503 to 912 (705.0 ± 145.7), and from 1,819 to 3,256 (2133.3 ± 478.0) in ±, +, ++, and +++ smears, respectively. In addition, this preparation method provided high similarity to the microscopic appearance of bacilli and background seen in the actual patient sputum, with high feasibility. These results revealed that our new PBAS had high authenticity in the appearance and consistency in each grade, which could make it valuable as a reliable artificial sputum for the training of microscopists. PMID:21813720

  4. Differential staining of bacteria: acid fast stain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jackie; Moyes, Rita B; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Acid-fastness is an uncommon characteristic shared by the genera Mycobacterium (Section 10A) and Nocardia. Because of this feature, this stain is extremely helpful in identification of these bacteria. Although Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria do not take the crystal violet into the wall well, appearing very light purple rather than the deep purple of normal Gram-positive bacteria.

  5. Evaluation of the nanosphere Verigene BC-GN assay for direct identification of gram-negative bacilli and antibiotic resistance markers from positive blood cultures and potential impact for more-rapid antibiotic interventions.

    PubMed

    Hill, Joseph T; Tran, Kim-Dung T; Barton, Karen L; Labreche, Matthew J; Sharp, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    The Verigene BC-GN assay correctly identified all 51 Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) from positive blood cultures and all 14 carbapenemase enzymes tested. The assay gave organism identification (ID) results an average of 24 h faster compared to conventional identifications. Medical management could have been modified for 31.8% of patients an average 33 h sooner. In conclusion, the BC-GN assay is a very accurate, rapid assay which would allow for more-immediate medical management decisions in patients with bacteremia from GNB.

  6. INTRAPERITONEAL LYSIS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI.

    PubMed

    Manwaring, W H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1913-12-01

    1. Tubercle bacilli injected into the peritoneal cavities of tuberculous guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys, rapidly disappear from the peritoneal fluids, while persisting in the peritoneal fluids of normal control animals. 2. This disappearance is in part due to an adhesion of the injected bacilli to the peritoneal leucocytes and a fixation of the leucocytes on the omentum. 3. The injected tubercle bacilli can be recovered quantitatively from the peritoneal cavities of normal guinea pigs from one and one half to two hours after the injection, while from tuberculous guinea pigs only 65 per cent. of the bacilli can be recovered at this time. 4. Isolated peritoneal tissues from tuberculous guinea pigs have the power of destroying tubercle bacilli in vitro. 5. A second factor reducing the number of tubercle bacilli free in the peritoneal fluid is therefore an actual lysis of the bacilli. 6. The intraperitoneal lysis is not due solely to substances present in the circulating fluids, since the phenomenon cannot be produced by these fluids in vitro, and since a lytic power cannot be passively conferred even by a direct transfusion of blood from tuberculous to normal animals. 7. The intraperitoneal lysis is apparently due to specific changes in the fixed peritoneal cells of the tuberculous animals.

  7. [Archaeology of tubercle bacilli and tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Iwai, Kazuro; Maeda, Shinji; Murase, Yoshirou

    2010-05-01

    Accumulated information obtained in the 10 years since the clarification of the whole genome arrangement of tubercle bacilli has enabled us to presume a long history of tubercle bacilli from its first appearance on earth to the present epidemics in the world. It is presumed that tubercle bacilli appeared around 35,000 years ago through horizontal transfer mutation from a kind of environmental mycobacteria that could be tracked back 2,500,000 years, and expanded thereafter by 'bottleneck effects'. These mutated mycobacterial species adapted to humans, appearing in central Africa and then being carried to India-Oceanian and Middle East countries. The oldest human bone tuberculosis in a mummy of 9,000 years ago was found on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Explosive transmission of tuberculosis was presumed to have progressed along with urbanized human life in the world-oldest Mesopotamian culture, followed by spreading to other areas, including East Asia, the Mediterranean region, Russia, and North Europe. The second epidemics, caused by a mutated Beijing family of the modern type, prevailed in central China and Southeast Asian countries, following the marked population growth in this area during the next 1,000 years. The majority of Beijing family strains isolated in Japan and Korea are, however, found to be of the ancient type, differing from the isolates from continental China, which are mainly of the modern type. The results of these studies may cast a new light on the understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and also clinical medicine.

  8. [A new, automatic, non-radiometric system for culturing MB/BACT bacilli and its value in the microbiologic diagnosis of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Zofia, Z; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, E; Klatt, M

    1998-01-01

    The MB/BacT is a fully automated, rapid, non-radiometric system, for the culture of Mycobacteria for clinical samples other than blood. CO2 production is measured and reported as reflective units from the MB/BacT Process Bottle colorimetric sensor. We are evaluating the MB/BacT system in comparison to our routine culture method--culture on egg media (glycerol and puruvate), in the Bactec 460-Tb radiometric machine and in MB Redox. A total of 286 clinical samples from respiratory tract were inoculated into three or four culture systems and incubated at 37 degrees C. There was only little difference in mean time to detection between the MB/BacT and Bactec system (for M.tuberculosis 11 days versus 9 days), but both systems were faster than egg media (16 days). Contamination rates for MB/BacT system was 8.4%, and for Bactec 6.9%. The colorimetric technology used in the MB/BacT is a rapid and sensitive for the measurement of mycobacterial growth. PMID:9658878

  9. Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase

  10. A NEW AND RAPID METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION AND CULTIVATION OF TUBERCLE BACILLI DIRECTLY FROM THE SPUTUM AND FECES

    PubMed Central

    Petroff, S. A.

    1915-01-01

    Sixty-nine positive cultures were obtained from sixty-nine specimens of sputum from practically all stages of tuberculosis. Six of these specimens were negative by direct microscopic examination, but the cultures gave positive findings. These six specimens have been positive for tubercle bacilli at some time. Nineteen positive cultures were isolated from thirty-two specimens of feces. All these thirty-two specimens, upon direct microscopical examination, gave positive findings, some showing only a few tubercle bacilli. Six specimens were not free from contaminating organisms, and the remaining seven were negative. The method presented in this paper has proved very simple and accurate for the isolation of tubercle bacilli from sputum. The partial success in isolating tubercle bacilli from feces may be due to the fact that many of the bacilli may be dead. PMID:19867850

  11. Cost-Effective and Rapid Presumptive Identification of Gram-Negative Bacilli in Routine Urine, Pus, and Stool Cultures: Evaluation of the Use of CHROMagar Orientation Medium in Conjunction with Simple Biochemical Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ohkusu, Kiyofumi

    2000-01-01

    The algorithm for a new identification system was designed on the basis of colony color and morphology on CHROMagar Orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests such as indole (IND), lysine decarboxylase (LDC), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) utilization tests with gram-negative bacilli isolated from urine samples as well as pus, stool, and other clinical specimens by the following colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and serological results: pinkish to red, IND positive (IND+), Escherichia coli; metallic blue, IND+, LDC+, and ODC negative (ODC−), Klebsiella oxytoca; IND+, LDC−, and ODC+, Citrobacter diversus; IND+ or IND−, LDC−, and ODC−, Citrobacter freundii; IND−, LDC+, and ODC+, Enterobacter aerogenes; IND−, LDC−, and ODC+, Enterobacter cloacae; IND−, LDC+, and ODC−, Klebsiella pneumoniae; diffuse brown and IND+, Morganella morganii; IND−, Proteus mirabilis; aqua blue, Serratia marcescens; bluish green and IND+, Proteus vulgaris; transparent yellow-green, serology positive, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; clear and serology positive, Salmonella sp.; other colors and reactions, the organism was identified by the full identification methods. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this new system were prospectively evaluated. During an 8-month period, a total of 345 specimens yielded one or more gram-negative bacilli. A total of 472 gram-negative bacillus isolates were detected on CHROMagar Orientation medium. For 466 of the isolates (98.7%), no discrepancies in the results were obtained on the basis of the identification algorithm. The cost of identification of gram-negative bacilli during this period was reduced by about 70%. The results of this trial for the differentiation of the most commonly encountered gram-negative pathogens in clinical specimens with the new algorithm were favourable in that it permitted reliable detection and presumptive identification. In addition, this rapid identification system not only

  12. Cost-effective and rapid presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli in routine urine, pus, and stool cultures: evaluation of the use of CHROMagar orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests.

    PubMed

    Ohkusu, K

    2000-12-01

    The algorithm for a new identification system was designed on the basis of colony color and morphology on CHROMagar Orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests such as indole (IND), lysine decarboxylase (LDC), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) utilization tests with gram-negative bacilli isolated from urine samples as well as pus, stool, and other clinical specimens by the following colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and serological results: pinkish to red, IND positive (IND(+)), Escherichia coli; metallic blue, IND(+), LDC(+), and ODC negative (ODC(-)), Klebsiella oxytoca; IND(+), LDC(-), and ODC(+), Citrobacter diversus; IND(+) or IND(-), LDC(-), and ODC(-), Citrobacter freundii; IND(-), LDC(+), and ODC(+), Enterobacter aerogenes; IND(-), LDC(-), and ODC(+), Enterobacter cloacae; IND(-), LDC(+), and ODC(-), Klebsiella pneumoniae; diffuse brown and IND(+), Morganella morganii; IND(-), Proteus mirabilis; aqua blue, Serratia marcescens; bluish green and IND(+), Proteus vulgaris; transparent yellow-green, serology positive, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; clear and serology positive, Salmonella sp.; other colors and reactions, the organism was identified by the full identification methods. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this new system were prospectively evaluated. During an 8-month period, a total of 345 specimens yielded one or more gram-negative bacilli. A total of 472 gram-negative bacillus isolates were detected on CHROMagar Orientation medium. For 466 of the isolates (98.7%), no discrepancies in the results were obtained on the basis of the identification algorithm. The cost of identification of gram-negative bacilli during this period was reduced by about 70%. The results of this trial for the differentiation of the most commonly encountered gram-negative pathogens in clinical specimens with the new algorithm were favourable in that it permitted reliable detection and presumptive identification. In addition, this rapid

  13. Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium and Lepra bacilli.

    PubMed

    Barksdale, L; Kim, K S

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is presented which suggests that certain key markers of lepra bacilli reside collectively in Proprionibacterium acnes, Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum and Mycobacterium leprae. The unrestricted replication of Mycobacterium leprae depends most probably upon the presence of an immune-deficiency-inducing viral agent or possibly on the combined effects of the organisms considered.

  14. [Proteus bacilli: features and virulence factors].

    PubMed

    Rózalski, Antoni; Kwil, Iwona; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Baranowska, Magdalena; Staczek, Paweł

    2007-01-01

    In this article, different aspects of virulence factors of Proteus bacilii (P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri i P. hauseri) are presented. These are opportunistic pathogens that cause different kinds of infections, most frequently of the urinary tract. These bacteria have developed several virulence factors, such as adherence due to the presence of fimbriae or afimbrial adhesins, invasiveness, swarming phenomenon, hemolytic activity, urea hydrolysis, proteolysis, and endotoxicity. Below we focus on data concerning the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of Proteus bacilli.

  15. Targeting Dormant Bacilli to Fight Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fattorini, Lanfranco; Piccaro, Giovanni; Mustazzolu, Alessandro; Giannoni, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which kills about 2 million people annually. Furthermore, 2 billion people worldwide are latently infected with this organism, with 10% of them reactivating to active TB due to re-growth of nonreplicating (dormant) Mtb residing in their tissues. Because of the huge reservoir of latent TB it is important to find novel drugs/drug combinations killing dormant bacilli (microaerophiles, anaerobes and drug-tolerant persisters) surviving for decades in a wide spectrum of granulomatous lesions in the lungs of TB patients. Antibiotic treatment of drug-susceptible TB requires administration of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 months. To avoid reactivation of dormant Mtb to active pulmonary TB, up to 9 months of treatment with isoniazid is required. Therefore, a strategy to eliminate dormant bacilli needs to be developed to shorten therapy of active and latent TB and reduce the reservoir of people with latent TB. Finding drugs with high rate of penetration into the caseous granulomas and understanding the biology of dormant bacilli and in particular of persister cells, phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, will be essential to eradicate Mtb from humans. In recent years unprecedented efforts have been done in TB drug discovery, aimed at identifying novel drugs and drug combinations killing both actively replicating and nonreplicating Mtb in vitro, in animal models and in clinical trials in humans. PMID:24363887

  16. Targeting dormant bacilli to fight tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Lanfranco; Piccaro, Giovanni; Mustazzolu, Alessandro; Giannoni, Federico

    2013-11-19

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which kills about 2 million people annually. Furthermore, 2 billion people worldwide are latently infected with this organism, with 10% of them reactivating to active TB due to re-growth of nonreplicating (dormant) Mtb residing in their tissues. Because of the huge reservoir of latent TB it is important to find novel drugs/drug combinations killing dormant bacilli (microaerophiles, anaerobes and drug-tolerant persisters) surviving for decades in a wide spectrum of granulomatous lesions in the lungs of TB patients. Antibiotic treatment of drug-susceptible TB requires administration of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 months. To avoid reactivation of dormant Mtb to active pulmonary TB, up to 9 months of treatment with isoniazid is required. Therefore, a strategy to eliminate dormant bacilli needs to be developed to shorten therapy of active and latent TB and reduce the reservoir of people with latent TB. Finding drugs with high rate of penetration into the caseous granulomas and understanding the biology of dormant bacilli and in particular of persister cells, phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, will be essential to eradicate Mtb from humans. In recent years unprecedented efforts have been done in TB drug discovery, aimed at identifying novel drugs and drug combinations killing both actively replicating and nonreplicating Mtb in vitro, in animal models and in clinical trials in humans.

  17. A case of lupus vulgaris successfully treated with antituberculous therapy despite negative PCR and culture.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Gulsen; Karaduman, Aysen; Boztepe, Gonca; Ozkaya, Ozay; Sahin, Sedef; Erkin, Gul; Kolemen, Fikret

    2005-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with a pink firm plaque with well-defined borders in the right infra-orbital skin area. On diascopy, the infiltrate exhibited a typical apple-jelly appearance. No acid-fast bacilli could be demonstrated. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay did not reveal the presence of mycobacteria in a lesional biopsy sample. Culture of biopsied tissue on Loewenstein-Jensen medium was negative. Although the tuberculosis culture and PCR did not confirm tuberculosis, a diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made considering the clinical and histopathological findings. After a 9-month antituberculous therapy, the lesion disappeared. We believe that a diagnosis of lupus vulgaris still depends more on clinical and histopathological findings than on tuberculosis culture or PCR.

  18. Cold active hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from three sub-glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of culturable, cold-active enzymes producing Bacilli was investigated from three sub-glacial lakes of north western Indian Himalayas. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using three restriction enzymes Alu I, Msp I, and Hae III led to the clustering of 136 Bacilli into 26, 23, and 22 clusters at 75% similarity index from Chandratal Lake, Dashair Lake, and Pangong Lake, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 35 Bacilli that could be grouped in seven families viz.: Bacillaceae (48%), Staphylococcaceae (14%), Bacillales incertae sedis (13%), Planococcaceae (12%), Paenibacillaceae (9%), Sporolactobacillaceae (3%), and Carnobacteriaceae (1%), which included twelve different genera Bacillus, Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, and Virgibacillus. Based on their optimal temperature for growth, 35 Bacilli were grouped as psychrophilic (11 strains), psychrotrophic (17 strains), or psychrotolerant (7 strains), respectively. The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for cold-active enzyme activities. Amylase, β-glucosidase, pectinase, and protease activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 80% of the strains while approximately 40, 31, 23, 14, 11, and 9% of strains possessed cellulase, xylanase, β-galactosidase, laccase, chitinase, and lipase activity, respectively. Among 35 Bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus marisflavi, Exiguobacterium indicum, Paenibacillus terrae, Pontibacillus sp., Sporosarcina globispora, and Sporosarcina psychrophila were efficient producers of different cold-active enzymes. These cold-adapted Bacilli could play an important role in industrial and agricultural processes. PMID:26933936

  19. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Lisa M.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  20. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  1. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-11-13

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions.

  2. Performance of VITEK-2 Compact and overnight MicroScan panels for direct identification and susceptibility testing of Gram-negative bacilli from positive FAN BacT/ALERT blood culture bottles.

    PubMed

    Quesada, M D; Giménez, M; Molinos, S; Fernández, G; Sánchez, M D; Rivelo, R; Ramírez, A; Banqué, G; Ausina, V

    2010-02-01

    We describe the reliability of the VITEK-2 Compact and overnight MicroScan panels for direct identification and susceptibility testing from the BacT/ALERT blood culture system when using FAN (FA and FN) bottles. A simple procedure, in two centrifugation steps, was designed to remove the charcoal particles present in FA and FN bottles. A total of 113 positive blood cultures showing Gram-negative rods were investigated. Enterobacteriaceae were isolated in 104 cases, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in nine. The MicroScan system correctly identified 106 (93.8%) of the 113 isolates. The seven identificaction errors included P. aeruginosa (three), Enterobacter cloacae (one), Escherichia coli (one), Klebsiella oxytoca (one), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (one). The VITEK-2 system correctly identified 109 (96.5%) of the 113 samples obtained directly from the blood culture bottles. The four unidentified isolates were Enterobacter cloacae (two), Escherichia coli (one), and P. aeruginosa (one). MicroScan yielded 4/779 (0.5%) very major errors and 28/2825 (0.9%) minor errors. VITEK-2 yielded 2/550 (0.36%) very major errors, 1/1718 (0.05%) major error, and 32/2373 (1.3%) minor errors. Both systems provided excellent identification (correlation of >90%) and susceptibility (correlation of >98%) results. The average times required to obtain identification and susceptibility results using the direct test applied to the VITEK-2 Compact system were 4.57 +/- 1.37 h and 6.52 +/- 1.64 h, respectively. The VITEK-2 compact system provided results on the same day that the blood culture was found to be positive. PMID:19778301

  3. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including “Mycobacterium canettii” are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699

  4. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including "Mycobacterium canettii" are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699

  5. A case of unusual Gram-negative bacilli septic arthritis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Li Qi; Wang, Wilson

    2013-08-01

    The Gram-negative bacilli Acinetobacter baumannii, Burkholderia cepacia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas mendocina, Ralstonia spp., Serratia marcescens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are ubiquitous environmental organisms of low virulence, and do not usually cause illness in immunocompetent hosts. We report a case of multiple concurrent opportunistic Gram-negative bacilli causing septic arthritis in a healthy patient following trauma to the knee. Repeated operations, including arthroscopy, arthrotomy and debridement, were required before tissue cultures became negative. The patient also required an extended duration of intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment before he was discharged. Gram-negative bacillary septic arthritis is an uncommon but significant condition that requires repeated debridement and washouts in order to achieve bacterial eradication. This case report highlights the importance of an awareness of the external environment at the time of injury, as it impacts the type of organisms causing the infection, and consequently, the choice of empiric antibiotics required for successful treatment.

  6. Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy for measuring phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by Tetrahymena pyriformis and their intracellular growth.

    PubMed

    Strahl, E D; Gillaspy, G E; Falkinham, J O

    2001-10-01

    Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy (FAM) was used to enumerate intracellular Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in the ciliated phagocytic protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. There was a linear relationship between FAM and colony counts of M. avium cells both from cultures and within protozoa. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain could not be used to enumerate intracellular mycobacteria because uninfected protozoa contained acid-fast, bacterium-like particles. Starved, 7-day-old cultures of T. pyriformis transferred into fresh medium readily phagocytized M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum. Phagocytosis was rapid and reached a maximum in 30 min. M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum grew within T. pyriformis, increasing by factors of 4- to 40-fold after 5 days at 30 degrees C. Intracellular M. avium numbers remained constant over a 25-day period of growth (by transfer) of T. pyriformis. Intracellular M. avium cells also survived protozoan encystment and germination. The growth and viability of T. pyriformis were not affected by mycobacterial infection. The results suggest that free-living phagocytic protozoa may be natural hosts and reservoirs for M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum.

  7. Glucose-nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli associated with clinical veterinary specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, J J; Simpson, R B

    1982-01-01

    Glucose-nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFB) have been recognized recently as opportunistic pathogens of humans. With few exceptions, strains of NFB have not been considered important enough to be identified when isolated from animals. In this study, all NFB isolated during a 1-year period in a clinical veterinary microbiology laboratory were identified to determine their prevalence. Of the 347 strains of NFB obtained, the most common species were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes. Of all clinical veterinary specimens submitted for cultures, 10% contained nonfermenters. PMID:7107835

  8. STUDIES IN ATYPICAL FORMS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI ISOLATED DIRECTLY FROM THE HUMAN TISSUES IN CASES OF PRIMARY CERVICAL ADENITIS

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Charles W.

    1909-01-01

    The four cultures which form the basis of this communication were recovered from peculiar cases of primary cervical adenitis in man, three of which terminated fatally of disseminated acute miliary tuberculosis in four to six weeks. A careful comparative study shows that Culture II corresponds closely with the "human" and Culture IV with the "bovine" type of tubercle bacilli; while Cultures I and III present variations from the standard types and are to be retarded as "intermediate" or "atypical" forms. Culture I is of unusual interest because of its remarkable variations. The clinical picture of the case, the rapid course of the infection, the enormous number of the bacilli in the tissue, their tendency to occur in "heaps" like the leprosy bacillus, the high degree of virulence alike for rabbits and guinea-pigs, the production of lesions in chickens, the case of cultivation and the prolonged viability under unfavorable conditions, all mark the organism as a decided atypical form of tubercle bacillus in man. The prolonged viability, the production of lesions in the chicken and the great profusion of bacillary growth in the tissues would indicate an avian type. Though for years the reaction curve was atypical it has since changed completely to the "avian" curve. In this connection it is of interest to note that L. Rabinowitsch (3) states that she has isolated avian tubercle bacilli from two cases of tuberculosis in man. Cultures II and III undoubtedly belong to the human type of the tubercle family though they were under cultivation and were repeatedly tested upon glycerine broth over a period of months before their identity was definitely established. Culture IV completely corresponds in growth and reaction in glycerine bouillon to the bovine strain; however, it manifests a low degree of virulence for rabbits which is exceptional for bovine cultures. The old belief that bovine bacilli are more slender and beaded in the tissues and are thicker and shorter in culture

  9. Characteristics of endobronchial tuberculosis patients with negative sputum acid-fast bacillus

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, Pınar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is defined as a tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence, with or without parenchymal involvement. In this study, clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic characteristics of cases diagnosed to have EBTB were evaluated. Methods Sixteen patients with at least three negative sputum examinations for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and diagnosed as having EBTB on the histopathological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens showing granulomatous structures with caseation necrosis and/or positive AFB-culture on the microbiological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens were included in our study. Age, sex, symptoms, tuberculin skin test (TST), microbiological examination results and radiological findings were recorded. Bronchoscopical lesions were classified according to Chung classification. Results EBTB was found to be more common in females. Most common symptoms were cough (100%), sputum (75%), weight loss (62.5%), hemoptisis (37.5%), chest pain (25%) and dyspnea (12.5%). Radiological examination findings revealed consolidations/infiltrations (87.5%), nodular lesions (37.5%), cavitary lesions (25%), unilateral (43.7%) or bilateral hilar widening (31.2%) and atelectasia (25%). Middle lob syndrome was seen in three cases. Most common lesions observed bronchoscopically were active caseous lesions, granular lesions, edematous hyperemic lesions, tumorous lesions, fibrostenotic lesions respectively. In all cases “granulomatous inflammation showing caseation” was shown in the histopathological examination of biopsy specimens. Conclusions EBTB can cause various radiological and bronchoscopical findings. In most of the cases distinct response is seen to antituberculous treatment. Bronchial stenosis is an important complication. Treatment should be given as soon as possible to avoid it. PMID:24409353

  10. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys of mallards fed lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Irby, H.D.

    1966-01-01

    Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of mallards fed one, two, three or eight number 6 lead shot and maintained on cracked or whole corn and on grain-duck pellet diets. No acid-fast inclusion bodies were found in mallards fed one or three lead shot but maintained on a duck pellet ration. Dietary factors may be responsible for the failure of mallards fed a duck pellet ration to develop lead Inclusion bodies when treated with one or three lead shot. The authors suggest these inclusion bodies can be used as presumptive evidence for lead intoxication in mallards.

  11. Tuberculous lymphadenitis: Comparison of cytomorphology, Ziehl–Neelsen staining, and rapid mycobacterial culture at a pediatric superspecialty hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mahana, Sonam; Tomar, Reena; Agrawal, Rawi; Saksena, Rushika; Manchanda, Vikas; Gupta, Ruchika

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate and compare the role of Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) staining and mycobacterial culture in diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 fine needle aspirations (FNAs) from patients who were clinically suspected to have tuberculous lymphadenitis were included. Acid-fast Bacilli detection was attempted by ZN staining on smears as well as culture on Middlebrook 7H9 broth. Percentage positivity of both smears and culture was calculated. Results: Of the 56 cases, 46 showed cytomorphological features consistent with tuberculosis (TB). The most common pattern was only necrosis in 37 cases followed by necrotizing granulomas in 13 cases. ZN-stained smears were positive in 40 cases while culture was positive in only 27 cases. The highest smear and culture positivity was noted in cases with only necrosis. In six cases, diagnosis of TB was made on culture alone since smear was negative in these cases. Conclusion: FNA is a reliable technique for early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis in many cases. Mycobacterial culture by newer rapid techniques can assist in bacillary detection in smear-negative cases and also allows for drug sensitivity testing. Hence, culture should be resorted to in such cases. PMID:27563340

  12. RNA structures regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis in bacilli.

    PubMed

    Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M

    2013-07-01

    In Bacilli, there are three experimentally validated ribosomal-protein autogenous regulatory RNAs that are not shared with E. coli. Each of these RNAs forms a unique secondary structure that interacts with a ribosomal protein encoded by a downstream gene, namely S4, S15, and L20. Only one of these RNAs that interacts with L20 is currently found in the RNA Families Database. We created, or modified, existing structural alignments for these three RNAs and used them to perform homology searches. We have determined that each structure exhibits a narrow phylogenetic distribution, mostly relegated to the Firmicute class Bacilli. This work, in conjunction with other similar work, demonstrates that there are most likely many non-homologous RNA regulatory elements regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis that still await discovery and characterization in other bacterial species. PMID:23611891

  13. RNA structures regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis in bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    In Bacilli, there are three experimentally validated ribosomal-protein autogenous regulatory RNAs that are not shared with E. coli. Each of these RNAs forms a unique secondary structure that interacts with a ribosomal protein encoded by a downstream gene, namely S4, S15, and L20. Only one of these RNAs that interacts with L20 is currently found in the RNA Families Database. We created, or modified, existing structural alignments for these three RNAs and used them to perform homology searches. We have determined that each structure exhibits a narrow phylogenetic distribution, mostly relegated to the Firmicute class Bacilli. This work, in conjunction with other similar work, demonstrates that there are most likely many non-homologous RNA regulatory elements regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis that still await discovery and characterization in other bacterial species. PMID:23611891

  14. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Gram-Negative Nonfermentative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Ruddell, K. A.; Anselmo, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if current methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing could be successfully applied to the gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli. Using clinical isolates and reference strains, experiments were conducted on the inherent reliability of the Bauer-Kirby method, as well as the effect of certain modifications on the method such as elimination of the 2- to 5-h incubation in broth and use of different agar media. Results obtained using these modifications were compared to the results obtained by the standard method. It was shown that the two modifications investigated had a significant effect on the interpretation of zone diameters. It was further shown that the standard Bauer-Kirby method with some exceptions correlates with minimal inhibitory concentrations as determined by broth dilution methods. Results suggest that the Bauer-Kirby method may be a reliable technique for testing the antibiotic susceptibility of the nonfermentative bacilli. PMID:1147576

  15. [Epidemiology of multi-drug resistant gramnegative bacilli].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, P; Cantón, R

    2016-09-01

    Current antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacilli is particularly worrisome due to development of resistance to all available antimicrobial agents. This situation dramatically limits therapeutic options. The microorganisms acquire a multiresistance phenotype as a consequence of different complex processes in which the antimicrobials acts as selective driver of resistance. Dissemination of multiresistant bacteria is driven by the expansion of the high-risk clones. These clones can be selected in the presence of antimicrobials allowing their persistence over time. PMID:27608308

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacilli isolated from the skin of healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Tarale, Prashant; Gawande, Sonali; Jambhulkar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, twelve bacilli were isolated from four different regions of human skin from Bela population of Nagpur district, India. The isolated bacilli were identified by their morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Seven isolates were Gram negative rods, out of which five were belong to genus Pseudomonas. Three among the five Gram positive isolates were identified as Dermabactor and the remaining two Bacillus. Their antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The isolates showed resistance to several currently used broad-spectrum antibiotics. The Dermabactor genus was resistant to vancomycin, although it was earlier reported to be susceptible. Imipenem was found to be the most effective antibiotic for Pseudomonas while nalidixic acid, ampicillin and tetracycline were ineffective. Isolates of Bacillus displayed resistance to the extended spectrum antibiotics cephalosporin and ceftazidime. Imipenem, carbenicillin and ticarcillin were found to be the most effective antibiotics as all the investigated isolates were susceptible to them. Antibiotic resistance may be due to the overuse or misuse of antibiotics during the treatment, or following constant exposure to antibiotic-containing cosmetic formulations.

  17. A system for the examination of tubercle bacilli and other mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J

    1976-09-01

    Methods are described for the examination of mycobacteria cultured from clinical specimens. In the "screening" procedure used for new isolates tubercle bacilli are non-pigmented, do not grow at 25 degrees C and are sensitive to p-nitrobenzoic acid as well as normally to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Classification is extended when necessary by the use of four tests--temperature requirements, pigmentation, oxygen preference and Tween hydrolysis. These define 15 species or groups meeting the needs of clinical bacteriology. Drug-sensitivity tests are described which relate the end-points of titrations to the modal response of normal wild strains of M. tuberculosis. They are used not only as a guide to chemotherapy but also to support and amplify classification.

  18. NAD+ Auxotrophy is Bacteriocidal for the Tubercle Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Weinrick, Brian; Wong, Ka-Wing; Chen, Bing; Jacobs, William R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The human tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis can synthesize NAD+ using the de novo biosynthesis pathway or the salvage pathway. The salvage pathway of the bovine tubercle bacillus M. bovis was reported defective due to a mutation in the nicotinamidase PncA. This defect prevents nicotinic acid secretion, which is the basis for the niacin test that clinically distinguishes M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we found that the NAD+ de novo biosynthesis pathway (nadABC) can be deleted from M. bovis, demonstrating a functioning salvage pathway. M. bovis ΔnadABC fails to grow in mice, whereas M. tuberculosis ΔnadABC grows normally in mice, suggesting that M. tuberculosis can acquire nicotinamide from its host. The introduction of M. tuberculosis pncA into M. bovis ΔnadABC is sufficient to fully restore growth in a mouse, proving that the functional salvage pathway enables nicotinamide acquisition by the tubercle bacilli. This study demonstrates that NAD+ starvation is a cidal event in the tubercle bacilli and confirms that enzymes common to the de novo and salvage pathways may be good drug targets. PMID:20199601

  19. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF VACCINATION AGAINST BACILLI DYSENTERIAE.

    PubMed

    Olitsky, P K

    1918-07-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine a practical method of vaccination against bacillary dysentery. It has been emphasized that the toxicity of the dysentery group of organisms, especially that of the Shiga bacillus, is such as not to permit of their employment in simple saline or aqueous suspensions. If, on the other hand, their toxicity is removed by the addition of certain chemicals, the antigen of the bacilli is so changed as not to be suitable for immunization purposes. The toxicity of the bacilli can also be diminished by the addition of immune serum. There is no essential difference in the result whether unmodified serum is used or that modified by Gibson's method. The use of serum with vaccines cannot be recommended, in spite of the relative non-toxicity of such mixtures. The specific immunity response is reduced, while the parenteral injection of horse serum in large groups of men is objectionable because of the serum sensitization which it produces. It has been shown that a certain vegetable oil, almond oil, (and this statement may apply to a number of non-irritating, absorbable oils) is capable of overcoming many of these disadvantages. The oil acts as a passive agent in merely suspending the bacteria without altering their properties. The slow absorption of the suspended bacteria from this vehicle mitigates the toxic effects of the dysentery bacilli. At the same time it does not interfere with the immunity response-antibacterial and antitoxic. If the absorption is too slow, however, as in the instances in which lanolin was added, less satisfactory results follow. The proper rate of absorption is as important a factor as the proper vegetable oil. The latter condition has been emphasized in the consideration of the effects of an objectionable olive oil. The neutralization of the oil should be complete. F. G. S. and J. W. S. suffered from severe local reactions, the results of the local deposition of soaps, which are difficult of

  20. The genotypic diversity and lipase production of some thermophilic bacilli from different genera

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Melih; Cokmus, Cumhur; Cihan, Arzu Coleri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thermophilic 32 isolates and 20 reference bacilli were subjected to Rep-PCR and ITS-PCR fingerprinting for determination of their genotypic diversity, before screening lipase activities. By these methods, all the isolates and references could easily be differentiated up to subspecies level from each other. In screening assay, 11 isolates and 7 references were found to be lipase producing. Their extracellular lipase activities were measured quantitatively by incubating in both tributyrin and olive oil broths at 60 °C and pH 7.0. During the 24, 48 and 72-h period of incubation, the changes in the lipase activities, culture absorbance, wet weight of biomass and pH were all measured. The activity was determined by using pNPB in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 at 60 °C. The lipase production of the isolates in olive oil broths varied between 0.008 and 0.052, whereas these values were found to be 0.002-0.019 (U/mL) in the case of tyributyrin. For comparison, an index was established by dividing the lipase activities to cell biomass (U/mg). The maximum thermostable lipase production was achieved by the isolates F84a, F84b, and G. thermodenitrificans DSM 465T (0.009, 0.008 and 0.008 U/mg) within olive oil broth, whereas G. stearothermophilus A113 displayed the highest lipase activity than its type strain in tyributyrin. Therefore, as some of these isolates displayed higher activities in comparison to references, new lipase producing bacilli were determined by presenting their genotypic diversity with DNA fingerprinting techniques. PMID:26691464

  1. The genotypic diversity and lipase production of some thermophilic bacilli from different genera.

    PubMed

    Koc, Melih; Cokmus, Cumhur; Cihan, Arzu Coleri

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic 32 isolates and 20 reference bacilli were subjected to Rep-PCR and ITS-PCR fingerprinting for determination of their genotypic diversity, before screening lipase activities. By these methods, all the isolates and references could easily be differentiated up to subspecies level from each other. In screening assay, 11 isolates and 7 references were found to be lipase producing. Their extracellular lipase activities were measured quantitatively by incubating in both tributyrin and olive oil broths at 60 °C and pH 7.0. During the 24, 48 and 72-h period of incubation, the changes in the lipase activities, culture absorbance, wet weight of biomass and pH were all measured. The activity was determined by using pNPB in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 at 60 °C. The lipase production of the isolates in olive oil broths varied between 0.008 and 0.052, whereas these values were found to be 0.002-0.019 (U/mL) in the case of tyributyrin. For comparison, an index was established by dividing the lipase activities to cell biomass (U/mg). The maximum thermostable lipase production was achieved by the isolates F84a, F84b, and G. thermodenitrificans DSM 465T (0.009, 0.008 and 0.008 U/mg) within olive oil broth, whereas G. stearothermophilus A113 displayed the highest lipase activity than its type strain in tyributyrin. Therefore, as some of these isolates displayed higher activities in comparison to references, new lipase producing bacilli were determined by presenting their genotypic diversity with DNA fingerprinting techniques. PMID:26691464

  2. Horizontally acquired genomic islands in the tubercle bacilli.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jichan; Becq, Jennifer; Gicquel, Brigitte; Deschavanne, Patrick; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    Most mycobacteria are environmental species, causing disease only occasionally when they encounter a susceptible human or animal host. A few species, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium, have acquired the ability to parasitize host macrophages during the course of evolution and have become major pathogens. Recent genetic studies in these two species have suggested that early episodes of horizontal transfer of genomic islands from surrounding environmental species might have contributed to the evolution towards this virulence phenotype, possibly by helping bacilli to persist in protozoa and, subsequently, in mammalian phagocytes. A better understanding of the function of the proteins encoded by these genomic islands in mycobacterial metabolism might help to define novel targets for the development of future antimicrobials.

  3. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  4. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsielleae and other facultative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ochuba, G U; von Riesen, V L

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebsiella oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carrageenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and Pectobacterium (38%). Pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  5. Molecular diversity and multifarious plant growth promoting attributes of Bacilli associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rhizosphere from six diverse agro-ecological zones of India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Yadav, Ajar Nath; Khannam, Kazy Sufia; Kumar, Sanjay; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Suman, Archna

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of culturable Bacilli was investigated in six wheat cultivating agro-ecological zones of India viz: northern hills, north western plains, north eastern plains, central, peninsular, and southern hills. These agro-ecological regions are based on the climatic conditions such as pH, salinity, drought, and temperature. A total of 395 Bacilli were isolated by heat enrichment and different growth media. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes AluI, MspI, and HaeIII led to the clustering of these isolates into 19-27 clusters in the different zones at >70% similarity index, adding up to 137 groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 55 distinct Bacilli that could be grouped in five families, Bacillaceae (68%), Paenibacillaceae (15%), Planococcaceae (8%), Staphylococcaceae (7%), and Bacillales incertae sedis (2%), which included eight genera namely Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Planomicrobium, Sporosarcina, and Staphylococcus. All 395 isolated Bacilli were screened for their plant growth promoting attributes, which included direct-plant growth promoting (solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc; production of phytohormones; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity and nitrogen fixation), and indirect-plant growth promotion (antagonistic, production of lytic enzymes, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia). To our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of Bacillus endophyticus, Paenibacillus xylanexedens, Planococcus citreus, Planomicrobium okeanokoites, Sporosarcina sp., and Staphylococcus succinus in wheat rhizosphere and exhibit multifunctional PGP attributes. These niche-specific and multifarious PGP Bacilli may serve as inoculants for crops growing in respective climatic conditions.

  6. Molecular diversity and multifarious plant growth promoting attributes of Bacilli associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rhizosphere from six diverse agro-ecological zones of India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Yadav, Ajar Nath; Khannam, Kazy Sufia; Kumar, Sanjay; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Suman, Archna

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of culturable Bacilli was investigated in six wheat cultivating agro-ecological zones of India viz: northern hills, north western plains, north eastern plains, central, peninsular, and southern hills. These agro-ecological regions are based on the climatic conditions such as pH, salinity, drought, and temperature. A total of 395 Bacilli were isolated by heat enrichment and different growth media. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes AluI, MspI, and HaeIII led to the clustering of these isolates into 19-27 clusters in the different zones at >70% similarity index, adding up to 137 groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 55 distinct Bacilli that could be grouped in five families, Bacillaceae (68%), Paenibacillaceae (15%), Planococcaceae (8%), Staphylococcaceae (7%), and Bacillales incertae sedis (2%), which included eight genera namely Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Planomicrobium, Sporosarcina, and Staphylococcus. All 395 isolated Bacilli were screened for their plant growth promoting attributes, which included direct-plant growth promoting (solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc; production of phytohormones; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity and nitrogen fixation), and indirect-plant growth promotion (antagonistic, production of lytic enzymes, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia). To our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of Bacillus endophyticus, Paenibacillus xylanexedens, Planococcus citreus, Planomicrobium okeanokoites, Sporosarcina sp., and Staphylococcus succinus in wheat rhizosphere and exhibit multifunctional PGP attributes. These niche-specific and multifarious PGP Bacilli may serve as inoculants for crops growing in respective climatic conditions. PMID:26567901

  7. Novel hypertonic saline-sodium hydroxide (HS-SH) method for decontamination and concentration of sputum samples for Mycobacterium tuberculosis microscopy and culture.

    PubMed

    Ganoza, Christian A; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Chauca, José; Rojas, Gabriel; Munayco, César; Agapito, Juan; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Guerra, Humberto

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluated a new decontamination and concentration (DC) method for sputum microscopy and culture. Sputum samples from patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) (n=106) were tested using the proposed hypertonic saline-sodium hydroxide (HS-SH) DC method, the recommended N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium citrate-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH) DC method and unconcentrated direct smear (Ziehl-Neelsen) techniques for the presence of mycobacteria using Löwenstein-Jensen culture and light microscopy. Of 94 valid specimens, 21 (22.3%) were positive in culture and were further characterized as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears was increased from 28.6% using the direct method to 71.4% (HS-SH) and 66.7% (NALC-NaOH) using DC methods. Both concentration techniques were highly comparable for culture (kappa=0.794) and smear (kappa=0.631) for AFB. Thus the proposed HS-SH DC method improved the sensitivity of AFB microscopy compared with a routine unconcentrated direct smear; its performance was comparable to that of the NALC-NaOH DC method for AFB smears and culture, but it was methodologically simpler and less expensive, making it a promising candidate for evaluation by national TB control programmes in developing countries.

  8. STUDIES IN ATYPICAL FORMS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI ISOLATED DIRECTLY FROM THE HUMAN TISSUES IN CASES OF PRIMARY CERVICAL ADENITIS

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Charles W.

    1909-01-01

    The four cultures which form the basis of this communication were recovered from peculiar cases of primary cervical adenitis in man, three of which terminated fatally of disseminated acute miliary tuberculosis in four to six weeks. A careful comparative study shows that Culture II corresponds closely with the "human" and Culture IV with the "bovine" type of tubercle bacilli; while Cultures I and III present variations from the standard types and are to be retarded as "intermediate" or "atypical" forms. Culture I is of unusual interest because of its remarkable variations. The clinical picture of the case, the rapid course of the infection, the enormous number of the bacilli in the tissue, their tendency to occur in "heaps" like the leprosy bacillus, the high degree of virulence alike for rabbits and guinea-pigs, the production of lesions in chickens, the case of cultivation and the prolonged viability under unfavorable conditions, all mark the organism as a decided atypical form of tubercle bacillus in man. The prolonged viability, the production of lesions in the chicken and the great profusion of bacillary growth in the tissues would indicate an avian type. Though for years the reaction curve was atypical it has since changed completely to the "avian" curve. In this connection it is of interest to note that L. Rabinowitsch (3) states that she has isolated avian tubercle bacilli from two cases of tuberculosis in man. Cultures II and III undoubtedly belong to the human type of the tubercle family though they were under cultivation and were repeatedly tested upon glycerine broth over a period of months before their identity was definitely established. Culture IV completely corresponds in growth and reaction in glycerine bouillon to the bovine strain; however, it manifests a low degree of virulence for rabbits which is exceptional for bovine cultures. The old belief that bovine bacilli are more slender and beaded in the tissues and are thicker and shorter in culture

  9. Rapid identification of mycobacteria and rapid detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cultured isolates and in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Yam, Wing-Cheong; Siu, Kit-Hang Gilman

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology and better understanding of the genetic basis of drug resistance have allowed rapid identification of mycobacteria and rapid detection of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis present in cultured isolates or in respiratory specimens. In this chapter, several simple nucleic acid amplification-based techniques are introduced as molecular approach for clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis. A one-tube nested IS6110-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used for M. tuberculosis complex identification; the use of a multiplex allele-specific PCR is demonstrated to detect the isoniazid resistance; PCR-sequencing assays are applied for rifampicin and ofloxacin resistance detection and 16S rDNA sequencing is utilized for identification of mycobacterial species from cultures of acid fast bacilli (AFB). Despite the high specificity and sensitivity of the molecular techniques, mycobacterial culture remains the "Gold Standard" for tuberculosis diagnosis. Negative results of molecular tests never preclude the infection or the presence of drug resistance. These technological advancements are, therefore, not intended to replace the conventional tests, but rather have major complementary roles in tuberculosis diagnosis.

  10. Fite stain positivity in Rhodococcus equi: yet another acid-fast organism in respiratory cytology--a case report.

    PubMed

    Echeverri, C; Matherne, J; Jorgensen, J H; Fowler, L J

    2001-04-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an aerobic Gram-positive and acid-fast coccobacillus that may cause cavitary pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts such as HIV-infected patients. Numerous Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS)-positive organisms were initially noted on the direct smear; a minor number of acid-fast organisms were seen in the Thin-Prep slide. Since the abundant mucous material with the attached organisms seen in conventional smears may be lost in liquid-based preparations, more sensitive stains such as Fite, as well as a more diligent search for organisms, is needed. This case illustrates the importance of careful selection and evaluation of special stains in sputum specimens.

  11. A new acid-fast trichrome stain for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidial species in stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Ignatius, R; Lehmann, M; Miksits, K; Regnath, T; Arvand, M; Engelmann, E; Futh, U; Hahn, H; Wagner, J

    1997-02-01

    The detection in stool specimens of Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia, the most frequent parasitic pathogens causing diarrhea in AIDS patients, until now has depended on two different staining methods. However, since double infections occur and minimization of laboratory costs is mandatory, development of a method for simultaneous detection of these parasites appeared desirable. We report on a new, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform staining procedure to demonstrate both acid-fast oocysts of C. parvum and other coccidia, as well as microsporidial spores. This acid-fast trichrome stain yields results comparable to those obtained by the Kinyoun and modified trichrome methods and considerably reduces the time necessary for microscopic examination.

  12. Revisited distribution of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, H; Carbonnelle, E; Corvec, S; Illiaquer, M; Le Monnier, A; Bille, E; Zahar, J R; Beretti, J L; Jauréguy, F; Fihman, V; Tankovic, J; Cattoir, V

    2011-12-01

    Nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) are ubiquitous environmental opportunistic bacteria frequently misidentified by conventional phenotypic methods. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of NF-GNB species by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing (used as reference method) and to compare performances of biochemical tests and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). From nine French hospitals, 188 NF-GNB isolates (except P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii) were prospectively collected from 187 clinical samples between December 2008 and May 2009. By using the genotypic approach, 173 (92%) and 188 (100%) isolates were identified to the species and genus level, respectively. They covered 35 species and 20 genera, with a predominance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Pseudomonas putida group bacteria. Of the 173 species-level identified strains, concordant identification to the species-level was obtained for 75.1%, 83% and 88.9% of isolates with API 20 NE strip, the VITEK-2 (ID-GN card) system and MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively. By excluding S. maltophilia isolates accurately identified by the three methods, genus-level identification was much higher for MALDI-TOF-MS (92.9%), compared with API 20 NE and VITEK-2 (76.2% and 80.8%, respectively). In conclusion, MALDI-TOF-MS represents a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate tool for routine identification of NF-GNB in human clinical samples.

  13. The identification of gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from clinical infections.

    PubMed Central

    Duerden, B. I.

    1980-01-01

    Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from specimens submitted to the routine diagnostic bacteriology laboratory and regarded as significant pathogens were identified by conventional bacteriological tests; 399 strains isolated from 356 specimens submitted from 332 patients were studied and most were readily identified by the results of a combined set of morphological, biochemical, tolerance and antibiotic disk resistance tests; B. fragilis has particular pathogenic potential and was the commonest species isolated, accounting for greater than 50% of strains. The next commonest was B. asaccharolyticus with 55 strains, and 16 other species or groups were represented by smaller numbers. Many (68%) were from infections related to the gastro-intestinal tract, but there were significant numbers from infections of the male and female genito-urinary tracts, the head, neck and central nervous system and from a variety of soft tissue infections. Most infections were mixed, and a pure culture of a Bacteroides sp. was obtained from only 26% of infections; two or more strains of Bacteroides were recovered from 55 infections. The specific identification of Bacteroides may help the bacteriologist to judge the significance of laboratory findings, influence the patient's management and prognosis and help determine the source of infection. PMID:6987300

  14. The Performance of Direct Disk Diffusion for Community Acquired Bacteremia due to Gram-Negative Bacilli and Its Impact on Physician Treatment Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Peter; Comerford, Adam; Umali, Jurgienne; Penney, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background. Direct disk diffusion susceptibility testing provides faster results than standard microtitre susceptibility. The direct result may impact patient outcome in sepsis if it is accurate and if physicians use the information to promptly and appropriately change antibiotic treatment. Objective. To compare the performance of direct disk diffusion with standard susceptibility and to consider physician decisions in response to these early results, for community acquired bacteremia with Gram-negative Bacilli. Methods. Retrospective observational study of all positive blood cultures with Gram-negative Bacilli, collected over one year. Physician antibiotic treatment decisions were assessed by an infectious diseases physician based on information available to the physician at the time of the decision. Results. 89 bottles growing Gram-negative Bacilli were included in the analysis. Direct disk diffusion agreement with standard susceptibility varied widely. In 47 cases (52.8%), the physician should have changed to a narrower spectrum but did not, in 18 cases (20.2%), the physician correctly narrowed from appropriate broad coverage, and in 8 cases (9.0%), the empiric therapy was correct. Discussion. Because inoculum is not standardized, direct susceptibility results do not agree with standard susceptibility results for all drugs. Physicians do not act on direct susceptibility results. Conclusion. Direct susceptibility should be discontinued in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:27366172

  15. The Performance of Direct Disk Diffusion for Community Acquired Bacteremia due to Gram-Negative Bacilli and Its Impact on Physician Treatment Decisions.

    PubMed

    Daley, Peter; Comerford, Adam; Umali, Jurgienne; Penney, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background. Direct disk diffusion susceptibility testing provides faster results than standard microtitre susceptibility. The direct result may impact patient outcome in sepsis if it is accurate and if physicians use the information to promptly and appropriately change antibiotic treatment. Objective. To compare the performance of direct disk diffusion with standard susceptibility and to consider physician decisions in response to these early results, for community acquired bacteremia with Gram-negative Bacilli. Methods. Retrospective observational study of all positive blood cultures with Gram-negative Bacilli, collected over one year. Physician antibiotic treatment decisions were assessed by an infectious diseases physician based on information available to the physician at the time of the decision. Results. 89 bottles growing Gram-negative Bacilli were included in the analysis. Direct disk diffusion agreement with standard susceptibility varied widely. In 47 cases (52.8%), the physician should have changed to a narrower spectrum but did not, in 18 cases (20.2%), the physician correctly narrowed from appropriate broad coverage, and in 8 cases (9.0%), the empiric therapy was correct. Discussion. Because inoculum is not standardized, direct susceptibility results do not agree with standard susceptibility results for all drugs. Physicians do not act on direct susceptibility results. Conclusion. Direct susceptibility should be discontinued in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:27366172

  16. Usefulness of lymphoid granulomatous inflammation culture obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in a fungal endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Berger, John; Zamora, Felix; Podgaetz, Eitan; Andrade, Rafael; Dincer, H. Erhan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is the procedure of choice for the evaluation of mediastinal/hilar lymph node enlargements. Granulomatous inflammation of the mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes is often identified on routine histology. In addition, mediastinal lymphadenopathy may be present with undiagnosed infection. We sought to determine the usefulness of routine cultures and histology for infectious etiologies in a fungal endemic area when granulomatous inflammation is identified. Materials and Methods: We identified 56 of 210 patients with granulomatous inflammation on EBUS-TBNA biopsies from October 2012 through October 2014. An onsite cytologist evaluated all biopsies and an additional TBNA pass for microbiologic stains and cultures were obtained in those with granulomatous inflammation. Results: Of the 56 patients with granulomatous inflammation, 20 patients had caseating (necrotizing) granulomas while noncaseating (nonnecrotizing) granulomas were detected in 36 of the remainder patients. In patients with caseating granulomas, fungal elements were identified in 6 of 20 (30%) patients (histoplasma; N = 5, blastomyces; N = 1) on Grocott methenamine silver (GMS) stain. Lymph node cultures identified 3 of 20 (20%) patients as being positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (N = 1), Histoplasma capsulatum (N = 1), and Blastomyces dermatitidis (N = 1). Among patients with noncaseating granulomas, only 2 out of 36 (5%) were positive for fungal elements on GMS stain, identified as Histoplasma, although the lymph node cultures remained negative. Conclusion: The incidence of granulomatous inflammation of mediastinal lymph nodes was 26.6% in our series. Of these patients, noncaseating granulomas were more common (64% vs. 36%). Infectious organisms, fungal or acid-fast bacilli (AFB), on either staining or lymph node culture were rarely identified in noncaseating granulomas, 5% and none, respectively

  17. In vitro drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium other than tubercle bacilli.

    PubMed

    Imwidthaya, P; Komolpis, P; Suthiravitayavaniz, K; Rienthong, S

    1990-08-01

    MOTT were isolated from clinical specimens from the Division of Mycobacteriology, Department of Microbiology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, and also from natural sources, namely water and soil in the Bangkok area from January to December, 1987. The strains isolated were as follows: 30 M. fortuitum fortuitum, 5 M. fortuitum peregrinum 3 M. fortuitum 3 rd. biovariant complex, 3 M. chelonae chelonae, 7 M. chelonae abscessus. Of these, 5 strains were isolated from clinical specimens and the other 43 were from the environment. The pattern of drug susceptibility to antituberculous and antimicrobial agents revealed that they were resistant to antituberculous agents but susceptible to aminoglycosides (which contain a central ring of 2-deoxystreptamine) such as amikacin (83% of cultures), netilmicin (83%), gentamicin (77%) and kanamycin (75%). Some strains were sensitive to tetracyclines (35%), but all were resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins. PMID:2262746

  18. The Increasing Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Giuffrè, Mario; Geraci, Daniela M.; Bonura, Celestino; Saporito, Laura; Graziano, Giorgio; Insinga, Vincenzo; Aleo, Aurora; Vecchio, Davide; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported. We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital “Paolo Giaccone,” Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools. During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin–sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case. Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an

  19. Evaluation of CHROMagar Orientation for differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species.

    PubMed Central

    Merlino, J; Siarakas, S; Robertson, G J; Funnell, G R; Gottlieb, T; Bradbury, R

    1996-01-01

    A new chromogenic plate medium, CHROMagar Orientation, was evaluated for use in the differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species by a multipoint inoculation (replicator) technique. In this study, 1,404 gram-negative bacilli and 74 enterococcal isolates were tested on CHROMagar Orientation. Six control American Type Culture Collection strains were also included with the testing to ensure quality control of the media. Of the Escherichia coli isolates (n = 588) tested, 99.3% produced a pink-to-red color. Only in four isolates that were O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) negative did this result differ. Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris were well differentiated on this medium. P. mirabilis (n = 184) produced a clear colony with diffusible brown pigment around the periphery. By contrast, 15 of 16 P. vulgaris isolates produced bluish-green colonies with a slight brown background. All Aeromonas hydrophila isolates (n = 26) tested produced clear to pink colonies at 35 to 37 degrees C. This colony color changed to blue after 2 to 3 h of incubation at room temperature. A. hydrophila exhibited stronger color and better growth at 30 degrees C. Serratia marcescens (n = 29) demonstrated an aqua blue color that deepened to a darker blue when exposed to room temperature. All enterococcal isolates (n = 74) resulted in a blue color and gave pinpoint colonies on purity subcultures at 35 to 37 degrees C after 18 h of incubation. Similarity in color resulted in failure to discriminate accurately between Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter species. However, these species could be readily differentiated from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 151) was easily differentiated from members of the Enterobacteriaceae but was less easily distinguishable from other gram-negative nonmembers of the Enterobacteriaceae. The medium was found to facilitate easy visual detection of mixed

  20. Evaluation of CHROMagar Orientation for differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species.

    PubMed

    Merlino, J; Siarakas, S; Robertson, G J; Funnell, G R; Gottlieb, T; Bradbury, R

    1996-07-01

    A new chromogenic plate medium, CHROMagar Orientation, was evaluated for use in the differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species by a multipoint inoculation (replicator) technique. In this study, 1,404 gram-negative bacilli and 74 enterococcal isolates were tested on CHROMagar Orientation. Six control American Type Culture Collection strains were also included with the testing to ensure quality control of the media. Of the Escherichia coli isolates (n = 588) tested, 99.3% produced a pink-to-red color. Only in four isolates that were O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) negative did this result differ. Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris were well differentiated on this medium. P. mirabilis (n = 184) produced a clear colony with diffusible brown pigment around the periphery. By contrast, 15 of 16 P. vulgaris isolates produced bluish-green colonies with a slight brown background. All Aeromonas hydrophila isolates (n = 26) tested produced clear to pink colonies at 35 to 37 degrees C. This colony color changed to blue after 2 to 3 h of incubation at room temperature. A. hydrophila exhibited stronger color and better growth at 30 degrees C. Serratia marcescens (n = 29) demonstrated an aqua blue color that deepened to a darker blue when exposed to room temperature. All enterococcal isolates (n = 74) resulted in a blue color and gave pinpoint colonies on purity subcultures at 35 to 37 degrees C after 18 h of incubation. Similarity in color resulted in failure to discriminate accurately between Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter species. However, these species could be readily differentiated from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 151) was easily differentiated from members of the Enterobacteriaceae but was less easily distinguishable from other gram-negative nonmembers of the Enterobacteriaceae. The medium was found to facilitate easy visual detection of mixed

  1. Predominance of Gram-negative bacilli among patients with catheter-related bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Braun, E; Hussein, K; Geffen, Y; Rabino, G; Bar-Lavie, Y; Paul, M

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated changes in the epidemiology of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) between 1996 and 2012 in a tertiary care centre in Israel. The cohort included 1754 episodes of CRBSI. The incidence of CRBSIs decreased throughout the study period, whereas 30-day mortality following bacteraemia increased. There was a linear shift toward predominance of Gram-negative bacilli throughout the study period (p for trend<0.001). In 1996, 68% (68/100) of CRBSIs were caused by Gram-positive cocci, whereas in 2012 77.8% (28/26) were caused by Gram-negative bacilli. The shift towards Gram-negative CRBSIs and the associated mortality mandates that empirical treatment for CRBSIs be directed by local epidemiology.

  2. Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli by Use of Vitek MS

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Maria; Pincus, David H.; Wilkey, Kathy; Sercia, Linda; LaSalvia, Margaret; Wilson, Deborah; Procop, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of Vitek MS mass spectrometric identifications was assessed for 206 clinically significant isolates of aerobic Gram-positive bacilli representing 20 genera and 38 species. The Vitek MS identifications were correct for 85% of the isolates (56.3% to the species level, 28.6% limited to the genus level), with misidentifications occurring for 7.3% of the isolates. PMID:24501030

  3. Nematicidal spore-forming Bacilli share similar virulence factors and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ziqiang; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhang, Zhengming; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the soil environment, Bacilli can affect nematode development, fecundity and survival. However, although many Bacillus species can kill nematodes, the virulence mechanisms Bacilli utilize remain unknown. In this study, we collected 120 strains comprising 30 species across the Bacillaceae and Paenibacillaceae families of the Bacillales order and measured their nematicidal activities in vitro. Comparison of these strains' nematicidal capacities revealed that nine species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. firmus, B. toyonensis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Brevibacillus laterosporus and B. brevis, were highly nematicidal, the first of which showed the highest activity. Genome sequencing and analysis identified many potential virulence factors, which grouped into five types. At least four possible mechanisms were deduced on the basis of the combination of these factors and the bacterial nematicidal activity, including a pore-forming mechanism of crystal proteins, an inhibition-like mechanism of thuringiensin and a degradation mechanism of proteases and/or chitinases. Our results demonstrate that 120 spore-forming Bacilli across different families share virulence factors that may contribute to their nematicidal capacity. PMID:27539267

  4. Nematicidal spore-forming Bacilli share similar virulence factors and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ziqiang; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhang, Zhengming; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the soil environment, Bacilli can affect nematode development, fecundity and survival. However, although many Bacillus species can kill nematodes, the virulence mechanisms Bacilli utilize remain unknown. In this study, we collected 120 strains comprising 30 species across the Bacillaceae and Paenibacillaceae families of the Bacillales order and measured their nematicidal activities in vitro. Comparison of these strains’ nematicidal capacities revealed that nine species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. firmus, B. toyonensis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Brevibacillus laterosporus and B. brevis, were highly nematicidal, the first of which showed the highest activity. Genome sequencing and analysis identified many potential virulence factors, which grouped into five types. At least four possible mechanisms were deduced on the basis of the combination of these factors and the bacterial nematicidal activity, including a pore-forming mechanism of crystal proteins, an inhibition-like mechanism of thuringiensin and a degradation mechanism of proteases and/or chitinases. Our results demonstrate that 120 spore-forming Bacilli across different families share virulence factors that may contribute to their nematicidal capacity. PMID:27539267

  5. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the eggs will be rubbed with a sterile swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other... tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2) Incubate at 37 °C for 48 hours. The presence of acid, and...

  6. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the eggs will be rubbed with a sterile swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other... tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2) Incubate at 37 °C for 48 hours. The presence of acid, and...

  7. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the eggs will be rubbed with a sterile swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other... tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2) Incubate at 37 °C for 48 hours. The presence of acid, and...

  8. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the eggs will be rubbed with a sterile swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other... tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2) Incubate at 37 °C for 48 hours. The presence of acid, and...

  9. [Mechanisms of inactivation of aminosides. Relationship to phenotype in Gram negative bacilli].

    PubMed

    Witchitz, J L

    1975-09-20

    Aminosides are antibiotics essential in the treatment of gram negative bacilli infections. Phenomena of resistance related to them are amongst the best documented. For enterobacteria encountered in clinical practice, the process is usually a plasmid mediated inactivation mechanism, the dispersion of which in a hospital context may be appreciated. Precise knowledge of the modes of inactivation and the molecular sites involved has led to the production of semi-synthetic aminosides which escape the action of these enzymes. A classification of hospital bacteria according to their type of resistance is possible by virtue of the study of phenotypes and may make it possible to define the true need of these new substances.

  10. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacilli causing bacteremia during therapy.

    PubMed

    Siebert, J D; Thomson, R B; Tan, J S; Gerson, L W

    1993-07-01

    Treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative bacilli with beta-lactam antimicrobial agents can induce Class I beta-lactamase production. This phenomenon can result in resistant microorganisms, and has been postulated to be a cause of therapeutic failure. The charts of patients bacteremic with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia species (n = 120) during a 3-year period were reviewed to determine how common the emergence of resistance was, and to determine if in vitro susceptibility testing was a reliable therapeutic guide. Emergence of resistance was believed to occur when a subsequent bacteremic isolate showed at least a fourfold increase in minimum inhibitory concentration accompanied by a change of interpretive susceptibility category. In the group of patients who survived at least 48 hours that received beta-lactam therapy (n = 76), one case of emergence of resistance was identified (1.3%). Emergence of resistance to beta-lactam antimicrobial agents did not commonly cause therapeutic failure at our institution, and susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli by usual methods was a reliable guide to antimicrobial therapy.

  11. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature. PMID:26934782

  12. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . ... Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . ...

  13. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  14. Intracerebral Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guerin infection-induced immune responses in the CNS 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JangEun; Ling, Changying; Kosmalski, Michelle M.; Hulseberg, Paul; Schreiber, Heidi A.; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

    2010-01-01

    To study whether cerebral mycobacterial infection induces granuloma and protective immunity similar to systemic infection, we intracerebrally infected mice with Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guerin. Granuloma and IFN-γ+CD4+ T cell responses are induced in the central nervous system (CNS) similar to periphery, but the presence of IFN-γIL-17 double-positive CD4+ T cells is unique to the CNS. The major CNS source of TNF-α is microglia, with modest production by CD4+ T cells and macrophage. Protective immunity is accompanied by accumulation of Foxp3+CD4+ T cells and PD-L2+ dendritic cells, suggesting that both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses develop in the CNS following mycobacterial infection. PMID:19535154

  15. [Psoas abscess secondary to lumbar spondylodiscitis caused by gram negative bacilli].

    PubMed

    Ampudia-Blasco, F J; Fernandez, J; Ferrer, M D; Pallardo, Y; Tenes, S; Carmena, R

    1998-08-01

    The association between psoas abscess and lumbar spondylodiscitis by Gram negative bacilli represents a rare clinical entity. Sometimes the absence of demonstrative symptoms complicates the diagnostic schema. We report about a 72 year-old woman, without previous known diabetes mellitus, who was admitted because of fever of one week duration and a non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma. A left psoas abscess was identified by abdominal computed tomography (CT). The abscess was in communication with the L1-L2 intervertebral space. Although Escherichia coli was identified as the causing agent and appropriate antibiotic therapy was administered, the resolution of the abscess occurred only after the implantation of a percutaneous catheter guided by CT without additional surgery. Percutaneous drainage as a diagnostic-therapeutic technique has rendered the surgery as the last resort in the treatment of psoas abscess. PMID:9780427

  16. Combined activity of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B against gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1974-07-01

    The activity of the three two-drug combinations of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), and polymyxin B (PB) against 52 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli was studied by a "checkerboard" agar dilution method. The organisms studied included strains of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Providence, Proteus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The majority of these isolates were resistant to at least two of the three agents used in the combined studies and to the most commonly used antimicrobials. The TMP-PB combination demonstrated enhanced activity more frequently than the other two-drug combinations, showing synergism or addition in 85% of the combined studies; indifference or antagonism was also observed least frequently with TMP-PB. The great majority (83%) of Enterobacter-Klebsiella-Serratia isolates were susceptible to enhanced activity of all combinations. Proteus-Providence isolates were frequently susceptible (63%), but combined activity was indifferent or antagonistic against 60% of P. aeruginosa. Twelve isolates were selected for "killing-curve" assays in which an inoculum was incubated with SMX, TMP, and PB individually and in various two- and three-drug combinations. Surviving bacteria were counted at timed intervals over 24 h of incubation. The triple combination (SMX-TMP-PB) was synergistic against 9 of 12 isolates, whereas TMP-PB and SMX-PB showed synergism against 5 and 3 isolates, respectively. These data suggest that, although TMP-PB will often show enhanced activity against the gram-negative bacilli studied here, optimal antibacterial activity will be demonstrated when the three-drug combination is used.

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  18. Faecal carriage of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli in hospital settings in southern France.

    PubMed

    Pantel, A; Marchandin, H; Prère, M-F; Boutet-Dubois, A; Brieu-Roche, N; Gaschet, A; Davin-Regli, A; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2015-05-01

    The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli is a worldwide problem. To date, no study has evaluated the prevalence of faecal carriage of carbapenemase-producing and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in France. From 1 February to 30 April 2012, we conducted a prospective, multicentre study in three University Hospitals and four General Hospitals in the south of France. The carriage of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and other CR GNB was screened by both cultivation on chromID® CARBA and chromID® OXA-48 media (bioMérieux) and molecular tools [multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and NucliSENS EasyQ® KPC (bioMérieux)]. The genetic relationship between isolates was assessed by rep-PCR (DiversiLab, bioMérieux) or multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The prevalences of CR GNB and carbapenemase-producing bacteria were 2.4 % (27/1,135) and 0.4 % (n = 5), respectively. Two strains corresponded to OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii and belonged to the widespread sequence type (ST) 2/international clone II, whereas one strain was an ST15 OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Two OXA-48-producers were detected exclusively by PCR. This first French study revealed the very low dissemination of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in patients attending hospitals in southern France during a non-outbreak situation. However, the increasing description of epidemic cases in this area must reinforce the use of hygiene procedures to prevent diffusion of these multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    DeMars, Zachary; Biswas, Silpak; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Renter, David G; Volkova, Victoriya V

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host's enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  20. A comparison of the in vitro activity of metronidazole, tinidazole, and nimorazole against Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, A V; Hamilton-Miller, J M; Brumfitt, W

    1975-01-01

    The in vitro activities of metronidazole, nimorazole, and tinidazole were compared against 69 strains of obligately anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. Geometric mean MICs were 0-34, 1-05, and 0-28 mug/ml respectively. Thirty-six strains were also tested by the disk method. Correlation between MIC and diameter of the zones of inhibition was poor. PMID:1214009

  1. Comparison of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in sheep showing pathology of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Ganesh G; Tripathi, Bhupendra N

    2013-12-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay employing IS900 gene specific primers of Mycobacterium avium subsp. parartuberculosis (MAP) was compared with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 38 sheep showing granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis with and without demonstration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The lesions were classified as multibacillary (MB) (n = 23), which had diffuse granulomatous lesions with abundant AFB, and paucibacillary (PB) (n = 15), which had focal or multifocal granulomatous lesions with few or no AFB. In the multibacillary group (MB), IS900 PCR detected 19 (82.6%), and qPCR detected all 23 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in the intestine and lymph node tissues. In the paucibacillary group (PB), IS900 PCR detected 2 (13.3%), and qPCR detected all 15 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in tissues. When results of both groups were taken together, IS900 PCR detected 21(55.2%), and qPCR detected all 38 (100%) animals positive for MAP genome either in the intestine or lymph node tissues. On Herrold egg yolk medium, tissues of 14 (60.9%) MB and 5 (33.3%) PB sheep were found to be positive for MAP. Out of 27 sheep (PB = 8, MB = 19) tested by an ELISA, 21 (77.7%) were found to be positive for MAP antibody, of which 25% (2/8) and 100% (19/19) sheep were from PB and MB sheep, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that qPCR was a highly sensitive test in comparison to conventional PCR, ELISA and bacterial culture for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis on infected tissues especially from paucibacillary sheep.

  2. [News of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacilli in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Baba Ahmed-Kazi Tani, Z; Arlet, G

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem in Algeria. Indeed the past decade, we have seen a significant increase in resistance to antibiotics especially in Gram-negative bacilli. Resistance to β-lactams in enterobacteria is dominated by the production of ESBL CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15. The strains producing these enzymes are often the cause of potentially serious infections in both hospital and community settings. Identified plasmid cephalosporinases are CMY-2, CMY-12 and DHA-1. The isolation of strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing carbapenemases is rare in Algeria. Some Enterobacteriaceae producing OXA-48 or VIM-19 have been reported; so far, only VIM-2 has been identified in P. aeruginosa. However, the situation regarding the strains of Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenemases seems to be more disturbing. The carbapenemase OXA-23 is the most common and seems to be endemic in the north. The carbapenemase NDM-1 has also been identified. Resistance to aminoglycosides is marked by the identification armA gene associated with blaCTX-M genes in strains of Salmonella sp. Several other resistance genes have been identified sporadically in strains of Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Resistance genes to fluoroquinolones are more recent identification in Algeria. The most common are the Qnr determinants followed by the bifunctional enzyme AAC[6']-Ib-cr. Resistance to sulfonamides and trimethoprim was also reported in Enterobacteriaceae strains in the west of the country.

  3. Mosquitocidal toxins of bacilli and their genetic manipulation for effective biological control of mosquitoes.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, A G; Davidson, E W; Liu, J W

    1993-01-01

    The identification, cloning, and characterization of protein toxins from various species of bacilli have demonstrated the existence of mosquitocidal toxins with different structures, mechanisms of action, and host ranges. A start has been made in understanding the polypeptide determinants of toxicity and insecticidal activity, and the purification of toxins from recombinant organisms may lead to the elucidation of their X-ray crystal structures and the cloning of brush border membrane receptors. The results of cloning mosquitocidal toxins in heterologous microorganisms show the potential of expanding the range of susceptible mosquito species by combining several toxins of different host specificity in one cell. Toxins have been expressed in new microorganisms with the potential for increasing potency by persisting at the larval feeding zone. The powerful tools of bacterial genetics are being applied to engineer genetically stable, persistent toxin expression and expand the insecticidal host ranges of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. These techniques, together with modern formulation technology, should eventually lead to the construction of mosquitocidal microorganisms which are effective enough to have a real impact on mosquito-borne diseases. Images PMID:7905597

  4. [News of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacilli in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Baba Ahmed-Kazi Tani, Z; Arlet, G

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem in Algeria. Indeed the past decade, we have seen a significant increase in resistance to antibiotics especially in Gram-negative bacilli. Resistance to β-lactams in enterobacteria is dominated by the production of ESBL CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15. The strains producing these enzymes are often the cause of potentially serious infections in both hospital and community settings. Identified plasmid cephalosporinases are CMY-2, CMY-12 and DHA-1. The isolation of strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing carbapenemases is rare in Algeria. Some Enterobacteriaceae producing OXA-48 or VIM-19 have been reported; so far, only VIM-2 has been identified in P. aeruginosa. However, the situation regarding the strains of Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenemases seems to be more disturbing. The carbapenemase OXA-23 is the most common and seems to be endemic in the north. The carbapenemase NDM-1 has also been identified. Resistance to aminoglycosides is marked by the identification armA gene associated with blaCTX-M genes in strains of Salmonella sp. Several other resistance genes have been identified sporadically in strains of Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Resistance genes to fluoroquinolones are more recent identification in Algeria. The most common are the Qnr determinants followed by the bifunctional enzyme AAC[6']-Ib-cr. Resistance to sulfonamides and trimethoprim was also reported in Enterobacteriaceae strains in the west of the country. PMID:24819127

  5. Enteric Gram-negative bacilli suppress Candida biofilms on Foley urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Y H; Bandara, H M H N; Cheung, B P K; Yau, J Y Y; Yeung, S K W; Samaranayake, L P

    2014-01-01

    Mixed Candida-bacterial biofilms in urinary catheters are common in hospitalized patients. (i) The aims of this study were to evaluate, quantitatively and qualitatively, the in vitro development of mono- and dual-species biofilms (MSBs and DSBs) of Candida albicans and two enteric gram-negative bacilli (EGNB; Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli) on Foley catheter (FC) discs, (ii) to determine the biofilm growth in tryptic soy broth or glucose supplemented artificial urine (AU) and (iii) to assess the inhibitory effects of EGNB and their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on Candida biofilm growth. The growth of MSBs and DSBs on FC discs was monitored by cell counts and SEM. The metabolic activity of LPS-treated Candida biofilms was determined by the XTT reduction assay. Candida albicans and EGNB demonstrated significant inter- and intra-species differences in biofilm growth on FC discs (p < 0.01). Pseudomonas aeruginosa suppressed Candida albicans significantly (p < 0.001) in DSBs. Compared with MSBs, DSB of EGNB in glucose supplemented AU demonstrated robust growth. Escherichia coli and its LPS, significantly suppressed Candida biofilm growth, compared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its LPS (p < 0.001). Candida albicans and EGNB colonization in FC is significantly increased in AU with glucose, and variably modified by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their corresponding LPS.

  6. [Bioactive effectiveness of selected disinfective agents on Gram-negative bacilli isolated from hospital environment].

    PubMed

    Pancer, Katarzyna W; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Mikulak, Ewa; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Staniszewska, Monika; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna

    2004-01-01

    In our study the susceptibility (MIC) of chosen 21 strains of Gram-negative bacilli isolated in hospitals to disinfectant agents (glucoprotamine, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, potassium persulfate), the effectiveness of these disinfectants against selected bacteria and their effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria was determined. It was found that glucoprotamine showed the highest activity to Gram-negative bacteria. Obtained MIC values for glucoprotamine (except 1 strain of S. marcescens) were 16-64 times lower that MICs for sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 4-32 times lower that MICs for potassium persulfate. The effectiveness of disinfectants containing potassium persulfate or sodium dichloroisocyanurate was 100% tested by carrier method. Glucoprotamine was ineffective against 2 out of 9 strains (18%): E. cloacae and S. marcescens. It was found that disinfectants were more effective against Gram-negative bacteria in carrier methods than for biofilm forming bacteria. 86% of bacteria growing 5 days on a catheter were resistant to working solution of disinfectant containing glucoprotamine (5200 mg/L) or potassium persulfate (4300 mg/L); 66.6% of tested bacteria were resistant to working solution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (1795.2 mg/L). In our study the highest effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria showed disinfectant with sodium dichloroisocyanurate, the lowest--with glucoprotamine. PMID:15810507

  7. Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Pilani, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, “de novo.” Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy. PMID:25396142

  8. Insight into the evolution and origin of leprosy bacilli from the genome sequence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pushpendra; Benjak, Andrej; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium lepromatosis is an uncultured human pathogen associated with diffuse lepromatous leprosy and a reactional state known as Lucio's phenomenon. By using deep sequencing with and without DNA enrichment, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of M. lepromatosis present in a skin biopsy from a Mexican patient, and compared it with that of Mycobacterium leprae, which has undergone extensive reductive evolution. The genomes display extensive synteny and are similar in size (∼3.27 Mb). Protein-coding genes share 93% nucleotide sequence identity, whereas pseudogenes are only 82% identical. The events that led to pseudogenization of 50% of the genome likely occurred before divergence from their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and both M. lepromatosis and M. leprae have since accumulated new pseudogenes or acquired specific deletions. Functional comparisons suggest that M. lepromatosis has lost several enzymes required for amino acid synthesis whereas M. leprae has a defective heme pathway. M. lepromatosis has retained all functions required to infect the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system and therefore may also be neuropathogenic. A phylogeographic survey of 227 leprosy biopsies by differential PCR revealed that 221 contained M. leprae whereas only six, all from Mexico, harbored M. lepromatosis. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that M. lepromatosis is closer than M. leprae to the MRCA, and a Bayesian dating analysis suggests that they diverged from their MRCA approximately 13.9 Mya. Thus, despite their ancient separation, the two leprosy bacilli are remarkably conserved and still cause similar pathologic conditions. PMID:25831531

  9. Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease.

    PubMed

    Vora, Rita V; Pilani, Abhishek

    2014-10-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, "de novo." Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy. PMID:25396142

  10. Intravenous colistin in the treatment of sepsis from multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Markou, Nikolaos; Apostolakos, Haralampos; Koumoudiou, Christiana; Athanasiou, Maria; Koutsoukou, Alexandra; Alamanos, Ioannis; Gregorakos, Leonidas

    2003-01-01

    Introduction The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative strains in intensive care units (ICUs) has recently rekindled interest in colistin, a bactericidal antibiotic that was used in the 1960s for treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli. We conducted the present observational study to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous colistin in the treatment of critically ill patients with sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacilli resistant to all other antibiotics. Patients and method Critically ill patients with sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacilli resistant to all antibiotics with the exception of colistin were treated in the six-bed ICU of a trauma hospital. Diagnosis of infection was based on clinical data and isolation of bacteria, and the bacteria were tested with respect to their susceptibility to colistin. Clinical response to colistin was evaluated. Results Twenty-four patients (mean age 44.3 years, mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 20.6) received 26 courses of colistin. Clinical response was observed for 73% of the treatments. Survival at 30 days was 57.7%. Deterioration in renal function was observed in 14.3% of 21 patients who were not already receiving renal replacement therapy, but in only one case did this deterioration have serious clinical consequences. Conclusion The lack of a control group in the present study does not allow any definite conclusions to be drawn regarding the clinical effectiveness of colistin. On the other hand, this drug has an acceptable safety profile and its use should be considered in severe infections with multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:12974973

  11. Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. PMID:22882546

  12. T cell response to purified filtrate antigen 85 from Mycobacterium bovis Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in leprosy patients.

    PubMed Central

    Launois, P; Huygen, K; De Bruyn, J; N'Diaye, M; Diouf, B; Sarthouj, L; Grimaud, J; Millan, J

    1991-01-01

    T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 25 healthy controls and 39 leprosy patients were tested against BCG-bacilli and culture filtrate. Mycobacterium leprae and purified antigen 85 (the major secreted 30-32 kD protein antigen) from M. bovis strain BCG. In lepromin negative healthy controls, blastogenesis was low to M. leprae and completely negative to antigen 85. IFN-gamma levels were very low, close to detection limits. In all lepromin positive controls, significant proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion was found in response to M. leprae and antigen 85. In the group of lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients, 25/29 of patients (with either positive (13) or negative (12) lymphoproliferative response to BCG) were unreactive to M. leprae or to antigen 85. Four LL patients with positive T cell response to BCG responded with detectable lymphoproliferative response and IFN-gamma secretion to antigen 85. All tuberculoid (TT) leprosy patients responded to BCG, M. leprae and antigen 85. Hence, T cells from leprosy patients and controls demonstrate a marked parallelism of responsiveness towards whole M. leprae and purified antigen 85 from M. bovis BCG, suggesting strong cross-reactivity between the two species and underlining the biological importance of such secreted antigens. PMID:1934596

  13. Emergence of imipenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli in intestinal flora of intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Armand-Lefèvre, Laurence; Angebault, Cécile; Barbier, François; Hamelet, Emilie; Defrance, Gilles; Ruppé, Etienne; Bronchard, Régis; Lepeule, Raphaël; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; El Mniai, Assiya; Wolff, Michel; Montravers, Philippe; Plésiat, Patrick; Andremont, Antoine

    2013-03-01

    Intestinal flora contains a reservoir of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to cephalosporins, which are potentially pathogenic for intensive care unit (ICU) patients; this has led to increasing use of carbapenems. The emergence of carbapenem resistance is a major concern for ICUs. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the intestinal carriage of imipenem-resistant GNB (IR-GNB) in intensive care patients. For 6 months, 523 consecutive ICU patients were screened for rectal IR-GNB colonization upon admission and weekly thereafter. The phenotypes and genotypes of all isolates were determined, and a case control study was performed to identify risk factors for colonization. The IR-GNB colonization rate increased regularly from 5.6% after 1 week to 58.6% after 6 weeks in the ICU. In all, 56 IR-GNB strains were collected from 50 patients: 36 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 12 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains, 6 Enterobacteriaceae strains, and 2 Acinetobacter baumannii strains. In P. aeruginosa, imipenem resistance was due to chromosomally encoded resistance (32 strains) or carbapenemase production (4 strains). In the Enterobacteriaceae strains, resistance was due to AmpC cephalosporinase and/or extended-spectrum β-lactamase production with porin loss. Genomic comparison showed that the strains were highly diverse, with 8 exceptions (4 VIM-2 carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa strains, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, and 2 S. maltophilia strains). The main risk factor for IR-GNB colonization was prior imipenem exposure. The odds ratio for colonization was already as high as 5.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.5 to 25.7) after 1 to 3 days of exposure and increased to 7.8 (95% CI, 2.4 to 29.8) thereafter. In conclusion, even brief exposure to imipenem is a major risk factor for IR-GNB carriage.

  14. Enhancing effect of serum ultrafiltrate on the activity of cephalosporins against gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, J E; Craig, W A

    1989-01-01

    A few studies have suggested that the inhibitory effect of serum on activity of broad-spectrum cephalosporins is less than that predicted by the degree of protein binding. Microdilution MICs of ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, moxalactam, and ceftizoxime were therefore determined against ATCC and clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus in Mueller-Hinton broth containing either human albumin (as 0, 2.5, or 5% solution) or heat-inactivated human serum (as 0, 25, 50, or 95% solution). Arithmetic linear dilutions were used to improve accuracy. For standard bacterial strains, MICs in the presence of 5% albumin were higher than in broth alone by multiples of 10.9 to 21 for ceftriaxone, 5.5 to 16.4 for cefoperazone, 1.9 to 3.7 for moxalactam, and 1.1 to 1.4 for ceftizoxime, as expected by their protein binding. MICs in the presence of 95% serum were similar to those in 5% albumin for all four drugs against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa but were 2.2- to 4.8-fold lower (P less than 0.001) against E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Similar findings were observed at lower protein concentrations and with clinical isolates, except that for some strains of P. aeruginosa MICs were lower in serum than in albumin. Individual sera from five subjects gave comparable results. The addition of serum ultrafiltrate to albumin-containing solutions reduced MICs of ceftriaxone and cefoperazone 1.6- to 7.4-fold against E. coli and K. pneumoniae (P less than 0.01) but did not alter the MICs for S. aureus. Serum may contain an ultrafiltrable component(s) that enhances the activity of third-generation cephalosporins against many gram-negative bacilli. PMID:2496656

  15. Occurrence of chloramphenicol-acetylating enzymes in various gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, S; Suzuki, Y; Mise, K; Nakaya, R

    1967-11-01

    The occurrence of a chloramphenicol-acetylating enzyme, similar to that found in Escherichia coli, carrying an R factor was investigated in various gram-negative bacilli. The acetylated products of chloramphenicol were identified by chromatography and quantitatively assayed after benzene extraction. The investigated strains were of the Salmonella-Arizona group, the Klebsiella-Aerobacter group, Serratia marcescens, the Proteus group, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, most of which were isolated from 1947 to 1957. Both chloramphenicol-sensitive and -resistant strains were included, but none of them was able to transfer chloramphenicol resistance by conjugation. In the Proteus group, a significant level of a chloramphenicol-acetylating enzyme was found in most strains, whether they were sensitive or resistant to chloramphenicol; the resistant strains showed higher levels of the enzyme. Some chloramphenicol-sensitive strains lacked this enzyme. Only the sensitive strains containing the enzyme could easily produce chloramphenicol-resistant mutants with higher enzyme activity. Thus, the chloramphenicol resistance of this group can be reasonably explained on the basis of the chloramphenicol-acetylating enzyme. All of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, and most strains showed low levels of the enzyme (which, however, did not appear sufficient to explain their resistance). All of the strains of the other groups (except one strain of Enterobacter cloacae) lacked the enzyme, although most strains of the Klebsiella-Aerobacter group and of S. marcescens were resistant to chloramphenicol. With respect to the origin of the resistance gene of the R factor, it is noteworthy that the strains of Proteus mirabilis isolated in 1947 possessed this enzyme before the discovery of chloramphenicol.

  16. Brown-Pigmented Mycobacterium mageritense as a Cause of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis and Bloodstream Infection.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Allison R; Mattar, Caline; Kirmani, Nigar; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2015-08-01

    Mycobacterium spp. are a rare cause of endocarditis. Herein, we describe a case of Mycobacterium mageritense prosthetic valve endocarditis. This organism produced an unusual brown pigment on solid media. Cultures of valve tissue for acid-fast bacilli might be considered in some cases of apparently culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis.

  17. Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states.

    PubMed

    Salina, Elena G; Waddell, Simon J; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D; Kaprelyants, Arseny S

    2014-10-01

    Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

  18. Genome analysis of smooth tubercle bacilli provides insights into ancestry and pathoadaptation of the etiologic agent of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Supply, Philip; Marceau, Michael; Mangenot, Sophie; Roche, David; Rouanet, Carine; Khanna, Varun; Majlessi, Laleh; Criscuolo, Alexis; Tap, Julien; Pawlik, Alexandre; Fiette, Laurence; Orgeur, Mickael; Fabre, Michel; Parmentier, Cécile; Frigui, Wafa; Simeone, Roxane; Boritsch, Eva C.; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Willery, Eve; Walker, Danielle; Quail, Michael A.; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Salvignol, Grégory; Sayes, Fadel; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Seemann, Torsten; Barbe, Valérie; Locht, Camille; Gutierrez, Maria-Cristina; Leclerc, Claude; Bentley, Stephen; Stinear, Timothy P.; Brisse, Sylvain; Médigue, Claudine; Parkhill, Julian; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Brosch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Global spread and genetic monomorphism are hallmarks of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis. In contrast, Mycobacterium canettii, and related tubercle bacilli that also cause human tuberculosis and exhibit unusual smooth colony morphology, are restricted to East-Africa. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of five representative strains of smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) using Sanger (4-5x coverage), 454/Roche (13-18x coverage) and/or Illumina DNA sequencing (45-105x coverage). We show that STB are highly recombinogenic and evolutionary early-branching, with larger genome sizes, 25-fold more SNPs, fewer molecular scars and distinct CRISPR-Cas systems relative to M. tuberculosis. Despite the differences, all tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria share a highly conserved core genome. Mouse-infection experiments revealed that STB are less persistent and virulent than M. tuberculosis. We conclude that M. tuberculosis emerged from an ancestral, STB-like pool of mycobacteria by gain of persistence and virulence mechanisms and we provide genome-wide insights into the molecular events involved. PMID:23291586

  19. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding β-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli.

  20. Aminoglycoside Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Gram Negative Bacilli at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica: Comparison of Two Time Periods

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds-Campbell, G; Nicholson, A; Christian, N; Hardie, R; Cook, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Aminoglycosides were introduced into use over 60 years ago. The University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), a tertiary care teaching hospital, in Kingston, Jamaica, introduced the use of gentamicin in 1973 and amikacin in 1980. This report examined the susceptibility patterns to these agents in 1547 consecutive isolates of Gram negative bacilli (GNB) encountered between September 1 and November 30, 2011, at UHWI and compares the data with that observed previously in 1981 at the same institution. Methods: The Vitek 2 (bioMeriéux, Durham, NC) was used for isolate identification, minimum inhibitory concentration determination and aminoglycoside susceptibility testing. Quality control was done using American Type Culture Collection standard strains of E coli (ATCC 25922) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). Results: Of the 1547 organisms, 267 had resistance to one or both aminoglycosides. Amikacin resistance increased from 0.6% (1981) to 7.2% [2011] (p < 0.05), while gentamicin resistance increased from 6.7% to 14.8% (p < 0.05) for the corresponding period. The majority of samples with aminoglycoside resistant organisms came from the intensive care unit and surgical inpatients. Urine samples persistently produced the largest amount of gentamicin resistant isolates. Conclusions: Although there has been a statistically significant rise in aminoglycoside resistance, aminoglycosides continue to remain highly effective against approximately 83% of GNB despite continuous usage at this institution for over three decades. Continued national surveillance, implementation of infection control policies and antibiotic stewardship are all essential in retaining low resistance levels. PMID:26360679

  1. Isolation and Screening of Thermophilic Bacilli from Compost for Electrotransformation and Fermentation: Characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a New Biocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, Elleke F.; van de Weijer, Antonius H. P.; Daas, Martinus J. A.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli that are genetically accessible and have potential as platform organisms. From compost, we isolated 267 strains that produced acids from C5 and C6 sugars at temperatures of 55°C or 65°C. Subsequently, 44 strains that showed the highest production of acids were screened for genetic accessibility by electroporation. Two Geobacillus thermodenitrificans isolates and one Bacillus smithii isolate were found to be transformable with plasmid pNW33n. Of these, B. smithii ET 138 was the best-performing strain in laboratory-scale fermentations and was capable of producing organic acids from glucose as well as from xylose. It is an acidotolerant strain able to produce organic acids until a lower limit of approximately pH 4.5. As genetic accessibility of B. smithii had not been described previously, six other B. smithii strains from the DSMZ culture collection were tested for electroporation efficiencies, and we found the type strain DSM 4216T and strain DSM 460 to be transformable. The transformation protocol for B. smithii isolate ET 138 was optimized to obtain approximately 5 × 103 colonies per μg plasmid pNW33n. Genetic accessibility combined with robust acid production capacities on C5 and C6 sugars at a relatively broad pH range make B. smithii ET 138 an attractive biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid and potentially other green chemicals. PMID:25556192

  2. Evaluation of the new Vitek 2 GN card for the identification of gram-negative bacilli frequently encountered in clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Renaud, F N R; Bergeron, E; Tigaud, S; Fuhrmann, C; Gravagna, B; Freney, J

    2005-10-01

    The new Vitek 2 GN card (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France) was developed for better identification of fermenting and nonfermenting bacilli. This new card allows the identification of 159 taxa. A total of 426 isolates (331 fermenting and 95 nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli) belonging to 70 taxa covered by the database were evaluated. All isolates were identified in parallel with the ID 32 GN, the API 20E, and the API 20NE methods. The system correctly identified 97.4% (n=415) of the strains. Only 2.1% (n=9) needed additional testing. One strain (0.25%) was misidentified (Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae), and another one (0.25%) was not identified (Morganella morganii subsp. morganii). The new GN card gives more accurate identifications overall for gram-negative bacilli when compared to the systems described in other similar studies.

  3. Osteomyelitis associated with Nocardiopsis composta in a dog.

    PubMed

    Salas, Elisa N; Royal, Debra; Kurz, Lance; Loy, J Dustin

    2015-05-01

    We report the first detection of Nocardiopsis composta in association with osteomyelitis in a young male miniature Australian shepherd dog. Findings included suppurative osteomyelitis containing intralesional Fite's acid fast bacilli, aerobic culture of branching Gram-positive rods, and positive identification via phenotypic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing.

  4. Osteomyelitis associated with Nocardiopsis composta in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Elisa N.; Royal, Debra; Kurz, Lance; Loy, J. Dustin

    2015-01-01

    We report the first detection of Nocardiopsis composta in association with osteomyelitis in a young male miniature Australian shepherd dog. Findings included suppurative osteomyelitis containing intralesional Fite’s acid fast bacilli, aerobic culture of branching Gram-positive rods, and positive identification via phenotypic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. PMID:25969577

  5. Detect-to-treat: development of analysis of bacilli spores in nasal mucus by surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    As the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq continue, future attacks both abroad and in the U.S.A. are expected. In an effort to aid civilian and military personnel, we have been investigating the potential of using a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling device to detect Bacillus anthracis spores in nasal swab samples. Such a device would be extremely beneficial to medical responders and management in assessing the extent of a bioterrorist attack and making detect-to-treat decisions. The disposable sample device consists of a glass capillary filled with a silver-doped sol-gel that is capable of extracting dipicolinic acid (DPA), a chemical signature of Bacilli, and generating SERS spectra. The sampling device and preliminary measurements of DPA extracted from spores and nasal mucus will be presented.

  6. ['In vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli, excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp].

    PubMed

    Vay, C A; Almuzara, M N; Rodríguez, C H; Pugliese, M L; Lorenzo Barba, F; Mattera, J C; Famiglietti, A M R

    2005-01-01

    Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli (NFB) are widely spread in the environment. Besides of difficulties for identification, they often have a marked multiresistance to antimicrobial agents, including those active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the 'in vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on 177 gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli isolates (excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp.) isolated from clinical specimens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined according to the Mueller Hinton agar dilution method against the following antibacterial agents: ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, sulbactam, cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, colistin, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and minocycline. Seven isolates: Sphingobacterium multivorum (2), Sphingobacteriumspiritivorum (1), Empedobacterbrevis (1), Weeksella virosa (1), Bergeyella zoohelcum (1) and Oligella urethralis (1), were tested for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin-sulbactam susceptibility, and susceptibility to cefoperazone or sulbactam was not determined. Multiresistance was generally found in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, Chryseobacterium spp., Myroides spp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Ochrobactrum anthropi isolates. On the other hand, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella putrefaciens-algae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Weeksella virosa and Oligella urethralis were widely susceptible to the antibacterial agents tested. As a result of the wide variation in antimicrobial susceptibility shown by different species, a test on susceptibility to different antibacterial agents is essential in order to select an adequate therapy. The marked multiresistance evidenced by some species

  7. ['In vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli, excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp].

    PubMed

    Vay, C A; Almuzara, M N; Rodríguez, C H; Pugliese, M L; Lorenzo Barba, F; Mattera, J C; Famiglietti, A M R

    2005-01-01

    Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli (NFB) are widely spread in the environment. Besides of difficulties for identification, they often have a marked multiresistance to antimicrobial agents, including those active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the 'in vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on 177 gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli isolates (excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp.) isolated from clinical specimens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined according to the Mueller Hinton agar dilution method against the following antibacterial agents: ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, sulbactam, cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, colistin, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and minocycline. Seven isolates: Sphingobacterium multivorum (2), Sphingobacteriumspiritivorum (1), Empedobacterbrevis (1), Weeksella virosa (1), Bergeyella zoohelcum (1) and Oligella urethralis (1), were tested for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin-sulbactam susceptibility, and susceptibility to cefoperazone or sulbactam was not determined. Multiresistance was generally found in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, Chryseobacterium spp., Myroides spp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Ochrobactrum anthropi isolates. On the other hand, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella putrefaciens-algae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Weeksella virosa and Oligella urethralis were widely susceptible to the antibacterial agents tested. As a result of the wide variation in antimicrobial susceptibility shown by different species, a test on susceptibility to different antibacterial agents is essential in order to select an adequate therapy. The marked multiresistance evidenced by some species

  8. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for species identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Traglia, Germán; Famiglietti, Angela; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Vay, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify 396 Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli clinical isolates was evaluated in comparison with conventional phenotypic tests and/or molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS identified to species level 256 isolates and to genus or complex level 112 isolates. It identified 29 genera including uncommon species.

  9. Chronic Mycobacterium infection of first dorsal web space after accidental Bacilli Calmette-Guérin injection in a health worker: case report.

    PubMed

    Vigler, Mordechai; Mulett, Hanan; Hausman, Michael R

    2008-11-01

    We present a case of inoculation of the first dorsal web space by a nurse practitioner who accidentally stuck herself while preparing Bacilli Calmette-Guérin vaccine for treatment of bladder tumor. We report the evolution and management of this resistant chronic Mycobacterium infection that ultimately required use of a vacuum wound management system followed by a microvascular free tissue transfer.

  10. Screening for biologically active metabolites with endosymbiotic bacilli isolated from arthropods.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Klaus; Schimana, Judith; Müller, Johannes; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Kallenborn, Helmut G; Holzenkämpfer, Meike; Krastel, Philipp; Zeeck, Axel; Vater, Joachim; Höltzel, Alexandra; Schmid, Dietmar G; Rheinheimer, Joachim; Dettner, Konrad

    2002-12-17

    Endosymbiotic bacteria from the genus Bacillus were isolated from different compartments of the gut of various members of insects (Hexapoda) and millipedes (Diplopoda). They were grown in submerged culture and investigated by biological assays and HPLC-diode array analysis regarding their production of bioactive metabolites, which were isolated and determined in structure. Known compounds and yet unknown derivatives from the primary metabolism were detected, as well as antibacterially and antifungally acting peptide antibiotics.

  11. [The use of the neustonic forms of bacilli for purifying and decontaminating reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, E V; Ivanov, V N; Gregirchak, N N; Dul'gerov, A N

    1993-01-01

    It is shown possible to select the bacterial strains which are neuston ones, i.e., concentrating on the water-atmosphere interface. The preparation based on the neuston form of Bacillus megaterium is more efficient for purification of water polluted with oil hydrocarbons than the preparation based on the planktonic form of the same culture. Preparation based on the neuston form of the aerobic spore-forming bacteria is effective for biological decontamination of sewage treated using conventional methods. Application of neuston bacterial forms permits intensifying the microbiological processes in the thin (15-40 microM) surface layer of water bodies.

  12. The Increasing Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: Results of a 5-Year Active Surveillance Program in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Mario; Geraci, Daniela M; Bonura, Celestino; Saporito, Laura; Graziano, Giorgio; Insinga, Vincenzo; Aleo, Aurora; Vecchio, Davide; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported.We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital "Paolo Giaccone," Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools.During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin-sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case.Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an important tool to

  13. Growth of Clostridium perfringens in food proteins previously exposed to proteolytic bacilli.

    PubMed

    Schroder, D J; Busta, F F

    1973-11-01

    Proteolytic sporeforming bacteria capable of surviving processing heat treatments in synthetic or fabricated protein foods exhibited no antagonistic effects on growth of Clostridium perfringens, but instead shortened the lag of subsequent growth of C. perfringens in sodium caseinate and isolated soy protein. Bacillus subtilis A cells were cultured in 3% sodium caseinate or isolated soy protein solutions. The subsequent effect on the lag time and growth of C. perfringens type A (strain S40) at 45 C was measured by colony count or absorbance at 650 nm, or both. B. subtilis incubation for 12 h or more in sodium caseinate reduced the C. perfringens lag by 3 h. Incubation of 8 h or more in isolated soy protein reduced the lag time by 1.5 h. Molecular sieving of the B. subtilis-treated sodium caseinate revealed that all molecular sizes yielded a similar reduced lag time. Diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex ion exchange fractionation and subsequent amino acid analysis indicated that the lag time reduction caused by B. subtilis incubation was not related to charge of the peptides nor to their amino acid composition. Apparently the shortened C. perfringens lag in these B. subtilis-hydrolyzed food proteins was a result of the protein being more readily available for utilization by C. perfringens.

  14. [The microbiology laboratory's contribution to the surveillance and control of outbreaks caused by nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; López-Cortés, Luis E; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2011-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are, among others, the most important nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli within hospitals. These organisms are able to cause different types of nosocomial infections in predisposed patients, and P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii in particular may cause extensive clonal outbreaks and complex situations in which sporadic isolates may coexist with some epidemic strains. Some common features are their intrinsic resistance to many antimicrobials, their capacity to further develop antimicrobial resistance, and the possibility of environmental reservoirs as sources of these microorganisms in healthcare centers. The microbiology laboratory plays a key role in the detection of potential outbreaks, in the identification of new resistance mechanisms and in the characterization of local epidemiology, by detecting colonized patients and/or environmental reservoirs if needed, appropriately identifying the isolates, phenotypically or genotypically characterizing their mechanisms of resistance, if appropriate, and finally by using different molecular techniques for clonal typing, which are reviewed in this article. Such activities must be performed in the context of the surveillance and control programs of specific institutions and as part of the daily work of multidisciplinary infection control teams.

  15. Characterization of Bacilli isolated from the confined environments of the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Timmery, Sophie; Hu, Xiaomin; Mahillon, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread.

  16. Characterization of Bacilli Isolated from the Confined Environments of the Antarctic Concordia Station and the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmery, Sophie; Hu, Xiaomin; Mahillon, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Biosurfactant-Producing Halothermophilic Bacilli From Iranian Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Saeed; Ramezani, Amin; Ostvar, Sassan; Rezaei, Rasool; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petroleum reservoirs have long been known as the hosts of extremophilic microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms are known for their potential biotechnological applications, particularly production of extra and intracellular polymers and enzymes. Objectives: Here, 14 petroleum liquid samples from southern Iranian oil reservoirs were screened for presence of biosurfactant‐producing halothermophiles. Materials and Methods: Mixture of the reservoir fluid samples with a minimal growth medium was incubated under an N2 atmosphere in 40°C; 0.5 mL samples were transferred from the aqueous phase to agar plates after 72 hours of incubation; 100 mL cell cultures were prepared using the MSS-1 (mineral salt solution 1) liquid medium with 5% (w/v) NaCl. The time-course samples were analyzed by recording the absorbance at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer. Incubation was carried out in 40°C with mild shaking in aerobic conditions. Thermotolerance was evaluated by growing the isolates at 40, 50, 60 and 70°C with varying NaCl concentrations of 5% and 10% (w/v). Halotolerance was evaluated using NaCl concentrations of 5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% (w/v) and incubating them at 40°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Different phenotypic characteristics were evaluated, as outlined in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Comparing 16S rDNA sequences is one of the most powerful tools for classification of microorganisms. Results: Among 34 isolates, 10 demonstrated biosurfactant production and growth at temperatures between 40°C and 70°C in saline media containing 5%‐15% w/v NaCl. Using partial 16S rDNA sequencing (and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis [ARDRA]) and biochemical tests (API tests 20E and 50 CHB), all the 10 isolates proved to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive moderate thermohalophiles of the genus Bacillus (B. thermoglucosidasius, B. thermodenitrificans, B. thermoleovorans, B. stearothermophilus and B. licheniformis

  18. Localization of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare within a skin lesion of bacillary angiomatosis in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sagerman, P M; Relman, D A; Niroomand, F; Niedt, G W

    1992-09-01

    We report a 39-year-old man who had AIDS and who presented with an unusual cutaneous vascular lesion, which was clinically thought to be Kaposi's sarcoma. Histologically, the lesion was characterized by capillary proliferation and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate that included numerous histiocytes. The lesion was found to contain slender intracellular acid-fast bacilli, as well as plump extracellular Warthin-Starry-positive bacilli. The acid-fast bacilli were confirmed to be Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare by subsequent positive blood cultures for this organism. To further investigate the lesion, polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and sequencing was performed, and the lesion was found to contain DNA sequences identical to those previously established for the agent of bacillary angiomatosis. The lesion is thought to represent a lesion of bacillary angiomatosis with secondary involvement by M. avium-intracellulare.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacilli bacterium Strain VT-13-104 Isolated from the Intestine of a Patient with Duodenal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tetz, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Bacilli bacterium strain VT-13-104 isolated from the intestine of a patient with duodenal cancer. The genome is composed of 3,573,421 bp, with a G+C content of 35.7%. It possesses 3,254 predicted protein-coding genes encoding multidrug resistance transporters, resistance to antibiotics, and virulence factors. PMID:26139715

  20. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB assay for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other nonenteric gram-negative bacilli and comparison with the Vitek GNI+ card.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Caroline M; Miller, J Michael

    2003-05-01

    We evaluated the Vitek 2 ID-GNB identification card (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, N.C.) for its ability to identify members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative bacilli that are isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. Using 482 enteric stock cultures and 103 strains of oxidase-positive, gram-negative glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting bacilli that were maintained at -70 degrees C and passaged three times before use, we inoculated cards according to the manufacturer's directions and processed them in a Vitek 2 instrument using version VT2-R02.03 software. All panel identifications were compared to reference identifications previously confirmed by conventional tube biochemical assays. At the end of the initial 3-h incubation period, the Vitek 2 instrument demonstrated an accuracy of 93.0% for the identification of enteric strains; 414 (85.9%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and an additional 34 (7.1%) strains were correctly identified but at a low level of discrimination. Nineteen (3.9%) strains were unidentified, and 15 (3.1%) were misidentified. The 19 unidentified strains were scattered among 10 genera. Three of the 15 misidentified strains were lactose-positive Salmonella spp. and were identified as Escherichia coli; another was a lactose-positive, malonate-negative Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae strain that was identified as E. coli. Of the 103 glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting nonenteric strains, 88 (85.4%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and 10 (9.7%) were correctly identified, but at a low level of discrimination, for a total of 95.1% accuracy with this group. Two strains were unidentified and three were misidentified. The errors occurred for strains in three different genera. With the increased hands-off approach of the Vitek 2 instrument and accuracies of 93% for the identification of enteric organisms and 95.1% for the

  1. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB Assay for Identification of Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae and Other Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli and Comparison with the Vitek GNI+ Card

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Caroline M.; Miller, J. Michael

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the Vitek 2 ID-GNB identification card (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, N.C.) for its ability to identify members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative bacilli that are isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. Using 482 enteric stock cultures and 103 strains of oxidase-positive, gram-negative glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting bacilli that were maintained at −70°C and passaged three times before use, we inoculated cards according to the manufacturer's directions and processed them in a Vitek 2 instrument using version VT2-R02.03 software. All panel identifications were compared to reference identifications previously confirmed by conventional tube biochemical assays. At the end of the initial 3-h incubation period, the Vitek 2 instrument demonstrated an accuracy of 93.0% for the identification of enteric strains; 414 (85.9%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and an additional 34 (7.1%) strains were correctly identified but at a low level of discrimination. Nineteen (3.9%) strains were unidentified, and 15 (3.1%) were misidentified. The 19 unidentified strains were scattered among 10 genera. Three of the 15 misidentified strains were lactose-positive Salmonella spp. and were identified as Escherichia coli; another was a lactose-positive, malonate-negative Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae strain that was identified as E. coli. Of the 103 glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting nonenteric strains, 88 (85.4%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and 10 (9.7%) were correctly identified, but at a low level of discrimination, for a total of 95.1% accuracy with this group. Two strains were unidentified and three were misidentified. The errors occurred for strains in three different genera. With the increased hands-off approach of the Vitek 2 instrument and accuracies of 93% for the identification of enteric organisms and 95.1% for the

  2. Clinicians’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juyan Julia; Patel, Sameer J.; Jia, Haomiao; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Kubin, Christine J.; Alba, Luis; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess how healthcare professionals caring for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) understand and use antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB). Design A knowledge, attitude and practice survey assessed ICU clinicians knowledge of antimicrobial resistance, confidence interpreting susceptibility testing, and beliefs regarding the impact of susceptibility testing on patient outcomes. Setting 16 ICUs affiliated with New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Participants Attending physicians and subspecialty residents with primary clinical responsibilities in adult or pediatric ICUs and infectious diseases (ID) subspecialists and clinical pharmacists. Methods Participants completed an anonymous electronic survey. Responses included 4-level Likert scales dichotomized for analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed using Generalized Estimating Equations logistic regression to account for correlation of respondents from the same ICU. Results The response rate was 51% (178/349 eligible participants) of whom 120 (67%) were ICU physicians. Those caring for adult patients were more knowledgeable about antimicrobial activity and more familiar with MDR-GNB infections. Only 33% and 12% of ICU physicians were familiar with standardized and specialized AST methods, respectively, but >95% believed AST improved patient outcomes. When adjusted for demographic and healthcare provider characteristics, those familiar with treatment of MDR-GNB bloodstream infections, those aware of resistance mechanisms, and those aware of AST methods were more confident they could interpret AST and/or request additional in vitro testing. Conclusions Our study uncovered knowledge gaps and educational needs that could serve as the foundation for future interventions. Familiarity with MDR-GNB increased overall knowledge and familiarity with AST increased confidence interpreting these results. PMID:23388362

  3. Growth detection failures by the nonradiometric Bactec MGIT 960 mycobacterial culture system.

    PubMed

    Peña, Jeremy A; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hoffman, Colleen G; Branda, John A

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterial growth in liquid culture can go undetected by automated, nonradiometric growth detection systems. In our laboratory, instrument-negative tubes from the Bactec MGIT 960 system are inspected visually for clumps suggestive of mycobacterial growth, which (if present) are examined by acid-fast smear analysis. A 3-year review demonstrated that ∼1% of instrument-negative MGIT cultures contained mycobacterial growth and that 10% of all cultures yielding mycobacteria were instrument negative. Isolates from instrument-negative MGIT cultures included both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria.

  4. Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hamdy Mohammed, El Sayed; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Mohammed El Sayed, Hanan; Al Johery, Said Abd Elmohsen; Abdel Ghani Hassanein, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli resulting from β-lactamases have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and are a critical therapeutic problem worldwide. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolates and detection of bla VIM, bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M-1, and bla CTX-M-9 genes in these clinical isolates in Egyptian hospitals. The isolates were collected from various clinical samples, identified by conventional methods and confirmed by API 20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by Kirby-Bauer technique and interpreted according to CLSI. Production of bla VIM, bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX-M genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Direct sequencing from PCR products was subsequently carried out to identify and confirm these β-lactamases genes. Out of 65 isolates, (46.1%) Escherichia coli, (26.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, and (10.7%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified as the commonest Gram-negative bacilli. 33(50.8%) were imipenem-resistant isolates. 22 isolates (66.7%) carried bla VIM, 24(72.7%) had bla TEM, and 5(15%) showed bla SHV, while 12(36%), 6(18.2%), and 0(0.00%) harbored bla CTX-M-1, bla CTX-M-9, and bla CTX-M-8/25, respectively. There is a high occurrence of β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates and sequence analysis of amplified genes showed differences between multiple SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in the same gene among local isolates in relation to published sequences. PMID:27123005

  5. Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy Mohammed, El sayed; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Mohammed El sayed, Hanan; Al Johery, Said abd Elmohsen; Abdel Ghani Hassanein, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli resulting from β-lactamases have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and are a critical therapeutic problem worldwide. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolates and detection of blaVIM, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1, and blaCTX-M-9 genes in these clinical isolates in Egyptian hospitals. The isolates were collected from various clinical samples, identified by conventional methods and confirmed by API 20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by Kirby-Bauer technique and interpreted according to CLSI. Production of blaVIM, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Direct sequencing from PCR products was subsequently carried out to identify and confirm these β-lactamases genes. Out of 65 isolates, (46.1%) Escherichia coli, (26.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, and (10.7%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified as the commonest Gram-negative bacilli. 33(50.8%) were imipenem-resistant isolates. 22 isolates (66.7%) carried blaVIM, 24(72.7%) had blaTEM, and 5(15%) showed blaSHV, while 12(36%), 6(18.2%), and 0(0.00%) harbored blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9, and blaCTX-M-8/25, respectively. There is a high occurrence of β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates and sequence analysis of amplified genes showed differences between multiple SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in the same gene among local isolates in relation to published sequences. PMID:27123005

  6. Glycolytic and Non-glycolytic Functions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Aldolase, an Essential Enzyme Produced by Replicating and Non-replicating Bacilli*

    PubMed Central

    de la Paz Santangelo, Maria; Gest, Petra M.; Guerin, Marcelo E.; Coinçon, Mathieu; Pham, Ha; Ryan, Gavin; Puckett, Susan E.; Spencer, John S.; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Daher, Racha; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Therisod, Michel; Ehrt, Sabine; Sygusch, Jurgen; Jackson, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The search for antituberculosis drugs active against persistent bacilli has led to our interest in metallodependent class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA-tb), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis absent from mammalian cells. Knock-out experiments at the fba-tb locus indicated that this gene is required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on gluconeogenetic substrates and in glucose-containing medium. Surface labeling and enzymatic activity measurements revealed that this enzyme was exported to the cell surface of M. tuberculosis and produced under various axenic growth conditions including oxygen depletion and hence by non-replicating bacilli. Importantly, FBA-tb was also produced in vivo in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and mice. FBA-tb bound human plasmin(ogen) and protected FBA-tb-bound plasmin from regulation by α2-antiplasmin, suggestive of an involvement of this enzyme in host/pathogen interactions. The crystal structures of FBA-tb in the native form and in complex with a hydroxamate substrate analog were determined to 2.35- and 1.9-Å resolution, respectively. Whereas inhibitor attachment had no effect on the plasminogen binding activity of FBA-tb, it competed with the natural substrate of the enzyme, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, and substantiated a previously unknown reaction mechanism associated with metallodependent aldolases involving recruitment of the catalytic zinc ion by the substrate upon active site binding. Altogether, our results highlight the potential of FBA-tb as a novel therapeutic target against both replicating and non-replicating bacilli. PMID:21949126

  7. Mass culture strategy for bacterial yeast co-culture for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Priya, Anchal; Mandal, Ajoy K; Ball, Andrew S; Manefield, Mike; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-11-15

    In the present study a metabolically versatile co-culture with two Bacilli and one yeast strain was developed using enrichment culture techniques. The developed co-culture had affinity to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of petroleum crude oil. Degradation kinetics was established for designing the fermentation protocol of the co-culture. The developed mass culture strategy led to achieve the reduction in surface tension (26dynescm(-1) from 69 dynescm(-1)) and degradation of 67% in bench scale experiments. The total crude oil degradation of 96% was achieved in 4000l of natural seawater after 28days without adding any nutrients. The survival of the augmented co-culture was maintained (10(9)cellsml(-1)) in contaminated marine environment. The mass culture protocol devised for the bioaugmentation was a key breakthrough that was subsequently used for pilot scale studies with 100l and 4000l of natural seawater for potential application in marine oil spills. PMID:26384865

  8. Mass culture strategy for bacterial yeast co-culture for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Priya, Anchal; Mandal, Ajoy K; Ball, Andrew S; Manefield, Mike; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-11-15

    In the present study a metabolically versatile co-culture with two Bacilli and one yeast strain was developed using enrichment culture techniques. The developed co-culture had affinity to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of petroleum crude oil. Degradation kinetics was established for designing the fermentation protocol of the co-culture. The developed mass culture strategy led to achieve the reduction in surface tension (26dynescm(-1) from 69 dynescm(-1)) and degradation of 67% in bench scale experiments. The total crude oil degradation of 96% was achieved in 4000l of natural seawater after 28days without adding any nutrients. The survival of the augmented co-culture was maintained (10(9)cellsml(-1)) in contaminated marine environment. The mass culture protocol devised for the bioaugmentation was a key breakthrough that was subsequently used for pilot scale studies with 100l and 4000l of natural seawater for potential application in marine oil spills.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of GenoType MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay with Solid Culture Method in Early Diagnosis of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at a Tertiary Care Centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Raj N.; Singh, Binit K.; Sharma, Surendra K.; Sharma, Rohini; Soneja, Manish; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Myneedu, Vithal P.; Hanif, Mahmud; Kumar, Ashok; Sachdeva, Kuldeep S.; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu N.; Vollepore, Balasangameshwra; Thakur, Rahul; Raizada, Neeraj; Arora, Suresh K.; Sinha, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to compare the performance of line probe assay (GenoType MTBDRplus) with solid culture method for an early diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and to study the mutation patterns associated with rpoB, katG and inhA genes at a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 269 previously treated sputum-smear acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from January to September 2012 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi. Line probe assay (LPA) was performed directly on the sputum specimens and the results were compared with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) on solid media [Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) method]. Results DST results by LPA and LJ methods were compared in 242 MDR-TB suspects. The LPA detected rifampicin (RIF) resistance in 70 of 71 cases, isoniazid (INH) resistance in 86 of 93 cases, and MDR-TB in 66 of 68 cases as compared to the conventional method. Overall (rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB) concordance of the LPA with the conventional DST was 96%. Sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 99% respectively for detection of RIF resistance; 92% and 99% respectively for detection of INH resistance; 97% and 100% respectively for detection of MDR-TB. Frequencies of katG gene, inhA gene and combined katG and inhA gene mutations conferring all INH resistance were 72/87 (83%), 10/87 (11%) and 5/87 (6%) respectively. The turnaround time of the LPA test was 48 hours. Conclusion The LPA test provides an early diagnosis of monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin and is highly sensitive and specific for an early diagnosis of MDR-TB. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the LPA test can be useful in early diagnosis of drug resistant TB in high TB burden countries. PMID:24039735

  10. Rate of recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from frozen acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive sputum samples subjected to long-term storage in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at -20 °C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at -20 °C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  11. Rate of Recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Frozen Acid-Fast-Bacillus Smear-Positive Sputum Samples Subjected to Long-Term Storage in Northwest Ethiopia ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C.

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at −20°C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at −20°C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  12. Conditional probability analysis of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacilli isolated from tertiary medical institutions in South Korea during 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hak

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance of Gram-negative bacilli is a major problem globally. However, little is known about the combined probability of resistance to various antibiotics. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentrations of widely used antibiotics were determined using clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, randomly chosen from strain collections created during 1999-2009 in tertiary medical institutions in Seoul, South Korea. To analyze combined efficacy of antibiotics against a subgroup of isolates, conditional probabilities were determined based on arbitrary, non-independent patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance. Multidrug resistance, defined as resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics, was observed in the following order: A. baumannii (96%), P. aeruginosa (65%), E. coli (52%), and K. pneumoniae (7%). A. baumannii strains resistant to gentamicin were found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics, except for colistin and polymyxin B. Resistance to gentamicin following exposure to this antibiotic was highly likely to lead to multidrug resistance in all four microbes. This study shows a causal relationship between gentamicin resistance and the prevalence of multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of Gramnegative bacilli in South Korea during 1999-2009 and suggests the importance of prudent use of gentamicin in hospitals.

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern in urinary isolates of gram negative bacilli with special reference to AmpC β-lactamase in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh H.; Trivedi, Grishma R.; Patel, Sachin M.; Vegad, Mahendra M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Resistance to higher antimicrobial agent is commonly seen in gram negative bacilli. This issue is a challenging problem to the medical practitioners in addition to it is financial impact on the health care system. Objectives: To document the prevalence of multi drug resistant gram negative bacilli isolated from urine of patients attending the Urology Department of Tertiary care Hospital of western India in year 2008. Results: Out of total 328 isolates, 118 (35.98%) E.coli, 72 (21.95 %) Klebsiella, 64 (19.51%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 30 (9.15%) Acinetobacter, 18 (5.49%) Proteus vulgaris, 18 (5.49%) Proteus mirabilis, 6 (1.83%) Providencia rettgerii, 2 (0.61%) Citrobacter freundii. Out of these isolates, 228 (69.51%) were β-lactamase positive, while 100 (30.51%) were β-lactamase negative. Out of 228 β-lactamase positive, 104 (45.61%) were AmpC β-lactamase positive. Conclusions: Stringent protocol such as Antibiotic policy and Hospital infection control program are mandatory to curb these microbes in a tertiary care hospital. PMID:20842250

  14. Thermolongibacillus altinsuensis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Thermolongibacillus kozakliensis sp. nov., aerobic, thermophilic, long bacilli isolated from hot springs.

    PubMed

    Cihan, Arzu Coleri; Koc, Melih; Ozcan, Birgul; Tekin, Nilgun; Cokmus, Cumhur

    2014-01-01

    Two novel endospore-forming, aerobic bacilli, strains E173a(T) and E265(T), were isolated from soil and sediment samples from Kozakli and Altinsu hot springs, Nevsehir (Turkey). Their young cells in the exponential phase of growth were motile, Gram-stain-positive, straight rods, 0.6-1.1×3.0-8.0 µm in size, but they became strikingly long, approximately 0.6-1.2 by 9.0-35.0 µm, after the stationary phase of growth. Cells varied in tests for oxidase, and had a weakly positive reaction for catalase. Both strains could grow between 40 and 70 °C, with optimal growth at 60 °C (E173a(T)) and 55 °C (E265(T)). Growth occurred within the range pH 5.0-11.0 with optimal growth at pH 9.0 (E173a(T)) and pH 8.5 (E265(T)). Strain E173a(T) grew within a salinity range from 0 to1.5 % (w/v) NaCl with optimal growth at 0.5 %, while strain E265(T) grew within the range 0-5.0 % (w/v), with an optimum at 3.0 %. The new isolates differed from each other in some phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characters as well as repetitive extragenic palindromic element PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprints. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities suggested distant relationships with other members of the family Bacillaceae (<95.8 %), although the two strains showed 97.5 % sequence similarity between them, and had 55 % relatedness by DNA-DNA hybridization. The DNA G+C contents were 44.8 (E173a(T)) and 43.5 mol% (E265(T)). Moreover, the chemotaxonomic data of E173a(T) and E265(T) [presence of low amounts of meso-diaminopimelic acid, A1γ to A1γ' cross-linkage types in peptidoglycan, fatty acids including iso-C15 : 0 (>60 %), iso-C17 : 0 and C16 : 0] supported the consideration of these isolates as members of a novel genus. Based upon phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it is proposed that new isolates represent a novel genus, Thermolongibacillus gen. nov., with two novel species: Thermolongibacillus altinsuensis sp. nov. (type strain E265(T) = DSM 24979(T

  15. Postoperative infection of laparoscopic surgery wound due to Mycobacterium chelonae.

    PubMed

    Rajini, M; Prasad, S R; Reddy, R R; Bhat, R V; Vimala, K R

    2007-04-01

    We report a case of postoperative wound infection due to Mycobacterium chelonae. A 35-year-old woman presented with multiple erythematous nodules, plaques and discharging sinuses over the abdomen, 45 days after she had undergone laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. The seropurulent discharge from the wound showed acid-fast bacilli on Ziehl- Neelsen stain and culture yielded Mycobacterium chelonae. The patient responded to clarithromycin and doxycycline. The source of infection was probably contaminated water or disinfectant solution used for sterilization of laparoscopic instruments.

  16. Atypical presentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an infant.

    PubMed

    Gayathri Devi, D R; Gowri, Mangala; Padmalatha, S; Sreeja, S; Babu, Sreenivasa

    2010-12-01

    Tuberculosis of the skeletal muscle is very rare which is often missed in the early stages. This leads to delay in treatment resulting in irreversible limb deformity and loss of function. The authors describe a case of healthy child with an intramuscular cystic swelling above the elbow joint. The pus showing acid fast bacilli morphologically resembling Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also isolated in culture. Following the diagnosis and confirmation, the child was treated successfully with anti tubercular drugs. PMID:20890682

  17. A testing scheme for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine feces utilizing the ESP para-JEM liquid culture system.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Sreekumari; Shulaw, William; Berghaus, Roy; Zhang, Yan; Byrum, Beverly

    2006-11-01

    A testing scheme for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in broth cultures of bovine fecal samples carried out in ESP para-JEM System was evaluated. The scheme included acid-fast staining (on signal-positive and signal-negative samples), and confirmation by PCR for 2 MAP-specific targets and subculture of all acid-fast positive PCR-negative samples. Two hundred and fifty bovine fecal samples were evaluated for the presence of MAP using this scheme. Thirty-seven (15%) of 250 fecal samples had a positive culture result when the proposed testing scheme was used, compared to 14 (6%) positive results when using the standard ESP para-JEM protocol (requiring samples to have a positive signal from the system, a positive acid-fast stain, and a positive IS900 PCR result), and 20 (8%) positives when conventional culture was performed on Herrold egg yolk (HEY) media. A preliminary comparison of real-time and conventional PCR on DNA extracted from 15 MAP-positive broth cultures by 3 different protocols suggested that conventional PCR may be a better choice for the confirmation of the presence of MAP in the liquid cultures than real-time PCR.

  18. In Vitro Activities of Ceftazidime-Avibactam and Aztreonam-Avibactam against 372 Gram-Negative Bacilli Collected in 2011 and 2012 from 11 Teaching Hospitals in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Feifei; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Nichols, Wright W.; Testa, Raymond; Li, Henan; Chen, Hongbin; He, Wenqiang; Wang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Ceftazidime-avibactam, aztreonam-avibactam, and comparators were tested by reference broth microdilution against 372 nonrepetitive Gram-negative bacilli (346 unselected plus 26 selected meropenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates) collected from 11 teaching hospitals in China in 2011 and 2012. Meropenem-nonsusceptible isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs; e.g., CTX-M-14/3), AmpCs (e.g., CMY-2), and/or carbapenemases (e.g., KPC-2 and NDM-1). Avibactam potentiated the activity of ceftazidime against organisms with combinations of ESBLs, AmpCs, and KPC-2. Aztreonam-avibactam was active against all β-lactamase producers (including producers of NDM-1 and IMP-4/8) except blaOXA-containing Acinetobacter baumannii and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. PMID:24342639

  19. Comparison of the activity of cefoperazone, cefuroxime and cefoxitin against Gram-negative bacilli and synergy studies with cefoperazone and ticarcillin.

    PubMed

    Miles, H M; Carson, M; Pavillard, E R

    1981-01-01

    83% of at least 11 different species of Gram-negative aerobic bacilli, comprising 270 clinical isolates, were inhibited by 3.1 microgram cefoperazone per ml. 55% and 48% were inhibited by 3.1 micrograms/ml of cefuroxime and cefoxitin, respectively. In addition, cefoperazone inhibited 83 of 96 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates at a concentration of 6.2 microgram/ml. Cefoperazone/ticarcillin combinations were shown to be synergistic for 47/96 (49%) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates studied, when lowering of the minimum bactericidal concentrations of the 2 drugs was the criterion for enhancement of activity. Cefoperazone/ticarcillin combinations were also shown to be synergistic against 15/30 Serratia marcescens isolates. We discuss the possible advantages of synergistic combinations of drugs of relatively low toxicity, for the management of complicated infections.

  20. Characterization of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance genes and their relatedness to class 1 integron and insertion sequence common region in gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hae Won; Lim, Jinsook; Kim, Semi; Kim, Jimyung; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, but increasing resistance to TMP-SMX has been reported. In this study, we analyzed TMP-SMX resistance genes and their relatedness with integrons and insertion sequence common regions (ISCRs) in uropathogenic gram-negative bacilli. Consecutive nonduplicate TMP-SMX nonsusceptible clinical isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp., and P. aeruginosa were collected from urine. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by Etest. TMP-SMX resistance genes (sul and dfr), integrons, and ISCRs were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. A total of 45 E. coli (37.8%), 15 K. pneumoniae (18.5%), 12 Acinetobacter spp. (70.6%), and 9 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.0%) isolates were found to be resistant to TMP-SMX. Their MICs were all over 640. In E. coli and K. pneumoniae, sul1 and dfr genes were highly prevalent in relation with integron1. The sul3 gene was detected in E. coli. However, in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., only sul1 was prevalent in relation with class 1 integron; however, dfr was not detected and sul2 was less prevalent than in Enterobacteriaceae. ISCR1 and/or ISCR2 were detected in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter spp. but the relatedness with TMP-SMX resistance genes was not prominent. ISCR14 was detected in six isolates of E. coli. In conclusion, resistance mechanisms for TMP-SMX were different between Enterobacteriaceae and glucose non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. Class 1 integron was widely disseminated in uropathogenic gram-negative baciili, so the adoption of prudent use of antimicrobial agents and the establishment of a surveillance system are needed.

  1. Efficacy and safety of aztreonam-clindamycin versus tobramycin-clindamycin in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, J R; Ramírez-Ronda, C H; Nevárez, M

    1985-01-01

    A total of 80 patients were randomized to receive either aztreonam or tobramycin for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by gram-negative bacilli; all these patients received clindamycin concomitantly. A total of 53 patients were randomized to receive aztreonam-clindamycin; of these, 46 were clinically evaluable and 39 were bacteriologically evaluable. Of the 46 clinically evaluable patients, 41 were considered cured, 3 failed to be cured, and 2 died during the study period of unrelated causes. Of the 39 bacteriologically evaluable patients, 36 were considered cured, and 3 failed to be cured. There were 26 clinically evaluable patients in the group randomized to receive tobramycin-clindamycin. Of them, 22 patients were considered cured, 3 failed to be cured, and 1 died of unrelated causes during the study period. There were 18 bacteriologically evaluable patients in the tobramycin-clindamycin group; 17 were cured, and 1 failed to be cured. The most common pathogens isolated from the patients were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the isolated organisms were susceptible to both tested antibiotics, except for a strain of Pseudomonas cepacia resistant to both tested antimicrobial agents and a strain of Enterobacter aerogenes and one of P. aeruginosa that were resistant to aztreonam. Very few adverse reactions related to the antibiotics were seen. These effects, when present, were transient and comparable in both studied groups, except for renal-function tests, which were altered in 7.7% of the patients randomized to receive tobramycin-clindamycin and in none of the patients randomized to receive aztreonam-clindamycin. Aztreonam-clindamycin is safe and effective for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli when the organisms are susceptible. PMID:4039118

  2. Characterization of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance genes and their relatedness to class 1 integron and insertion sequence common region in gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hae Won; Lim, Jinsook; Kim, Semi; Kim, Jimyung; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, but increasing resistance to TMP-SMX has been reported. In this study, we analyzed TMP-SMX resistance genes and their relatedness with integrons and insertion sequence common regions (ISCRs) in uropathogenic gram-negative bacilli. Consecutive nonduplicate TMP-SMX nonsusceptible clinical isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp., and P. aeruginosa were collected from urine. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by Etest. TMP-SMX resistance genes (sul and dfr), integrons, and ISCRs were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. A total of 45 E. coli (37.8%), 15 K. pneumoniae (18.5%), 12 Acinetobacter spp. (70.6%), and 9 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.0%) isolates were found to be resistant to TMP-SMX. Their MICs were all over 640. In E. coli and K. pneumoniae, sul1 and dfr genes were highly prevalent in relation with integron1. The sul3 gene was detected in E. coli. However, in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., only sul1 was prevalent in relation with class 1 integron; however, dfr was not detected and sul2 was less prevalent than in Enterobacteriaceae. ISCR1 and/or ISCR2 were detected in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter spp. but the relatedness with TMP-SMX resistance genes was not prominent. ISCR14 was detected in six isolates of E. coli. In conclusion, resistance mechanisms for TMP-SMX were different between Enterobacteriaceae and glucose non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. Class 1 integron was widely disseminated in uropathogenic gram-negative baciili, so the adoption of prudent use of antimicrobial agents and the establishment of a surveillance system are needed. PMID:25348695

  3. [A clinical study on 10 cases of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis].

    PubMed

    Mada, Yusuke; Ueki, Yuji; Konno, Akiyoshi

    2012-11-01

    Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis is sometimes difficult to differentiate from sarcoidosis. We treated 10 patients with cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis from April 2002 to December 2011. Their ages ranged from 42 to 78 years old (mean 63.2 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 4: 6. All patients presented to our hospital with the chief complaint of a cervical mass. All patients underwent open biopsy of the cervical lymph nodes, and 8 patients were diagnosed histopathologically as having cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis. In the remaining 2 patients, caseous necrosis could not be recognized histopathologically and they were diagnosed as having sarcoidosis. However 8 weeks later, the culture of the acid-fast bacilli turned positive, and the diagnosis was corrected to cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis. In our cases, the culture of acid-fast bacilli was positive in 6 out of 9 cases (66.7%), and TB-PCR was positive in 4 out of 9 cases (44.4%). These results show that sensitivity of individual tests is rather low. For the diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis, it is important to suspect this disease from the findings of the sedimentation rate, tuberculin test, and ultrasonography with fine needle aspiration cytology. On performing an open biopsy of the cervical lymph nodes in the suspected patients, it is essential to combine histopathological study, TB-PCR and the culture of the acid-fast bacilli simultaneously. PMID:23265073

  4. Detection of Colonization by Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli in Patients by Use of the Xpert MDRO Assay

    PubMed Central

    Canton, Rafael; Kop, JoAnn; Chan, Ryan; Ryan, Jamie; Weir, Fred; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; LaBombardi, Vincent; Persing, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting colonization of patients with carbapenemase-producing bacteria can be difficult. This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of a PCR-based method (Xpert MDRO) for detecting blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaVIM carbapenem resistance genes using GeneXpert cartridges to the results of culture with and without a broth enrichment step on 328 rectal, perirectal, and stool samples. The culture method included direct inoculation of a MacConkey agar plate on which a 10-μg meropenem disk was placed and plating on MacConkey agar after overnight enrichment of the sample in MacConkey broth containing 1 μg/ml of meropenem. Forty-three (13.1%) samples were positive by PCR for blaKPC and 11 (3.4%) were positive for blaVIM; none were positive for blaNDM. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the PCR assay for blaKPC were 100%, 99.0%, 93.0%, and 100%, respectively, compared to broth enrichment culture and sequencing of target genes. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the assay for blaVIM were 100%, 99.4%, 81.8%, and 100%, respectively. Since none of the clinical samples contained organisms with blaNDM, 66 contrived stool samples were prepared at various dilutions using three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates containing blaNDM. The PCR assay showed 100% positivity at dilutions from 300 to 1,800 CFU/ml and 93.3% at 150 CFU/ml. The Xpert MDRO PCR assay required 2 min of hands-on time and 47 min to complete. Rapid identification of patients colonized with carbapenemase-producing organisms using multiplex PCR may help hospitals to improve infection control activities. PMID:24006011

  5. 10 x '20 Progress--development of new drugs active against gram-negative bacilli: an update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Helen W; Talbot, George H; Benjamin, Daniel K; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J; Jones, Ronald N; Murray, Barbara E; Bonomo, Robert A; Gilbert, David

    2013-06-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the "ESKAPE" pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's "10 × '20 Initiative."

  6. Laboratory diagnosis, clinical management and infection control of the infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli: a Chinese consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Guan, X; He, L; Hu, B; Hu, J; Huang, X; Lai, G; Li, Y; Liu, Y; Ni, Y; Qiu, H; Shao, Z; Shi, Y; Wang, M; Wang, R; Wu, D; Xie, C; Xu, Y; Yang, F; Yu, K; Yu, Y; Zhang, J; Zhuo, C

    2016-03-01

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are defined as bacterial isolates susceptible to two or fewer antimicrobial categories. XDR-GNB mainly occur in Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The prevalence of XDR-GNB is on the rise in China and in other countries, and it poses a major public health threat as a result of the lack of adequate therapeutic options. A group of Chinese clinical experts, microbiologists and pharmacologists came together to discuss and draft a consensus on the laboratory diagnosis, clinical management and infection control of XDR-GNB infections. Lists of antimicrobial categories proposed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing were created according to documents from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Multiple risk factors of XDR-GNB infections are analyzed, with long-term exposure to extended-spectrum antimicrobials being the most important one. Combination therapeutic regimens are summarized for treatment of XDR-GNB infections caused by different bacteria based on limited clinical studies and/or laboratory data. Most frequently used antimicrobials used for the combination therapies include aminoglycosides, carbapenems, colistin, fosfomycin and tigecycline. Strict infection control measures including hand hygiene, contact isolation, active screening, environmental surface disinfections, decolonization and restrictive antibiotic stewardship are recommended to curb the XDR-GNB spread. PMID:26627340

  7. Disk Carbapenemase Test for the Rapid Detection of KPC-, NDM-, and Other Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Sung, Ji Yeon; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Song, Wonkeun; Chong, Yunsop

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is required for optimal treatment of infected patients. We developed and assessed a new disk carbapenemase test (DCT). Methods Paper disks containing 0.3 mg of imipenem and bromothymol blue indicator were developed, and the performance of the DCT were evaluated by using 742 strains of GNB with or without carbapenemases. Results The paper disks were simple to prepare, and the dried disks were stable at -20℃ and at 4℃. The DCT detected 212 of 215 strains (98.6% sensitivity with 95% confidence interval [CI] 96.0-99.5%) of GNB with known class A (KPC and Sme) and class B (NDM, IMP, VIM, and SIM) carbapenemases within 60 min, but failed to detect GES-5 carbapenemase. The DCT also detected all two Escherichia coli isolates with OXA-48, but failed to detect GNB with OXA-232, and other OXA carbapenemases. The DCT showed 100% specificity (95% CI, 99.2-100%) in the test of 448 imipenem-nonsusceptible, but carbapenemase genes not tested, clinical isolates of GNB. Conclusions The DCT is simple and can be easily performed, even in small laboratories, for the rapid detection of GNB with KPC, NDM and the majority of IMP, VIM, and SIM carbapenemases. PMID:27374708

  8. Occurrence of a barbiturate-inducible catalytically self-sufficient 119,000 dalton cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase in bacilli.

    PubMed

    Fulco, A J; Ruettinger, R T

    1987-05-01

    In a recent publication (Narhi, L.O. and Fulco, A.J.[1986] J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7160-7169) we described the characterization of a catalytically self-sufficient 119,000 Dalton cytochrome P-450 fatty acid monooxygenase (P-450BM-3) induced by barbiturates in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581. We have now examined cell-free preparations from 12 distinct strains of B. megaterium and from one or two strains each of B. alvei, B. brevis, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. macerans, B. pumilis and B. subtilis for the presence of this inducible enzyme. Using Western blot analyses in combination with assays for fatty acid hydroxylase activity and cytochrome P-450, we were able to show that 11 of the 12 B. megaterium strains contained not only a strongly pentobarbital-inducible fatty acid monooxygenase identical to or polymorphic with P-450BM-3 but also significant levels of two smaller P-450 cytochromes that were the same as or similar to cytochromes P-450BM-1 and P-450BM-2 originally found in ATCC 14581. Unlike the 119,000 Dalton P-450, however, the two smaller P-450s were generally easily detectable in cultures grown to stationary phase in the absence of barbiturates and, with some exceptions, were not strongly induced by pentobarbital. None of the non-megaterium species of Bacillus tested exhibited significant levels of either fatty acid monooxygenase activity or cytochrome P-450. The one strain of B. megaterium that lacked inducible P-450BM-3 was also negative for BM-1 and BM-2. However, this strain (ATCC 13368) did contain a small but significant level of another P-450 cytochrome that others have identified as the oxygenase component of a steroid 15-beta-hydroxylase system. Our evidence suggests that the BM series of P-450 cytochromes is encoded by chromosomal (rather than by plasmid) DNA. PMID:3573977

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aerobic and Facultative Gram-Negative Bacilli from Intra-abdominal Infections in Patients from Seven Regions in China in 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Liao, Kang; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Wang, Yong; Wu, Anhua; Feng, Xianju; Luo, Yanping; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Chen, Shulan; Cao, Bin; Su, Jianrong; Gui, Bingdong; Duan, Qiong; Zhang, Shufang; Shao, Haifeng; Kong, Haishen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2015-10-19

    To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli that caused hospital-acquired and community-acquired intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China between 2012 and 2013, we determined the susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobials and the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) statuses of 3,540 IAI isolates from seven geographic areas in China in a central laboratory using CLSI broth microdilution and interpretive standards. Most infections were caused by Escherichia coli (46.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.7%). Rates of ESBL-producing E. coli (P = 0.031), K. pneumoniae (P = 0.017), and Proteus mirabilis (P = 0.004) were higher in hospital-acquired IAIs than in community-acquired IAIs. Susceptibilities of enterobacteriaceae to ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem were 71.3% to 100%, 81.3% to 100%, 64.7% to 100%, and 83.1% to 100%, respectively, but imipenem was ineffective against P. mirabilis (<20%). Although most ESBL-positive hospital-acquired isolates were resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the majority were susceptible to cefoxitin (47.9% to 83.9%). Susceptibilities of ESBL-positive isolates to ampicillin-sulbactam (<10%) were low, whereas susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin (0% to 54.6%) and levofloxacin (0% to 63.6%) varied substantially. The prevalences of cephalosporin-susceptible E. coli and K. pneumoniae were higher in the northeastern and southern regions than in the central and eastern regions, reflecting the ESBL-positive rates in these areas, and were lowest in the Jiangsu-Zhejiang (Jiang-Zhe) area where the rates of carbapenem resistance were also highest. Ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem are the most efficacious antibiotics for treating IAIs in China, especially those caused by E. coli or K. pneumoniae. Resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems is more common in the Jiang-Zhe area than in other regions in China.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of unusual nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin America: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2002).

    PubMed

    Gales, Ana C; Jones, Ronald N; Andrade, Soraya S; Sader, Helio S

    2005-10-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 176 unusual non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) collected from Latin America region through the SENTRY Program between 1997 and 2002 was evaluated by broth microdilution according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommendations. Nearly 74% of the NF-BGN belonged to the following genera/species: Burkholderia spp. (83), Achromobacter spp. (25), Ralstonia pickettii (16), Alcaligenes spp. (12), and Cryseobacterium spp. (12). Generally, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (MIC50, < 0.5 microg/ml) was the most potent drug followed by levofloxacin (MIC50, 0.5 microg/ml), and gatifloxacin (MIC50, 1 microg/ml). The highest susceptibility rates were observed for levofloxacin (78.3%), gatifloxacin (75.6%), and meropenem (72.6%). Ceftazidime (MIC50, 4 microg/ml; 83.1% susceptible) was the most active beta-lactam against B. cepacia. Against Achromobacter spp. isolates, meropenem (MIC50, 0.25 microg/ml; 88% susceptible) was more active than imipenem (MIC50, 2 microg/ml). Cefepime (MIC50, 2 microg/ml; 81.3% susceptible), and imipenem (MIC50, 2 microg/ml; 81.3% susceptible) were more active than ceftazidime (MIC50, >16 microg/ml; 18.8% susceptible) and meropenem (MIC50, 8 microg/ml; 50% susceptible) against Ralstonia pickettii. Since selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial agents for testing and reporting has not been established by the NCCLS for many of NF-GNB species, results from large multicenter studies may help to guide the best empiric therapy.

  11. 10 x '20 Progress--development of new drugs active against gram-negative bacilli: an update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Helen W; Talbot, George H; Benjamin, Daniel K; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J; Jones, Ronald N; Murray, Barbara E; Bonomo, Robert A; Gilbert, David

    2013-06-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the "ESKAPE" pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's "10 × '20 Initiative." PMID:23599308

  12. Ceftolozane/tazobactam: a novel cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination with activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Zhanel, George G; Chung, Phillip; Adam, Heather; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Denisuik, Andrew; Schweizer, Frank; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Rubinstein, Ethan; Gin, Alfred S; Walkty, Andrew; Hoban, Daryl J; Lynch, Joseph P; Karlowsky, James A

    2014-01-01

    Ceftolozane is a novel cephalosporin currently being developed with the β-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP). The chemical structure of ceftolozane is similar to that of ceftazidime, with the exception of a modified side-chain at the 3-position of the cephem nucleus, which confers potent antipseudomonal activity. As a β-lactam, its mechanism of action is the inhibition of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Ceftolozane displays increased activity against Gram-negative bacilli, including those that harbor classical β-lactamases (e.g., TEM-1 and SHV-1), but, similar to other oxyimino-cephalosporins such as ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, it is compromised by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases. The addition of tazobactam extends the activity of ceftolozane to include most ESBL producers as well as some anaerobic species. Ceftolozane is distinguished from other cephalosporins by its potent activity versus Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including various drug-resistant phenotypes such as carbapenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ceftazidime-resistant isolates, as well as those strains that are multidrug-resistant (MDR). Its antipseudomonal activity is attributed to its ability to evade the multitude of resistance mechanisms employed by P. aeruginosa, including efflux pumps, reduced uptake through porins and modification of PBPs. Ceftolozane demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics unaffected by the coadministration of tazobactam; specifically, it follows a two-compartmental model with linear elimination. Following single doses, ranging from 250 to 2,000 mg, over a 1-h intravenous infusion, ceftolozane displays a mean plasma half-life of 2.3 h (range 1.9-2.6 h), a steady-state volume of distribution that ranges from 13.1 to 17.6 L, and a mean clearance of 102.4 mL/min. It demonstrates low

  13. Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Caroline M.

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID

  14. Outcome of Acute Prosthetic Joint Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacilli Treated with Open Debridement and Retention of the Prosthesis▿

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pastor, Juan C.; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Vilchez, Félix; García-Ramiro, Sebastián; Bori, Guillem; Sierra, Josep; Martínez, José A.; Font, Lluis; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) due to gram-negative bacilli (GNB) treated without implant removal. Patients with an acute PJI due to GNB diagnosed from 2000 to 2007 were prospectively registered. Demographics, comorbidity, type of implant, microbiology data, surgical treatment, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded. Classification and regression tree analysis, the Kaplan-Meier survival method, and the Cox regression model were applied. Forty-seven patients were included. The mean age was 70.7 years, and there were 15 hip prostheses and 32 knee prostheses. The median number of days from the time of arthroplasty was 20. The most frequent pathogens were members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in 41 cases and Pseudomonas spp. in 20 cases. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, 14 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The median durations of intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment were 14 and 64 days, respectively. A total of 35 (74.5%) patients were in remission after a median follow-up of 463 days (interquartile range, 344 to 704) days. By use of the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (P = 0.03) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone, when all GNB isolated were susceptible (P = 0.0009), were associated with a better outcome. By use of a Cox regression model, a CRP concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR], 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 12.5; P = 0.043) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone (OR, 9.09; 95% CI, 1.96 to 50; P = 0.005) were independently associated with better outcomes. Open debridement without removal of the implant had a success rate of 74.5%, and the factors associated with good prognosis were a CRP concentration at the time of diagnosis ≤15 mg/dl and treatment with a fluoroquinolone. PMID:19687237

  15. Evolution of Smooth Tubercle Bacilli PE and PE_PGRS Genes: Evidence for a Prominent Role of Recombination and Imprint of Positive Selection

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Michel; Gutierrez, Maria Cristina; Mardassi, Helmi

    2013-01-01

    Background PE and PE_PGRS are two mycobateria-restricted multigene families encoding membrane associated and secreted proteins that have expanded mainly in the pathogenic species, notably the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Several lines of evidence attribute to PE and PE_PGRS genes critical roles in mycobacterial pathogenicity. To get more insight into the nature of these genes, we sought to address their evolutionary trajectories in the group of smooth tubercle bacilli (STB), the putative ancestor of the clonal MTBC. Methodology/Principal Findings By focussing on six polymorphic STB PE/PE_PGRS genes, we demonstrate significant incongruence among single gene genealogies and detect strong signals of recombination using various approaches. Coalescent-based estimation of population recombination and mutation rates (ρ and θ, respectively) indicates that the two mechanisms are of roughly equal importance in generating diversity (ρ/θ = 1.457), a finding in a marked contrast to house keeping genes (HKG) whose evolution is chiefly brought about by mutation (ρ/θ = 0.012). In comparison to HKG, we found 15 times higher mean rate of nonsynonymous substitutions, with strong evidence of positive selection acting on PE_PGRS62 (dN/dS = 1.42), a gene that has previously been shown to be essential for mycobacterial survival in macrophages and granulomas. Imprint of positive selection operating on specific amino acid residues or along branches of PE_PGRS62 phylogenetic tree was further demonstrated using maximum likelihood- and covarion-based approaches, respectively. Strikingly, PE_PGR62 proved highly conserved in present-day MTBC strains. Conclusions/Significance Overall the data indicate that, in STB, PE/PE_PGRS genes have undergone a strong diversification process that is speeded up by recombination, with evidence of positive selection. The finding that positive selection involved an essential PE_PGRS gene whose sequence appears to be driven to

  16. Simplified Protocol for Carba NP Test for Enhanced Detection of Carbapenemase Producers Directly from Bacterial Cultures.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, Fernando; Tijet, Nathalie; Melano, Roberto G; Corso, Alejandra

    2015-12-01

    We compared carbapenemase detection among 266 Gram-negative bacilli (161 carbapenemase producers) using the Carba NP tests issued by the CLSI (CNPt-CLSI) and a novel protocol (CNPt-direct) designed for carbapenemase detection direct from bacterial cultures (instead of bacterial extracts required by the CLSI tests). The specificities were comparable (100%), but the CNPt-direct was more sensitive (98% versus 84%). The CNPt-direct was easier to perform due to the direct use of colonies and offered a more robust detection of carbapenemase producers.

  17. Simplified Protocol for Carba NP Test for Enhanced Detection of Carbapenemase Producers Directly from Bacterial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Pasteran, Fernando; Tijet, Nathalie; Melano, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    We compared carbapenemase detection among 266 Gram-negative bacilli (161 carbapenemase producers) using the Carba NP tests issued by the CLSI (CNPt-CLSI) and a novel protocol (CNPt-direct) designed for carbapenemase detection direct from bacterial cultures (instead of bacterial extracts required by the CLSI tests). The specificities were comparable (100%), but the CNPt-direct was more sensitive (98% versus 84%). The CNPt-direct was easier to perform due to the direct use of colonies and offered a more robust detection of carbapenemase producers. PMID:26424841

  18. Simplified Protocol for Carba NP Test for Enhanced Detection of Carbapenemase Producers Directly from Bacterial Cultures.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, Fernando; Tijet, Nathalie; Melano, Roberto G; Corso, Alejandra

    2015-12-01

    We compared carbapenemase detection among 266 Gram-negative bacilli (161 carbapenemase producers) using the Carba NP tests issued by the CLSI (CNPt-CLSI) and a novel protocol (CNPt-direct) designed for carbapenemase detection direct from bacterial cultures (instead of bacterial extracts required by the CLSI tests). The specificities were comparable (100%), but the CNPt-direct was more sensitive (98% versus 84%). The CNPt-direct was easier to perform due to the direct use of colonies and offered a more robust detection of carbapenemase producers. PMID:26424841

  19. Quantifying Glosair™ 400 efficacy for surface disinfection of American Type Culture Collection strains and micro-organisms recently isolated from intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, R; Vizcaíno, M J; Herruzo, I

    2014-07-01

    Microbial contamination of hospital surfaces may be a source of infection for hospitalized patients. We evaluated the efficacy of Glosair™ 400 against two American Type Culture Collection strains and 18 clinical isolates, placed on glass germ-carriers. Carriers were left to air-dry for 60 min and then exposed to a cycle before detection of any surviving micro-organisms. Antibiotic-susceptible Gram-negative bacilli were less susceptible (although not significantly) to this technique than resistant Gram-negative bacilli or Gram-positive cocci and yeasts (3, 3.4 and 4.6 log10 reduction, respectively). In conclusion, in areas that had not been cleaned, aerosolized hydrogen peroxide obtained >3 log10 mean destruction of patients' micro-organisms.

  20. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  1. Endocervical culture

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal culture; Female genital tract culture; Culture - cervix ... During a vaginal examination, the health care provider uses a ... fungus grow. Further tests may be done to identify the specific ...

  2. Stool Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacterial Culture, stool; Feces Culture Formal name: Enteric Pathogens Culture, stool Related tests: Ova and Parasite Exam , ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , Widal Test , Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  3. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  4. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  5. Editorial: Current status and perspective on drug targets in tubercle bacilli and drug design of antituberculous agents based on structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Haruaki

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) remains the most frequent and important infectious disease causing morbidity and death. However, the development of new drugs for the treatment and prophylaxis of TB, particularly those truly active against dormant and persistent types of tubercle bacilli, has been slow, although some promising drugs, such as diarylquinoline TMC207, nitroimidazopyran PA-824, nitroimidazo-oxazole Delamanid (OPC-67683), oxazolidinone PNU-100480, ethylene diamine SQ-109, and pyrrole derivative LL3858, are currently under phase 1 to 3 clinical trials. Therefore, novel types of antituberculous drug, which act on unique drug targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) pathogens, particularly drug targets related to the establishment of mycobacterial dormancy in the host's macrophages, are urgently needed. In this context, it should be noted that current anti-TB drugs mostly target the metabolic reactions and proteins which are essential for the growth of MTB in extracellular milieus. It may also be promising to develop another type of drug that exerts an inhibitory action against bacterial virulence factors which cross-talk and interfere with signaling pathways of MTB-infected immunocompetent host cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, thereby changing the intracellular milieus that are favorable to intramacrophage survival and the growth of infected bacilli. This special issue contains ten review articles, dealing with recent approaches to identify and establish novel drug targets in MTB for the development of new and unique antitubercular drugs, including those related to mycobacterial dormancy and crosstalk with cellular signaling pathways. In addition, this special issue contains some review papers with special reference to the drug design based on quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, especially three-dimensional (3D)-QSAR. New, critical information on the entire genome of MTB and mycobacterial virulence genes is

  6. Mycobacterial antigen-induced T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from diabetic and non-diabetic tuberculosis patients and Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette–Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attiyah, R J; Mustafa, A S

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus are more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB), and the clinical conditions of diabetic TB patients deteriorate faster than non-diabetic TB patients, but the immunological basis for this phenomenon is not understood clearly. Given the role of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in providing protection against TB, we investigated whether CMI responses in diabetic TB patients are compromised. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from diabetic TB patients, non-diabetic TB patients and Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette–Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated healthy subjects were cultured in the presence of complex mycobacterial antigens and pools of M. tuberculosis regions of difference (RD)1, RD4, RD6 and RD10 peptides. The PBMC were assessed for antigen-induced cell proliferation and secretion of T helper 1 (Th1) [interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-β], and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10) cytokines as CMI parameters. All the complex mycobacterial antigens and RD1pool stimulated strong proliferation of PBMC of all groups, except moderate responses to RD1pool in healthy subjects. In response to complex mycobacterial antigens, both IFN-γ and TNF-β were secreted by PBMC of all groups whereas diabetic TB patients secreted IL-10 with concentrations higher than the other two groups. Furthermore, in response to RD peptides, IFN-γ and IL-10 were secreted by PBMC of diabetic TB patients only. The analyses of data in relation to relative cytokine concentrations showed that diabetic TB patients had lower Th1 : Th2 cytokines ratios, and a higher Th2 bias. The results demonstrate a shift towards Th2 bias in diabetic TB patients which may explain, at least in part, a faster deterioration in their clinical conditions. PMID:19737232

  7. Microbial community analysis of food-spoilage bacteria in commercial custard creams using culture-dependent and independent methods.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Kawai, Y; Iioka, H; Tanioka, M; Nishimura, J; Kitazawa, H; Tsurumi, K; Saito, T

    2008-08-01

    Custard cream is made from highly nutritive raw materials such as milk and sugar and is easily spoiled by the multiplication of specific microbial contaminants or residents. However, this spoilage microbial community has not been studied. We determined the spoilage microbiota in commercial custard creams using culture-dependent and independent methods. Using the culture-dependent analysis with various agar media, 185 bacterial colonies and 43 eukaryal colonies were isolated from 7 commercial custard cream products. All bacterial isolates were morphologically, physiologically, and genetically identified as bacilli, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, and psychrotrophic gram-negative rods. Using culture-independent molecular analysis, the PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique, spoilage of the commercial custard creams was found to be caused by bacilli, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophic gram-negative rods, Anoxybacillus sp., Caurobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. bacteria. The detected spoilage bacteria were the same species as previously detected in spoiled milk products and shown in other reports, suggesting that spoilage bacteria in a raw material easily grow in processed foods made from milk. We determined the spoilage microbial communities in commercial custard creams, and these are the first data concerning spoilage microbiota in nonfermented processed foods using a culture-independent analysis. Our study will be useful for the manufacture and safe preservation of dairy products because the first step toward safe food preservation by food manufacturers is to understand the spoilage microbiota in a target food to select optimal preservatives and to reduce the use of food additives.

  8. Small Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    Presents a notion of small culture as an alternative to what has become the default notion of large culture in applied linguistics, social science, and popular usage. A small-culture view of English-language curriculum settings reveals mismatches between professional-academic and organizational cultures at the mezzo level of the institution. (VWL)

  9. Cultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Heine, Steven J; Ruby, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Humans are a cultural species, constantly navigating a complex web of culturally bound practices, norms, and worldviews. This article provides a brief overview of the relatively young field of cultural psychology, which investigates the many ways psychology and culture interweave with one another. Highlighting the cultural nature of the human species, it draws upon research on cultural evolution, enculturation, and developmental processes. This review further summarizes a number of cultural differences in how people perceive the self, and the behavioral consequences that follow from these differences, in the domains of internal and external attribution styles, motivations for self-enhancement, approach/avoidance, primary and secondary control, as well as motivations for distinctiveness and conformity. Additionally, the review discusses research on the intersection of culture and emotion, as well as cultural differences in cognition, perception, and reasoning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  10. Pathology of naturally occurring paratuberculosis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, P; Tripathi, B N; Singh, N; Sharma, A K

    2006-07-01

    Gross and histologic lesions of paratuberculosis were studied in water buffaloes. Small intestines and associated mesenteric lymph nodes of 405 water buffaloes were examined. Of these, 20 animals having visible changes of intestinal thickening, mucosal corrugations, and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes exhibited histologic alteration characteristics of mild to moderate granulomatous inflammation. The histologic lesions observed in these animals were classified into 3 grades on the basis of type of cellular infiltration, granuloma formation, and presence of acid-fast bacilli. Grade-1 lesions observed in 8 animals were marked by the presence of scattered epithelioid macrophages amid large number of lymphocytes in the intestinal villi and in the paracortical regions of the associated mesenteric lymph nodes. Another 8 animals classified under grade-2 revealed microgranulomas, infiltration with a larger number of epithelioid macrophages besides lymphocytes in the intestinal villi, and granulomas in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Grade-3 lesions observed in 4 animals were characterized by the presence of epithelioid granulomas and giant cells in the intestines and the mesenteric lymph nodes. The Ziehl-Neelsen's stained tissue sections revealed acid-fast bacilli in grade-3 and -2 animals and acid-fast granular debris in grade-1 animals. Among these 20 buffaloes, 14 (70%) were positive in the IS900 specific polymerase chain reaction and 6 (30%) were positive in the bacterial culture.

  11. Mycobacterium liflandii outbreak in a research colony of Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis frogs.

    PubMed

    Fremont-Rahl, J J; Ek, C; Williamson, H R; Small, P L C; Fox, J G; Muthupalani, S

    2011-07-01

    A research colony of Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis frogs presented with nodular and ulcerative skin lesions. Additional consistent gross findings included splenomegaly with multiple tan-yellow nodular foci in the spleen and liver of diseased frogs. Copious acid-fast positive bacteria were present in touch impression smears of spleen, skin, and livers of diseased frogs. Histologically, necrotizing and granulomatous dermatitis, splenitis, and hepatitis with numerous acid-fast bacilli were consistently present, indicative of systemic mycobacteriosis. Infrequently, granulomatous inflammation was noted in the lungs, pancreas, coelomic membranes, and rarely reproductive organs. Ultrastructurally, both extracellular bacilli and intracellular bacilli within macrophages were identified. Frogs in the affected room were systematically depopulated, and control measures were initiated. Cultured mycobacteria from affected organs were identified and genetically characterized as Mycobacterium liflandii by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the enoyl reductase domain and specific variable numbers of tandem repeats. In recent years, M. liflandii has had a devastating impact on research frog colonies throughout the United States. This detailed report with ultrastructural description of M. liflandii aids in further understanding of this serious disease in frogs.

  12. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  13. Repellent Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)

  14. Comparison of bronchial brushing and sputum in detection of pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiao-Pei; Ren, Shi-Feng; Wang, Xin-Feng; Wang, Mao-Shui

    2016-01-27

    The retrospective study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of bronchial brushing and sputum using acid fast bacilli smear, mycobacterial culture and real-time PCR in detection of pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis, sensitivity and specificity of bronchial brushing and sputum examined by the three methods were calculated and compared to each other. Data showed there were no significant difference in sensitivity between bronchial brushing and matched sputum using each method. But the specificity of real-time PCR on bronchial brushing was lower than on sputum. Compared with bronchial brushing, sputum was better specimen in detection of pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis.

  15. Mycobacterium haemophilum as the Initial Presentation of a B-Cell Lymphoma in a Liver Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, T.; Lynn, M.; Cavazza, A.; Sames, E.; Hughes, R.

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with pustular lesions of her face, trunk, and limbs and an acute arthritis of the knees and elbows. She had a complex medical background and had been on immunosuppressants for three years after a liver transplant. Tissue samples from her skin lesions and synovial fluid showed acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium haemophilum, an atypical mycobacteria, was later grown on culture. During her treatment with combination antibiotic therapy, she developed a pronounced generalised lymphadenopathy. Histology showed features of a diffuse B-cell lymphoma, a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). PMID:24523979

  16. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis:a case report.

    PubMed

    Bose, Mohua; Ghosh, Ranadeep; Mukherjee, Kheya; Ghoshal, Loknath

    2014-07-01

    Actinomycosis is a subacute or chronic suppurative bacterial infection caused by filamentous gram positive, anaerobic to microaerophilic non acid fast bacilli primarily of the genus Actinomyces that normally colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis is a rare entity and is generally associated with trauma. We report a case of primary cutaneous actinomycosis of the back and left axilla in a 32-year-old female patient with no suggestive history of trauma.The diagnosis was suggested by the characteristic lesions with multiple discharging sinuses draining sero-sanguinous fluid scattered all over the lesions. Gram positive bacilli with plenty of pus cells were demonstrated in the direct examination of the discharging pus. Diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of the organisms by anaerobic culture giving typical molar tooth colonies. Final confirmation was done by histopathological examination.

  17. Ryukyuan Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafton, Terry

    The Ryukyu Islands of Japan, of which Okinawa is the best known, possess a lengthy history and a sophisticated cultural background, an exploration of which helps to shed light on this area and on mainland Japan. This document is an exposition of Ryukuan culture. Divided into eight sections, the areas covered include: (1) Historical perspective;…

  18. Cultural Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  19. Etiological diagnosis of granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis in the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vinita; Kaul, Anupama; Prasad, Narayan; Sharma, Kusum; Agarwal, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background Granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis (GIN) is common due to infections, drugs or sarcoidosis. However, the cause is often difficult to establish and the studies are limited. We studied the etiology of GIN and compared the clinical and histological features and outcome in different etiologies at a tertiary care center in North India. Methods Renaö biopsies from GIN cases diagnosed from January 2004 to April 2014 were retrieved. Stain for acid fast bacilli was performed in all biopsies. Etiological diagnosis was based on clinical features, extra-renal manifestations, radiology, history of drug intake and demonstration of infective agent. Tissue PCR for tubercular DNA was performed in seven biopsies. Results Seventeen GIN patients [mean age 35 ± 15 years; males 11] were identified. Tuberculosis was the commonest etiology followed by idiopathic, sarcoidosis and fungal. Both tuberculosis and sarcoidosis patients presented with subnephrotic proteinuria and raised serum creatinine. Acid fast bacilli were demonstrated in 1/9 and necrosis was demonstrated in 3/9 granulomas in tuberculosis. Tissue PCR for tubercular DNA was positive in six TB patients and negative in one sarcoidosis patient. Patients responded well to appropriate therapy. Conclusion Etiological diagnosis of GIN is essential for timely and appropriate therapy. Tuberculosis is the commonest etiology (53%) in the tropics. Necrosis in granuloma, demonstration of acid fast bacilli, blood interferon gamma release assay and urine culture is not sensitive for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in GIN. Our findings suggest that tissue PCR for tuberculosis performed in an appropriate clinical setting is useful in the diagnostic evaluation of GIN. PMID:26413276

  20. Learning, Culture, and Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge about a culture is best understood as situated cognition, that is, contexts are inseparable from cognitive processes. Learning about a culture is similar to learning about a practice; both require new ways of perceiving, interpreting, and communicating experience. Successful learning depends both on individual factors and on access to…

  1. THE CULTIVATION OF THE LEPROSY BACILLUS AND THE EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION OF LEPROSY IN THE JAPANESE DANCING MOUSE.

    PubMed

    Duval, C W

    1910-09-01

    Pure cultures of an acid-fast bacillus were cultivated upon special media from the human tissues in four cases of leprosy. The nature of the growth, morphological characters and tinctorial properties do not differ for any of the cultures and correspond closely to the bacilli in the human leprous tubercles. That the bacillus of leprosy will multiply and continue to do so indefinitely outside of the animal body was first demonstrated by Clegg who cultivated an acid-fast organism from leprosy tissue in the presence of ameba and their symbiotics. Not only have I been able to confirm Clegg's work, but in addition I have succeeded in growing the bacillus in pure culture and in reproducing the disease in the Japanese dancing mouse, thereby establishing its identity. This species of animal acquires the infection in four to six weeks after intraperitoneal or subcutaneous inoculation with either emulsions of fresh leprous tissue or the pure cultures of B. leprae. Comparatively few bacilli are necessary to infect the mouse; and the mode of inoculation does not seem to make any appreciable difference in respect to the nature and time of development of the lesion. The experimental lesions are proliferative in character and identical with those in the human subject. Macroscopically they appear as glistening, white nodules which, in the early stages of development, resemble miliary tubercles. In my experience neither the cultures nor the bacilli directly from the human tissues have shown any evidence of multiplication or given rise to lesions when injected into the ordinary laboratory animals such as guinea pigs, rabbits, gray and white mice and rats, although repeated attempts have been made to infect these animals. B. leprae will not only multiply but it will colonize on a plain agar medium seeded with a pure culture of encysted ameba (Plate LVIII, Fig. 5), and upon an agar or banana medium prepared with a I per cent. solution of cystein and tryptophane. Colonization occurs in

  2. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... to prevent pain. A small sample of a fingernail or toenail may be taken. The sample is ...

  3. Bile culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... lab. There, it is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, ... bacteria, virus, or fungus grew in the laboratory dish. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among ...

  4. Esophageal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... lab. There, it is placed in a special dish (culture) and watched for the growth of bacteria, ... means that no germs grew in the laboratory dish. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ...

  5. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  6. Notes from the Field: Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Meningoencephalitis from a Household Rodent Infestation - Minnesota, 2015.

    PubMed

    Talley, Pamela; Holzbauer, Stacy; Smith, Kirk; Pomputius, William

    2016-03-11

    On April 20, 2015, a female aged 15 years sought care at her pediatrician's office after 5 days of fever, myalgia, left parietal headache, and photophobia. A rapid influenza assay was negative, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and total white blood cell count were normal. She improved with symptomatic care at home, but returned to her pediatrician's office on April 28, reporting recurrence of her headache and photophobia and new onset of a stiff neck. She was admitted to the hospital, where she was febrile to 102.9°F (39.4°C) and had meningismus. Computed tomography scan of her head was normal, and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a markedly elevated white blood cell count with 68% lymphocytes, low glucose, and a negative Gram stain. She was treated empirically for both bacterial and herpes simplex virus meningitis. The patient's hospital course was notable for hypotension (blood pressure 81/50), irritability, and pancreatitis with a peak lipase of 8,627 U/L. CSF cultures yielded no growth, and CSF polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for herpes simplex virus was negative. Nucleic acid amplification testing, acid-fast bacilli stain, and acid-fast bacilli cultures of CSF were negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results of investigations for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, Lyme disease, human herpesvirus 6 and 7, and species of Babesia, Toxoplasma, Histoplasma, Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, and Brucella were negative. She recovered and was discharged on hospital day 11 with no apparent sequelae. PMID:26963688

  7. Notes from the Field: Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Meningoencephalitis from a Household Rodent Infestation - Minnesota, 2015.

    PubMed

    Talley, Pamela; Holzbauer, Stacy; Smith, Kirk; Pomputius, William

    2016-03-11

    On April 20, 2015, a female aged 15 years sought care at her pediatrician's office after 5 days of fever, myalgia, left parietal headache, and photophobia. A rapid influenza assay was negative, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and total white blood cell count were normal. She improved with symptomatic care at home, but returned to her pediatrician's office on April 28, reporting recurrence of her headache and photophobia and new onset of a stiff neck. She was admitted to the hospital, where she was febrile to 102.9°F (39.4°C) and had meningismus. Computed tomography scan of her head was normal, and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a markedly elevated white blood cell count with 68% lymphocytes, low glucose, and a negative Gram stain. She was treated empirically for both bacterial and herpes simplex virus meningitis. The patient's hospital course was notable for hypotension (blood pressure 81/50), irritability, and pancreatitis with a peak lipase of 8,627 U/L. CSF cultures yielded no growth, and CSF polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for herpes simplex virus was negative. Nucleic acid amplification testing, acid-fast bacilli stain, and acid-fast bacilli cultures of CSF were negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results of investigations for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, Lyme disease, human herpesvirus 6 and 7, and species of Babesia, Toxoplasma, Histoplasma, Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, and Brucella were negative. She recovered and was discharged on hospital day 11 with no apparent sequelae.

  8. Clinical, radiological and molecular diagnosis correlation in serum samples from patients with osteoarticular tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Martínez-Elizondo, Olga; del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; González-Bonilla, César

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in serum samples, in the diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis (OTB) in a setting where only clinical and imaging diagnoses determine the treatment. Methods A total of 44 consecutive serum specimens were collected from clinically suspected OTB patients, based on clinical and radiological [X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography] features. They were screened by in-house nested PCR. In addition, a few specimens were examined by Gram stain, acid-fast bacilli stain, histopathology and routine bacterial culture. A total of 39 specimens were collected from patients suffering from other bone diseases of nontuberculous origin and included as negative controls. Results Of the 44 clinically suspected OTB patients, in-house nested PCR was positive in 40 (91%) cases; PCR was negative in 38 (97%) negative controls. Sensitivity and specificity of our in-house nested PCR was 90.9% and 97.4%, respectively. The PCR report was available within 48 h. It was possible to standardize serum PCR technique and in positive cases, a good correlation was observed in terms of an adequate treatment response. Conclusions Nested PCR in serum samples is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific modality for OTB detection. PCR should be performed in addition to clinical evaluation, imaging studies, acid-fast bacilli staining, culture and histopathology diagnosis, if possible. PMID:25183281

  9. Culture, Television, and Opposition: Rethinking Cultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lembo, Ronald; Tucker, Kenneth H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses issues of culture, cultural politics, social power, and television audience in cultural studies. Argues that cultural studies as a field tends to analyze all cultural interpretation in terms of struggles between dominant and subordinate groups and that the text-centered approach of cultural studies misses much of television viewing's…

  10. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2013-01-01

    To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

  11. Confirmation of Legionella pneumophila cultures with a fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Tenover, F C; Carlson, L; Goldstein, L; Sturge, J; Plorde, J J

    1985-06-01

    We compared a fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody directed against an outer membrane protein of Legionella pneumophila (Genetic Systems Corp. [GSC], Seattle, Wash.) with a similarly labeled polyclonal reagent (L. pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, poly; BioDx, Inc., Denville, N.J.) for the confirmation of L. pneumophila isolates grown in culture. Duplicate suspensions of 52 organisms, including 21 L. pneumophila and 8 non-L. pneumophila species of legionella, were placed on individual glass slides, fixed, and stained with both reagents, and the results were compared. Both antisera correctly identified all L. pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, but only the GSC reagent produced definitive staining of the L. pneumophila isolates of serogroups 7, 8, and 9. Additionally, the GSC reagent produced more uniform staining patterns around the legionella bacilli and displayed little background fluorescence when compared with the BioDx reagent.

  12. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections in China: the 2002-2009 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwen; Wang, Hui; Chen, Minjun; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Hu, Yunjian; Ye, Huifen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China. From 2002 to 2009, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 14 antibiotics for 3420 aerobic and facultative GNB from up to eight hospitals in six cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82.9% (2834/3420) of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (49.2%) being the most commonly isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.8%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.3%). Amongst the antimicrobial agents tested, the three carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 96.1-99.6% (2002-2009), 98.2-100% (2002-2009) and 99.6-100% (2002-2004), respectively, followed by amikacin (86.8-95.1%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (84.5-94.3%). Susceptibility rates of all tested third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacteriaceae declined by nearly 30%, with susceptibility rates of 40.2%, 39.1%, 56.3% and 51.8% in 2009 for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases increased rapidly, especially for E. coli (from 20.8% in 2002 to 64.9% in 2009). Susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 57.6% in 2002 to 24.2% in 2009. The least active agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) (25.3-44.3%). In conclusion, Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 8-year study period. Third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and SAM may not be ideal choices for empirical therapy of IAIs in China.

  13. Hydroponic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  14. Pop Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Arthur Asa

    Popular culture in America is comprehensively reviewed in this book. The book is designed for either high school or college level social studies or English courses and includes a variety of graphic illustrations that provide a thread of continuity throughout. Basically the author has developed a method of analysis that reveals how popular culture…

  15. CULTURE SHOCK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEINSTEIN, GERALD; AND OTHERS

    IN A PANEL, GEORGE BRAGLE AND NATHAN GOULD STRESS TEACHER PREPARATION TO COPE WITH THE THREATENING IMPACT OF CULTURE OR REALITY SHOCK. THEY RECOMMEND MODIFYING THE ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS BY ALTERING THEIR PERCEPTIONS, PROVIDING THEM WITH DIRECT EXPERIENCE WITH THE SOCIOCULTURAL MILIEU OF GHETTO SCHOOLS, AND REQUIRING THEM TO TAKE COURSES IN THE…

  16. Cultural Pluralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Management Training for Educational Change, Oslo (Norway).

    An historical review of cultural pluralism in the United States provides the framework for this consideration of the affirmative action program in the Dallas Independent School District (Texas). The program was designed to eliminate institutional racism through initiating structural changes in curriculum and program improvement, management,…

  17. Cultural Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…

  18. The establishment of resistance phenotypes for bacteria isolated from outpatients in urine cultures.

    PubMed

    Zugravu, Roxana; Licker, Monica; Berceanu-Văduva, Delia; Rădulescu, Matilda; Adămuţ, Marcela; Dragomirescu, Liliana; Branea, Dorina; Hogea, Elena; Muntean, Delia; Mihaela, Diana Popa; Moldovan, Roxana; Loredana, Gabriela Popa

    2006-01-01

    From 1911 outpatients, who addressed a Timişoara private clinical laboratory, from January to December 2005, we collected 1,889 urine cultures, 431 being positive. Bacteria identification was generally done using morphological, cultural, biochemical characters and pathogenicity tests. Sensitivity testing to antimicrobial medical drugs was done by using the classical diffusion Kirby-Bauer method and the automatic analyzer Osiris, also. The main bacteria involved in the etiology of these infections were represented by Enterobacteriaceae, head of the list being Escherichia coli (81.21%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.35%) and Proteus mirabilis (3.02%). We also isolated Gram positive cocci (in a much smaller proportion), mainly represented by Enterococcus faecalis (1.16%), Staphylococcus aureus (0.93%), Streptococcus agalactiae, and also Gram negative non-fermentative bacilli, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.93%) or Acinetobacter baumanii (0.23%). As soon as we performed the sensitivity tests, we divided them in resistance phenotypes: Most of the Enterobacteriaceae were integrated in the wild phenotype, followed by the penicillinase producing phenotype. An E. coli strain (0.29%) and 3 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains (8.33%) were integrated in the large spectrum, multidrug resistant, beta-lactamase producing phenotype, also associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides; Non-fermentative bacilli did not present special resistance problems, the four Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were integrated in the wild phenotype (secreting induced chromosomal cephalosporinase). As for Staphylococcus aureus it was identified a strain having fluoroquinolone resistance, two strains secreting penicillinase and having a K (Nm) phenotype and a strain secreting penicillinase only. Antibiotic resistance represents a major concern for patients, physicians, healthcare managers, and policymakers. The use of antibiotics is closely linked with the development of

  19. [Cell cultures].

    PubMed

    Cipro, Simon; Groh, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Cell or tissue cultures (both terms are interchangeable) represent a complex process by which eukaryotic cells are maintained in vitro outside their natural environment. They have a broad usage covering not only scientific field but also diagnostic one since they represent the most important way of monoclonal antibodies production which are used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Cell cultures are also used as a "cultivation medium" in virology and for establishing proliferating cells in cytodiagnostics. They are well-established and easy-to-handle models in the area of research, e.g. as a precious source of nucleic acids or proteins. This paper briefly summarizes their importance and methods as well as the pitfalls of the cultivation and new trends in this field. PMID:24624984

  20. Dialysis cultures.

    PubMed

    Pörtner, R; Märkl, H

    1998-10-01

    Dialysis techniques are discussed as a means for effective removal of low-molecular-mass components from fermentation broth to reach high cell density. Reactor systems and process strategies, the relevant properties of membranes and examples for high-density fermentation with dialysis, and problems related to scale-up are addressed. The dialysis technique has turned out to be very efficient and reliable for obtaining high cell densities. As in dialysis processes the membranes are not perfused, membrane clogging is not a problem as it is for micro- and ultrafiltration. By applying a "nutrient-split" feeding strategy, the loss of nutrients can be avoided and the medium is used very efficiently. The potential of dialysis cultures is demonstrated on the laboratory scale in a membrane dialysis reactor with an integrated membrane and in reactor systems with an external dialysis loop. In dialysis cultures with different microorganisms (Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, extremophilic microorganisms, Lactobacilli) the cell densities achieved were up to 30 times higher than those of other fermentation methods. The technique enables high cell densities to be attained without time-consuming medium optimization. For animal cell cultures the concept of a fixed bed coupled with dialysis proved to be very effective.

  1. Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Rózalski, A; Sidorczyk, Z; Kotełko, K

    1997-01-01

    The object of this review is the genus Proteus, which contains bacteria considered now to belong to the opportunistic pathogens. Widely distributed in nature (in soil, water, and sewage), Proteus species play a significant ecological role. When present in the niches of higher macroorganisms, these species are able to evoke pathological events in different regions of the human body. The invaders (Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, and P. penneri) have numerous factors including fimbriae, flagella, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide, capsule antigen, urease, immunoglobulin A proteases, hemolysins, amino acid deaminases, and, finally, the most characteristic attribute of Proteus, swarming growth, enabling them to colonize and survive in higher organisms. All these features and factors are described and commented on in detail. The questions important for future investigation of these facultatively pathogenic microorganisms are also discussed. PMID:9106365

  2. Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified Bactec 12B medium.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M

    2013-12-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period.

  3. Culture et medias (Culture and the Media).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abastado, Claude

    1982-01-01

    The traditional conception of pluralistic culture is contrasted with a new, separate form of culture: mass media culture. Its components are noted: medium, message, "mosaic," and strategy, and methodology for its study is discussed. (MSE)

  4. Mixed metazoan and bacterial infection of the gas bladder of the lined seahorse-a case report.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paul A; Petty, Barbara D

    2013-03-01

    Five wild-caught Lined Seahorses Hippocampus erectus from an aquarium system presented with altered buoyancy and distended upper trunks. Radiography of one specimen revealed a reduced air volume in the gas bladder. Pneumocystocentesis revealed a brown exudate of numerous leukocytes, parasite ova, and Gram- and acid-fast-positive bacilli under wet mounts and stains. Necropsies revealed enlarged, friable kidneys and distended gas bladders containing copious purulent exudate, necrotic tissue, and adult digeneans Dictysarca virens. Bacterial isolates from exudate cultures grown on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as Gordonia sp. and Mycobacterium poriferae by high-performance liquid chromatography and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Histopathology demonstrated a histiocytic response in kidney and gas bladder exudate, inflammation of the gas bladder wall, and infection of the gas bladder lumen with parasite ova and acid-fast-positive and Gomori's methenamine silver-positive bacilli. Praziquantel is prescribed for digenean infections but dissolves incompletely in seawater and is toxic to this host. Eradication of intermediate host vectors is a management option. Treatment of Gordonia infection has not been addressed in nonhuman animals, and there is no known effective treatment for Mycobacterium spp. infection in fishes. This is the first case report of digenean infection of the gas bladder in a syngnathid, Gordonia sp. infection in a nonhuman animal, and M. poriferae infection in a fish.

  5. Mycobacterium marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus).

    PubMed

    Haridy, M; Tachikawa, Y; Yoshida, S; Tsuyuguchi, K; Tomita, M; Maeda, S; Wada, T; Ibi, K; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2014-01-01

    Four Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus) were presented with emaciation, abdominal distention and ulcerative and nodular cutaneous lesions affecting the brisket, limbs, digits and ventral abdomen. Another three frogs had been found dead in the same tank 1 year previously. Necropsy examination of these seven frogs revealed splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with multiple tan-yellow nodular foci present in the liver, spleen, heart, lungs, ovaries and kidneys. Microscopically, five frogs had necrosis and surrounding granulomatous inflammation in the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, intestine and ovaries, with numerous acid-fast bacilli in the areas of necrosis. Two frogs had granulomatous lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen, heart, coelomic membrane, stomach and intestinal wall. These lesions had no or minimal necrosis and few acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium spp. was cultured from three frogs and identified as Mycobacterium marinum by colony growth rate and photochromogenicity and DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs.

  6. Mixed metazoan and bacterial infection of the gas bladder of the lined seahorse-a case report.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paul A; Petty, Barbara D

    2013-03-01

    Five wild-caught Lined Seahorses Hippocampus erectus from an aquarium system presented with altered buoyancy and distended upper trunks. Radiography of one specimen revealed a reduced air volume in the gas bladder. Pneumocystocentesis revealed a brown exudate of numerous leukocytes, parasite ova, and Gram- and acid-fast-positive bacilli under wet mounts and stains. Necropsies revealed enlarged, friable kidneys and distended gas bladders containing copious purulent exudate, necrotic tissue, and adult digeneans Dictysarca virens. Bacterial isolates from exudate cultures grown on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as Gordonia sp. and Mycobacterium poriferae by high-performance liquid chromatography and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Histopathology demonstrated a histiocytic response in kidney and gas bladder exudate, inflammation of the gas bladder wall, and infection of the gas bladder lumen with parasite ova and acid-fast-positive and Gomori's methenamine silver-positive bacilli. Praziquantel is prescribed for digenean infections but dissolves incompletely in seawater and is toxic to this host. Eradication of intermediate host vectors is a management option. Treatment of Gordonia infection has not been addressed in nonhuman animals, and there is no known effective treatment for Mycobacterium spp. infection in fishes. This is the first case report of digenean infection of the gas bladder in a syngnathid, Gordonia sp. infection in a nonhuman animal, and M. poriferae infection in a fish. PMID:23343385

  7. Comparative evaluation of the role of single and multiple blood specimens in the outcome of blood cultures using BacT/ALERT 3D (automated) blood culture system in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Elantamilan, D.; Lyngdoh, Valarie Wihiwot; Khyriem, Annie B.; Rajbongshi, Jyotismita; Bora, Ishani; Devi, Surbala Thingujam; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Barman, Himesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients. The mortality directly attributable to BSI has been estimated to be around 16% and 40% in general hospital population and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) population, respectively. The detection rate of these infections increases with the number of blood samples obtained for culture. The newer continuous monitoring automated blood culture systems with enhanced culture media show increased yield and sensitivity. Hence, we aimed at studying the role of single and multiple blood specimens from different sites at the same time in the outcome of automated blood culture system. Materials and Methods and Results: A total of 1054 blood culture sets were analyzed over 1 year, the sensitivity of one, two, and three samples in a set was found to be 85.67%, 96.59%, and 100%, respectively, which showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001). Similar findings were seen in few more studies, however, among individual organisms in contrast to other studies, the isolation rates of Gram-positive bacteria were less than that of Gram-negative Bacilli with one (or first) sample in a blood culture set. In our study, despite using BacT/ALERT three-dimensional continuous culture monitoring system with FAN plus culture bottles, 15% of positive cultures would have been missed if only a single sample was collected in a blood culture set. Conclusion: The variables like the volume of blood and number of samples collected from different sites still play a major role in the outcome of these automated blood culture systems.

  8. Co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shiling; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Ying; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Oumei; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Fanghua

    2015-01-01

    Methanosaeta harundinacea and Methanosarcina barkeri, known as classic acetoclastic methanogens, are capable of directly accepting electrons from Geobacter metallireducens for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane, having been revealed as direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in the laboratory co-cultures. However, whether their co-occurrences are ubiquitous in the iron (III)-reducing environments and the other species of acetoclastic methanogens such as Methanosarcina mazei are capable of DIET are still unknown. Instead of initiating the co-cultures with pure cultures, two-step cultivation was employed to selectively enrich iron (III)-reducing microorganisms in a coastal gold mining river, Jiehe River, with rich iron content in the sediments. First, iron (III) reducers including Geobacteraceae were successfully enriched by 3-months successive culture on amorphous Fe(III) oxides as electron acceptor and acetate as electron donor. High-throughput Illumina sequencing, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures actively contained the bacteria belong to Geobacteraceae and Bacilli, exclusively dominated by the archaea belong to Methanosarcinaceae. Second, the enrichment cultures including methanogens and Geobacteraceae were transferred with ethanol as alternative electron donor. Remarkably, aggregates were successively formed in the enrichments after three transfers. The results revealed by RNA-based analysis demonstrate that the co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture. Furthermore, the aggregates, as close physical contact, formed in the enrichment culture, indicate that DIET could be a possible option for interspecies electron transfer in the aggregates. PMID:26441876

  9. Co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiling; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Ying; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Oumei; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Fanghua

    2015-01-01

    Methanosaeta harundinacea and Methanosarcina barkeri, known as classic acetoclastic methanogens, are capable of directly accepting electrons from Geobacter metallireducens for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane, having been revealed as direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in the laboratory co-cultures. However, whether their co-occurrences are ubiquitous in the iron (III)-reducing environments and the other species of acetoclastic methanogens such as Methanosarcina mazei are capable of DIET are still unknown. Instead of initiating the co-cultures with pure cultures, two-step cultivation was employed to selectively enrich iron (III)-reducing microorganisms in a coastal gold mining river, Jiehe River, with rich iron content in the sediments. First, iron (III) reducers including Geobacteraceae were successfully enriched by 3-months successive culture on amorphous Fe(III) oxides as electron acceptor and acetate as electron donor. High-throughput Illumina sequencing, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures actively contained the bacteria belong to Geobacteraceae and Bacilli, exclusively dominated by the archaea belong to Methanosarcinaceae. Second, the enrichment cultures including methanogens and Geobacteraceae were transferred with ethanol as alternative electron donor. Remarkably, aggregates were successively formed in the enrichments after three transfers. The results revealed by RNA-based analysis demonstrate that the co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture. Furthermore, the aggregates, as close physical contact, formed in the enrichment culture, indicate that DIET could be a possible option for interspecies electron transfer in the aggregates.

  10. Co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiling; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Ying; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Oumei; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Fanghua

    2015-01-01

    Methanosaeta harundinacea and Methanosarcina barkeri, known as classic acetoclastic methanogens, are capable of directly accepting electrons from Geobacter metallireducens for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane, having been revealed as direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in the laboratory co-cultures. However, whether their co-occurrences are ubiquitous in the iron (III)-reducing environments and the other species of acetoclastic methanogens such as Methanosarcina mazei are capable of DIET are still unknown. Instead of initiating the co-cultures with pure cultures, two-step cultivation was employed to selectively enrich iron (III)-reducing microorganisms in a coastal gold mining river, Jiehe River, with rich iron content in the sediments. First, iron (III) reducers including Geobacteraceae were successfully enriched by 3-months successive culture on amorphous Fe(III) oxides as electron acceptor and acetate as electron donor. High-throughput Illumina sequencing, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures actively contained the bacteria belong to Geobacteraceae and Bacilli, exclusively dominated by the archaea belong to Methanosarcinaceae. Second, the enrichment cultures including methanogens and Geobacteraceae were transferred with ethanol as alternative electron donor. Remarkably, aggregates were successively formed in the enrichments after three transfers. The results revealed by RNA-based analysis demonstrate that the co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture. Furthermore, the aggregates, as close physical contact, formed in the enrichment culture, indicate that DIET could be a possible option for interspecies electron transfer in the aggregates. PMID:26441876

  11. Culture collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development.

  12. Bacterial Wound Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  13. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  14. Opening the Culture Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Barbara; Rasminsky, Judy Sklar

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that child care providers must collaborate with children's families in order to better understand their culture and their child, and to successfully deal with challenging behavior issues. Addresses: (1) culture definition; (2) culture and identity; (3) cultural differences; (4) seeing culture; (5) child care and school culture; (6) moving…

  15. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  16. Marketing across Cultures: Tools for Cultural Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    The concept of cultural universals, the basic needs shared by people around the world, is a critical concept in assessing the impact of culture on decisions about the international marketing of goods and services. In most cases, international marketers have little need to understand all the ways in which their culture differs from the culture of…

  17. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  18. Support Culturally Responsive Teaching!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins-Shannon, Janine; White, Meg

    2012-01-01

    Within today's changing society, teachers must meet the needs of culturally diverse students. Beyond cultural awareness, teachers must identify cultural implications and modify instructional approaches to address both the students' academic and cultural needs. To do so will create culturally responsive classrooms and promote student success.…

  19. Art, Culture, and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John

    1984-01-01

    Educators must realize that identity should not be sought in culture and that people have to be weaned away from their cultures toward what is truly valuable in a transcendental, culture-free way. Instead of feeling narcissistic about culture, people should become involved with art, which also should be culture-free. (RM)

  20. A mimic's imitator: a cavitary pneumonia in a myasthenic patient with history of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Raquel Ramos; Bhanot, Nitin; Min, Zaw

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old man with myasthenia gravis receiving prednisone and plasmapheresis was found to have right upper lobe cavitary pneumonia on radiological imaging studies after thymectomy. He had a remote history of treated pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) at the age of 19. On the basis of history of TB and current prednisone therapy, reactivation of pulmonary TB was highly suspected. Branching Gram-positive bacilli were identified on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). BAL Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-fast bacilli stain was negative, but a modified Kinyoun stain revealed branching, beaded, filamentous bacilli, suggestive of Nocardia spp. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica grew from the BAL culture. Cerebral MRI demonstrated a right frontal lobe lesion, clinically correlated to be nocardial brain abscess. The patient was treated with three-drug antimicrobial therapy (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, meropenem, linezolid) for 2 months, followed by an additional 10 months of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Amikacin would have been included in the initial three-drug regimen, but its use was contraindicated in our myasthenic patient because aminoglycoside would trigger fatal myasthenic crisis by neuromuscular blockage. Follow-up imaging studies revealed resolution of the lung and brain lesions. PMID:26150643

  1. Cultural Understanding Through Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, Jean-Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)

  2. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  3. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  4. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  5. Routine sputum culture

    MedlinePlus

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  6. Multiple endobronchial mycetomas with varied appearances and mixed fungal flora.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Thomas A; Ortega, Ismael

    2013-04-01

    We present images of a patient with multiple endobronchial mycetomas visible by bronchoscopy with varying appearances and with mixed fungal flora on culture. A 44-year-old African American male previously treated for pulmonary tuberculosis 11 years earlier presented with moderate hemoptysis and infiltrates in the right upper lobe on chest radiograph. He received levofloxacin without improvement in the infiltrate. Computed tomography scan revealed bronchiectasis, multiple intrabronchial masses, and air crescents. Diagnostic evaluation was negative for acid fast bacilli. Bronchoscopy revealed 4 separate endobronchial masses with varied appearances within dilated bronchiectatic airways. Culture of washings revealed Cunninghamella species, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium species. The patient underwent a lobectomy and was discharged on an azole antifungal agent, which was discontinued after 6 weeks.

  7. Lupus vulgaris in a pediatric patient: a clinicohistopathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Afsar, F Sule; Afsar, Ilhan; Diniz, Gulden; Asilsoy, Suna; Sorguc, Yelda

    2008-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis which usually occurs in patients previously sensitized to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. He had well demarcated, irregularly bordered, pink, infiltrated plaques on his left cheek showing apple-jelly appearance on diascopy. The histopathological examination showed tuberculoid granulomas with Langhans type giant cells. The Mantoux reactivity was in normal limits, and no acid-fast bacilli was found in the lesion, either by direct stained smears or by culture. The lesions showed marked improvement on anti-tuberculosis treatment. We want to emphasize that histopathological examination has diagnostic value in lupus vulgaris in correlation with clinical appearance, when direct analysis or culture is negative.

  8. Disseminated tuberculosis presenting with finger swelling in a patient with tuberculous osteomyelitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shradha; Caplivski, Daniel; Bottone, Edward J

    2005-01-01

    Background Extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis have become increasingly important in the era of HIV/AIDS. Case presentation We describe a case of tuberculosis (TB) dactylitis in a patient with AIDS who originated from the Ivory Coast. The diagnosis was established by direct visualization of acid-fast bacilli on joint fluid and bone biopsy of the proximal phalanx. Imaging of the chest revealed multiple bilateral nodules. Confirmation of the diagnosis was made by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum and bone cultures. Conclusion Tuberculosis should be considered in patients with unusual soft tissue or skeletal lesions, especially when an immunosuppressive condition is present. Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture of tissue obtained via surgical biopsy offer the most direct approach to diagnosis. PMID:16269085

  9. Culture Computing: Interactive Technology to Explore Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    The present day rapid development of media science and digital technology is offering the modern generation more opportunities as well as challenges as the new fundamental literacy. Therefore, to reach the modern generation on issues such as an appreciation of cultures, we have to find common grounds based on digital media technology. In an increasingly hybrid cultural environment, interaction and fusion of cultural factors with the computer technology will be an investigation into the possibilities of providing an experience into the cultures of the world, operating in the environments the modern generation inhabits. Research has created novel merging of traditional cultures and literature with recent media literacy. Three cultural computing systems, Media Me, BlogWall and Confucius Computer, are presented in this chapter. Studies showed that users gave positive feedback to their experience of interacting with cultural computing systems.

  10. Information and Corporate Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate cultures.…

  11. HPT: The Culture Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Roger M.; Wittkuhn, Klaus D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the challenges in managing performance across national cultures and within changing corporate cultures. Describes two human performance technology tools that can help performance consultants understand different cultures and provide the basis for successful management action: the culture audit and the systems model that can be adapted…

  12. Many Forms of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  13. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Many teachers have only a cursory understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy, and their efforts to bridge the cultural gap often fall short. Culturally relevant pedagogy is a term that describes effective teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. It can be a daunting idea to understand and implement. Yet people tend to appreciate culturally…

  14. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  15. Cultural Energy & Grassroots Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleymeyer, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses how cultural vitality drives successful community development. Links cultural, community, and environmental values. Examines successes and failures of programs attempting to link culture and development in Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia. Examines role of cultural self-examination for creating new development paradigm. Examines prospects…

  16. Understanding Organizational Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for workplace education providers, defines organizational culture, reviews selected techniques for reading a company's culture, and presents examples of ways in which organizations' culture can affect workplace education programs. An organization's culture is determined by: recognizing the company's philosophy…

  17. Kenyan School and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Henry

    1980-01-01

    The author defines African culture in a Kenyan context and proposes a tri-polar cultural paradigm to chart the metamorphosis of Kenyan culture from a traditional through a national to an international focus. He makes suggestions for the role of the school in promoting an international cultural standard. (Author/SJL)

  18. The Concept of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, John

    1987-01-01

    National identity and schooling are predicated on a particular yet ill-defined view of culture. To counter "popular" and "high" culture polarizations and arguments for cultural pluralism, this paper proposes that curricula be designed for student access to forms and symbols defining Australian culture through discourse and artistic…

  19. Teaching Language, Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, Richard M.

    A discussion of language focuses on the relationship between language learning and culture learning. The first four chapters look at the cultural context of language learning, particularly in the language classroom. The second part examines culture learning through language teaching. The first chapter discusses lexical culture, or the vocabulary…

  20. Microfluidic perfusion culture.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic perfusion culture is a novel technique to culture animal cells in a small-scale microchamber with medium perfusion. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most popular material to fabricate a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Photolithography and replica molding techniques are generally used for fabrication of a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Pressure-driven perfusion culture system is convenient technique to carry out the perfusion culture of animal cells in a microfluidic device. Here, we describe a general theory on microfluid network design, microfabrication technique, and experimental technique for pressure-driven perfusion culture in an 8 × 8 microchamber array on a glass slide-sized microchip made out of PDMS. PMID:24297421

  1. Evaluation of an Image Analysis Device (APAS) for Screening Urine Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Rhys; Summerford, Michael; Giglio, Steven

    2015-01-01

    While advancements have been made in some areas of pathology with diagnostic materials being screened using image analysis technologies, the reporting of cultures from agar plates remains a manual process. We compared the results for 2,163 urine cultures read by a reference panel of microbiologists, by the routine laboratory process, and by an automated plate reading system, APAS (LBT Innovations Ltd., South Australia). APAS detected colonies with a sensitivity of 99.1% and a specificity of 99.3% on blood agar, while on MacConkey agar, the colony detection sensitivity was 99.4% with a specificity of 99.3%. The device's ability to enumerate growth had an accuracy of 89.2%, and the morphological identification of colonies showed a high level of performance for the colony types typical of Escherichia coli and other enteric bacilli. On blood agar, lactose-fermenting colonies were morphologically identified with a sensitivity of 98.9%, while on MacConkey agar they were identified with a sensitivity of 99.2%. In this first clinical evaluation, APAS demonstrated high performance in the detection, enumeration, and colony classification of isolates compared with that for conventional plate-reading methods. The device found all cases reported by the laboratory and detected the most commonly encountered organisms found in urinary tract infections. PMID:26582838

  2. Culturable psychrotrophic bacterial communities in raw milk and their proteolytic and lipolytic traits.

    PubMed

    Hantsis-Zacharov, Elionora; Halpern, Malka

    2007-11-01

    During cold storage after milk collection, psychrotrophic bacterial populations dominate the microflora, and their extracellular enzymes, mainly proteases and lipases, contribute to the spoilage of dairy products. The diversity, dynamics, and enzymatic traits of culturable psychrotrophs in raw milk from four farms were investigated over a 10-month period. About 20% of the isolates were found to be novel species, indicating that there is still much to be learned about culturable psychrotrophs in raw milk. The psychrotrophic isolates were identified and classified in seven classes. Three classes were predominant, with high species richness (18 to 21 species per class) in different seasons of the year: Gammaproteobacteria in spring and winter, Bacilli in summer, and Actinobacteria in autumn. The four minor classes were Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. The dominant classes were found in all four dairies, although every dairy had its own unique "bacterial profile." Most but not all bacterial isolates had either lipolytic or both lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Only a few isolates showed proteolytic activity alone. The dominant genera, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter (Gammaproteobacteria), showed mainly lipolytic activity, Microbacterium (Actinobacteria) was highly lipolytic and proteolytic, and the lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus and Leuconostoc) displayed very minor enzymatic ability. Hence, the composition of psychrotrophic bacterial flora in raw milk has an important role in the determination of milk quality. Monitoring the dominant psychrotrophic species responsible for the production of heat-stable proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes offers a sensitive and efficient tool for maintaining better milk quality in the milk industry.

  3. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

  4. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli: recommendations from the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee of the Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología, Micología y Parasitología Clínicas, Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    PubMed

    Radice, Marcela; Marín, Marcelo; Giovanakis, Marta; Vay, Carlos; Almuzara, Marisa; Limansky, Adriana; Casellas, José M; Famiglietti, Angela; Quinteros, Mirta; Bantar, Carlos; Galas, Marcelo; Kovensky Pupko, Jaime; Nicola, Federico; Pasterán, Fernando; Soloaga, Rolando; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This document contains the recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), adopted after conforming those from international committees to the experience of the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee members and invited experts. This document includes an update on NFGNB classification and description, as well as some specific descriptions regarding natural or frequent antimicrobial resistance and a brief account of associated resistance mechanisms. These recommendations not only suggest the antimicrobial drugs to be evaluated in each case, but also provide an optimization of the disk diffusion layout and a selection of results to be reported. Finally, this document also includes a summary of the different methodological approaches that may be used for detection and confirmation of emerging b-lactamases, such as class A and B carbapenemases.

  5. Bacillary angiomatosis with cytomegaloviral and mycobacterial infections of the palpebral conjunctiva in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, Brenda C; Morris, William R; Osborn, F David

    2004-03-01

    We report the clinical and histopathologic findings of bacillary angiomatosis involving the palpebral conjunctiva with concomitant infection by cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium species in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. After debulking, the conjunctival tissue was studied with the use of light and electron microscopy; stains for bacteria, acid-fast bacilli, and Bartonella species; and immunohistochemical studies for cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus. We observed the typical histopathologic findings of bacillary angiomatosis, the presence of bacilli stained by the Steiner and Steiner method, and the electron microscopic demonstration of bacilli consistent with Bartonella species. Immunohistochemistry confirmed infection with cytomegalovirus, which had been suggested by characteristic cytologic abnormalities. Acid-fast bacilli were also found in the excised tissue. Patients with bacillary angiomatosis of the conjunctiva may have infections with multiple additional microorganisms.

  6. Une maison de culture (A Culture Center).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourlevat, Alain

    1980-01-01

    Describes the "Culture Center" designed by Le Corbusier and located in Firminy, France. The role of the center in arousing intellectual curiosity in people living in a technological age is discussed. The audience of this culture center, young people, and the types of activities directed toward them are described. (AMH)

  7. [Pediatric tuberculosis at a reference hospital during the 2004-2008 period].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mónica G; Patallo, Claudia P; Rizzotti, Viviana A; Moscoloni, María A; Ballester, Daniela S

    2011-01-01

    Samples of pediatric patients suspected of tuberculosis and cared for at Hospital Piñero during the 2004-2008 period were analyzed according to epidemiological and clinical criteria. The bacteriological contribution was evaluated to confirm the disease diagnosis. A descriptive retrospective analysis of the cases was done. A total of 8409 samples were received for mycobacterial culture: 1542 (18%) of which were pediatric and distributed as follows: 1407 (91%), pulmonary and 135 (9%), extra-pulmonary. The sample examination included staining for acid-fast bacilli, culture, identification and drug susceptibility testing. The following are the results of analized demographic variables: Nationality: 1218 Argentinean (79%), 247 foreigners (16%) and 77, not disclosed (5%); Gender: 787 female (51%) and 755 male (49%). Patients were grouped according to age into: Group A, 0 to 4 years 674 (45%); Group B, 5-9 years 354 (24%) and Group C, 10-15 years 464 (31%). Morbidity causes associated with the disease were mainly malnutrition and infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Staining for acid-fast bacilli was positive in 41 samples (2.6%) and 84 cultures resulted positive (5.4%), 78 (93%) of which were pulmonary and 6 (7%) extra-pulmonary samples. All the strains were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isolates were susceptible to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol, except for one strain that was resistant both to ethambutol and streptomycin, and another one which was resistant to isoniazid. Bacteriological confirmation of pediatric tuberculosisis is rarely achieved due to the predominantly paucibacillary nature of the disease in children (5% in our study), but plays a fundamental role in diagnosis accuracy, allowing the identification and susceptibility testing of the strain.

  8. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria: baseline data from three sites in Papua New Guinea, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Serej; Carter, Robyn; Millan, Korai; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pandey, Sushil; Coulter, Christopher; Siba, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in samples of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases from Papua New Guinea who were diagnosed using acid-fast microscopy. Methods As part of a case detection study for TB, conducted in three provincial hospitals in Papua New Guinea, sputum samples of suspected tuberculous cases aged 15 years or older were collected from November 2010 to July 2012. Mycobacterial species isolated from sputum and grown in culture were examined to distinguish between NTM and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Results NTM were detected in 4% (9/225) of sputum samples grown in culture. Five (2.2%) of them were identified as NTM only and four (1.8%) were identified as mixed cultures containing both MTBC and NTM. Four different NTM species were identified; M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. terrae and M. avium. Discussion This is the first report from Papua New Guinea identifying NTM in three different locations. As NTM cannot be distinguished from M. tuberculosis through smear microscopy, the presence of NTM can lead to a false-positive diagnosis of tuberculosis. The prevalence of NTM should be determined and a diagnostic algorithm developed to confirm acid-fast bacilli in a smear as M. tuberculosis. PMID:26798558

  9. Rectal culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  10. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  11. Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  12. Cultural changes in aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobl, Bill

    1991-01-01

    Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  13. Reaction to Culture Shock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippov, Boris

    1995-01-01

    Recommends building Russia's educational system into a bulwark against corrupting foreign influences. Maintains that Russian culture and society are under siege from internal tensions and external influences. Advocates a vigorous policy of cultural heritage education coordinated with positive socialization. (MJP)

  14. Frozen cultural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Petr; Novakova, Julie

    2016-01-01

    We discuss cultural group selection under the view of the frozen plasticity theory and the different explanatory power and predictions of this framework. We present evidence that cultural adaptations and their influence on the degree of cooperation may be more complex than presented by Richerson et al., and conclude with the gene-environment-culture relationship and its impacts on cultural group selection. PMID:27561647

  15. Reconstituted Thymus Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zimu; Liu, Haifeng; Rui, Jinxiu; Liu, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Reconstituted thymus organ culture is based on fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC). Purified thymocyte populations, from genetically modified mice or even from other species, are cultured in vitro with thymic lobes depleted of their endogenous thymocytes (by 2'-deoxyguanosine treatment) to form a new thymus. This potent and timesaving method is distinct from FTOC, which assesses development of unmodified thymic lobes, and reaggregate thymic organ culture, in which epithelial cells are separately purified before being aggregated with thymocytes.

  16. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  17. Cultural Knowledge in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olk, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the influence of cultural knowledge on the translation performance of German students of English. Found that the students often lacked sufficient knowledge about British culture to deal with widely-used cultural concepts. Findings suggest that factual reference sources have an important role to play in translation…

  18. Problems Confronting Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efland, Arthur D.

    2005-01-01

    A new movement has appeared recommending, in part, that the field of art education should lessen its traditional ties to drawing, painting, and the study of masterpieces to become the study of visual culture. Visual cultural study refers to an all-encompassing category of cultural practice that includes the fine arts but also deals with the study…

  19. Laos Culturally Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luangpraseut, Khamchong

    This booklet about the cultural background of Laos is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Laos is a country of great cultural and ethnic diversity. The following political and economic factors have influenced the development of modern…

  20. Cultural Exploration through Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…

  1. OVERCOMING CULTURAL BARRIERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRUTIA, RICHARD

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT TO CULTURAL BARRIERS AND THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES IS DISCUSSED IN THIS ARTICLE. VARIOUS VIEWS OF THE MEANING OF CULTURE ARE MENTIONED IN ORDER TO SINGLE OUT ANTHROPOLOGICAL CULTURE AS A MAIN FOCAL POINT. INTERCULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE SPELLED OUT WITH EXAMPLES OF LINGUISTIC BARRIERS, AND…

  2. Cultural Arts Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistone, Kathleen A.

    The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

  3. Why Teach Visual Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2007-01-01

    Visual culture is a hot topic in art education right now as some teachers are dedicated to teaching it and others are adamant that it has no place in a traditional art class. Visual culture, the author asserts, can include just about anything that is visually represented. Although people often think of visual culture as contemporary visuals such…

  4. Cultur(ally) Jammed: Culture Jams as a Form of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ulyssa

    2012-01-01

    Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…

  5. The University Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  6. Principals as Cultural Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

    2011-01-01

    Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

  7. Cultural Proficiency. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Cultural proficiency and diversity are often used interchangeably, yet there are some distinct differences between them. Cultural proficiency is the umbrella under which diversity falls. According to one source, "Cultural proficiency is a way of being that allows individuals and organizations to interact effectively with people who differ from…

  8. CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WASHINGTON, BENNETTA B.

    METHODS BY WHICH CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS CAN HELP TO ELIMINATE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY ARE DISCUSSED. IT IS STRESSED THAT CULTURE IS A SET OF VALUES, RATHER THAN A SERIES OF CONCEPTS. IF CULTURE IS TO BE TRANSMITTED TO STUDENTS, TEACHERS MUST LIVE ITS VALUES. ATTENDING CONCERTS AND PLAYS IS NOT SUFFICIENT. ONLY IN THE BROAD SETTING OF A TOTAL…

  9. Creating the Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Harold, III

    2003-01-01

    For organizations to succeed and endure, trust, collaboration, and performance cultures must coexist. A culture of trust starts with a school board that is independent and fully accountable and that holds all only its employees accountable. In a culture of collaboration, the board becomes a partner in setting goals but allows the experts to do…

  10. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  11. Transcending Cultural Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert; Murphy, Kris; Jaworski, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Cultural diversity presents many challenges to the art educator. Teaching children to be tolerant and to appreciate differences is particularly important in a world that is characterized by polarization, embittered cultural divisions, and prejudice. Students' knowledge and attitudes are mediated by popular culture, which often reduces cultural…

  12. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  13. Bridges: Literature across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Gilbert H., Comp.; Williams, John A., Comp.

    This anthology of literature from the many American cultures as well as cultures around the world is intended for use in today's college composition and introductory literature courses. Offering a blend of classic favorites and selections from other cultures, the anthology contains some 300 stories, poems, and plays from the six habitable…

  14. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

  15. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2010-06-01

    Today, safeguards culture can be a useful tool for measuring nonproliferation postures, but so far its impact on the international safeguards regime has been underappreciated. There is no agreed upon definition for safeguards culture nor agreement on how it should be measured. This paper argues that safeguards culture as an indicator of a country’s nonproliferation posture can be a useful tool.

  16. Early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in BACTEC MGIT cultures using nucleic acid amplification.

    PubMed

    Lin, S Y; Hwang, S C; Yang, Y C; Wang, C F; Chen, Y H; Chen, T C; Lu, P L

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the application of nucleic acid amplification (NAA) in liquid cultures for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The Cobas TaqMan MTB test, IS6110 real-time PCR, and hsp65 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were used to detect BACTEC MGIT 960 (MGIT) cultures on days 3, 5, 7, and 14. The procedure was initially tested with a reference strain, H37Rv (ATCC 27294). Subsequently, 200 clinical specimens, including 150 Acid Fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive and 50 AFB smear-negative samples, were examined. The Cobas TaqMan MTB test and IS6110-based PCR analysis were able to detect M. tuberculosis after 1 day when the inoculum of H37Rv was >3 x 10(-2) CFU/ml. After a 5-day incubation in the MGIT system, all three NAA assays had a positive detection regardless of the inoculum size. After a 1-day incubation of the clinical specimens in the MGIT system, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay were 70.2%, 100%, 100%, and 82.3% respectively. For IS6110-based PCR analysis, these values were 63.1%, 100%, 100%, and 78.9%, and were 88.1%, 100%, 100%, and 92.1% respectively for hsp65 PCR-RFLP analysis. After a 3-day incubation, the specificity and PPV were 100% for all three NAA tests; the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay had the best sensitivity (97.6%) and NPV (98.3%). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for conventional culture analysis were 98.8%, 100%, 100%, and 99.1%. Thus, NAA may be useful for the early detection of M. tuberculosis after 3 days in MGIT.

  17. Cutaneous sarcoid-like granulomas in a patient with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gallerani, Isabella; Innocenti, Damiano Degli; Coronella, Giordana; Berti, Samantha; Amato, Laura; Moretti, Silvia; Fabbri, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    We describe a 5-year-old boy with red-pink, firm, nodular lesions, with central resolution and prominent borders, localized to the face, backs of the hands, extensor surfaces of the arms and legs, and the buttocks. He also had recurrent bacterial respiratory infections. Quantitative immunoglobulin levels revealed hypogammaglobulinemia and increased IgM levels. Histopathologic examination of a nodular lesion revealed perivascular and periadnexal granulomas composed of epithelioid cells surrounded by a mantle of lymphocytes; three cultures for fungi and acid-fast bacilli were negative. Clinical, histopathologic, and immunologic studies supported a diagnosis of hyper-IgM (HIM) syndrome. The boy was treated with pulsed-dose antibiotics and intravenous gamma globulin every 3 weeks, with improvement of clinical symptoms. Skin lesions were treated with topical corticosteroids, with immediate recurrence upon cessation of therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of cutaneous granulomas in HIM syndrome.

  18. [Pharyngeal tuberculosis: Case report].

    PubMed

    Spini, Roxana Gabriela; Bordino, Lucas; Cohen, Daniela; Martins, Andrea; Ramírez, Zaida; González, Norma E

    2015-08-01

    Pharyngeal tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation. In Argentina, the number of cases of tuberculosis reported in children under 19 years in 2012 was 1752. Only 12.15% had extrapulmonary manifestation. A case of a 17 year old girl with pharyngeal tuberculosis is reported. The patient presented intermittent fever and swallowing pain for 6 months, without response to conventional antibiotic treatment. Chest X-ray showedbilateral micronodular infiltrate, so hospitalization was decided to study and treat. The sputum examination for acid-fast resistant bacilli was positive and treatment with four antituberculous drugs was started, with good evolution and disappearance of symptoms. Diagnostic confirmation with the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum culture was obtained. The main symptoms of pharyngeal tuberculosis are sore throat and difficulty in swallowing of long evolution. It is important to consider tuberculosis as differential diagnosis in patients with chronic pharyngitis unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:26172025

  19. Tuberculous cellulitis: diseases behind cellulitislike erythema.

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, Masayuki; Maeshima, Hirotaka; Chishiki, Minoru; Horinosono, Hiroshi; Kawakubo, Yo

    2016-07-01

    An 89-year-old man presented with an inflammatory erythematous plaque on the left thigh that closely mimicked cellulitis. Empiric therapies with ordinary antibiotics were not effective. A skin biopsy showed epithelioid cell granulomas throughout the dermis and subcutis. Ziehl-Neelsen stain revealed numerous acid-fast bacilli. Additionally, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from a skin biopsy specimen as well as gastric fluid and sputum cultures. He was diagnosed with tuberculous cellulitis with pulmonary tuberculosis. Cellulitis is a common disease seen by dermatologists; however, sometimes other diseases may masquerade as this banal illness. Among them, cutaneous tuberculosis should be excluded because of its clinical significance. Most cases of cutaneous tuberculosis are symptom free, but tuberculous cellulitis is sometimes painful. Therefore, cutaneous tuberculosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a cellulitislike rash if the lesions do not respond to ordinary antibiotic therapy, especially in countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis. PMID:27529716

  20. Mycobacterium kansasii infection presenting as cellulitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Hsiao, Cheng-Hsiang; Lee, Ping-Ing; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2002-08-01

    The prevalence of mycobacterial infection has increased in recent years, especially in patients immunocompromised due to autoimmune disease, malignancy and AIDS. Mycobacterium kansasii infection most commonly presents as tuberculosis-like pulmonary disease. We report the case of a 38-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who developed cellulitis over the left lower leg and had poor response to antibiotics. Two months before this admission, she had sustained a small wound over the right pretibial area and had noticed erythematous swelling after swimming at the beach. Pathologic examination of biopsied tissue showed acid-fast bacilli, and culture yielded M. kansasii. The cellulitis improved gradually during treatment with antimycobacterial agents for 1 year. This case emphasizes the possibility that cutaneous M. kansasii infection may occur in an immunocompromised patient and that exposure to contaminated water is a possible source. With early diagnosis, the response to an antimycobacterial multidrug regimen is usually satisfactory.

  1. A case of testicular tuberculosis mimicking malignancy in a healthy young man.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sherly; Izaguirre Anariba, Dora Ernestina; Dua, Kirandeep; Mir, Mohammad; Ankireddypalli, Arvind

    2016-06-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis represents a form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis that occurs in the kidneys, ureters, seminal vesicles, prostate, testis, vas deferens, and epididymis. Isolated testicular involvement is unusual, and differential diagnosis includes testicular tumor, acute infection, infarction, and granulomatous infection. We report a case of a 36-year-old Ecuadorian man residing in New York, New York, who presented with a painful scrotal mass, weight loss, and purulent discharge from ulcerated lesion in scrotal area 10 years following his immigration to the United States. No other systemic symptoms were noted. Positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold and radio imaging results led to the diagnosis. After extensive workup, acid fast bacilli positive cultures obtained by computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy was initiated after sensitivity tests were confirmed. Significant recovery after 3 months of directly observed therapy was accomplished. PMID:27536355

  2. Hodgkin’s disease presenting as discharging neck sinuses and a mediastinal mass

    PubMed Central

    Zolotar, Meira; Olaleye, Oladejo; Sherif, Ali; Howe, Rachael; Mathews, John

    2011-01-01

    A 23-year-old Asian lady presented with a hard indurated midline neck swelling of 2 months duration without any upper aerodigestive tract or systemic symptoms of note. Her inflammatory markers were elevated and she was commenced on antibiotics. Ultrasound scan and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were inconclusive. A CT scan showed an ill-defined soft tissue mass anterior to and not well demarcated from the thyroid, and contiguous with a superior and anterior mediastinal mass. Incisional biopsy revealed necrosis and pockets of purulent material. Microbiology suggested a chronic pyogenic abscess negative for acid fast bacilli. She was treated with antituberculous therapy without resolution. She developed a discharging lateral neck mass with progressive increase of the mediastinal mass. She subsequently required a neck exploration and mediastinoscopy. Repeat mediastinal biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease and no organisms on culture. She was commenced on chemotherapeutic treatment with a satisfactory outcome. PMID:22689859

  3. Mycobacterium genavense infection in a patient with long-standing chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Krebs, T; Zimmerli, S; Bodmer, T; Lämmle, B

    2000-10-01

    We describe the first case of disseminated infection with Mycobacterium genavense in an HIV-seronegative patient with a chronic haematological disorder. Our patient, an 80-year-old woman, had been under long-term treatment with chlorambucil (partially in combination with prednisone) for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). When she developed general fatigue and progressive anaemia, as well as progressive lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, bone marrow biopsy revealed granulomas with acid-fast bacilli, and cultures of both bone marrow and blood grew M. genavense. The patient's CD4+ cell count was approximately 100 microL(-1). Treatment with clarithromycin, ethambutol and rifabutin resulted in improvement of anaemia and general health as well as in regression of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:11086646

  4. The efficacy of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in determining the malignancy of solitary pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Bekci, T T; Senol, T; Maden, E

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the utility of the tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant solitary pulmonary nodules in 42 hospitalized patients. Routine medical history and physical examination of each patient was performed and each patient also had a chest X-ray and a thoracic computed tomography scan. The following diagnostic procedures were also undertaken: bronchoscopy, transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy, sputum cytology and culture, analysis of sputum acid-fast bacilli and thoracotomy. Measurement of serum levels of tumour antigens by Immulite 2000 radioimmunoassay found that three tumour markers, CEA, CA125 and CA15-3, could be used in the diagnosis of malignant solitary pulmonary nodules. More research is now required involving a larger group of patients.

  5. A case of testicular tuberculosis mimicking malignancy in a healthy young man

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sherly; Izaguirre Anariba, Dora Ernestina; Dua, Kirandeep; Mir, Mohammad; Ankireddypalli, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis represents a form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis that occurs in the kidneys, ureters, seminal vesicles, prostate, testis, vas deferens, and epididymis. Isolated testicular involvement is unusual, and differential diagnosis includes testicular tumor, acute infection, infarction, and granulomatous infection. We report a case of a 36-year-old Ecuadorian man residing in New York, New York, who presented with a painful scrotal mass, weight loss, and purulent discharge from ulcerated lesion in scrotal area 10 years following his immigration to the United States. No other systemic symptoms were noted. Positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold and radio imaging results led to the diagnosis. After extensive workup, acid fast bacilli positive cultures obtained by computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy was initiated after sensitivity tests were confirmed. Significant recovery after 3 months of directly observed therapy was accomplished. PMID:27536355

  6. Disseminated mycobacteriosis manifesting as paraplegia in two Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) naturally exposed to Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed

    Robveille, Cynthia; Albaric, Olivier; Gaide, Nicolas; Abadie, Jérome

    2015-11-01

    Two captive female Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) died after a history of flaccid paraplegia. On postmortem examination, granulomatous and suppurative osteomyelitis involving the left ischium and the lumbosacral region, with meningeal extension at the cauda equina, and caseonecrotic mastitis were the most significant changes. Multiple small nodules in the liver and spleen, and an enlargement of some lymph nodes with central caseous necrosis were also observed. Microscopically, a disseminated granulomatous inflammation with numerous multinucleate giant cells was seen. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were detected in macrophages, in multinucleated giant cells, and free in the central necrosis and suppurative exudate. After culture, polymerase chain reaction assays were carried out to detect the 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and insertion sequences (IS)1245 and IS900. The causative agent was identified as Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. PMID:26450834

  7. Aquarium-borne Mycobacterium marinum skin infection. Report of 15 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; De Vito, Daniela; Vestita, Michelangelo; Delvecchio, Susanna; Ranieri, Luigi Davide; Santantonio, Marilina; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum is a non-tuberculous photochromogenic mycobacterium, commonly responsible for fish and amphibious infections world-wide. Contagion in humans typically follows minor hand trauma from aquarium keeping and manifests as a granulomatous infection of the skin. Dissemination is rare and almost exclusive to immunosuppressed hosts. 15 cases of M. marinum fish tank related infection are hereby reported. The site of infection was the upper limbs in all cases. 3 patients presented a single papulo-verrucous lesion, while the remaining 12 showed a sporotrichoid clinical pattern. Diagnosis was reached by history and clinical examination and further supported by one or more of the following criteria: histology, culture, acid fast bacilli identification from histologic specimen and PCR. 2 to 3 months minocycline treatment showed efficacy in 13 individuals, another case was treated with rifampicin-isoniazid association, yet another showed spontaneous regression over a 3 month period.

  8. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  9. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-01

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  10. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    PubMed

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. PMID:26529195

  11. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture

  12. Culture, Culture Learning and New Technologies: Towards a Pedagogical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership;…

  13. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

  14. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Ulrich; Bryant, Richard A.; Ehlers, Anke; Foa, Edna B.; Hasan, Aram; Mwiti, Gladys; Kristensen, Christian H.; Neuner, Frank; Oe, Misari; Yule, William

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-)stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions In summary, culture

  15. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning.

  16. Astronomy in Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2010-07-01

    Which is more appropriate? “Astronomy in culture,” or “Astronomy and culture,” or “Culture without astronomy?” These are only few variants, each with its own sense. I guess the last question is the most pertinent. Does culture really exist without astronomy? The existence and evolution of the human civilization answer NO! But what “culture” means? When we are thinking of a culture (the Hellenistic one, for instance), we mean a set of customs, artistic, religious, intellectual manifestations that differentiate one group or society from another. On the other hand, we often use the notion of culture in a different sense: shared beliefs, ways of regarding and doing, which orient more or less consciously the behavior of an individual or a group. An example would be the laic culture. Moreover, the set of knowledge acquired in one or several domains also constitutes a culture, for instance the scientific culture of an individual or a group. Finally, the set of cultures is nothing else but the civilization. Now, if we come back in time into the history of civilization, we find a permanent component, which was never missing and often played a decisive part in its evolution: the Astronomy.

  17. Phylogenetic Diversity of Gram-Positive Bacteria Cultured from Marine Sediments▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gontang, Erin A.; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    Major advances in our understanding of marine bacterial diversity have been gained through studies of bacterioplankton, the vast majority of which appear to be gram negative. Less effort has been devoted to studies of bacteria inhabiting marine sediments, yet there is evidence to suggest that gram-positive bacteria comprise a relatively large proportion of these communities. To further expand our understanding of the aerobic gram-positive bacteria present in tropical marine sediments, a culture-dependent approach was applied to sediments collected in the Republic of Palau from the intertidal zone to depths of 500 m. This investigation resulted in the isolation of 1,624 diverse gram-positive bacteria spanning 22 families, including many that appear to represent new taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of 189 representative isolates, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, indicated that 124 (65.6%) belonged to the class Actinobacteria while the remaining 65 (34.4%) were members of the class Bacilli. Using a sequence identity value of ≥98%, the 189 isolates grouped into 78 operational taxonomic units, of which 29 (37.2%) are likely to represent new taxa. The high degree of phylogenetic novelty observed during this study highlights the fact that a great deal remains to be learned about the diversity of gram-positive bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:17400789

  18. Culture and math.

    PubMed

    Tcheang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample.

  19. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory. PMID:21560270

  20. Culturally sensitive assessment.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C P; Kumru, A

    1999-04-01

    Issues of cultural interaction and culturally sensitive assessment and treatment of young children have become prominent in recent years for mental health professionals, for reasons having to do with changing demographics, public values, and professional vision. "Culture" refers to the sociocultural adaptation of design for living shared by people as members of a community. Mental health professionals who work with culturally diverse populations need to become culturally self-aware and find abstract and experiential ways to build a useful body of professional knowledge concerning childrearing and discipline practices, health and illness beliefs, communication styles, and expectations about family or professional relations or other group interactions. They also need to learn how to work effectively in intercultural teams, use families as partners and resources, train and work with interpreters, and select and use formal and nonformal assessment procedures in appropriate, culturally sensitive ways. PMID:10202598

  1. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.

  2. Culture and math.

    PubMed

    Tcheang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample. PMID:24090438

  3. Culture, attention, and emotion.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

    2012-02-01

    This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research.

  4. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. PMID:26991291

  5. Missouri's Just Culture collaborative.

    PubMed

    Shabel, Wrenae; Dennis, Johnnye L

    2012-01-01

    Under the leadership of the Missouri Center for Patient Safety, Missouri set the stage for healthcare providers and regulators to work together to improve patient safety by moving towards a Just Culture. By bringing together 67 healthcare providers, regulators and others with a goal to improve the patient safety culture, the collaborative led to an improved understanding of the key principles of Just Culture, its implementation and barriers to implementation, as well as how regulators could support providers in their efforts to improve the safety culture.

  6. Runaway cultural niche construction.

    PubMed

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-03-27

    Cultural niche construction is a uniquely potent source of selection on human populations, and a major cause of recent human evolution. Previous theoretical analyses have not, however, explored the local effects of cultural niche construction. Here, we use spatially explicit coevolutionary models to investigate how cultural processes could drive selection on human genes by modifying local resources. We show that cultural learning, expressed in local niche construction, can trigger a process with dynamics that resemble runaway sexual selection. Under a broad range of conditions, cultural niche-constructing practices generate selection for gene-based traits and hitchhike to fixation through the build up of statistical associations between practice and trait. This process can occur even when the cultural practice is costly, or is subject to counteracting transmission biases, or the genetic trait is selected against. Under some conditions a secondary hitchhiking occurs, through which genetic variants that enhance the capability for cultural learning are also favoured by similar dynamics. We suggest that runaway cultural niche construction could have played an important role in human evolution, helping to explain why humans are simultaneously the species with the largest relative brain size, the most potent capacity for niche construction and the greatest reliance on culture.

  7. Darwinism and cultural change.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different 'grains' of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles.

  8. THE BEHAVIOR OF BACILLUS LEPRAE IN COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    Couret, M

    1911-05-01

    intraperitoneally with a heavy suspension of Bacillus leprae. These animals were killed and examined three days later, but the bacilli were not demonstrable from the regions about the sites of inoculation. Pigeons are likewise refractory. It is impossible to cause a local reaction in these birds, and the injected bacilli disappear rapidly. Hence, probably no multiplication takes place in them. Goats, young pigs, and white and dancing mice are in a degree susceptible to injections, and though undoubted lesions are produced, and multiplication of the bacilli occurs, the lesions and bacilli disappear after a limited time. Acid-fast bacilli which are recovered from the lesions are long, slim, and beaded, though the organisms used in the inoculations were short, unbeaded, and coccoid. Monkeys inoculated with cultures of the short unbeaded forms react promptly. The lesions resulting, though confined in most instances to the site of inoculation, occasionally appear at distant points. The number of bacilli present in the nodules and their arrangement within typical lepra cells show that multiplication has taken place. The organism has, however, changed from the short coccoid form to the long, slender, beaded form. Though the lesions induced and the bacilli present are in every way similar to those found in man, their tendency to disappear gradually after a quiescent stage clearly denotes that the tissues of the monkey, although less refractory than the tissues of the animals previously mentioned, still offer resistance to invasion. While mammals react but poorly to inoculations of the leprosy bacillus, this reaction manifests itself in various ways in different species. For example, while multiplication of the organism with the production of lesions occurs in some species, in others that are more refractory, the injected bacilli assume the involuted or beaded forms and do not multiply or produce lesions; in others, still more resistant to the action of the leprosy bacillus, the organisms

  9. Cultural change that sticks.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain.

  10. Cultural change that sticks.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain. PMID:22852451

  11. Cultural Legacies: Operationalizing Chicano Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordaz, Maricela; Anda, Diane de

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 41 Chicanos and 39 whites ages 18-80 found that despite effects of acculturation, Chicanos held educational and developmental values and beliefs consistent with ancient Nahuatl (Aztec) society, an indigenous Mexican culture. Suggests a need to examine social service delivery systems to determine whether assumptions and procedures are…

  12. Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

  13. Grounding Evaluations in Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Maurice; Ryan, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of and the attention given to culture in the evaluation field over the last decade has created a heightened awareness of and need for evaluators to understand the complexity and multidimensionality of evaluations within multicultural, multiracial, and cross-cultural contexts. In this article, the authors discuss how cultural…

  14. Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, Professor Geneva Gay wrote that culturally responsive teaching connects students' cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles to academic knowledge and intellectual tools in ways that legitimize what students already know. By embracing the sociocultural realities and histories of students through what is taught and how,…

  15. Our People, Our Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    With Liverpool approaching the end of its year as the 2008 European Capital of Culture, many of the residents in the city involved in promoting arts events have been so busy doing just that, that they have scarcely had time to stop and ask themselves what this thing called "culture" has meant in this special year. Have their efforts over the past…

  16. Understanding Corporate Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluff, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…

  17. Introduction: transnational lesbian cultures.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heike; Mahn, Churnjeet

    2014-01-01

    This special issue examines the transnational shape and shaping of lesbian lives and cultures in and across China, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It uses the expression "transnational lesbian cultures" to suggest that despite sometimes radically different sociopolitical and cultural contexts, the lived experiences of same-sex desire and their emotional attachments create particular affinities between women who love women, affinities that reach across the distinct cultural and social contexts that shape them. The articles brought together explore lesbian subcultures, film, graphic novels, music, and online intimacies. They show that as a cultural and political signifier and as an analytical tool, lesbian troubles and complicates contemporary sexual politics, not least by revealing some of the gendered structures that shape debates about sexuality in a range of critical, cultural and political contexts. While the individual pieces cover a wide range of issues and concerns-which are often highly specific to the historical, cultural, and political contexts they discuss-together they tell a story about contemporary transnational lesbian culture: one that is marked by intricate links between norms and their effects and shaped by the efforts to resist denial, discrimination, and sometimes even active persecution.

  18. Cultural Discontinuities and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbu, John U.

    1982-01-01

    Attempts to define the cultural discontinuity (between schools and students) hypothesis by distinguishing between universal, primary, and secondary discontinuities. Suggests that each of these is associated with a distinct type of school problem, and that secondary cultural discontinuities commonly affect minority students in the United States.…

  19. Personality dimensions across cultures.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2005-06-01

    In order to generalize the dimensional structure of personality-relatively independent groups of covarying traits-across languages and cultures, a large number of cultures must be studied. Until recently only a few worldwide personality datasets have been available. The first large-scale studies indicate that the pattern of covariation between personality traits is universal and is relatively easily generalizable across languages and cultures. In contrast to the structure of personality, the comparison of the mean trait scores across cultures is much more problematic because cross-cultural differences turned out to be very small in their magnitude, about one-third of the magnitude of individual differences within culture. More integral (e.g., the similarity between personality profiles) or subtle (e.g., the disparity between positively and negatively worded items) measures can reveal more systematic relationships with relevant socioeconomic and geographic variables than the mean scores themselves. Relatively modest sizes of cross-cultural differences in the mean values may imply that a reasonable scalar equivalence can be achieved, and all individuals, irrespective of their language and culture, can be represented in a common metric. PMID:16175734

  20. Pop Goes the Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurlansky, Mark J.

    1977-01-01

    Popular culture is defended as a solid academic entry that is a new approach to sociology, art, and literature. The contributions and theories of three professors are discussed: Arthur Asa Berger, Leslie Fiedler, and Alan Gowans. They illustrate the range and diversity in the pop culture field. (LBH)

  1. Culture and cognition.

    PubMed

    Muggleton, Neil G; Banissy, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the nature and both environmental and cognitive origins of culturally associated differences in a range of behaviors. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents six empirical papers investigating diverse categories of potential culturally related effects as well as a review article, all of which provide timely updates of the current state of knowledge in this area.

  2. Counseling Third Culture Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barringer, Carolyn Fox

    Third Culture Kids (TCKs) represent a group of youth who have lived overseas with their families for business, service, or missionary work. The implications of living in multiple cultures, especially during the developmental and formative years of youth, warrant investigation. This study informs the US counseling community about the…

  3. Introduction to Vietnamese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Te, Huynh Dinh

    This booklet about the cultural background of Vietnam is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Vietnam is located on the eastern coast of the Indochinese peninsula and has a population of 56 million. Its history is divided into the…

  4. Introduction: transnational lesbian cultures.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heike; Mahn, Churnjeet

    2014-01-01

    This special issue examines the transnational shape and shaping of lesbian lives and cultures in and across China, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It uses the expression "transnational lesbian cultures" to suggest that despite sometimes radically different sociopolitical and cultural contexts, the lived experiences of same-sex desire and their emotional attachments create particular affinities between women who love women, affinities that reach across the distinct cultural and social contexts that shape them. The articles brought together explore lesbian subcultures, film, graphic novels, music, and online intimacies. They show that as a cultural and political signifier and as an analytical tool, lesbian troubles and complicates contemporary sexual politics, not least by revealing some of the gendered structures that shape debates about sexuality in a range of critical, cultural and political contexts. While the individual pieces cover a wide range of issues and concerns-which are often highly specific to the historical, cultural, and political contexts they discuss-together they tell a story about contemporary transnational lesbian culture: one that is marked by intricate links between norms and their effects and shaped by the efforts to resist denial, discrimination, and sometimes even active persecution. PMID:24972280

  5. Introduction to Cambodian Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhim, Sun-Him

    This booklet about the cultural background of Cambodia is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Cambodia, or Kampuchea, has a population of about 7,000,000 and is located in mainland Southeast Asia. Its history is divided into the…

  6. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  7. Culturally Responsive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Darlean A.; Sia, Archibald P.

    The ethnic and cultural makeup of classrooms is changing rapidly, the percentage of school children of color is increasing, and the percentage of teachers of color is declining. This paper examines the challenge of preparing primarily white, middle-class teachers to create culturally responsive classrooms for all children. Teacher education…

  8. Cultural Pluralism on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E.; And Others

    This book is addressed primarily to higher education personnel responsible for campus programming that promotes a culturally plural environment. These chapters are included: (1) "Affirming Affirmative Action" (Harold E. Cheatham); (2) "Identity Development in a Pluralistic Society" (Harold E. Cheatham); (3) "The Minority Cultural Center on a…

  9. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  10. Why Youth Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cintron, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses youth culture and raises concerns about the tricky social terrain modernity offers for youth identity. He discusses familiar "topoi" or thematics that seem to drive most work on youth culture, suggests that justice and fairness are moral imperatives, and that acknowledging the worthiness of difference is one…

  11. Cultural Collage Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  12. Complexity in Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite their diverse national backgrounds, 28 interviewees speak similarly about the complexity of the cultural realities with which they live, and refuse to be pinned down to specific cultural types. While nation is of great importance, unless personally inspiring, it tends to be an external force which is in conflict with a wide variety of…

  13. Culture in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Thuong Van; Le, Nancylee

    New methods are proposed for teachers to increase the cultural knowledge of their students. Rather than emphasizing food, festivals, and famous faces from other lands, there should be an attempt to use culture in the classroom as content in the regular instruction of speaking, listening, writing, mathematics, reading, and science. Teaching…

  14. Pop Culture in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David Manning, Ed.

    The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

  15. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  16. Outline of World Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, George Peter

    This outline supplements the topical classification of the "Outline of Cultural Materials" with a new outline organizing and classifying the known cultures of the world. The new system: (1) expedites the beginning of actual processing of information into the Human Relations Area Files, (2) permits excerpting of sources processed that pertain to…

  17. Cultural Awareness for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judy; And Others

    This book documents a portion of The Learning Tree program, which develops cultural awareness. It provides activities, written from practical experience, that are designed to give children their first contact with the customs of other cultures. These activities are for teachers to share with preschool-, kindergarten-, and primary-school-age…

  18. Building Culturally Responsive Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polleck, Jody; Shabdin, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…

  19. Culture and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Gayle; And Others

    Developed by the Texas Department of Human Resources' Child Development Division, this guide supports and encourages the integration of cultural diversity into children's programs; furnishes basic information related to race, ethnicity, and culture; and briefly considers some issues associated with the concepts. While not dealing in depth with all…

  20. The Cultural Tinderbox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassof, Allen H.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the explosive nature of past cultural conflict in eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, stressing the fragility of current developments. Celebrates the contributions U.S. humanities scholars have made to cultural understanding and political tolerance, emphasizing the need for continued exchange and objective international scholarship. (CH)

  1. Cultural Competence Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garran, Ann Marie; Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) adopted 10 discrete standards of culturally competent practice which undergird our commitment to diversity and social justice. The concept of intersectionality is newly emerging in social work, though, causing us to reflect on our current conceptualizations of cultural competence.…

  2. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  3. Developing Culturally Competent Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focal Point, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This special issue examines multicultural aspects of services provided by agencies concerned with children's mental health. The lead article is titled "Developing Culturally Competent Organizations" by James L. Mason. This article uses the cultural competence model to discuss an organization's self-evaluation and its planning in the areas of…

  4. Culture and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

  5. Cultural dimensions of learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyford, Glen A.

    1990-06-01

    How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.

  6. Culture and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  7. Latent tuberculosis among pregnant mothers in a resource poor setting in Northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Untreated latent TB infection (LTBI) is a significant risk factor for active pulmonary tuberculosis, hence predisposing to adverse pregnancy outcomes and mother to child transmission. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis in pregnancy and its association, if any, with various socio-demographic, obstetric and clinical characteristics was evaluated. Methods Northern Tanzania was chosen as the study site. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 286 pregnant women from 12 weeks gestational age to term were assessed. Screening was undertaken using an algorithm involving tuberculin skin testing, symptom screening in the form of a questionnaire, sputum testing for acid fast bacilli followed by shielded chest X-rays if indicated. HIV serology was also performed on consenting participants. Results Prevalence of latent infection ranged between 26.2% and 37.4% while HIV sero prevalence was 4.5%. After multivariate logistic analysis it was found that age, parity, body mass index, gestational age, and HIV sero status did not have any significant association with tuberculin skin test results. However certain ethnic groups were found to be less vulnerable to LTBI as compared to others (Chi square = 10.55, p = 0.03). All sputum smears for acid fast bacilli were negative. Conclusion The prevalence of latent tuberculosis in pregnant women was found to be relatively high compared to that of the general population. In endemic areas, socio-demographic parameters alone are rarely adequate in identifying women susceptible to TB infection; therefore targeted screening should be conducted for all pregnant women at high risk for activation (especially HIV positive women). As opposed to the current policy of passive case detection, there appears to be an imminent need to move towards active screening. Ethnicity may provide important clues into genetic and cultural differences which predispose to latent tuberculosis, and is worth exploring further. PMID:20205938

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin for Predicting Blood Culture Results in Patients With Suspected Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Ferrand, Janina; Filhine-Tresarrieu, Pierre; Aissa, Nejla; Aimone-Gastin, Isabelle; Namour, Fares; Garcia, Matthieu; Lozniewski, Alain; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have suggested that procalcitonin is a reliable marker for predicting bacteremia. However, these studies have had relatively small sample sizes or focused on a single clinical entity. The primary endpoint of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for predicting or excluding clinically relevant pathogen categories in patients with suspected bloodstream infections. The secondary endpoint was to look for organisms significantly associated with internationally validated procalcitonin intervals. We performed a cross-sectional study that included 35,343 consecutive patients who underwent concomitant procalcitonin assays and blood cultures for suspected bloodstream infections. Biochemical and microbiological data were systematically collected in an electronic database and extracted for purposes of this study. Depending on blood culture results, patients were classified into 1 of the 5 following groups: negative blood culture, Gram-positive bacteremia, Gram-negative bacteremia, fungi, and potential contaminants found in blood cultures (PCBCs). The highest procalcitonin concentration was observed in patients with blood cultures growing Gram-negative bacteria (median 2.2 ng/mL [IQR 0.6–12.2]), and the lowest procalcitonin concentration was observed in patients with negative blood cultures (median 0.3 ng/mL [IQR 0.1–1.1]). With optimal thresholds ranging from ≤0.4 to ≤0.75 ng/mL, procalcitonin had a high diagnostic accuracy for excluding all pathogen categories with the following negative predictive values: Gram-negative bacteria (98.9%) (including enterobacteria [99.2%], nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli [99.7%], and anaerobic bacteria [99.9%]), Gram-positive bacteria (98.4%), and fungi (99.6%). A procalcitonin concentration ≥10 ng/mL was associated with a high risk of Gram-negative (odds ratio 5.98; 95% CI, 5.20–6.88) or Gram-positive (odds ratio 3.64; 95% CI, 3.11–4.26) bacteremia but

  9. Cultural Factors in Clinical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Examines special issues in cross-cultural psychopathology, including culture-bound syndromes, variable distribution of psychopathology across cultures, and cultural distinctions between belief and delusion and between trance and hallucination. Offers suggestions for educating clinicians about cross-cultural conceptual issues and teaching the…

  10. Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2010-01-01

    In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

  11. Using Culture to Teach Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Henry

    Language learning is a form of cultural learning, and cultural learning embraces language learning. The goal of cultural learning is a continuing search for understanding that bridges cultures. Language can be a bridge, a system that constructs reality as it communicates about reality. Education in the U.S. has tended to define culture as American…

  12. Infusing Culture in Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the culture-infused career counselling (CICC) model. Six principles are foundational to a tripartite model emphasizing cultural self-awareness, awareness of client cultural identities, and development of a culturally sensitive working alliance. The core competencies ensure the cultural validity and relevance of career…

  13. Blood culture contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S

    2014-05-01

    Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic tool. However, contamination may impact on patients' care and lead to increased patient stay, additional tests, and inappropriate antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to review the literature for factors that influence the rate of blood culture contamination. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and CINAHL on blood culture contamination. Hospitals/units should have in place a protocol for staff on how to take blood cultures, incorporating use of an aseptic technique. Studies have shown that several key factors in the process may lower contamination rates such as adherence to a protocol, sampling by peripheral venepuncture route rather than via an intravascular catheter, use of sterile gloves, cleaning tops of blood culture bottles with antiseptics and inoculating blood culture bottles before other blood tubes, samples being taken by a phlebotomy team, monitoring contamination rates, and providing individual feedback and retraining for those with contaminants. Although skin antisepsis is advocated there is still debate on which antiseptic is most effective, as there is no conclusive evidence, only that there is benefit from alcohol-containing preparations. In conclusion, hospitals should aim to minimize their blood culture contamination rates. They should monitor their rate regularly and aim for a rate of ≤3%. PMID:24768211

  14. Blood culture contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S

    2014-05-01

    Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic tool. However, contamination may impact on patients' care and lead to increased patient stay, additional tests, and inappropriate antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to review the literature for factors that influence the rate of blood culture contamination. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and CINAHL on blood culture contamination. Hospitals/units should have in place a protocol for staff on how to take blood cultures, incorporating use of an aseptic technique. Studies have shown that several key factors in the process may lower contamination rates such as adherence to a protocol, sampling by peripheral venepuncture route rather than via an intravascular catheter, use of sterile gloves, cleaning tops of blood culture bottles with antiseptics and inoculating blood culture bottles before other blood tubes, samples being taken by a phlebotomy team, monitoring contamination rates, and providing individual feedback and retraining for those with contaminants. Although skin antisepsis is advocated there is still debate on which antiseptic is most effective, as there is no conclusive evidence, only that there is benefit from alcohol-containing preparations. In conclusion, hospitals should aim to minimize their blood culture contamination rates. They should monitor their rate regularly and aim for a rate of ≤3%.

  15. Cultural Evolution and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even on Earth and is unpredictable in its outcome. But the one certainty for technical civilizations billions, millions, or even thousands of years older than ours is that they will have undergone cultural evolution. Cultural evolution potentially takes place in many directions, but this paper argues that its central driving force is the maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence, and that to the extent intelligence can be improved, it will be improved. Applying this principle to life in the universe, extraterrestrials will have sought the best way to improve their intelligence. One possibility is that they may have long ago advanced beyond flesh-and-blood to artificial intelligence, constituting a postbiological universe. Although this subject has been broached, it has not been given the attention it is due from its foundation in cultural evolution. Nor has the idea of a postbiological universe been carried to its logical conclusion, including a careful analysis of the implications for SETI. SETI scientists, social scientists, and experts in AI should consider the strengths and weaknesses of this new paradigm.

  16. Organizational climate and culture.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research.

  17. Culture systems: low-oxygen culture.

    PubMed

    Kovačič, Borut

    2012-01-01

    The tension of oxygen measured in the oviducts of several mammals was 5-8.7 %, but this drops in the uterine milieu to <2 % in cows and primates. For embryo culture in human in vitro fertilization (IVF), a non-physiologic level of 20 % oxygen has been used for the past 30 years. However, several animal studies have shown that low levels of oxygen plays an important physiological role in reducing the high levels of detrimental reactive oxygen species within cells, influences the embryonic gene expression, helps with embryo metabolism of glucose, and enhances embryo development to blastocysts. However, clinical studies have given contradictory results. Nevertheless, in nearly all reports, some kind of improvement has been observed, either in embryo development or in implantation and no detriments have been reported. For these reasons, more and more IVF laboratories utilize low oxygen during embryo culture.

  18. Culture systems: embryo culture and monozygotic twinning.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of monozygotic twinning in pregnancies achieved with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is significantly higher than spontaneously conceived pregnancies. The factors associated with ART that predispose the embryos to splitting are not well-characterized. Assisted hatching and extended embryo culture are two ART laboratory methods that have been risk factors for monozygotic twinning. The methods and strategies that may be employed to avoid monozygotic twinning are discussed in this chapter.

  19. Culture of safety.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Kristen

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the principles behind high-reliability organizations and a culture of safety are explored. Three areas in which health care has the greatest potential for improvement in safety culture are also discussed: a nonpunitive response to error; handoffs and transitions; and safe staffing. Tools for frontline nurses to help improve their organization's culture of safety in these areas are reviewed. Information is also given for nurses responding to error, including participating in root-cause analysis and supporting health care workers involved in adverse events.

  20. a Cultural Market Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HerdaǦDELEN, Amaç; Bingol, Haluk

    Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.

  1. Bacterial diversity from the source to the tap: a comparative study based on 16S rRNA gene-DGGE and culture-dependent methods.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Egas, Conceição; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of water treatment and distribution on the bacterial communities with particular emphasis on tap water. Samples from the water treatment plant, the bulk supply distribution system and household taps, supplied by the same drinking water treatment plant, were analyzed using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Water treatment imposed alterations in the composition of the bacterial community, although this effect was more evident in the cultivable bacteria rather than among the total community assessed by 16S rRNA gene-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling. Water disinfection, mainly chlorination, promoted a reduction on bacterial diversity and cultivability, with a shift in the pattern of cultivable bacteria from predominantly Gram-negative to predominately Gram-positive and acid-fast. Downstream of the chlorination stages, tap water, in comparison with raw water, presented higher diversity indices and cultivability percentages. From the source to the tap, members of the Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant lineages identified using 16S rRNA gene-DGGE analysis. Although with a lower coverage, the DGGE-based lineage identifications were in agreement with those found using 454-pyrosequencing analysis. Despite the effectiveness of water treatment to eliminate or inactivate most of the bacteria, Proteobacteria such as Acinetobacter, Bosea and Sphingomonadaceae may successfully colonize tap water.

  2. Popular Culture, Cultural Resistance, and Anticonsumption Activism: An Exploration of Culture Jamming as Critical Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…

  3. Climate is culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckland, David

    2012-03-01

    In 2001, British artist David Buckland founded Cape Farewell to bridge a communication gap between the science of climate change and the societal shift required. He explains why we need a cultural response to climate change.

  4. Embracing cultural diversity.

    PubMed

    Casady, W M

    2001-01-01

    Healthcare providers from all backgrounds are taught the Western medicine approach with little consideration given to cultural-specific care. Yet, today it is difficult to ignore that approximately 33 percent of Americans originate from ethnically diverse groups. As our population continues to become more diversified, it is imperative that healthcare professionals become more sensitive to cultural differences. Effectively managing cultural diversity in the workplace requires a complex set of skills as well as an understanding of the concept. Communication skills will be challenged in a complex and diverse work environment. Managers must learn to listen. Embracing cultural diversity is a two-step process. The first step begins with personal self-interest and self-examination. The second step in the process is the "awakening." Tomorrow's successful managers will take an active role today in creating an environment that views diversity as an asset to the work force. PMID:11302066

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in ... culture medium. Laboratory staff then observe if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow in the dish. Growth means ...

  6. Pericardial fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...

  7. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

  8. Are Canadians Cultural Cuckoos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickleburgh, Brita

    1977-01-01

    The author believes that teachers have been remiss in transmitting Canadian culture to their students. They have also neglected the development of self-realization and identity in the majority of students. (Author)

  9. Art and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robin

    1975-01-01

    The art department at Fremont Junior High School in Mesa, Arizona, developed a project in which Indian, Mexican-American, and White-Anglo American students learned about their different cultural values and tradititions. (Author/RK)

  10. Blood Culture Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to detect the presence of bacteria or fungi in the blood, to identify the type present, ... blood cultures to detect and identify bacteria and fungi. Other related tests that may be performed include: ...

  11. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  12. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  13. Phytochemistry and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurlin, Quincy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a trend in science teaching marked by shifts in philosophies and practices and by a search for science content that draws from the experiences of a culturally diverse student population. (DDR)

  14. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  15. Astronomy and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

  16. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473

  17. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  18. Supervisor Cultural Responsiveness and Unresponsiveness in Cross-Cultural Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkard, Alan W.; Johnson, Adanna J.; Madson, Michael B.; Pruitt, Nathan T.; Contreras-Tadych, Deborah A.; Kozlowski, JoEllen M.; Hess, Shirley A.; Knox, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen supervisees' of color and 13 European American supervisees' experiences of culturally responsive and unresponsive cross-cultural supervision were studied using consensual qualitative research. In culturally responsive supervision, all supervisees felt supported for exploring cultural issues, which positively affected the supervisee, the…

  19. Creating Cultural Consumers: The Dynamics of Cultural Capital Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisida, Brian; Greene, Jay P.; Bowen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The theories of cultural reproduction and cultural mobility have largely shaped the study of the effects of cultural capital on academic outcomes. Missing in this debate has been a rigorous examination of how children actually acquire cultural capital when it is not provided by their families. Drawing on data from a large-scale experimental study…

  20. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  1. CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN THE CULTURES OF THE SOUTHWEST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAMPA, ARTHUR L.

    THERE ARE MANY POINTS OF CONTACT WHERE THE SPANISH AND ANGLO-AMERICAN SOUTHWESTERN CULTURES NOT ONLY ACCEPT EACH OTHER, BUT RECOGNIZE VIRTUALLY INTRINSIC VALUES. IN CASES WHERE THE TWO CULTURES ARE APART THEY ARE NOT INIMICAL EXCEPT AMONG INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE LOST THE VALUES OF BOTH CULTURES. THE PROBLEM IS HOW TO BRING THE CULTURAL POLES…

  2. From Cultural Awareness to Intercultural Awareness: Culture in ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will

    2012-01-01

    Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…

  3. Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: review and projections

    PubMed Central

    ALARCÓN, RENATO D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to provide conceptual justifications for the inclusion of culture and cultural factors in psychiatric diagnosis, and logistic suggestions as to the content and use of this approach. A discussion of the scope and limitations of current diagnostic practice, criticisms from different quarters, and the role and relevance of culture in the diagnostic encounter, precede the examination of advantages and disadvantages of the approach. The cultural content of psychiatric diagnosis should include the main, well-recognized cultural variables, adequate family data, explanatory models, and strengths and weaknesses of every individual patient. The practical aspects include the acceptance of “cultural discordances” as a component of an updated definition of mental disorder, and the use of a refurbished cultural formulation. Clinical “telescoping” strategies to obtain relevant cultural data during the diagnostic interview, and areas of future research (including field trials on the cultural formulation and on “culture bound syndromes”), are outlined. PMID:19812742

  4. Culture from the Bottom Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  5. Cultural Competency as Skilled Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Isaura; Corso, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes Skilled Dialogue, an approach to cultural competency developed in response to the challenges posed by cultural linguistic diversity. Skilled Dialogue focuses on cultural competency as the ability to craft respectful, reciprocal, and responsive interactions across diverse cultural parameters. Characteristics, component…

  6. Popular Culture and Democratic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolby, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    A literature review explores how scholars have approached the study of popular culture--as text or lived experience. Examines the concepts of youth culture, individual agency, and cultural citizenship. Argues that the importance of popular culture lies in its role as a site for democratic practice. (Contains 88 reference notes.) (SK)

  7. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  8. The Culturally Competent Art Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Lucy

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of preparing teachers to be culturally competent art educators, addresses the qualities of a culturally competent teacher, delineates Mazrui's seven functions of culture, and explores how to comprehend multicultural practice. Discusses how teachers can acquire cultural knowledge through literature, films and videos, and…

  9. Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabusch, David M.

    Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

  10. Learning Cultures in Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Anderson, Graham; Colley, Helen; Davies, Jenny; Diment, Kim; Scaife, Tony; Tedder, Mike; Wahlberg, Madeleine; Wheeler, Eunice

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of learning cultures in English Further Education (FE), as revealed in the Transforming Learning Cultures in FE (TLC) research project. In it, we describe four characteristics of a generic FE learning culture: the significance of learning cultures in every site; the significance of the tutor in influencing site…

  11. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  12. [Youth from cultural communities].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, E

    1993-01-01

    In Québec, young immigrants must adapt themselves at the same time as their families to the changes imposed by a society which is itself experiencing problems related to minorities and language conflicts. Parents, which have high hopes for their young, are torn between their own values and those of the new nation. Because immigrants families, especially mothers, have a poor understanding of the language, as well as the educational and social services, it is difficult for them to avoid being labelled in the academic and legal worlds. Discipline is often at the centre of problems with teens. The conflict between generations takes on special meaning, as youth are able to adapt faster and easier to the new society's culture. Nevertheless, placing value on cultural origins can help youth challenge racism and rejection. The author believes that more effort should be invested in information services for parents, as well as in schools and their cultural and pedagogical adaptation measures.

  13. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies. PMID:25343628

  14. [Depression, culture and evil].

    PubMed

    Pewzner-Apeloig, E

    1994-04-01

    The author has written this article as a reflexion on the relation between depression and guilt feelings by comparing her clinical experience-acquired in a western context-to knowledge gained from psychiatric anthropology studies. Manifestations of suffering are different according to different cultural contexts; in the western world the idea of guilt is prevalent, whereas it is somatic troubles and the idea of persecution that are in the foreground in non-western cultures, more particularly in Black Africa and the Maghreb. In the western world melancholy is not only a genuine standard model of depression but is also a cultural fact as witnessed by the numerous references in the literary and pictorial fields. The author asks us to ponder relations between the strength and frequency of guilt feelings on the one hand and the question of the debt and interiority of evil (sin) in the western christian tradition. PMID:8092662

  15. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  16. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  17. Digital Microfluidic Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alphonsus H C; Li, Bingyu Betty; Chamberlain, M Dean; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-01-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a droplet-based liquid-handling technology that has recently become popular for cell culture and analysis. In DMF, picoliter- to microliter-sized droplets are manipulated on a planar surface using electric fields, thus enabling software-reconfigurable operations on individual droplets, such as move, merge, split, and dispense from reservoirs. Using this technique, multistep cell-based processes can be carried out using simple and compact instrumentation, making DMF an attractive platform for eventual integration into routine biology workflows. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art in DMF cell culture, and describe design considerations, types of DMF cell culture, and cell-based applications of DMF. PMID:26643019

  18. Hydroponics or soilless culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, H. D.

    1963-01-01

    Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.

  19. Mass algal culture system

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Lawrence P.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

  20. Mass algal culture system

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Lawrence P.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

  1. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  2. Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  3. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…

  4. Visual Culture of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Current discussions regarding the notion of visual culture in art educational practice center the actions of the viewer as participant within the networks of visuality common in many contemporary societies. Surveillance technologies and techniques shift this notion of participation from active to passive, from seeing to being seen. This article…

  5. The Cultural Twilight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treuer, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author begins by saying how privileged he feels to be included in the celebration of the American Indian Culture and Research Journal (AICRJ) and to toast forty years of American Indian studies at UCLA. He looks back over the field of Native American literature and criticism, then peeks at the present, and last, makes some…

  6. Cultural and Linguistic Ambidexterity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2007-01-01

    It might sound like a no-brainer that being bilingual or multilingual helps students planning engineering and just about any other career. But it is certainly true and is becoming more important as the economies of nations become more intertwined. What's more, being able to go beyond mere language ability and understand cultural distinctions are…

  7. Persian Language & Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir-Djalali, Elahe

    Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…

  8. Pop Culture Peeps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruszewski, Julie; Fontes, Kris

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom activity called Pop Culture Peep. In this particular activity, students are required to first research famous artists and/or famous artworks to have an image to use as a reference. Students then plan out how they would decorate the Peep, deciding what materials they would use to create the Peep in…

  9. Writing 302: Writing Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Farnham, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    WRT 302: Writing Culture is an upper-level elective in the Department of Writing and Rhetoric at the University of Rhode Island (URI). As part of a group of four 300-level courses, Writing 302 draws many junior and senior majors in Writing and Rhetoric, English, and other majors who are looking to add creativity and experience with design to their…

  10. Bone culture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  11. Public Knowledge Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    This article first reviews claims for the knowledge economy in terms of excludability, rivalry, and transparency indicating the way that digital goods behave differently from other commodities. In the second section it discusses the theory of "public knowledge cultures" starting from the primacy of practice based on Marx, Wittgenstein and…

  12. It Takes a Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Martha; Mausbach, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, the graduation rate for the Council Bluffs Community School District was, at 68 percent, the lowest in Iowa. District leaders knew that to improve, they needed to create a cultural change throughout the community. They began by getting community members involved in creating a strategic plan and mission statement that included a guarantee…

  13. Supervision as Cultural Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a framework for "culturally responsive supervision." An understanding of analogic or iconic metaphors reveals the power of language to shape what are regarded as matters of fact. Kinesics, proxemics, and prosody bring into focus channels of nonverbal communication. The concept of "framing" calls attention to the metamessages of verbal…

  14. Television in American Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Hermene D.

    What is television doing to our society and our culture? What has it done to education? Television has had a great impact on human behavior but rather than communicating, it dictates a philosophy of life, moral judgments and a lifestyle. Television presents a violent image of society where fantasy and reality are often confused. It is a system…

  15. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  16. Complicating Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiello, Vicki; Hathaway, Kevin; Rhoades, Mindi; Walker, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    Arguing for complicating the study of visual culture, as advocated by James Elkins, this article explicates and explores Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and pedagogy in view of its implications for art education practice. Subjectivity, a concept of import for addressing student identity and the visual, steers the discussion informed by pedagogical…

  17. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) moderated by Connie Fletcher at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Intercultural Adjustment of U.S. Expatriates in the People's Republic of China" (Hallett G. Hullinger, Robert E. Nolan) presents…

  18. Rebuilding a safety culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  19. RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELDON, RENA

    RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR MOST RURAL YOUTH ARE CENTERED AROUND SCHOOLS, BUT WITH INCREASING EMPHASIS ON ACADEMIC SUBJECTS THE STUDENTS ARE BEING DEPRIVED OF OPPORTUNITIES TO PARTICIPATE IN CERTAIN ACTIVITIES FOR ENJOYMENT ONLY. SUGGESTIONS INCLUDE TAKING THE PERFORMING ARTS TO THE RURAL AREAS, PLANNING ART FESTIVALS THAT WOULD…

  20. Cultural Learning Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…

  1. Connecting Community and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corine Meredith; White, Meg

    2014-01-01

    In order to be effective educators in the 21st century, it is essential for teacher candidates to develop a deep understanding of the culture and contextual factors surrounding their students' lives, and the ability to apply this understanding to classroom instruction. This action research study discusses how the implementation of teaching…

  2. Making Mathematics Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…

  3. Requiem for Cultural Internationalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninkovich, Frank

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Mary Brown Bullock's 1980 book,"An American Transplant: The Rockefeller Foundation and Peking Union Medical College." Far more than a narrow, scholarly history, this book is a case study of the far-reaching cultural impact of international educational exchange efforts. (JDH)

  4. Rethinking Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews three books that provide complementary and thought-provoking insights. The three books under review are: (1) "Reproducing class: education, neoliberalism, and the rise of the new middle class in Istanbul," by Henry J. Rutz and Erol M. Balkan; (2) "Technology, culture, family: influences on home life," by Elizabeth B. Silva; and…

  5. Culture and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

    Representing a refereed selection of papers from the 1994 JALT Kansai Conference, this collection of 25 papers contains formal presentations, teaching experiences, research projects, and ideas for effective teaching. The papers and their authors are, as follows: (1) "Culturally Influenced Communication Patterns: Overview, Implications and…

  6. Culturing Uveal Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Angi, Martina; Versluis, Mieke; Kalirai, Helen

    2015-04-01

    A major challenge in cancer research is the use of appropriate models with which to study a specific biological question. Cell lines have long been used to study cellular processes and the effects of individual molecules because they are easy to use, grow rapidly, produce reproducible results and have a strong track record in research. In uveal melanoma in particular, the absence of animal models that faithfully replicate the behavior of the human disease has propagated the generation and use of numerous cell lines by individual research groups. This in itself, however, can be viewed as a problem due to the lack of standardization when characterizing these entities to determine how closely they reflect the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of this disease. The alternative is to use in vitro primary cultures of cells obtained directly from uveal melanoma patient samples, but this too has its difficulties. Primary cell cultures are difficult to use, hard to obtain and can show considerable heterogeneity. In this article, we review the following: (1) the uveal melanoma cell lines that are currently available, discussing the importance of establishing a bank of those that represent the molecular heterogeneity of uveal melanoma; (2) the methods used to isolate and perform short-term cultures of primary uveal melanoma cells, and (3) the establishment of 3D tissue culture models that bridge the gap between 2D in vitro systems and in vivo models with which to dissect cancer biology and perform therapeutic screens. PMID:27171555

  7. A Culture of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joch, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Community colleges are pulling back the covers of student performance in favor of a new "culture of evidence." One hundred two community colleges in 22 states have joined Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count. Backed by a partnership of foundations and research organizations, the effort provides funding, coaching, and data-driven best…

  8. Understanding Learning Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Biesta, Gert; James, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out an explanation about the nature of learning cultures and how they work. In so doing, it directly addresses some key weaknesses in current situated learning theoretical writing, by working to overcome unhelpful dualisms, such as the individual and the social, and structure and agency. It does this through extensive use of some…

  9. Quality, Culture and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, J. F.; Zulu, N.; Murray, L.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education in South Africa has been grappling with the issue of quality assurance since the early 1990s. This paper investigates the relationships or tensions between quality, culture and change as a result of the introduction of quality assurance systems in higher education institutions in South Africa. The imperatives for the introduction…

  10. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  11. Action Learning: Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian; de Vera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the experience of forming a set in a higher education institution and offers some observations and insights gained from the perspectives of the role of the set adviser, cultural differences and the challenges of attempting to align theory, practice and experience.

  12. Language, Thought, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henle, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays intended for an integrated study of language by anthropologists, literary critics, philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, and linguists. There is first a discussion of theories concerning the interrelationship of language, thought, and culture. This is followed by a discussion of the development of…

  13. Becoming Culturally Proficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Ernest Everett Just Middle School, located in Mitchellville, Maryland, has a student population that is almost homogenous. In fact, 98% of the students are Black. As a veteran principal, the author's greatest fear has been not being able to provide students with a broad spectrum of ethnic, cultural, and religious experiences--experiences that they…

  14. Understanding Quality Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Ulf Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of quality in higher education which reveals the current debates about accreditation or quality process standards as insufficient, and to propose an enhanced model for quality culture in educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework is…

  15. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

  16. Cultural Literacy & Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A., Ed.

    Thirteen experts in the visual arts, literature, music, dance, and theater responded to the arguments of E. D. Hirsch's "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know", focusing particularily on his alarm at the serious slippage that has occurred in the background knowledge and information prerequisite for effective communication. These…

  17. Composition, Culture, Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Donald, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This special issue of "Kansas English" focuses on composition, culture, and citizenship. Included in this issue are the following articles: "Composing: When Artifice Is a Real Help" by Tom Hemmens and Micheal Roberts, which discusses the composing process and suggests various artifices, such as structure charts and sketch outlines, as a means of…

  18. The Culture of Migrancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGilvra, Bridget

    Approximately 360,000 people in Florida are migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Although this group includes a wide array of ethnicities with their own cultural characteristics, the shared experience of migrancy lends some common threads to an otherwise diverse population. This publication explores these commonalities, as they relate to educators'…

  19. Respectful Youth Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Children are social beings who rely on interactions with others to survive and thrive. Since the human brain is wired to connect, cultures in schools and youth organizations must be designed so youth can bond to supportive peers and adults. Children learn through observation, modeling, and responding to people in their environments. Bronfenbrenner…

  20. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  1. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  2. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  3. Culture and Imperialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Edward W.

    Growing out of a series of lectures given at universities in the United States, Canada, and England, this book reopens the dialogue between literature and the life of its time. It draws dramatic connections between the imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it, describing a general pattern of relationships between the…

  4. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  5. California Cultural Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patricia M.; Francisco, Grace; Keller, Shelly G.

    2007-01-01

    This document is designed for readers who have an interest in developing cultural community partnerships but who may not have an in-depth understanding of the concept or process. It provides a focus for partnership and joint venture discussions within agencies, community organizations or communities at large. Seven public library community…

  6. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  7. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  8. Cross-Cultural Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Eduardo; And Others

    New broadcasting technologies have extended the possibility of distributing radio and television programs over extensive areas encompassing different countries and peoples of different cultures and languages. This raises problems of program content and format as well as legal and political questions relating to trans-national information flow.…

  9. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver regeneration) and as in vitro screening systems in the early stages of the drug development process, like assessing hepatotoxicity, hepatic drug metabolism, and induction/inhibition studies. Relevant literature is summarized about artificial human liver cell culture systems by scrutinizing PubMed from 2003 to 2009. Existing devices are divided in 2D configurations (e.g., static monolayer, sandwich, perfused cells, and flat plate) and 3D configurations (e.g., liver slices, spheroids, and different types of bioreactors). The essential features of an ideal liver cell culture system are discussed: different types of scaffolds, oxygenation systems, extracellular matrixes (natural and artificial), cocultures with nonparenchymal cells, and the role of shear stress problems. Finally, miniaturization and high-throughput systems are discussed. All these factors contribute in their own way to the viability and functionality of liver cells in culture. Depending on the aim for which they are designed, several good systems are available for predicting hepatotoxicity and hepatic metabolism within the general population. To predict hepatotoxicity in individual cases genomic analysis might be essential as well. PMID:26998397

  10. Discrimination of Spore-Forming Bacilli Using spoIVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; LaDuc, Myron; Stuecker, Tara

    2009-01-01

    A method of discriminating between spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria is based on a combination of simultaneous sporulation-specific and non-sporulation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs). The method was invented partly in response to the observation that for the purposes of preventing or reducing biological contamination affecting many human endeavors, ultimately, only the spore-forming portions of bacterial populations are the ones that are problematic (or, at least, more problematic than are the non-spore-forming portions). In some environments, spore-forming bacteria constitute small fractions of the total bacterial populations. The use of sporulation-specific primers in Q-PCR affords the ability to assess the spore-forming fraction of a bacterial population present in an environment of interest. This assessment can provide a more thorough and accurate understanding of the bacterial contamination in the environment, thereby making it possible to focus contamination- testing, contamination-prevention, sterilization, and decontamination resources more economically and efficiently. The method includes the use of sporulation-specific primers in the form of designed, optimized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial spoIVA gene (see table). [In "spoIVA," "IV" signifies Roman numeral four and the entire quoted name refers to gene A for the fourth stage of sporulation.] These primers are mixed into a PCR cocktail with a given sample of bacterial cells. A control PCR cocktail into which are mixed universal 16S rRNA primers is also prepared. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] Following several cycles of heating and cooling according to the PCR protocol to amplify amounts of DNA molecules, the amplification products can be analyzed to determine the types of bacterial cells present within the samples. If the amplification product is strong, relative to the product of a control PCR sequence, then it is concluded that the bacterial population in the sample consists predominantly of spore-forming cells. If the amplification product is weak or nonexistent, then it is concluded that the bacterial population in the sample consists predominantly or entirely of non-spore-forming cells.

  11. Tubercle bacilli rely on a type VII army for pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Esther J M; Bitter, Wilbert; van der Sar, Astrid M

    2012-10-01

    Mycobacteria, such as the major human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have a highly unusual and characteristic diderm cell envelope that protects them against harmful conditions. Protein secretion across this hydrophobic barrier requires specialized secretion systems. Recently, a type VII secretion (T7S) pathway has been identified that fulfills this function. Pathogenic mycobacteria have up to five different T7S systems, some of which play a crucial role in virulence. The interactions between secreted substrates and host molecules are only starting to become clear and will help in furthering our understanding of the persistence of these enigmatic pathogens. In this review, we discuss current knowledge on the role of T7S systems in mycobacterial virulence.

  12. Genomic comparison of sporeforming bacilli isolated from milk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sporeformers in the order Bacillales are important contributors to spoilage of pasteurized milk. While only a few Bacillus and Viridibacillus strains can grow in milk at 6°C, the majority of Paenibacillus isolated from pasteurized fluid milk can grow under these conditions. To gain a better understanding of genomic features of these important spoilage organisms and to identify candidate genomic features that may facilitate cold growth in milk, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of selected dairy associated sporeformers representing isolates that can and cannot grow in milk at 6°C. Results The genomes for seven Paenibacillus spp., two Bacillus spp., and one Viridibacillus sp. isolates were sequenced. Across the genomes sequenced, we identified numerous genes encoding antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, bacteriocins, and pathways for synthesis of non-ribosomal peptide antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis placed genomes representing Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Viridibacillus into three distinct well supported clades and further classified the Paenibacillus strains characterized here into three distinct clades, including (i) clade I, which contains one strain able to grow at 6°C in skim milk broth and one strain not able to grow under these conditions, (ii) clade II, which contains three strains able to grow at 6°C in skim milk broth, and (iii) clade III, which contains two strains unable to grow under these conditions. While all Paenibacillus genomes were found to include multiple copies of genes encoding β-galactosidases, clade II strains showed significantly higher numbers of genes encoding these enzymes as compared to clade III strains. Genome comparison of strains able to grow at 6°C and strains unable to grow at this temperature identified numerous genes encoding features that might facilitate the growth of Paenibacillus in milk at 6°C, including peptidases with cold-adapted features (flexibility and disorder regions in the protein structure) and cold-adaptation related proteins (DEAD-box helicases, chaperone DnaJ). Conclusions Through a comparative genomics approach we identified a number of genomic features that may relate to the ability of selected Paenibacillus strains to cause spoilage of refrigerated fluid milk. With additional experimental evidence, these data will facilitate identification of targets to detect and control Gram positive spore formers in fluid milk. PMID:24422886

  13. Intramolecular amide bonds stabilize pili on the surface of bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Budzik, Jonathan M.; Poor, Catherine B.; Faull, Kym F.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; He, Chuan; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-01-12

    Gram-positive bacteria elaborate pili and do so without the participation of folding chaperones or disulfide bond catalysts. Sortases, enzymes that cut pilin precursors, form covalent bonds that link pilin subunits and assemble pili on the bacterial surface. We determined the x-ray structure of BcpA, the major pilin subunit of Bacillus cereus. The BcpA precursor encompasses 2 Ig folds (CNA{sub 2} and CNA{sub 3}) and one jelly-roll domain (XNA) each of which synthesizes a single intramolecular amide bond. A fourth amide bond, derived from the Ig fold of CNA{sub 1}, is formed only after pilin subunits have been incorporated into pili. We report that the domains of pilin precursors have evolved to synthesize a discrete sequence of intramolecular amide bonds, thereby conferring structural stability and protease resistance to pili.

  14. Effect of different laser irradiation on the dysentery bacilli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Lin; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yanjiao; Li, Depin; Wen, Caixia

    1998-08-01

    The S. flexnesi, which have high drug-resistance especially in Cm, Sm, Tc, SD, were irradiated by Ar+ laser at 488 nm and semiconductor laser at 808 nm. The experiment results have shown that both Ar+ laser and semiconductor laser with power density of 1.7 w/cm2 and irradiation dose of 2000 J/cm2 can conduce to the bacterial lethality and increase the mutation rates of the bacterial drug-sensitivity, and 'Colony Count' method have the superiority over the 'Inhibacteria Ring' method. At the mean time it further indicate that the high power semiconductor laser would play an important role in the sciences of laser biological medicine. But the effect of the near infrared semiconductor laser is far lower than that of Ar+ laser of shorter wavelength at the same irradiation dose. It is clear that the output and irradiation dose of near infrared semiconductor laser shall be increased in order to get the same rates of the bacterial lethality and the drug-sensitivity mutation as Ar+ laser's.

  15. Fish stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  16. Quality Culture Survey Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pritesh; Baker, Denyse; Burdick, Rick; Chen, Cylia; Hill, Jonathon; Holland, Morgan; Sawant, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Parenteral Drug Association conducted an anonymous global survey of quality culture in the pharmaceutical industry to determine whether there is a relationship between certain quality behaviors and certain quality attributes, and whether these quality attributes could be used as surrogates (or proxy variables) to assess quality culture. Other studies have shown that an unhealthy quality culture is a root cause of many quality or compliance issues seen by sites and organizations. Statistical analysis of survey data suggests that certain attributes are driving good behaviors, and the demographic data suggests that this relationship holds irrespective of the geographic location of the site. Executive survey respondents had a more optimistic view of the current state of quality culture than survey respondents at large, with cross-functional vision showing the biggest gap (P-value = 0.07, F-Test). The top five quality attributes that can serve as surrogates for quality culture were (1) Management communication that quality is everyone's responsibility, (2) Site has formal quality improvement objectives and targets, (3) Clear performance criteria for feedback and coaching, (4) Quality topics included in at least half of all-hands meetings, and (5) Collecting error prevention metrics. These identified mature quality attributes are related to management responsibility, and continual improvement of the pharmaceutical quality system sections of ICH Q10, and therefore may be amenable to be incorporated in audit programs or in regulatory inspections. Additional research and discussion is required to build a coherent approach, which the pharmaceutical industry and regulators can adopt. PMID:26429110

  17. Evaluation of culture techniques and bacterial cultures from uroliths.

    PubMed

    Perry, Leigh A; Kass, Philip H; Johnson, Dee L; Ruby, Annette L; Shiraki, Ryoji; Westropp, Jodi L

    2013-03-01

    The association between urolithiasis and growth of bacteria in the urine or urolith has not been recently evaluated in the past 15 years, and the effects of antimicrobial administration on urolith cultures have not been reported. As well, laboratory techniques for urolith cultures have not been critically evaluated. The objectives of the current study were to 1) report bacterial isolates from uroliths and their association with signalment, urolith composition, antimicrobial use, and urine cultures and 2) evaluate laboratory techniques for urolith cultures. For the first objective, a retrospective search of bacterial isolates cultured from uroliths submitted to the laboratory as well as the signalment, urine culture results, and antimicrobial use were recorded. For the second objective, 50 urolith pairs were cultured by washing each urolith either 1or 4 times and culturing the core. Five hundred twenty canine and 168 feline uroliths were reviewed. Struvite-containing uroliths had an increased prevalence of a positive culture compared to nonstruvite-containing uroliths (P < 0.0001, odds ratio [OR] = 5.4), as did uroliths from female dogs (P < 0.0001, OR = 2.9). No significant difference between culture results and previous antimicrobial administration was found (P = 0.41). Eighteen percent of cases with negative urine cultures had positive urolith cultures. There was no significant difference in core culture results whether the urolith was washed 1 or 4 times (P = 0.07). Urolith culture outcome was not always influenced by previous antimicrobial administration, and bacterial culture of a urolith may not yield the same results as those obtained from the urine. The modified protocol, which requires less time and expense for urolith cultures, may be an acceptable alternative.

  18. Parallel comparison of accuracy of API 20E, Vitek GNI, MicroScan Walk/Away Rapid ID, and Becton Dickinson Cobas Micro ID-E/NF for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and common gram-negative, non-glucose-fermenting bacilli.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, C M; Tenover, F C; Miller, J M

    1993-12-01

    We compared the API 20E (21 h) (API; bioMérieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), the Vitek GNI card (4 to 18 h) (Vitek; bioMérieux Vitek), the identification portion of the MicroScan Walk/Away Rapid Neg Combo 3 panel (2 h) (W/A; Baxter Diagnostics, Inc., West Sacramento, Calif.), and the Becton Dickinson Cobas Micro ID-E/NF rotor (21 h) (Cobas; Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.), versus conventional biochemicals for their abilities to identify accurately 252 strains of biochemically typical and atypical members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and common non-glucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. All strains used were included in the data base of each product. At the end of the initial incubation, 194 (77.0%), 213 (84.5%), 198 (78.6%), and 192 (76.2%) strains were correct to the genus and species levels with the API, Vitek, W/A, and Cobas systems, respectively. After additional biochemical tests were performed, as directed by each manufacturer's protocol, the numbers of strains correctly identified to the genus and species levels were 241 (95.6%), 234 (92.8%), 243 (96.4%), and 230 (91.3%) with the four systems, respectively. The errors were random in all systems, with the exception of two atypical Salmonella enteritidis strains, each of which was misidentified by three systems. After the initial recommended incubation period, both API and Cobas were significantly less accurate than Vitek (Yates' corrected P < 0.05). No significant differences were noted between the results of Vitek and W/A or between the results of API and W/A. After additional tests were completed, Cobas was significantly less accurate than W/A (P < 0.05) but was equal in accuracy to Vitek and API. API, Vitek, and W/A were equal in accuracy after these same additional tests. All four systems were significantly more accurate after additional biochemical testing than after the initial reporting period (194 of 252 versus 241 of 252 for API, 213 of 252 versus 234 of 252 for Vitek

  19. Parallel comparison of accuracy of API 20E, Vitek GNI, MicroScan Walk/Away Rapid ID, and Becton Dickinson Cobas Micro ID-E/NF for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and common gram-negative, non-glucose-fermenting bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, C M; Tenover, F C; Miller, J M

    1993-01-01

    We compared the API 20E (21 h) (API; bioMérieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), the Vitek GNI card (4 to 18 h) (Vitek; bioMérieux Vitek), the identification portion of the MicroScan Walk/Away Rapid Neg Combo 3 panel (2 h) (W/A; Baxter Diagnostics, Inc., West Sacramento, Calif.), and the Becton Dickinson Cobas Micro ID-E/NF rotor (21 h) (Cobas; Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.), versus conventional biochemicals for their abilities to identify accurately 252 strains of biochemically typical and atypical members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and common non-glucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. All strains used were included in the data base of each product. At the end of the initial incubation, 194 (77.0%), 213 (84.5%), 198 (78.6%), and 192 (76.2%) strains were correct to the genus and species levels with the API, Vitek, W/A, and Cobas systems, respectively. After additional biochemical tests were performed, as directed by each manufacturer's protocol, the numbers of strains correctly identified to the genus and species levels were 241 (95.6%), 234 (92.8%), 243 (96.4%), and 230 (91.3%) with the four systems, respectively. The errors were random in all systems, with the exception of two atypical Salmonella enteritidis strains, each of which was misidentified by three systems. After the initial recommended incubation period, both API and Cobas were significantly less accurate than Vitek (Yates' corrected P < 0.05). No significant differences were noted between the results of Vitek and W/A or between the results of API and W/A. After additional tests were completed, Cobas was significantly less accurate than W/A (P < 0.05) but was equal in accuracy to Vitek and API. API, Vitek, and W/A were equal in accuracy after these same additional tests. All four systems were significantly more accurate after additional biochemical testing than after the initial reporting period (194 of 252 versus 241 of 252 for API, 213 of 252 versus 234 of 252 for Vitek

  20. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients. PMID:18371580

  1. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  2. Managing Culture--Making Culture Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of culture in organisations can offer insights into individual and group behaviour, and leadership. It can help to explain not just what happens in an organisation, but why it happens. However, many people are concerned not just with understanding culture, and hence organisational life. They see culture as something to be…

  3. A Follow-up to Pop Culture: The Unpopular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Suggests an alternative approach for a popular culture course--an exploration of the culture of the students' parents, or "unpopular" culture. Possible activities for a unit include: interviews (on entertainment preferences, for example), observations (dress codes for social gatherings, parental food and drink habits, etc.), or an attic or closet…

  4. Teaching Culture as a Second Language: Private Culture and Kinesics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, James

    Culture-specific non-verbal communication is regarded here as an essential "language" that has been neglected in modern language teaching pedagogy, though the substance of culture is often referred to in the curriculum. A distinction is drawn between the public aspects of culture commonly experienced by the second language learner and the private…

  5. Cultural Policy in Poland. Studies and Documents on Cultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balicki, Stanislaw Witold; And Others

    A survey of cultural policy in Poland, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series showing how cultural policies are planned and implemented in member states. The dual traditions of the ready assimilation of European elements into Polish culture and Poland's determination to maintain a national identity throughout 123 years of partition are presented…

  6. Morality, Culture and the Dialogic Self: Taking Cultural Pluralism Seriously

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haste, Helen; Abrahams, Salie

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores moral reasoning within the framework of contemporary cultural theory, in which moral functioning is action mediated by tools (such as socially available discourses) within a social and cultural context. This cultural model of a "dialogic moral self" challenges many of the assumptions inherent in the individualistic Kantian…

  7. Teaching Culture Perception: Documenting and Transforming Institutional Teaching Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kustra, Erika; Doci, Florida; Gillard, Kaitlyn; Hondzel, Catharine Dishke; Goff, Lori; Gabay, Danielle; Meadows, Ken N.; Borin, Paola; Wolf, Peter; Ellis, Donna; Eiliat, Hoda; Grose, Jill; Dawson, Debra L.; Hughes, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    An institutional culture that values teaching is likely to lead to improved student learning. The main focus of this study was to determine faculty, graduate and undergraduate students' perception of the teaching culture at their institution and identify indicators of that teaching culture. Themes included support for teaching development; support…

  8. Cultural Diversity and the Changing Culture of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    The paper will examine the change in schools brought about by cultural diversity and examines the theories that surround the topic. I will evaluate and examine ways in which schools can accommodate cultural diversity. References will be made to cultural and social changes in our schools and how education is affected by such changes. The issue of…

  9. Cultural Borderlands: Cultural Dissonance in the International School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an investigation into the process of intercultural learning in an international school. Reports that cultural dissonance among students, between students and teachers, and in relation to the school culture, seemed to be the catalyst by which intercultural learning took place. Describes Hofstede's study of national cultural dimensions in…

  10. The Reaffirmation of Cultural Identity in Cross-cultural Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmitzki, Corinne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between cultural contact and cultural identity as conceptualized in two research approaches: social identity theory and acculturation. The groups studied were German and Americans who either lived in their nonnative culture or had no direct contact. Comparisons between bicultural and monocultural groups revealed a…

  11. Cultural Isolation and Cultural Integration: A Communicative Language Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, John

    2002-01-01

    Provides a theoretical grounding to an activity that follows a communicative language teaching approach to teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. The activity, cultural isolation and cultural integration, motivates learners to relate their experiences and feelings in regard to diverse cultures. (Author/VWL)

  12. Pathways to Cultural Awareness: Cultural Therapy with Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spindler, George, Ed.; Spindler, Louise, Ed.

    Cultural therapy is defined as the process of bringing one's own culture, in its manifold forms and communicative modes, to a level of awareness that enables one to perceive it as a potential bias in social interaction and in the acquisition or transmission of skills and knowledge. Cultural therapy can be used to increase the awareness of teachers…

  13. Culturally Relevant Physical Education in Urban Schools: Reflecting Cultural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara B.; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-01-01

    Using a three-part theoretical framework, the cultural relevance cycle--which consists of (a) knowing community dynamics, (b) knowing how community dynamics influence educational processes, and (c) implementing strategies that reflect cultural knowledge of the community--we examined teachers' and students' perspectives on culturally relevant…

  14. Teaching Language through Culture and Culture through Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somova, Svetlana

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching foreign languages through culture and culture through language study. Addresses how the textbooks used to study English by Russian students must focus more on the needs of Russian students. Summarizes the findings from a survey demonstrating that Russian students' knowledge of U.S. culture originates from…

  15. Culture and children's cosmology.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A

    2004-06-01

    In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England Though Australia and England have a close cultural affinity, there are differences in children's early exposure to cosmological concepts. Australian children who have early instruction in this domain were nearly always significantly in advance of their English counterparts. In general, they most often produced responses compatible with a conception of a round earth on which people can live all over without falling off. We consider coherence and fragmentation in children's knowledge in terms of the timing of culturally transmitted information, and in relation to questioning methods used in previous research that may have underestimated children's competence.

  16. Tissue Culture in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.

  17. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  18. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  19. Do You Have Cultural Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that child care teachers can help remedy cultural tunnel vision by promoting cultural diversity and understanding as they work with children and communicate with parents about what they are doing. (BB)

  20. The Cultural Deficit in Broadcasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Louis B.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that the F.C.C. should amend its Policy Statement on Programing to differentiate cultural programing from other entertainment, and offers proposals for effecting cultural programing improvements. (MH)