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Sample records for acid-fast bacilli smear

  1. Demonstration of acid-fast bacilli in buffy coat and bone marrow smear--a diagnostic tool in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sen, R; Singh, S; Singh, H P; Sen, J; Yadav, M S; Arora, B R

    1996-10-01

    Buffy coat smears prepared from peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate obtained from proved 60 untreated cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen method and thoroughly screened for presence of tubercle bacilli. Acid-fast bacilli were detected in 55% cases in buffy coat, 48.3% cases in bone marrow, 38.3% cases both in buffy coat and bone marrow and 65% cases either in buffy coat or in bone marrow or in both. Considering the fact that demonstration of acid-fast bacilli may not be possible in more than 25-50% of the suspected cases of tuberculosis, these techniques are recommended for evaluation of their utility in establishing diagnosis of tuberculosis, particularly in reference to sputum negative cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculosis of inaccessible extrapulmonary sites. PMID:9141877

  2. Decentralization of Acid Fast Bacilli(AFB) External Quality Assurance Using Blind Rechecking for Sputum Smear Microscopy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Muluken; Jerene, Degu; Alem, Genetu; Seid, Jemal; Belachew, Feleke; Kassie, Yewulsew; Habte, Dereje; Negash, Solomon; Ayana, Gonfa; Girma, Belaineh; Haile, Yared K.; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Suarez, Pedro G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia achieved a rapid expansion of TB microscopic centers for acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, external quality assurance (EQA) services were, until recently, limited to few regional and sub-regional laboratories. In this paper, we describe the decentralization experience and the result of EQA using random blinded rechecking. Materials and Methods The routine EQA quarterly report was compiled and analyzed. A positive result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported negative result is categorized as false positive (FP). A negative result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported positive is considered false negative (FN). The reading of EQA centers was considered a gold standard to compute the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the readings of microscopic centers. Results We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs) to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I), the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs). In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively. Conclusion Decentralizing blinded rechecking of sputum smear microscopy is feasible in low-income settings. While a comprehensive laboratory improvement strategy enhanced the quality of microscopy, laboratory professionals’ capacity in slide reading and smear quality requires continued

  3. Anisotropic tubular filtering for automatic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Shan-e.-Ahmed; Marjan, M. Q.; Arif, Muhammad; Butt, Farhana; Sultan, Faisal; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main factors for high workload in pulmonary pathology in developing countries is the relatively large proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases which can be detected with high throughput using automated approaches. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which appears as thin, rod-shaped acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smear samples. In this paper, we present an algorithm for automatic detection of AFB in digitized images of ZN stained sputum smear samples under a light microscope. A key component of the proposed algorithm is the enhancement of raw input image using a novel anisotropic tubular filter (ATF) which suppresses the background noise while simultaneously enhancing strong anisotropic features of AFBs present in the image. The resulting image is then segmented using color features and candidate AFBs are identified. Finally, a support vector machine classifier using morphological features from candidate AFBs decides whether a given image is AFB positive or not. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ATF method with two different feature sets by showing that the proposed image analysis pipeline results in higher accuracy and F1-score than the same pipeline with standard median filtering for image enhancement.

  4. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated. Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment. Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second

  5. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB.This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated.Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment.Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second-line anti

  6. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  7. Improved Sensitivity of Sputum Smear Microscopy after Processing Specimens with C18-Carboxypropylbetaine To Detect Acid-Fast Bacilli: a Study of United States-Bound Immigrants from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Laserson, K. F.; Yen, N. T. N.; Thornton, C. G.; Mai, V. T. C.; Jones, W.; An, D. Q.; Phuoc, N. H.; Trinh, N. A.; Nhung, D. T. C.; Lien, T. X.; Lan, N. T. N.; Wells, C.; Binkin, N.; Cetron, M.; Maloney, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the specimen-processing method that uses the detergent C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) on the sensitivity of acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Vietnamese immigrants with abnormal chest radiographs provided up to three sputum specimens, which were examined for acid-fast bacilli by use of direct auramine and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The remaining sputum was split; half was cultured, and the other half was incubated with CB-18 for 24 h, centrifuged, and examined for AFB by both staining methods. CB-18 processing improved the sensitivity of AFB staining by 20 to 30% (only differences in auramine sensitivity were statistically significant) but reduced specificity by ≈20% (P < 0.05). These findings have direct utility for overseas migrant tuberculosis screening programs, for which maximizing test sensitivity is a major objective. PMID:16000478

  8. Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion.

    PubMed

    Farnia, P; Mohammadi, F; Zarifi, Z; Tabatabee, D J; Ganavi, J; Ghazisaeedi, K; Farnia, P K; Gheydi, M; Bahadori, M; Masjedi, M R; Velayati, A A

    2002-02-01

    In order to try to improve the results of direct smear microscopy, we used the mucus-digesting quality of chitin in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. For this purpose, a total of 430 sputum specimens were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquefaction, chitin sedimentation, and direct microscopy methods. Then, the smear sensitivity for acid-fast bacillus detection by chitin-treated sputum was compared with the sensitivity of smears prepared by other methods. Our results showed that the chitin solution took less time to completely homogenize the mucoid sputum than did the N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NaOCl methods. The N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration method demonstrated sensitivity and specificity levels of 83 and 97%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of chitin sedimentation was 80%, with a specificity of 96.7%. The NaOCl liquefaction method showed a sensitivity of 78%, with a specificity of 96%. Finally, the sensitivity of direct microscopy was lower than those of the other tested methods and was only 46%, with a specificity of 90%. The chitin and NaOCl liquefaction methods are both easy to perform, and they do not require additional equipment (centrifuges). Also, our results demonstrated that the chitin method is less time-consuming than the NaOCl method, since only 30 min of incubation is required to bring complete sedimentation of bacilli in chitin-treated sputum whereas the NaOCl method needs 10 to 12 h to give the same results in the same sputum specimens. Therefore, the chitin liquefaction and sedimentation method may provide better results in TB laboratories of developing countries than the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, NaOCl overnight sedimentation, and direct smear microscopy methods. PMID:11825964

  9. Use and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative acid-fast bacilli and fungal cultures in assessing infection of joint arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Wadey, Veronica M; Huddleston, James I; Goodman, Stuart B; Schurman, David J; Maloney, William J; Baron, Ellen J

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine a protocol for collecting acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and fungal intraoperative cultures during orthopedic procedures. An observational study was undertaken. Four hundred forty-six AFB cultures and 486 fungal cultures were processed over a 2-year period. The number of positive cultures was determined. A protocol specific to handling these types of specimens was developed. Cost analysis was completed to determine both the time and money saved if the new protocol was implemented. The infrequency of positive AFB and fungal cultures in this study suggests that it is only necessary to routinely request AFB and fungal cultures on 1 of 5 samples. Implementation of this protocol has potential to lead to substantial cost reduction and resource savings without diminishing patient outcomes. PMID:19879728

  10. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S.; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A. K.; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Interpretation and Conclusion: Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity. PMID:26425006

  11. Mistaken identity: Legionella micdadei appearing as acid fast bacilli on lung biopsy of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Paul Ravi; Martin, Brock A.; Ho, Dora Y.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella micdadei is a potential cause of invasive lung infections in immunocompromised hosts. On biopsy specimens, it can appear as an acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and can be mistaken for a member of genus Mycobacterium. As Legionella requires selective media to grow in culture, and a commonly used, commercially available urine antigen test for Legionella only detects Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 but not L. micdadei, it is important to consider this organism in the differential diagnosis for AFB in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of Legionella micdadei infection, which was initially treated empirically for non-tuberculous mycobacteria based on acid fast staining of biopsy tissue before the final diagnosis was made. PMID:25573597

  12. Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli in Saliva using Papanicolaou Stain Induced Fluorescence Method Versus Fluorochrome Staining: An Evaluative Study

    PubMed Central

    (Munot), Priya P Lunawat; Mhapuskar, Amit A; Ganvir, S M; Hazarey, Vinay K; Mhapuskar, Madhavi A; Kulkarni, Dinraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fifty years after effective chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) still remains leading infectious cause of adult mortality. The aim of present study was to evaluate diagnostic utility of papanicolaou (Pap) stain induced fluorescence microscopic examination of salivary smears in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of 100 individuals clinically suspected of suffering from active pulmonary TB. Control group – 50 individuals are suffering from any pulmonary disease other than TB such as pneumonia or bronchiogenic carcinoma. Fluorescence microscopic examination of two salivary smears stained by Pap stain and auramine-rhodamine (A-R) stain respectively for each patient. Ziehl–Neelsen stained sputum smear examined under the light microscope for each patient. Culture was done in all the patients for microbiological confirmation. McNemar's Chi-square analysis, Kappa test, and Z-test. Results: The sensitivities of the three staining methods using culture as a reference method were 93.02%, 88.37% and 87.20% for Pap, A-R and Ziehl–Neelson respectively. Conclusion: Pap-induced fluorescence of salivary smears is a safe, reliable and rapid method, which can prove as a valuable diagnostic tool for diagnosis of TB. PMID:26229384

  13. A Comparative Study of Induced Sputum and Bronchial Washings in Diagnosing Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mandava, Venu; Namballa, Usha Rani; Makala, Sravani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis is one of the most important public health problem worldwide. Detecting patients with active pulmonary Koch’s disease is an important component of tuberculosis control programs. However, at times in patients even with a compatible clinical picture, sputum smears do not reveal acid-fast bacilli and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis remains a common problem. Aim The present study is aimed to compare the results of induced sputum and bronchial washings smear in patients suspected to have sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods A prospective study conducted from August 2014 to July 2015, comprising 120 patients fulfilling study criteria. Patients with respiratory symptoms and chest roentgenogram suspicious of pulmonary tuberculosis with no previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment and two spontaneous sputum smear samples negative for acid fast bacilli were included. Patients with active haemoptysis and sputum positive were excluded from the study. Sputum induction was done by using 5-10 ml of 3% hypertonic saline through ultrasonic nebulizer taking safety precautions. All the patient underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy after six hours fasting on the same day. About 20 ml of normal saline instilled into the suspected pathology area and washings were taken with gentle suction. The sample processing and fluorescent staining for acid fast bacilli was done in a designated microscopy lab. Results Out of 120 sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients, induced sputum smear examination detected acid fast bacilli in 76 patients (63.3%) and acid fast bacilli detected from bronchial washings in 94 patients (78.3%). Smear positivity was higher in cavitary and infiltrative lesions as compared to consolidation and infrahilar pattern disease. Conclusion Even though both induced sputum and bronchial washings procedures were valuable for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative, sputum induction with hypertonic

  14. Rate of recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from frozen acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive sputum samples subjected to long-term storage in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at -20 °C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at -20 °C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  15. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  16. Improved polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum with formalin-fixed tubercle bacilli for training of tuberculosis microscopists.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi; Wahyunitisari, Manik Rento; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Fujiki, Akiko

    2011-10-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method for detecting tubercle bacilli when there are more than 10,000 bacilli/ml in the original sputum. Furthermore, because the microscopic method provides not only quantitative, but also qualitative information, such as the shape of bacilli, it has remained significant. We have previously developed and reported panel test slides made from polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum (PBAS) mixed with both cultured THP-1 cells and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. In this paper, we report an improved preparation method for PBAS for panel test slides that provides a simplified method and enhanced availability with high consistency in each grade and in which only negative PBAS is prepared from polyacrylamide and cultured THP-1 cells and mixed with graded formalin-fixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis solution (FFTBS) containing oral flora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the slides. In the smears prepared using this improved method, the numbers (average ± standard deviation [SD]) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 300 fields (2- by 3-cm smear) in eight smears of each grade ranged from 5 to 9 (6.4 ± 1.4), from 59 to 88 (74.6 ± 10.0), from 503 to 912 (705.0 ± 145.7), and from 1,819 to 3,256 (2133.3 ± 478.0) in ±, +, ++, and +++ smears, respectively. In addition, this preparation method provided high similarity to the microscopic appearance of bacilli and background seen in the actual patient sputum, with high feasibility. These results revealed that our new PBAS had high authenticity in the appearance and consistency in each grade, which could make it valuable as a reliable artificial sputum for the training of microscopists. PMID:21813720

  17. Improved Polyacrylamide-Based Artificial Sputum with Formalin-Fixed Tubercle Bacilli for Training of Tuberculosis Microscopists▿†

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi; Wahyunitisari, Manik Rento; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Fujiki, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method for detecting tubercle bacilli when there are more than 10,000 bacilli/ml in the original sputum. Furthermore, because the microscopic method provides not only quantitative, but also qualitative information, such as the shape of bacilli, it has remained significant. We have previously developed and reported panel test slides made from polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum (PBAS) mixed with both cultured THP-1 cells and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. In this paper, we report an improved preparation method for PBAS for panel test slides that provides a simplified method and enhanced availability with high consistency in each grade and in which only negative PBAS is prepared from polyacrylamide and cultured THP-1 cells and mixed with graded formalin-fixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis solution (FFTBS) containing oral flora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the slides. In the smears prepared using this improved method, the numbers (average ± standard deviation [SD]) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 300 fields (2- by 3-cm smear) in eight smears of each grade ranged from 5 to 9 (6.4 ± 1.4), from 59 to 88 (74.6 ± 10.0), from 503 to 912 (705.0 ± 145.7), and from 1,819 to 3,256 (2133.3 ± 478.0) in ±, +, ++, and +++ smears, respectively. In addition, this preparation method provided high similarity to the microscopic appearance of bacilli and background seen in the actual patient sputum, with high feasibility. These results revealed that our new PBAS had high authenticity in the appearance and consistency in each grade, which could make it valuable as a reliable artificial sputum for the training of microscopists. PMID:21813720

  18. Cytochemical Reactions of Human Leprosy Bacilli and Mycobacteria: Ultrastructural Implications

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Clark A.; Barksdale, Lane

    1973-01-01

    Leprosy bacilli harvested from freshly biopsied tissue from cases of lepromatous, borderline and histoid leprosy were, in conjunction with Mycobacterium lepraemurium and representative mycobacteria, examined cytochemically with and without their pyridine-extractable acid-fastness. Unlike the mycobacteria, unextracted leprosy bacilli failed to give a positive response to the periodic acid Schiff test or to take up Sudan black B, toluidine blue O, alkaline methylene blue or safranin O. Once their acid-fastness was removed with pyridine, leprosy bacilli were stained by all of the foregoing dyes except Sudan black B, under this condition they remained gram positive. While permanent loss of acid-fastness from leprosy bacilli always resulted in a loss of acid hematein-fixing material (Smith-Dietrich-Baker tests), the reverse was not true. Mild aqueous saponification, bromination, or sequential treatment with lipase and phospholipase D resulted in a loss of acid hematein-positivity but not acid-fastness. After pyridine extraction, bromination, or aqueous saponification, true mycobacteria lost neither their acid hematein-positivity nor their acid-fastness. The acid hematein-positive material and the acid-fastness of both leprosy bacilli and mycobacteria were lost after treatment with alkaline ethanol. These cytochemical findings are discussed in the light of what is known of the ultrastructure of leprosy bacilli and mycobacteria, and of the occurrence of a dl-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine oxidase in leprosy bacilli but not in mycobacteria. An effort is made to explain the rather unique cytochemical properties of leprosy bacilli. Since pyridine-extractable acid-fastness (and acid hematein-positivity) serve to distinguish human leprosy bacilli from M. lepraemurium, one or the other, or both, are suggested as bases for differentiating these two organisms in animal experiments designed to show the in vivo propagation of human leprosy bacilli. PMID:4120605

  19. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  20. Predicting results of mycobacterial culture on sputum smear reversion after anti-tuberculous treatment: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is currently known regarding sputum smear reversion (acid-fast smear becomes positive again after negative conversion) during anti-tuberculous treatment. This study aimed to evaluate its occurrence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and identify factors predicting results of mycobacterial culture for smear-reversion of sputum samples. Methods The retrospective review was performed in a tertiary referral center and a local teaching hospital in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2007, patients with smear-positive culture-confirmed pulmonary TB experiencing smear reversion after 14 days of anti-tuberculous treatment were identified. Results The 739 patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB had 74 (10%) episodes of sputum smear reversion that grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 22 (30%) (Mtb group). The remaining 52 episodes of culture-negative sputum samples were classified as the non-Mtb group. The anti-tuberculous regimen was modified after confirming smear reversion in 15 (20%). Fourteen episodes in the Mtb group and 15 in the non-Mtb group occurred during hospitalization. All were admitted to the negative-pressure rooms at the time of smear reversion. Statistical analysis showed that any TB drug resistance, smear reversion within the first two months of treatment or before culture conversion, and the absence of radiographic improvement before smear reversion were associated with the Mtb group. None of the smear reversion was due to viable M. tuberculosis if none of the four factors were present. Conclusions Sputum smear reversion develops in 10% of patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB, with 30% due to viable M. tuberculosis bacilli. Isolation and regimen modification may not be necessary for all drug-susceptible patients who already have radiographic improvement and develop smear reversion after two months of treatment or after sputum culture conversion. PMID:20205743

  1. Added value of molecular assay Xpert MTB/RIF compared to sputum smear microscopy to assess the risk of tuberculosis transmission in a low-prevalence country.

    PubMed

    Opota, O; Senn, L; Prod'hom, G; Mazza-Stalder, J; Tissot, F; Greub, G; Jaton, K

    2016-07-01

    Airborne precautions are required at hospital admission for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The isolation is maintained until 3 serially collected sputum smears are acid-fast bacilli negative, a time- and labor-intensive method with limited sensitivity and specificity, which has a great impact on patient flow management. We evaluated the possibility of replacing the result of microscopy by the semiquantitative result of the molecular point-of-care test Xpert MTB/RIF to assess patients' transmission risk to quickly guide airborne isolation decisions in low-endemic countries. The performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF, used as a first-line test, was compared to the results of microscopy for specimens (n=242) collected from May 2010 to December 2014 in Lausanne, Switzerland. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF were 91.5% (65/71) and 99.6% (170/171), respectively, vs. 64.8% (46/71) and 94.2% (161/171) for microscopy. Samples with negative Xpert MTB/RIF were all smear negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (negative predictive value, 100%). The semiquantitative results of Xpert MTB/RIF-high, medium, low or very low-were found to correlate with acid-fast bacilli detection: positive predictive value of 100% (6/6), 96.5% (27/28), 52.2% (12/23) and 11.1% (1/9) respectively. Finally, when including clinical criteria, we identified 11 smear-negative but Xpert MTB/RIF-positive patients with a significant transmission potential. In conclusion, our data support the introduction of an Xpert MTB/RIF-based strategy as a replacement of smear microscopy for a faster and more accurate management of tuberculosis patients' transmission risk in a low-prevalence country. PMID:27139592

  2. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  3. False-positive Gram-stained smears.

    PubMed

    Hoke, C H; Batt, J M; Mirrett, S; Cox, R L; Reller, L B

    1979-02-01

    The rate per 1,000 smears showing nonviable Gram-negative bacilli (false-positive smears) increased from a baseline of 10.8 to 38.5 following purchase of new culture-collection devices; the rate decreased to 8.0 following replacement of contaminated culture sets. False-positive reports led to changes in therapy for five patients. In addition to being sterile, commercial culture-collection devices should be certified by the manufacturer as being free of stainable microorganisms or as unsuitable for preparation of Gram-stained smears. PMID:83398

  4. A First Insight into High Prevalence of Undiagnosed Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Northern Ethiopian Prisons: Implications for Greater Investment and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Rodloff, Arne C.; Sack, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) transmission in prisons poses significant risks to inmates as well as the general population. Currently, there are no data on smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in prisons and by extension no data on the impact such cases have on TB incidence. This study was designed to obtain initial data on the prevalence of smear-negative cases of TB in prisons as well as preliminary risk factor analysis for such TB cases. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2013 at eight main prisons located in the state of Amhara, Ethiopia. Interviews using a structured and pretested questionnaire were done first to identify symptomatic prisoners. Three consecutive sputum samples were collected and examined using acid fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy at the point of care. All smear-negative sputum samples were taken for culture and Xpert testing. Descriptive and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results Overall the prevalence of smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in the study prisons was 8% (16/200). Using multivariate analysis, a contact history to TB patients in prison, educational level, cough and night sweating were found to be predictors of TB positivity among smear-negative pulmonary TB cases (p≤ 0.05). Conclusions In the studied prisons, high prevalence of undiagnosed TB cases using AFB microscopy was documented, which is an important public health concern that urgently needs to be addressed. Furthermore, patients with night sweating, non-productive cough, a contact history with TB patients and who are illiterate merit special attention, larger studies are warranted in the future to assess the associations more precisely. Further studies are also needed to examine TB transmission dynamics by patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB in a prison setting. PMID:25203007

  5. LED fluorescence microscopy in the diagnosis of tuberculosis: Fading and restaining of smears for external quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Allassia, Sonia; Aranibar, Mónica; Boutonnet, Mónica; Caserío, Viviana; Etchart, Ana Alicia; Fajardo, Sandra; García, Mónica; Gomez, Noemí; Gunia, Alba Marisa; Gustincic, María Virginia; Izquierdo, Viviana; Jara, Arnaldo Andrés; Kozicky, Graciela; Matteo, Mario; Pellegrini, Carlos; Pellegrino, Silvia; Pérez Catalán, Sebastián; Poggi, Susana; Sacramone, Carina; Santiso, Gabriela María; Souto, Alejandro; Togneri, Ana María; Wolff, Lidia; Vilche, Sandra; Eletti, Daniel; Imaz, María Susana

    2016-01-01

    Blinded rechecking is a method proposed for external quality assurance (EQA) of auramine-stained acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears using fluorescence microscopy (FM), however, this procedure is not well developed and slides fading over time could compromise its implementation. Since bleaching of fluorescent molecules involves temperature-dependent chemical reactions, it is likely that low temperatures could slow down this process. We stored auramine-stained slides under different environmental conditions, including -20°C, and examined them over time. The slides stored in all the environments faded. At -20°C, fading was not reduced in relation to room temperature. Restaining and re-examining smears after five months showed that the slides containing saliva and storage at -20°C were associated with failure in AFB reappearance. In conclusion, the practice of freezing slides until they are viewed should be discouraged as it has a negative effect on blinded rechecking by reducing reading concordance after restaining. Specimen quality should be considered when interpreting FM-EQA results. PMID:27291283

  6. Household symptomatic contact screening of newly diagnosed sputum smears positive tuberculosis patients - An effective case detection tool

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mridul; Saibannavar, Anita A; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Primary objective was to assess the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among household contacts of newly diagnosed sputum smear (SS) positive TB index cases. Secondary objectives were the evaluation of risk factors in household contacts for acquiring TB disease; and the evaluation of various characteristics of index cases which influence the transmission of disease to household contacts. Settings and Design: This exploratory cohort study included 521 household contacts of 133 newly diagnosed SS positive TB patients who were registered under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program at the Directly Observed Treatment-Short Course Centres of District Tuberculosis Centre, Kolhapur, Maharashtra from July 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014 (8 months). Subjects and Methods: Household contacts with symptoms suggestive to TB were subjected to SS examination of two samples for acid fast bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and for X-ray chest postero-anterior view. Presence of risk factors in symptomatic contacts was also recorded. Results: Eighteen contacts out of 521 (3.45%) had symptoms suggestive of TB. Of these, 6 contacts were diagnosed to have TB; 5 being sputum positive cases and one with X-ray suggestive of TB; giving a prevalence of 1.15 %. The study achieved a yield of 4.51% secondary cases. Conclusions: Household contact screening of newly diagnosed TB index cases provides modest yield of cases. Relatively fewer secondary symptomatic persons need to be investigated by this method for achieving additional yield proving it to be a practical and feasible approach. PMID:27051103

  7. Pap smear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    During a Pap smear, cells from the outside and the canal of the cervix are retrieved by gently scraping the outside of the cervix. The Pap smear is performed to detect cancerous or precancerous conditions ...

  8. Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase

  9. Cytological and Transcript Analyses Reveal Fat and Lazy Persister-Like Bacilli in Tuberculous Sputum

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, Anna L; Lee, Su-Min; Smith, Rebecca J; Senner, Claire; Hinds, Jason; Rajakumar, Kumar; Adegbola, Richard A; Besra, Gurdyal S; Butcher, Philip D; Barer, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Background Tuberculous sputum provides a sample of bacilli that must be eliminated by chemotherapy and that may go on to transmit infection. A preliminary observation that Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells contain triacylglycerol lipid bodies in sputum, but not when growing in vitro, led us to investigate the extent of this phenomenon and its physiological basis. Methods and Findings Microscopy-positive sputum samples from the UK and The Gambia were investigated for their content of lipid body–positive mycobacteria by combined Nile red and auramine staining. All samples contained a lipid body–positive population varying from 3% to 86% of the acid-fast bacilli present. The recent finding that triacylglycerol synthase is expressed by mycobacteria when they enter in vitro nonreplicating persistence led us to investigate whether this state was also associated with lipid body formation. We found that, when placed in laboratory conditions inducing nonreplicating persistence, two M. tuberculosis strains had lipid body levels comparable to those found in sputum. We investigated these physiological findings further by comparing the M. tuberculosis transcriptome of growing and nonreplicating persistence cultures with that obtained directly from sputum samples. Although sputum has traditionally been thought to contain actively growing tubercle bacilli, our transcript analyses refute the hypothesis that these cells predominate. Rather, they reinforce the results of the lipid body analyses by revealing transcriptional signatures that can be clearly attributed to slowly replicating or nonreplicating mycobacteria. Finally, the lipid body count was highly correlated (R2 = 0.64, p < 0.03) with time to positivity in diagnostic liquid cultures, thereby establishing a direct link between this cytological feature and the size of a potential nonreplicating population. Conclusion As nonreplicating tubercle bacilli are tolerant to the cidal action of antibiotics and resistant to

  10. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS IN A RESOURCE - LIMITED SETTING: IS ACID-FAST BACILLI MICROSCOPY ALONE SUFFICIENT?

    PubMed Central

    Odubanjo, M.O.; Dada-Adegbola, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to audit the processes for the microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in our resource-limited setting. A total of 694 specimens were received from 333 patients. 129 (38.7%) of these patients were positive for TB. 78 (60.5%) were positive on AFB microscopy alone, 13 (10.0%) on culture alone and 38 (29.5%) on both culture and AFB microscopy. Fifty-one (51) cases were positive on culture, 38 of these (74.5%) had growth on Lowensen-Jensen culture medium alone, 11 (19.6%) on Pyruvic Acid Enhanced Medium (PAEM) and 3 (5.9%) on both culture media. AFB microscopy showed a diagnostic specificity of 71.6% and a sensitivity of 74.5%. M. Bovis appears to be prevalent and we suggest the need for speciation. If AFB microscopy is to be routinely used alone, without confirmation by culture, then the overriding need is for quality to be fully assured in its use. PMID:25161484

  11. Asymptomatic Helminth Infection in Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Increased Regulatory and Th-2 Responses and a Lower Sputum Smear Positivity

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Ebba; Belayneh, Meseret; Idh, Jonna; Diro, Ermias; Elias, Daniel; Britton, Sven; Aseffa, Abraham; Stendahl, Olle; Schön, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of intestinal helminth infection on the clinical presentation and immune response during active tuberculosis (TB) infection is not well characterized. Our aim was to investigate whether asymptomatic intestinal helminth infection alters the clinical signs and symptoms as well as the cell mediated immune responses in patients with active TB. Methodology Consecutive, newly diagnosed TB patients and healthy community controls (CCs) were recruited in North-west Ethiopia. TB-score, body mass index and stool samples were analyzed. Cells from HIV-negative TB patients (HIV-/TB) and from CCs were analyzed for regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and cytokine responses using flow cytometry and ELISPOT, respectively. Results A significantly higher ratio of helminth co-infection was observed in TB patients without HIV (Helm+/HIV-/TB) compared to HIV negative CCs, (40% (121/306) versus 28% (85/306), p = 0.003). Helm+/HIV-/TB patients showed significantly increased IL-5 secreting cells compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB (37 SFU (IQR:13–103) versus 2 SFU (1–50); p = 0.02, n = 30). Likewise, levels of absolute Tregs (9.4 (3.2–16.7) cells/μl versus 2.4 (1.1–4.0) cells/μl; p = 0.041) and IL-10 secreting cells (65 SFU (7–196) versus 1 SFU (0–31); p = 0.014) were significantly higher in Helm+/HIV-/TB patients compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB patients. In a multivariate analysis, a lower rate of sputum smear positivity for acid fast bacilli, lower body temperature, and eosinophilia were independently associated with helminth infection in TB patients. Conclusions Asymptomatic helminth infection is associated with increased regulatory T-cell and Th2-type responses and a lower rate of sputum smear positivity. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical and immunological impact of helminth infection in TB patients. PMID:26248316

  12. Sequential adaptation in latent tuberculosis bacilli: observation by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

    PubMed

    Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Zhavnerko, Gennady Konstantinovich; Merza, Muayad Aghali; Ghanavi, Jalladein; Tabarsi, Payam; Farnia, Poopak; Poleschuyk, Nikolai Nikolaevich; Ignatyev, George

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can persist within the human host for years without causing disease, in a syndrome known as latent tuberculosis. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis establishes a latent metabolic state is unknown, but it is hypothesized that reduced oxygen tension may trigger the bacillus to enter a state of latency. Therefore, we are studying anaerobic culture of M. tuberculosis (H37RV) as a model of latency. For the first time, the sequential adaptation of latent bacilli (every 90 days for 48 months) viewed under Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Two types of adaptation were observed and are described here. First, cells are undergoing temporary adaptation (from 1 to 18 months of latency) that includes; thickening of cell wall (20.5±1.8 nm versus 15.2±1.8 nm, P<0.05), formation of ovoid cells by "folding phenomena"(65-70%), size reduction (0.8±0.1 μm versus 2.5±0.5 μm), and budding type of cell division (20-25%).A second feature include changes that accompany development of specialized cells i.e., production of spore like cells (0.5±0.2 μm) and their progeny (filterable non -acid fast forms; 150 to 300 μm in size). Although, these cells were not real spore because they fail to form a heat resistant colony forming units, after incubation for 35-40 min at 65°C. The filterable non-acid fast forms of bacilli are metabolically active and increased their number by symmetrical type of cell-division. Therefore, survival strategies that developed by M. tuberculosis under oxygen limited condition are linked to its shape, size and conspicuous loss of acid fastness. PMID:21977232

  13. STUDIES ON THE VIRULENCE OF TUBERCLE BACILLI

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Hubert; Noll, Hans

    1953-01-01

    Tubercle bacilli were grown in the presence of different concentrations of tween 80, ranging from 0.05 to 2.1 per cent. Equal numbers of viable bacteria from these cultures were compared in infection experiments in the mouse. The average survival time of the mice was used as a criterion for the virulence of the bacilli. High tween concentrations in the culture medium caused a reduction of the bacterial virulence. The reduction was slight in bacterial suspensions from cultures with tween 80 ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 per cent, but considerable in cultures with 2.1 per cent tween. Bacteria grown in the presence of 2.1 per cent tween gave rise to the same number of colonies, in vitro, as bacteria grown in ordinary media. Their oxygen uptake was increased as compared with that of bacilli grown in media containing less tween. Virulent bacteria grown in the presence of high amounts of tween 80 decolorized methylene blue in a test in which organisms from the same virulent strain but cultured without tween, or with only small proportions of the detergent in the medium, did not reduce the dye. A positive methylene blue test is typical of non-virulent tubercle bacilli and of saprophytic mycobacteria. Essentially the same changes occurred when virulent tubercle bacilli were grown in the presence of 0.5 µg./ml. of para-formacetanilide thiosemicarbazone (TBI). This small amount of the substance was not sufficient to prevent the growth of bacteria, or to reduce the number of viable cells in a culture, but it reduced the virulence of the bacteria considerably and rendered them capable of decolorizing methylene blue. Cord factor, a lipid constituent of virulent bacteria which is toxic for mice, was shown to be present in filtrates from cultures of virulent bacteria when the media contained 2 per cent tween 80, but no such material could be recovered from culture filtrates containing the usual 0.05 per cent tween. On the other hand, no toxic material could be extracted from bacteria

  14. Purpose and Criteria for Blood Smear Scan, Blood Smear Examination, and Blood Smear Review

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinming; Florea, Alina Dulau; Gong, Jerald

    2013-01-01

    A microscopic examination of an appropriately prepared and well-stained blood smear by a knowledgeable laboratory professional is necessary and clinically useful in a number of circumstances and for a variety of reasons. In this article, an attempt is made to delineate the purpose and criteria for blood smear examination in a variety of circumstances that are encountered in everyday laboratory hematology practice. A blood smear scan serves to at least (a) verify the flagged automated hematology results and (b) determine if a manual differential leukocyte count needs to be performed. Blood smear examination/manual differential leukocyte count with complete blood count (CBC) provides the complete hematologic picture of the case, at least from the morphologic standpoint. Blood smear review with or without interpretation serves to ensure that no clinically significant finding is missed, besides providing diagnosis or diagnostic clue(s), particularly if and when interpreted by a physician. PMID:23301216

  15. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including “Mycobacterium canettii” are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699

  16. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Lisa M.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  17. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  18. STOUT SMEARING FOR TWISTED FERMIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHOLZ,W.; JANSEN, K.; McNEILE, C.; MONTVAY, I.; RICHARDS, C.; URBACH, C.; WENGER, U.

    2007-07-30

    The effect of Stout smearing is investigated in numerical simulations with twisted mass Wilson quarks. The phase transition near zero quark mass is studied on 12{sup 3} x 24, 16{sup 3} x 32 and 24{sup 3} x 48 lattices at lattice spacings a {approx_equal} 0.1-0.125 fm. The phase structure of Wilson fermions with twisted mass ({mu}) has been investigated in [1,2]. As it is explained there, the observed first order phase transition limits the minimal pion mass which can be reached in simulations at a given lattice spacing: m{sub k}{sup min} {approx_equal} {theta}(a). The phase structure is schematically depicted in the left panel of Fig. I . The phase transition can be observed in simulations with twisted mass fermions, for instance, as a ''jump'' or even metastabilities in the average plaquette value as a function of the hopping parameter ({kappa}). One possibility to weaken the phase transition and therefore allow for lighter pion masses at a given lattice spacing is to use an improved gauge action like the DBW2, Iwasaki, or tree-level Symanzik (tlSym) improved gauge action instead of the simple Wilson gauge action. This has been successfully demonstrated in [3,4,5]. Here we report on our attempts to use a smeared gauge field in the fermion lattice Dirac operator to further reduce the strength of the phase transition. This is relevant in simulations with N{sub f} = 2 + 1 + 1 (u,d,s,c) quark flavors [6] where the first order phase transition becomes stronger compared to N{sub f} = 2 simulations. The main impact of the above mentioned improved gauge actions on the gauge fields occurring in simulations is to suppress short range fluctuations (''dislocations'') and the associated ''exceptionally small'' eigenvalues of the fermion matrix. The same effect is expected from smearing the gauge field links in the fermion action. The cumulated effect of the improved gauge action and smeared links should allow for a smaller pion mass at a given lattice spacing and volume. Our

  19. [The incidence of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli in the environment of the transplant unit, department of hemato-oncology, university hospital Olomouc].

    PubMed

    Matoušková, Ivanka; Raida, Luděk; Holý, Ondřej

    2012-12-01

    A study entitled "Surveillance of Infectious Complications in Hemato-oncological Patients" was conducted at the Department of Hemato-Oncology, University Hospital Olomouc from 1 July 2010 to 31 August 2011. During the study period, a total of 63 patients were hospitalized at that department and 33 stem cell transplants were performed, 21 autologous and 12 allogeneic. Microbial contamination was monitored in indoor air, on selected surfaces, and in health care providers (right hand smear, left and right nostril swabs and scalp hair smear). Gram-negative bacteria detected by culture were identified biochemically. Special attention was paid to nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli which, based on the recent literature, should be considered as emerging causative agents of hospital infections. PMID:23301626

  20. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  1. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  2. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  3. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  4. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  5. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys of mallards fed lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Irby, H.D.

    1966-01-01

    Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of mallards fed one, two, three or eight number 6 lead shot and maintained on cracked or whole corn and on grain-duck pellet diets. No acid-fast inclusion bodies were found in mallards fed one or three lead shot but maintained on a duck pellet ration. Dietary factors may be responsible for the failure of mallards fed a duck pellet ration to develop lead Inclusion bodies when treated with one or three lead shot. The authors suggest these inclusion bodies can be used as presumptive evidence for lead intoxication in mallards.

  6. ACID-FAST BACTERIA AND YEASTS AS INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the coliform group of organisms is considered to be less resistant to chlorine than some bacterial and viral pathogens, the utility of both yeast and acid-fast oganisms as potntial indicators of disinfection efficiency was evaluated. In most laboratory studies these two gro...

  7. RNA structures regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis in bacilli.

    PubMed

    Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M

    2013-07-01

    In Bacilli, there are three experimentally validated ribosomal-protein autogenous regulatory RNAs that are not shared with E. coli. Each of these RNAs forms a unique secondary structure that interacts with a ribosomal protein encoded by a downstream gene, namely S4, S15, and L20. Only one of these RNAs that interacts with L20 is currently found in the RNA Families Database. We created, or modified, existing structural alignments for these three RNAs and used them to perform homology searches. We have determined that each structure exhibits a narrow phylogenetic distribution, mostly relegated to the Firmicute class Bacilli. This work, in conjunction with other similar work, demonstrates that there are most likely many non-homologous RNA regulatory elements regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis that still await discovery and characterization in other bacterial species. PMID:23611891

  8. RNA structures regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis in bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    In Bacilli, there are three experimentally validated ribosomal-protein autogenous regulatory RNAs that are not shared with E. coli. Each of these RNAs forms a unique secondary structure that interacts with a ribosomal protein encoded by a downstream gene, namely S4, S15, and L20. Only one of these RNAs that interacts with L20 is currently found in the RNA Families Database. We created, or modified, existing structural alignments for these three RNAs and used them to perform homology searches. We have determined that each structure exhibits a narrow phylogenetic distribution, mostly relegated to the Firmicute class Bacilli. This work, in conjunction with other similar work, demonstrates that there are most likely many non-homologous RNA regulatory elements regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis that still await discovery and characterization in other bacterial species. PMID:23611891

  9. Macrophage takeover and the host-bacilli interplay during tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hussain Bhat, Khalid; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are key type of antigen-presenting cells that arbitrate the first line of defense against various intracellular pathogens. Tuberculosis, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, is an infectious disease of global concern caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacillus is a highly successful pathogen and has acquired various strategies to downregulate critical innate-effector immune responses of macrophages, such as phagosome-lysosome fusion, autophagy, induction of cytokines, generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antigen presentation. In addition, the bacilli also subvert acquired immunity. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of different antimycobacterial immune functions of macrophage and the strategies adopted by the bacilli to manipulate these functions to favor its survival and replication inside the host. PMID:26000654

  10. [Epidemiology of multi-drug resistant gramnegative bacilli].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, P; Cantón, R

    2016-09-01

    Current antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacilli is particularly worrisome due to development of resistance to all available antimicrobial agents. This situation dramatically limits therapeutic options. The microorganisms acquire a multiresistance phenotype as a consequence of different complex processes in which the antimicrobials acts as selective driver of resistance. Dissemination of multiresistant bacteria is driven by the expansion of the high-risk clones. These clones can be selected in the presence of antimicrobials allowing their persistence over time. PMID:27608308

  11. Ascites produced in rats without tubercle bacilli or tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Levine, S; Saltzman, A

    1999-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of rats with two doses of pertussis vaccine produces a small amount of ascitic fluid. Much larger amounts of fluid are produced when two spaced injections of the vaccine are preceded by a small amount of liquid petrolatum. A similar result is obtained by a single injection of pertussis vaccine emulsified in liquid petrolatum and Arlacel A. Ascites produced without tubercle bacilli or tumor cells may increase the use of rats for antibody production. PMID:10574628

  12. Clay smear: Review of mechanisms and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrolijk, Peter J.; Urai, Janos L.; Kettermann, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Clay smear is a collection of fault processes and resulting fault structures that form when normal faults deform layered sedimentary sections. These elusive structures have attracted deep interest from researchers interested in subsurface fluid flow, particularly in the oil and gas industry. In the four decades since the association between clay-smear structures and oil and gas accumulations was introduced, there has been extensive research into the fault processes that create clay smear and the resulting effects of that clay smear on fluid flow. We undertake a critical review of the literature associated with outcrop studies, laboratory and numerical modeling, and subsurface field studies of clay smear and propose a comprehensive summary that encompasses all of these elements. Important fault processes that contribute to clay smear are defined in the context of the ratio of rock strength and in situ effective stresses, the geometric evolution of fault systems, and the composition of the faulted section. We find that although there has been progress in all avenues pursued, progress has been uneven, and the processes that disrupt clay smears are mostly overlooked. We highlight those research areas that we think will yield the greatest benefit and suggest that taking these emerging results within a more process-based framework presented here will lead to a new generation of clay smear models.

  13. The Culture of Tubercle Bacilli from Laryngeal Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Nassau, E.

    1941-01-01

    In a considerable proportion of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis there is no spontaneous expectoration, especially in female patients and patients under collapse treatment. A simple and efficient method is described to obtain suitable material for bacteriological examination in these cases. A laryngeal swab, made up from a piece of wire with cotton-wool wrapped round its end, is passed down the larynx and the patient asked to cough. Two swabs are taken from each patient. The swabs are passed through sterile test tubes containing 10% sulphuric acid and 2% sodium hydroxide solutions for five minutes in each and 2 Petragnani media inoculated with each swab. The cultures are examined after five days for contamination, and after twenty-eight days for macroscopical colonies of tubercle bacilli. The results obtained in two groups of cases of 166 and 107 patients were: 37.95% and 54.20% positive cultures respectively. The highest positive figures were obtained in female patients. Thus tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in a considerable proportion of cases previously regarded as sputum-negative or having no sputum. Apart from diagnosis the method gives valuable help in judging the efficiency of treatment. The finding of bacilli in early infiltrative lesions is of considerable practical as well as theoretical importance. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:19992349

  14. Phosphate-containing cell wall polymers of bacilli.

    PubMed

    Potekhina, N V; Streshinskaya, G M; Tul'skaya, E M; Kozlova, Yu I; Senchenkova, S N; Shashkov, A S

    2011-07-01

    Anionic phosphate-containing cell wall polymers of bacilli are represented by teichoic acids and poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates). Different locations of phosphodiester bonds in the main chain of teichoic acids as well as the nature and combination of the constituent structural elements underlie their structural diversity. Currently, the structures of teichoic acids of bacilli can be classified into three types, viz. poly(polyol phosphates) with glycerol or ribitol as the polyol; poly(glycosylpolyol phosphates), mainly glycerol-containing polymers; and poly(acylglycosylglycerol phosphate), in which the components are covalently linked through glycosidic, phosphodiester, and amide bonds. In addition to teichoic acids, poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates) with mono- and disaccharide residues in the repeating units have been detected in cell walls of several Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains. The known structures of teichoic acids and poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates) of B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. stearothermophilus, B. coagulans, B. cereus as well as oligomers that link the polymers to peptidoglycan are surveyed. The reported data on the structures of phosphate-containing polymers of different strains of B. subtilis suggest heterogeneity of the species and may be of interest for the taxonomy of bacilli to allow differentiation of closely related organisms according to the "structures and composition of cell wall polymers" criterion. PMID:21999535

  15. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  16. DIAGNOSTIC TEST OF SPUTUM GENEXPERT MTB/RIF FOR SMEAR NEGATIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS.

    PubMed

    Reechaipichitkul, Wipa; Phetsuriyawong, Attawoot; Chaimanee, Prajuab; Ananta, Pimjai

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Gene-Xpert MTB/RIF sputum test for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among patients sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear negative results in Thailand, a country with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. We studied 151 patients who presented to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand with a 2 week or more history of fever and/or cough and an abnormal chest radiograph between 2010 and 2014; these patients had at least 2 negative sputum AFB smear results. Of these, 76 were diagnosed as having either confirmed or probable pulmonary TB: the 32 confirmed cases were those with a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the 44 probable case were those with clinical and radiographic findings consistent with TB and who had a response to anti-TB therapy. Seventy-five cases were diagnosed as not having pulmonary TB. Of the 32 patients with a positive sputum culture for MTB, 26 had a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF sputum test. Compared to sputum culture for MTB the GeneXpert MTB/ RIF test gave a sensitivity of 83.9% (95% CI: 66.3-94.5) and a specificity of 92.1% (95% CI: 83.6-97), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.3% (95% CI: 63.6-92.8) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.3% (95% CI: 85.1-97.8). The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test had a fair sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing smear negative pulmonary TB. It may be useful for diagnosing pulmonary TB in patients with a negative sputum AFB smear. The assay is faster than culture and can detect rifampicin resistant strains of MTB. PMID:27405129

  17. Variation in Gamma Interferon Responses to Different Infecting Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear-Positive Patients and Household Contacts in Antananarivo, Madagascar▿

    PubMed Central

    Rakotosamimanana, Niaina; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Soares, Jean-Louis; Doherty, T. Mark; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Ramarokoto, Herimanana; Zumla, Alimuddin; Huggett, Jim; Rook, Graham; Richard, Vincent; Gicquel, Brigitte; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy

    2010-01-01

    The majority of healthy individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis will not develop tuberculosis (TB), though many may become latently infected. More precise measurement of the human immune response to M. tuberculosis infection may help us understand this difference and potentially identify those subjects most at risk of developing active disease. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production has been widely used as a proxy marker to study infection and to examine the human immune response to specific M. tuberculosis antigens. It has been suggested that genetically distinct M. tuberculosis strains may invoke different immune responses, although how these differences influence the immune responses and clinical outcome in human tuberculosis is still poorly understood. We therefore evaluated the antigen-specific IFN-γ production responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two cohorts of subjects recruited in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from 2004 to 2006 and examined the influence of the infecting M. tuberculosis strains on this response. The cohorts were sputum-positive index cases and their household contacts. Clinical strains isolated from the TB patients were typed by spoligotyping. Comparison of the IFN-γ responses with the spoligotype of the infecting clinical strains showed that “modern” M. tuberculosis strains, like Beijing and Central Asian (CAS) strains, tended to induce lower IFN-γ responses than “ancient” strains, like East African-Indian (EAI) strains, in index cases and their household contacts. These results suggest that new strains may have evolved to induce a host response different from that of ancient strains. These findings could have important implications in the development of therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. PMID:20463103

  18. Inhibition of bacilli in industrial starches by nisin.

    PubMed

    Pirttijärvi, T S; Wahlström, G; Rainey, F A; Saris, P E; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

    2001-03-01

    The properties of Bacillus coagulans and of other bacilli that contaminate paper and paperboard manufacturing processes were investigated under simulated industrial conditions. Nisin (0.05 to 0.125 microg ml(-1) blocked growth of indigenous bacilli that contaminate sizing starches. B. coagulans starch isolates, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. stearothermophilus grew at > or = 50 degrees C in industrial starch and produced alpha-glucosidase and cyclodextrins. The industrial isolates and reference strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. coagulans, B. flexus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. sporothermodurans, B. stearothermophilus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris were inhibited by < or = 0.125 microg of nisin on agar. B. coagulans and B. stearothermophilus were similarly inhibited by < or = 0.025 microg of nisin ml(-1) and by 3 microg of the biocide DBNPA ml(-1) in industrial starch. B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens strains were less sensitive. About 40% of nisin added to starch was retained after cooking. Fifty percent of the nisin remained active after 11 h of storage at 60 degrees C. The results show that nisin has potential as a preservative for modified industrial starches. PMID:11420648

  19. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  20. Etchback smear removal process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.

    1981-03-01

    A study evaluated variable limits for each chemical solution used in etchback smear removal on multilayer printed wiring boards (MLPWBs) to determine variables' influence on etchback behavior. Etchback smear removal is essential to fabricate about 40 different multilayer parts. However, erratic etchback behavior contributes to reduced yields among multilayer parts. The study, conducted on 172 multilayer printed wiring boards in 43 test runs, indicated that chemical interaction may not be a principal influence on etchback behavior. Study results also indicated that slight changes in process variables did not influence the presence of recessed conductors. The results verified the adequacy of existing tolerances on main process variables to produce uniformly etched holes.

  1. Suppressing dislocations in normalized hypercubic smearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrand, Thomas; Shamir, Yigal; Svetitsky, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Normalized hypercubic smearing improves the behavior of dynamical Wilson-clover fermions, but has the unwanted side effect that it can occasionally produce spikes in the fermion force. These spikes originate in the chain rule connecting the derivative with respect to the smeared links to the derivative with respect to the dynamical links, and are associated with the presence of dislocations in the dynamical gauge field. We propose and study an action designed to suppress these dislocations. We present evidence for improved performance of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. A side benefit is improvement in the properties of valence chiral fermions.

  2. Impact of Educational Intervention on Patients Behavior with Smear-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Study Using the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Jadgal, Khair Mohammad; Nakhaei-Moghadam, Tayebeh; Alizadeh-Seiouki, Hadi; Zareban, Iraj; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is a single-agent infectious disease, which is the major cause of death around the world. Approximately one third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) bacilli and at risk of developing active TB. The purpose of this study was determined the impact of education based on health belief model in promoting behavior of smear-positive pulmonary TB among patients in Chabahar city, Iran. Material and methods: Of the 80 smear-positive pulmonary TB who referred to health centers in Chabahar voluntarily participated in this interventional study. The data collected using questionnaire based on health belief model. The data were analyzed by using paired t-test, independent t-test, pearson correlation and chi-square test with SPSS 16. Results: The cognitive skills were increased significantly from 6.10 to 6.88 after intervention. All behavioral skills were increased significantly from 2.08 to 2.88 after implementing the intervention. Perceived severity was increased from11.08to12.19 significantly. Percepted benefits were enhanced significantly from 11.48 to 12.23. Mean percepted barrier was decreased significantly from 17.52 to 16.68. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated that implementing educational intervention programs can increase the level of knowledge and behavior of patients regarding smear- positive pulmonary TB initiatives. PMID:26543411

  3. Persistent BCG bacilli perpetuate CD4 T effector memory and optimal protection against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kaveh, Daryan A; Carmen Garcia-Pelayo, M; Hogarth, Philip J

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important infectious diseases of man and animals, and the only available vaccine (BCG) requires urgent replacement or improvement. To facilitate this, the protective mechanisms induced by BCG require further understanding. As a live attenuated vaccine, persistence of BCG bacilli in the host may be a crucial mechanism. We have investigated the long term persistence of BCG following vaccination and the influence on the induced immune response and protection, using an established murine model. We sought to establish whether previously identified BCG-specific CD4 TEM cells represent genuine long-lived memory cells of a relatively high frequency, or are a consequence of continual priming by chronically persistent BCG vaccine bacilli. By clearing persistent bacilli, we have compared immune responses (spleen and lung CD4: cytokine producing T effector/TEM; TCR-specific) and BCG-induced protection, in the presence and absence of these persisting vaccine bacilli. Viable BCG bacilli persisted for at least 16 months post-vaccination, associated with specific CD4 T effector/TEM and tetramer-specific responses. Clearing these bacilli abrogated all BCG-specific CD4 T cells whilst only reducing protection by 1log10. BCG may induce two additive mechanisms of immunity: (i) dependant on the presence of viable bacilli and TEM; and (ii) independent of these factors. These data have crucial implications on the rational generation of replacement TB vaccines, and the interpretation of BCG induced immunity in animal models. PMID:25444816

  4. Sputum smear microscopy: evaluation of impact of training, microscope distribution, and use of external quality assessment guidelines for resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Van Rie, A; Fitzgerald, D; Kabuya, G; Van Deun, A; Tabala, M; Jarret, N; Behets, F; Bahati, E

    2008-03-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is the main and often only laboratory technique used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in resource-poor countries, making quality assurance (QA) of smear microscopy an important activity. We evaluated the effects of a 5-day refresher training course for laboratory technicians and the distribution of new microscopes on the quality of smear microscopy in 13 primary health care laboratories in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The 2002 external QA guidelines for acid-fast bacillus smear microscopy were implemented, and blinded rechecking of the slides was performed before and 9 months after the training course and microscope distribution. We observed that the on-site checklist was highly time-consuming but could be tailored to capture frequent problems. Random blinded rechecking by the lot QA system method decreased the number of slides to be reviewed. Most laboratories needed further investigation for possible unacceptable performance, even according to the least-stringent interpretation. We conclude that the 2002 external QA guidelines are feasible for implementation in resource-poor settings, that the efficiency of external QA can be increased by selecting sample size parameters and interpretation criteria that take into account the local working conditions, and that greater attention should be paid to the provision of timely feedback and correction of the causes of substandard performance at poorly performing laboratories. PMID:18174302

  5. Phenomenology with Wilson fermions using smeared sources

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Apoorva; Daniel, D.; Kilcup, Gregory; Gupta, Rajan; Sharpe, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the use of two types of non-local ("smeared") sources for quark propagators in quenched lattice QCD at beta=6.0 using Wilson fermions at k=0.154 and 0.155. We present results for the hadron mass spectrum, meson decay constants, quark masses, the chiral condensate and the quark distribution amplitude of the pion. The use of smeared sources leads to a considerable improvement over previous results. We find a disturbing discrepancy between the baryon spectra obtained using Wuppertal and wall sources. We find good signals in the ratio of correlators used to calculate the quark mass and the chiral condensate and show that the extrapolation to the chiral limit is smooth.

  6. [Blast cells in peripheral blood smear].

    PubMed

    Lüthi, U; Huber, A R

    2004-02-01

    Despite modern technologies such as immunophenotyping and molecular probing cytomorphological examination of stained peripheral blood smears by microscopy remains the mainstay of diagnosis in a large variety of diseases. Although technically simple morphological analysis requires considerable skill. Early diagnosis in several hematological diseases is important (for example acute promyelocytic leukaemia associated frequently with disseminated intravascular coagulation), in order to initiate adjusted therapy. Further, referral of the patient to tertiary care centers is only justified after a solid diagnosis is obtained. Many disorders can be diagnosed by pathognomonic blood smears. The present article is a short overview of important hematological disorders, which are associated with blast cells in the peripheral blood. Important morphological cell characteristics are illustrated by microscopic pictures. PMID:15018395

  7. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI)-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut. PMID:21892951

  8. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ruppé, Étienne; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Barbier, François

    2015-12-01

    The burden of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) now represents a daily issue for the management of antimicrobial therapy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In Enterobacteriaceae, the dramatic increase in the rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins mainly results from the spread of plasmid-borne extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), especially those belonging to the CTX-M family. The efficacy of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor associations for severe infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae has not been adequately evaluated in critically ill patients, and carbapenems still stands as the first-line choice in this situation. However, carbapenemase-producing strains have emerged worldwide over the past decade. VIM- and NDM-type metallo-beta-lactamases, OXA-48 and KPC appear as the most successful enzymes and may threaten the efficacy of carbapenems in the near future. ESBL- and carbapenemase-encoding plasmids frequently bear resistance determinants for other antimicrobial classes, including aminoglycosides (aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes or 16S rRNA methylases) and fluoroquinolones (Qnr, AAC(6')-Ib-cr or efflux pumps), a key feature that fosters the spread of multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. In non-fermenting GNB such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, multidrug resistance may emerge following the sole occurrence of sequential chromosomal mutations, which may lead to the overproduction of intrinsic beta-lactamases, hyper-expression of efflux pumps, target modifications and permeability alterations. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii also have the ability to acquire mobile genetic elements encoding resistance determinants, including carbapenemases. Available options for the treatment of ICU-acquired infections due to carbapenem-resistant GNB are currently scarce, and recent reports emphasizing the spread of colistin resistance in environments with high

  9. Recency of Pap smear screening: a multivariate model.

    PubMed Central

    Howe, H L; Bzduch, H

    1987-01-01

    Most descriptive reports of women who have not received recent Pap smear screening have been limited to bivariate descriptions. The purpose of this study was to develop a multivariate model to predict the recency of Pap smear screening. A systematic sample of women residents, aged 25 to 74 years, in upstate New York was selected. The women were asked to report use of Pap smear screening during several time periods, their congruence with recommended medical practice, general use of medical services, and a variety of sociodemographic indicators. A log linear weighted least squares regression model was developed, and it explained 30 percent of the variance in recency of Pap smear screening behavior. While the sociodemographic variables were important predictors in the model, the medical care variables were the strongest predictors of recent Pap smear use. A significant relationship between race and recency of Pap smear testing was not supported by these data. PMID:3108946

  10. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  11. Characteristics of endobronchial tuberculosis patients with negative sputum acid-fast bacillus

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, Pınar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is defined as a tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence, with or without parenchymal involvement. In this study, clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic characteristics of cases diagnosed to have EBTB were evaluated. Methods Sixteen patients with at least three negative sputum examinations for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and diagnosed as having EBTB on the histopathological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens showing granulomatous structures with caseation necrosis and/or positive AFB-culture on the microbiological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens were included in our study. Age, sex, symptoms, tuberculin skin test (TST), microbiological examination results and radiological findings were recorded. Bronchoscopical lesions were classified according to Chung classification. Results EBTB was found to be more common in females. Most common symptoms were cough (100%), sputum (75%), weight loss (62.5%), hemoptisis (37.5%), chest pain (25%) and dyspnea (12.5%). Radiological examination findings revealed consolidations/infiltrations (87.5%), nodular lesions (37.5%), cavitary lesions (25%), unilateral (43.7%) or bilateral hilar widening (31.2%) and atelectasia (25%). Middle lob syndrome was seen in three cases. Most common lesions observed bronchoscopically were active caseous lesions, granular lesions, edematous hyperemic lesions, tumorous lesions, fibrostenotic lesions respectively. In all cases “granulomatous inflammation showing caseation” was shown in the histopathological examination of biopsy specimens. Conclusions EBTB can cause various radiological and bronchoscopical findings. In most of the cases distinct response is seen to antituberculous treatment. Bronchial stenosis is an important complication. Treatment should be given as soon as possible to avoid it. PMID:24409353

  12. Women's interpretation of cervical smear test results.

    PubMed

    Philips, Z; Avis, M; Whynes, D K

    2004-06-01

    Screening for cervical cancer using the Papanicolaou smear test has been available in England since the 1960s, yet very little is known about how women interpret their test results. This questionnaire study required women to explain, in their own words, the meaning of normal and abnormal test results. It was discovered that the use of the word cell as a description of findings was extremely common, and that a proportion of subjects equated abnormal results with technical inadequacy. The frequency of circularity in the interpretations, i.e. interpreting 'normal' as 'not abnormal' and vice versa, was striking. Contrary to previous research, we find that, whilst many women interpret normal results as indicating the current absence of cancer, few appear to believe that future cancer is thereby definitively ruled out. By the same token, only a very small minority interpret abnormal results as definitive of cancer. PMID:15165270

  13. Interdisciplinary research at the SMEAR Estonia station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Kangur, Ahto; Hõrrak, Urmas; Soosaar, Kaido; Mander, Ülo

    2014-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research on ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been an issue since many years in Estonia. Since 2008, these activities have been intensified and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station in Estonia. It is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. It's core is located in the experimental forestry district in Järvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem and atmospheric research activities take place. Here, we present an overview of the current state of research which especially takes care of the hemiboreal forest ecosystem. Continuous build up of comprehensive measurements at diverse sites has led to a network of stations over Estonia. It's location in the transition zone between boreal and temperate forest ecosystems allows for new and updated hypothesis regarding fluxes of energy and matter in a globally changing climate system.

  14. Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

  15. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standard operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.

  16. Influence of Root Canal Tapering on Smear Layer Removal.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Javidi, Maryam; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Tanbakuchi, Behrad; Zadeh, Mohsen Movahed; Mohammadi, Marzieh Maghadam

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to compare the influence of root canal taper on the efficacy of irrigants and chelating agents in smear layer removal. Eighty mesial roots of molar teeth were selected and prepared with rotary instruments. In group A, file 30/0.02 and in group B, file 30/0.4 were placed at working length and the smear layer was removed. In groups C and D, root canal preparation was the same as in groups A and B, respectively, except that the smear layer was not removed. The amount of the smear layer was quantified using a scanning electron microscope. Greater smear layer was detected in the apical portion of each group, whereas no significant difference was detected between groups in other portions. No statistical difference was found between canals with different tapers. PMID:27348950

  17. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standardmore » operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.« less

  18. Smeared antibranes polarise in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Truijen, Brecht; Van Riet, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and D p branes smeared over 6 - p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS p+1 solutions from D p branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.

  19. Concept for modifying drafting instruments to minimize smearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennie, T. A.

    1967-01-01

    Ball bearing standoffs added to drafting instruments enable the instruments to be moved about, with their surfaces out of contact with the drawing paper. This provides a safeguard against smearing of the lines.

  20. Oil-smeared models aid wind tunnel measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzoff, S.; Loving, D. K.

    1964-01-01

    For visualizing flow characteristics in wind tunnel tests, model surfaces are smeared with any common petroleum-base oils. These fluoresce under ultraviolet light and the flow patterns are readily visualized.

  1. Penetration of smeared or nonsmeared dentine by Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Love, R M; Chandler, N P; Jenkinson, H F

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the penetration of smeared and nonsmeared dentine by Streptococcus gordonii. Prepared human roots, grouped as either nonsmeared or smeared, were immersed in a suspension of S. gordonii cells for 3 weeks. The roots were then prepared for scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis. Dentine discs prepared from coronal dentine were grouped similarly. Using a fluid filtration apparatus, the hydraulic conductance (Lp) of each disc was determined before and after incubation with bacterial suspension. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the roots following infection with bacteria showed no change in the smear layer (P < 0.0001). Histological sections revealed that bacterial penetration of all the nonsmeared samples had occurred, while nine out of 10 smeared samples showed no bacterial penetration (P < 0.0001). The Lp of the nonsmeared discs was significantly reduced by 42% (P < 0.0001) after bacterial penetration. However, the smeared samples revealed a 1% reduction in Lp which was not significant (P > 0.05). The results suggest that dentinal smear layers are an effective barrier to dentinal tubule invasion by S. gordonii. PMID:9206406

  2. Resistance of gram-negative bacilli as related to hospital use of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, M Y; Goldstein, E J; Friedman, M H; Anderson, M S; Mulligan, M E

    1983-01-01

    The development of resistance of gram-negative bacilli, which are common nosocomial pathogens, is an increasing problem. It is generally accepted that this resistance may directly reflect the frequency of use of various antimicrobial agents. Because our institution experienced in 1976 a dramatic change in the pattern of antimicrobial use, primarily a marked decrease in prescribing cephalosporins, we attempted to evaluate retrospectively the effects of this change upon the resistance of gram-negative bacilli that are common nosocomial pathogens. Susceptibilities of Klebsiella and Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens were determined for the years 1975 to 1979. Not unexpectedly, we observed a substantial decrease in cephalosporin resistance. An unexpected finding was a decrease in aminoglycoside resistance, despite increased use of these agents. The possibility that decreased cephalosporin use may lead to decreased aminoglycoside resistance is an intriguing and provocative thesis which can only be speculative at this time but which would seem worthy of additional formal investigation. PMID:6638994

  3. Discrimination of Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schaumann, Reiner; Knoop, Nicolas; Genzel, Gelimer H; Losensky, Kevin; Rosenkranz, Christiane; Stîngu, Catalina S; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Rodloff, Arne C; Eschrich, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination of Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be an effective identification tool in medical microbiology. Discrimination to subspecies or serovar level has been found to be challenging using commercially available identification software. By forming our own reference database and using alternative analysis methods, we could reliably identify all implemented Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting gram negative bacilli by MALDI-TOF MS and even succeeded to distinguish Shigella sonnei from Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Enteritidis from Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Furthermore, the method showed the ability to separate Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) from non-enteropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23919091

  4. Discrimination of Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Schaumann, Reiner; Knoop, Nicolas; Genzel, Gelimer H; Losensky, Kevin; Rosenkranz, Christiane; Stîngu, Catalina S; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Rodloff, Arne C; Eschrich, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination of Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be an effective identification tool in medical microbiology. Discrimination to subspecies or serovar level has been found to be challenging using commercially available identification software. By forming our own reference database and using alternative analysis methods, we could reliably identify all implemented Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting gram negative bacilli by MALDI-TOF MS and even succeeded to distinguish Shigella sonnei from Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Enteritidis from Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Furthermore, the method showed the ability to separate Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) from non-enteropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23919091

  5. Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli by Use of Vitek MS

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Maria; Pincus, David H.; Wilkey, Kathy; Sercia, Linda; LaSalvia, Margaret; Wilson, Deborah; Procop, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of Vitek MS mass spectrometric identifications was assessed for 206 clinically significant isolates of aerobic Gram-positive bacilli representing 20 genera and 38 species. The Vitek MS identifications were correct for 85% of the isolates (56.3% to the species level, 28.6% limited to the genus level), with misidentifications occurring for 7.3% of the isolates. PMID:24501030

  6. Nematicidal spore-forming Bacilli share similar virulence factors and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ziqiang; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhang, Zhengming; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the soil environment, Bacilli can affect nematode development, fecundity and survival. However, although many Bacillus species can kill nematodes, the virulence mechanisms Bacilli utilize remain unknown. In this study, we collected 120 strains comprising 30 species across the Bacillaceae and Paenibacillaceae families of the Bacillales order and measured their nematicidal activities in vitro. Comparison of these strains’ nematicidal capacities revealed that nine species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. firmus, B. toyonensis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Brevibacillus laterosporus and B. brevis, were highly nematicidal, the first of which showed the highest activity. Genome sequencing and analysis identified many potential virulence factors, which grouped into five types. At least four possible mechanisms were deduced on the basis of the combination of these factors and the bacterial nematicidal activity, including a pore-forming mechanism of crystal proteins, an inhibition-like mechanism of thuringiensin and a degradation mechanism of proteases and/or chitinases. Our results demonstrate that 120 spore-forming Bacilli across different families share virulence factors that may contribute to their nematicidal capacity. PMID:27539267

  7. Nematicidal spore-forming Bacilli share similar virulence factors and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ziqiang; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhang, Zhengming; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the soil environment, Bacilli can affect nematode development, fecundity and survival. However, although many Bacillus species can kill nematodes, the virulence mechanisms Bacilli utilize remain unknown. In this study, we collected 120 strains comprising 30 species across the Bacillaceae and Paenibacillaceae families of the Bacillales order and measured their nematicidal activities in vitro. Comparison of these strains' nematicidal capacities revealed that nine species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. firmus, B. toyonensis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Brevibacillus laterosporus and B. brevis, were highly nematicidal, the first of which showed the highest activity. Genome sequencing and analysis identified many potential virulence factors, which grouped into five types. At least four possible mechanisms were deduced on the basis of the combination of these factors and the bacterial nematicidal activity, including a pore-forming mechanism of crystal proteins, an inhibition-like mechanism of thuringiensin and a degradation mechanism of proteases and/or chitinases. Our results demonstrate that 120 spore-forming Bacilli across different families share virulence factors that may contribute to their nematicidal capacity. PMID:27539267

  8. Biofilms of thermophilic bacilli isolated from dairy processing plants and efficacy of sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Sara A; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve H

    2014-01-01

    In many environments, bacteria can attach to a surface and grow into multicellular structures, otherwise known as biofilms. Many systems for studying these biofilms in the laboratory are available. To study biofilms of the thermophilic bacilli in milk powder-manufacturing plants, standard laboratory biofilm techniques need to be adapted. The focus of this chapter is on techniques that can be used for growing and analyzing biofilms of thermophilic bacilli that are isolated from dairy processing plants. These techniques include laboratory methods as well as how to set up a pilot-scale experiment. The laboratory methods consist of a microtiter plate assay, which is used for strain selection, and the CDC reactor, which is used for testing sanitizers and antimicrobial surfaces. In dairy processing, if a new sanitizer or antimicrobial surface appears to be promising, it is useful to carry out pilot-scale experiments before introducing it to a manufacturing plant. We describe how to set up a pilot-scale experiment for testing the efficacy of sanitizers against the thermophilic bacilli. PMID:24664846

  9. Cold active hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from three sub-glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of culturable, cold-active enzymes producing Bacilli was investigated from three sub-glacial lakes of north western Indian Himalayas. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using three restriction enzymes Alu I, Msp I, and Hae III led to the clustering of 136 Bacilli into 26, 23, and 22 clusters at 75% similarity index from Chandratal Lake, Dashair Lake, and Pangong Lake, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 35 Bacilli that could be grouped in seven families viz.: Bacillaceae (48%), Staphylococcaceae (14%), Bacillales incertae sedis (13%), Planococcaceae (12%), Paenibacillaceae (9%), Sporolactobacillaceae (3%), and Carnobacteriaceae (1%), which included twelve different genera Bacillus, Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, and Virgibacillus. Based on their optimal temperature for growth, 35 Bacilli were grouped as psychrophilic (11 strains), psychrotrophic (17 strains), or psychrotolerant (7 strains), respectively. The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for cold-active enzyme activities. Amylase, β-glucosidase, pectinase, and protease activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 80% of the strains while approximately 40, 31, 23, 14, 11, and 9% of strains possessed cellulase, xylanase, β-galactosidase, laccase, chitinase, and lipase activity, respectively. Among 35 Bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus marisflavi, Exiguobacterium indicum, Paenibacillus terrae, Pontibacillus sp., Sporosarcina globispora, and Sporosarcina psychrophila were efficient producers of different cold-active enzymes. These cold-adapted Bacilli could play an important role in industrial and agricultural processes. PMID:26933936

  10. Socioeconomic and regional inequalities of pap smear coverage.

    PubMed

    Manica, Silvia Troyahn; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Ferla, Alcindo Antônio; Gouveia, Helga Geremias; Anschau, Fernando; Oliveira, Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa de

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To identify socioeconomic and regional inequalities of pap smear coverage in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Methods An ecological study based on data of the 2011-2012 national health information system to estimate the annual coverage of pap smears for the overall female population of the state and for women without private health insurance. We estimated annual pap smear coverage according to the Municipal Social Vulnerability Index and health macro-regions and regions of the state. Results The percentage of women without private health insurance ranged from 38.1% to 94.2% in the health regions. Pap smear coverage was 17.3% for the overall female population and 23.8% for women without private health insurance. Pap smear coverage was higher in more socially vulnerable municipalities and regions with a higher percentage of women with private health insurance. Conclusions The prevalence of private health insurance should be considered in studies that address the coverage of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). PMID:26982680

  11. The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Jamie L.; Paterson, Joyce; Liu, Weiguo; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Acanthamoeba keratitis remains a difficult diagnosis despite advances in genetic and imaging technologies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of cytology smears for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods. This is a case study of the diagnostic course for a patient with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results. A 40-year-old male with poor contact lens hygiene presented with severe left eye pain. Slit lamp examination showed two peripheral ring infiltrates without an epithelial defect. The epithelium over both infiltrates was removed with a Kimura spatula. Half of the sample was smeared on a dry microscope slide and the other half was submitted for Acanthamoeba culture and PCR. Both culture and PCR were negative for Acanthamoeba, but hematoxylin and eosin stain of the smear revealed double-walled cysts. Conclusion. H&E staining of corneal cytology specimens is an efficient and readily available test for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:27403362

  12. Shape-based nuclei area of digitized pap smear images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhimmah, Izzati; Kurniawan, Rahadian

    2012-04-01

    Nuclei of the epithelial of Pap smear cells are important risk indicator of cervical cancers. Pathologist uses the changing of the area of the nuclei to determine whether cells are normal or abnormal. It means that having correct measurement of the area of nuclei is important on the pap smears assessment. Our paper present a novel approach to analyze the shape of nuclei in pap smear images and measuring the area of nuclei. We conducted a study to measure the area of nuclei automatically by calculating the number of pixels contained in each of the segmented nuclei. For comparison, we performed measurements of nuclei area using the ellipse area approximation. The result of the t-test confirmed that there were similarity between elliptical area approximation and automatic segmented nuclei-area at 0.5% level of significance.

  13. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-01

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs. PMID:27162266

  14. [The dentinal smear layer. Characteristics and interactions. 2].

    PubMed

    Negri, P L; Eramo, S; Lotito, M; De Pino, C

    1991-03-15

    The Authors, after the presentation (in the first part of the Dossier) of a large literature review about the physical, chemical and clinical characteristics of formation, interaction, remotion of "smear layer" during cavity preparation in hard tooth tissue, describe the results of a scanning microelectronic research about the action as cleanser (for the dentinal cavity wall) of the CK101 (Caridex) versus wather, Tubulicid and phosphoric acid. The experimental results obtained "in vitro" show that the substance has relative action, without removing the tubular portion of "smear layer". PMID:2070916

  15. Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Detection in Gram-negative Bacilli of Nosocomial Origin

    PubMed Central

    Tsering, Dechen C; Das, Shyamasree; Adhiakari, Luna; Pal, Ranabir; Singh, Takhellambam SK

    2009-01-01

    Background: Resistance to third generation cephalosporins by acquisition and expression of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) enzymes among gram-negative bacilli is on a rise. The presence of ESBL producing organisms significantly affects the course and outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to infection management worldwide. Materials and Methods: In the period from June 2007 to 2008, we collected 1489 samples from patients suspected of nosocomial infection. The isolates were identified based on colony morphology and biochemical reaction. Gram negative bacilli resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL by double disc synergy test (DDST- a screening test)and then phenotypic confirmatory test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: From the sample of 238 gram-negative bacilli, we isolated Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii and Enterobacter cloacae. Following both methods, 34% isolates were ESBL-positive. The ESBL producing isolates were significantly resistant (p < 0.01) to ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin as compared to non-ESBL producers. Multidrug resistance was significantly (p < 0.01) higher (69.14%) in ESBL positive isolates than non-ESBL isolates (21.66%). Conclusion: High prevalence of ESBL in our hospital cannot be ignored. ESBL producers can be detected by DDST and phenotypic confirmatory test with equal efficacy. The sensitivity of screening test improved with the use of more than one antibiotic and addition of one or two antibiotics would not increase cost and labor. We recommend DDST using multiple antibiotics in all microbiology units as a routine screening test. PMID:20300397

  16. Metal Mesh Smear Sampling for Glow Discharge Analytical Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Ramsey, J.M.; Smith, D.H.

    2000-06-01

    Metal mesh smear sampling is being developed and evaluated for use in a number of glow discharge and other optical and mass spectrometric techniques. Sensitive elemental and isotopic analyses thus will be coupled with a convenient sampling scheme similar to one that is common for radiological surveys.

  17. Treatment of a Retarded Child's Faeces Smearing and Coprophagic Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedin, B. D.; Johnson, Helene K.

    1979-01-01

    The daily rearrangement of a profoundly retarded seven-year-old boy's routine shower was found to be effective in eliminating his low-frequency feces smearing and coprophagic (eating of feces) behavior during the late afternoon/early evening part of the day. (Author/DLS)

  18. [Is the PAP smear era coming to an end?].

    PubMed

    Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Spaczyński, Marek

    2015-12-01

    After the discovery of the role human papilloma virus (HPV) plays in the development of cervical cancer we are witnesses to a change in the conception and interpretation of cervical cancer prevention processes. Primary prevention gained a new tool in the form of HPV vaccines. Secondary prevention, i.e. detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN), acquired a new diagnostic method--the HPV test. Studies were initiated in order to determine the usefulness of HPV tests in cervical cancer prevention and screening. They revealed that the DNA HPV test used in screening has higher sensitivity in CIN detection than PAP smear and that HPV-negative patients are better and longer protected against developing cervical cancer in comparison to women with normal PAP smear results. HPV tests also possess a predictive value, which detects women more susceptible to developing cervical cancer in the future. PAP smear does not have a predictive value. Instead, it only detects a presence or an absence of neoplasia at that particular time. These results clearly indicate that the era of classic PAP smear is indeed coming to an end, replaced by a new primary CIN screening tool--HPV test. The entire cervical cancer screening system must therefore be redefined and reorganized. PMID:26995946

  19. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  20. Automated identification of cancerous smears using various competitive intelligent techniques.

    PubMed

    Dounias, G; Bjerregaard, B; Jantzen, J; Tsakonas, A; Ampazis, N; Panagi, G; Panourgias, E

    2006-01-01

    In this study the performance of various intelligent methodologies is compared in the task of pap-smear diagnosis. The selected intelligent methodologies are briefly described and explained, and then, the acquired results are presented and discussed for their comprehensibility and usefulness to medical staff, either for fault diagnosis tasks, or for the construction of automated computer-assisted classification of smears. The intelligent methodologies used for the construction of pap-smear classifiers, are different clustering approaches, feature selection, neuro-fuzzy systems, inductive machine learning, genetic programming, and second order neural networks. Acquired results reveal the power of most intelligent techniques to obtain high quality solutions in this difficult problem of medical diagnosis. Some of the methods obtain almost perfect diagnostic accuracy in test data, but the outcome lacks comprehensibility. On the other hand, results scoring high in terms of comprehensibility are acquired from some methods, but with the drawback of achieving lower diagnostic accuracy. The experimental data used in this study were collected at a previous stage, for the purpose of combining intelligent diagnostic methodologies with other existing computer imaging technologies towards the construction of an automated smear cell classification device. PMID:16525690

  1. Anal Pap smears and anal cancer: what dermatologists should know.

    PubMed

    Liszewski, Walter; Ananth, Amy T; Ploch, Lauren E; Rogers, Nicole E

    2014-11-01

    Squamous epithelial cells are susceptible to infection by the human papillomavirus. Infection of squamous epithelium with oncogenic human papillomavirus types is associated with development of dysplasia and potential malignant transformation. Historically, cervical cancer has been the most prevalent human papillomavirus-induced squamous neoplasia. However, because of widespread screening via Pap smear testing, rates of cervical cancer in the United States have decreased dramatically during the past 50 years. Rates of anal cancer, in contrast, have doubled during the past 30 years. The groups at highest risk for development of anal cancer are men who have sex with men, HIV-positive patients, and patients immunosuppressed as a result of solid-organ transplantation. By detecting dysplasia before it develops into invasive cancer, anal Pap smears may be a potentially useful screening tool for anal cancer, particularly in individuals known to be at increased risk. However, at this time, sufficient data supporting the benefit of anal Pap smear screening are lacking. With insufficient evidence, no national health care organizations currently recommend the use of anal Pap smears as a routine screening test, even among high-risk groups. PMID:25088812

  2. IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE DETECTION OF 'CRYPTOSPORIDIUM' OOCYSTS IN FECAL SMEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) procedure was developed for the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in human, nonhuman primate, and bovine fecal smears. The procedure, which takes about 90 min to perform, involves the use of a rabbit antiserum against Cryptosporidium ...

  3. Hard-surface contamination detection exercise. [Smears:a3

    SciTech Connect

    Kawa, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to create a practical exercise which demonstrates the techniques used by Health Physicists to detect surface contamination, including both instrumentation and smear survey techniques. By understanding the basic principles of the most commonly found instruments the intent is that a new Health Physics graduate can correctly choose, and apply an instrument to their detection situation. The exercise is also intended to acquaint students with the very basic principles of smear techniques. Smear surveys are probably the most universally applied technique in this industry, however, very little literature exists on the subject. The techniques are usually taught, on-the-job and by demonstration. By their seeing and participating in this presentation, it is intended that Health Physics students can accelerate their first few weeks at their new careers, and enable them to recognize common mistakes. Health Physicists are expected to have knowledge of the basic practices of their profession. This exercise will allow Health Physics students to become familiar with the use of hand-held detection devices and the technique of smear surveys. Adequate measurement and recording of surface contamination information is necessary to: meet licensing requirements; protect the health and safety of the workers; maintain accurate records in the case of litigation or dose reconstruction; and maintain high levels of professional competency. This exercise will assist students in obtaining the skills necessary to adequately measure and record levels of surface contamination. 41 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in the Fecal Microflora of Children

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xuan; Razia, Yasmin; Johnson, James R.; Stapp, Jennifer R.; Boster, Daniel R.; Tsosie, Treva; Smith, Donna L.; Braden, Christopher R.; Gay, Kathryn; Angulo, Frederick J.; Tarr, Phillip I.

    2006-01-01

    The extent to which antibiotic-resistant bacteria are excreted by humans who have not been exposed to antibiotics is not known. Children, who rarely receive fluoroquinolones, provide opportunities to assess the frequency of fecal excretion by fluoroquinolone-naïve hosts of fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Fresh nondiarrheal stools from children were processed by screening them on agar containing ciprofloxacin to recover ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Resistant isolates were identified, and ciprofloxacin MICs were determined. Resistant Escherichia coli isolates were also analyzed for urovirulence-associated loci. Thirteen (2.9%) of 455 stools yielded ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli (seven children), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (four children), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Enterobacter aerogenes (one child each). Neither the subjects themselves nor members of their households used fluoroquinolones in the 4 weeks preceding collection. Six of the seven resistant E. coli isolates belonged to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, in which extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli bacteria are frequently found. All resistant E. coli isolates contained at least three putative E. coli virulence loci. Most ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria were resistant to additional antibiotics. Potentially pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to therapeutically important antimicrobial agents are excreted by some humans, despite these persons' lack of exposure to the particular drugs. The sources of these resistant organisms are unknown. This underrecognized reservoir of drug-resistant potential pathogens poses public health challenges. PMID:17005812

  5. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature. PMID:26934782

  6. Neuro-Sweet disease with positive modified acid-fast staining of the cerebrospinal fluid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JUAN-FANG; LI, YUAN; LI, KAI; ZHANG, XIAO; YANG, YI-NING; ZHAO, GANG; LIU, ZHI-RONG

    2016-01-01

    Neuro-Sweet disease (NSD) is Sweet disease with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. To the best of our knowledge, the present case report is the first to describe NSD complicated by endogenous infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present case report describes a male patient who developed NSD-induced meningitis, which initially manifested as a fever, headache and neck stiffness. Painful erythematous plaques subsequently developed on his face, neck and upper trunk. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed and the results were normal, whereas modified acid-fast stain analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provided a positive result. The patient was thus diagnosed with viral meningitis and tuberculosis. However, subsequent skin biopsy results demonstrated neutrophilic infiltration into the dermis without vasculitis, and subsequent human leukocyte antigen typing was positive for Cw1 and negative for B51 and the patient was diagnosed with NSD. Following treatment with corticosteroids, and antiviral and anti-tuberculotic agents, the clinical symptoms were reduced and the previously abnormal findings in the CSF examinations and associated laboratory data were improved. The present case indicates that the diagnosis of NSD is not easily achieved, and early skin biopsy is vital to ensure a fast and effective diagnosis. In addition to systemic corticosteroids, comprehensive treatment is also recommended for patients with NSD complicated by additional complex medical problems. PMID:27073429

  7. [Non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli: their distribution to clinical materials and antibiotic susceptibility (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Akalin, H E; Baykal, M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 7898 non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from various clinical materials. Pseudomonas (7526) was the most common among them. Alcaligenes faecalis (273), Acinetobacter sp. (93) and Flavobacterium (6) were the other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Most of them were found in urine and pus cultures, however they were also isolated from sputum, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. Gentamicin was the most effective antibiotic in vitro. Fifty four per cent of Pseudomonas, 100% of Acinetobacter, and 70% of Alcaligenes faecalis were inhibited by tobramycin. PMID:7453583

  8. The Pap smear, automated rescreening, and negligent nondisclosure.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, S E

    1999-01-01

    A new element in the Papanicolaou smear liability crisis is the recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of 2 automated rescreening devices. Their manufacturers have undertaken aggressive advertising in medical journals and in women's magazines, generating controversy about whether this positions such devices as the new standard of care and whether failure to offer such rescreening might lead to liability alleging to tort of negligent nondisclosure, with contributing opinions from pathologists' and manufacturers' counsels. Cases are cited in prenatal diagnostics and blood banking that established liability for failing to disclose diagnostic modalities used by at most only a minority of practitioners and, therefore, have not yet achieved standard-of-care status. It is concluded that informed consent for cervicovaginal smears should include disclosure of the availability of automated rescreening to reduce negligence liability. PMID:9894449

  9. Manual and Automated Instrumentation for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae and Other Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Caroline M.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of gram-negative bacilli, both enteric and nonenteric, by conventional methods is not realistic for clinical microbiology laboratories performing routine cultures in today's world. The use of commercial kits, either manual or automated, to identify these organisms is a common practice. The advent of rapid or “spot” testing has eliminated the need for some commonly isolated organisms to be identified with the systems approach. Commercially available systems provide more in-depth identification to the species level as well as detect new and unusual strains. The answers obtained from these systems may not always be correct and must be interpreted with caution. The patient demographics, laboratory workload and work flow, and technologist's skill levels should dictate the system of choice. Cost considerations introduce another variable into the equation affecting choice. Each system has its own strengths and weaknesses, and each laboratory must decide on the level of sophistication that fulfills its particular needs. PMID:15653824

  10. Analysis for Ca --> 0 of smearing during gravure printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Umut; Morris, S. J. S.

    2015-11-01

    During gravure printing, excess liquid must be wiped from the substrate, but wiping itself also smears liquid from the engraved wells onto the substrate. Assuming the wiping blade and substrate to be orthonormal, Ceyhan & Morris (BAPS.2014.DFD.G10.1) treat the case in which the blade-liquid contact angle θ --> π / 2 . Streamlines are then everywhere quasiparallel, and the evolution equation for thin films describes the entire process. Comparing the solution of that equation for an emerging single well in plane flow with that for 3-dimensional flow, we found that smearing can be treated as a problem in plane flow. We now extend the analysis to cover the range 0 <= θ < π / 2 . Streamlines are no longer everywhere quasiparallel, and inner-and-outer analysis of an unsteady plane flow is required. Though the problem might appear intractable, it has two redeeming features: (a) the interface, in effect, pins first at the distal edge of a well and, then later, at its proximal edge; (b) except near the pinning points, the pressure is hydrostatic. Using these features, we show that smearing, including the formation of a local maximum in film thickness, can be understood by combining Euclid (geometry of the circle) with Reynolds (squeeze-film flow).

  11. Surface Microflora of Four Smear-Ripened Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Mounier, Jérôme; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Cogan, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) analysis for identifying and typing the yeast. The yeast microflora was very uniform, and Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species in the four cheeses. Yarrowia lipolytica was also isolated in low numbers from one cheese. The bacteria were highly diverse, and 14 different species, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium variabile, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Arthrobacter sp., Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus sp. nov., Brevibacterium linens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Halomonas venusta, Vibrio sp., and Bacillus sp., were identified on the four cheeses. Each cheese had a more or less unique microflora with four to nine species on its surface. However, two bacteria, C. casei and A. arilaitensis, were found on each cheese. Diversity at the strain level was also observed, based on the different PFGE patterns and mtDNA RFLP profiles of the dominant bacterial and yeast species. None of the ripening cultures deliberately inoculated onto the surface were reisolated from the cheeses. This study confirms the importance of the adventitious, resident microflora in the ripening of smear cheeses. PMID:16269673

  12. NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo beta lactamase-1) producing Gram-negative bacilli: Emergence & clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Khan, Asiya; Zahoor, Danish

    2014-01-01

    Backgound & objectives: Resistance to carbapenems in Gram-negative bacteria conferred by NDM-1 is a global health problem. We investigated the occurrence of NDM-1 in clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli in a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir valley, India. Methods: Gram-negative bacilli from different clinical isolates were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and interpreted using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Isolates resistant to carbapenems were subjected to different phenotypic test such as modified Hodge test (MHT), boronic acid and oxacillin based MHT (BA-MHT and OXA-MHT), combined disk test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with imipenem and imipenem -EDTA for determination of class B metallo enzymes. Presence of blaNDM-1 gene was established by PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Results: Of the total 1625 Gram-negative isolates received, 100 were resistant to imipenem. Of the 100 isolates, 55 (55%) were positive by modified Hodge test indicating carbapenemase production. Of the 100 isolates tested by MHT, BA-MHT and OXA-MHT, 29 (29%) isolates belonged to Class A and 15 (15%) to Class B, while 56 (56%) isolates were negative. Of the 15 class B metallo beta lactamase producers, nine carried the blaNDM-1 gene. NDM-1 was found among Escherichia coli (2 isolates), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 isolates), Citrobacter freundii (3 isolates), Acinetobacter spp (1 isolate), and one isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates were resistant to all antibiotic tested except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed the presence of clinical isolates expressing NDM-1 in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India. These isolates harbour plasmid mediated multiple drug resistant determinants and can disseminate easily across several unrelated genera. To halt their spread, early identification of these isolates is mandatory. PMID:25579151

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  14. The genotypic diversity and lipase production of some thermophilic bacilli from different genera

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Melih; Cokmus, Cumhur; Cihan, Arzu Coleri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thermophilic 32 isolates and 20 reference bacilli were subjected to Rep-PCR and ITS-PCR fingerprinting for determination of their genotypic diversity, before screening lipase activities. By these methods, all the isolates and references could easily be differentiated up to subspecies level from each other. In screening assay, 11 isolates and 7 references were found to be lipase producing. Their extracellular lipase activities were measured quantitatively by incubating in both tributyrin and olive oil broths at 60 °C and pH 7.0. During the 24, 48 and 72-h period of incubation, the changes in the lipase activities, culture absorbance, wet weight of biomass and pH were all measured. The activity was determined by using pNPB in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 at 60 °C. The lipase production of the isolates in olive oil broths varied between 0.008 and 0.052, whereas these values were found to be 0.002-0.019 (U/mL) in the case of tyributyrin. For comparison, an index was established by dividing the lipase activities to cell biomass (U/mg). The maximum thermostable lipase production was achieved by the isolates F84a, F84b, and G. thermodenitrificans DSM 465T (0.009, 0.008 and 0.008 U/mg) within olive oil broth, whereas G. stearothermophilus A113 displayed the highest lipase activity than its type strain in tyributyrin. Therefore, as some of these isolates displayed higher activities in comparison to references, new lipase producing bacilli were determined by presenting their genotypic diversity with DNA fingerprinting techniques. PMID:26691464

  15. Antibacterial and smear layer removal capability of oregano extract solution

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Evren; Adanir, Necdet; Ozturk, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of oregano extract solution (OES) against Enterococcus faecalis within root canals and dentin tubules, and its effect on smear layer. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 human maxillary central incisors was selected. After removal of coronal part of the teeth, root canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary files (Dentsply, Tulsa Endodontics, OK, USA) to #F3 with the crown-down manner. The roots were randomly assigned to 15 groups (n = 12 for each). In the first seven groups, the antimicrobial effects of the test groups were evaluated. Suspensions of E. faecalis cultures were adjusted to 1.0 McFarland (1 × 108 colony-forming unit [CFU]/ml), and sterilized teeth were placed in Eppendorf tubes and kept at 37°C for 4 weeks. Samples were then taken from the root canals before irrigation using three sterile paper points. Dentin samples were taken from root canals with ProTaper #F4 and #F5 series rotary instruments after irrigation. The aliquots of samples were placed into the brain heart infusion and incubated at 37°C for 48 h and then the CFUs were counted. In the other eight groups, the efficacy of the irrigation solutions on removing the smear layer was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (Leo 440, Oxford Microscopy Ltd., Cambridge, England) analysis. Statistical evaluation of the microbiological data was performed using the Kruskall–Wallis and Mann–Witney U-test (P < 0.05). Results: There was a statistically difference between the groups (P < 0.05). Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), 5% and 2% OES wasn’t found to be statistically significant regarding their antibacterial activities against E. faecalis (P > 0.05). 1% OES and NaOCl showed similar antimicrobial effect (P > 0.05), and 1% OES and NaOCl were better than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and saline (P < 0.05) but not as successful as CHX. According to the results obtained from dentin, CHX is the most

  16. Loss of accuracy using smeared properties in composite beam modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning

    Advanced composite materials have broad, proven applications in many engineering systems ranging from sports equipment sectors to components on the space shuttle because of their lightweight characteristics and significantly high stiffness. Together with this merit of composite materials is the challenge of improving computational simulation process for composites analysis. Composite structures, particularly composite laminates, usually consist of many layers with different lay-up angles. The anisotropic and heterogeneous features render 3D finite element analysis (FEA) computationally expensive in terms of the computational time and the computing power. At the constituent level, composite materials are heterogeneous. But quite often one homogenizes each layer of composites, i.e. lamina, and uses the homogenized material properties as averaged (smeared) values of those constituent materials for analysis. This is an approach extensively used in design and analysis of composite laminates. Furthermore, many industries tempted to use smeared properties at the laminate level to further reduce the model of composite structures. At this scale, smeared properties are averaged material properties that are weighted by the layer thickness. Although this approach has the advantage of saving computational time and cost of modeling significantly, the prediction of the structural responses may not be accurate, particularly the pointwise stress distribution. Therefore, it is important to quantify the loss of accuracy when one uses smeared properties. In this paper, several different benchmark problems are carefully investigated in order to exemplify the effect of the smeared properties on the global behavior and pointwise stress distribution of the composite beam. In the classical beam theory, both Newtonian method and variational method include several ad hoc assumptions to construct the model, however, these assumptions are avoided if one uses variational asymptotic method. VABS

  17. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear

    PubMed Central

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam; Allameh, Taj-Alsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to present 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 334 consecutive women aged more than 16 who were referred with an abnormal Pap smear were entered into the study. Patients were followed with biannual Pap smear and annual colposcopy and biopsy for 2 years. Results: At baseline, the majority of patients with abnormal Pap smear were normal on colposcopy and biopsy (68% and 86%, respectively). Six months after first abnormal Pap smear majority of patients in each group showed a significant regress to normal or less invasive lesion (P < 0.001). Twelve patients (4%) had no change in Pap smear, whereas 313 (94%) had at least one stage improvement. Only nine (3%) patients had deteriorated Pap smear after 6 months. All 308 patients who underwent colposcopy and biopsy had normal Pap smear 24 months after the first abnormal Pap smear. Conclusion: Pap smear is associated with a high rate of false-positive results. In addition, the majority of low-grade cervical lesions can spontaneously regress. A long-term follow-up of a patient with abnormal Pap smear can help us to avoid needless interventions. PMID:26958048

  18. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in 3D - a field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, Michael; Tronberens, Sebastian; Urai, Janos; Asmus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Clay smears in sedimentary basins are important factors defining the sealing properties of faults. However, as clay smears are highly complex 3D structures, processes involved in the formation and deformation of clay smears are not well identified and understood. To enhance the prediction of sealing properties of clay smears extensive studies of these structures are necessary including the 3D information. We present extraordinary outcrop data from an open cast lignite mine (Hambach) in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have Shale Gouge Ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. Material in the fault zones is layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. We studied the 3D thickness distribution of clay smear from a series of thin-spaced incremental cross-sections and several cross-sections in larger distances along the fault. Additionally, we excavated two large clay smear surfaces. Our observations show that clay smears are strongly affected by R- and R'-shears, mostly at the footwall side of our outcrops. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes. Thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cutoffs. Investigating the 3D thickness of the clay smears shows a heterogeneous distribution, rather than a continuous thinning of the smear with increasing distance to the source layers. We found two types of layered clay smears: one with continuous sheared sand between two clay smears providing vertical pathways for fluid flow, and one which consists of overlapping clay patches separated by sheared sand that provide a tortuous pathway across the clay smear. On smaller scale we identified grain-scale mixing as an important process for the formation of clay smears. Sand can be entrained into the clay smear by mixing from the surrounding host rock as well as due to intense shearing of sand lenses that were incorporated into the smear. This causes clay smears

  19. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Emad A; Mohamed, Mostafa M A; Far, Behrouz H; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together. PMID:24843821

  20. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Emad A.; Mohamed, Mostafa M. A.; Far, Behrouz H.; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together. PMID:24843821

  1. Leukocyte segmentation and classification in blood-smear images.

    PubMed

    Ramoser, Herbert; Laurain, Vincent; Bischof, Horst; Ecker, Rupert

    2005-01-01

    The detection and classification of leukocytes in blood smear images is a routine task in medical diagnosis. In this paper we present a fully automated approach to leukocyte segmentation that is robust with respect to cell appearance and image quality. A set of features is used to describe cytoplasm and nucleus properties. Pairwise SVM classification is used to discriminate between different cell types. Evaluation on a set of 1166 images (13 classes) resulted in 95% correct segmentations and 75% to 99% correct classification (with reject option). PMID:17280945

  2. Eruptive furunculosis following the soak and smear regimen.

    PubMed

    Martires, Kathryn; Sukhdeo, Kumar; Meinhardt, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The 'soak and smear' regimen is a highly effective method for localised topical therapy employed by dermatologists for widespread inflammatory skin conditions. The regimen involves application of topical medication under occlusion after soaking in water. Complications from this treatment method are rare. We present a case of multiple, generalised methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-positive furuncles arising in a patient as an unexpected consequence of therapy. The case highlights an unanticipated risk of a commonly employed treatment amid an epidemic of MRSA in the community. PMID:25694635

  3. Smearing of Observables and Spectral Measures on Quantum Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2013-02-01

    An observable on a quantum structure is any σ-homomorphism of quantum structures from the Borel σ-algebra of the real line into the quantum structure which is in our case a monotone σ-complete effect algebra with the Riesz Decomposition Property. We show that every observable is a smearing of a sharp observable which takes values from a Boolean σ-subalgebra of the effect algebra, and we prove that for every element of the effect algebra there corresponds a spectral measure.

  4. Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.

    2002-02-07

    Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

  5. Prediction of 'highly skin smear positive' cases among MB leprosy patients using clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Lemaster, J W; Shwe, T; Butlin, C R; Roche, P W

    2001-03-01

    Although 'highly skin smear positive' MB leprosy cases are known to be at high risk of relapse after release from treatment, and have been recommended to receive 'prolonged duration' MDT, government field-based control programmes without skin smear facilities have no simple alternative method to detect such cases. This study reports a significant prevalence of 'highly smear positive' cases amongst 2374 new multibacillary cases recently surveyed by skin smears in Nepal, and retrospectively analyses 555 newly detected, previously untreated BL and LL cases to identify clinical and laboratory parameters that may be associated with a 'highly positive skin smear'. While some parameters showed high sensitivity in predicting 'highly positive smear' status, none showed both high sensitivity and high specificity simultaneously. PMID:11355514

  6. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Góes, Andréa Carla de Souza; de Carvalho, Jorge José; de Carvalho, Elizeu Fagundes

    2004-03-01

    In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:15257364

  7. Utility of intradermal smear in the diagnosis of malaria.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Sen, R; Singh, S; Siwach, S B; Jagdish; Singh, R M

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the usefulness of the intradermal smear test in the diagnosis of malaria. One hundred cases of suspected malaria (having received no prior antimalarials) were investigated. Both peripheral blood film (PBF) and intradermal smears (IDS) were simultaneously prepared and patients placed on antimalarial therapy. The slides were repeated for the next 2 days. At admission, 70 cases were positive on PBF--59 were Plasmodium falciparum (PF) and 11 were Plasmodium vivax (PV) whereas surprisingly 62 cases were positive on IDS at admission--61 were PF, one was PV. IDS identified two more cases of PF [P value (not significant)] but failed to identify any new cases of PV (P value NS). On subsequent days IDS positivity for PF was higher than for PBF (P < 0.05 for day 1 and P < 0.001 for day 2). However, the PV yield was poor for any further statistical evaluation on subsequent days. We conclude that IDS is simple, easy to perform, requires no special infrastructure compared to PBF, and is a helpful diagnostic tool in cases where malaria is strongly suspected but peripheral blood slides are repeatedly negative due to prior use of antimalarial therapy. IDS may be added to routine PBF in malaria (especially PF). PMID:12680550

  8. Carbapenem-Resistant Non-Glucose-Fermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli: the Missing Piece to the Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Gniadek, Thomas J; Carroll, Karen C; Simner, Patricia J

    2016-07-01

    The non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are increasingly acquiring carbapenem resistance. Given their intrinsic antibiotic resistance, this can cause extremely difficult-to-treat infections. Additionally, resistance gene transfer can occur between Gram-negative species, regardless of their ability to ferment glucose. Thus, the acquisition of carbapenemase genes by these organisms increases the risk of carbapenemase spread in general. Ultimately, infection control practitioners and clinical microbiologists need to work together to determine the risk carried by carbapenem-resistant non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (CR-NF) in their institution and what methods should be considered for surveillance and detection of CR-NF. PMID:26912753

  9. Mosquitocidal toxins of bacilli and their genetic manipulation for effective biological control of mosquitoes.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, A G; Davidson, E W; Liu, J W

    1993-01-01

    The identification, cloning, and characterization of protein toxins from various species of bacilli have demonstrated the existence of mosquitocidal toxins with different structures, mechanisms of action, and host ranges. A start has been made in understanding the polypeptide determinants of toxicity and insecticidal activity, and the purification of toxins from recombinant organisms may lead to the elucidation of their X-ray crystal structures and the cloning of brush border membrane receptors. The results of cloning mosquitocidal toxins in heterologous microorganisms show the potential of expanding the range of susceptible mosquito species by combining several toxins of different host specificity in one cell. Toxins have been expressed in new microorganisms with the potential for increasing potency by persisting at the larval feeding zone. The powerful tools of bacterial genetics are being applied to engineer genetically stable, persistent toxin expression and expand the insecticidal host ranges of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. These techniques, together with modern formulation technology, should eventually lead to the construction of mosquitocidal microorganisms which are effective enough to have a real impact on mosquito-borne diseases. Images PMID:7905597

  10. Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Pilani, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, “de novo.” Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy. PMID:25396142

  11. Insight into the evolution and origin of leprosy bacilli from the genome sequence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pushpendra; Benjak, Andrej; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium lepromatosis is an uncultured human pathogen associated with diffuse lepromatous leprosy and a reactional state known as Lucio's phenomenon. By using deep sequencing with and without DNA enrichment, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of M. lepromatosis present in a skin biopsy from a Mexican patient, and compared it with that of Mycobacterium leprae, which has undergone extensive reductive evolution. The genomes display extensive synteny and are similar in size (∼3.27 Mb). Protein-coding genes share 93% nucleotide sequence identity, whereas pseudogenes are only 82% identical. The events that led to pseudogenization of 50% of the genome likely occurred before divergence from their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and both M. lepromatosis and M. leprae have since accumulated new pseudogenes or acquired specific deletions. Functional comparisons suggest that M. lepromatosis has lost several enzymes required for amino acid synthesis whereas M. leprae has a defective heme pathway. M. lepromatosis has retained all functions required to infect the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system and therefore may also be neuropathogenic. A phylogeographic survey of 227 leprosy biopsies by differential PCR revealed that 221 contained M. leprae whereas only six, all from Mexico, harbored M. lepromatosis. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that M. lepromatosis is closer than M. leprae to the MRCA, and a Bayesian dating analysis suggests that they diverged from their MRCA approximately 13.9 Mya. Thus, despite their ancient separation, the two leprosy bacilli are remarkably conserved and still cause similar pathologic conditions. PMID:25831531

  12. Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease.

    PubMed

    Vora, Rita V; Pilani, Abhishek

    2014-10-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, "de novo." Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy. PMID:25396142

  13. Insight into the evolution and origin of leprosy bacilli from the genome sequence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushpendra; Benjak, Andrej; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Cole, Stewart T

    2015-04-01

    Mycobacterium lepromatosis is an uncultured human pathogen associated with diffuse lepromatous leprosy and a reactional state known as Lucio's phenomenon. By using deep sequencing with and without DNA enrichment, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of M. lepromatosis present in a skin biopsy from a Mexican patient, and compared it with that of Mycobacterium leprae, which has undergone extensive reductive evolution. The genomes display extensive synteny and are similar in size (∼3.27 Mb). Protein-coding genes share 93% nucleotide sequence identity, whereas pseudogenes are only 82% identical. The events that led to pseudogenization of 50% of the genome likely occurred before divergence from their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and both M. lepromatosis and M. leprae have since accumulated new pseudogenes or acquired specific deletions. Functional comparisons suggest that M. lepromatosis has lost several enzymes required for amino acid synthesis whereas M. leprae has a defective heme pathway. M. lepromatosis has retained all functions required to infect the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system and therefore may also be neuropathogenic. A phylogeographic survey of 227 leprosy biopsies by differential PCR revealed that 221 contained M. leprae whereas only six, all from Mexico, harbored M. lepromatosis. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that M. lepromatosis is closer than M. leprae to the MRCA, and a Bayesian dating analysis suggests that they diverged from their MRCA approximately 13.9 Mya. Thus, despite their ancient separation, the two leprosy bacilli are remarkably conserved and still cause similar pathologic conditions. PMID:25831531

  14. Plant polysaccharides initiate underground crosstalk with bacilli by inducing synthesis of the immunogenic lipopeptide surfactin.

    PubMed

    Debois, Delphine; Fernandez, Olivier; Franzil, Laurent; Jourdan, Emmanuel; de Brogniez, Alix; Willems, Luc; Clément, Christophe; Dorey, Stephan; De Pauw, Edwin; Ongena, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Some plant-associated bacteria such as Bacillus sp. can protect their host from pathogen ingress and this biocontrol activity correlates with their potential to form multiple antibiotics upon in vitro growth. However, our knowledge on antibiotic production by soil bacilli evolving on roots in natural conditions is still limited. In this work, antibiome imaging first revealed that the lipopeptide surfactin is the main bacterial ingredient produced in planta within the first hours of interaction with root tissues. We further demonstrated that surfactin synthesis is specifically stimulated upon perception of plant cell wall polymers such as xylan or arabinogalactan, leading to fast accumulation of micromolar amounts in the root environment. At such concentrations, the lipopeptide may not only favour the ecological fitness of the producing strain in term of root colonization, but also triggers systemic resistance in the host plant. This surfactin-induced immunity primes the plant to better resist further pathogen ingress, and involves only limited expression of defence-related molecular events and does not provoke seedling growth inhibition. By contrast with the strong response mounted upon perception of pathogens, this strongly attenuated defensive reaction induced by surfactin in plant tissues should help Bacillus to be tolerated as saprophytic partner by its host. PMID:25731631

  15. [Bioactive effectiveness of selected disinfective agents on Gram-negative bacilli isolated from hospital environment].

    PubMed

    Pancer, Katarzyna W; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Mikulak, Ewa; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Staniszewska, Monika; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna

    2004-01-01

    In our study the susceptibility (MIC) of chosen 21 strains of Gram-negative bacilli isolated in hospitals to disinfectant agents (glucoprotamine, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, potassium persulfate), the effectiveness of these disinfectants against selected bacteria and their effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria was determined. It was found that glucoprotamine showed the highest activity to Gram-negative bacteria. Obtained MIC values for glucoprotamine (except 1 strain of S. marcescens) were 16-64 times lower that MICs for sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 4-32 times lower that MICs for potassium persulfate. The effectiveness of disinfectants containing potassium persulfate or sodium dichloroisocyanurate was 100% tested by carrier method. Glucoprotamine was ineffective against 2 out of 9 strains (18%): E. cloacae and S. marcescens. It was found that disinfectants were more effective against Gram-negative bacteria in carrier methods than for biofilm forming bacteria. 86% of bacteria growing 5 days on a catheter were resistant to working solution of disinfectant containing glucoprotamine (5200 mg/L) or potassium persulfate (4300 mg/L); 66.6% of tested bacteria were resistant to working solution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (1795.2 mg/L). In our study the highest effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria showed disinfectant with sodium dichloroisocyanurate, the lowest--with glucoprotamine. PMID:15810507

  16. Facing the challenge of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in Australia.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patrick; Paterson, David; Rogers, Benjamin

    2015-03-16

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are now globally widespread and present a major challenge to modern medical practice. Resistance to common antibiotics such as ceftriaxone is becoming more frequent in Australia, primarily mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes in common organisms such as Escherichia coli, and may occur in both hospital- and community-acquired infections. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have emerged rapidly in recent years and are well established in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Although rare at present in Australia, they have caused significant nosocomial outbreaks. GNB have numerous mechanisms by which they can develop antibiotic resistance. Genes that encode extended-spectrum β-lactamases or carbapenemases are frequently co-located with multiple other resistance determinants on highly transmissible genetic structures such as plasmids. A key risk factor for infection with MDR GNB is travel to countries with high rates of resistance, especially with health care exposure. With limited prospects for new antibiotics in late-stage development that are active against MDR GNB, our national response to these challenges will require a multifaceted approach, including widespread implementation of antimicrobial stewardship, enhanced surveillance, targeted screening of at-risk patients and improved infection control practices. In the longer term, restriction of agricultural use of antibiotic classes critical to human medicine, removal of barriers to new drug development, and technological advances in rapid microbiological diagnostics will be required. PMID:25758692

  17. Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. PMID:22882546

  18. Stepwise Protocol for Cytospin-enhanced Smearing for Scraped Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeyalatha, Mani V; Malathi, Jambulingam; Madhavan, Hajib N

    2016-01-01

    Proteins and antigens present on the cell surface are usually determined by immunofluorescence staining. Uniform distribution of cells is required to appreciate the presence of surface proteins. Improper smearing or crushing of the corneal epithelial cells can potentially destroy the cellular integrity. Thus a simplified, systemic method was designed to smear the cells scraped from the cornea. The procedure includes trypsinisation for dissociation of corneal epithelial cells and cytospinning for concentrating the cells in a smear. The standardized protocol was found to be efficient in maintaining the integrity of the corneal epithelial cells and also the distribution of the cells in the smear. PMID:26633702

  19. Auditing smear microscopy results according to time to detection using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ TB system.

    PubMed

    Elsaghier, A A F

    2015-09-01

    Smear microscopy is a rapid method for the identification of the most infectious patients with mycobacterial infection. Suboptimal smear microscopy may significantly compromise or delay patient isolation and contact tracing. A stringent method for auditing mycobacterial smear results is thus needed. This article proposes an auditing tool based on time to detection (TTD) of culture-positive samples using the automated BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 TB system. In our study, sputum samples subjected to liquefaction and concentration before staining with a TTD of ≤ 13 days using the BACTEC system should be positive on smear microscopy. PMID:26260828

  20. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears.

    PubMed

    Kamble, R R; Shinde, V S; Madhale, S P; Kamble, A A; Ravikumar, B P; Jadhav, R S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF) stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA) were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6%) samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases. PMID:20061767

  1. Comparison of an acid-fast stain and a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorescence reagent for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal specimens from cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Quílez, J; Sánchez-Acedo, C; Clavel, A; del Cacho, E; López-Bernad, F

    1996-12-01

    A commercially available direct immunofluorescence (IF) assay with monoclonal antibodies (Monofluo Kit Cryptosporidium, Diagnostics Pasteur, France) was compared with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) acid-fast technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples from cattle and pigs. Stool specimens individually collected from 108 bovines and 90 pigs were examined in a blind test. The results of the two procedures corresponded (both positive or negative) in 102 (94.4%) cattle samples and 80 (88.9%) pig faecal samples. However, the remaining six (5.5%) cattle specimens and 10 (11.1%) pig stool samples, all of them harboring few oocysts (0-1 oocysts per 20 x field), were negative by MZN and positive by IF. False-negative results of the acid-fast stain occurred in suckling (17.2% of discrepant results) and weaned calves (2.9%) as well as weaned piglets (43.7%) and fattening pigs (10%). Stool specimens from the remaining age groups were negative by both techniques. The MacNemar's chi-square test showed that differences between both methods were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with immunofluorescence procedure, the sensitivity of MZN technique in samples from cattle and pigs was 79.3% and 67.7% and the negative predictive value was 92.9% and 85.5% respectively. The specificity and positive predictive values of the acid-fast stain were 100% in both animal species. It is concluded that the monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorescence reagent evaluated is more efficient that the MZN technique, especially for detecting a low number of Cryptosporidium oocysts, in faecal specimens from both cattle and pigs. PMID:9011016

  2. Accuracy and reproducibility of the Oxi/Ferm system in identifying a select group of unusual gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, H; George, H; Barr, J

    1979-01-01

    The Oxi/Ferm (O/F) identification system was compared in a double-blind study to a conventional test battery for the characterization of 96 reference and clinical strains consisting of 83 nonfermentative and 13 oxidase-producing, fermentative gram-negative bacilli. The O/F tube and supplemental tests correctly identified 84% of the nonfermentative and 77% of the oxidase-producing, fermentative bacilli. However, when the supplemental tests were excluded and the biochemical profiles generated by all nine O/F tube reactions were examined, the profile accuracy reached 95% (79 of 83) for the nonfermentative and 93% (12 of 13) for oxidase-producing, fermentative bacilli. Seven of the nine O/F substrate reactions demonstrated less than or equal to 89% agreement with conventional reactions, whereas the urea and arginine reactions provided 82 and 85% agreement, respectively. Replicate O/F tests with six selected organisms demonstrated 97% identification reproducibility and 84% overall substrate reproducibility. The mean O/F identification time was 2.6 days as compared to 3.3 days for the conventional system. Although this study suggests that the O/F system is a convenient, rapid, and accurate alternative to conventional identification methods, several modifications are recommended. PMID:372222

  3. Immunogenomics for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs: a review focusing on Gram-negative bacilli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years, infectious disease has caused enormous economic loss in pig industry. Among the pathogens, gram negative bacteria not only cause inflammation, but also cause different diseases and make the pigs more susceptible to virus infection. Vaccination, medication and elimination of sick pigs are major strategies of controlling disease. Genetic methods, such as selection of disease resistance in the pig, have not been widely used. Recently, the completion of the porcine whole genome sequencing has provided powerful tools to identify the genome regions that harboring genes controlling disease or immunity. Immunogenomics, which combines DNA variations, transcriptome, immune response, and QTL mapping data to illustrate the interactions between pathogen and host immune system, will be an effective genomics tool for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs. These genes will be potential targets for disease resistance in breeding programs. This paper reviewed the progress of disease resistance study in the pig focusing on Gram-negative bacilli. Major porcine Gram-negative bacilli and diseases, suggested candidate genes/pathways against porcine Gram-negative bacilli, and distributions of QTLs for immune capacity on pig chromosomes were summarized. Some tools for immunogenomics research were described. We conclude that integration of sequencing, whole genome associations, functional genomics studies, and immune response information is necessary to illustrate molecular mechanisms and key genes in disease resistance. PMID:23137309

  4. Lack of intracellular replication of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG caused by delivering bacilli to lysosomes in murine brain microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Sakamoto, Kaori; Quinn, Frederick D.; Chen, Huanchun; Fu, Zhenfang

    2015-01-01

    Invasion and traversal of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause meningeal tuberculosis (TB) in the central nervous system (CNS). Meningeal TB is a serious, often fatal disease that disproportionately affects young children. The mechanisms involved in CNS invasion by M. tuberculosis bacilli are poorly understood. In this study, we microscopically examined endosomal trafficking and measured survival of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) bacilli in murine brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). The results show that both species internalize but do not replicate in BMECs in the absence of a cytotoxic response. Confocal microscopy indicates that bacilli-containing vacuoles are associated with the early endosomal marker, Rab5, late endosomal marker, Rab7, and lysosomal marker, LAMP2, suggesting that bacilli-containing endosomes mature into endolysosomes in BMECs. Our data also show that a subset of intracellular M. tuberculosis, but not BCG bacilli, escape into the cytoplasm to avoid rapid lysosomal killing. However, the intracellular mycobacteria examined cannot spread cell-to-cell in BMECs. Taken together, these data show that with the exception of the small terminal cytoplasmic population of bacilli, M. tuberculosis does not modulate intracellular trafficking in BMECs as occurs in macrophages and lung epithelial and endothelial cells. PMID:26440149

  5. Study on impression smears of hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Reddy, B Sudhakara; Rayulu, V C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic coccidiosis is a contagious and lethal disease condition in rabbits. The disease was recorded in six rabbits suffering with watery diarrhoea. Clinically, affected rabbits showed decreased growth rate, anorexia, debilitation, diarrhea and rough hair coat. Examination of the faecal samples revealed the presence of unsporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. After sporulation Eimeria stiedae oocysts were identified. Postmortem examination revealed hepatomegaly with presence of discrete yellowish-white nodules on the surface of the liver. Impression smears from the liver revealed the presence of numerous developmental stages of E. stiedae corresponding with the stage of the liver lesion and also represent the histological changes of the liver. Rabbits were treated with a combination of sulphaquinoxaline and diaveridine for five days. PMID:27605807

  6. Automated detection of tuberculosis on sputum smeared slides using stepwise classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divekar, Ajay; Pangilinan, Corina; Coetzee, Gerrit; Sondh, Tarlochan; Lure, Fleming Y. M.; Kennedy, Sean

    2012-03-01

    Routine visual slide screening for identification of tuberculosis (TB) bacilli in stained sputum slides under microscope system is a tedious labor-intensive task and can miss up to 50% of TB. Based on the Shannon cofactor expansion on Boolean function for classification, a stepwise classification (SWC) algorithm is developed to remove different types of false positives, one type at a time, and to increase the detection of TB bacilli at different concentrations. Both bacilli and non-bacilli objects are first analyzed and classified into several different categories including scanty positive, high concentration positive, and several non-bacilli categories: small bright objects, beaded, dim elongated objects, etc. The morphological and contrast features are extracted based on aprior clinical knowledge. The SWC is composed of several individual classifiers. Individual classifier to increase the bacilli counts utilizes an adaptive algorithm based on a microbiologist's statistical heuristic decision process. Individual classifier to reduce false positive is developed through minimization from a binary decision tree to classify different types of true and false positive based on feature vectors. Finally, the detection algorithm is was tested on 102 independent confirmed negative and 74 positive cases. A multi-class task analysis shows high accordance rate for negative, scanty, and high-concentration as 88.24%, 56.00%, and 97.96%, respectively. A binary-class task analysis using a receiver operating characteristics method with the area under the curve (Az) is also utilized to analyze the performance of this detection algorithm, showing the superior detection performance on the high-concentration cases (Az=0.913) and cases mixed with high-concentration and scanty cases (Az=0.878).

  7. Specific immunofluorescence staining of Treponema pallidum in smears and tissues.

    PubMed

    Ito, F; Hunter, E F; George, R W; Swisher, B L; Larsen, S A

    1991-03-01

    To date, tissue sections prepared from Formalin-fixed tissues have not been successfully stained with Treponema pallidum subspecies-specific antibody in a direct fluorescent-antibody assay. While current methods stain T. pallidum, they do not distinguish T. pallidum from other spirochetes such as Borrelia burgdorferi (E. F. Hunter, P. W. Greer, B. L. Swisher, A. R. Simons, C. E. Farshy, J. A. Crawford, and K. R. Sulzer, Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 108:878-880, 1984). Because trypsin pretreatment of tissue sections has enhanced other immunofluorescent-antibody (IFA) applications, we compared the use of the trypsin digestion method with the current 1% ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) method as a means to obtain specific staining of T. pallidum in tissues by both direct and indirect IFA techniques. Pretreated T. pallidum-infected tissues sections from rabbits, hamsters, and humans were quantitatively examined with the direct fluorescent-antibody-T. pallidum test conjugate absorbed with Treponema phagedenis, the Reiter treponeme. For indirect staining, a serum specimen from a patients with syphilis absorbed by affinity chromatography with T. phagedenis was used as the primary reagent, and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit anti-human globulin was used as the secondary reagent. Serum specificity was established first by examining antigen smears of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, B. burgdorferi, T. phagedenis, and Treponema denticola MRB and then by examining tissues infected with these pathogens plus those infected with four Leptospira serovars. When we stained tissue using the direct IFA method that is currently a standard method for the examination of chancre smears, we found it to be unsuitable for use with tissue. Trypsin digestion did not offer an improvement over the NH4OH pretreatment method in the specific identification of T. pallidum by direct IFA. However, specific identification of T. pallidum in tissue sections was obtained by the

  8. Efficacy of enterocin AS-48 against bacilli in ready-to-eat vegetable soups and purees.

    PubMed

    Grande, Maria J; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Ben Omar, Nabil; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    The broad-spectrum bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested for biopreservation of ready-to-eat vegetable foods (soups and purees) against aerobic mesophilic endospore-forming bacteria. By adding AS-48 (10 microg/ml), Bacillus cereus LWL1 was completely inhibited in all six vegetable products tested (natural vegetable cream, asparagus cream, traditional soup, homemade-style traditional soup, vegetable soup, and vichyssoise) for up to 30 days at 6, 15, and 22 degrees C. A collection of strains isolated from spoiled purees showed slightly higher resistance to AS-48 in the order Paenibacillus sp. > Bacillus macroides > B. cereus, although they were also completely inhibited in natural vegetable cream by AS-48 at 10 microg/ml. However, cocktails of five or eight strains composed of B. cereus (three strains), B. macroides (two strains), and Paenibacillus sp., Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus showed higher bacteriocin resistance with AS-48 of up to 50 microg/ml required for complete inactivation in natural vegetable cream stored at 22 degrees C. Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis showed that paenibacilli (along with some B. cereus) was the predominant survivor in the cocktails after bacteriocin treatment. To increase the effectiveness of enterocin AS-48, the bacteriocin was tested (at 20 microg/ml) against the eight-strain cocktail in natural vegetable cream in combination with other antimicrobials. The combination of AS-48 and nisin had a slight but significant additive effect. Bactericidal activity was greatly enhanced by phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and hydrocinnamic acid), achieving a rapid and complete inactivation of bacilli in the tested puree at 22 degrees C. PMID:17969616

  9. The Relationship between Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang-nan; Zhang, Xian-xin; He, Xiao-chun; Yang, Guo-ru; Zhang, Xiao-qi; Li, Huai-chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) is unclear. Identification of the relationship between XDR-TB and MDR-GNB would have important implications for patient care. Methods We conducted a retrospective study reviewing the records of patients admitted with a confirmed pulmonary TB from 2011 to 2014. To identify the relationship between XDR-TB and MDR-GNB, univariable comparison and multivariable logistic regression were performed. Results Among 2962 pulmonary TB patients, 45(1.5%) patients had a diagnosis of XDR-TB. A total of 165 MDR-GNB strains were detected in 143 (4.8%) pulmonary TB patients. XDR-TB patients had a significantly higher occurrence of MDR-GNB than non-XDR-TB patients (24.4% vs. 4.5%; P<0.001). Age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), hypoalbuminemia (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.18–1.85), chronic renal failure (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.42–31.47), chronic hepatic insufficiency (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.15–3.43), presence of XDR-TB (OR 6.56, 95% CI 1.61–26.69), and duration of TB diagnostic delay (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.02) were the independent risk factors for MDR-GNB infection. Conclusions Patients with XDR-TB have a significantly higher risk of being affected by MDR-GNB pathogen. The underlying mechanism association warrant further studies. PMID:26230499

  10. In vitro activity of cefoperazone-sulbactam combination against gram negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, N; Gyawali, N; Gurung, R; Bhattarai, N R; Baral, R; Khanal, B; Shrestha, S; Amatya, R; Bhattacharya, S K

    2012-03-01

    Cefoperazone is a â-lactam antimicrobial and Sulbactam is an irreversible â-lactamase inhibitor. The objective of this study was to know the susceptibility pattern of gram negative bacilli (GNB) towards cefoperazone-sulbactum. All GNB isolated from different clinical samples during the period of May, 2010 to Aug, 2010 were tested for susceptibility to cefoperazone-sulbactum, meropenem, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloromphenicol, cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, carbenicillin and piperacillin using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing method. The susceptibilities were recorded according to CLSI guidelines. A total of 406 GNB were isolated (urine: 66.7%, pus: 19.2%, and blood: 7.9%). Escherichia coli (54.4%) was most frequently isolated organisms followed by Acinetobacter species (17.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.1%) and Pseudomonas species (6.1%). Overall, 11.8% of isolates showed resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam. Frequencies of isolates showing resistance to meropenem and amikacin were 14.7% and 26.25% respectively. Only 3.9% of Escherichia coli isolates showed resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam. For other organisms, their lowest frequency ranging from 0-20%, exhibited resistance to meropenem. In Pseudomonas spp, in-vitro activity of amikacin was also better as only 11.1% isolates showed resistance to it. This study demonstrated the in-vitro synergistic effect of cefoperazonerazone-sulbactam and meropenem having good activity against GNB compared to the activity of other commonly tested antimicrobials. Cefoperazone-sulbactam can be recommended for the clinical practice against GNB exhibiting resistant to other antimicrobials as it is cheaper alternative to meropenem. Our results also focused on the continuous surveillance of the trends and features of resistance of common antimicrobials. PMID:23441486

  11. Effect of EDTA with and without surfactants or ultrasonics on removal of smear layer.

    PubMed

    Lui, Jeen-Nee; Kuah, Hong-Guan; Chen, Nah-Nah

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the in vitro efficacy of Smear Clear (Sybron Endo, CA), a 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution with surfactants, to 17% EDTA, with and without the use of ultrasonics, in removal of the smear layer. Seventy-five extracted teeth, randomly distributed into 5 test groups, were prepared by using ProFile rotary instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and subjected to different final irrigating regimes; group A, 1% sodium hypochlorite; group B, 17% EDTA; group C, 17% EDTA with ultrasonics; group D, Smear Clear; and group E, Smear Clear with ultrasonics. Samples were examined under the scanning electron microscope and scored for debris and smear layer removal. Statistical analysis showed that groups D and E did not perform significantly better than groups B and C. Group C performed significantly better than group B. Addition of surfactants to EDTA in Smear Clear did not result in better smear layer removal. The use of ultrasonics with 17% EDTA improved smear layer removal. PMID:17368342

  12. Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID…

  13. Cytological features of choricarcinoma in a Pap smear: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowei; Wright, Jason D; Abellar, Rosanna G; Koehne de Gonzalez, Anne; Collins, Nikosa; Wright, Thomas C; Hamele-Bena, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive malignant trophoblastic tumor that mostly occurs during reproductive years. Cytological features of choriocarcinoma in gynecologic Pap smears have not been described. Herein, we report a case of choriocarcinoma in a Pap smear of a patient who had a history of choriocarcinoma with metastatic disease. PMID:26712464

  14. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    PubMed

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth. PMID:1659858

  15. Concomitant Aspergillus Species Infection and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed on Pap Smear.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prajwala; Goyal, Snigdha; Kaushal, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant infection with Aspergillus species and cervical squamous cell carcinoma in the female genital tract is a rare occurrence and attributed to the opportunistic nature of infection in the immunocompromised state due to the underlying malignancy. The contamination of smears with Aspergillus species should be excluded. The diagnosis of Aspergillus species infection along with squamous cell carcinoma was established on cervicovaginal pap smears in a 62-year-old female presented to gynecological clinic with complaints of stress urinary incontinence. Speculum examination revealed first-degree cervical descent. Smears showed features of squamous cell carcinoma along with fungal spores and fruiting body with hyphae of Aspergillus species. The presence of fruiting bodies and hyphae of Aspergillus species with coexisting squamous cell carcinoma is rare in routine pap smears. True infection needs to be distinguished from contamination by Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis can be established on routine cervicovaginal Pap smear examination. PMID:24272933

  16. The Increasing Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Giuffrè, Mario; Geraci, Daniela M.; Bonura, Celestino; Saporito, Laura; Graziano, Giorgio; Insinga, Vincenzo; Aleo, Aurora; Vecchio, Davide; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported. We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital “Paolo Giaccone,” Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools. During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin–sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case. Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an

  17. The bactericidal activities of HMR 3004, HMR 3647 and erythromycin against gram-positive bacilli and development of resistance.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roblas, R; Calvo, R; Esteban, J; Bryskier, A; Soriano, F

    1999-02-01

    The bactericidal activities of two new ketolides, HMR 3004 and HMR 3647, and the potential to develop resistance to these two antibiotics were studied in Gram-positive bacilli. As judged by time-kill kinetics both ketolides were mostly bacteriostatic, being bactericidal against only highly susceptible isolates of Corynebacterium striatum (two isolates) and Corynebacterium minutissimum (one isolate). Spontaneous resistant mutants were detected in seven of 30 strains tested, mainly in Rhodococcus equi, C. minutissimum and C. striatum, with a very low frequency of mutation (10(-12)-10(-15)). PMID:11252337

  18. Errors in cervical smears: minimizing the risk of medicolegal consequences.

    PubMed

    Greening, S E

    1997-01-01

    Cytologists need to critically evaluate their practices and practice settings to ensure that what they do and how they document what they do will withstand both regulatory and legal scrutiny. Any individual involved in cytology as a laboratory owner, operator, director, supervisor, technical or staff employee, independent agent, or customer representative is a potential target of cytology malpractice litigation. All of these individuals must participate in the risk management process. For the laboratory as a corporate entity, business and technical practices, including quality control and quality assurance procedures, must be contemporary, legitimate, and justifiable. Sound scientific evidence and well-subscribed standards of practice supporting an individual's or laboratory's conduct are the best defenses to malpractice claims. For the near future, litigation will continue to focus on false-negative Pap smears on a case-by-case basis. Laboratories and individuals can reduce the risk of malpractice liability by directing their attention to proactive quality control and quality assurance methods. But in the final analysis, consumer education about the benefits and limitations of the Pap test is key to limiting malpractice claims. PMID:9249818

  19. The Application of Molecular Diagnostics to Stained Cytology Smears.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Maja H; Adler, Esther; Hakima, Laleh; Grunblatt, Eli; Pieri, Evan; Seymour, Andrew; Khader, Samer; Cajigas, Antonio; Suhrland, Mark; Goswami, Sumanta

    2016-05-01

    Detection of mutational alterations is important for guiding treatment decisions of lung non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid nodules with atypical cytologic findings. Inoperable lung tumors requiring further testing for staging and thyroid lesions often are diagnosed using only cytology material. Molecular diagnostic tests of these samples typically are performed on cell blocks; however, insufficient cellularity of cell blocks is a limitation for test performance. In addition, some of the fixatives used while preparing cell blocks often introduces artifacts for mutation detection. Here, we applied qClamp xenonucleic technology and quantitative RT-PCR to cells microdissected directly from stained cytology smears to detect common alterations including mutations and translocations in non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid lesions. By using this approach, we achieved a 1% molecular alteration detection rate from as few as 50 cells. Ultrasensitive methods of molecular alteration detection similar to the one described here will be increasingly important for the evaluation of molecular alterations in clinical scenarios when only tissue samples that are small are available. PMID:26921541

  20. Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

  1. Four and a half year follow up of women with dyskaryotic cervical smears.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, A; Metaxas, N; Grubb, C; Chamberlain, J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the proportion of women with mild or moderate dyskaryosis in cervical smears who (a) progress to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III or worse or (b) regress. DESIGN--Four and a half year cytological follow up study of women with mild or moderate dyskaryosis in cervical smears. SETTING--666 Women (mean age 28 (SD 8) years; range 14-74) found to have borderline, mild, or moderate dyskaryosis on routine screening. RESULTS--45 Women (6.8%) had a cone biopsy recommended on the basis of an abnormal follow up smear (severe dyskaryosis suggestive of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III or invasive cancer), and in one patient cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III was reported in a biopsy specimen after dilatation and curettage. Life table analysis gave a 14% probability of a patient being recommended for a biopsy after four and a half years of follow up (95% confidence interval 12% to 15%). There was a significant excess incidence of invasive cancer of the cervix in the series compared with the general population (five cases observed compared with less than 0.1 expected). 157 Patients (24%) showed reversion to a normal cell pattern sustained in several smears over more than 18 months but a single negative smear was an unreliable indicator of apparent regression. Having two successive smears showing mild dyskaryosis or a smear at any time showing moderate dyskaryosis was a significant predictor of a subsequent severely dyskaryotic smear. CONCLUSIONS--Women found to have mild or moderate dyskaryosis in cervical smears should be kept under regular surveillance. The optimum management of these patients--by cytology or colposcopy--needs to be determined by randomised controlled trials. PMID:2224218

  2. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Liu, Yan-Chun; Zhu, Qiao

    2014-02-01

    In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole.

  3. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding β-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

  4. Evaluation of Ziehl-Neelsen stained faecal smear and ELISA as tools for surveillance of clinical paratuberculosis in cattle in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Weber, M F; Verhoeff, J; van Schaik, G; van Maanen, C

    2009-11-15

    Testing cattle suspected of clinical paratuberculosis is an important element of surveillance of paratuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic-test characteristics of microscopic examination of Ziehl-Neelsen stained faecal smears for acid-fast Mycobacteria (ZN-test) and serum-ELISA in cattle suspected of clinical paratuberculosis in the Netherlands. Results of all samples submitted for ZN-test and serum-ELISA between April 2003 and April 2006 to our laboratory were retrieved. Results from cattle for which both tests were performed were analysed using two Bayesian latent-class models for evaluation of diagnostic tests in two populations without a gold standard, assuming (a) conditional independence of tests, or (b) conditional dependence of tests in both infected and non-infected cattle. Sampled cattle were divided into two populations in different ways using four known risk factors for clinical paratuberculosis: region, soil type, clinical signs, and age. For 892 cattle suspected of clinical paratuberculosis, both ZN-test and serum-ELISA results were retrieved: 250 ZN-positive and ELISA-positive, 12 ZN-positive and ELISA-negative, 260 ZN-negative and ELISA-positive, and 370 ZN-negative and ELISA-negative cattle. With priors based on the available literature, the posterior estimates of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the ELISA were always higher than those of the ZN-test. Furthermore, lower limits of the 95% credibility intervals of the posterior positive predictive values of the ELISA were >or=99.7%, and of the negative predictive values of the ELISA >or=56.4%. We conclude that the ELISA is preferred to the ZN-test to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of clinical paratuberculosis in the Netherlands. Little diagnostic information can be gained by performing the ZN-test in addition to the ELISA. PMID:19762098

  5. Smeared spin-flop transition in random antiferromagnetic Ising chain

    SciTech Connect

    Timonin, P. N.

    2012-12-15

    At T = 0 and in a sufficiently large field, the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Ising chain undergoes a first-order spin-flop transition into the ferromagnetic phase. We consider its smearing under the random-bond disorder such that all independent random bonds are antiferromagnetic (AF). It is shown that the ground-state thermodynamics of this random AF chain can be described exactly for an arbitrary distribution P(J) of AF bonds. Moreover, the site magnetizations of finite chains can be found analytically in this model. We consider a continuous P(J) that is zero above some -J{sub 1} and behaves near it as (-J{sub 1}-J){sup {lambda}}, {lambda} > -1. In this case, the ferromagnetic phase emerges continuously in a field H > H{sub c} = 2J{sub 1}. At 0 > {lambda} > -1, it has the usual second-order anomalies near H{sub c} with the critical indices obeying the scaling relation and depending on {lambda}. At {lambda} > 0, higher-order transitions occur (third, fourth, etc.), marked by a divergence of the corresponding nonlinear susceptibilities. In the chains with an even number of spins, the intermediate 'bow-tie' phase with linearly modulated AF order exists between the AF and ferromagnetic phases at J{sub 1} < H < H{sub c}. Its origin can be traced to the infinite correlation length of the degenerate AF phase from which it emerges. This implies the existence of similar inhomogeneous phases with size- and form-dependent order in a number of other systems with infinite correlation length. The possibility to observe the signs of the 'bow-tie' phase in low-T neutron diffraction experiments is discussed.

  6. A note on smeared branes in flux vacua and gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Fazzi, M.; Van Riet, T.

    2014-04-01

    In the known examples of flux vacua with calibrated spacetime-filling sources (branes or orientifold planes), one can smear the source in order to perform a standard KK reduction and obtain a lower-dimensional supergravity description. Furthermore, it is expected that the smeared and localized solution preserve equal amounts of supersymmetry. In this note we point out that the AdS7 solution discussed in arXiv:1111.2605 and arXiv:1309.2949 is a counterexample to this common lore. The solution is supersymmetric when the spacetime-filling D6-branes are localized but breaks supersymmetry in the smeared limit. By using the embedding tensor formalism we demonstrate that there is no gauged supergravity description for the solution, regardless of the source being smeared or not. We conjecture that for flux solutions with separation between the KK scale and AdS radius this cannot occur.

  7. Evaluation of Pre-Malignant and Malignant Lesions in Cervico Vaginal (PAP) Smears by Nuclear Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Rani M.N, Divya; Kumar ML, Harendra; SR, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer occurring among women worldwide, with almost half a million new cases each year. Normal cells gradually transform to form cancer cells through several stages. So, the changes occurring during the transformational stages need to be assessed. Aim: Our aim was to study various nuclear parameters useful in evaluating pre-malignant and malignant cervico-vaginal pap smears. Materials and Methods: Bethesda System was used to categorize cervical pap smears into premalignant and malignant lesions. Nuclear parameters were calculated using J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analysed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) parameters in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears. PMID:25584229

  8. [Effect of smear layer removal on bevelled and retrofilled teeth in vitro].

    PubMed

    Carlson, E; Simon, J

    1990-03-01

    The "smear layer" is composed of debris that cover and insert into dentinal tubules. It is not really known if this form of debris may harbon viable bacterias or does form a barrier that enhances endodontic fillings by lining or plugging the tubules. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of the smear layer in leakage by using two groups of teeth in which the smear layer was removed of the root canals, in the first group and left into the roots in the second group. Some samples were beveled and all teeth were retrofilled after Root Canal Preparation, and then filled with India Ink. After examination of leakage under various conditions, it has been found a correlation between leakage and removal of smear layer. PMID:2382045

  9. Analysis of cervico-vaginal (Papanicolaou) smears, in girls 18 years and under.

    PubMed

    Prussia, P R; Gay, G H E; Bruce, A

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted retrospectively at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and a private laboratory in Barbados to determine the types of epithelial abnormalities in cervico-vaginal Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained smears, and their clinical implications in Barbadian girls, 18 years and under, during the five-year period January 1995 to December 1999. Two hundred and sixty-five Pap smears from 236 patients were examined and the gynaecological history, initial and repeat Pap smear diagnoses, and histology reports of these patients were analyzed. Of the 236 first-visit smears, 94 (39.8%) were abnormal with 36 (15.3%) displaying cytologic features of squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL), (33 low grade and 3 high grade). A diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) was reported in the remaining 58 (24.5%) abnormal smears, of which 35 (60.3%) were suspected to be related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Twenty-two (23.4%) of these 94 patients, who had abnormal smears of either ASCUS or low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (LSIL) were re-evaluated within six to twelve months of the initial abnormal Pap smear diagnosis. Eight of these 22 patients (36.4%) had histological diagnosis of LSIL inclusive of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) and condylomata. High-risk HPV DNA types were detected in two of these eight patients (25%). The study confirms that sexually active teenage girls are at risk of developing SIL and high-risk HPV infection. Screening of sexually active teenaged girls by Pap smears followed by other appropriate investigative procedures is recommended. PMID:12089874

  10. Smeared quantum phase transition in the dissipative random quantum Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quantum phase transition in the random transverse-field Ising model under the influence of Ohmic dissipation. To this end, we numerically implement a strong-disorder renormalization-group scheme. We find that Ohmic dissipation destroys the quantum critical point and the associated quantum Griffiths phase by smearing. Our results quantitatively confirm a recent theory [J.A. Hoyos, T. Vojta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 240601] of smeared quantum phase transitions.

  11. Diagnostic value of Tzanck smear in various erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yaeen, Atiya; Ahmad, Qazi Masood; Farhana, Anjum; Shah, Parveen; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous cytology has long been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of several erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions. The Tzanck smear although an old tool, still remains a simple, rapid, easily applied, and inexpensive test for these skin lesions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Tzanck smear by determining its sensitivity and specificity in various erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-two patients with erosive, vesicular, and/or bullous skin lesions were included in the study. Four groups of disorders were identified: infections, immunologic disorders, genodermatosis, and spongiotic dermatitis. All the study cases were evaluated by Tzanck smear. Definitive diagnosis was established by standard diagnostic techniques (including when appropriate, viral serology, bacterial culture, histopathology, direct immunoflourescence). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of cytologic findings was respectively 86.36% and 91.30% for viral infections; for bacterial infections, it was 85.7% and 66.6%. The sensitivity and specificity of Tzanck smear was respectively 85.0% and 83.33% for pemphigus; for bullous pemhigoid it was 11.11% and 100.0%. Tzanck smear sensitivity in genodermatoses was 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the test in spongiotic dermatitis could not be calculated due to an insufficient number of patients. Conclusion: The Tzanck smear is a quick and reliable tool for the evaluation of various erosive and vesiculobullous skin lesions. PMID:26751561

  12. Combined use of conventional smear and liquid-based preparation versus conventional smear for thyroid fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Song, Mi Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the diagnostic utility of the combined conventional smear (CS) and liquid-based preparation (LBP) compared to CS with respect to the non-diagnostic rate, the atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) rate, and the diagnostic performances for malignancy. This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and the need to obtain informed consent was waived. In our institution, thyroid FNAs were processed with CS before October 2012, and LBP has been used in combination with CS after October 2012. On-site evaluation for the adequacy of CS was not performed. This study included nodules 5 mm or larger with FNAs performed by faculties: 811 nodules in 773 patients for CS, and 926 nodules in 894 patients for combined CS and LBP. Nodules with surgery or either benign or malignancy cytology on initial or repeat FNA were regarded to have the reference standards needed to calculate diagnostic performances. The proportion of Bethesda categories and diagnostic performances were compared between the two groups with z test. The non-diagnostic rate, the AUS or FLUS rate, and the diagnostic performances for malignancy were similar (All P > 0.05). The follicular neoplasm (FN) or suspicious for FN rate decreased from 1.2 to 0.3 % (P = 0.034). The benign rate increased from 51.4 to 57.0 % (P = 0.019). Combined CS and LBP decreased FN or suspicious for FN diagnoses, and increased benign diagnoses compared to CS with comparable non-diagnostic rates and AUS or FLUS rates, and comparable diagnostic performances. PMID:26714459

  13. The clinical impact of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the management of septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Vicas, Aurora; Opal, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Multi-antibiotic drug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli are becoming a major threat to the standard care of septic patients. Empiric antimicrobial drug regimens to cover likely bacterial pathogens have to be altered in keeping with the spread of MDR pathogens in the health care setting and in the community. Reliable antibiotics for broad spectrum coverage for sepsis such as extended spectrum β-lactam antibiotics, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones can no longer be counted upon to provide activity against a range of common, virulent pathogens that cause sepsis. In some regions of Asia, South America, and Eastern Europe in particular, MDR pathogens have become a major concern, necessitating the use of potentially toxic and costly antibiotic combinations as initial antibiotic therapy for septic shock. In this brief review, we will focus on the emergence of MDR gram-negative pathogens, resistance mechanisms, and suggest some management and prevention strategies against MDR pathogens. PMID:24200870

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Soriano, F; Zapardiel, J; Nieto, E

    1995-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 265 strains of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. Most strains were susceptible to vancomycin, doxycycline, and fusidic acid. Corynebacterium jeikeium and Corynebacterium urealyticum were the most resistant organisms tested. Resistance to beta-lactams, clindamycin, erythromycin, azythromycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was common among strains of Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Ampicillin resistance among Listeria monocytogenes was more prevalent than previously reported. Optochin, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin showed very little activity against most organisms tested, but the use of nitrofurantoin as a selective agent in culture medium may prevent the recovery of some isolates. Except for the unvarying activity of vancomycin against Corynebacterium species, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the latter to other antibiotics are usually unpredictable, such that susceptibility tests are necessary for selecting the best antimicrobial treatment. PMID:7695308

  15. Detect-to-treat: development of analysis of bacilli spores in nasal mucus by surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    As the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq continue, future attacks both abroad and in the U.S.A. are expected. In an effort to aid civilian and military personnel, we have been investigating the potential of using a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling device to detect Bacillus anthracis spores in nasal swab samples. Such a device would be extremely beneficial to medical responders and management in assessing the extent of a bioterrorist attack and making detect-to-treat decisions. The disposable sample device consists of a glass capillary filled with a silver-doped sol-gel that is capable of extracting dipicolinic acid (DPA), a chemical signature of Bacilli, and generating SERS spectra. The sampling device and preliminary measurements of DPA extracted from spores and nasal mucus will be presented.

  16. French regional surveillance program of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: results from a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Pantel, A; Boutet-Dubois, A; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2014-12-01

    In February 2011, the CARB-LR group was created as a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network to control the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in a French Southern Region. We report the epidemiological results of a 2-year study. All the Gram-negative bacilli isolates detected in the different labs (hospital and community settings) of a French Southern Region and with reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and/or imipenem were characterised with regard to antibiotic resistance, bla genes content, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 221 strains were analysed. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing bacteria, with a majority of OXA-23 producers (n = 37). One isolate co-produced OXA-23 and OXA-58 enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) (OXA-48 producer: n = 29, KPC producer: n = 1), followed by Escherichia coli (OXA-48 producer: n = 8, KPC producer: n = 1) and Enterobacter cloacae (OXA-48 producer, n = 1). One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a VIM-1 carbapenemase. A clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli was noted with different MLSTs. On the other hand, almost all OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains belonged to the widespread ST2/international clone II. The link between the detection of CR GNB and a foreign country was less obvious, suggesting the beginning of a local cross-transmission. The number of CR GNB cases in our French Southern Region has sharply increased very recently due to the diffusion of OXA-48 producers. PMID:25037867

  17. ['In vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli, excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp].

    PubMed

    Vay, C A; Almuzara, M N; Rodríguez, C H; Pugliese, M L; Lorenzo Barba, F; Mattera, J C; Famiglietti, A M R

    2005-01-01

    Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli (NFB) are widely spread in the environment. Besides of difficulties for identification, they often have a marked multiresistance to antimicrobial agents, including those active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the 'in vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on 177 gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli isolates (excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp.) isolated from clinical specimens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined according to the Mueller Hinton agar dilution method against the following antibacterial agents: ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, sulbactam, cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, colistin, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and minocycline. Seven isolates: Sphingobacterium multivorum (2), Sphingobacteriumspiritivorum (1), Empedobacterbrevis (1), Weeksella virosa (1), Bergeyella zoohelcum (1) and Oligella urethralis (1), were tested for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin-sulbactam susceptibility, and susceptibility to cefoperazone or sulbactam was not determined. Multiresistance was generally found in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, Chryseobacterium spp., Myroides spp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Ochrobactrum anthropi isolates. On the other hand, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella putrefaciens-algae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Weeksella virosa and Oligella urethralis were widely susceptible to the antibacterial agents tested. As a result of the wide variation in antimicrobial susceptibility shown by different species, a test on susceptibility to different antibacterial agents is essential in order to select an adequate therapy. The marked multiresistance evidenced by some species

  18. [Evaluation of the GNF computer-coding system for the identification of non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli].

    PubMed

    Tarng, C M; Chen, M M; Tsai, W C

    1983-05-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the GNF computer-coding system for the identification of glucose non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli, we employed 406 strains of bacteria including 367 clinical isolates and 39 standard strains for testing. These strains were inoculated into the following eleven conventional biochemical test media: Triple Sugar Iron Agar, Simmon's Citrate Agar, Christensen's Urea Agar, Sulfide-Indole-Motility Medium, Semisolid Voges-Proskauer Test Medium, Moeller's Ornithine Decarboxylase Test Medium, Pyocyanin Test Medium, Oxidation/Fermentation (O/F) Glucose, O/F Fructose, Nitrate Broth, Moeller's Arginine Dihydrolase Test Medium. The results of these tests plus those from the hanging drop motility test and the oxidase test were converted into bacterial code number and then checked with the GNF computer-coding system. It was found that the first preference of agreement was 75.6%, second 15.3%, third 5.9%, and fourth or more 3.2%. In regard to the speed of bacterial identification by using the GNF system and information from hemolysis pattern and flagella stain, it was indicated that 84.7% would be correctly identified within 36-48 hours after isolation. If more confirmational tests were employed, the accurate identification rate would reach to 98.7% after 4 days of isolation. In addition, the use of the GNF computer-coding system can standardize identification procedures, shorten the identification period, and save cost in terms of materials supply, inoculation time, media preparation and media-storing space. Therefore, we conclude that the GNF computer-coding system is an effective tool in the identification of the glucose non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. PMID:6617315

  19. STUDIES IN ATYPICAL FORMS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI ISOLATED DIRECTLY FROM THE HUMAN TISSUES IN CASES OF PRIMARY CERVICAL ADENITIS

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Charles W.

    1909-01-01

    The four cultures which form the basis of this communication were recovered from peculiar cases of primary cervical adenitis in man, three of which terminated fatally of disseminated acute miliary tuberculosis in four to six weeks. A careful comparative study shows that Culture II corresponds closely with the "human" and Culture IV with the "bovine" type of tubercle bacilli; while Cultures I and III present variations from the standard types and are to be retarded as "intermediate" or "atypical" forms. Culture I is of unusual interest because of its remarkable variations. The clinical picture of the case, the rapid course of the infection, the enormous number of the bacilli in the tissue, their tendency to occur in "heaps" like the leprosy bacillus, the high degree of virulence alike for rabbits and guinea-pigs, the production of lesions in chickens, the case of cultivation and the prolonged viability under unfavorable conditions, all mark the organism as a decided atypical form of tubercle bacillus in man. The prolonged viability, the production of lesions in the chicken and the great profusion of bacillary growth in the tissues would indicate an avian type. Though for years the reaction curve was atypical it has since changed completely to the "avian" curve. In this connection it is of interest to note that L. Rabinowitsch (3) states that she has isolated avian tubercle bacilli from two cases of tuberculosis in man. Cultures II and III undoubtedly belong to the human type of the tubercle family though they were under cultivation and were repeatedly tested upon glycerine broth over a period of months before their identity was definitely established. Culture IV completely corresponds in growth and reaction in glycerine bouillon to the bovine strain; however, it manifests a low degree of virulence for rabbits which is exceptional for bovine cultures. The old belief that bovine bacilli are more slender and beaded in the tissues and are thicker and shorter in culture

  20. Primary actinomycosis of breast-A diagnosis on cytology.

    PubMed

    Gosavi, Alka Vikas; Anvikar, Arti Rameshrao; Sulhyan, Kalpana Ranjitsingh; Manek, Dhruti Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Primary actinomycosis of breast is a rare disease with only a few cases reported in the literature. We present a case of a 25-year-old lactating woman with primary actinomycosis of breast which was diagnosed on cytology. The patient presented with lump in left breast with dull aching pain. Fine-needle aspiration cytology smears showed acute suppurative inflammation with presence of fluffy basophilic colonies on Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and branched, Gram positive filamentous bacilli on Gram staining. The bacilli were non-acid fast with 1% Zeihl Neelsen stain. A diagnosis of actinomycosis was suggested on cytology. Histopathological examination revealed an abscess with few Gram positive basophilic granules surrounded by eosinophilic Splendore-Hoeppli material thus confirming the diagnosis of actinomycosis. Meticulous search for microorganisms with the aid of special stains should be done on cytology smears before labeling an inflammatory lesion as nonspecific. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:693-695. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27238823

  1. Molecular diversity and multifarious plant growth promoting attributes of Bacilli associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rhizosphere from six diverse agro-ecological zones of India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Yadav, Ajar Nath; Khannam, Kazy Sufia; Kumar, Sanjay; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Suman, Archna

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of culturable Bacilli was investigated in six wheat cultivating agro-ecological zones of India viz: northern hills, north western plains, north eastern plains, central, peninsular, and southern hills. These agro-ecological regions are based on the climatic conditions such as pH, salinity, drought, and temperature. A total of 395 Bacilli were isolated by heat enrichment and different growth media. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes AluI, MspI, and HaeIII led to the clustering of these isolates into 19-27 clusters in the different zones at >70% similarity index, adding up to 137 groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 55 distinct Bacilli that could be grouped in five families, Bacillaceae (68%), Paenibacillaceae (15%), Planococcaceae (8%), Staphylococcaceae (7%), and Bacillales incertae sedis (2%), which included eight genera namely Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Planomicrobium, Sporosarcina, and Staphylococcus. All 395 isolated Bacilli were screened for their plant growth promoting attributes, which included direct-plant growth promoting (solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc; production of phytohormones; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity and nitrogen fixation), and indirect-plant growth promotion (antagonistic, production of lytic enzymes, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia). To our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of Bacillus endophyticus, Paenibacillus xylanexedens, Planococcus citreus, Planomicrobium okeanokoites, Sporosarcina sp., and Staphylococcus succinus in wheat rhizosphere and exhibit multifunctional PGP attributes. These niche-specific and multifarious PGP Bacilli may serve as inoculants for crops growing in respective climatic conditions. PMID:26567901

  2. SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Houshmand, B.; Ghandi, M.; Nekoofar, MH.; Gholamii, Gh. A.; Tabor, R. K.; Dummer, P. M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Biopure® MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA) has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the conditioning process of tooth roots during periodontal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of MTAD on the removal of smear layer from root surfaces. Materials and Methods Thirty two longitudinally sectioned specimens from 16 freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease were divided into four groups. In group 1 and 2, the root surfaces were scaled using Gracey curettes. In group 3 and 4, 0.5 mm of the root surface was removed using a fissure bur. The specimens in group 1 and 3 were then irrigated by normal saline. The specimens in groups 2 and 4 were irrigated with Biopure MTAD. All specimens were prepared for SEM and scored according to the presence of smear layer. Results MTAD significantly increased (P=0.001) the smear layer removal in both groups 2 and 4 compared to the associated control groups, in which only saline was used. Conclusion MTAD increased the removal of the smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Use of MTAD as a periodontal conditioner may be suggested. PMID:22509454

  3. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the pineal region: cytopathological features and differential diagnostic considerations by intraoperative smear preparation.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Haba, Reiji; Kushida, Yoshio; Katsuki, Naomi; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Kadota, Kyuichi; Matsunaga, Toru; Miyake, Keisuke; Tamiya, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified type of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with shorter progression-free and overall survival, higher rate of recurrence, and higher risk of leptomeningeal spread compared to pilocytic tumors (WHO grade 2 designation). A case is presented here in which intraoperative imprint smears of a pineal region tumor in a 14-year-old girl revealed cytologic monomorphism, elongated cells with bland nuclei embedded in a myxoid background. The tumor cells possessed uniformly round nuclei with a smooth nuclear outline, fine granular chromatin, and small nucleoli. Slender cytoplasmic fibrillary processes and angiocentric arrangement were observed but Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies were absent. A cytologic diagnosis of PMA of the pineal region was suggested by intraoperative smear preparation. Histology and immunohistochemical results confirmed the final diagnosis. This report shows that smear preparation can be trustworthy for the intraoperative diagnosis of PMA, helping to determine the appropriate neurosurgical procedure and therapeutic implications. PMID:24578310

  4. Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine M. E.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Brugnera J"nior, Aldo, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    This study determined, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty-four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 17% EDTA, and was sealed as in Group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J), and sealed as in Group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 had significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (P<0.05). Coronal leakage afte smear layer removal with 17% EDTA or Er:YAG laser was not statistically different (p>0.01).

  5. The effects of cavity smear layer removal on experimental marginal leakage around amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Jodaikin, A; Austin, J C

    1981-11-01

    Unvarnished freshly-packed dental amalgam restorations leak initially. However, with time, a marginal seal is usually effected. It is not known whether the smear layer which forms during cavity preparation is associated with this leakage pattern. This study was undertaken to evaluate experimental marginal leakage around amalgam restorations (left in situ for one and 12 wk) which had been placed in cavities prepared with and without removal of the smear layer in vital and devitalized teeth. The cavities were obturated with two types of dental amalgams, a conventional and a dispersed-phase amalgam. The excised teeth restorations were subjected to a fluorescent dye marginal leakage experiment. All of the short-term specimens leaked severely, but some of the long-term specimens displayed significant sealing properties. No significant differences were found between the two types of amalgams. However, the non-vital tooth specimens and cavities without smear layers displayed significantly improved sealing properties. PMID:7026631

  6. Sputum smear microscopy result: a predictor for drug-resistant tuberculosis?

    PubMed

    Dean, A S; Zignol, M; Lumb, R; Lalor, M; Skrahina, A; Floyd, K

    2016-07-01

    Until countries establish capacity for continuous surveillance systems, representative surveys of tuberculosis (TB) patients continue to improve our understanding of the burden of drug-resistant TB and help ensure appropriate allocation of resources. Although the available data are limited, the current recommendation of restricting surveys to sputum smear-positive patients is justified, given the greatly simplified logistics and only limited evidence in specific settings of an association between drug resistance and sputum smear status. Nonetheless, the relationship between drug resistance and sputum smear microscopy results may vary according to the setting and population under study. With the increasing availability and use of molecular diagnostics and the drive for universal drug susceptibility testing under the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy, substantially more data on drug resistance in the whole TB patient population should become available in the near future. PMID:27287635

  7. Interactions between yeasts and bacteria in the smear surface-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, A; Rossi, J; Gobbetti, M

    2001-09-19

    In the initial phase of ripening, the microflora of bacterial smear surface-ripened cheeses such as Limburger, Taleggio, Brick, Münster and Saint-Paulin and that of surface mould-ripened cheeses such as Camembert and Brie may be similar, but at the end of the ripening, bacteria such as Brevibacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and moulds such as Penicillium camemberti are, respectively, the dominant microorganisms. Yeasts such as Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Debaryomyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Pichia spp., Rhodotorula spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica are often and variably isolated from the smear surface-ripened cheeses. Although not dominant within the microorganisms of the smear surface-ripened cheeses, yeasts establish significant interactions with moulds and especially bacteria, including surface bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Some aspects of the interactions between yeasts and bacteria in such type of cheeses are considered in this paper. PMID:11589547

  8. Fully automated detection of the counting area in blood smears for computer aided hematology.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Stephan; Schlarb, Timo; Hasslmeyer, Erik; Zerfass, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    For medical diagnosis, blood is an indispensable indicator for a wide variety of diseases, i.e. hemic, parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. A robust detection and exact segmentation of white blood cells (leukocytes) in stained blood smears of the peripheral blood provides the base for a fully automated, image based preparation of the so called differential blood cell count in the context of medical laboratory diagnostics. Especially for the localization of the blood cells and in particular for the segmentation of the cells it is necessary to detect the working area of the blood smear. In this contribution we present an approach for locating the so called counting area on stained blood smears that is the region where cells are predominantly separated and do not interfere with each other. For this multiple images of a blood smear are taken and analyzed in order to select the image corresponding to this area. The analysis involves the computation of an unimodal function from image content that serves as indicator for the corresponding image. This requires a prior segmentation of the cells that is carried out by a binarization in the HSV color space. Finally, the indicator function is derived from the number of cells and the cells' surface area. Its unimodality guarantees to find a maximum value that corresponds to the counting areas image index. By this, a fast lookup of the counting area is performed enabling a fully automated analysis of blood smears for medical diagnosis. For an evaluation the algorithm's performance on a number of blood smears was compared with the ground truth information that has been defined by an adept hematologist. PMID:22256137

  9. Formulation of an improved smeared stiffener theory for buckling analysis of grid-stiffened composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A smeared stiffener theory for stiffened panels is presented that includes skin-stiffener interaction effects. The neutral surface profile of the skin-stiffener combination is developed analytically using the minimum potential energy principle and statics conditions. The skin-stiffener interaction is accounted for by computing the stiffness due to the stiffener and the skin in the skin-stiffener region about the neutral axis at the stiffener. Buckling load results for axially stiffened, orthogrid, and general grid-stiffened panels are obtained using the smeared stiffness combined with a Rayleigh-Ritz method and are compared with results from detailed finite element analyses.

  10. Smeared hair and black holes in three-dimensional de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Mu-In

    2009-10-15

    It is known that there is no three-dimensional analog of de Sitter black holes. I show that the analog does exist when non-Gaussian (i.e., ring-type) smearings of point matter hairs are considered. This provides a new way of constructing black hole solutions from hairs. I find that the obtained black hole solutions are quite different from the usual large black holes in that there are (i) large to small black hole transitions which may be considered as inverse Hawking-Page transitions and (ii) solitonlike (i.e., nonperturbative) behaviors. For Gaussian smearing, there is no black hole but a gravastar solution exists.

  11. Relationships between Self-Efficacy and Pap Smear Screening in Iranian Women.

    PubMed

    Majdfar, Zahra; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Majlesi, Freshteh; Rahimi, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer among women worldwide. Pap smear screening has resulted in deceasing incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries but low uptake of Pap smear screening among women in developing countries is still a public health challenge. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between self-efficacy and timely uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women. A total of 580 married women referred to primary health care centers covered administratively by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were administered a questionnaire by trained staff. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The mean age for participants was 33.1±8.8 years. There was a significant association between self-efficacy and Pap smear screening (P<0.01). There was also a positive correlation between duration of marriage and husband's education with Pap smear uptake (P<0.01). In univariate analysis, there was a significant association between Pap smear uptake and level of self-efficacy (OR = 15.3 for intermediate and OR=7.4 for good level), duration of marriage (OR = 5.7 for 5-14 years and OR=10.4 for more than 15), age (OR =2.7 for 27-34 years and OR=7.4 for more than 35 years) and husband education level (OR=2.3 for more than 12 years of education). In multivariate analysis, significant associations persisted between Pap smear uptake and self-efficacy (OR = 23.8; 95% CI: 8.7, 65.5), duration of marriage (OR = 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.2), age (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 12.9) and husband's education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0, 10.3). Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer and improve their self-efficacy and perceptions of the Pap smear screening in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. PMID:27165236

  12. Evaluation of different modifications of acid-fast staining techniques and stool enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detecting fecal Cryptosporidium in diarrheic HIV seropositive and seronegative patients

    PubMed Central

    Parghi, Ekta; Dash, Lona; Shastri, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Rational: The role of Cryptosporidium as an agent of human diarrhea has been redefined over the past decade following recognition of the strong association between cases of cryptosporidiosis and immune deficient individuals (such as those with AIDS). Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of enteric parasites and to compare the diagnostic utility of stool enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with various modifications of acid-fast (AF) staining in detection of Cryptosporidium in stool samples of diarrheic patients. Materials and Methods: Stool samples from 186 cases comprising of 93 HIV seropositive and 93 seronegative patients were included. These were subjected to routine and microscopic examination as well as various modifications of AF staining for detection of coccidian parasites and ELISA for the detection of Cryptosporidium. Results: The prevalence of enteric parasites was 54.8% and of Cryptosporidium was 17.2% in HIV seropositive patients while it was 29.0% and 5.4%, respectively in seronegative patients. Of the 186 cases, 33 cases (17.7%) were positive for Cryptosporidium by stool ELISA as compared to 21 (11.3%) by modified AF staining (gold standard) showing sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 92.7%, respectively. The maximum cases of Cryptosporidium (21; 11.3%) were detected by AF staining using 3% acid alcohol. Conclusion: ELISA is a simple, useful, and rapid tool for detection of Cryptosporidium in stool, especially for large scale population studies. However, the role of modified AF staining in detection of Cryptosporidium and other coccidian parasites is important. Based on the results of various modifications of AF staining, the present study recommends the use of 3% acid alcohol along with 10% H2SO4. PMID:25250230

  13. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Mehrian, Payam; Aghahosseini, Farahnaz; Lotfian, Ferial; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. Material/Methods This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. Results The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. Conclusions This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children

  14. Evaluation of CHROMagar Orientation for differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species.

    PubMed Central

    Merlino, J; Siarakas, S; Robertson, G J; Funnell, G R; Gottlieb, T; Bradbury, R

    1996-01-01

    A new chromogenic plate medium, CHROMagar Orientation, was evaluated for use in the differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species by a multipoint inoculation (replicator) technique. In this study, 1,404 gram-negative bacilli and 74 enterococcal isolates were tested on CHROMagar Orientation. Six control American Type Culture Collection strains were also included with the testing to ensure quality control of the media. Of the Escherichia coli isolates (n = 588) tested, 99.3% produced a pink-to-red color. Only in four isolates that were O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) negative did this result differ. Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris were well differentiated on this medium. P. mirabilis (n = 184) produced a clear colony with diffusible brown pigment around the periphery. By contrast, 15 of 16 P. vulgaris isolates produced bluish-green colonies with a slight brown background. All Aeromonas hydrophila isolates (n = 26) tested produced clear to pink colonies at 35 to 37 degrees C. This colony color changed to blue after 2 to 3 h of incubation at room temperature. A. hydrophila exhibited stronger color and better growth at 30 degrees C. Serratia marcescens (n = 29) demonstrated an aqua blue color that deepened to a darker blue when exposed to room temperature. All enterococcal isolates (n = 74) resulted in a blue color and gave pinpoint colonies on purity subcultures at 35 to 37 degrees C after 18 h of incubation. Similarity in color resulted in failure to discriminate accurately between Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter species. However, these species could be readily differentiated from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 151) was easily differentiated from members of the Enterobacteriaceae but was less easily distinguishable from other gram-negative nonmembers of the Enterobacteriaceae. The medium was found to facilitate easy visual detection of mixed

  15. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. Methods The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was used to assess the correlation between Pap smear test usage and several variables. Logistic regression analysis was employed to explore the factors that influence Pap smear test usage. Results The results show that 4.83% (n =880) of women with intellectual disabilities underwent Pap smear tests. Pap smear test usage rates exhibit a declining trend with increases in age. Factors that significantly influence Pap smear test use include age, urbanization level of resident area, monthly salary, aboriginal status, marital status, existence of DM, severity of disability. Conclusions The women with intellectual disabilities had a low use rate of Pap smear test, which is significantly less than the 28.8% usage rate for the general population of women aged 30 years and above. PMID:24890828

  16. Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Recurrence in the Setting of Negative Splenic Smears.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Golam; Basher, Ariful; Nath, Proggananda; Ghosh, Prakash; Hossain, Faria; Hossain, Shakhawat; Mondal, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    This report presents two cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) recurrence where the microscopy of the splenic smear failed in diagnosis. However, a strong clinical suspicion compelled further evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which validated the etiology. This short report highlights the usefulness of PCR in diagnosing cases of suspected smear-negative VL recurrence. PMID:26556834

  17. Characterization of Bacilli Isolated from the Confined Environments of the Antarctic Concordia Station and the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmery, Sophie; Hu, Xiaomin; Mahillon, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread.

  18. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing gram negative bacilli in a tertiary referral hospital of Assam--experience with two methods.

    PubMed

    Nath, Reema; Saikia, Lahari; Mahanta, J

    2006-10-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes produced in some gram negative bacilli that mediate resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins. 683 clinical isolates of Escherisia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were studied for their capacity to produce ESBL. Isolates showing resistance to at least two of the third generation cephalosporins were studied for ESBL production by Jarlier technique and combination disc methods. Out of the 457 E. Coli and 226 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in Assam Medical College, 29.76% and 53.1% were resistant to two cephalosporins of which 29.41% and 29.16% strains showed production of ESBL. However, 6 (4.41%) and 16 (13.34%) strains additionally showed production of ESBL when tested with combination disc method. Though the Jarlier technique is popular, for detection of ESBL, yet false negative results warrants for alternative method. In the absence of molecular detection methods in routine clinical microbiology laboratory, combination disc method appears to be a better option. PMID:17183880

  19. In vitro activities of quinolones, beta-lactams, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Fass, R J; Barnishan, J; Solomon, M C; Ayers, L W

    1996-06-01

    From 1991 to 1995, 8,975 nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli were isolated from patients at The Ohio State University Medical Center: 71% Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 14% Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 7.6% Acinetobacter baumannii, and < 2% each of 25 other species. The MICs of trovafloxacin (CP-99,219), ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, imipenem, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) were determined for 308 isolates, representing 13 species, by a standardized broth microdilution method. The activities of all drugs were species dependent. The fluoroquinolones had inconsistent activity against most species, although several relatively uncommon nonfermenters were consistently susceptible or resistant. Trovafloxacin was considerably more active than ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against S. maltophilia, A. baumannii, and several less common species. Among the beta-lactams, relative activities varied considerably; overall, imipenem had the broadest spectrum of activity but was inactive against S. maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia isolates. Tobramycin and TMP-SMZ had stereotypic spectra of activity. Tobramycin was active against most species except S. maltophilia, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans, Burkholderia spp., and Weeksella virosa. TMP-SMZ was active against most species except P. aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens-putida. A review of laboratory records indicated few changes in susceptibility patterns from 1991 to 1995; the only clear trend was toward increasing P. aeruginosa resistance to all classes of drugs. PMID:8726011

  20. Don't Forget Morphology—The Importance of Evaluation of Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Hattersley, Paul G.; Ragusa, Dorothy

    1965-01-01

    A number of morphologic changes in the blood which may provide important diagnostic help, even in patients with normal blood counts, are frequently overlooked. Painstaking morphologic examination of a blood smear may at times lead directly to an important and unexpected diagnosis. PMID:14341317

  1. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired BTZ black hole based on Lorentzian smeared mass distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Liu, Bo

    2012-11-01

    A noncommutative BTZ black hole is constructed in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In this black-hole model, the noncommutative smearing is obtained by replacing the point-like source term with a Lorentzian distribution. We mainly investigate the thermodynamical properties of this black hole, including Hawking temperature, entropy, heat capacity and free energy.

  2. Increasing Pap Smear Utilization Among Samoan Women: Results from a Community Based Participatory Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shiraz I.; Luce, Pat H.; Baquet, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Background We tested the effectiveness of a theory-guided, culturally tailored cervical cancer education program designed to increase Pap smear use among Samoan women residing in the U.S. Territory of American Samoa. Methods We used a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The sample comprised 398 Samoan women age 20 and older who we recruited from Samoan churches. Women in the intervention group received a culturally tailored cervical cancer education program in three weekly sessions. The primary outcome was self-reported receipt of a Pap smear. Results Overall, there was a significant intervention effect, with intervention compared with control group women twice (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.3–3.2, p<.01) as likely to self-report Pap smear use at the posttest. Conclusions The findings support the efficacy of the multifaceted, theory-guided, culturally tailored community-based participatory cervical cancer education program for Samoan women in effecting positive changes in Pap smear use and cervical cancer related knowledge and attitudes. PMID:19711495

  3. What is your diagnosis? Blood smear from an injured red-tailed hawk.

    PubMed

    Johns, Jennifer L; Luff, Jennifer A; Shooshtari, Mahrokh P; Zehnder, Ashley M; Borjesson, Dori L

    2009-06-01

    An injured juvenile red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis. The hawk was quiet, alert, and emaciated, and had a closed comminuted, mid-diaphyseal ulnar fracture. CBC results included heterophilia with a left shift, monocytosis, and increased plasma fibrinogen concentration. The blood smear included rare heterophils containing small, dark blue inclusions approximately 1-2 mum in diameter that ranged from round to coccobacillary in shape and formed variably shaped aggregates; the morphology of the inclusions was suspicious for Chlamydophila or Ehrlichia spp. pathogens. The hawk died, and histopathologic examination of tissues obtained at necropsy found severe multifocal histiocytic and heterophilic splenitis in addition to chronic hepatitis, myocarditis and epicarditis, meningoencephalitis, and airsacculitis. Using immunohistochemistry the presence of Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen within multiple tissues was confirmed. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was demonstrated in whole blood and fresh splenic tissue via real-time PCR. Direct fluorescent antibody staining of air-dried blood smears was positive in rare leukocytes for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen, and immunocytochemical staining of blood smears for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen was focally positive in rare heterophils. These findings may represent the first reported diagnosis of natural avian C. psittaci infection by visualization of organisms in peripheral blood heterophils. Immunocytochemical evaluation of blood smears was valuable in confirming the diagnosis and may be a useful antemortem test to discriminate between bacteria and other inclusions within heterophils. PMID:19228359

  4. MICRONUCLEI AND OTHER NUCLEAR ANOMALIES IN BUCCAL SMEARS: FIELD TEST IN SNUFF USERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A revised protocol for the exfoliated cell micronucleus assay was ie d-teste in a population exposed to a genotoxic agent at levels associated with a significant increase in cancer risk. The standard assay involves microscope examination of epithelial smears 0 determine the preva...

  5. Profile of tuberculosis patients with delayed sputum smear conversion in the Pacific island of Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Viney, K.; Tarivonda, L.; Roseveare, C.; Tagaro, M.; Marais, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: National tuberculosis control programme, Vanuatu. Objective: To assess tuberculosis (TB) trends, characterise sputum smear-positive patients with non-conversion at 2 months and assess their treatment outcomes. Design: Evaluation of programme data over a 9-year period (2004–2012), comparing 2-month sputum non-converters (delayed converters) with sputum smear converters diagnosed in 2011 and 2012. Results: Annual TB case numbers were similar over the study period, with an average TB notification rate of 58 per 100 000 population. Of 417 sputum smear-positive cases, 74 (18%) were delayed converters. Delayed converters were more likely than converters (88% vs. 79%) to have had high pre-treatment sputum smear grades (OR 2.5, 95%CI 0.97–6.45). Among delayed converters, treatment adherence was high (99% good adherence), outcomes were generally good (90% treatment success, 85% cure, 4% treatment failure) and no drug resistance was detected. Deaths were unexpectedly common among converters (11/80, 14%), with significantly more deaths in Tafea than in Shefa Province (7/58 vs. 2/80, OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.07–26.79). Tafea Province also had the greatest number of delayed converters (30/74, 40.5%) and the highest TB incidence rate. Conclusion: Delayed sputum conversion was relatively uncommon, and was not associated with adverse outcomes or drug resistance. Regional differences require further investigation to better understand local factors that may compromise patient management. PMID:26477281

  6. Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Longatto Filho, A.; Maeda, M.Y.; Oyafuso, M.S.; Kanamura, C.T.; Alves, V.A. )

    1990-09-01

    From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously.

  7. Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibzadeh, M.; Krzyzak, A.; Fevens, T.; Sadr, A.

    2011-03-01

    This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for counting blood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.

  8. Inactivating Zaire Ebolavirus in Whole-Blood Thin Smears Used for Malaria Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Todd; Cook, Bradley; Poliquin, Guillaume; Strong, James; Theriault, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Malaria is an important mimic or coinfection in potential Ebolavirus disease patients. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the 100% methanol-inactivating Zaire Ebolavirus Makona variant for malaria thin-smear preparation. We determined that 100% methanol completely inactivated the virus after 15 min. PMID:26865684

  9. Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

  10. THE ROLE OF TARGET ORGAN DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH IN SEASONAL ALLERGIC RHINITIS: NASAL SMEAR EOSINOPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Nurkic, Jasmina; Ahmad, Mona Al; Arifhodzic, Nermina; Jusufovic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) related to local weeds pollen sensitization (Chenopodiaceous family) is the most common cause of respiratory allergy in Kuwait. Local nasal accumulation of different cells typical of allergic inflammation is responsible for clinical symptoms of AR. Although nasal smear for Eosinophils (NSE) is one of the earliest included valuable test in diagnosis of AR, with time is underestimated. Aim: Explore possible correlation of natural pollen allergen stimulation with appearance and quantity of Eosinophils in nasal smear. Methods: A group of randomly selected patients with clinical history suggestive for seasonal AR (SAR), who came to Al Rashed Allergy Center in period from October 2014 to October 2015, obtain Nasal Smear for Eosinophils as a screening test before further diagnostic evaluation. Nasal samples were collected by passing a sterile swab, from each nasal cavity, along the medial surface of the inferior turbinate 2 to 3 times and the specimen smeared on a clear glass slide. Nasal smears were examined by light microscopy after staining with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Skin prick test is performed in all symptomatic patients with a battery of inhalant allergens that include local pollens. The control group was recruited, with their voluntary consent, from the medical stuff with a negative history of any allergic nasal symptoms. In this group we performed only nasal smear for Eosinophils. Air Biology Laboratory Kuwait provided us with daily pollen count. Results: From total 158 study participants, 132 had SAR symptoms and are divided in four groups. Fifth, control, group is non symptomatic. For 38.6% of symptomatic patients NSE were positive, while 45% of these patients have negative SPT. From 62.1% NSE negative patients, 37.8% have negative SPT. Our results showed expected positive correlation of NSE positive patients with pollen season in Kuwait, in SPT positive group. However, presence of Eosinophils in nasal smear was moderate

  11. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for species identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Traglia, Germán; Famiglietti, Angela; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Vay, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify 396 Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli clinical isolates was evaluated in comparison with conventional phenotypic tests and/or molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS identified to species level 256 isolates and to genus or complex level 112 isolates. It identified 29 genera including uncommon species. PMID:25765149

  12. The Performance of Direct Disk Diffusion for Community Acquired Bacteremia due to Gram-Negative Bacilli and Its Impact on Physician Treatment Decisions.

    PubMed

    Daley, Peter; Comerford, Adam; Umali, Jurgienne; Penney, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background. Direct disk diffusion susceptibility testing provides faster results than standard microtitre susceptibility. The direct result may impact patient outcome in sepsis if it is accurate and if physicians use the information to promptly and appropriately change antibiotic treatment. Objective. To compare the performance of direct disk diffusion with standard susceptibility and to consider physician decisions in response to these early results, for community acquired bacteremia with Gram-negative Bacilli. Methods. Retrospective observational study of all positive blood cultures with Gram-negative Bacilli, collected over one year. Physician antibiotic treatment decisions were assessed by an infectious diseases physician based on information available to the physician at the time of the decision. Results. 89 bottles growing Gram-negative Bacilli were included in the analysis. Direct disk diffusion agreement with standard susceptibility varied widely. In 47 cases (52.8%), the physician should have changed to a narrower spectrum but did not, in 18 cases (20.2%), the physician correctly narrowed from appropriate broad coverage, and in 8 cases (9.0%), the empiric therapy was correct. Discussion. Because inoculum is not standardized, direct susceptibility results do not agree with standard susceptibility results for all drugs. Physicians do not act on direct susceptibility results. Conclusion. Direct susceptibility should be discontinued in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:27366172

  13. Comparison of different irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Akyuz Ekim, Sefika Nur; Erdemir, Ali

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal. About 80 single-rooted human maxillary central teeth were decoronated to a standardized length.The samples were prepared by using ProTaper system to size F4 and divided into eight equal groups (n = 10) according to the final irrigation activation technique; distilled water was used as an irrigant in Group 1. The other groups were treated with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, respectively. Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) was used in Group 2. Irrigation solutions were activated using passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, Group 3), EndoVac apical negative pressure (ANP, Group 4), diode laser (Group 5), Nd:YAG laser (Group 6), Er:YAG laser (Group 7), and Er:YAG laser using with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS™, Group 8). Teeth were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM). PIPS showed the best removal of smear layer when compared with PUI, ANP, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Smear layer scores obtained with PIPS technique were statistically significant different from those of obtained with control, CSI and diode laser groups (P < 0.05). All experimental irrigation techniques except ANP and diode laser removed smear layer more effectively at the coronal and middle levels compared to the apical level (P < 0.05). Irrigation activated/delivered techniques except diode laser have a positive effect on removing of smear layer. PMID:25582378

  14. Comparison of Pap Smear and Colposcopy in Screening for Cervical Cancer in Patients with Secondary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-zarchi, Mojgan; Zanbagh, Leila; Shafii, Alireza; Taghipour-Zahir, Shokouh; Teimoori, Soraya; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The sensitivity of conventional Pap smear in detecting cervical lesions before cervical cancer is 51%, which means the false negative value is 49%. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for screening for cervical cancer in patients with secondary immunodeficiency, i.e., the conventional Pap smear and colposcopy. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 101 immunodeficient patients who were referred to the Gynecologic Clinic at Shahid Sadughi Hospital in Yazd from March 2011 to August 2012. All patients underwent the Pap test, a colposcopy, and a cervical biopsy, with the latter being considered as the gold-standard test. Results The most frequency of immunodeficiency was noted among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (53.3%), and this was followed by patients who were undergoing chemotherapy (30.7%), patients with lupus erythematosus (12.9%), and patients with AIDS (3%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the Pap smear were 18.2, 98.5, 85.5, 71.3, and 72.2%, respectively. The respective values for colposcopy were 66.7, 98.94, 80, 97.9, and 97%, respectively. Conclusion In this study the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values of colposcopy were higher than those for the Pap smear in detecting high-grade, cervical, pre-malignant lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: CIN ≥ 2). Therefore, an annual colposcopy is advised for secondary immunodeficient patients instead of a Pap smear. PMID:26767111

  15. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.001).The diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  16. Debris and smear removal in flattened root canals after use of different irrigant agitation protocols.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Eduardo Milani; Silva-Sousa, Yara T C; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Lorencetti, Karina Torales; Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa

    2012-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can be used to analyze the presence of debris and smear layer on the internal walls of root canal. This study evaluated the debris and smear removal in flattened root canals using SEM after use of different irrigant agitation protocols. Fifty mandibular incisors were distributed into five groups (n = 10) according to the irrigant agitation protocol used during chemomechanical preparation: conventional syringe irrigation with NaviTip needle (no activation), active scrubbing of irrigant with brush-covered NaviTip FX needle, manual dynamic irrigation, continuous passive ultrasonic irrigation, and apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system). Canals were irrigated with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl at each change of instrument and received a final flush with 17% EDTA for 1 min. After instrumentation, the roots were split longitudinally and SEM micrographs at ×100 and ×1,000 were taken to evaluate the amount of debris and smear layer, respectively, in each third. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests (α = 5%). Manual dynamic activation left significantly (p < 0.05) more debris inside the canals than the other protocols, while ultrasonic irrigation and EndoVac were the most effective (p < 0.05) for debris removal. Regarding the removal of smear layer, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) either among the irrigant agitation protocols or between the protocol-canal third interactions. Although none of the irrigant agitation protocols completely removed debris and smear layer from flattened root canals, the machine-assisted agitation systems (ultrasound and EndoVac) removed more debris than the manual techniques. PMID:22131294

  17. To Evaluate the Efficacy of an Innovative Irrigant on Smear Layer Removal – SEM Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Vridhachalam Ganapathy; Subbiya, Arunajatesan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of endodontic therapy is to completely eliminate the microorganisms and the smear layer from the root canal in order to provide a good seal of the root filling materials. Aim The aim of this study was to find a viable alternative irrigant, which is easily available with less erosion and clinically acceptable smear layer removal by comparing the efficacy of EDTA and commercially available super-oxidized water, named Oxum, as a final rinse on smear layer removal and erosion in relation to coronal, middle and apical thirds of radicular dentin using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Materials and Methods Freshly extracted 30 human lower second premolar teeth with straight roots and type I canal anatomy were selected. The root canals were cleaned and shaped using Universal Protaper Rotary System. Irrigation was performed with 1 ml of 2.5% of NaOCl solution after each instrument change. The final irrigation (5 ml) sequence was as follows: Group I- 17% EDTA, Group II – OXUM, and Group III - 0.9% saline (control) for one minute. Then, the root canals were finally irrigated with 5ml of distilled water to remove any precipitate. The roots were then gently split into two halves using a chisel and subjected to SEM analysis. Results The SEM photomicrographs were evaluated by two independent examiners and Mann Whitney results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two examiners. Non-parametric statistical analysis of all experimental groups showed significant difference between coronal, middle and apical third for smear layer removal with p-value<0.05. For erosion, in group II (oxum) showed statistically significant difference between coronal, middle and apical third and it showed significantly less dentine erosion when compared to EDTA. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, Oxum the commercially available super-oxidized water proved to be equally effective in smear layer removal with less

  18. Novel methodology to assess sputum smear microscopy quality in private laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In South Asia, it is estimated that 80% of patients choose to attend a private facility for their healthcare needs. Although patients generally believe that the private-sector provides high quality services, private diagnostic laboratories are largely unregulated and little is known about the accuracy of results provided. This study assesses the accuracy of sputum smear microscopy for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis in private laboratories operating in Karachi, Pakistan. A novel evaluation methodology was designed in which patient-actors submitted sputum specimens spiked with cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) for testing such that laboratories were not aware that they were being assessed. Methods Smear-negative sputum specimens from Indus Hospital TB Program patients were collected and combined with an attenuated, cultured Mtb strain to create Mtb-spiked samples; for negative standards, no Mtb was added to the smear-negative sputum specimens. Seven of the largest private laboratories across Karachi were chosen for evaluation and were sent six Mtb-spiked and one Mtb-negative sputum specimens. Patient-actors pretending to be laboratory customers submitted these specimens to each laboratory for testing over a three day period. Results Only three laboratories accurately classified all the Mtb-spiked specimens which were submitted. A further three misclassified all the Mtb-spiked specimens as smear-negative, thus providing the ‘patients’ with false negative results. Conclusions TB sputum smear microscopy services are highly variable across private laboratories and are often of extremely poor quality. Engagement, capacity building and rigorous monitoring of standards at private laboratories are of vital importance for the control of TB. Our findings, while specific for TB diagnostic tests, could be symptomatic of other tests performed in private laboratories and warrant further investigation. PMID:23193964

  19. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in unconsolidated sediments - insights from 3-D observations of excavated normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, Michael; Thronberens, Sebastian; Juarez, Oscar; Lajos Urai, Janos; Ziegler, Martin; Asmus, Sven; Kruger, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Clay smears in normal faults can form seals for hydrocarbons and groundwater, and their prediction in the subsurface is an important problem in applied and basic geoscience. However, neither their complex 3-D structure, nor their processes of formation or destruction are well understood, and outcrop studies to date are mainly 2-D. We present a 3-D study of an excavated normal fault with clay smear, together with both source layers, in unlithified sand and clay of the Hambach open-cast lignite mine in Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have shale gouge ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. The fault zones are layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. The thickness of clay smears in two excavated fault zones of 1.8 and 3.8 m2 is approximately log-normal, with values between 5 mm and 5 cm, without holes. The 3-D thickness distribution is heterogeneous. We show that clay smears are strongly affected by R and R' shears, mostly at the footwall side. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes in the clay smear, while thinning of the clay smear by shearing in the fault core is less important. The thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cut-offs. Locally, the clay smear consists of overlapping patches of sheared clay, separated by sheared sand. More commonly, it is one amalgamated zone of sheared sand and clay. A microscopic study of fault-zone samples shows that grain-scale mixing can lead to thickening of the low permeability smears, which may lead to resealing of holes.

  20. LOW KNOWLEDGE OF CERVICAL CANCER AND CERVICAL PAP SMEARS AMONG WOMEN IN PERU, AND THEIR IDEAS OF HOW THIS COULD BE IMPROVED

    PubMed Central

    PAZ-SOLDÁN, VALERIE A.; NUSSBAUM, LAUREN; BAYER, ANGELA M.; CABRERA, LILIA

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the percentage of women who have had Pap smears in Peru vary between 7% and 43%. This study explores what women know about cervical cancer and Pap smears, as well as their barriers to obtaining Pap smears. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with a total of 177 women in four Peruvian cities. Discussions reveal that most women did not know what causes cervical cancer. Most women did not know the purpose of Pap smears, although knowledge about Pap smears was higher than knowledge about cervical cancer. Fear, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge were the main barriers identified for not getting Pap smears. Programs and policies aiming to increase Pap smear coverage must start by educating women on cervical cancer and its prevention in order to improve women's perceptions about the screening test and increase Pap smear seeking behaviors in the long term. PMID:21988870

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity of "last-resort" antibiotics against unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, Herve; Le Monnier, Alban; Carbonnelle, Etienne; Corvec, Stephane; Illiaquer, Marina; Bille, Emmanuelle; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Jauréguy, Françoise; Fihman, Vincent; Tankovic, Jacques; Cattoir, Vincent

    2012-08-01

    In this prospective multicentric study, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem), tigecycline, and colistin against 166 unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) clinical isolates collected from nine French hospitals during a 6-month period (from December 1, 2008, to May 31, 2009). All NF-GNB isolates were included, except those phenotypically identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents were determined by using the E-test technique. The following microorganisms were identified: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n=72), Pseudomonas spp. (n=30), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (n=25), Acinetobacter spp. (n=18), Burkholderia cepacia complex (n=9), Alcaligenes faecalis (n=7), and Delftia spp. (n=5). All isolates of Acinetobacter spp., A. faecalis, and Delftia spp. were susceptible to the three carbapenems. Imipenem exhibited the lowest MICs against Pseudomonas spp., and meropenem, as compared with imipenem and doripenem, displayed an interesting antimicrobial activity against A. xylosoxidans and B. cepacia complex isolates. Conversely, no carbapenem exhibited any activity against S. maltophilia. Except for S. maltophilia isolates, tigecycline and colistin exhibited higher MICs than carbapenems, but covered most of the microorganisms tested in this study. To our knowledge, no prior study has compared antimicrobial activity of these five antibiotics, often considered as "last-resort" treatment options for resistant Gram-negative infections, against unusual NF-GNB clinical isolates. Further studies should be carried out to assess the potential clinical use of these antibiotics for the treatment of infections due to these microorganisms. PMID:22335615

  2. Assessment of functional and genetic diversity of aerobic endospore forming Bacilli from rhizospheric soil of Phyllanthus amarus L.

    PubMed

    Kadyan, Sangeeta; Panghal, Manju; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Khushboo; Yadav, Jaya Parkash

    2013-09-01

    Fifty two aerobic and endospore forming Bacilli (AEFB) strains were recovered from rhizospheric soil of Phyllanthus amarus. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization by 16S rDNA gene sequencing has shown that these bacterial strains belong to six different genera of AEFB i.e. Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Terribacillus and Jeotgalibacillus. Analysis of their PGP activities has shown that 92.30 % strains produced indole acetic acid hormone, 86.53 % of the strains solubilized Phosphate and 44.23 % strains produced siderophore. Chitinase production activity was shown by 42.30 % of the strains and 21.15 % of the strains produced 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. 46.15 % of isolates have shown antagonistic activity against common fungal pathogen of the plant i.e. Corynespora cassiicola. Among all of the isolated strains B. Cereus JP44SK22 and JP44SK42 have shown all of the six plant growth promoting traits tested. B. megaterium strains (JP44SK18 and JP44SK35), Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains (JP44SK3 and JP44SK4) and Brevibacillus laterosporus strain JP44SK51 have also shown multiple PGP activities except ACC deaminase production activity. In the present study bacterial strain belonging to genera Jeotgalibacillus sp. JP44SK37 has been reported first time as a member of rhizospheric soil habitat and has also shown PGP activities. It can be concluded that Rhizosphere of P. amarus has harboured a good diversity of AEFB bacterial strains having a lot of biofertilizing and biocontrol abilities. PMID:23526192

  3. Isolation and characterisation of aerobic endospore forming Bacilli from sugarcane rhizosphere for the selection of strains with agriculture potentialities.

    PubMed

    de Los Milagros Orberá Ratón, Teresa; Yano, Ricardo; Rodríguez Gámez, Odalys; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; de Jesús Serrat Díaz, Manuel; Barbosa, Heloíza Ramos

    2012-04-01

    Eighteen aerobic endospore forming strains were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere in N-free medium. A phenotypic description and analysis of the 5' end hypervariable region sequences of 16S rRNA revealed a high diversity of Bacillus and related genera. Isolates were identified, and four genera were obtained: seven strains belonged to Bacillus (Bacillaceae family), four belonged to Paenibacillus, six belonged to Brevibacillus and one strain was identified as Cohnella (Paenibacillaceae family). Four Brevibacillus strains showed in vitro inhibitory activity against plant pathogens fungi Curvularia and Fusarium. Seventy-four percent of the isolated bacteria grew on pectin as the only carbon source, showing polygalacturonase activity. Pectate lyase activity was detected for the first time in a Brevibacillus genus strain. All isolates showed endoglucanase activity. Calcium phosphate solubilisation was positive in 83.3% of the isolates, with higher values than those reported for Bacillus inorganic phosphate solubilising strains. High ethylene plant hormone secretion in the culture medium was detected in 22% of the bacteria. This is the first report of ethylene secretion in Paenibacillaceae isolates. Indole-3-acetic acid production was found in a Brevibacillus genus isolate. It was reported for the first time the presence of Cohnella genus strain on sugarcane rhizosphere bearing plant growth promoting traits. The sugarcane isolate Brevibacillus B65 was identified as a plant growth inoculant because it showed wider spectra of plant stimulation capabilities, including an antifungal effect, extracellular hydrolases secretion, inorganic phosphate solubilisation and plant hormone liberation. In this work, sugarcane was shown to be a suitable niche for finding aerobic endospore forming 'Bacilli' with agriculture biotechnological purposes. PMID:22805941

  4. [Feasibility of cervical smear in HIV-positive women living in Chad].

    PubMed

    Mortier, E; Doudéadoum, N; Némian, F; Gaulier, A; Kemian, M

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancerrelated death in Sub-Saharan African women. HIV-infected women are at increased risk for cervical intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. WHO guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions are regularly actualized. There are no data on cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in Chad. Between August 2013 and May 2015, screening for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions was proposed to HIV-infected women living in Moundou (Chad). Cytology examination was performed after with Papanicolaou coloration. Three hundred and eleven HIV-seropositive women accepted the screening without refusal. Mean age of the patients was 38 years (95% Confidence Interval: 37.7-39.9). The women declared a mean of 4.1 pregnancies (range: 0-12). The patients had been followed-up for their seropositivity for 8 years (range: 0-25). All were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Of the patients whose results were known (N = 231), 98% had a CD4 lymphocyte nadir count less than 350/mm(3). Cytological results were as follows: normal smear (N = 59; 19%), inflammatory or hemorrhagic smear (N = 139; 44%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (N = 58; 19%), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (N = 28; 9%), epidermoid carcinoma (N = 13; 4%), and uninterpretable smear (N = 14; 5%). The inflammatory lesions were due to cervicitis (N = 54), vaginosis (N = 22), and trichomonas infection (N = 3). The patients' age, CD4 lymphocyte nadir count, and CD4 count at the time of the cervical smear were not different according to the cytological results. Only five patients had a cone biopsy. Three patients deceased during the study of whom two from a gynaecological cancer diagnosed too late. The screening of dysplasia and cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women is possible in Chad. In our study, 13% of the women had highgrade dysplasia or carcinoma needing curative care. We also showed that simple

  5. A diversity of blood smear examination system of Thai public hospital.

    PubMed

    Vattanaviboon, P; Manochiopinij, S; Sirisali, K; Tankeyul, B

    1999-01-01

    A good laboratory practice is the heart of clinical laboratory quality. One must establish a standard system in order to achieve the quality. However, standard system is not only the technical but also a state of the art. The socioeconomic and culture are the influence factors. At present, technique of reporting the blood smear examination is still a nation controversy. We surveyed the blood smear examination reporting system of the public hospital in Thailand. There were 77 hospitals participated in this study. A questionnaire comprised of 23 questions was distributed to 105 clinical laboratory staffs of the public health hospitals. Results showed that there was a diversity of blood smear examination reporting system. Generally, there were 2 ways of blood smear review. Every smeared slide and only abnormal slides were re-examined by the conventional technique. When an abnormal white blood cell blood picture was observed. The presence of either blast cell or atypical lymphocyte has clinical significance. A majority of laboratory would report in form "counting number of abnormal cell within 100% of the differential count". For other abnormalities of white blood cell; i.e. the neutrophils with toxic granules, most of laboratory reported as "presence". Interestingly, the red blood cell reporting system varied from laboratory to laboratory. There was a total of nine reporting patterns. Results indicated that pattern 4 (few or some, 1+,2+,3+,4+ are 5-10%, 11-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% and 51-100% cell/oil field, respectively) was the most popular one in reporting anisocytosis and poikilocytosis. However, the reporting pattern on red blood cell staining was difference. Pattern 4 and pattern 7 (grading by the size of central pallor) obtained a same popularity on the consideration of hypochromia. But the pattern 9 (few or some, 1+,2+,3+ are 0-1, 1-3, 4-6 and >6 cell/oil field, respectively) was the most frequently used in reporting of polychromasia. Fortunately we found that the

  6. Haematological profile in leprosy. Part I--general findings.

    PubMed

    Karat, A B; Rao, P S

    1977-04-01

    Haematological studies in 904 adult leprosy patients with different types of leprosy, in various stages of the disease and treatment are described. Haemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum albumin and serum iron are significantly lower among lepromatous leprosy patients as compared with non-lepromatous patients. The serum B12 levels were significantly higher among the lepromatous group. Acid fast bacilli have been demonstrated in skin smear negative leprosy patients with indeterminate and tuberculoid leprosy, suggesting occurrence of bacillaemia in these groups of patients. PMID:909286

  7. Severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related immune reconstitution syndrome in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Rajagopala, Srinivas; Chandrasekharan, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    We present a young immunocompetent male with diagnosed sputum culture-positive tuberculosis on intensive phase with observed daily four-drug antituberculosis therapy. He presented at 1-month of treatment with sequential bilateral pneumothoraces, increase in cavitation and consolidation and respiratory failure. Repeat smears for acid-fast bacilli had downgraded, and cultures were negative. Quantiferon-GOLD (initially negative) was now strongly positive. A diagnosis of possible immune reconstitution syndrome was considered and 0.25 mg/kg/day oral steroids administered. We also discuss an approach to differential diagnosis of a patient worsening on treatment for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis in this manuscript. PMID:25624652

  8. Severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related immune reconstitution syndrome in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopala, Srinivas; Chandrasekharan, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    We present a young immunocompetent male with diagnosed sputum culture-positive tuberculosis on intensive phase with observed daily four-drug antituberculosis therapy. He presented at 1-month of treatment with sequential bilateral pneumothoraces, increase in cavitation and consolidation and respiratory failure. Repeat smears for acid-fast bacilli had downgraded, and cultures were negative. Quantiferon-GOLD (initially negative) was now strongly positive. A diagnosis of possible immune reconstitution syndrome was considered and 0.25 mg/kg/day oral steroids administered. We also discuss an approach to differential diagnosis of a patient worsening on treatment for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis in this manuscript. PMID:25624652

  9. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data in the presence of significant instrumental smearing

    PubMed Central

    Bergenholtz, Johan; Ulama, Jeanette; Zackrisson Oskolkova, Malin

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-scale small-angle X-ray scattering instrument with pinhole collimation has been used to assess smearing effects due to instrumental resolution. A new, numerically efficient method to smear ideal model intensities is developed and presented. It allows for directly using measured profiles of isotropic but otherwise arbitrary beams in smearing calculations. Samples of low-polydispersity polymer spheres have been used to show that scattering data can in this way be quantitatively modeled even when there is substantial distortion due to instrumental resolution. PMID:26937235

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age 1

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183

  11. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  12. Detection of some anaemia types in human blood smears using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsalamony, Hany A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification process based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of red blood cells using microscopic examination of blood smears is the principal way to diagnose anaemia. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting some anaemia types like sickle and elliptocytosis and trying to count them with healthy ones in human red blood smears based on the circular Hough transform and some morphological tools. Some cells with unknown shapes (not platelets or white cells) also have been detected. The extracted data from the detection process has been analyzed by neural network. The experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm has achieved the highest detection of around 98.9% out of all the cells in 27 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates up to 100%, 98%, and 99.3% have been achieved by using neural networks for sickle, elliptocytosis and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  13. Bandwidth smearing in optical interferometry: analytic model of the transition to the double fringe packet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaume, R.; Berger, J.-P.

    2012-07-01

    Bandwidth smearing is a chromatic aberration due to the finite frequency bandwidth. In long-baseline optical interferometry terms, it is when the angular extension of the source is greater than the coherence length of the interferogram. As a consequence, separated parts of the source will contribute to fringe packets that are not fully overlapping; it is a transition from the classical interferometric regime to a double or multiple fringe packet. While studied in radio interferometry, there has been little work on the matter in the optical, where observables are measured and derived in a different manner, and are more strongly impacted by the turbulent atmosphere. We provide here the formalism and a set of usable equations to model and correct for the impact of smearing on the fringe contrast and phase, with the case of multiple stellar systems in mind. The atmosphere is briefly modeled and discussed.

  14. Why don't some women return for cervical smears? A hermeneutic phenomenological investigation.

    PubMed

    Buetow, Stephen; Janes, Ron; Steed, Robin; Ihimaera, Louise; Elley, C Raina

    2007-10-01

    To enhance understanding of how having a cervical smear can lead some women not to keep up-to-date with this test, a hermeneutic (interpretative) phenomenological study was undertaken. Participants were six purposively selected New Zealand women -- predominantly Māori -- at least 6 months overdue for a follow-up cervical screen in the previous 6 years. Each woman gave an in-depth interview. Transcribed and analyzed via a general inductive approach, the interviews suggested that the smears can violate women's positive aloneness with their bodies, and magnify aloneness as a negative state. Overdueness for the test avoids these effects. To minimize such effects, primary health care needs to acknowledge and address these issues, for example by providing an opportunity to connect the aloneness to trusted others. PMID:17907011

  15. Blood Smear Image Based Malaria Parasite and Infected-Erythrocyte Detection and Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Hsiun; Yu, Shyr-Shen; Chan, Yung-Kuan; Jen, Chun-Chu

    2015-10-01

    In this study, an automatic malaria parasite detector is proposed to perceive the malaria-infected erythrocytes in a blood smear image and to separate parasites from the infected erythrocytes. The detector hence can verify whether a patient is infected with malaria. It could more objectively and efficiently help a doctor in diagnosing malaria. The experimental results show that the proposed method can provide impressive performance in segmenting the malaria-infected erythrocytes and the parasites from a blood smear image taken under a microscope. This paper also presents a weighted Sobel operation to compute the image gradient. The experimental results demonstrates that the weighted Sobel operation can provide more clear-cut and thinner object contours in object segmentation. PMID:26289625

  16. Determining the Stage of the Estrous Cycle in Female Mice by Vaginal Smear.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Female mice undergo a 3- to 5-d, hormonally controlled estrous cycle. The estrous cycle is divided into different stages, including diestrus, proestrus, estrus, and metestrus. These stages can easily be determined by examining washes or cell smears of the vagina. Determining the stage of the estrous cycle may be important for setting up matings, identifying receptive females for artificial insemination, and analyzing phenotypes of the female reproductive tract. PMID:27480723

  17. Near-threshold boson pair production in the model of smeared-mass unstable particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kuksa, V. I.; Pasechnik, R. S.

    2010-09-15

    Near-threshold production of boson pairs is considered within the framework of the model of unstable particles with smeared mass. We describe the principal aspects of the model and consider the strategy of calculations including the radiative corrections. The results of calculations are in good agreement with LEP II data and Monte-Carlo simulations. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations with respect to the standard perturbative one.

  18. Factorization method in the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass

    SciTech Connect

    Kuksa, V. I.

    2009-06-15

    The method of factorization, based on the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass, is applied to the processes with an unstable particle in the intermediate state. It was shown, that in the framework of the method suggested, the decay rate and cross section can be represented in the universal factorized form for an arbitrary set of particles. An exact factorization is caused by the specific structure of unstable particles propagators. We performed the phenomenological analysis of the factorization effect.

  19. Galectin-1 is a useful marker for detecting neoplastic squamous cells in oral cytology smears.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yuri; Kondo, Yuko; Sakai, Manabu; Sato, Sunao; Kishino, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Cytologic diagnoses in the oral region are very difficult due to the small amount of cells in smears, which are also exposed to many stimulating factors and often show atypical changes. Galectin-1 (Gal1) is a β-galactoside binding protein that modulates tumor progression. Gal1 is very weakly expressed in normal cells, but is often overexpressed in neoplastic lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to differentiate reactive changes from neoplastic changes in oral cytology smears based on the expression of Gal1. A total of 155 tissue biopsy specimens and 61 liquid-based cytology specimens were immunostained by an anti-Gal1 antibody, and Gal1 expression levels were subsequently evaluated. These samples consisted of oral squamous cell carcinomas, epithelial dysplasia, and oral mucosal diseases. The positive and negative expressions of Gal1 were examined in 37 specimens collected by scalpel and cytobrush biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Gal1 were also evaluated in smears. In tissue sections, the positive ratio of Gal1 in neoplastic lesions was high (72.3%). In cytology specimens, the positive ratio of Gal1 was higher in neoplastic lesions (79.0%) than in those negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (22.2%). A correlation was found between immunocytochemical Gal1 expression and immunohistochemical Gal1 expression (P < .001). The sensitivity (75.0%), specificity (75.0%), and positive predictive value (91.3%) of Gal1 were also high in smears. In conclusion, Gal1 may be a useful marker for determining whether morphologic changes in cells are reactive or neoplastic. PMID:26980012

  20. Enhanced tree-classifier performance by inversion with application to pap smear screening data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, E. T. Y.; Lee, James; Nelson, Alan C.

    1993-07-01

    In this paper, we present an inversion method to enhance a binary decision tree classifier using boundary search of training samples. We want to enhance the training at those points which are close to the boundaries. Selection of these points is based on the Euclidean distance from those centroids close to classification boundaries. The enhanced training using these selected data was compared with training using randomly selected samples. We also applied this method to improve the classification of pap smear screening data.

  1. SEM evaluation of smear layer removal by Er:YAG laser in root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Roe, Iain M.; Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Barbizam, Joao Vicente B.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2002-06-01

    The effects of two endodontic irrigants associated or not with Er:YAG laser on a smear layer created by hand instrumentation were evaluated in vitro in the middle and apical thirds of root canals. Twenty five human maxillary canines with a single root were distributed randomly into five groups of five teeth each. Group 1 was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite 1.0%, Group 2 received EDTAC 15% as irrigating solution and Group 3 received both NaClO 1.0% and EDTAC 15%. Group 4 was irrigated with distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Group 5 received NaClO 1.0% as irrigating solution and was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Teeth were split longitudinally and prepared for examination under scanning electron microscopy. The teeth irrigated with NaClO (Group 1) showed the higher amount of smear layer, with statistically significant differences (p<0.05) from the teeth irrigated with distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser (Group 4), which showed intermediate amounts of smear layer. The teeth irrigated with EDTAC 15%, NaClO 1.0% associated with EDTAC 15% and NaClO 1.0% with Er:YAG laser (Groups 2,3 and 5) showed the lowest amounts of smear layer, being statistically similar between them and different (p<0.05) from Groups 1 and 4. There were no differences between the radicular thirds. It can be concluded that irradiation with Er:YAG laser can be as effective as EDTAC 15% when used associated with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite, but not as effective when used together with distilled water.

  2. Utility and challenges in intraoperative consultation of spinal lesions by crush smear cytology

    PubMed Central

    Dikondwar, Aparna R.; Dani, Aarti A.; Gaikwad, Saroj A.; Tathe, Shilpa P.; Randale, Archana A.; Chawhan, Sanjay M.; Kumbhalkar, Dinkar T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods are used for intraoperative consultation of spinal lesions. Crush smear cytology is one such method that is accurate, rapid, and allows preservation of tissue for paraffin-embedded sections. Aims: To study the cytomorphology of various neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions involving and compressing the spinal cord. To evaluate accuracy and discuss diagnostic pitfalls of crush smear cytology. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 5 years (January 2008 to October 2012), a total of 57 spinal lesions were referred for intraoperative cytology. In four cases, material was inadequate for evaluation, so we analyzed 53 cases. Results: Majority of lesions were neoplastic accounting for 86.79% whereas nonneoplastic lesions constituted 13.20%. Most of the tumors were low grade (82.92%). Overall accuracy rate was 90.56% with accuracy of 91.30% and 85.71% for neoplastic and inflammatory lesions, respectively. Conclusion: Crush smear technique is a simple, reliable, easy, and rapid method for diagnosing neoplastic and inflammatory lesions involving and compressing the spinal cord. It gives an immediate idea of prognosis so that surgeon can modify the operative procedure, if necessary. PMID:27057218

  3. Direct-to-digital holography reduction of reference hologram noise and fourier space smearing

    DOEpatents

    Voelkl, Edgar

    2006-06-27

    Systems and methods are described for reduction of reference hologram noise and reduction of Fourier space smearing, especially in the context of direct-to-digital holography (off-axis interferometry). A method of reducing reference hologram noise includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference image waves; and transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference image wave. A method of reducing smearing in Fourier space includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference complex image waves; transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference complex image wave; recording a hologram of an object; processing the hologram of the object into an object complex image wave; and dividing the complex image wave of the object by the reduced noise reference complex image wave to obtain a reduced smearing object complex image wave.

  4. High throughput imaging of blood smears using white light diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    While automated blood cell counters have made great progress in detecting abnormalities in blood, the lack of specificity for a particular disease, limited information on single cell morphology and intrinsic uncertainly due to high throughput in these instruments often necessitates detailed inspection in the form of a peripheral blood smear. Such tests are relatively time consuming and frequently rely on medical professionals tally counting specific cell types. These assays rely on the contrast generated by chemical stains, with the signal intensity strongly related to staining and preparation techniques, frustrating machine learning algorithms that require consistent quantities to denote the features in question. Instead we opt to use quantitative phase imaging, understanding that the resulting image is entirely due to the structure (intrinsic contrast) rather than the complex interplay of stain and sample. We present here our first steps to automate peripheral blood smear scanning, in particular a method to generate the quantitative phase image of an entire blood smear at high throughput using white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a single shot and common path interferometric imaging technique.

  5. Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2002-06-01

    This study determine, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty- four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 15% ETA, and was sealed as in group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (2940 nm, 140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J, 300 pulses, 500milli-sec pulse duration), and sealed as in group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 has significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (p<0.05). Coronal leakage after smear layer removal with 15% EDTA or Er:YAG laser was not statistically different (p>0.01).

  6. Computerized Delineation of Nuclei in Liquid-Based Pap Smears stained with immunohistochemical biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi; Walts, Ann E.; Knudsen, Beatrice S.; Gertych, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) is a frequent cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and carcinomas. The recently developed p16/Ki67 dual-stain of cytologic preparations possesses superior specificity over current HPV testing for detecting moderate and high-grade dysplasias and can potentially be applied in routine cytology screening. Image analysis can possibly improve the efficiency of evaluating Pap smears, if dual stained nuclei are accurately localized and reliably distinguished from the background of other cells. Methods Here we describe a technique comprising color deconvolution, radial symmetry detector and a superpixel-based segmentation for computerized delineation of nuclei in Pap smears stained with p16/Ki67. Results The performance of the method was determined by the precision and recall in 99 images (n=19323 cells) and reached 0.952 and 0.958, respectively. The accuracy of delineation, assessed by the Jaccard index (n=1080 cells), was 0.794. In single cells the precision and recall was higher than in clumps (p = 0.005). Conclusions In summary, the new technique delineates large and small nuclei irrespectively of coloration with a significantly better performance than a method solely involving the radial symmetry detector. Therefore, it is suited to automatically define nuclear areas for quantification of nuclear biomarkers in smears. PMID:25280117

  7. Enamel-smear compromises bonding by mild self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Mine, A; De Munck, J; Vivan Cardoso, M; Van Landuyt, K L; Poitevin, A; Kuboki, T; Yoshida, Y; Suzuki, K; Van Meerbeek, B

    2010-12-01

    In light of the increased popularity of less acidic, so-called 'ultra-mild' self-etch adhesives, adhesion to enamel is becoming more critical. It is hypothesized that this compromised enamel bonding should, to a certain extent, be attributed to interference of bur debris smeared across enamel during cavity preparation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the enamel smear layer differed not only in thickness, but also in crystal density and size, depending on the surface-preparation method used. Lab-demineralization of sections clearly disclosed that resin-infiltration of an ultra-mild self-etch adhesive progressed preferentially along micro-cracks that were abundantly present at and underneath the bur-cut enamel surface. The surface-preparation method significantly affected the nature of the smear layer and the interaction with the ultra-mild adhesive, being more uniform and dense for a lab-SiC-prepared surface vs. a clinically relevant bur-prepared surface. PMID:20929718

  8. Process improvement of pap smear tracking in a women's medicine center clinic in residency training.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Byron C; Goode, Jeff; Simmons, Kathy

    2011-11-01

    Application of Six-Sigma methodology and Change Acceleration Process (CAP)/Work Out (WO) tools to track pap smear results in an outpatient clinic in a hospital-based residency-training program. Observational study of impact of changes obtained through application of Six-Sigma principles in clinic process with particular attention to prevention of sentinel events. Using cohort analysis and applying Six-Sigma principles to an interactive electronic medical record Soarian workflow engine, we designed a system of timely accession and reporting of pap smear and pathology results. We compared manual processes from January 1, 2007 to February 28, 2008 to automated processes from March 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. Using the Six-Sigma principles, CAP/WO tools, including "voice of the customer" and team focused approach, no outlier events went untracked. Applying the Soarian workflow engine to track prescribed 7 day turnaround time for completion, we identified 148 pap results in 3,936, 3 non-gynecological results in 15, and 41 surgical results in 246. We applied Six-Sigma principles to an outpatient clinic facilitating an interdisciplinary team approach to improve the clinic's reporting system. Through focused problem assessment, verification of process, and validation of outcomes, we improved patient care for pap smears and critical pathology. PMID:22103702

  9. Howell-Jolly bodies on peripheral smear leading to the diagnosis of congenital hyposplenism in a patient with septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Hannah; Dittus, Christopher; Malek, Anita; Negroiu, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present a case of isolated congenital hyposplenism that was discovered after the peripheral smear revealed Howell-Jolly bodies. This case serves as the basis for a review of hyposplenism for the general practitioner. PMID:26331020

  10. Using patient and general practice characteristics to explain variations in cervical smear uptake rates.

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, F. A.; Cook, D. G.; Anderson, H. R.; Hilton, S.; Bunn, S.; Stones, C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To produce practice and patient variables for general practices from census and family health services authority data, and to determine the importance of these variables in explaining variation in cervical smear uptake rates between practices. DESIGN--Population based study examining variations in cervical smear uptake rates among 126 general practices using routine data. SETTING--Merton, Sutton, and Wandsworth Family Health Services Authority, which covers parts of inner and outer London. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Percentage of women aged 25-64 years registered with a general practitioner who had undergone a cervical smear test during the five and a half years preceding 31 March 1992. RESULTS--Cervical smear uptake rates varied from 16.5% to 94.1%. The estimated percentage of practice population from ethnic minority groups correlated negatively with uptake rates (r = -0.42), as did variables associated with social deprivation such as overcrowding (r = -0.42), not owning a car (r = -0.41), and unemployment (r = -0.40). Percentage of practice population under 5 years of age correlated positively with uptake rate (r = 0.42). Rates were higher in practices with a female partner than in those without (66.6% v 49.1%; difference 17.5% (95% confidence interval 10.5% to 24.5%)), and in computerised than in non-computerised practices (64.5% v 50.5%; 14.0% (6.4% to 21.6%)). Rates were higher in larger practices. In a stepwise multiple regression model that explained 52% of variation, five factors were significant predictors of uptake rates: presence of a female partner; children under 5; overcrowding; number of women aged 35-44 as percentage of all women aged 25-64; change of address in past year. CONCLUSIONS--Over half of variation in cervical smear uptake rates can be explained by patient and practice variables derived from census and family health services authority data; these variables may have a role in explaining variations in performance of general practices

  11. Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hamdy Mohammed, El Sayed; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Mohammed El Sayed, Hanan; Al Johery, Said Abd Elmohsen; Abdel Ghani Hassanein, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli resulting from β-lactamases have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and are a critical therapeutic problem worldwide. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolates and detection of bla VIM, bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M-1, and bla CTX-M-9 genes in these clinical isolates in Egyptian hospitals. The isolates were collected from various clinical samples, identified by conventional methods and confirmed by API 20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by Kirby-Bauer technique and interpreted according to CLSI. Production of bla VIM, bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX-M genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Direct sequencing from PCR products was subsequently carried out to identify and confirm these β-lactamases genes. Out of 65 isolates, (46.1%) Escherichia coli, (26.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, and (10.7%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified as the commonest Gram-negative bacilli. 33(50.8%) were imipenem-resistant isolates. 22 isolates (66.7%) carried bla VIM, 24(72.7%) had bla TEM, and 5(15%) showed bla SHV, while 12(36%), 6(18.2%), and 0(0.00%) harbored bla CTX-M-1, bla CTX-M-9, and bla CTX-M-8/25, respectively. There is a high occurrence of β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates and sequence analysis of amplified genes showed differences between multiple SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in the same gene among local isolates in relation to published sequences. PMID:27123005

  12. Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy Mohammed, El sayed; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Mohammed El sayed, Hanan; Al Johery, Said abd Elmohsen; Abdel Ghani Hassanein, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli resulting from β-lactamases have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and are a critical therapeutic problem worldwide. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolates and detection of blaVIM, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1, and blaCTX-M-9 genes in these clinical isolates in Egyptian hospitals. The isolates were collected from various clinical samples, identified by conventional methods and confirmed by API 20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by Kirby-Bauer technique and interpreted according to CLSI. Production of blaVIM, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Direct sequencing from PCR products was subsequently carried out to identify and confirm these β-lactamases genes. Out of 65 isolates, (46.1%) Escherichia coli, (26.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, and (10.7%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified as the commonest Gram-negative bacilli. 33(50.8%) were imipenem-resistant isolates. 22 isolates (66.7%) carried blaVIM, 24(72.7%) had blaTEM, and 5(15%) showed blaSHV, while 12(36%), 6(18.2%), and 0(0.00%) harbored blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9, and blaCTX-M-8/25, respectively. There is a high occurrence of β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates and sequence analysis of amplified genes showed differences between multiple SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in the same gene among local isolates in relation to published sequences. PMID:27123005

  13. In Vitro Activities of Ceftazidime-Avibactam, Aztreonam-Avibactam, and a Panel of Older and Contemporary Antimicrobial Agents against Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A.; Cole, Nicolynn C.; Kohner, Peggy C.; Menon, Sanjay R.; Krause, Kevin M.; Harris, Kelly A.; De, Partha P.; Koh, Tse Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Among 177 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (108 KPC, 32 NDM, 11 IMP, 8 OXA-48, 4 OXA-181, 2 OXA-232, 5 IMI, 4 VIM, and 3 SME producers), aztreonam-avibactam was active against all isolates except two NDM producers with elevated MICs of 8/4 and 16/4 mg/liter; ceftazidime-avibactam was active against all KPC-, IMI-, SME-, and most OXA-48 group-producing isolates (93%) but not metallo-β-lactamase producers. Among older and contemporary antimicrobials, the most active were colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, with overall susceptibilities of 88%, 79%, and 78%, respectively. PMID:26392487

  14. In Vitro Activities of Ceftazidime-Avibactam, Aztreonam-Avibactam, and a Panel of Older and Contemporary Antimicrobial Agents against Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A; Cole, Nicolynn C; Kohner, Peggy C; Menon, Sanjay R; Krause, Kevin M; Harris, Kelly A; De, Partha P; Koh, Tse Hsien; Patel, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Among 177 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (108 KPC, 32 NDM, 11 IMP, 8 OXA-48, 4 OXA-181, 2 OXA-232, 5 IMI, 4 VIM, and 3 SME producers), aztreonam-avibactam was active against all isolates except two NDM producers with elevated MICs of 8/4 and 16/4 mg/liter; ceftazidime-avibactam was active against all KPC-, IMI-, SME-, and most OXA-48 group-producing isolates (93%) but not metallo-β-lactamase producers. Among older and contemporary antimicrobials, the most active were colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, with overall susceptibilities of 88%, 79%, and 78%, respectively. PMID:26392487

  15. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with abnormal cervical smears: effect of tetracycline treatment on cell changes.

    PubMed

    Mecsei, R; Haugen, O A; Halvorsen, L E; Dalen, A

    1989-03-01

    A group of 1760 women aged 14-35 years were examined for the concurrent presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and cellular atypia of cervical smears. Positive tests for C trachomatis were found in 126 women (7.2%). Cell changes were found in 85 women (4.8%), and 25 of these were C trachomatis-positive. Slight cellular atypia was the major finding in the smears from 22 of the C trachomatis-positive women, whereas three patients had more pronounced cell changes. Smears reverted to normal in 18 of the 23 patients who returned for tetracycline treatment and follow-up cytology. All 18 patients had smears showing slight cellular atypia prior to therapy. In five patients who also had cellular changes suggesting a human papillomavirus infection, the smears did not revert to normal after antibiotic therapy during the observation period. These findings suggest that patients with C trachomatis and mild cellular atypia should have antibiotic therapy and repeat smears taken before further treatment is considered. More advanced cellular atypia is unlikely to be caused by C trachomatis. PMID:2915857

  16. Effect of various chemical agents used in gingival retraction systems on smear layer: Scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Lahoti, Krishna Shivraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemical agents used for gingival retraction affects the smear layer. Aim: To determine the effect of three different chemical agents used for gingival retraction systems on smear layer. Materials and Methods: Four human premolars were prepared using air-rotor with air-water spray to receive full crown restoration. Three of them were treated with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min, 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min, and expasyl for 2 min, respectively. One sample was left untreated. Then, the tooth specimens were rinsed with tap water to remove any residue of test materials. All the samples (treated and untreated) were processed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Processed samples were examined under SEM at ×2400 to evaluate the effect of chemical agents on smear layer. Results: SEM examination revealed that 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min produced no alteration to smear layer followed by minimum alteration by expasyl for 2 min and complete removal of smear layer with etching of dentin with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min. Conclusion: 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride and expasyl are kind to smear layer. PMID:27041896

  17. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to toxins or tumor cells (myelophthisic process) Lead poisoning Myelofibrosis The presence of sickle cells may indicate ... disease of the newborn Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Hypochromia Lead poisoning Liver disease Malignancy Myelofibrosis Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Osmotic ...

  18. Fecal smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean container given to you by your health care provider. A test kit is available that supplies a special toilet ... Your health care provider may order this test if you have severe diarrhea that will not go away or that keeps returning. The test result may ...

  19. Blood Smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunoglobulins ). Numerous diseases and conditions can affect the absolute or relative number of WBCs and their appearance ... depending on the condition, may increase or decrease absolute and relative numbers of WBCs Allergies — may affect ...

  20. Pap Smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Formal name: Papanicolaou Test Related tests: HPV Test ; Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ... to detect vaginal or uterine infections, such as trichomonas infections . Abnormal cells and infections can be present ...

  1. Fecal smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... a clean container given to you by your health care provider. A test kit is available that supplies a special toilet ... no discomfort. Why the Test is Performed Your health care provider may order this test if you have severe diarrhea that will not ...

  2. Pap Smears

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch ...

  3. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... of RBCs due to body destroying them ( immune hemolytic anemia ) Low number of RBCs due to some red ... of Heinz bodies may indicate: Alpha thalassemia Congenital hemolytic anemia Disorder in which red blood cells break down ...

  4. CSF smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sample may be a sign of: Bacterial meningitis Fungal infections Tuberculosis Some bacteria or viruses can ... Saunders; 2011:chap 403. Swartz MN, Nath A. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Schafer ...

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern in urinary isolates of gram negative bacilli with special reference to AmpC β-lactamase in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh H.; Trivedi, Grishma R.; Patel, Sachin M.; Vegad, Mahendra M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Resistance to higher antimicrobial agent is commonly seen in gram negative bacilli. This issue is a challenging problem to the medical practitioners in addition to it is financial impact on the health care system. Objectives: To document the prevalence of multi drug resistant gram negative bacilli isolated from urine of patients attending the Urology Department of Tertiary care Hospital of western India in year 2008. Results: Out of total 328 isolates, 118 (35.98%) E.coli, 72 (21.95 %) Klebsiella, 64 (19.51%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 30 (9.15%) Acinetobacter, 18 (5.49%) Proteus vulgaris, 18 (5.49%) Proteus mirabilis, 6 (1.83%) Providencia rettgerii, 2 (0.61%) Citrobacter freundii. Out of these isolates, 228 (69.51%) were β-lactamase positive, while 100 (30.51%) were β-lactamase negative. Out of 228 β-lactamase positive, 104 (45.61%) were AmpC β-lactamase positive. Conclusions: Stringent protocol such as Antibiotic policy and Hospital infection control program are mandatory to curb these microbes in a tertiary care hospital. PMID:20842250

  6. Variations in helminth faecal egg counts in Kato-Katz thick smears and their implications in assessing infection status with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Berhe, Nega; Medhin, Girmay; Erko, Birhanu; Smith, Tara; Gedamu, Selamawitt; Bereded, Dereje; Moore, Rashida; Habte, Endashaw; Redda, Abraham; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Examination of stool specimens by Kato-Katz (K-K) thick smears is the standard method recommended by the WHO for field diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis. However, there is increasing concern that this technique has low diagnostic sensitivity. In 326 study subjects, we compared the diagnostic yield of examining one, three or five Kato-Katz thick smears prepared from one stool specimen using 41.7 mg templates. In a subset of 169 subjects who had no demonstrable Schistosoma mansoni eggs in their first three Kato-Katz thick smears, we assessed the comparative advantage of examining an additional three Kato-Katz thick smears from another stool specimen, taken four weeks later, to that of cumulative yield obtained by examining all five Kato-Katz thick smears derived from the first stool specimen. For all helminth infections, single Kato-Katz thick smear-based prevalence estimates were significantly lower than those obtained from triplet or quintet Kato-Katz thick smears. Prevalence of S. mansoni infection based on single, triplet and quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen were 31.3%, 45.7% and 52.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimate of S. mansoni based on quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from the first day stool specimens was not different from cumulative estimate obtained with two triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from two stool specimens, 52.1% and 52.8%, respectively. In conclusion, either examination of quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen using 41.7 mg template or initial triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen, and if these are negative, followed by examination of additional triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from subsequent day stool specimen can adequately assess individuals for infection status with S. mansoni. PMID:15533288

  7. Utility of Cell-Block of Bronchial Washings in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer- A Comparative Analysis with Conventional Smear Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Vadala, Rohit; Mandrekar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bronchoscopy is a safe & effective means of diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma with a varying diagnostic yield of different bronchoscopic procedures. Cell-Block (CB) preparation of cytology specimen has been shown to increase the diagnostic yield further. To the authors’ knowledge, the diagnostic value of CB as an adjunct to conventional smear cytology (CS) of bronchial washing specimens in the detection of bronchogenic carcinoma has not been well evaluated. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of CB of bronchial washings when compared with CS. Materials and Methods A total of 104 patients of suspected bronchogenic carcinoma were subjected to bronchoscopy as per British Thoracic Society (BTS) protocol. Bronchial biopsy, brushings and washings were collected. Smears were prepared immediately of bronchial washings and another aliquot was subjected to CB preparation and further processing by paraffin embedding and H&E staining. Results Out of 104 patients, 92 were diagnosed by bronchoscopy with a cumulative diagnostic yield of all sampling techniques being 88.46%. Yield of CB of bronchial washings (44.23%) was higher than Bronchial washings – conventional smears (36.53%). CB detected additional 8 cases of malignancy where corresponding bronchial washings-conventional smears were negative. Exclusive diagnosis by CB was obtained in 2 cases. Brushings and biopsy confirmed malignancy in 49.03% and 57.69% cases. Conclusion CB of bronchial washings had a higher yield as compared to corresponding conventional smears. Increase in yield was also noted when CB of bronchial washings was combined with biopsy and compared to bronchial washings- conventional smears combined with biopsy. In limited resource settings, CB preparation is a simple method that increases diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy, is cost effective & hence can be routinely used. The immunohistochemical and molecular studies are possible with CB only, which is a

  8. Gravitational collapse of the shells with the smeared gravitational source in noncommutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, John J.; Park, Chanyong

    2010-03-01

    We study the formation of the (noncommutative) Schwarzschild black hole from collapsing shell of the generalized matters containing polytropic and Chaplygin gas. We show that this collapsing shell depending on various parameters forms either a black hole or a naked singular shell with the help of the pressure. Furthermore, by considering the smeared gravitational sources, we investigate the noncommutative black holes formation. Though this mild noncommutative correction of matters cannot ultimately resolve the emergence of the naked singularity, we show that in some parameter region the collapsing shell evolves to a noncommutative black hole before becoming a naked singular shell.

  9. The effects of oxalate treatment on the smear layer of ground surfaces of human dentine.

    PubMed

    Pashley, D H; Galloway, S E

    1985-01-01

    The layer was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and by measurement of hydraulic conductance before and after 2-min topical treatment with potassium chloride, neutral potassium oxalate, half-neutralized oxalic acid or both neutral and acidic oxalates. The treated smear layers were then re-evaluated microscopically and functionally both before and after acid challenge. The layers treated with KCl were not altered either microscopically or functionally and were susceptible to acid etching. Dentine surfaces treated with either oxalate solutions became less permeable and were acid-resistant. PMID:3866520

  10. Origin of the kT smearing in direct photon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hung-Liang; Li, Hsiang-Nan

    1998-12-01

    We show that the Sudakov factor from the resummation of double logarithms ln(s/k2T) contained in the distribution functions is responsible for the kT smearing mechanism employed in the next-to-leading-order QCD (αα2s) calculations of direct photon production. s is the center-of-mass energy, and kT the transverse momentum carried by a parton in a colliding hadron. This factor exhibits the appropriate s-dependent Gaussian width in kT, such that our predictions are in good agreement with experimental data.

  11. Treatment outcome of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Penang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organization’s recent report, in Malaysia, tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate for new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients is still below the global success target of 85%. In this study, we evaluated TB treatment outcome among new smear positive PTB patients, and identified the predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer duration of treatment (i.e., > 6 months). Methods The population in this study consisted of all new smear positive PTB patients who were diagnosed at the chest clinic of Penang General Hospital between March 2010 and February 2011. During the study period, a standardized data collection form was used to obtain socio-demographic, clinical and treatment related data of the patients from their medical charts and TB notification forms (Tuberculosis Information System; TBIS). These data sources were reviewed at the time of the diagnosis of the patients and then at the subsequent follow-up visits until their final treatment outcomes were available. The treatment outcomes of the patients were reported in line with six outcome categories recommended by World Health Organization. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the independent risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer treatment duration. Data were analyzed using the PASW (Predictive Analysis SoftWare, version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results Among the 336 PTB patients (236 male and 100 female) notified during the study period, the treatment success rate was 67.26% (n = 226). Out of 110 patients in unsuccessful outcome category, 30 defaulted from the treatment, 59 died and 21 were transferred to other health care facilities. The mean duration of TB treatment was 8.19 (SD 1.65) months. In multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome were foreign nationality, male gender and being illiterate. Similarly, risk factors for mortality due to TB

  12. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs). However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective space–time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district) to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB). Scan statistics, Global Moran’s I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi*) statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings. Results A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001), with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001), with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012. Conclusion The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control

  14. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection. PMID:26810061

  15. Variable electronic shutter in CMOS imager with improved anti smearing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A leakage compensated snapshot imager provides a number of different aspects to prevent smear and other problems in a snapshot imager. The area where the imager is formed may be biased in a way that prevents photo carriers including electrons and holes from reaching a storage area. In addition, a number of different aspects may improve the efficiency. The capacitance per unit area of the storage area may be one, two or more orders of magnitude greater than the capacitance per-unit area of the photodiode. In addition, a ratio between photodiode capacitance and storage area capacitance is maintained larger than 0.7.

  16. Histoid leprosy: a prospective diagnostic study in 38 patients.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, V N; Srivastava, G

    1988-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a fascinating expression of multibacillary leprosy, the incidence of which was 3.6%. It was seen predominantly in males of the younger age group, who were on inadequate and irregular dosage of diaminodiphenyl sulfone. Papules, cutaneous and/or subcutaneous nodules and plaques appearing over apparently normal skin were its exquisite prospective clinical features. It was invariably supported by enormous, uniformly solid staining discrete bacilli from the lesions, in contrast to their virtual absence from the surrounding normal-appearing skin. Encapsulated tumorous mass, formed primarily by spindle-shaped histocytes, displayed either in intertwining, criss-cross or whorled fashion in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, were supplementary. The morphology of acid-fast bacilli was, however, similar to skin-slit smears. PMID:3224729

  17. Psychosocial outcomes of three triage methods for the management of borderline abnormal cervical smears: an open randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Irwig, Les; Turner, Robin; Chan, Siew Foong; Macaskill, Petra; Lewicka, Mary; Clarke, Judith; Weisberg, Edith; Barratt, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess which of three triage strategies for women with borderline abnormal cervical smear results in the best psychosocial outcomes. Design Pragmatic, non-blinded, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting 18 family planning clinics across Australia, covering both urban and rural areas, between January 2004 and October 2006. Participants Women aged 16-70 years (n=314) who attended routine cervical screening and received a borderline cervical smear. Interventions Patients were randomly assigned to human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing (n=104), a repeat smear test at six months (n=106), or the patient’s informed choice of either test supported by a decision aid (n=104). Psychosocial outcomes were assessed at multiple time points over 12 months by postal questionnaire. Main outcome measures We assessed health related quality of life (SF36 mental health subscale), cognitive effects (such as perceived risk of cervical cancer, intrusive thoughts), affective outcomes (general anxiety [state-trait anxiety inventory]), specific anxiety about an abnormal smear (cervical screening questionnaire), and behavioural outcomes (sexual health behaviour and visits to the doctor) over 12 months of follow-up. Results At two weeks, some psychosocial outcomes were worse for women allocated to HPV testing compared with those in the smear testing group (SF36 vitality subscale: t=−1.63, df=131, P=0.10; intrusive thoughts χ2=8.14, df=1, P<0.01). Over 12 months, distress about the abnormal smear was lowest in women allocated to HPV testing and highest in the repeat smear testing group (t=−2.89, df=135, P<0.01). Intrusive thoughts were highest in patients allocated to HPV testing (25%, compared with 13% in the informed choice group; difference=12%, 95% CI −1.1% to 25.1%). Women in the HPV DNA group and the informed choice group were more satisfied with their care than women allocated to repeat smear testing. Conclusions Although the psychosocial effect was

  18. Effect of sealers on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without smear layer removal: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jhamb, Swaty; Nikhil, Vineeta; Singh, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The present study involved the in vitro comparison of root reinforcing abilities of two sealers, i.e., Ketac-Endo and Acroseal, in endodontically treated teeth in the presence and absence of smear layer. Materials and Methods: Fifty teeth were taken and sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. The teeth with faults were discarded and a total of 36 teeth were used for study. The samples were biomechanically prepared using step-back technique. In 10 teeth, the smear layer was preserved using sodium hypochlorite. Smear layers were removed from 10 teeth using 17% EDTA, and in another 10 samples, the smear layers were eliminated using 17% EGTA. The remaining samples served as controls. Samples were obturated with sealers using the lateral condensation technique. Ketac-Endo (3M) is a glass ionomer based root canal sealer, and Acroseal (Septodont) sealers were used. The teeth were then tested by using an Instron testing machine. Results: Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal. Other factors as the amount of tooth structure remaining, the agents used for the removal of smear layer and instrumentation techniques may alter the tooth resistance to fracture. Conclusion: Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal. PMID:20543918

  19. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of native cattle by PCR and smear method in Southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Khalili, Mohammad; Ghalekhani, Nima

    2015-06-01

    Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite of cattle is causes tropical theileriosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the presence and the frequency of T. annulata infection in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle in Kerman, Southeast of Iran. Blood samples were collected in citrate solution from 150 native cattle with mean age of 1 year which selected randomly. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and stained with Giemsa dye. Blood smears were examined for the presence of parasites, and blood samples were analyzed by PCR. Piroplasmic forms of T. annulata were seen in 16 of 150 (10.66 %) by examination the blood smears with light microscope, whereas 68 of 150 (45.33 %) cattle were positive by PCR method. All animals that were positive by blood smears were also positive by PCR. Difference between these methods was significant (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that this PCR assay in diagnosing T. annulata parasites in carrier cattle is more sensitive than method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies. PMID:26064010

  20. Photometry of very bright stars with Kepler and K2 smear data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, B. J. S.; White, T. R.; Huber, D.; Murphy, S. J.; Bedding, T. R.; Caldwell, D. A.; Sarai, A.; Aigrain, S.; Barclay, T.

    2016-01-01

    High-precision time series photometry with the Kepler satellite has been crucial to our understanding both of exoplanets, and via asteroseismology, of stellar physics. After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler satellite has been repurposed as Kepler-2 (K2), observing fields close to the ecliptic plane. As these fields contain many more bright stars than the original Kepler field, K2 provides an unprecedented opportunity to study nearby objects amenable to detailed follow-up with ground-based instruments. Due to bandwidth constraints, only a small fraction of pixels can be downloaded, with the result that most bright stars which saturate the detector are not observed. We show that engineering data acquired for photometric calibration, consisting of collateral `smear' measurements, can be used to reconstruct light curves for bright targets not otherwise observable with Kepler/K2. Here we present some examples from Kepler Quarter 6 and K2 Campaign 3, including the δ Scuti variables HD 178875 and 70 Aqr, and the red giant HR 8500 displaying solar-like oscillations. We compare aperture and smear photometry where possible, and also study targets not previously observed. These encouraging results suggest this new method can be applied to most Kepler and K2 fields.

  1. Effect of smear layer treatment on dentin bond of self-adhesive cements.

    PubMed

    Kambara, Keisuke; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Hosaka, Keiichi; Takahashi, Masahiro; Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Ichinose, Shizuko; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dentin bond strength of three self-adhesive cements with smear layer pretreatments using a calcium-chelating agent (EDTA) and deproteinizing solution (NaOCl) and to evaluate their interfacial characteristics. Smear layer-covered dentin surfaces were pretreated with EDTA for 60 s, NaOCl for 5 and 15 s, or none. Three self-adhesive cements; Clearfil SA luting (Kuraray Medical), Rely X Unicem clicker (3M ESPE) and Breeze (Pentron) were applied to the dentin surfaces. After 24-h water storage, shear bond strengths to dentin were determined. In addition, nanoleakage evaluation at the interface was performed using FE-SEM and EDS. EDTA-pretreatment significantly improved the bond strength of BR (p<0.05) and NaOCl-pretreatment for 15 s significantly improved the bond strength of RX (p<0.05). On the other hand, for SA, both pretreatments significantly decreased bond strength to dentin (p<0.05). Nanoleakage formation was observed in various amounts at the cement-dentin interfaces. PMID:23207204

  2. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-06-17

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). Lastly, a model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  3. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at.% burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low melting points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  4. Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Images of ZN-Stained Sputum Smears

    PubMed Central

    Khutlang, Rethabile; Krishnan, Sriram; Dendere, Ronald; Whitelaw, Andrew; Veropoulos, Konstantinos; Learmonth, Genevieve; Douglas, Tania S.

    2010-01-01

    Screening for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries is centered on the microscope. We present methods for the automated identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in images of Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smears obtained using a bright-field microscope. We segment candidate bacillus objects using a combination of two-class pixel classifiers. The algorithm produces results that agree well with manual segmentations, as judged by the Hausdorff distance and the modified Williams index. The extraction of geometric-transformation-invariant features and optimization of the feature set by feature subset selection and Fisher transformation follow. Finally, different two-class object classifiers are compared. The sensitivity and specificity of all tested classifiers is above 95% for the identification of bacillus objects represented by Fisher-transformed features. Our results may be used to reduce technician involvement in screening for TB, and would be particularly useful in laboratories in countries with a high burden of TB, where, typically, ZN rather than auramine staining of sputum smears is the method of choice. PMID:19726269

  5. Performance of Low Smeared Density Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  6. The Effect of Fragaria vesca Extract on Smear Layer Removal: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Amin; Razavi, Sayed Alireza; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful endodontic treatment depends on elimination of the microorganisms through chemomechanical debridement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) extract (FVE) on the removal of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: In this analytical-observational study, 40 extracted mandibular and maxillary human teeth were selected. After canal preparation with standard step-back technique, the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the irrigation solution: saline (negative control), 5.25% NaOCl+EDTA (positive control), FVE and FVE+EDTA. The teeth were split longitudinally so that scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs could be taken to evaluate the amount of remnant SL in coronal, middle and apical thirds. The data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found among the groups (P<0.001). The use of NaOCl+EDTA was the most effective regimen for removing the SL followed by FVE+EDTA. FVE alone was significantly more effective than saline (P<0.001). Conclusion: FVE with and without EDTA could effectively remove the smear layer; however, compared to NaOCl group it was less effective. PMID:26526069

  7. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-06-17

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactormore » designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). Lastly, a model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.« less

  8. [Validity of the Gram and Lendrum stains in conjunctival smears for the identification of Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    de Ramírez, I; Mejía, M; García de la Riva, J C; Hermes, F; Grazioso, C F

    1994-03-01

    With the objective of finding reliable, valid, and economic diagnostic tests to identify Chlamydia trachomatis in conjunctival smears, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of Lendrum and Giemsa stains were evaluated using direct immunofluorescence as the gold standard. In addition, inter- and intraobserver reproducibility were estimated through the use of two independent observers, who were blinded to the results during their readings. The prevalence of ocular chlamydiosis in the study area was around 50%. In all, 103 persons (206 eyes) were studied. Three smears from each eye were taken for each subject. The kappa statistic was used to estimate the reproducibility of the stains. Interobserver reproducibility was null, and intraobserver reproducibility ranged between 0.35 and 0.79. The sensitivity of the Giemsa stain was a bit higher than that of the Lendrum stain (28% and 22%, respectively), and the specificity was similar (82% and 85%, respectively). Based on these results, the ability of both stains to detect positive cases was judged to be low, as was their reliability. The Lendrum and Giemsa stains are not adequate tests for the diagnosis of ocular chlamydiosis. For this purpose the use of direct immunofluorescence is recommended. PMID:7518685

  9. Quantification of sickle cells in the peripheral smear as a marker of disease severity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ofelia; Montague, Naomi S; Marin, Marta; O'Brien, Robert; Rodriguez, Maria Matilde

    2015-06-01

    Blinded readers examined peripheral smears of 108 children with steady sickle cell (SC) disease and controls by counting ten 100 × microscope fields and calculating percent of irreversible and reversible SC from total red cell population SC index (SCI). SCI was correlated to disease severity, and transfusion, hydroxyurea, or neither. Controls had a mean of 0.28% SC (range 0-0.64). Children with hemoglobin SS had a mean SCI of 5.12% ± 5.37 (range 0-30). SCI increased 0.33% with each increasing year (p < 0.0001). Patients with SCI >0.64 were 3.32 times as likely to experience clinical complications (p = 0.0124). Although blood transfusions and hydroxyurea decreased percent of SC, 72% treated patients had SCI >0.64, correlating with persistent sickling. This standardized method quantifies SC in peripheral smears. Percent of SC increased with age and correlated with disease severity, especially hemolytic complications, providing readily available information with minimal or no extra cost. PMID:25517885

  10. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  11. Screening for Cervical Cancer Using Automated Analysis of PAP-Smears

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most deadly and common forms of cancer among women if no action is taken to prevent it, yet it is preventable through a simple screening test, the so-called PAP-smear. This is the most effective cancer prevention measure developed so far. But the visual examination of the smears is time consuming and expensive and there have been numerous attempts at automating the analysis ever since the test was introduced more than 60 years ago. The first commercial systems for automated analysis of the cell samples appeared around the turn of the millennium but they have had limited impact on the screening costs. In this paper we examine the key issues that need to be addressed when an automated analysis system is developed and discuss how these challenges have been met over the years. The lessons learned may be useful in the efforts to create a cost-effective screening system that could make affordable screening for cervical cancer available for all women globally, thus preventing most of the quarter million annual unnecessary deaths still caused by this disease. PMID:24772188

  12. Simulation of bright-field microscopy images depicting pap-smear specimen

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Patrik; Brun, Anders; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2015-01-01

    As digital imaging is becoming a fundamental part of medical and biomedical research, the demand for computer-based evaluation using advanced image analysis is becoming an integral part of many research projects. A common problem when developing new image analysis algorithms is the need of large datasets with ground truth on which the algorithms can be tested and optimized. Generating such datasets is often tedious and introduces subjectivity and interindividual and intraindividual variations. An alternative to manually created ground-truth data is to generate synthetic images where the ground truth is known. The challenge then is to make the images sufficiently similar to the real ones to be useful in algorithm development. One of the first and most widely studied medical image analysis tasks is to automate screening for cervical cancer through Pap-smear analysis. As part of an effort to develop a new generation cervical cancer screening system, we have developed a framework for the creation of realistic synthetic bright-field microscopy images that can be used for algorithm development and benchmarking. The resulting framework has been assessed through a visual evaluation by experts with extensive experience of Pap-smear images. The results show that images produced using our described methods are realistic enough to be mistaken for real microscopy images. The developed simulation framework is very flexible and can be modified to mimic many other types of bright-field microscopy images. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC PMID:25573002

  13. Screening for cervical cancer using automated analysis of PAP-smears.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Ewert; Malm, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most deadly and common forms of cancer among women if no action is taken to prevent it, yet it is preventable through a simple screening test, the so-called PAP-smear. This is the most effective cancer prevention measure developed so far. But the visual examination of the smears is time consuming and expensive and there have been numerous attempts at automating the analysis ever since the test was introduced more than 60 years ago. The first commercial systems for automated analysis of the cell samples appeared around the turn of the millennium but they have had limited impact on the screening costs. In this paper we examine the key issues that need to be addressed when an automated analysis system is developed and discuss how these challenges have been met over the years. The lessons learned may be useful in the efforts to create a cost-effective screening system that could make affordable screening for cervical cancer available for all women globally, thus preventing most of the quarter million annual unnecessary deaths still caused by this disease. PMID:24772188

  14. Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about “Quatrefoil” Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George

    2014-01-01

    The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P < 0.0001), decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P < 0.0001), RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P < 0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively). qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413

  15. Histoid leprosy: case report.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Attia, Aballa Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare but well-defined entity with specific clinical, histopathologic, and bacteriologic features. We present a case of histoid leprosy in an 84-year-old Egyptian male in view of the rarity of this condition. The patient presented with erythematous itchy discrete and coalescent papules that were distributed bilaterally and symmetrically on the front and back of the trunk. Before approaching us, he was initially misdiagnosed as a case of pityriasis rosea. There was no mucosal or facial affection and the patient's general examination was normal. Routine hematologic investigations, urine analysis, liver and renal function tests were all normal. Slit skin smear revealed acid-fast bacilli of BI - 6+ and MI - 50-60%. Histopathologic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained section revealed atrophic epidermis with flattened rete ridges and dermal infiltration by nodular granulomata formed of spindle shaped histiocytes with pyknotic nuclei oriented in a storiform pattern. Fite's stain for lepra bacilli showed plenty of acid fast bacilli. So, the diagnosis of histoid leprosy was made. Therefore, ROM therapy (rifampicin 600 mg, ofloxacin 400 mg, minocycline 200 mg) was started and followed by multi-drug therapy for 2 years. PMID:23317487

  16. [A case of Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infection; effectiveness of clarithromycin, amikacin and imipenem/cilastatin].

    PubMed

    Shikama, Yusuke; Kamio, Yoshito; Kuriu, Kazuyuki; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Satoshi; Nakajima, Hiroaki

    2006-11-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented with persistent cough, bloody sputum and fever. Her chest X-ray film showed an infiltrative shadow with cavitation in the upper lobe of the left lung. Acid-fast-bacilli were shown by sputum smear staining. The anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, refampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide were prescribed, but her symptoms and chest X-ray findings did not improve. Findings of MTD and MAC-PCR were negative but Mycobacterium abscessus was confirmed by sputum culture with the DNA hybridization method. Combination therapy with clarithromycin, amikacin and imipenem/cilastatin for one month improved her symptoms and chest X-ray shadow, and clarithromycin monotherapy was carried out for another ten months. Drug susceptibility tests revealed this mycobacterium was sensitive to clarithromycin and amikacin. To determine the environmental factors related to this infection, several samples were examined. Acid-fast-bacilli were present in a smear from the bath room drain. However, to confirm the infectious routes, longer observation is needed. Moreover, serum amyloid protein A and ESR were useful markers to estimate the clinical course. PMID:17144576

  17. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Zhen-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and we obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the six- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law holds for the noncommutative black hole whose Hawking temperature is within a specific range, but fails for one whose the Hawking temperature is beyond this range.

  18. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P.; Koller, K.; Schierholz, G.; Weinberg, V.

    2008-04-01

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap nonzero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations.

  19. Survival of smear-positive multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Witbank, South Africa: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olaleye, Abiola O; Beke, Andy K

    2016-06-01

    Background A retrospective cohort study was carried out to compare the survival between smear-positive patients and smear-negative multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients hospitalised in a specialised TB hospital in Witbank, South Africa. Methods A review of medical records of MDR-TB patients treated from 2001 to 2010 was carried out. Survival time was measured from a patient's date of hospitalisation to the date when the patient died, was last treated at the hospital or the end of the study (whichever came first). All patients who were alive until the end of the study period or lost to follow-up were censored and those who died were considered as failures. Survival patterns were estimated using Kaplan Meier plots, log rank tests and life tables. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were also conducted. Results The mean age of the 442 MDR-TB patients in the study was 37.7 ± 11.2 years. The incidence rates of mortality were 13.4 and 43.9 per 1000 person-months for smear-negative and smear-positive MDR-TB patients, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression showed that the predictors of death among MDR-TB patients include HIV co-infection (adjusted Hazard Rate, aHR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.02-3.52), old age (above 60 years) (aHR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.04-3.60) and smear positivity at diagnosis (aHR = 3.29, 95% CI = 2.39-4.64). Conclusion The study showed that the probability of survival during the treatment is reduced in MDR-TB patients, who are smear-positive, HIV positive or older than 60 years. Special care should be given to these patients to improve survival. PMID:26954520

  20. Utility of Universal Sample Processing Methodology, Combining Smear Microscopy, Culture, and PCR, for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Dudeja, Mridu; Hanif, M.; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2005-01-01

    The universal sample processing (USP) multipurpose methodology was developed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and other mycobacterial diseases by using smear microscopy, culture, and PCR (S. Chakravorty and J. S. Tyagi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:2697-2702, 2005). Its performance was evaluated in a blinded study of 571 sputa and compared with that of the direct and N-acetyl l-cysteine (NALC)-NaOH methods of smear microscopy and culture. With culture used as the gold standard, USP smear microscopy demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 98.2% and 91.4%, respectively, compared to 68.6% and 92.6%, respectively, for the direct method. For a subset of 325 specimens, the USP method recorded a 97.1% sensitivity and 83.2% specificity compared to the NALC-NaOH method, which had a sensitivity and specificity of 80.0% and 89.7%, respectively, with culture used as the gold standard. Thus, the USP method exhibited a highly significant enhancement in sensitivity (P < 0.0001) compared to the direct and NALC-NaOH methods of smear microscopy. The USP culture sensitivity was 50.1% and was not significantly different from that of conventional methods (53.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of IS6110 PCR were 99.1% and 71.2%, respectively, with culture used as the gold standard, and increased to 99.7% and 78.8%, respectively, when compared with USP smear microscopy. Thus, the USP methodology was highly efficacious in diagnosing TB by smear microscopy, culture, and PCR in a clinical setting. PMID:15956386

  1. New Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Smear Slides in Pelagic and Hemi-Pelagic Sediments of the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, M. K.; Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Petrographic microscopy of smear slides is the standard method to initially investigate marine sediments in core sediment studies (e.g. IODP expeditions). The technique is not commonly used in more complex analysis due to concerns over the subjectivity of the method and variability in operator training and experience. Two initiatives sponsored by Ocean Leadership, a sedimentology training workshop and a digital reference of smear slide components (Marsaglia et al., 2013) have been implemented to address the need for advanced training. While the influence of subjectivity on the quality of data has yet to be rigorously tested, the lack of standardization in the current method of smear slide analysis (SSA) remains a concern. The relative abundance of the three main components, (total diatoms, silt-to-sand sized siliciclastics, and clay minerals) of high and low density Bering Sea hemi-pelagic sediments from the ocean margin (Site U144; Site U1339) and pelagic sediments from the open-ocean (Site U1340) were analyzed. Our analyses show visual estimation is a reproducible method to quantify the relative abundance of the main sediment components. Furthermore, we present a modified method for SSA, with procedural changes objectively guided by statistical analyses, including constraints to increase randomness and precision in both the preparation and analysis of the smear slide. For example, repeated measure ANOVAs found a smear slide could be accurately quantified by counting three fields of view. Similarly, the use of replicate smear slides to quantify a sample was analyzed. Finally, the data produced from this modified SSA shows a strong correlation to continuously logged physical parameters of sediment such as gamma ray attenuation (Site U1339 r2= 0.41; Site U1340 r2= 0.36). Therefore, the modified SSA combined with other independent methods (e.g. laser particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and physical properties) can be a very effective tool for the

  2. Validating a Scoring System for the Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coimbra, Isabella; Maruza, Magda; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; Batista, Joanna D’Arc Lyra; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Moura, Líbia Vilela; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito Barros; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes

    2014-01-01

    Background The challenge of diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary TB (tuberculosis) in people living with HIV justifies the use of instruments other than the smear test for diagnosing the disease. Considering the clinical-radiological similarities of TB amongst HIV-infected adults and children, the proposal of this study was to assess the accuracy of a scoring system used to diagnose smear-negative pulmonary TB in children and adolescents, in HIV-infected adults suspected of having smear-negative pulmonary TB. Methods A Phase III validation study aiming to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a scoring system for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary TB in HIV-infected adults. The study assessed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values of the scoring system. Three versions of the scoring system were tested. Results From a cohort of 2,382 (HIV-infected adults), 1276 were investigated and 128 were diagnosed with pulmonary TB. Variables associated with the diagnosis of TB were: coughing, weight loss, fever, malnutrition, chest X-ray, and positive tuberculin test. The best diagnostic performance occurred with the scoring system with new scores, with sensitivity = 81.2% (95%-CI 74.5% –88%), specificity = 78% (75.6% –80.4%), PPV = 29.2% (24.5% –33.9%) and NPV = 97.4% (96.4% –98.4%), LR+ = 3.7 (3.4–4.0) and LR− = 0.24 (0.2–0.4). Conclusion The proposed scoring system (with new scores) presented a good capacity for discriminating patients who did not have pulmonary TB, in the studied population. Further studies are necessary in order to validate it, thus permitting the assessment of its use in diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary TB in HIV-infected adults. PMID:24755628

  3. Evaluation of Five Chromogenic Agar Media and the Rosco Rapid Carb Screen Kit for Detection and Confirmation of Carbapenemase Production in Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Matthew W.; DeGagne, Pat; Nichol, Kim; Karlowsky, James A.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient workflow to screen for and confirm the presence of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli was developed by evaluating five chromogenic screening agar media and two confirmatory assays, the Rapid Carb screen test (Rosco Diagnostica A/S, Taastrup, Denmark) and the modified Hodge test. A panel of 150 isolates was used, including 49 carbapenemase-producing isolates representing a variety of β-lactamase enzyme classes. An evaluation of analytical performance, assay cost, and turnaround time indicated that the preferred workflow (screening test followed by confirmatory testing) was the chromID Carba agar medium (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France), followed by the Rapid Carb screen test, yielding a combined sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 100%. As an optional component of the workflow, a determination of carbapenemase gene class via molecular means could be performed subsequent to confirmatory testing. PMID:25355764

  4. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear.

    PubMed

    Daner, William E; Meeks, Brett D; Foster, William C; Boardman, Norman D

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP) smear. In this case report, we present a case of GBS sepsis of a native shoulder, possibly resulting from a routine pelvic exam and PAP smear. PMID:26981299

  5. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear

    PubMed Central

    Daner, William E.; Meeks, Brett D.; Foster, William C.; Boardman, Norman D.

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP) smear. In this case report, we present a case of GBS sepsis of a native shoulder, possibly resulting from a routine pelvic exam and PAP smear. PMID:26981299

  6. Knowledge and practice of breast self examination and Pap smear screening among a group of electronics women workers.

    PubMed

    Chee, H L; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Zainiyah, S Y

    2003-08-01

    A total of 486 Malaysian women electronics workers participated in a study of reproductive health knowledge and cancer screening. The practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) was found to be related to educational attainment; while ever having had a Pap smear was found to be related to being older than 30 years old, being ever married, living with family or relatives, and not staying in hostels. Knowledge on reproductive health was found to be higher for older women, married women, living with family or relatives, not staying in hostels, ever having done BSE and ever having had a Pap smear. PMID:14750370

  7. In-hospital contact investigation among health care workers after exposure to smear-negative tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ringshausen, Felix C; Schlösser, Stephan; Nienhaus, Albert; Schablon, Anja; Schultze-Werninghaus, Gerhard; Rohde, Gernot

    2009-01-01

    Background Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) accounts for a considerable proportion of TB transmission, which especially endangers health care workers (HCW). Novel Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) may offer the chance to define the burden of TB in HCW more accurately than the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST), but the data that is available regarding their performance in tracing smear-negative TB in the low-incidence, in-hospital setting, is limited. We conducted a large-scale, in-hospital contact investigation among HCW of a German university hospital after exposure to a single case of extensive smear-negative, culture-positive TB with pulmonary involvement. The objective of the present study was to evaluate an IGRA in comparison to the TST and to identify risk factors for test positivity. Methods Contacts were prospectively enrolled, evaluated using a standardized questionnaire, the IGRA QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT) and the TST, and followed-up for two years. Active TB was ruled out by chest x-ray in QFT-GIT-positive subjects. Independent predictors of test positivity were established through the use of logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the 143 subjects analyzed, 82 (57.3%) had close contact, but only four (2.8%) experienced cumulative exposure to the index case >40 hours. QFT-GIT results were positive in 13 subjects (9.1%), while TST results were positive in 40 subjects (28.0%) at an induration >5 mm. Overall agreement was poor between both tests (kappa = 0.15). Age was the only predictor of QFT-GIT-positivity (Odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.32–5.46), while TST-positivity was significantly related to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination and foreign origin. Logistic regression analysis showed no relation between test results and exposure. No secondary cases of active TB were detected over an observational period of two years. Conclusion Our findings suggest a low contagiosity of

  8. Segmentation of touching mycobacterium tuberculosis from Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-12-01

    Touching Mycobacterium tuberculosis objects in the Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images present different shapes and invisible boundaries in the adhesion areas, which increases the difficulty in objects recognition and counting. In this paper, we present a segmentation method of combining the hierarchy tree analysis with gradient vector flow snake to address this problem. The skeletons of the objects are used for structure analysis based on the hierarchy tree. The gradient vector flow snake is used to estimate the object edge. Experimental results show that the single objects composing the touching objects are successfully segmented by the proposed method. This work will improve the accuracy and practicability of the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  9. Using a New Smearing Technique to Find Moments of the Quark Distribution Amplitude of the Pion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, H. L. L.; Richards, David; Thomas, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    We study the distribution of momentum between valence quarks of the ground state and the first excited state of the pion using Lattice QCD on the anisotropic lattice. Our final goal is to extract the second moment of distribution amplitudes of the ground state and first excited state of the pion for exclusive processes at high momentum transfer. At this stage of the project, we can compute the ground state pion decay constant in a lattice renormalization scheme up to an overall normalization constant. We employ a variational technique that will allow us to determine the decay constant and second moment of the distribution amplitude of the first excited state of the pion also. We use a new smearing technique in order to minimize pollution of the data from higher-lying excited states. The anisotropy of the lattice is a novel feature of our approach, and strongly increases sensitivity to excited states through a better temporal resolution.

  10. Rates and independent correlates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wismer, B A; Moskowitz, J M; Chen, A M; Kang, S H; Novotny, T E; Min, K; Lew, R; Tager, I B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports population estimates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women and evaluates correlates of testing. METHODS: Korean Americans in 2 California counties were surveyed by telephone. Frequencies were age-adjusted to the 1990 census to produce population estimates of testing. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent correlates of testing RESULTS: Only 50% of the Korean-American women surveyed had a Pap test in the previous 2 years. The strongest independent correlate was having had a regular check-up in the previous 2 years (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 4.2, 12.1). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of Pap testing among Korean-American women are well below national objectives. Collaboration and community-sensitive research are essential to collect data and design programs to improve the health of ethnic minority communities. PMID:9551013

  11. Optimization of liquid scintillation measurements applied to smears and aqueous samples collected in industrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapon, Arnaud; Pigrée, Gilbert; Putmans, Valérie; Rogel, Gwendal

    Search for low-energy β contaminations in industrial environments requires using Liquid Scintillation Counting. This indirect measurement method supposes a fine control from sampling to measurement itself. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the definition of a measurement method, as generic as possible, for both smears and aqueous samples' characterization. That includes choice of consumables, sampling methods, optimization of counting parameters and definition of energy windows, using the maximization of a Figure of Merit. Detection limits are then calculated considering these optimized parameters. For this purpose, we used PerkinElmer Tri-Carb counters. Nevertheless, except those relative to some parameters specific to PerkinElmer, most of the results presented here can be extended to other counters.

  12. Amelanotic malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix diagnosed by cervical smear.

    PubMed

    Arık, Deniz; Öge, Tufan; Kabukçuoğlu, Sare; Yalçın, Ömer Tarık; Özalp, Sinan

    2016-06-01

    The melanocytic cells of the cervical epithelium are capable of forming the complete spectrum of melanocytic lesions, from benign lentigines to melanoma. Primary malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix is a rare neoplasm with aggressive behavior. The absence of melanin pigment can lead to misdiagnosis as carcinomas, sarcomas, or lymphoma. Immunohistochemical studies should be used for confirmation. In order to consent the cervix as a primary site, exclusion of any other probable primary sites of melanoma is needed. Here, we present a 61-year-old female patient with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. After cervical smear, diagnosis was confirmed by cervical punch biopsy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:535-537. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991516

  13. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  14. Automated detection of malaria in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears.

    PubMed

    Mushabe, Mark C; Dendere, Ronald; Douglas, Tania S

    2013-01-01

    The current gold standard of malaria diagnosis is the manual, microscopy-based analysis of Giemsa-stained blood smears, which is a time-consuming process requiring skilled technicians. This paper presents an algorithm that identifies and counts red blood cells (RBCs) as well as stained parasites in order to perform a parasitaemia calculation. Morphological operations and histogram-based thresholding are used to extract the red blood cells. Boundary curvature calculations and Delaunay triangulation are used to split clumped red blood cells. The stained parasites are classified using a Bayesian classifier with their RGB pixel values as features. The results show 98.5% sensitivity and 97.2% specificity for detecting infected red blood cells. PMID:24110533

  15. True status of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis defaulters in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Kruyt, M. L.; Kruyt, N. D.; Boeree, M. J.; Harries, A. D.; Salaniponi, F. M.; van Noord, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    The article reports the results of a study to determine the true outcome of 8 months of treatment received by smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Mlambe Mission Hospital (MMH), Blantyre, Malawi. The treatment outcomes were documented from the tuberculosis registers of all patients registered between 1 October 1994 and 30 September 1995. The true treatment outcome for patients who had been registered as defaulters was determined by making personal inquiries at the treatment units and the residences of patients or relatives and, in a few cases, by writing to the appropriate postal address. Interviews were carried out with patients who had defaulted and were still alive and with matched, fully compliant PTB patients who had successfully completed the treatment to determine the factors associated with defaulter status. Of the 1099 patients, 126 (11.5%) had been registered as defaulters, and the true treatment outcome was determined for 101 (80%) of the latter; only 22 were true defaulters, 31 had completed the treatment, 31 had died during the treatment period, and 17 had left the area. A total of 8 of the 22 true defaulters were still alive and were compared with the compliant patients. Two significant characteristics were associated with the defaulters; they were unmarried; and they did not know the correct duration of antituberculosis treatment. Many of the smear-positive tuberculosis patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Blantyre district were found to have different treatment outcomes, without defaulting. The quality of reporting in the health facilities must therefore be improved in order to exclude individuals who are not true defaulters. PMID:10361755

  16. Telomerase Activity as a Potential Diagnostic Marker for Triage of Abnormal Pap Smears

    PubMed Central

    Ault, Kevin A.; Allen, Heather K.; Phillips, Stacia L.; Bridget Zimmerman, M.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is an association between high levels of telomerase and premalignant cervical disease and to provide a preliminary analysis of telomerase activity as a potential triage strategy. Materials and Methods Premenopausal women were invited to participate in the study during routine gynecologic visits as well as visits where colposcopy was performed. Samples were taken from the cervix using a broom device and placed in cold phosphate-buffered saline. A total of 92 samples were evaluated. Cells were counted and lysed, and a semi-quantitative measure of telomerase activity was determined using a commercially available telomerase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 was assessed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for the association of telomerase activity with cytology, HPV type 16 or 18 status, and colposcopy and/or biopsy findings. Results When telomerase levels were analyzed according to Pap smear results, there were no differences among four groups of cytology findings (normal, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). When colposcopy and/or biopsy results were considered, significantly higher levels of telomerase were detected in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2,3 samples than in normal Pap smear samples and CIN 1 samples (p = .035). There was no significant difference in telomerase levels between samples that tested positive for HPV type 16 or 18 and those that did not (p = .111). Conclusions Telomerase levels were significantly higher in cytologic samples from women with biopsy-proven CIN 2,3 than in samples from women with normal cytology results or CIN 1. These results warrant larger studies to determine whether telomerase activity may be a useful triage tool for abnormal cytologic findings. PMID:15870530

  17. The Effect of Smear Layer on Antimicrobial Efficacy of Three Root Canal Irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Nazanin; Dianat, Omid; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Zadsirjan, Saeede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the main goals of endodontic treatment is to decrease the harboring bacteria within the root canal system and dentinal tubules. This experimental study attempted to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of three root canal irrigants in the presence and absence of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: A total of 210 sound extracted human single-rooted teeth were prepared. After creating the SL and its removal in half of the samples, they were infected with Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Actinomyces israelii (A. israelii). A total of 180 specimen were used to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the three irrigants in presence and absence of SL, 24 specimen were placed in the positive and negative controls, 2 samples were utilized for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and 2 were used for Gram staining. Then, they were exposed to irrigants including 2.61% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 1% povidone-iodine (PI) for 5, 30 and 60 min. Presence/absence of test microorganisms was determined by incubation of specimens in test tubes containing brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth and then measuring the colony forming units (CFU) on BHI agar. A cumulative logistic model was used to analyze the ordinal response. Results: The 2.61% solution of NaOCl was significantly more effective than 0.2% CHX and the latter was more efficient than 1% PI for decreasing fungal and microbial infection of dentinal tubules in the presence and absence of SL. Conclusion: The presence of smear layer decreased the efficacy of antimicrobial irrigants. The minimum time required for elimination of fungal/microbial infection was 30 min. PMID:26213540

  18. The Effect of Preparation Size on Efficacy of Smear Layer Removal; A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi; Shareghi, Ameneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Enlargement of the root canal may potentially affect efficient smear layer (SL) removal. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare SL removal following canal preparation with two different sizes/tapers by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: A total of 50 extracted human mandibular premolars were decoronated. The teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=20) and two negative control groups. In groups 1 and 2 the sizes of master apical file (MAF) were #25 and 40, respectively. Coronal part of the canals were flared with #2 Piezo drills in group 1 and sizes #2 to 6 in group 2. Finally FlexMaster NiTi rotary instruments were used to complete canal preparation (25/0.04 and 35/0.06 in groups 1 and 2, respectively). The irrigation protocol consisted of 10 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 1 min followed by 10 mL of 5.25% NaOCl for 3 min. The patency of dentinal tubules was evaluated under SEM with Hülsmann scores. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The number of patent dentinal tubules in coronal third of the group 1 was significantly more than group 2 (P<0.001). However, this difference was not significant for the middle and apical segments. There was a significant difference in the number of patent dentinal tubules between coronal, middle and apical thirds (P<0.05). Conclusion: Increasing the canal preparation size did not lead to better cleanliness of the canal walls and more efficient smear layer removal. PMID:26213539

  19. A novel scheme for abnormal cell detection in Pap smear images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2004-07-01

    Finding malignant cells in Pap smear images is a "needle in a haystack"-type problem, tedious, labor-intensive and error-prone. It is therefore desirable to have an automatic screening tool in order that human experts can concentrate on the evaluation of the more difficult cases. Most research on automatic cervical screening tries to extract morphometric and texture features at the cell level, in accordance with the NIH "The Bethesda System" rules. Due to variances in image quality and features, such as brightness, magnification and focus, morphometric and texture analysis is insufficient to provide robust cervical cancer detection. Using a microscopic spectral imaging system, we have produced a set of multispectral Pap smear images with wavelengths from 400 nm to 690 nm, containing both spectral signatures and spatial attributes. We describe a novel scheme that combines spatial information (including texture and morphometric features) with spectral information to significantly improve abnormal cell detection. Three kinds of wavelet features, orthogonal, bi-orthogonal and non-orthogonal, are carefully chosen to optimize recognition performance. Multispectral feature sets are then extracted in the wavelet domain. Using a Back-Propagation Neural Network classifier that greatly decreases the influence of spurious events, we obtain a classification error rate of 5%. Cell morphometric features, such as area and shape, are then used to eliminate most remaining small artifacts. We report initial results from 149 cells from 40 separate image sets, in which only one abnormal cell was missed (TPR = 97.6%) and one normal cell was falsely classified as cancerous (FPR = 1%).

  20. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  1. Quality and liability issues with the Papanicolaou smear: lessons from the science of error prevention.

    PubMed

    Derman, H

    1997-03-01

    The pathologists and cytologists who study Papanicolaou smears perform a highly successful cancer screening test in a low-prevalence population. This leads to a mathematically inevitable false-negative error rate even in the most competent professional hands. The US judicial system supports a public expectation of perfect performance by civil and, recently, criminal punishment of error. Lessons are sought from a considerable industrial experience with accident prevention for possible insights into process improvement that might mitigate the risk of false-negative errors. The elements that, by system analysis, contribute to accidents are reviewed, and the conditions that enhance the accident potential are outlined. The cognitive functions and aberrations that are involved in the operator component of error analysis are described. As a result of pathologists' activities in the systematic measurement of laboratory performance for the last half century, the College of American Pathologists' accreditation program and its derivative Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act requirements have already laid out the avenues of error minimalization. There are no lessons from the science of error prevention that can affect the public expectation of zero error in a screening test and the consequent punishment of cytology professionals. A thesis is offered that the problem is society's if its goal is eradication of cervical cancer mortality. A call is made for leadership by a prestigious, nonpathologist, national organization to make the public understand that the current cytology liability issue is primarily a threat to women and the public health. To initiate public dialogue, a mechanism is suggested to protect simultaneously a patient's right of access to the judicial system and the general availability of the Papanicolaou smear to reduce cervical cancer mortality and morbidity. PMID:9111120

  2. Effect of smear layer removal on the diffusion of calcium hydroxide through radicular dentin.

    PubMed

    Foster, K H; Kulild, J C; Weller, R N

    1993-03-01

    Forty single-rooted teeth were sectioned transversely through the cementoenamel junction and instrumented to a size #50 K-Flex file at the working length by saline irrigation. Each root was placed in a dilution vial containing 10 ml of normal saline, and the pH and Ca2+ levels were recorded after 24 h. The roots in group 1 then received a final irrigation with 20 ml of normal saline. Group 2 received a final irrigation with 10 ml of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid followed by 10 ml of 5.25% NaOCl to remove the smear layer. Group 3 was irrigated in the same manner as group 2, but calcium hydroxide (CH) was placed into the root canal. Group 4 was irrigated with 20 ml of NaOCl, and CH was placed into the root canal. The pH and Ca2+ levels were recorded at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. After 7 days a 3- x 3- x 1-mm external defect was created in the coronal one third of the root surface. The pH and Ca2+ levels were subsequently recorded at 1, 3, and 7 days. Groups 3 and 4 demonstrated significantly higher H+ and Ca2+ levels than did groups 1 and 2 three days after CH placement and at all subsequent intervals. Group 3 demonstrated significantly higher H+ and Ca2+ readings at some but not all intervals. The results demonstrated that CH diffuses from the root canal to the exterior surface of the root and that the removal of the smear layer may facilitate this diffusion. PMID:8509752

  3. Bacteriophage biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on soft ripened white mold and red-smear cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Soft-ripened cheeses belong to the type of food most often contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, and they have been implicated in several outbreaks of listeriosis. Bacteriophages represent an attractive way to combat foodborne pathogens without affecting other properties of the food. We used the broad host range, virulent Listeria phage A511 for control of L. monocytogenes during the production and ripening phases of both types of soft-ripened cheeses, white mold (Camembert-type) cheese, as well as washed-rind cheese with a red-smear surface (Limburger-type). The surfaces of young, unripened cheese were inoculated with 101–103 cfu/cm2 L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) or CNL 103/2005 (serovar 1/2a). Phage was applied at defined time points thereafter, in single or repeated treatments, at 3 × 108 or 1 × 109 pfu/cm2. With Scott A (103 cfu/cm2) and a single dose of A511 (3 × 108 pfu/cm2) on camembert-type cheese, viable counts dropped 2.5 logs at the end of the 21 day ripening period. Repeated phage application did not further inhibit the bacteria, whereas a single higher dose (1 × 109 pfu/cm2) was found to be more effective. On red-smear cheese ripened for 22 days, Listeria counts were down by more than 3 logs. Repeated application of A511 further delayed re-growth of Listeria, but did not affect bacterial counts after 22 days. With lower initial Listeria contamination (101–102 cfu/cm2), viable counts dropped below the limit of detection, corresponding to more than 6 logs reduction compared to the control. Our data clearly demonstrate the potential of bacteriophage for biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in soft cheese. PMID:22334865

  4. Bacteriophage biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on soft ripened white mold and red-smear cheeses.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Susanne; Loessner, Martin J

    2011-03-01

    Soft-ripened cheeses belong to the type of food most often contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, and they have been implicated in several outbreaks of listeriosis. Bacteriophages represent an attractive way to combat foodborne pathogens without affecting other properties of the food. We used the broad host range, virulent Listeria phage A511 for control of L. monocytogenes during the production and ripening phases of both types of soft-ripened cheeses, white mold (Camembert-type) cheese, as well as washed-rind cheese with a red-smear surface (Limburger-type). The surfaces of young, unripened cheese were inoculated with 10(1)-10(3) cfu/cm(2)L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) or CNL 10(3)/2005 (serovar 1/2a). Phage was applied at defined time points thereafter, in single or repeated treatments, at 3 × 10(8) or 1 × 10(9) pfu/cm(2). With Scott A (10(3) cfu/cm(2)) and a single dose of A511 (3 × 10(8) pfu/cm(2)) on camembert-type cheese, viable counts dropped 2.5 logs at the end of the 21 day ripening period. Repeated phage application did not further inhibit the bacteria, whereas a single higher dose (1 × 10(9) pfu/cm(2)) was found to be more effective. On red-smear cheese ripened for 22 days, Listeria counts were down by more than 3 logs. Repeated application of A511 further delayed re-growth of Listeria, but did not affect bacterial counts after 22 days. With lower initial Listeria contamination (10(1)-10(2) cfu/cm(2)), viable counts dropped below the limit of detection, corresponding to more than 6 logs reduction compared to the control. Our data clearly demonstrate the potential of bacteriophage for biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in soft cheese. PMID:22334865

  5. Tuberculous lymphadenitis: Comparison of cytomorphology, Ziehl–Neelsen staining, and rapid mycobacterial culture at a pediatric superspecialty hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mahana, Sonam; Tomar, Reena; Agrawal, Rawi; Saksena, Rushika; Manchanda, Vikas; Gupta, Ruchika

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate and compare the role of Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) staining and mycobacterial culture in diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 fine needle aspirations (FNAs) from patients who were clinically suspected to have tuberculous lymphadenitis were included. Acid-fast Bacilli detection was attempted by ZN staining on smears as well as culture on Middlebrook 7H9 broth. Percentage positivity of both smears and culture was calculated. Results: Of the 56 cases, 46 showed cytomorphological features consistent with tuberculosis (TB). The most common pattern was only necrosis in 37 cases followed by necrotizing granulomas in 13 cases. ZN-stained smears were positive in 40 cases while culture was positive in only 27 cases. The highest smear and culture positivity was noted in cases with only necrosis. In six cases, diagnosis of TB was made on culture alone since smear was negative in these cases. Conclusion: FNA is a reliable technique for early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis in many cases. Mycobacterial culture by newer rapid techniques can assist in bacillary detection in smear-negative cases and also allows for drug sensitivity testing. Hence, culture should be resorted to in such cases.

  6. Cytopathologic changes associated with intrauterine contraceptive devices. A review of cervico-vaginal smears in 350 women.

    PubMed

    Pillay, B; Gregory, A R; Subbiah, M

    1994-03-01

    Cervico-vaginal smears from 350 IUCD users were analysed to ascertain the range of abnormalities induced in the genital tract of these women. Alteration of the microbial environment, inflammatory, degenerative, reparative and proplastic epithelial changes were the salient cytological findings. The clinical implications of these are briefly discussed. PMID:8057995

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, Isolated from Munster, a French Smear-Ripened Cheese.

    PubMed

    Dugat-Bony, Eric; Sarthou, Anne-Sophie; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Irlinger, Françoise; Layec, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, which was originally isolated from the surface of Munster, a French smear-ripened cheese. This genome investigation will improve our knowledge on the molecular determinants potentially involved in the adaptation of this strain during the Munster-type cheese manufacturing process. PMID:27445372

  8. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear and human papillomavirus and its relation to screening in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smears, and human papilloma virus in relation to their cervical cancer screening behavior. This hospital-based study was conducted with a sample of 200 women: 100 women screened in the last three years and 100 non-screened women who attended a hospital located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, between September 2008 and February 2009. Women at the hospital were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relation of women's knowledge about Pap smears to screening behavior, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the women who had been screened, 49% compared to 73% of those not screened had inadequate knowledge about Pap smears (P = 0.001), and 47% of screened and 30% of non-screened women reported that they had ever heard about human papilloma virus (P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, having adequate knowledge about Pap smears (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.4-4.8) having health insurance (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-6.4) and being married (odds ratio: 1.8 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-3.4) were the factors related to being screened in the previous three years. Knowledge was related to screening. Comprehensive educational approaches may enhance screening for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:21391162

  9. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  10. Smearing the Opposition: Implicit and Explicit Stigmatization of the 2008 U. S. Presidential Candidates and the Current U. S. President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosloff, Spee; Greenberg, Jeff; Schmader, Toni; Dechesne, Mark; Weise, David

    2010-01-01

    Four studies investigated whether political allegiance and salience of outgroup membership contribute to the phenomenon of acceptance of false, stigmatizing information (smears) about political candidates. Studies 1-3 were conducted in the month prior to the 2008 U.S. Presidential election and together demonstrated that pre-standing opposition to…

  11. In vitro evaluation of smear layer removal by Er:YAG laser application with five different fiberoptic tip withdrawl techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanello Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Emboava Spano, Julio C.; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated smear layer removal in apical and middle root thirds using five different fiberoptic tip withdrawal techniques. Thirty human canines were instrumented using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, with a final irrigation of distilled water, and divided randomly in 6 different groups. Er:YAG laser was applied in 5 groups with a 50/28 fiberoptic tip (250 mJ input, 112 mJ output, 10 Hz, 1 mm from apex) with distinct withdrawal techniques. Group 6 did not receive laser irradiation. Two pieces of each root canal (middle and apical thirds) were obtained under the SEM and analyzed for the amount of smear layer. Results showed statistical differences (p<0.05) between treatments and significant differences (p<0.01) between radicular thirds. It can be concluded that 1) all withdrawal techniques produced the same results on smear layer removal and 2) the middle third presented less smear layer t han the apical third after Er:YAG laser irradiation.

  12. Efficacy of Two Irrigants Used with Self-Adjusting File System on Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Sadullah; Er, Özgür; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical instrumentation of root canals produces a smear layer that adversely affects the root canal seal. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of MTAD and citric acid solutions used with self-adjusting file (SAF) system on smear layer. Twenty-three single-rooted human teeth were used for the study. Canals were instrumented manually up to a number 20 K file size. SAF was used to prepare the root canals. The following groups were studied: Group 1: MTAD + 5.25% NaOCl, Group 2: 20% citric acid + 5.25% NaOCl, and Group 3: Control (5.25% NaOCl). All roots were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds was evaluated using a five-score evaluation system. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. In the coronal third, Group 2 exhibited the best results and was statistically different froms the other groups (P < 0.05). There was not a significant difference among the three thirds of groups according to in-group comparisons (P > 0.05). The solutions used in Group 1 and 2 could effectively remove smear layer in most of the specimens. However, citric acid was more effective than MTAD in the three thirds of the canal. PMID:27355025

  13. Relative efficacy of bone marrow trephine biopsy sections as compared to trephine imprints and aspiration smears in routine hematological practice.

    PubMed

    Varma, N; Dash, S; Sarode, R; Marwaha, N

    1993-07-01

    The relative efficacy of trephine sections, trephine imprints and aspiration smears in yielding diagnostic and additional information was compared in 767 sets of bone marrow samples. Trephine sections were diagnostic in significantly more cases as compared to trephine imprints and aspiration smears (P < 0.001). Additional information was obtained in 326 trephine sections which was not available from trephine imprints and aspiration smears. Significantly more number of trephine sections provided diagnosis in case of dry tap/scanty material, for assessment of lymphoma-tumour infiltration, cellularity, Perl's reaction, megakaryocyte density and proliferating cell lines in myeloproliferative disorders. Fibrosis of bone marrow, pattern of bone marrow involvement and topographical alterations were appreciable only on trephine sections. The differential counts done on trephine imprints and aspiration smears correlated well and cytomorphological characterisation of immature cells (blasts and promyelocytes) could be done on these two preparations. Although trephine sections provide maximum information, all three preparations were found complementing each other and should be evaluated simultaneously for complete bone marrow interpretation. PMID:8300166

  14. Role of Multiparameter Analysis of AgNORs in FNA Smears of Thyroid Swellings in Differentiating Benign and Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Ismail; Hassan, Md Quamrul; Bhattacharjee, Pradip; Ahamad, M. Shahab Uddin; Rahman, Zillur

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to assess the role of multiparameter analysis of silver (Ag)-stained nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) technique on aspiration smears of thyroid swellings to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Materials and Methods. Aspiration smears from 166 cases of thyroid swellings were examined. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology in 61 cases. AgNOR staining was done on FNA smears according to silver-staining protocol proposed by the International Committee for AgNOR quantification. Multiparameter analysis of AgNORs such as mAgNOR, pAgNOR, and AgNOR size grade was done on 50–100 cells under oil immersion lens. Results. AgNOR parameter of benign and malignant thyroid lesions was compared and was found to be statistically significant. Out of 157 satisfactory AgNOR stained cases, 148 (94.3%) were benign lesions and 9 (5.7%) cases were malignant lesions. In AgNOR analysis, sensitivity was found to be 83.33%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV 98.21%, and accuracy was 98.36%. Conclusions. AgNOR analysis in the FNA smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid swellings. PMID:22792510

  15. Cytomorphological Analysis of Keratinocytes in Oral Smears from Tobacco Users and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lesions — A Histochemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Suneet; Solomon, Monica Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim To analyse the cytomorphological features of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users and from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesions. Methodology Oral smears were obtained from clinically, normal appearing mucosa of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients (n=20) and from the mucosa of smokers (n=20), and apparently healthy individuals (n=20) were used as controls. The smears were histochemically stained and cytomorphological assessment of the keratinocytes was carried out. One-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was used for comparing the parameters among multiple groups and Tukey-HSD test was used to compare the mean values between groups. Results The mean nuclear area of keratinocytes from the mucosa of tobacco users was 46 ± 2.57 and that of the oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion was 81.54 ± 4.31. While there was a significant (P=0.001) reduction in the cellular area of keratinocytes from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion when compared with those from oral smears of tobacco users. Conclusion Cytomorphometric analysis of keratinocytes can serve as a useful adjunct in the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:20690418

  16. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K.; Wilkerson, C.; Meisner, L. |

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, Isolated from Munster, a French Smear-Ripened Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Sarthou, Anne-Sophie; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Irlinger, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, which was originally isolated from the surface of Munster, a French smear-ripened cheese. This genome investigation will improve our knowledge on the molecular determinants potentially involved in the adaptation of this strain during the Munster-type cheese manufacturing process. PMID:27445372

  18. A Scanning Electron Microscope Study on the Effect of an Experimental Irrigation Solution on Smear Layer Removal

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Vahid; Mokhtari, Hadi; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Rahimi, Saeed; Sohrabi, Aydin; Badamchi Zadeh, Sina; Mojaver Kahnamooie, Hanieh; Tehranchi, Pardis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of an experimental irrigation solution, containing two different concentrations of papain, Tween 80, 2% chlorhexidine and EDTA, on removal of the smear layer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six single-rooted teeth were divided into two experimental groups (n=12) and two positive and negative control groups of six. The canals were prepared with BioRaCe instruments up to BR7 (60/0.02). In group 1, canals were irrigated with a combination of 1% papain, 17% EDTA, Tween 80 and 2% CHX; in group 2, canals were irrigated with a combination of 0.1% papain, 17% EDTA, Tween 80 and 2% CHX. In group 3 (the negative control), the canal was irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl during instrumentation and at the end of preparation with 1 mL of 17% EDTA was used; in group 4 (positive control), normal saline was used for irrigation. The amount of the remaining smear layer was quantified according to Hulsmann method using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Two-by-two comparisons of the groups revealed no significant differences in terms of smear layer removal at different canal sections between the negative control group (standard regiment for smear layer removal) and 1% papain groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Under the limitations of the present study, combination of 1% papain, EDTA, 2% chlorhexidine and Tween 80 can effectively remove smear layer from canal walls. PMID:24688583

  19. The efficacy of Salvadora persica extract in the elimination of the intracanal smear layer: A SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Balto, Hanan; Ghandourah, Basma; Al-Sulaiman, Hala

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the efficacy of an ethanolic Salvadora persica extract in removing the smear layer following a root canal procedure. Methods Sixty extracted, single-rooted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and divided into four groups. Experimental groups 1 (n = 20) and 2 (n = 20) were irrigated with 1 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml of S. persica, respectively. The positive controls (n = 10) were irrigated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), while the negative controls (n = 10) were irrigated with saline. Approximately 5 ml of the irrigating solution was delivered into the root canals for 5 min, and the final rinse was performed with 5 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the endodontic smear layer removal at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the specimens. Results A significant difference in smear layer removal between groups 1 and 2 at the coronal and middle thirds of the canal was observed, and no significant difference was seen between group 2 and the positive control at the coronal third. At the apical third, both concentrations of S. persica had similar effects and were less effective than the positive control in removing the smear layer. Conclusion The 5 mg/ml S. persica solution was significantly more effective than the 1 mg/ml solution. In addition, the 5 mg/ml S. persica solution was as effective as 17% EDTA in removing the smear layer from the coronal third of the canal wall. PMID:23960532

  20. Efficacy of rapid, economical, acetic acid, Papanicolaou stain in cervical smears as an alternative to conventional Papanicolaou stain

    PubMed Central

    Izhar, Shabnam; Kaur, Rupinder; Masih, Kanwal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Papanicolaou (Pap) stain has been used over the years for cervical cytology screening. However; it utilizes a considerable amount of alcohol which is expensive and difficult to procure. In one of the modifications, ethyl alcohol is replaced by 1% acetic acid and is termed as rapid, economical, acetic acid Papanicolaou (REAP) stain. It is cost effective, easily available and provides a suitable and rapid staining alternative. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of REAP stain as an alternative method to conventional Pap stain. Materials and Methods: This study was done over a period of 18 months in a tertiary care hospital. Two sets of cervical smears were prepared of which one was stained with conventional Pap stain, and other was stained with REAP stain. The smears were examined for cytomorphological parameters and were evaluated using a modification of parameters given by Ng et al. Results: A total of 737 smears were examined in duplicate. Most of the conventional Pap smears showed excellent preservation (91.6%) with very few showing optimal (7.6%) and sub-optimal staining (0.8%). In contrast to this excellent preservation was seen in just 33.6% of the REAP stained smears with majority showing optimal and sub-optimal preservation (46.5% and 20% respectively). The P value was statistically significant (<0.0001) depicting inferior staining quality of REAP stain. Conclusion: Rapid, economical, acetic acid Papanicolaou stain undoubtly is a simple, fast and cost effective stain which can be adopted mainly in resource limited settings, but cannot be utilized for research purpose in a tertiary care setup due to poor preservation of the staining quality. PMID:25538385

  1. Evaluation of the effects of two novel irrigants on intraradicular dentine erosion, debris and smear layer removal

    PubMed Central

    Görduysus, Melahat; Bayramgil, Nursel Pekel; Görduysus, Mehmet Ömer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid (Poly[AA-co-MA]) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) on root canal dentin using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods Twenty-four single-rooted teeth were instrumented and the apical and coronal thirds of each root were removed, leaving the 5 mm middle thirds, which were then separated into two pieces longitudinally. The specimens were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to each irrigant for 5 min as follows: G1, Ca(OCl)2; G2, Poly(AA-co-MA); G3, Ca(OCl)2 + Poly(AA-co-MA); G4, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G5, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); G6, NaOCl+EDTA. The specimens were prepared for SEM evaluation. Smear layer, debris and erosion scores were recorded by two blinded examiners. One image from G3 was analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) on suspicion of precipitate formation. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Results G1 and G4 showed the presence of debris and smear layer and they were statistically different from G2, G3, G5 and G6 where debris and smear layer were totally removed (p < 0.05). In G1 and G4, erosion evaluation could not be done because of debris and smear layer. G2, G3 and G5 showed no erosion, and there was no significant difference between them. G6 showed severe erosion and was statistically different from G2, G3 and G5 (p < 0.05). EDS microanalysis showed the presence of Na, P, and Ca elements on the surface. Conclusions Poly(AA-co-MA) is effective in removing the smear layer and debris without causing erosion either alone or with Ca(OCl)2. PMID:26295025

  2. Unsatisfactory rate in liquid-based cervical samples as compared to conventional smears: A study from tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nalini; Bhar, Vikrant S.; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developed countries adopted liquid-based cytology (LBC) cervical cytology, partly because of its lower proportions of unsatisfactory (U/S)/inadequate samples. This study was carried out to evaluate effect on the rate of U/S samples after introduction of LBC in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: An audit of U/S cervical samples was performed, which included split samples (n = 1000), only conventional Pap smear (CPS) smears (n = 1000), and only LBC samples (n = 1000). The smears were reviewed by two observers independently, and adequacy for the samples was assessed as per The Bethesda System 2001. The reasons for U/S rate in split samples were categorized into various cytologic and/or technical reasons. Results: U/S rate was far less in only LBC samples (1.2%) as compared to only CPS (10.5%) cases. Cases in the satisfactory but limited category were also less in only LBC (0.4%) as compared to only CPS (3.2%) samples. The main reasons for U/S smears in split samples were low cell count (37.2% in CPS; 58.8% in LBC). The second main reason was low cellularity with excess blood and only excess blood in CPS samples. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction of U/S rate in LBC samples as compared to CPS samples, and the difference was statistically significant. The main cause of U/S samples in LBC was low cellularity indicating a technical fault in sample collection. The main cause of U/S rate in CPS was low cellularity followed by low cellularity with excess blood. Adequate training of sample takers and cytologists for the precise cell count to determine adequacy in smears can be of great help in reducing U/S rate. PMID:27382408

  3. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    PubMed

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls. PMID:25285423

  4. Efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser in Removing Smear Layer and Debris with Two Different Output Powers

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Ehsani, Sara; Etemadi, Ardavan; Shafaq, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser in removing debris and the smear layer using two different output powers on the apical, middle, and coronal segments of root canal walls. Background data: Previous literature has failed to evaluate the exclusive effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the quality of smear layer and debris removal in all three segments of the root canal space. Methods: Sixty extracted teeth were included in the study. After instrumentation, samples were divided into three experimental groups and one positive control group with no further treatment. In group 1, a final irrigation was performed using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), sequentially. In group 2, the samples were treated with a 2.78 μm Er,Cr:YSGG laser with an output power of 1.5 W. The same laser was used in group 3, but with an output power of 2.5 W. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the roots were prepared and evaluated for both smear layer and debris removal by three blinded observers. Results: The results showed no differences between groups 1 and 2 regarding the quality of smear layer removal in all areas. However, the 2.5 W laser failed to remove the smear layer effectively. Regarding debris removal, the EDTA and NaOCl irrigation showed significantly better outcomes (adjusted p<0.05) in all areas. Conclusions: This study raises questions about the overall cleaning abilities of Er,Cr:YSGG lasers. PMID:25198390

  5. Compliance with Papanicolaou smear screening following tubal ligation in women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Winkler, H A; Anderson, P S; Fields, A L; Runowicz, C D; DeVictoria, C; Goldberg, G L

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate patient compliance with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening after tubal ligation compared with other methods of birth control in patients who develop cervical cancer, a retrospective review of 262 women with cervical cancer diagnosed at age < or = 70 years was undertaken at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine from January 1987 to December 1995. Demographic data, stage of the disease, histologic type, history of smoking, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), and birth control use were recorded. The Pap screening history was obtained from all the patients. Women who had a bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) were compared with those who did not have this form of birth control. The date and result of their last Pap test prior to their diagnosis of cervical cancer was noted. Two hundred fourteen women with cervical cancer were evaluable. The clinical stage, mean age, history of smoking, and history of STD were similar for both groups. Gravidity among the BTL group was higher than in the non-BTL group (p < 0.01). Forty-eight (22.4%) women had a previous BTL. Twenty-seven of these 48 patients (56.3%) did not have a Pap smear within 3 years prior to the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Of the 166 patients, 61 (36.7%) did not have a Pap test within 3 years (p < 0.05). Fourteen women (29.2%) in the tubal ligation group never returned for a Pap test following the BTL. An average of 6.2+/-5.9 years elapsed since the last Pap test in the BTL group, with 4.0+/-5.1 years in the nontubal ligation group (p < 0.05). There was a correlation between the number of years since BTL (14.2+/-7.7) to the number of years since the last Pap test (6.2+/-5.9) (p < 0.05). Women who have had a BTL should be considered high risk because of poor screening compliance. A Pap test every 3 years is not adequate in this high-risk population group. We advocate improved counseling regarding the importance of continued annual Pap screening for women who are considering tubal ligation. PMID

  6. Smearing of mass accretion rate variation by viscous processes in accretion disks in compact binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. Hence, by the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays need not reflect the true variation of the mass supply rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale t_{{visc}} also to spread around a mean value. In high mass X-ray binaries, which are thought to be primarily wind-fed, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller and thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the low mass X-ray binaries which are primarily fed by Roche lobe overflow. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales, such as when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term All Sky monitor (ASM) data (1.5-12 keV) of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift satellites by different methods to look for such smearing effects and to infer what these results can tell us about the viscous processes inside the respective disks. We employ three different methods to seek imprints of periodicity on the X-ray variation and found that in all the cases, the location of the peak in the power density spectra is consistent with the orbital frequencies. Interestingly, in high mass X-ray binaries the peaks are sharp with high rms values, consistent with a small Keplerian disk in a wind fed system. However, in low mass X-ray binaries with larger Keplerian disk component, the peaks are spreaded out with much lower rms values. X-ray reflections, or superhump phenomena which may also cause such X-ray modulations would not be affected by the size of

  7. Comparing Siliceous Productivity Proxies Along the California Margin During Pliocene Warmth: Smear Slides vs. Biogenic Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, V.; Dekens, P. S.; Addison, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The early Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma) is the most recent time in Earth history when CO2 levels were similar to today, yet model outputs show average global atmospheric temperatures were 3-4˚C warmer. Given the similar climate boundary conditions in the Pliocene and today (CO2, continental positions, ocean circulation), the Pliocene is the best analogue for future climate in the paleo-record. Proxy studies reveal Pliocene sea surface temperatures (SST) along the California margin were 3-9˚C warmer than today. The modern California margin is highly productive, driven by strong seasonal upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water. If the thermocline and nutricline were coupled during the Pliocene as they are today, warmer SSTs would imply lower nutrient concentrations and reduced productivity. Yet previously published oceanic records do not show a clear relationship between SST and productivity. Alkenone mass accumulation rates (MAR), organic carbon, and biogenic silica show sustained levels of productivity in the Pliocene even as SST was cooling at ODP Site 1022 (40.0˚N, 125.5˚W, depth 1925 m). However, smear slide analysis suggests that diatom MAR decreased during the Pliocene. Because diatoms are the dominant silica-based primary producer, diatom MAR and biogenic silica analyses should display similar variations. The apparent difference between the two proxy records may be due to preservational effects, such as silica dissolution in the sedimentary pore waters and fragmentation of diatom frustules, resulting in reduced diatom MARs, whereas the fragments and non-diatom siliceous producers all contribute to the biogenic silica values. We present smear slide and biogenic silica analyses as records of diatom productivity at the more southerly ODP Site 1016 (34.0˚N, 122.0˚W, depth 3835 m), and compare it to existing data from ODP Site 1022. In the modern ocean, diatoms dominate California margin phytoplankton under high nutrient upwelling conditions; thus changes in the

  8. Rapid sex determination on buccal smears using DNA probes and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldez, R.A.; Harris, C.

    1994-09-01

    Hybridization of dual-labeled DNA probes for the repetitive sequences on the X and Y chromosomes allows a fast, non-invasive, more reliable method for sex determination that current cytogenetic Barr body and Y chromatin assays. Scrapes of squamous epithelial cells were collected from the oral cavity of 14 subjects (5{male}, 9{female}) and smeared onto silanized slides. The smears were allowed to air dry. Samples were blinded and then fixed in 50% methanol/50% glacial acetic acid for 10 minutes, and allowed to dry. The slides were incubated in a pretreatment solution containing 30% sodium bisulfite at 45{degrees}C for 10 minutes. They were rinsed in 2XSSC pH 7.0 and then dehydrated through a series of 70%, 85%, and 100% ethanols at room temperature and allowed to air dry. A probe mixture (30 {mu}L containing 10 ng/{mu}L biotin-labeled DXZ1 and digoxigenin-labeled DYZ1/DYZ3 in 70% Formamide/2XSSC) was aliquoted onto each slide, coverslipped, and sealed with rubber cement. Probe and target DNA were simultaneously denatured at 72{degrees}C on a slide warmer for 6 minutes. Probe was allowed to hybridize overnight in a humidified chamber at 37{degrees}C. Slides were postwashed at 72{degrees}C in 0.5xSSC pH 7.0 for 5 minutes, then soaked at room temperature 1XPBD for 2 minutes, and detected with rhodamine/anti-digoxigenin-FITC/avidin for 15 minutes at 37{degrees}C. Slides were soaked 3X in 1XPBD and then counterstained with 15 {mu}L 0.05 {mu}g/mL DAP1/Antifade. 200 nuclei were scored for the presence of one green (X), two green (XX), one green and one red (XY), or a single red (Y) signal, using a fluorescent microscope equipped with a triple band pass filter. Greater than 90% of the hybridized nuclei from each of the 14 cases studied conformed to the sex chromosome pattern. The modal number in 9 cases showed two green signals (XX), and a green and a red signal (XY) in the other 5 cases; this was in complete agreement with the cytogenetic results.

  9. Diagnosis of Carrion's disease by direct blood PCR in thin blood smear negative samples.

    PubMed

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J; del Valle, Luis J; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion's disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers), and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion's disease. PMID:24651298

  10. Healthy and unhealthy red blood cell detection in human blood smears using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Elsalamony, Hany A

    2016-04-01

    One of the most common diseases that affect human red blood cells (RBCs) is anaemia. To diagnose anaemia, the following methods are typically employed: an identification process that is based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of RBCs based on a microscopic examination in blood smears. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting and counting three types of anaemia-infected red blood cells in a microscopic coloured image using circular Hough transform and morphological tools. Anaemia cells include sickle, elliptocytosis, microsite cells and cells with unknown shapes. Additionally, the resulting data from the detection process have been analysed by a prevalent data analysis technique: the neural network. The experimental results for this model have demonstrated high accuracy for analysing healthy/unhealthy cells. This algorithm has achieved a maximum detection of approximately 97.8% of all cells in 21 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates of 100%, 98%, 100%, and 99.3% have been achieved using neural networks for sickle cells, elliptocytosis cells, microsite cells and cells with unknown shapes, respectively. PMID:26867209

  11. Implementation of a Smeared Crack Band Model in a Micromechanics Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The smeared crack band theory is implemented within the generalized method of cells and high-fidelity generalized method of cells micromechanics models to capture progressive failure within the constituents of a composite material while retaining objectivity with respect to the size of the discretization elements used in the model. An repeating unit cell containing 13 randomly arranged fibers is modeled and subjected to a combination of transverse tension/compression and transverse shear loading. The implementation is verified against experimental data (where available), and an equivalent finite element model utilizing the same implementation of the crack band theory. To evaluate the performance of the crack band theory within a repeating unit cell that is more amenable to a multiscale implementation, a single fiber is modeled with generalized method of cells and high-fidelity generalized method of cells using a relatively coarse subcell mesh which is subjected to the same loading scenarios as the multiple fiber repeating unit cell. The generalized method of cells and high-fidelity generalized method of cells models are validated against a very refined finite element model.

  12. Application of microscopic image dynamic range enhancement in sputum smear tuberculosis intelligent examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ping; Luo, Nian; Song, Chen-jie

    2009-07-01

    The bacteriological microscopic examination of sputum smear for tuberculosis is the most important means of diagnosis and experiments for tuberculosis. Through micro-imaging systems, machine vision systems, digital image processing and computer pattern recognition technology, dynamic intelligent recognition and counting of TB-DNA could be realized. However, the dynamic range of CCD image sensor is limited. The information of TB-DNA could not be fully recorded on microscopic image. In this paper, an effective method to extend the image dynamic range through merging multiple exposure images is proposed. The microscopic images of the same scene with different exposure are taken by rotating the disk-shaped optical grads attenuator that installed under the objective lens of microscopic system to control the illumination. These different exposure images are processed firstly to get irradiance response function of the imaging system, and then the high dynamic range microscopic image (HDRMI) could be obtained. Through the mapping algorithm the dynamic range of HDRMI is compressed in order to been displayed on the general display devices, which not only highlight the feature information of bacillus but also maintain the overall contrast of original microscopic image. The method proposed can effectively express the image information of the bright areas and dark areas in the scenes and enhance the image details and color characteristics. The quality of micro-imaging systems is improved. It is proved that the method proposed in the paper can enhance the resolution and stability of the TB image recognition through the experiment.

  13. van Hove Singularities and Spectral Smearing in High Temperature Superconducting H3S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Yundi; Pickett, Warren E.

    The superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide at Tc=200 K observed by Drozdov and collaborators at pressures around 200 GPa is simple bcc Im 3 m H3S reopens questions about what is achievable in high Tc. The various ''extremes'' that are involved - pressure, implying extreme reduction of volume, extremely high H phonon energy scale around 1400K, extremely high temperature for a superconductor - necessitate a close look at new issues raised by these characteristics in relation to high Tc. We have applied first principles methods to analyze the H3S electronic structure, particularly the van Hove singularities (vHs) and the effect of sulfur. Focusing on the two closely spaced vHs near the Fermi level that give rise to the impressively sharp peak in the density of states, the implications of strong coupling Migdal-Eliashberg theory are assessed. The electron spectral density smearing due to virtual phonon emission and absorption, as done in earlier days for A15 superconductors, must be included explicitly to obtain accurate theoretical predictions and a correct understanding. Means for increasing Tc in H3S-like materials will be mentioned. NSF DMR Grant 1207622.

  14. Adverse Events in Treating Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Du, Jian; Yin, Xiaoyan; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun; Li, Runzi; Luo, Cheng; Li, Liang; Li, Xiujun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the adverse events (AE) rate during anti-tuberculosis treatment and to explore AE-related risk factors. New and previously treated smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) cases were enrolled from eight regions in China between April 2009 and October 2010. The AE rate was estimated, and AE risk factors during anti-TB treatment were assessed using Cox proportional models. Among 2091 Chinese subjects with anti-TB treatment, 462 (22.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 20.3–23.9) patients developed AE, with liver injury and gastrointestinal reactions constituting the most common AE. Specifically, 9.8% (95% CI, 8.5–11.1) and 6.3% (95% CI, 5.3–7.4) developed liver injuries and gastrointestinal reactions, respectively. We found that AE rate differed by regions, TB knowledge score, symptoms score and smoking status. Liver injuries were associated with age, sex and smoking status; gastrointestinal reactions were associated with education level and symptom score. Improving patients’ knowledge on TB could reduce AE rate. PMID:26729141

  15. Rapid monitoring of soil, smears, and air dusts by direct large-area alpha spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sill, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental conditions to permit rapid monitoring of soils, smears, and air dusts for transuranic (TRU) radionuclides under field conditions are described. The monitoring technique involves direct measurement of alpha emitters by alpha spectrometry using a large-area detector to identify and quantify the radionuclides present. The direct alpha spectrometry employs a circular gridded ionization chamber 35 cm in diameter which accommodates either a circular sample holder 25 cm in diameter or a rectangular one 20 by 25 cm (8 by 10 in.). Soils or settled dusts are finely ground, suspended in 30% ethanol, and sprayed onto a 25-cm stainless steel dish. Air dusts are collected with a high-volume sampler onto 20- by 25-cm membrane filters. Removable contamination is collected from surfaces onto a 20- by 25-cm filter using an 18-cm (7-in.) paint roller to hold the large filter in contact with the surface during sample collection. All three types of samples are then counted directly in the alpha spectrometer and no other sample preparation is necessary. Some results obtained are described.

  16. Rapid detection of chromosome 18 copy number in buccal smears using DNA probes and FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Nunez, M.; Giraldez, R.

    1994-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 in newborns is often critical to clinical management decisions that must be made in a minimum of time. DNA probes combined with FISH can be used to accurately to determine the copy number of chromosome 18 in interphase cells. We have used the D18Z1 alpha satellite DNA probe to determine signal frequency in normal, previously karyotyped subjects, 12 females and 6 males. We also present one clinical case of trisomy 18, confirmed by karyotype, for comparison to the results obtained from normal subjects. Buccal smears, unlike cytogenetic preparations from peripheral blood, are quite resistant to penetration of probes and detection reagents resulting in higher levels of false monosomy. We have studied 19 individuals and have obtained consistent FISH results, ranging from 64 to 90% disomy. False monosomy rates ranged from 10 to 36%, while false trisomy or tetrasomy was less than 1% in all samples. High rates of false monosomy make this test questionable for detection of low order mosaicism for monosomy, but the extremely low false hyperploidy rate suggests that this is a dependable procedure for detection of trisomy 18, enabling the use of buccal epithelium which can be collected easily from even premature and tiny infants.

  17. [Prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Aïoun hospital (Hodh El Garbi)].

    PubMed

    Boushab, B M; Savadogo, M; Sow, M S

    2016-08-01

    In this retrospective study in the regional hospital Aioun from 1st January 2010 to 31st April 2014, the objective was to determine the prevalence of smear-positive PTB. In total, 320 cases have been identified giving a proportion of 9%. The male subjects (74%) were three times higher than for female subjects with a sex-ratio man/woman of 2.8. The average age of patients was 41±16 years with extremes of 15 and 90 years and the most affected age group was 15-30 years (41%). The majority of our patients (85%) came from rural areas. No patient had been screened for HIV infection. There was a statistically significant relationship between gender, age group (P=0.005) and resistant cases after 6months of anti-TB treatment (P=0.04). Tuberculosis remains a public health problem in our country. Many efforts will still be provided for screening and epidemiological surveillance for a good control of the disease. PMID:26655445

  18. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Morningstar, C.; Lenkner, D.; Wong, C. H.; Bulava, J.; Foley, J.; Juge, K. J.; Peardon, M.

    2011-06-01

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multihadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. Z{sub N} noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise-dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0, 1, 2 on large anisotropic 24{sup 3}x128 lattices with spatial spacing a{sub s}{approx}0.12 fm and temporal spacing a{sub t}{approx}0.034 fm for pion masses m{sub {pi}}{approx_equal}390 and 240 MeV.

  19. A recursive spectral selection scheme for unsupervised segmentation of multispectral Pap smear image sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Geyer, Stanley J.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2004-07-01

    Efficient computer-aided cervical cancer detection can improve both the accuracy and the productivity of cytotechnologists and pathologists. Nuclear segmentation is essential to automated screening, and is still a challenge. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to improving segmentation performance by multispectral imaging followed by unsupervised nuclear segmentation relying on selecting a useful subset of spectral or derived image features. In the absence of prior knowledge, feature selection can be negatively affected by the bias, present in most unsupervised segmentation, to erroneously segment out small objects, yielding ill-balanced class samples. To address this issue, we first introduce a new measurement, Criterion Vector (CV), measuring the distances between the segmentation result and the original data. This efficiently reduces the bias generated by feature selection. Second, we apply a novel recursive feature selection scheme, to generate a new feature subset based on the corresponding CV, ensuring that the correct part of the initial segmentation results is used to obtain better feature subsets. We studied the speed and accuracy of our two-step algorithm in analyzing a number of multispectral Pap smear image sets. The results show high accuracy of segmentation, as well as great reduction of spectral redundancy. The nuclear segmentation accuracy can reach over 90%, by selecting as few as 4 distinct spectra out of 30.

  20. Diagnosis of Carrion’s Disease by Direct Blood PCR in Thin Blood Smear Negative Samples

    PubMed Central

    Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle, Luis J.; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion’s disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers), and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion’s disease. PMID:24651298

  1. Modeling Aggregation of Ionic Surfactants Using a Smeared Charge Approximation in Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Runfang; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2015-09-01

    Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, we explore the specifics of micellization in the solutions of anionic and cationic surfactants and their mixtures. Anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) are chosen as characteristic examples. Coarse-grained models of the surfactants are constructed and parameterized using a combination of atomistic molecular simulation and infinite dilution activity coefficient calibration. Electrostatic interactions of charged beads are treated using a smeared charge approximation: the surfactant heads and dissociated counterions are modeled as beads with charges distributed around the bead center in an implicit dielectric medium. The proposed models semiquantitatively describe self-assembly in solutions of SDS and CTAB at various surfactant concentrations and molarities of added electrolyte. In particular, the model predicts a decline in the free surfactant concentration with the increase of the total surfactant loading, as well as characteristic aggregation transitions in single-component surfactant solutions caused by the addition of salt. The calculated values of the critical micelle concentration reasonably agree with experimental observations. Modeling of catanionic SDS-CTAB mixtures show consecutive transitions to worm-like micelles and then to vesicles caused by the addition of CTAB to micellar solution of SDS. PMID:26241704

  2. Van Hove singularities and spectral smearing in high-temperature superconducting H3S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Yundi; Pickett, Warren E.

    2016-03-01

    The superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide at Tc=200 K observed by Drozdov and collaborators at pressures around 200 GPa is simple bcc I m 3 ¯m H3S from a combination of theoretical and experimental confirmation. The various "extremes" that are involved—high pressure implying extreme reduction of volume, extremely high H phonon energy scale around 1400 K, extremely high temperature for a superconductor—necessitates a close look at new issues raised by these characteristics in relation to high Tc itself. First principles methods are applied to analyze the H3S electronic structure, beginning with the effect of sulfur and then focusing on the origin and implications of the two van Hove singularities (vHs) providing an impressive peak in the density of states near the Fermi energy. Implications arising from strong coupling Migdal-Eliashberg theory are studied. It becomes evident that electron spectral density smearing due to virtual phonon emission and absorption must be accounted for in a correct understanding of this unusual material and to obtain accurate theoretical predictions. Means for increasing Tc in H3S -like materials are noted.

  3. Changing trend of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative bacilli isolated from lower respiratory tract of ICU patients: A 5-year study

    PubMed Central

    Gagneja, Deep; Goel, Nidhi; Aggarwal, Ritu; Chaudhary, Uma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the most frequent infections among patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Aim: To track the resistance rate among the causative agents causing LRTI in the ICU patients. Design and Settings: This is a retrospective study done in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Transtracheal or bronchial aspirates from 2776 patients admitted to the ICU were cultured and identified, and antibiotic sensitivity was performed by standard methods. Results: Of 2776 specimens, 1233 (44.41%) isolates were recovered, of which 1123 (91.07%) were gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and 110 (8.92%) were gram-positive organisms. From 2004 to 2009, Pseudomonas aeruginosa remained the most common pathogen. In phase I, high level of resistance (79–98%) was observed against all GNB. During phase II increasing trend in resistance to cephalosporins and declining trend in resistance to aminoglycosides against most GNB were observed. Multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more than three drugs) was observed in 83% of total isolates. Conclusions: Gram-negative organisms are the predominant pathogens causing LRTI in ICU. The increasing trend of resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems in gram-negative organisms is very disturbing. Judicious use of antimicrobial agents is essential to prevent the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the ICU. PMID:22013308

  4. Pomegranate pericarp extract enhances the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Dey, Diganta; Debnath, Sukalyani; Hazra, Sudipta; Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Ray, Ratnamala; Hazra, Banasri

    2012-12-01

    A methanolic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit pericarp (PGME) was tested in combination with ciprofloxacin against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which were screened for their resistance profile against fluoroquinolone antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ciprofloxacin and PGME, alone, were determined, and synergy of ciprofloxacin-PGME combinations evaluated by checkerboard assay and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC). Nineteen out of forty-nine strains exhibited synergy with ciprofloxacin (FIC of 0.125-0.5 for ciprofloxacin) further verified by agar-well assay. This could be due to the bacterial efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) activity of the polyphenolic constituents of PGME. However, the isolates exhibiting a high level of ciprofloxacin resistance did not respond to ciprofloxacin-PGME combinations, which could be due to target site modification not influenced further by EPI activity of PGME. Again, some strains were sensitive or weakly resistant to ciprofloxacin, which exhibited 'indifference' to the combination, probably due to a lack of over-expressed efflux mechanism. Thus, a synergy of a ciprofloxacin-PGME combination was demonstrated for the first time against ESBL- and MBL-producing Gram-negative bacilli, and the efficacy of an existing drug improved with the help of an inexpensive alternative therapy. PMID:22982804

  5. Laboratory diagnosis, clinical management and infection control of the infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli: a Chinese consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Guan, X; He, L; Hu, B; Hu, J; Huang, X; Lai, G; Li, Y; Liu, Y; Ni, Y; Qiu, H; Shao, Z; Shi, Y; Wang, M; Wang, R; Wu, D; Xie, C; Xu, Y; Yang, F; Yu, K; Yu, Y; Zhang, J; Zhuo, C

    2016-03-01

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are defined as bacterial isolates susceptible to two or fewer antimicrobial categories. XDR-GNB mainly occur in Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The prevalence of XDR-GNB is on the rise in China and in other countries, and it poses a major public health threat as a result of the lack of adequate therapeutic options. A group of Chinese clinical experts, microbiologists and pharmacologists came together to discuss and draft a consensus on the laboratory diagnosis, clinical management and infection control of XDR-GNB infections. Lists of antimicrobial categories proposed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing were created according to documents from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Multiple risk factors of XDR-GNB infections are analyzed, with long-term exposure to extended-spectrum antimicrobials being the most important one. Combination therapeutic regimens are summarized for treatment of XDR-GNB infections caused by different bacteria based on limited clinical studies and/or laboratory data. Most frequently used antimicrobials used for the combination therapies include aminoglycosides, carbapenems, colistin, fosfomycin and tigecycline. Strict infection control measures including hand hygiene, contact isolation, active screening, environmental surface disinfections, decolonization and restrictive antibiotic stewardship are recommended to curb the XDR-GNB spread. PMID:26627340

  6. Collaborative evaluation of the Abbott Avantage system for identification of frequently isolated nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, J H; Dyke, J W; Helgeson, N G; Cooper, B H; Redding, J S; Crawford, S A; Andruszewski, M T; Prowant, S A

    1984-01-01

    The capability of the Abbott Avantage system to identify 10 species of commonly isolated glucose nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli in a 5-h test period was evaluated in a collaborative study. The Avantage nonenteric data base uses 20 biochemical test reactions performed in an expanded Abbott bacterial identification cartridge plus the results of a manual oxidase test. The species included in the Avantage data base are Acinetobacter anitratus, Acinetobacter Iwoffi, Aeromonas hydrophila, Flavobacterium meningosepticum-IIb group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens-putida group, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Pasteurella multocida, and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The collaborative study included the testing of 200 coded challenge strains in all three laboratories and the subsequent testing of an additional group of 100 to 200 clinical isolates recovered independently by each laboratory. Reference identifications for all isolates were determined by conventional biochemical test reactions. The overall accuracy of identification of the coded challenge strains for the three laboratories was 97%, whereas 95% of 437 clinical isolates and selected stock cultures of clinical derivation were identified correctly. PMID:6392323

  7. Disk Carbapenemase Test for the Rapid Detection of KPC-, NDM-, and Other Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Sung, Ji Yeon; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Song, Wonkeun; Chong, Yunsop

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is required for optimal treatment of infected patients. We developed and assessed a new disk carbapenemase test (DCT). Methods Paper disks containing 0.3 mg of imipenem and bromothymol blue indicator were developed, and the performance of the DCT were evaluated by using 742 strains of GNB with or without carbapenemases. Results The paper disks were simple to prepare, and the dried disks were stable at -20℃ and at 4℃. The DCT detected 212 of 215 strains (98.6% sensitivity with 95% confidence interval [CI] 96.0-99.5%) of GNB with known class A (KPC and Sme) and class B (NDM, IMP, VIM, and SIM) carbapenemases within 60 min, but failed to detect GES-5 carbapenemase. The DCT also detected all two Escherichia coli isolates with OXA-48, but failed to detect GNB with OXA-232, and other OXA carbapenemases. The DCT showed 100% specificity (95% CI, 99.2-100%) in the test of 448 imipenem-nonsusceptible, but carbapenemase genes not tested, clinical isolates of GNB. Conclusions The DCT is simple and can be easily performed, even in small laboratories, for the rapid detection of GNB with KPC, NDM and the majority of IMP, VIM, and SIM carbapenemases. PMID:27374708

  8. T cell response to purified filtrate antigen 85 from Mycobacterium bovis Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in leprosy patients.

    PubMed Central

    Launois, P; Huygen, K; De Bruyn, J; N'Diaye, M; Diouf, B; Sarthouj, L; Grimaud, J; Millan, J

    1991-01-01

    T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 25 healthy controls and 39 leprosy patients were tested against BCG-bacilli and culture filtrate. Mycobacterium leprae and purified antigen 85 (the major secreted 30-32 kD protein antigen) from M. bovis strain BCG. In lepromin negative healthy controls, blastogenesis was low to M. leprae and completely negative to antigen 85. IFN-gamma levels were very low, close to detection limits. In all lepromin positive controls, significant proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion was found in response to M. leprae and antigen 85. In the group of lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients, 25/29 of patients (with either positive (13) or negative (12) lymphoproliferative response to BCG) were unreactive to M. leprae or to antigen 85. Four LL patients with positive T cell response to BCG responded with detectable lymphoproliferative response and IFN-gamma secretion to antigen 85. All tuberculoid (TT) leprosy patients responded to BCG, M. leprae and antigen 85. Hence, T cells from leprosy patients and controls demonstrate a marked parallelism of responsiveness towards whole M. leprae and purified antigen 85 from M. bovis BCG, suggesting strong cross-reactivity between the two species and underlining the biological importance of such secreted antigens. PMID:1934596

  9. In vitro susceptibilities of aerobic and facultative non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and 14 other antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Soriano, F; Fernández-Roblas, R; Calvo, R; García-Calvo, G

    1998-05-01

    The comparative in vitro activity of the ketolide HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and those of structurally related macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin compounds (erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin, lincomycin, pristinamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin) as well as those of benzylpenicillin, doxycycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, levofloxacin, and rifapentine against 247 aerobic and facultative non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli were determined by an agar dilution method. The ketolide was active against most organisms tested except Corynebacterium striatum, coryneform CDC group 12, and Oerskovia spp. The frequency of resistance to erythromycin and other macrolides as well as that to lincomycin was high. Pristinamycin and, to a lesser extent, quinupristin-dalfopristin were very active, but resistance to these agents was present in some strains of Rhodococcus equi, Listeria spp., C. striatum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Oerskovia spp. HMR 3647 was very active against all erythromycin-sensitive and many erythromycin-nonsusceptible strains, especially Corynebacterium minutissimum, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, Corynebacterium amycolatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium. In vitro resistance to benzylpenicillin was common, but doxycycline, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were very active against most organisms tested except E. rhusiopathiae, against which glycopeptide antibiotics were not active. The in vitro activity of levofloxacin was remarkable, but resistance to this agent was common for C. amycolatum, Corynebacterium urealyticum, C. jeikeium, and Oerskovia spp. strains. Rifapentine was also very active in vitro against many organisms, but resistance to this agent was always present in E. rhusiopathiae and was very common in C. striatum and C. urealyticum. PMID:9593121

  10. On the Application of Pattern Recognition and AI Technique to the Cytoscreening of Vaginal Smears by Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bow, Sing T.; Wang, Xia-Fang

    1989-05-01

    In this paper the concepts of pattern recognition, image processing and artificial intelligence are applied to the development of an intelligent cytoscreening system to differentiate the abnormal cytological objects from the normal ones in vaginal smears. To achieve this goal,work listed below are involved: 1. Enhancement of the microscopic images of the smears; 2. Elevation of the qualitative differentiation under the microscope by cytologists to a quantitative differentiation plateau on the epithelial cells, ciliated cells, vacuolated cells, foreign-body-giant cells, plasma cells, lymph cells, white blood cells, red blood cells, etc. These knowledges are to be inputted into our intelligent cyto-screening system to ameliorate machine differentiation; 3. Selection of a set of effective features to characterize the cytological objects onto various regions of the multiclustered by computer algorithms; and 4. Systematical summarization of the knowledge that a gynecologist has and the way he/she follows when dealing with a case.

  11. Relationship between automated total nucleated cell count and enumeration of cells on direct smears of canine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Dusick, Allison; Young, Karen M; Muir, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Canine osteoarthritis is a common disorder seen in veterinary clinical practice and causes considerable morbidity in dogs as they age. Synovial fluid analysis is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of canine joint disease and obtaining a total nucleated cell count (TNCC) is particularly important. However, the low sample volumes obtained during arthrocentesis are often insufficient for performing an automated TNCC, thereby limiting diagnostic interpretation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether estimation of TNCC in canine synovial fluid could be achieved by performing manual cell counts on direct smears of fluid. Fifty-eight synovial fluid samples, taken by arthrocentesis from 48 dogs, were included in the study. Direct smears of synovial fluid were prepared, and hyaluronidase added before cell counts were obtained using a commercial laser-based instrument. A protocol was established to count nucleated cells in a specific region of the smear, using a serpentine counting pattern; the mean number of nucleated cells per 400 × field was then calculated. There was a positive correlation between the automated TNCC and mean manual cell count, with more variability at higher TNCC. Regression analysis was performed to estimate TNCC from manual counts. By this method, 78% of the samples were correctly predicted to fall into one of three categories (within the reference interval, mildly to moderately increased, or markedly increased) relative to the automated TNCC. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was good to excellent. The results of the study suggest that interpretation of canine synovial fluid samples of low volume can be aided by methodical manual counting of cells on direct smears. PMID:25439439

  12. Relationship between automated total nucleated cell count and enumeration of cells on direct smears of canine synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Dusick, Allison; Young, Karen M.; Muir, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Canine osteoarthritis is a common condition seen in veterinary clinical practice and causes considerable morbidity in dogs as they age. Synovial fluid analysis is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of canine joint disease and obtaining a total nucleated cell count (TNCC) is particularly important. The low volume of fluid obtained during arthrocentesis is often insufficient for obtaining an automated TNCC, thereby limiting sample interpretation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether estimation of TNCC in canine synovial fluid could be achieved by performing manual cell counts on direct smears of fluid. Fifty eight synovial fluid samples, taken by arthrocentesis from 48 dogs, were included in the study. Direct smears of synovial fluid were prepared, and hyaluronidase added before cell counts were obtained using a commercial laser-based instrument. A protocol was established to count nucleated cells in a specific region of the smear, using a serpentine counting pattern; mean number of nucleated cells/400× field was then calculated. There was a positive correlation between the automated TNCC and mean manual cell count, with more variability at higher TNCC. Regression analysis was performed to estimate TNCC from manual counts. By this method, 78% of the samples were correctly predicted to fall into one of three categories (within the reference interval, mildly to moderately elevated, or markedly elevated) relative to the automated TNCC. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was good to excellent. The results of the study suggest that interpretation of canine synovial fluid samples of low volume can be aided by manual cell counting of direct smears. PMID:25439439

  13. Er:YAG laser evaluation of smear layer removal from flattened root canals submitted to rotary instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia Seixas, Fabio; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Gariba Silva, Ricardo; Capelli, Alexandre; Zanello Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated smear layer removal of 40 mesio-distal flattened root canals after rotary instrumentation. Teeth were divided into 4 goups: Group 1: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigating solution; Group 2: instrumented as Group 1 followed by Er:YAG laser irradiation (140mJ input/10Hz, withdrawn at 2mm/s from the apical to the cervical region touching the buccal wall; the procedure was then repeated for the lingual wall); Group 3: instrumented as Group 1 and followed by Er:YAG laser irradiation (250mJ input/10Hz, in the same way as described for Group 2) and Group 4: instrumented as Group 1 and alternated with 17% EDTA. Teeth were then split longitudinally and prepared for examination under the scanning electron microscope. Scores from 1 to 4 were given to the fotomicrographs by three independent evaluators, and these data were submitted to statistical analysis. Teeth where alternated 17% EDTA was used (Group 4) showed less amount of smear layer, followed by the group irradiated with 250mJ input/10Hz (Group 3), the group irradiated with 140mJ input/10Hz(Group 2) and the group where only sodium hypochlorite was used (Group 1). The apical third presented more smear layer than the middle third (p<00.1)

  14. Rapid immunocytochemistry based on alternating current electric field using squash smear preparation of central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Jun; Tanino, Mishie Ann; Takenami, Tomoko; Endoh, Tomoko; Urushido, Masana; Kato, Yasutaka; Wang, Lei; Kimura, Taichi; Tsuda, Masumi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The role of intraoperative pathological diagnosis for central nervous system (CNS) tumors is crucial for neurosurgery when determining the surgical procedure. Especially, treatment of carmustine (BCNU) wafers requires a conclusive diagnosis of high-grade glioma proven by intraoperative diagnosis. Recently, we demonstrated the usefulness of rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) that facilitates antigen-antibody reaction under alternative current (AC) electric field in the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors; however, a higher proportion of water and lipid in the brain parenchyma sometimes leads to freezing artifacts, resulting in poor quality of frozen sections. On the other hand, squash smear preparation of CNS tumors for cytology does not affect the frozen artifacts, and the importance of smear preparation is now being re-recognized as being better than that of the tissue sections. In this study, we established the rapid immunocytochemistry (R-ICC) protocol for squash smears of CNS tumors using AC electric field that takes only 22 min, and demonstrated its usefulness for semi-quantitative Ki-67/MIB-1 labeling index and CD 20 by R-ICC for intraoperative diagnosis. R-ICC by AC electric field may become a substantial tool for compensating R-IHC and will be applied for broad antibodies in the future. PMID:26546480

  15. [Opportunistic screening versus missed opportunities: non-adherence to Pap smear testing in women attending prenatal care].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luciane; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Vieira, Marcel de Toledo; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves

    2016-06-20

    The objectives were to estimate the prevalence of non-adherence to Pap smear testing in women attending prenatal care and to identify associated factors. This was a cross-sectional population-based study in 308 women from a rural municipality (county) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Complex stratified cluster sampling was used. Statistical analysis used the chi-square test and logistic regression model with the variables that presented p-value ≤ 0.05 in the bivariate model. Prevalence of lack of Pap smear test was 21.3%. Among women 25 years or older, prevalence was 15.1%. Non-adherence was more common in young, single women and those with low schooling. Low schooling remained associated with non-performance of Pap smear (OR = 0.41), indicating that women with more schooling enjoyed higher odds of testing. Contact with the prenatal clinic did not determine guaranteed access to the test, thus indicating missed opportunities when opportunistic screening is employed. PMID:27333137

  16. Interphase cytogenetics of prostatic carcinoma in fine needle aspirate smears of radical prostatectomy specimens: A practical screening tool?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R.Y.; Troncoso, P.; El-Naggar, A.K.

    1994-09-01

    Identification of chromosomal aberrations that may be used for diagnostic or prognostic evaluation of prostatic adenocarcinoma has been the subject of great interest. In a previous study, we applied the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method on paraffin-embedded material to show that trisomy 7 was associated with the progression of human prostate cancer. In this study, we attempted to assess the utility of the FISH technique in detecting aneuploidy in fine needle aspirate (FNA) smears of prostatic tissues and to compare FISH results with that of DNA flow cytometry (FCM). Paired samples of normal and tumor FNA smears were obtained from 10 radical prostatectomy specimens. Dual-color chromosomes 7 and 9-specific centromeric DNA probes were used for FISH. FISH analysis demonstrated increased frequencies of trisomy 7 cells in all 10 tumors studied when compared with the paired normals. In contrast, 6 of 10 tumors were determined to be diploid by FCM. Our results show that FNA of radical prostatectomy specimens is a practical method for obtaining suitable material for both FISH and FCM analyses of prostate carcinoma. Thus, interphase FISH may be a practical screening tool to determine aneuploidy in FNA smears of prostatic carcinoma.

  17. Measuring the effects of spectral smearing and enhancement on speech recognition in noise for adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Tarr, Eric; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Broadened auditory filters associated with sensorineural hearing loss have clearly been shown to diminish speech recognition in noise for adults, but far less is known about potential effects for children. This study examined speech recognition in noise for adults and children using simulated auditory filters of different widths. Specifically, 5 groups (20 listeners each) of adults or children (5 and 7 yrs), were asked to recognize sentences in speech-shaped noise. Seven-year-olds listened at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) only; 5-yr-olds listened at +3 or 0 dB SNR; and adults listened at 0 or −3 dB SNR. Sentence materials were processed both to smear the speech spectrum (i.e., simulate broadened filters), and to enhance the spectrum (i.e., simulate narrowed filters). Results showed: (1) Spectral smearing diminished recognition for listeners of all ages; (2) spectral enhancement did not improve recognition, and in fact diminished it somewhat; and (3) interactions were observed between smearing and SNR, but only for adults. That interaction made age effects difficult to gauge. Nonetheless, it was concluded that efforts to diagnose the extent of broadening of auditory filters and to develop techniques to correct this condition could benefit patients with hearing loss, especially children. PMID:25920851

  18. Crowdsourcing Malaria Parasite Quantification: An Online Game for Analyzing Images of Infected Thick Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Asier; Frean, John

    2012-01-01

    Background There are 600,000 new malaria cases daily worldwide. The gold standard for estimating the parasite burden and the corresponding severity of the disease consists in manually counting the number of parasites in blood smears through a microscope, a process that can take more than 20 minutes of an expert microscopist’s time. Objective This research tests the feasibility of a crowdsourced approach to malaria image analysis. In particular, we investigated whether anonymous volunteers with no prior experience would be able to count malaria parasites in digitized images of thick blood smears by playing a Web-based game. Methods The experimental system consisted of a Web-based game where online volunteers were tasked with detecting parasites in digitized blood sample images coupled with a decision algorithm that combined the analyses from several players to produce an improved collective detection outcome. Data were collected through the MalariaSpot website. Random images of thick blood films containing Plasmodium falciparum at medium to low parasitemias, acquired by conventional optical microscopy, were presented to players. In the game, players had to find and tag as many parasites as possible in 1 minute. In the event that players found all the parasites present in the image, they were presented with a new image. In order to combine the choices of different players into a single crowd decision, we implemented an image processing pipeline and a quorum algorithm that judged a parasite tagged when a group of players agreed on its position. Results Over 1 month, anonymous players from 95 countries played more than 12,000 games and generated a database of more than 270,000 clicks on the test images. Results revealed that combining 22 games from nonexpert players achieved a parasite counting accuracy higher than 99%. This performance could be obtained also by combining 13 games from players trained for 1 minute. Exhaustive computations measured the parasite

  19. Frequency of Latent and Smear Positive Tuberculosis in Chronic Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hannan; Mohammadi, Alieh; Jahromi, Sina Khajeh; Naghdipour, Misa; Ebrahimi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Objective Screening is one of the ways to combat Tuberculosis (TB) and should be mostly concentrated on groups showing some symptoms of the disease. Tuberculosis can be transferred from person to person in laboratories, prisons and psychiatry hospitals. The purpose of this study was to survey pulmonary TB in patients with schizophrenia in Rasht. Methods In this descriptive-cross sectional, Two hundred fifty seven consecutive patients with chronic psychotic disorder hospitalized in psychotic hospitals underwent purified protein derivative (PPD) test. PPD test was done with the unit 5T which was injected subcutaneously on anterior surface and at the top of left forearm. The results of the test were interpreted by the pen technique method and based on transverse diameter of induration of about 48-72 hrs. Induration size due to hypersensitivity to PPD more than 10mm was considered positive. Patients with positive PPD test underwent complementary sputum smear. Data were analyzed using chi- square and T test. Results The mean age of patients was 45±10 years; 75.5% were male, 74.7% were single, 10.5% married, 7.8% divorced, and 68.1% were smokers. These patients suffered from chronic psychotic disorder at the mean time of 15±7.9 years. In 74 patients (28%) positive PPD test were recorded, but active pulmonary TB was not found in complementary experiments of PPD sample. Based on data analysis, only age and gender showed a significant relationship with the results of the PPD test (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study showed that patients with positive PPD test are much more than the normal population, but active pulmonary TB was not observed in our samples. Since these patients are in clinical and closed places, more programs for screening are required. PMID:23682252

  20. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy). All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year). The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age <35 years (OR = 1.4, compared to age ≥45 years), lower education level (OR = 1.3), first HIV-positive test in the last 2 years (OR = 1.4), and CD4 count <200 cells/μl (OR = 1.6). Conversely, when women were advised by a gynecologist rather than other health workers to undergo screening, it significantly increased adherence. Non-significantly higher proportions of lack of Pap-smear in the last year were found in women born in Central-Eastern Europe (OR = 1.8) and Africa (OR = 1.3). No difference in history of Pap-smear emerged by

  1. Agar Block Smear Preparation: a Novel Method of Slide Preparation for Preservation of Native Fungal Structures for Microscopic Examination and Long-Term Storage▿

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Chui, Hon-Kit; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2010-01-01

    We describe a novel method of fungal slide preparation named “agar block smear preparation.” A total of 510 agar block smears of 25 fungal strains obtained from culture collections, 90 QC fungal strains, and 82 clinical fungal strains from our clinical microbiology laboratory, which included a total of 137 species of yeasts, molds, and thermal dimorphic fungi, were prepared and examined. In contrast to adhesive tape preparation, agar block smears preserved the native fungal structures, such as intact conidiophores of Aspergillus species and arrangements of conidia in Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, agar block smears allowed examination of fungal structures embedded in the agar, such as the ascomata with ascomal hairs in Chaetomium funicola; pycnidium of Phoma glomerata; the intercalary ovoidal chlamydospores arranged in chains of Fusarium dimerum; and the lateral, spherical chlamydospores arranged in pairs of Fusarium solani. After 1 year of storage, morphological integrity was found to have been maintained in 459 (90%) of the 510 agar block smears. After 3 years of storage, morphological integrity was found to have been maintained in 72 (71%) of the 102 smears prepared in 2006. Agar block smear preparation preserves the native fungal structures and allows long-term storage and examination of fungal structures embedded in the agar, hence overcoming the major drawbacks of adhesive tape preparation. The major roles of agar block smear should be diagnosis for difficult cases, accurate identification of fungal species for clinical management of patients and epidemiological studies, and long-term storage for transportation of slides and education purposes. PMID:20660221

  2. A comparative evaluation of smear layer removal by using edta, etidronic acid, and maleic acid as root canal irrigants: An in vitro scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, Aby; Jaganath, Bharath Makonahalli; Krishnegowda, Sahadev Chickmagaravalli; Ramachandra, Praveen Kumar Makonahalli; Johns, Dexton Antony; Abraham, Aby

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of 17% EDTA, 18% etidronic acid, and 7% maleic acid in smear layer removal using scanning electron microscopic image analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirty, freshly extracted mandibular premolars were used. The teeth were decoronated to obtain working length of 17mm and instrumentation up to 40 size (K file) with 2.5% NaOCl irrigation between each file. The samples were divided into Groups I (17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), II (18% etidronic acid), and III (7% maleic acid) containing 10 samples each. Longitudinal sectioning of the samples was done. Then the samples were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) at apical, middle, and coronal levels. The images were scored according to the criteria: 1. No smear layer, 2. moderate smear layer, and 3 heavy smear layer. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed statistically using Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney U test for individual comparisons. The level for significance was set at 0.05. Results: The present study showed that all the three experimental irrigants removed the smear layer from different tooth levels (coronal, middle, and apical). Final irrigation with 7% maleic acid is more efficient than 17% EDTA and 18% etidronic acid in the removal of smear layer from the apical third of root canal. PMID:26069414

  3. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens.

    PubMed

    Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant. PMID:26249344

  4. Smearing the opposition: implicit and explicit stigmatization of the 2008 U.S. Presidential candidates and the current U.S. President.

    PubMed

    Kosloff, Spee; Greenberg, Jeff; Schmader, Toni; Dechesne, Mark; Weise, David

    2010-08-01

    Four studies investigated whether political allegiance and salience of outgroup membership contribute to the phenomenon of acceptance of false, stigmatizing information (smears) about political candidates. Studies 1-3 were conducted in the month prior to the 2008 U.S. Presidential election and together demonstrated that pre-standing opposition to John McCain or Barack Obama, as well as the situational salience of differentiating social categories (i.e., for Obama, race; for McCain, age), contributed to the implicit activation and explicit endorsement of smearing labels (i.e., Obama is Muslim; McCain is senile). The influence of salient differentiating categories on smear acceptance was particularly pronounced among politically undecided individuals. Study 4 clarified that social category differences heighten smear acceptance, even if the salient category is semantically unrelated to the smearing label, showing that, approximately 1 year after the election, the salience of race amplified belief that Obama is a socialist among undecided people and McCain supporters. Taken together, these findings suggest that, at both implicit and explicit cognitive levels, social category differences and political allegiance contribute to acceptance of smears against political candidates. PMID:20677891

  5. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens

    PubMed Central

    Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant. PMID:26249344

  6. Effect of different final irrigating solutions on smear layer removal in apical third of root canal: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Vemuri, Sayesh; Kolanu, Sreeha Kaluva; Varri, Sujana; Pabbati, Ravi Kumar; Penumaka, Ramesh; Bolla, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to compare the smear layer removal efficacy of different irrigating solutions at the apical third of the root canal. Materials and Methods: Forty human single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were taken and decoronated to standardize the canal length to 14 mm. They were prepared by ProTaper rotary system to an apical preparation of file size F3. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10); saline (Group 1; negative control), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Group 2), BioPure MTAD (Group 3), and QMix 2 in 1 (Group 4). After final irrigation with tested irrigants, the teeth were split into two halves longitudinally and observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the removal of smear layer. The SEM images were then analyzed for the amount of smear layer present using a three score system. Statistical Analysis: Data are analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Intergroup comparison of groups showed statistically significant difference in the smear layer removal efficacy of irrigants tested. QMix 2 in 1 is most effective in removal of smear layer when compared to other tested irrigants. Conclusion: QMix 2 in 1 is the most effective final irrigating solution for smear layer removal. PMID:26957801

  7. 10 × '20 Progress—Development of New Drugs Active Against Gram-Negative Bacilli: An Update From the Infectious Diseases Society of America

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Helen W.; Talbot, George H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J.; Jones, Ronald N.; Murray, Barbara E.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Gilbert, David

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the “ESKAPE” pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's “10 × '20 Initiative.” PMID:23599308

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aerobic and Facultative Gram-Negative Bacilli from Intra-abdominal Infections in Patients from Seven Regions in China in 2012 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Liao, Kang; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Wang, Yong; Wu, Anhua; Feng, Xianju; Luo, Yanping; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Chen, Shulan; Cao, Bin; Su, Jianrong; Gui, Bingdong; Duan, Qiong; Zhang, Shufang; Shao, Haifeng; Kong, Haishen; Badal, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli that caused hospital-acquired and community-acquired intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China between 2012 and 2013, we determined the susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobials and the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) statuses of 3,540 IAI isolates from seven geographic areas in China in a central laboratory using CLSI broth microdilution and interpretive standards. Most infections were caused by Escherichia coli (46.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.7%). Rates of ESBL-producing E. coli (P = 0.031), K. pneumoniae (P = 0.017), and Proteus mirabilis (P = 0.004) were higher in hospital-acquired IAIs than in community-acquired IAIs. Susceptibilities of enterobacteriaceae to ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem were 71.3% to 100%, 81.3% to 100%, 64.7% to 100%, and 83.1% to 100%, respectively, but imipenem was ineffective against P. mirabilis (<20%). Although most ESBL-positive hospital-acquired isolates were resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the majority were susceptible to cefoxitin (47.9% to 83.9%). Susceptibilities of ESBL-positive isolates to ampicillin-sulbactam (<10%) were low, whereas susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin (0% to 54.6%) and levofloxacin (0% to 63.6%) varied substantially. The prevalences of cephalosporin-susceptible E. coli and K. pneumoniae were higher in the northeastern and southern regions than in the central and eastern regions, reflecting the ESBL-positive rates in these areas, and were lowest in the Jiangsu-Zhejiang (Jiang-Zhe) area where the rates of carbapenem resistance were also highest. Ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem are the most efficacious antibiotics for treating IAIs in China, especially those caused by E. coli or K. pneumoniae. Resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems is more common in the Jiang-Zhe area than in other regions in China. PMID:26482308

  9. Distribution of 16S rRNA methylases among different species of Gram-negative bacilli with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Yu, H; Guo, Q; Xu, X; Ye, X; Wu, S; Guo, Y; Wang, M

    2010-11-01

    16S rRNA methylases confer high-level resistance to most aminoglycosides in Gram-negative bacteria. Seven 16S rRNA methylase genes, armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE and npmA, have been identified since 2003. We studied the distribution of methylase genes in more than 200 aminoglycoside-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates collected in 2007 at our hospital in Shanghai, China. 16S rRNA methylase genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) among 217 consecutive clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to gentamicin and amikacin by a disk diffusion method. 16S rRNA methylase genes were present in 97.5% (193/198) of clinical isolates highly resistant to amikacin (≥512 μg/ml), with armA and rmtB detected in 67.2 and 30.3% of strains, respectively, while no 16S rRNA methylase genes were detected in 19 strains with amikacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤256 μg/ml. armA or rmtB genes were detected in 100% of 104 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, and these two genes were equally represented (49 vs. 55 strains). Genes for armA or rmtB were detected in 94.7% (89/94) of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, and armA was predominant (84 vs. 5 strains with rmtB). No rmtA, rmtC, rmtD or npmA genes were found. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC-PCR) indicated that armA and rmtB genes were spread by both horizontal transfer and clonal dissemination. PMID:20614151

  10. Risk factors and Outcomes of Infections Caused by Extremely Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sameer J.; Oliveira, André P.; Zhou, Juyan Julia; Alba, Luis; Furuya, E. Yoko; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Jia, Haomiao; Clock, Sarah A.; Kubin, Christine J.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Schuetz, Audrey N.; Behta, Maryam; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Whittier, Susan; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Extremely drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (XDR-GNB) increasingly cause healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods A matched case-control (1:2) study was conducted from February 2007 to January 2010 in 16 ICUs. Case and control subjects had HAIs caused by GNB susceptible to ≤1 antibiotic versus ≥2 antibiotics, respectively. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression assessed risk factors for HAIs and predictors of mortality, respectively. Results Overall, 103 case and 195 control subjects were enrolled. An immunocompromised state (OR=1.55, p=0.047) and exposure to amikacin (OR=13.81, p<0.001), levofloxacin (OR=2.05, p=0.005), or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (OR=3.42, p=0.009) were factors associated with XDR-GNB HAIs. Multiple factors in both case and control subjects significantly predicted increased mortality at different time intervals after HAI diagnosis. At 7 days, liver disease (Hazard Ratio [HZ]=5.52), immunocompromised state (HR=3.41), and bloodstream infection (HR=2.55) predicted mortality; at 15 days, age (HR=1.02 per year increase), liver disease (HR=3.34), and immunocompromised state (HR 2.03) predicted mortality; and at 30 days, age (HR=1.02 per one year increase), liver disease (HR=3.34), immunocompromised state (HR=2.03), and hospitalization in a medical ICU (HR=1.85) predicted mortality. Conclusions HAIs caused by XDR-GNB were associated with potentially modifiable factors. Age, liver disease, and immunocompromised state, but not XDR-GNB HAIs, were associated with mortality. PMID:24725516

  11. Isolation and Screening of Thermophilic Bacilli from Compost for Electrotransformation and Fermentation: Characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a New Biocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, Elleke F.; van de Weijer, Antonius H. P.; Daas, Martinus J. A.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli that are genetically accessible and have potential as platform organisms. From compost, we isolated 267 strains that produced acids from C5 and C6 sugars at temperatures of 55°C or 65°C. Subsequently, 44 strains that showed the highest production of acids were screened for genetic accessibility by electroporation. Two Geobacillus thermodenitrificans isolates and one Bacillus smithii isolate were found to be transformable with plasmid pNW33n. Of these, B. smithii ET 138 was the best-performing strain in laboratory-scale fermentations and was capable of producing organic acids from glucose as well as from xylose. It is an acidotolerant strain able to produce organic acids until a lower limit of approximately pH 4.5. As genetic accessibility of B. smithii had not been described previously, six other B. smithii strains from the DSMZ culture collection were tested for electroporation efficiencies, and we found the type strain DSM 4216T and strain DSM 460 to be transformable. The transformation protocol for B. smithii isolate ET 138 was optimized to obtain approximately 5 × 103 colonies per μg plasmid pNW33n. Genetic accessibility combined with robust acid production capacities on C5 and C6 sugars at a relatively broad pH range make B. smithii ET 138 an attractive biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid and potentially other green chemicals. PMID:25556192

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aerobic and Facultative Gram-Negative Bacilli from Intra-abdominal Infections in Patients from Seven Regions in China in 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Liao, Kang; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Wang, Yong; Wu, Anhua; Feng, Xianju; Luo, Yanping; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Chen, Shulan; Cao, Bin; Su, Jianrong; Gui, Bingdong; Duan, Qiong; Zhang, Shufang; Shao, Haifeng; Kong, Haishen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli that caused hospital-acquired and community-acquired intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China between 2012 and 2013, we determined the susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobials and the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) statuses of 3,540 IAI isolates from seven geographic areas in China in a central laboratory using CLSI broth microdilution and interpretive standards. Most infections were caused by Escherichia coli (46.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.7%). Rates of ESBL-producing E. coli (P = 0.031), K. pneumoniae (P = 0.017), and Proteus mirabilis (P = 0.004) were higher in hospital-acquired IAIs than in community-acquired IAIs. Susceptibilities of enterobacteriaceae to ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem were 71.3% to 100%, 81.3% to 100%, 64.7% to 100%, and 83.1% to 100%, respectively, but imipenem was ineffective against P. mirabilis (<20%). Although most ESBL-positive hospital-acquired isolates were resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the majority were susceptible to cefoxitin (47.9% to 83.9%). Susceptibilities of ESBL-positive isolates to ampicillin-sulbactam (<10%) were low, whereas susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin (0% to 54.6%) and levofloxacin (0% to 63.6%) varied substantially. The prevalences of cephalosporin-susceptible E. coli and K. pneumoniae were higher in the northeastern and southern regions than in the central and eastern regions, reflecting the ESBL-positive rates in these areas, and were lowest in the Jiangsu-Zhejiang (Jiang-Zhe) area where the rates of carbapenem resistance were also highest. Ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem are the most efficacious antibiotics for treating IAIs in China, especially those caused by E. coli or K. pneumoniae. Resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems is more common in the Jiang-Zhe area than in other regions in China. PMID:26482308

  13. Correlation between in vitro and in vivo activity of antimicrobial agents against gram-negative bacilli in a murine infection model.

    PubMed Central

    Fantin, B; Leggett, J; Ebert, S; Craig, W A

    1991-01-01

    We studied the relationship between in vitro susceptibility tests (MICs, MBCs) and in vivo activity of tobramycin, pefloxacin, ceftazidime, and imipenem against 15 gram-negative bacilli from five different species in a murine thigh infection model. Complete dose-response curves were determined for each antimicrobial agent against each strain, and three parameters of in vivo activity were defined: maximal attainable antimicrobial effect (i.e., reduction in log10 CFU per thigh compared with untreated controls) at 24 h (Emax), total dose required to reach 50% of maximal effect (P50), and total dose required to achieve a bacteriostatic effect (static dose). Pefloxacin demonstrated the greatest Emax (P less than 0.05). Tobramycin was the most potent antimicrobial agent, as indicated by its having the lowest static dose/MIC ratio (P less than 0.002). Log10 P50s and static doses correlated significantly with log10 MICs or MBCs for the 15 strains of each antibiotic (P less than 0.01) except imipenem (P greater than 0.50). The greater potency of imipenem against the three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains than against strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae (P less than 0.01) explained this lack of correlation. A longer duration of postantibiotic effect for imipenem against P. aeruginosa (P = 0.02) contributed to its increased potency against these strains. We conclude that in vitro susceptibility tests correlated well with in vivo activity in this animal model and that variations in potency among the four antimicrobial agents could be explained by differences in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamic activity. PMID:1929302

  14. Aminoglycoside Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Gram Negative Bacilli at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica: Comparison of Two Time Periods

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds-Campbell, G; Nicholson, A; Christian, N; Hardie, R; Cook, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Aminoglycosides were introduced into use over 60 years ago. The University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), a tertiary care teaching hospital, in Kingston, Jamaica, introduced the use of gentamicin in 1973 and amikacin in 1980. This report examined the susceptibility patterns to these agents in 1547 consecutive isolates of Gram negative bacilli (GNB) encountered between September 1 and November 30, 2011, at UHWI and compares the data with that observed previously in 1981 at the same institution. Methods: The Vitek 2 (bioMeriéux, Durham, NC) was used for isolate identification, minimum inhibitory concentration determination and aminoglycoside susceptibility testing. Quality control was done using American Type Culture Collection standard strains of E coli (ATCC 25922) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). Results: Of the 1547 organisms, 267 had resistance to one or both aminoglycosides. Amikacin resistance increased from 0.6% (1981) to 7.2% [2011] (p < 0.05), while gentamicin resistance increased from 6.7% to 14.8% (p < 0.05) for the corresponding period. The majority of samples with aminoglycoside resistant organisms came from the intensive care unit and surgical inpatients. Urine samples persistently produced the largest amount of gentamicin resistant isolates. Conclusions: Although there has been a statistically significant rise in aminoglycoside resistance, aminoglycosides continue to remain highly effective against approximately 83% of GNB despite continuous usage at this institution for over three decades. Continued national surveillance, implementation of infection control policies and antibiotic stewardship are all essential in retaining low resistance levels. PMID:26360679

  15. 10 x '20 Progress--development of new drugs active against gram-negative bacilli: an update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Helen W; Talbot, George H; Benjamin, Daniel K; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J; Jones, Ronald N; Murray, Barbara E; Bonomo, Robert A; Gilbert, David

    2013-06-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the "ESKAPE" pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's "10 × '20 Initiative." PMID:23599308

  16. Spatial Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Buruli Ulcer Lesions: Implications for Laboratory Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bolz, Miriam; Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F.; Bratschi, Martin W.; Sopho, Ghislain Emmanuel; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Um Boock, Alphonse; Junghanss, Thomas; Pluschke, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Background Current laboratory diagnosis of Buruli ulcer (BU) is based on microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), histopathology or cultivation. Insertion sequence (IS) 2404 qPCR, the most sensitive method, is usually only available at reference laboratories. The only currently available point-of-care test, microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB), has limited sensitivity and specificity. Methodology/ Principal Findings Here we analyzed AFB positive tissue samples (n = 83) for the presence, distribution and amount of AFB. AFB were nearly exclusively present in the subcutis with large extracellular clusters being most frequently (67%) found in plaque lesions. In ulcerative lesions small clusters and dispersed AFB were more common. Beside this, 151 swab samples from 37 BU patients were analyzed by IS2404 qPCR and ZN staining in parallel. The amount of M. ulcerans DNA in extracts from swabs correlated well with the probability of finding AFB in direct smear microscopy, with 56.1% of the samples being positive in both methods and 43.9% being positive only in qPCR. By analyzing three swabs per patient instead of one, the probability to have at least one positive swab increased from 80.2% to 97.1% for qPCR and from 45% to 66.1% for AFB smear examination. Conclusion / Significance Our data show that M. ulcerans bacteria are primarily located in the subcutis of BU lesions, making the retrieval of the deep subcutis mandatory for examination of tissue samples for AFB. When laboratory diagnosis is based on the recommended less invasive collection of swab samples, analysis of three swabs from different areas of ulcerative lesions instead of one increases the sensitivity of both qPCR and of smear microscopy substantially. PMID:27253422

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of PCR for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is one of the most prominent health problems in the world, causing 1.75 million deaths each year. Rapid clinical diagnosis is important in patients who have co-morbidities such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Direct microscopy has low sensitivity and culture takes 3 to 6 weeks [1-3]. Therefore, new tools for TB diagnosis are necessary, especially in health settings with a high prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection. Methods In a public reference TB/HIV hospital in Brazil, we compared the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for diagnosis of pulmonary TB: Acid fast bacilli smear microscopy by Ziehl-Neelsen staining (AFB smear) plus culture and AFB smear plus colorimetric test (PCR dot-blot). From May 2003 to May 2004, sputum was collected consecutively from PTB suspects attending the Parthenon Reference Hospital. Sputum samples were examined by AFB smear, culture, and PCR dot-blot. The gold standard was a positive culture combined with the definition of clinical PTB. Cost analysis included health services and patient costs. Results The AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot require the lowest laboratory investment for equipment (US$ 20,000). The total screening costs are 3.8 times for AFB smear plus culture versus for AFB smear plus PCR dot blot costs (US$ 5,635,760 versus US$ 1,498, 660). Costs per correctly diagnosed case were US$ 50,773 and US$ 13,749 for AFB smear plus culture and AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot, respectively. AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot was more cost-effective than AFB smear plus culture, when the cost of treating all correctly diagnosed cases was considered. The cost of returning patients, which are not treated due to a negative result, to the health service, was higher in AFB smear plus culture than for AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot, US$ 374,778,045 and US$ 110,849,055, respectively. Conclusion AFB smear associated with PCR dot-blot associated has the potential to be a cost-effective tool in the fight against PTB for

  18. Influence of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin bonding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Zheng, Wei-ying; Liu, Peng-ruo-feng; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Hui-ping; Fan, Yi-jing; Gu, Xin-hua; Vollrath, Oliver; Mehl, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of Tooth Mousse (TM) application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (µTBS). Dentin specimens were divided into two groups: (1) smear layer covered; (2) smear layer removed using 15% EDTA for 90 s. In each group, half the specimens were treated once with TM for 60 min. After bonding procedures using a two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); Kuraray Medical, Tokyo, Japan), an all-in-one adhesive (G-Bond (GB); GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan), and a total-etch adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 (SB); 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), the specimens were stored for 3 d or 6 months in deionized water at 37 °C, and µTBS was tested and analyzed. With the exception of SB (no TM application) and GB, the μTBS was significantly increased for CSE and SB using EDTA pre-conditioning and 3 d of storage (P≤0.001). Bond strength of GB decreased significantly when using EDTA (3 d storage, P<0.05). TM application only increased the μTBS of GB (no EDTA) and SB (with EDTA) after 3 d (P≤0.02). Comparing the adhesives after 3 d of storage, CSE exhibited the greatest μTBS values followed by GB and SB (P≤0.02). The factors of adhesive, EDTA, and TM did not show any significant impact on μTBS when specimens were stored for 6 months (P>0.05). The additional application of TM and EDTA for cavity preparation seems only to have a short-term effect, and no influence on µTBS of dentin bonds after a period of 6 months. PMID:25001224

  19. Influence of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin bonding*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun; Zheng, Wei-ying; Liu, Peng-ruo-feng; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Hui-ping; Fan, Yi-jing; Gu, Xin-hua; Vollrath, Oliver; Mehl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of Tooth Mousse (TM) application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS). Dentin specimens were divided into two groups: (1) smear layer covered; (2) smear layer removed using 15% EDTA for 90 s. In each group, half the specimens were treated once with TM for 60 min. After bonding procedures using a two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); Kuraray Medical, Tokyo, Japan), an all-in-one adhesive (G-Bond (GB); GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan), and a total-etch adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 (SB); 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), the specimens were stored for 3 d or 6 months in deionized water at 37 °C, and μTBS was tested and analyzed. With the exception of SB (no TM application) and GB, the μTBS was significantly increased for CSE and SB using EDTA pre-conditioning and 3 d of storage (P≤0.001). Bond strength of GB decreased significantly when using EDTA (3 d storage, P<0.05). TM application only increased the μTBS of GB (no EDTA) and SB (with EDTA) after 3 d (P≤0.02). Comparing the adhesives after 3 d of storage, CSE exhibited the greatest μTBS values followed by GB and SB (P≤0.02). The factors of adhesive, EDTA, and TM did not show any significant impact on μTBS when specimens were stored for 6 months (P>0.05). The additional application of TM and EDTA for cavity preparation seems only to have a short-term effect, and no influence on μTBS of dentin bonds after a period of 6 months. PMID:25001224

  20. Effect of Smear Layer on the Push-Out Bond Strength of Two Endodontic Biomaterials to Radicular Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Bahari, Mahmood; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Zand, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effect of smear layer removal on push-out bond strength of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) and calcium-enriched mixture cement (CEM). Materials and Methods: Dentin discs with 3 mm thicknesses were divided into 4 groups (n=15): group 1: irrigation of the canal with normal saline and filling with WMTA; group 2: irrigation with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and then filling with WMTA; group 3: same as group 1 but the lumens were filled with CEM; group 4: same as group 2 but the lumens filled with CEM. The samples were incubated at 37°C for 3 days after wrapping in gauze pieces moistened with distilled water. The push-out bond strengths were then measured by the universal testing machine and the failure modes were examined under a stereomicroscope at 40× magnification. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test for bond strength. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: The greatest and lowest mean standard deviation for push-out bond strength were observed for groups 4 (3.13±1.46 MPa) and group3 (1.44±0.96 MPa), respectively. The effect of smear layer removal on push-out bond strength of CEM was significant (P=0.01), however, it was not significant for WMTA (P=0.52). The failure mode for all the groups was of mixed type. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, smear layer removal is recommended for CEM in order to gain higher push-out strength. PMID:24396374

  1. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens

    SciTech Connect

    Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; Delft, Frank von

    2015-07-28

    An alternative strategy for PEG sampling is suggested through the use of four newly defined PEG smears to enhance chemical space in reduced screens with a benefit towards protein crystallization. The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant.

  2. Cytologic follow up of Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Pap smears after integrated treatment with antimicrobials followed by oral turmeric oil extract.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Jayashree Vinay; Jagtap, Sujata S; Paradkar, Prajakta Hemant; Walwatkar, Priya; Paradkar, Hemant S; Affandi, Zubair M; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable because the carcinogenesis is slow and there are opportunities to detect precancerous lesions by Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, colposcopy, or HPV DNA tests and to treat them by antimicrobials, surgery or cold CO2 vapourization. We have earlier reported on the chemopreventive potential of integrated treatment with antimicrobials therapy followed by a standardized oral Turmeric Oil (TO) extract upto 12 weeks in women who had persistent Low-grade Squamous Intra-epithelial Lesion (LSIL) in their Pap smears. In this communication we report their post-therapy follow up for 36 months (N = 18) with Pap smears. We were also able to follow up for 36 months control cases (N = 10) who had only standard therapy with antimicrobials. During 36 months of follow up none of the cases with integrated treatment, progressed to HSIL or cancer. Out of 15/18 cases which had a regression of Pap smear, all 15 remained free of LSIL from 6 to 36 months post-therapy showing persistent therapeutic effect of integrated therapy. In one case there was recurrence of LSIL in Pap smear, ten months post-therapy, which regressed to mild atypia after a second course of oral TO for 8 weeks. In the control group, persistence of LSIL after antimicrobials was observed in Pap smears in 5/10 cases when followed up by Pap smears up to 36 months. This preliminary report indicates some post-therapeutic benefit with integrative treatment as compared to the use of antimicrobials alone. A large scale controlled study is warranted. PMID:27475746

  3. Effect of Smear Layer on the Push-Out Bond Strength of Two Different Compositions of White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Bahari, Mahmood; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Shahidi, Atabak

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer on the push-out bond strength of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) with and without disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4). Materials and Methods Dentin discs with standard cavities were obtained from extracted human single-rooted teeth and divided to 4 groups (n=15) according to the irrigation regimen and the canal filling material. In groups 1 and 3, canals were irrigated with normal saline; in groups 2 and 4, irrigation method included sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and then ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The canals were filled with WMTA in first and second groups and with WMTA+Na2HPO4; in groups 3 and 4. The samples were wrapped in wet gauze and incubated in 37°C for 3 days. The push-out bond strength was then measured by means of the Universal Testing Machine and the failure modes were examined under stereomicroscope at 40× magnification. Tow-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of material type and smear layer removal. Post hoc Tukey test was used for the two-by-two comparison of the groups. Results The greatest and lowest mean±standard deviation for push-out bond strength were observed in groups 4 (4.54±1.14 MPa) and 1 (1.44±0.96 MPa), respectively. The effect of removing the smear layer on the push-out bond strength of WMTA+Na2HPO4 was significant (P=0.01), but not for WMTA (P=0.52). Interestingly, there was significant difference between groups 1, 3 and 2, 4 (P<0.05). The failure mode for all experimental groups was of mixed type. Conclusion Under circumstances of this in vitro study, removal of smear layer increases push-out bond strength when Na2HPO4 is added to WMTA. PMID:24171021

  4. Protein profile study of Pap smear and tissue of cervix by high performance liquid chromatography: laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujatha, N.; Rai, Lavanya; Kumar, Pratap; Krishnanand, B. R.; Mahato, K. K.; George, Sajan D.; Kartha, V. B.; C, Santhosh

    2007-02-01

    HPLC combined with laser induced fluorescence provides a very sensitive method for the separation and identification of the many proteins present in clinical samples. Protein profiles of clinical samples like Pap smear and tissue samples, from subjects with cervical cancer and normal volunteers, were recorded using HPLC-LIF. The protein profiles were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The profiles were characterized by parameters like scores of the factors, sum of squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance, derived from PCA. Parameters of each sample were compared with those of a standard set and Match/ No Match results were generated. Good discrimination between normal and malignant samples was achieved with high sensitivity and specificity.

  5. Cost-Effective and Rapid Presumptive Identification of Gram-Negative Bacilli in Routine Urine, Pus, and Stool Cultures: Evaluation of the Use of CHROMagar Orientation Medium in Conjunction with Simple Biochemical Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ohkusu, Kiyofumi

    2000-01-01

    The algorithm for a new identification system was designed on the basis of colony color and morphology on CHROMagar Orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests such as indole (IND), lysine decarboxylase (LDC), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) utilization tests with gram-negative bacilli isolated from urine samples as well as pus, stool, and other clinical specimens by the following colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and serological results: pinkish to red, IND positive (IND+), Escherichia coli; metallic blue, IND+, LDC+, and ODC negative (ODC−), Klebsiella oxytoca; IND+, LDC−, and ODC+, Citrobacter diversus; IND+ or IND−, LDC−, and ODC−, Citrobacter freundii; IND−, LDC+, and ODC+, Enterobacter aerogenes; IND−, LDC−, and ODC+, Enterobacter cloacae; IND−, LDC+, and ODC−, Klebsiella pneumoniae; diffuse brown and IND+, Morganella morganii; IND−, Proteus mirabilis; aqua blue, Serratia marcescens; bluish green and IND+, Proteus vulgaris; transparent yellow-green, serology positive, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; clear and serology positive, Salmonella sp.; other colors and reactions, the organism was identified by the full identification methods. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this new system were prospectively evaluated. During an 8-month period, a total of 345 specimens yielded one or more gram-negative bacilli. A total of 472 gram-negative bacillus isolates were detected on CHROMagar Orientation medium. For 466 of the isolates (98.7%), no discrepancies in the results were obtained on the basis of the identification algorithm. The cost of identification of gram-negative bacilli during this period was reduced by about 70%. The results of this trial for the differentiation of the most commonly encountered gram-negative pathogens in clinical specimens with the new algorithm were favourable in that it permitted reliable detection and presumptive identification. In addition, this rapid identification system not only

  6. Debris and smear layer removal efficacy and changes in morphology of dentinal tubules after using citric acid, tetracycline-hydrochloride and mixture of tetracycline and acid and detergent

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Ahmad Moghare; Farhad, Shirin Zahra; Farhad, Alireza; Barekatain, Mehrdad; Mafi, Morvarid; Abooie, Mohammad Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background: In periodontal diseases, contamination of roots with bacteria and their active biologic agents and smear layer formation following periodontal treatments, prevents reattachment of periodontal cells. As a matter of fact biomodification of root surface and removal of smear layer and debris is critical for regeneration of periodontal structures. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of smear layer removal by citric acid, tetracycline-hydrochloride (TTC-HCL) and mixture of tetracycline and acid and detergent (MTAD). Materials and Methods: In this in vitro and experimental study, 12 impacted third molars were sectioned from cervical enamel junction (CEJ) to mid-root area into four dentinal specimens (n = 48). Three groups were conditioned by citric acid 3%, TTC-HCL 50 mg/mL and MTAD by means of cotton pellets, which were changed every 30 s for 3 min. The control group was conditioned by distilled water. Images from scanning electron microscope (SEM) were examined by two different analyzers. Data was analyzed by Kroskal Wallis and Mann–Whitney statistical analysis. Results: The mean of dentinal tubules diameter was the most in MTAD group and the least in TTC-HCL and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.05). Conclusion: According to the present study, TTC-HCL could remove debris and smear layer but citric acid and MTAD had better debris and smear layer removal efficacy and demineralization effect in comparison with TTC-HCL. PMID:23946742

  7. Push-out bond strength of gutta-percha with a new bioceramic sealer in the presence or absence of smear layer.

    PubMed

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Gorjestani, Hedayat; Nasseh, Allen Ali; Hoseini, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Maryam; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bond strength of a new bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence BC Sealer) and AH Plus in the presence or absence of smear layer. Extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared and randomly divided into four groups. In groups 1 and 3, the root canals were finally irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and smear layer was not removed, but in groups 2 and 4, the root canals were finally irrigated with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCl in order to remove the smear layer. In groups 1 and 2, the root canals were obturated with gutta-percha/AH Plus, but in groups 3 and 4, obturation was performed with gutta-percha/EndoSequence BC Sealer. Push-out bond strength and failure modes were evaluated. The bond strength of gutta-percha/AH Plus and gutta-percha/EndoSequence BC Sealer was not significantly different (P = 0.89). The presence or absence of smear layer did not significantly affect the bond strength of filling materials (P = 0.69). The mode of bond failure was mainly cohesive for all groups. In conclusion, the bond strength of the new bioceramic sealer was equal to that of AH Plus with or without the smear layer. PMID:24279654

  8. High time to use rapid tests to detect multidrug resistance in sputum smear-negative tuberculosis in Belarus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A. M. V.; Skrahina, A.; Hurevich, H.; Astrauko, A.; de Colombani, P.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Dara, M.; Zachariah, R.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Belarus (Eastern Europe) is facing an epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In 2012, rapid molecular diagnostics were prioritised for sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients to diagnose MDR-TB, while pulmonary sputum smear-negative pulmonary TB (SN-PTB) patients were investigated using conventional methods, often delaying the diagnosis of MDR-TB by 2–4 months. Objective: To determine the proportion of MDR-TB among SN-PTB patients registered in 2012 and associated clinical and demographic factors. Design: Retrospective cohort study using countrywide data from the national electronic TB register. Results: Of the 5377 TB cases registered, 2960 (55%) were SN-PTB. Of the latter, 1639 (55%) were culture-positive, of whom 768 (47%) had MDR-TB: 33% (363/1084) were new and 73% (405/555) previously treated patients. Previous history of treatment, age, region, urban residence, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and being a pensioner were independently associated with MDR-TB. Conclusion: About half of culture-positive SN-PTB patients have MDR-TB and this rises to over 7/10 for retreatment cases. A national policy decision to extend rapid molecular diagnostics universally to all PTB patients, including SN-PTB, seems justified. Steps need to be taken to ensure implementation of this urgent priority, given the patient and public health implications of delayed diagnosis. PMID:26400703

  9. Effects of spectral smearing on the identification of speech in noise filtered into low- and mid-frequency regions.

    PubMed

    Léger, Agnès C; Moore, Brian C J; Gnansia, Dan; Lorenzi, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Léger et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 1502-1514 (2012)] reported deficits in the identification of consonants in noise by hearing-impaired listeners using stimuli filtered into low- or mid-frequency regions in which audiometric thresholds were normal or near-normal. The deficits could not be fully explained in terms of reduced audibility or temporal-envelope processing. However, previous studies indicate that the listeners may have had reduced frequency selectivity, with auditory filters broadened by a factor of about 1.3, despite having normal or near-normal audiometric thresholds in the tested regions. The present study aimed to determine whether the speech-perception deficits could be explained by such a small reduction of frequency selectivity. Consonant identification was measured for normal-hearing listeners in quiet and in unmodulated and modulated noises using the same method as Léger et al. The signal-to-noise ratio was set to -3 dB for the masked conditions. Various amounts of reduced frequency selectivity were simulated using a spectral-smearing algorithm. Performance was reduced only for spectral-smearing factors greater than 1.7. For all conditions, identification scores for hearing-impaired listeners could not be explained by a mild reduction of frequency selectivity. PMID:22559383

  10. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria: baseline data from three sites in Papua New Guinea, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Serej; Carter, Robyn; Millan, Korai; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pandey, Sushil; Coulter, Christopher; Siba, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in samples of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases from Papua New Guinea who were diagnosed using acid-fast microscopy. Methods As part of a case detection study for TB, conducted in three provincial hospitals in Papua New Guinea, sputum samples of suspected tuberculous cases aged 15 years or older were collected from November 2010 to July 2012. Mycobacterial species isolated from sputum and grown in culture were examined to distinguish between NTM and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Results NTM were detected in 4% (9/225) of sputum samples grown in culture. Five (2.2%) of them were identified as NTM only and four (1.8%) were identified as mixed cultures containing both MTBC and NTM. Four different NTM species were identified; M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. terrae and M. avium. Discussion This is the first report from Papua New Guinea identifying NTM in three different locations. As NTM cannot be distinguished from M. tuberculosis through smear microscopy, the presence of NTM can lead to a false-positive diagnosis of tuberculosis. The prevalence of NTM should be determined and a diagnostic algorithm developed to confirm acid-fast bacilli in a smear as M. tuberculosis. PMID:26798558

  11. Preventing Infectious Pulmonary Tuberculosis Among Foreign-Born Residents of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Dolly; Ghosh, Smita; Blumberg, Henry; Tamhane, Ashutosh; Sevilla, Anna; Reves, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We described risk factors associated with infectious tuberculosis (TB) and missed TB-prevention opportunities in foreign-born US residents, who account for almost two thirds of the nation’s TB patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study at 20 US sites of foreign-born persons diagnosed with TB in 2005 through 2006, we collected results of sputum smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (a marker for infectiousness) and data on visa status, sociodemographics, TB-related care seeking, and latent TB infection (LTBI) diagnosis opportunities. Results. Among 980 persons with pulmonary TB who reported their visa status, 601 (61%) were legal permanent residents, 131 (13.4%) had temporary visas, and 248 (25.3%) were undocumented. Undocumented persons were more likely than permanent residents to have acid-fast bacilli–positive smears at diagnosis (risk ratio = 1.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 1.4). Of those diagnosed 1 year or more after arrival, 57.3% reported LTBI screening opportunities; fewer than 25% actually were. Undocumented persons reported fewer LTBI screening opportunities and were less likely to be tested. Conclusions. Progress toward TB elimination in the United States depends upon expanding opportunities for regular medical care and promotion of LTBI screening and treatment among foreign-born persons. PMID:26180947

  12. Comparison of the Cathra Repliscan II, the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card, and the Micro-Media System Fox Panel for dilution susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Reiber, N E; Kelly, M T; Latimer, J M; Tison, D L; Hysmith, R M

    1985-06-01

    A comparative evaluation was done to test the accuracy of the Cathra Repliscan II agar dilution system (Diagnostic Equipment, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.), the AutoMicrobic system with Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and the Micro-Media Fox Panel micro broth dilution system (Micro-Media Systems, Inc., San Jose, Calif.) in determining MICs of 12 antibiotics for 200 gram-negative bacilli. Of the 200 strains tested, 12 isolates did not grow in one of the three systems. The 188 remaining organisms included 158 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 20 Pseudomonas spp., 5 Acinetobacter sp., 3 Aeromonas spp., and 2 Vibrio spp. A total of 2,256 organism-antibiotic combinations were analyzed for each system. An MIC was considered correct if two of the three systems were in agreement. When disagreements occurred, correct MICs were determined by the standard agar dilution method. With this criterion, overall agreements of the Cathra Repliscan II system, AutoMicrobic system, and Micro-Media Fox Panel system were 94.7, 94.9, and 95.5%, respectively. Tetracycline (20%), nitrofurantoin (20%), and ampicillin (16%) accounted for 56% of the discrepancies observed. These results indicate that all three systems perform with a high degree of accuracy for susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli. PMID:4008625

  13. Concurrent atypical diffused tuberculosis and macrorhabdosis in a canary (Serinus canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Seyed Ahmad; Haddad-Marandi, Mohammad Reza; Arabkhazaeli, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    A dead canary from a mixed species zoological garden was presented for diagnostic necropsy. Cachexia with prominent atrophy of pectoral muscles, yellowish brown discoloration of the liver and kidney, dark brown to black intestinal contents and moderate proventricular dilatation with some degree of catarrhal gastritis were the significant macroscopic findings. Parenchymatous organs like the liver, the spleen, the lung and the kidneys were extremely affected by massive diffuse necrosis and heavy infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, histopathologically. Many giant bacilli resembling Macrorrhabdus ornithogaster were seen microscopically in the wet smear of the isthmus mucosa. Ghost-like unstained bacilli were revealed in the Giemsa stained contact smears of the liver and spleen. No typical mycobacterial granulomatous lesion was found in different tissues, but in Ziehl-Neelsen stained thin layer histologic sections from the liver, spleen, lung and kidney, numerous acid fast organisms were diffusely distributed. The case was diagnosed an atypical avian tuberculosis with concurrent macrorhabdosis. Mycobacterium sp. are capable of giving rise to a progressive disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Cases of avian tuberculosis might be overlooked for lack of pathognomonic lesions suggestive of mycobacteriosis. PMID:25992258

  14. Previous treatment, sputum-smear nonconversion, and suburban living: The risk factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Mohd Shariff, Noorsuzana; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Kamaludin, Fadzilah

    2016-03-01

    The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients is increasing each year in many countries all around the globe. Malaysia has no exception in facing this burdensome health problem. We aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysian tuberculosis patients. An unmatched case-control study was conducted among tuberculosis patients who received antituberculosis treatments from April 2013 until April 2014. Cases are those diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis patients clinically, radiologically, and/or bacteriologically, and who were confirmed to be resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin through drug-sensitivity testing. On the other hand, pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were sensitive to all first-line antituberculosis drugs and were treated during the same time period served as controls. A total of 150 tuberculosis patients were studied, of which the susceptible cases were 120. Factors found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are being Indian or Chinese (odds ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04-9.68; and odds ratio 6.23, 95% confidence interval 2.24-17.35, respectively), unmarried (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.09-6.09), living in suburban areas (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.08-6.19), are noncompliant (odds ratio 4.50, 95% confidence interval 1.71-11.82), were treated previously (odds ratio 8.91, 95% confidence interval 3.66-21.67), and showed positive sputum smears at the 2nd (odds ratio 7.00, 95% confidence interval 2.46-19.89) and 6th months of treatment (odds ratio 17.96, 95% confidence interval 3.51-91.99). Living in suburban areas, positive sputum smears in the 2nd month of treatment, and was treated previously are factors that independently contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Those with positive smears in the second month of treatment, have a history of previous

  15. Editorial: Current status and perspective on drug targets in tubercle bacilli and drug design of antituberculous agents based on structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Haruaki

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) remains the most frequent and important infectious disease causing morbidity and death. However, the development of new drugs for the treatment and prophylaxis of TB, particularly those truly active against dormant and persistent types of tubercle bacilli, has been slow, although some promising drugs, such as diarylquinoline TMC207, nitroimidazopyran PA-824, nitroimidazo-oxazole Delamanid (OPC-67683), oxazolidinone PNU-100480, ethylene diamine SQ-109, and pyrrole derivative LL3858, are currently under phase 1 to 3 clinical trials. Therefore, novel types of antituberculous drug, which act on unique drug targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) pathogens, particularly drug targets related to the establishment of mycobacterial dormancy in the host's macrophages, are urgently needed. In this context, it should be noted that current anti-TB drugs mostly target the metabolic reactions and proteins which are essential for the growth of MTB in extracellular milieus. It may also be promising to develop another type of drug that exerts an inhibitory action against bacterial virulence factors which cross-talk and interfere with signaling pathways of MTB-infected immunocompetent host cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, thereby changing the intracellular milieus that are favorable to intramacrophage survival and the growth of infected bacilli. This special issue contains ten review articles, dealing with recent approaches to identify and establish novel drug targets in MTB for the development of new and unique antitubercular drugs, including those related to mycobacterial dormancy and crosstalk with cellular signaling pathways. In addition, this special issue contains some review papers with special reference to the drug design based on quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, especially three-dimensional (3D)-QSAR. New, critical information on the entire genome of MTB and mycobacterial virulence genes is

  16. Making a timely diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Making a timely diagnosis of adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is critical to interrupting transmission and optimizing treatment outcomes. A hypothesis based on clinical experience is that a timely diagnosis may be made by addressing seven clinical rubrics: six related to history, one to the laboratory. Responses may be considered to be part of a clinical heuristic for making a timely diagnosis of pulmonary TB. The larger the number of affirmative responses, the more likely the diagnosis, although it is probable some questions carry more weight than others. The radiograph is key and may almost be considered to be confirmatory of the history. Collectively, the responses should prompt suspicion of pulmonary TB – submission of sputum for acid-fast bacilli smear and culture, and respiratory isolation. PMID:26469154

  17. Detection of lipoarabinomannan as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sada, E; Aguilar, D; Torres, M; Herrera, T

    1992-01-01

    A coagglutination technique was established for the detection of lipoarabinomannan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human serum samples and evaluated for its utility in the diagnosis of tuberculosis at the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias in Mexico City. The test had a sensitivity of 88% in patients with sputum-smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis. The sensitivity in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis negative for acid-fast bacilli in sputum was 67%. Less favorable results were obtained for patients with AIDS and tuberculosis, with a sensitivity of 57%. The specificity in control patients with lung diseases different from tuberculosis and in healthy subjects was 100%. The positive predictive value was 100%, and the negative predictive value for patients with sputum-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis was 97%. The results of this study suggest that the detection of lipoarabinomannan is an accurate test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:1401008

  18. Leprosy: An Overview of Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ramesh Marne; Prakash, Chaitra

    2012-01-01

    Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a microorganism that has a predilection for the skin and nerves. The disease is clinically characterized by one or more of the three cardinal signs: hypopigmented or erythematous skin patches with definite loss of sensation, thickened peripheral nerves, and acid-fast bacilli detected on skin smears or biopsy material. M. leprae primarily infects Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves leading to nerve damage and the development of disabilities. Despite reduced prevalence of M. leprae infection in the endemic countries following implementation of multidrug therapy (MDT) program by WHO to treat leprosy, new case detection rates are still high-indicating active transmission. The susceptibility to the mycobacteria and the clinical course of the disease are attributed to the host immune response, which heralds the review of immunopathology of this complex disease. PMID:22988457

  19. Tuberculosis and AIDS Co-Morbidity in Children: Linkage of Databases from Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Reynaldo; Maciel, Ethel L.; Prado, Thiago N.; Caus, Antonio L.; Silva, Murilo M.; Golub, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of AIDS among children diagnosed with active tuberculosis (TB) in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, by linking TB and AIDS surveillance databases using Reclink software and SPSS. Among 411 pediatric TB cases from 2000 to 2006, 27 (7%) were co-infected with AIDS. Most children were unable to provide a sputum specimen; co-infected patients were more likely to be smear negative for acid-fast bacilli (83% vs 46%; p = 0.07) and culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (44% vs 19%; p < 0.001). In all, 57% of co-infected patients did not react to tuberculin skin test compared with 17% of TB patients (p < 0.001). This report emphasizes the significance of AIDS in pediatric TB cases and highlights the importance of evaluating surveillance databases for gaining a better understanding of the burden of co-infection. PMID:20876684

  20. Automatic cytoplasm and nuclei segmentation for color cervical smear image using an efficient gap-search MRF.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lili; Li, Kuan; Wang, Mao; Yin, Jianping; Zhu, En; Wu, Chengkun; Wang, Siqi; Zhu, Chengzhang

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and effective cervical smear image segmentation is required for automated cervical cell analysis systems. Thus, we proposed a novel superpixel-based Markov random field (MRF) segmentation framework to acquire the nucleus, cytoplasm and image background of cell images. We seek to classify color non-overlapping superpixel-patches on one image for image segmentation. This model describes the whole image as an undirected probabilistic graphical model and was developed using an automatic label-map mechanism for determining nuclear, cytoplasmic and background regions. A gap-search algorithm was designed to enhance the model efficiency. Data show that the algorithms of our framework provide better accuracy for both real-world and the public Herlev datasets. Furthermore, the proposed gap-search algorithm of this model is much more faster than pixel-based and superpixel-based algorithms. PMID:26874832

  1. Minimization of Motion Smear: Reducing Avian Collision with Wind Turbines; Period of Performance: July 12, 1999 -- August 31, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hodos, W.

    2003-08-01

    Collisions with wind turbines can be a problem for many species of birds. Of particular concern are collisions by eagles and other protected species. This research study used the laboratory methods of physiological optics, animal psychophysics, and retinal electrophysiology to analyze the causes of collisions and to evaluate visual deterrents based on the results of this analysis. Bird collisions with the seemingly slow-moving turbines seem paradoxical given the superb vision that most birds, especially raptors, possess. However, our optical analysis indicated that as the eye approaches the rotating blades, the retinal image of the blade (which is the information that is transmitted to the animal's brain) increases in velocity until it is moving so fast that the retina cannot keep up with it. At this point, the retinal image becomes a transparent blur that the bird probably interprets as a safe area to fly through, with disastrous consequences. This phenomenon is called"motion smear" or"motion blur."

  2. Concerted spatial-frequency and polarization-phase filtering of laser images of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma smears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu A.

    2012-11-01

    The complex technique of concerted polarization-phase and spatial-frequency filtering of blood plasma laser images is suggested. The possibility of obtaining the coordinate distributions of phases of linearly and circularly birefringent protein networks of blood plasma separately is presented. The statistical (moments of the first to fourth orders) and scale self-similar (logarithmic dependences of power spectra) structure of phase maps of different types of birefringence of blood plasma of two groups of patients-healthy people (donors) and those suffering from rectal cancer-is investigated. The diagnostically sensitive parameters of a pathological change of the birefringence of blood plasma polycrystalline networks are determined. The effectiveness of this technique for detecting change in birefringence in the smears of other biological fluids in diagnosing the appearance of cholelithiasis (bile), operative differentiation of the acute and gangrenous appendicitis (exudate), and differentiation of inflammatory diseases of joints (synovial fluid) is shown.

  3. Identification of Novel RD1 Antigens and Their Combinations for Diagnosis of Sputum Smear-/Culture+ TB Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Qie, Shuang; Li, Lili; Xiu, Bingshui; Yang, Xiqin; Dai, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xuhui; Duan, Cuimi; Que, Haiping; Zhao, Ping; Johnson, Heather; Zhang, Heqiu; Feng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an unresolved problem worldwide, especially for sputum smear- (S-) cases. In this study, five antigen genes including Rv3871, Rv3874, Rv3875, Rv3876, and Rv3879 were cloned from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RD1 and overexpressed to generate antigen fragments. These antigens and their combinations were investigated for PTB serodiagnosis. 298 serum samples were collected from active PTB patients, including 117 sputum smear+ (S+) and sputum culture+ (C+) cases, 101 S-/C+ cases, and 80 S-/C- cases. The serum IgG levels of the five antigens were measured by ELISA. Based on IgG levels, the sensitivity/specificity of Rv3871, Rv3874, Rv3875, Rv3876, and Rv3879 for PTB detection was 81.21%/74.74%, 63.09%/94.78%, 32.21%/87.37%, 62.42%/85.26%, and 83.56%/83.16%, respectively. Furthermore, the optimal result for PTB diagnosis was achieved by combining antigens Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879. In addition, the IgG levels of Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879 were found to be higher in S-/C+ PTB patients than in other PTB populations. More importantly, combination of the three antigens demonstrated superior diagnostic performance for both S-/C+ and S-/C- PTB. In conclusion, the combination of Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879 induced higher IgG response in sputum S-/C+ PTB patients and represents a promising biomarker combination for diagnosing of PTB. PMID:26885516

  4. TB-SA antibody test for diagnosis and monitoring treatment outcome of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxu; Xu, Hancheng; Jiang, Shiwen; Jing, Kuanhe; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Li, Weibin; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lixia

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the TB-SA antibody test to diagnose tuberculosis in sputum smear negative (SS-) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients and its applicability for monitoring treatment outcomes in these patients. This study was conducted in three counties/districts in Chongqing Municipality, Liaoning Province, China between June 2005 and June 2007. A total of 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients were recruited and their blood was collected prior to treatment, at the end of 1 month of treatment, 2 months of treatment and 6 months of treatment (E6MT). The serum samples were analyzed with a TB-SA antibody test kit. Of the 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients, serum samples were obtained at all time points in 316 patients and analyzed. The 316 patients were divided into three groups according to sputum smear and sputum culture results and the chest X-ray results before treatment and at E6MT. Ten point four percent were SS-/culture positive (C+), 73.1% were SS-/culture negative (C-) with X-rays abnormalities, and 16.5% were SS-/C- without X-rays abnormalities. The positive rates for TB-SA antibody in the three groups were 57.6, 44.6 and 44.2%, respectively, before treatment, and 18.2, 19.1 and 26.9%, respectively, at E6MT. There was a significant decrease in TB-SA antibody positivity with treatment for all 3 groups. The TB-SA antibody test may be a useful adjunct to diagnose tuberculosis in SS- pulmonary TB patients, and may be useful for monitoring treatment outcomes of SS- pulmonary TB patients. PMID:22299440

  5. Automated segmentation and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals in interphase nuclei of pap-smear specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Li, Yuhua; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2009-02-01

    Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology is a potential and promising molecular imaging tool, which can be applied to screen and detect cervical cancer. However, manual FISH detection method is a subjective, tedious, and time-consuming process that results in a large inter-reader variability and possible detection error (in particular for heterogeneous cases). Automatic FISH image analysis aims to potentially improve detection efficiency and also produce more accurate and consistent results. In this preliminary study, a new computerized scheme is developed to automatically segment analyzable interaphase cells and detect FISH signals using digital fluorescence microscopic images acquired from Pap-smear specimens. First, due to the large intensity variations of the acquired interphase cells and overlapping cells, an iterative (multiple) threshold method and a feature-based classifier are applied to detect and segment all potentially analyzable interphase nuclei depicted on a single image frame. Second, a region labeling algorithm followed up a knowledge-based classifier is implemented to identify splitting and diffused FISH signals. Finally, each detected analyzable cell is classified as normal or abnormal based on the automatically counted number of FISH signals. To test the performance of this scheme, an image dataset involving 250 Pap-smear FISH image frames was collected and used in this study. The overall accuracy rate for segmenting analyzable interphase nuclei is 86.6% (360/424). The sensitivity and specificity for classifying abnormal and normal cells are 88.5% and 86.6%, respectively. The overall cell classification agreement rate between our scheme and a cytogeneticist is 86.6%. The testing results demonstrate the feasibility of applying this automated scheme in FISH image analysis.

  6. A Review of Automatic Methods Based on Image Processing Techniques for Tuberculosis Detection from Microscopic Sputum Smear Images.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Rani Oomman; Soman, Biju; Saini, Gagan; Rajan, Jeny

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. TB remains one of the leading causes of death in developing countries, and its recent resurgences in both developed and developing countries warrant global attention. The number of deaths due to TB is very high (as per the WHO report, 1.5 million died in 2013), although most are preventable if diagnosed early and treated. There are many tools for TB detection, but the most widely used one is sputum smear microscopy. It is done manually and is often time consuming; a laboratory technician is expected to spend at least 15 min per slide, limiting the number of slides that can be screened. Many countries, including India, have a dearth of properly trained technicians, and they often fail to detect TB cases due to the stress of a heavy workload. Automatic methods are generally considered as a solution to this problem. Attempts have been made to develop automatic approaches to identify TB bacteria from microscopic sputum smear images. In this paper, we provide a review of automatic methods based on image processing techniques published between 1998 and 2014. The review shows that the accuracy of algorithms for the automatic detection of TB increased significantly over the years and gladly acknowledges that commercial products based on published works also started appearing in the market. This review could be useful to researchers and practitioners working in the field of TB automation, providing a comprehensive and accessible overview of methods of this field of research. PMID:26573654

  7. The Application of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for Smear-Negative TB Diagnosis as a Fee-Paying Service at a South Asian General Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Arjyal, Amit; Caws, Maxine; Prajapati, Krishna Govinda; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Pathak, Saruna; Prajapati, Shanti; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) is a novel automated diagnostic tool for tuberculosis but its optimal placement in the healthcare system has not been determined. The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of additional case detection for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) by offering Xpert to smear-negative patients in a low-HIV burden setting with no Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.) culture facilities. Patients routinely presenting with symptoms suggestive of PTB with negative smears were offered single Xpert test on a fee-paying basis. Data were retrospectively reviewed to determine case detection in patients tested from February to December 2013. Symptoms associated with a positive test were analysed to determine if refinement of clinical criteria would reduce unnecessary testing. 258 smear-negative patients were included and M.tb. was detected in 55 (21.32%, n = 55/258). Using standard clinical assessment for selection, testing 5 patients detected one case of smear-negative PTB. These results demonstrate that fee-paying Xpert service in low-income setting can increase TB case confirmation substantially and further systematic studies of health economic implications should be conducted to determine optimal implementation models to increase access to Xpert in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:25949825

  8. The Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in People with Household Close Contact with Tuberculosis in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Khanjani, Narges; Parsaee, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    One of the recommended strategies for preventing tuberculosis is to screen high-risk populations with respect to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate latent infection and active tuberculosis in people with close household contact. It was a cross-sectional descriptive, analytical study with the sample size of 668 people from homes with one infected resident. In order to diagnose tuberculosis latent infection, the PPD test was done. To determine patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, three sputum samples were taken from every patient and were examined using direct microscopy and culture. Data was analyzed by SPSS20 software. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were 42.8% and 0.9% respectively. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in people with close household contact were less than that of other studies. However, smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in people with close household contact was 199.5 times more than that of the general population. PMID:25821296

  9. An in vitro evaluation of passive ultrasonic agitation of different irrigants on smear layer removal after post space preparation: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Srirekha, A; Rashmi, K; Hegde, Jayshree; Lekha, S; Rupali, K; Reshmi, George

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the removal of debris and smear layer after post space preparation using different irrigations and passive ultrasonic agitation. Sixty human premolars were decoronated and post space prepared after endodontic therapy. The samples were then randomly divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B, C) and one control group (Group D) with fifteen samples in each group. Groups A and B samples were treated with 10 % citric acid and 17 % ethylenediamintetraacetic acid (EDTA), respectively and passive ultrasonic agitation was done, rinsed with sodium hypochlorite and finally flushed with saline. Group C samples were conditioned with 36 % phosphoric acid and then rinsed with saline. The control group was treated with 3 % sodium hypochlorite, passive ultrasonic agitation done and flushed with saline. The samples were sectioned and evaluated for debris and smear layer removal under scanning electron microscope. 10 % citric acid showed the best removal of smear layer when compared with 17 % EDTA and 36 % phosphoric acid, but was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The difference in scoring for debris and smear layer removal in the coronal, middle and apical third of post space of experimental groups in comparison with control group was statistically significant (p < 0.001). PMID:24431741

  10. The frequency of herpes simplex virus changes in anal Pap smear and its association with squamous intraepithelial lesions in high-risk male patients.

    PubMed

    Greebon, Leslie J; Avery, Diane L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Valente, Philip T; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2014-06-01

    While there are studies postulating a model of synergism between human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cervical carcinogenesis, the frequency of anal herpes as well as its association with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) has been understudied in men. This study evaluates the frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smears and its association with ASILs in a high-risk population. A computerized search for specimens associated with anal cytology that had positive findings of HSV was performed. The electronic medical records were examined for past diagnosis of herpes, HSV serology prior to or after cytology, and if the patient received treatment after cytologic diagnosis of HSV. Of the 470 anal Pap smears (Thin-prep) examined, seven had cellular changes consistent with HSV infection. All patients were asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive males with no prior HSV serology tests. Two patients had prior diagnoses of HSV infection. Cytologic abnormalities were identified in 86% ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Three patients were treated after the HSV cytologic diagnosis. The frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smear is low (1.48%), but the presence of concomitant cytologic abnormalities is high (86%). While our findings suggest the possible role of HSV as a HPV co-factor in ASILs, larger studies are needed to support this. Identification of HSV infection on anal Pap smear is important for institution of patient treatment and subsequent reduction of transmission. PMID:24692314

  11. Specific identification of human papillomavirus type in cervical smears and paraffin sections by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes: a preliminary communication

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, J.; Gendelman, H.E.; Naghashfar, Z.; Gupta, P.; Rosenshein, N.; Sawada, E.; Woodruff, J.D.; Shah, K.

    1985-01-01

    Cervical Papanicolaou smears and paraffin sections of biopsy specimens obtained from women attending dysplasia clinics were examined for viral DNA sequences by in situ hybridization technique using TVS-labeled cloned recombinant DNA probes of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, and 16. These and one unrelated DNA probe complementary to measles virus RNA were labeled by nick translation using either one or two TVS-labeled nucleotides. Paraffin sections and cervical smears were collected on pretreated slides, hybridized with the probes under stringent or nonstringent conditions for 50 h, and autoradiographed. Additional cervical specimens from the same women were examined for the presence of genus-specific papillomavirus capsid antigen by the immunoperoxidase technique. Preliminary results may be summarized as follows. The infecting virus could be identified in smears as well as in sections. Viral DNA sequences were detected only when there were condylomatous cells in the specimen and in only a proportion of the condylomatous cells. Even under stringent conditions, some specimens reacted with both HPV-6 and HPV-11. In some instances, the cells did not hybridize with any of the three probes even when duplicate specimens contained frankly condylomatous, capsid antigen-positive cells. In situ hybridization of Papanicolaou smears or of tissue sections is a practical method for diagnosis and follow-up of specific papillomavirus infection using routinely collected material.

  12. Detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC Rearrangements Is Feasible in Routine Air-Dried Fine Needle Aspiration Smears

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Precht Jensen, Eva Magrethe; Bösenberg, Eileen; Narz, Frank; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Eszlinger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the indeterminate category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), their detection in FNA smears could improve the FNA diagnosis. To date, these rearrangements have never been analyzed in routine air-dried FNA smears, but only in frozen tissue, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, and in fresh FNA material. Fixed routine air-dried FNA samples have hitherto been judged as generally not suitable for testing these rearrangements in a clinical setting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of these rearrangements with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Methods A new method for RNA extraction from routine air-dried FNA smears was established, which allowed analysis for the presence of four variants of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC 1 and RET/PTC 3, which were analyzed in 106 routine FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained FFPE tissues using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). To assess RNA quality, an intron-spanning PAX8 cDNA was amplified. Results Acceptable RNA quality was obtained from 95% of the FNA samples and 92% of the FFPE samples. PAX8/PPARG was detected in 4 of 96 FFPEs and in 6 of 96 FNAs. PAX8/PPARG was present in 4 of 10 FTCs and in 3 of 42 follicular adenomas (FAs). Similarly, RET/PTC was found in 3 of 96 FFPEs and in 4 of 96 FNAs. Two of 21 PTC samples and 3 of 42 FA samples carried this rearrangement. Conclusion These data are the first to show the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements with RT-qPCR. These promising methodological advances, if confirmed in larger series of FNA and FFPE samples, may lead to

  13. Effectiveness of Four Different Final Irrigation Activation Techniques on Smear Layer Removal in Curved Root Canals : A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Puneet; Nandini, Suresh; Ballal, Suma; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of apical negative pressure (ANP), manual dynamic agitation (MDA), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and needle irrigation (NI) as final irrigation activation techniques for smear layer removal in curved root canals. Materials and Methods: Mesiobuccal root canals of 80 freshly extracted maxillary first molars with curvatures ranging between 25° and 35° were used. A glide path with #08–15 K files was established before cleaning and shaping with Mtwo rotary instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany) up to size 35/0.04 taper. During instrumentation, 1 ml of 2.5% NaOCl was used at each change of file. Samples were divided into 4 equal groups (n=20) according to the final irrigation activation technique: group 1, apical negative pressure (ANP) (EndoVac); group 2, manual dynamic agitation (MDA); group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI); and group 4, needle irrigation (NI). Root canals were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer at coronal, middle and apical levels was evaluated by superimposing 300-μm square grid over the obtained photomicrographs using a four-score scale with X1,000 magnification. Results: Amongst all the groups tested, ANP showed the overall best smear layer removal efficacy (p < 0.05). Removal of smear layer was least effective with the NI technique. Conclusion: ANP (EndoVac system) can be used as the final irrigation activation technique for effective smear layer removal in curved root canals. PMID:24910670

  14. Association of BMI Category Change with TB Treatment Mortality in HIV-Positive Smear-Negative and Extrapulmonary TB Patients in Myanmar and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Benova, Lenka; Fielding, Katherine; Greig, Jane; Nyang'wa, Bern-Thomas; Casas, Esther Carrillo; da Fonseca, Marcio Silveira; du Cros, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Objective The HIV epidemic has increased the proportion of patients with smear-negative and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnoses, with related higher rates of poor TB treatment outcomes. Unlike in smear-positive pulmonary TB, no interim markers of TB treatment progress are systematically used to identify individuals most at risk of mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the association of body mass index (BMI) change at 1 month (±15 days) from TB treatment start with mortality among HIV-positive individuals with smear-negative and extrapulmonary TB. Methods and Findings A retrospective cohort study of adult HIV-positive new TB patients in Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treatment programmes in Myanmar and Zimbabwe was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the association between BMI category change and mortality. A cohort of 1090 TB patients (605 smear-negative and 485 extrapulmonary) was followed during TB treatment with mortality rate of 28.9 per 100 person-years. In multivariable analyses, remaining severely underweight or moving to a lower BMI category increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 4.05, 95% confidence interval 2.77–5.91, p<0.001) compared with remaining in the same or moving to a higher BMI category. Conclusions We found a strong association between BMI category change during the first month of TB treatment and mortality. BMI category change could be used to identify individuals most at risk of mortality during TB treatment among smear-negative and extrapulmonary patients. PMID:22545150

  15. A Comparative SEM Investigation of Smear Layer Remaining on Dentinal Walls by Three Rotary NiTi Files with Different Cross Sectional Designs in Moderately Curved Canals

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Pooja; Vats, Asit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the smear layer formed on root canal walls during canal preparation of extracted human teeth by Twisted, Mtwo, and ProTaper rotary nickel titanium instruments. Materials and Methods: Sixty single rooted human premolar teeth with root curvature <250 were selected and randomly divided into three Groups (n= 20 teeth per Group). Three types of rotary nickel titanium instruments were used, Twisted (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) according to manufacturer’s instructions to instrument the root canals. Irrigation for all groups was performed after each instrument change with 3ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite followed by Glyde (File Prep, Dentsply, Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) as chelator paste and lubricant. Three different areas (coronal, middle and apical thirds) of the root canal were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The canal wall of each sample was assessed and compared using a predefined scale for the presence or absence of smear layer. Data were analysed statistically using ANOVA and Tukey HSD test Results: All three groups showed statistically significant more smear layer in the apical thirds of the canal as compared to the coronal and middle thirds (p<0.001). Mtwo rotary file system produced significantly less smear layer (p<0.001) compared to Twisted and ProTaper rotary instruments in the apical portion. Twisted Files resulted in less smear layer formation in the apical thirds of the canal compared to ProTaper rotary instruments but were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Completely clean root canals were not found after instrumentation with any of the three instruments. Under the confines of this study Mtwo instruments produced significantly cleaner dentin wall surfaces throughout the canal length in comparison to Twisted and ProTaper rotary files. Twisted Files proved to be comparable to Pro

  16. Comparison of a Real-Time PCR Method with Serology and Blood Smear Analysis for Diagnosis of Human Anaplasmosis: Importance of Infection Time Course for Optimal Test Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Meece, J. K.; Ivacic, L. C.; Bertz, P. D.; Zhang, K.; Weiler, T.; Uphoff, T. S.; Fritsche, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are emerging tick-borne diseases with clinically similar presentations caused by closely related pathogens. Currently, laboratories rely predominantly on blood smear analysis (for the detection of intracellular morulae) and on serologic tests, both of which have recognized limitations, for diagnostic purposes. We compared the performance of a published real-time PCR assay that incorporates melt curve analysis to differentiate Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species with blood smear and serologic methods in an upper Midwest population. Overall, 38.5% of the specimens selected for evaluation had one or more tests that were positive for anaplasmosis. The PCR positivity for all specimens was maximal (21.2%; 29/137) during the early acute phase of illness (0 to 4 days since illness onset) and significantly less frequent (11.5%; 20/174) during later phases (>4 days since illness onset). All positive specimens were Anaplasma phagocytophilum; no Ehrlichia species were identified. The real-time PCR detected 100% of infections that were detected by blood smear analysis (14/14) and broadened the detection window from a maximum of 14 days for smear positivity to 30 days for PCR. Additional infections were detected by real-time PCR in 12.9% (11/85) of smear-negative patients. There was poor agreement between the real-time PCR assay and serologic test results: 19.8% (19/96) and 13.7% (29/212) of seropositive and -negative patients, respectively, were PCR positive. Seropositivity increased with increasing days of illness, demonstrating that serologic detection methods are best utilized during presumed convalescence. Our results indicate that the optimal performance and utilization of laboratory tests for the diagnosis of anaplasmosis require knowledge regarding time of symptom onset or days of illness. PMID:23637292

  17. The effect of green tea extract supplementation on sputum smear conversion and weight changes in pulmonary TB patients: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Honarvar, Mohammad Reza; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Gill, Pooria; Jazayeri, Shima; Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Shamsardekani, Mohammad Reza; Abbasi, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acceleration in sputum smear conversion helps faster improvement and decreased probability of the transfer of TB. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of green tea extract supplementation on sputum smear conversion and weight changes in smear positive pulmonary TB patients in Iran. Methods: In this double blind clinical study, TB patients were divided into intervention, (n=43) receiving 500 mg green tea extract (GTE), and control groups (n=40) receiving placebo for two months, using balanced randomization. Random allocation and allocation concealment were observed. Height and weight were measured at the beginning, and two and six months post-treatment. Evaluations were performed on three slides, using the ZiehlNeelsen method. Independent and paired t test, McNemar’s, Wilcoxon, Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression model and Log-Rank test were utilized. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. This trial was registered under IRCT201212232602N11. Results: The interventional changes and the interactive effect of intervention on weight were not significant (p>0.05). In terms of shortening the duration of conversion, the case to control proportion showed a significant difference (p=0.032). Based on the Cox regression model, the hazard ratio of the relative risk of delay in sputum smear conversion was 3.7 (p=0.002) in the higher microbial load group compared to the placebo group and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31-0.94) in the intervention compared to the placebo group. Conclusion: GTE decreases the risk of delay in sputum smear conversion, but has no effect on weight gain. Moreover, it may be used as an adjuvant therapy for faster rehabilitation for pulmonary TB patients. PMID:27493925

  18. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories.

    PubMed

    Chee, HL; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Intan, O

    2003-05-28

    BACKGROUND: The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. CONCLUSION: Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed. PMID:12769827

  19. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    PubMed Central

    Chee, HL; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Intan, O

    2003-01-01

    Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed. PMID:12769827

  20. [Determination of Leishmania species by PCR-RFLP in the smear samples taken from the lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases].

    PubMed

    Ertabaklar, Hatice; Ertuğ, Sema; Çalışkan, Serçin Özlem; Bozdoğan, Bülent

    2016-04-01

    The forms of the disease caused by Leishmania species in Turkey as well as in Aegean region are cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (CL and VL, respectively), and the agent of CL is commonly L.tropica. However, L.infantum was also reported as being CL agent recently. Direct microscopic examination, serological tests and culture are the conventional methods used for the diagnosis of CL. Since the specificities of these methods are high their sensitivities are variable and identification at species level is not possible. Recently, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular methods enabled the rapid and reliable diagnosis and species identification. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method both for the detection and identification of Leishmania species simultaneously in CL patients. A total of 30 smear samples that were positive for Leishmania amastigotes with microscopic examination, obtained from CL-suspected cases admitted to Adnan Menderes University Medical School Hospital, Parasitology Laboratory (located at Aydin, in the Aegean region of Turkey) between 2012-2014 period were included in the study. Ten samples taken from the skin lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus (n= 5) and Candida albicans (n= 5) were also included as negative controls. DNA extractions from the smears were performed by the use of a commercial kit (Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin Tissue® Kit, Germany). DNA isolation was also performed from L.major, L.infantum and L.tropica promastigotes that were grown in culture as positive controls. In PCR method LITSR and L5.8S primers targeting to ITS (internal transcribed spacer)-1 region were used. In RFLP method, the amplified PCR products were cleaved by BsuRI (HaeIII) restriction enzyme for the species identification. As a result, restriction profiles of all samples (n= 30) were in accordance with L.tropica restriction profile. No band was observed in the

  1. Evaluation of atypical squamous cells on conventional cytology smears: An experience from a screening program practiced in limited resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Rekhi, Bharat; Ajit, Dulhan; Joseph, Santhosh K; Gawas, Sonali; Deodhar, Kedar K

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Bethesda system (TBS) 2001 has subdivided the category of atypical squamous cells (ASC) into: ASC-US (undetermined significance) and ASC-H (cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)). The present study is an analysis of ASC-US and ASC-H cases diagnosed in a screening program practiced in limited resource settings. Methods: During the period January 2005 to December 2008, a total of 9190 smears were received, of which 568 were unsatisfactory. Cases initially diagnosed as ASC-US (n=74) and ASC-H (n=29) on conventional cytology smears were reviewed. Biopsy and human papilloma virus (HPV) results were available in limited cases. Results: On review, diagnosis of ASC-US was retained in 49 (66.2%) of the 74 initially diagnosed ASC-US cases. Remaining 12 cases were re-labeled as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), nine as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), three as ASC-H and one case as squamous carcinoma (SCC). Similarly, on review, diagnosis of ASC-H cases was retained in 17 of the 29 initially diagnosed ASC-H cases. Seven cases were re-labeled as NILM, three as HSIL and one case each as ASC-US and SCC. Overall, 8622 cases (96.6%) were diagnosed as NILM, 72 (0.83%) as LSIL, 121 (1.40%) as HSIL, 23 (0.26%) as SCC, 50 (0.57%) as ASC-US cases, 20 (0.23%) as ASC-H, five (0.05%) as atypical glandular cells (AGC) and two cases as adenocarcinomas. Out of 50 ASC-US cases, biopsy in 23 cases showed presence of CIN 1 in 16 cases (69.5%) and CIN 2 in one case (4.34%), while the remaining six cases were negative for CIN/malignancy. The remaining 20 cases with unavailable biopsy results were HPV-positive. Out of 20 ASC-H cases, biopsy in 15 revealed CIN 2 and above in 11 cases (73.3%). Three cases (20%) revealed CIN 1. Conclusions: Critical review is helpful in further reducing the number of ASC cases. The percentage of cases with CIN 2 and above is higher with ASC-H cases. The reason for relative increase in

  2. Predictors for MTB Culture-Positivity among HIV-Infected Smear-Negative Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients in Uganda: Application of New Tuberculosis Diagnostic Technology

    PubMed Central

    Nakiyingi, Lydia; Nonyane, Bareng A. S.; Ssengooba, Willy; Kirenga, Bruce J.; Nakanjako, Damalie; Lubega, Gloria; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Joloba, Moses L.; Ellner, Jerry J.; Dorman, Susan E.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The existing World Health Organization diagnostic algorithms for smear-negative TB perform poorly in HIV-infected individuals. New TB diagnostics such as urine TB lipoarabinomannan (LAM) could improve the accuracy and reduce delays in TB diagnosis in HIV-infected smear-negative presumptive TB. We sought to determine predictors for MTB culture-positivity among these patients. Methods This study was nested into a prospective evaluation of HIV-infected outpatients and inpatients clinically suspected to have TB who were screened by smear-microscopy on two spot sputum samples. Data on socio-demographics, clinical symptoms, antiretroviral therapy, CXR, CD4 count, mycobacterial sputum and blood cultures and TB-LAM were collected. Logistic regression and conditional inference tree analysis were used to determine the most predictive indicators for MTB culture-positivity. Results Of the 418 smear-negative participants [female, 64%; median age (IQR) 32 (28-39) years, median CD4 106 (IQR 22 - 298) cells/mm3], 96/418 (23%) were sputum and/ or blood culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Abnormal CXR (aOR 3.68, 95% CI 1.76- 7.71, p=0.001) and positive urine TB-LAM (aOR 6.21, 95% CI 3.14-12.27, p< 0.001) were significantly associated with MTB culture-positivity. Previous TB treatment (aOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, p=0.049) reduced the likelihood of a positive MTB culture. A conditional inference tree analysis showed that positive urine TB-LAM and abnormal CXR were the most predictive indicators of MTB culture-positivity. A combination of urine TB-LAM test and CXR had sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 86.1% respectively overall, and 70.8% and 84.1% respectively among those with CD4<100 cells/mm3. Conclusions A positive urine TB-LAM test and an abnormal CXR significantly predict MTB culture-positivity among smear-negative HIV-infected presumptive TB patients while previous TB treatment reduces the likelihood of a positive MTB culture

  3. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-02-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews. PMID:22118240

  4. Automated system for characterization and classification of malaria-infected stages using light microscopic images of thin blood smears.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Maiti, A K; Chakraborty, C

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a comprehensive image characterization cum classification framework for malaria-infected stage detection using microscopic images of thin blood smears. The methodology mainly includes microscopic imaging of Leishman stained blood slides, noise reduction and illumination correction, erythrocyte segmentation, feature selection followed by machine classification. Amongst three-image segmentation algorithms (namely, rule-based, Chan-Vese-based and marker-controlled watershed methods), marker-controlled watershed technique provides better boundary detection of erythrocytes specially in overlapping situations. Microscopic features at intensity, texture and morphology levels are extracted to discriminate infected and noninfected erythrocytes. In order to achieve subgroup of potential features, feature selection techniques, namely, F-statistic and information gain criteria are considered here for ranking. Finally, five different classifiers, namely, Naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron neural network, logistic regression, classification and regression tree (CART), RBF neural network have been trained and tested by 888 erythrocytes (infected and noninfected) for each features' subset. Performance evaluation of the proposed methodology shows that multilayer perceptron network provides higher accuracy for malaria-infected erythrocytes recognition and infected stage classification. Results show that top 90 features ranked by F-statistic (specificity: 98.64%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.73% and overall accuracy: 96.84%) and top 60 features ranked by information gain provides better results (specificity: 97.29%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.46% and overall accuracy: 96.73%) for malaria-infected stage classification. PMID:25523795

  5. Trend of Smear-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Iran during 1995–2012: A Segmented Regression Model

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Salman; Soheilyzad, Mokhtar; Molaeipoor, Leila; Khazaei, Zaher; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Describing trend in tuberculosis (TB) over time can play an important role to assess the disease control strategies and predict the future morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the incidence trend of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (SPPT) in sub-age and sex groups during the years of 1995–2012. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed in 2015 by using the dataset regarding National Statistics of SPPT reported by World Health Organization during 1995–2012. Annual percent changes (APCs) and average annual percent changes (AAPCs) were estimated to determine the summery statistics of trend using segmented regression model. Results: During 1995–2012, there were 96,579 SPPT case notifications in Iran (male to female ratio: 0.99). There was only one change point in 1997 for SPPT incidence in subgroups of age and sex during 1995–2012. The AAPCs for both genders and also all three age groups had a significant descending trend during the time period (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed a downward trend in the SPPT incidence. It seems that to achieve the set goals and high successful in TB control program especially reduction in SPPT, pay more attention to old age and males should be considered. In addition, improvement of clinical and medical care services and notification processes would be imperative. PMID:27413517

  6. CREATING A VIRTUAL SLIDE MAP FROM SPUTUM SMEAR IMAGES FOR REGION-OF-INTEREST LOCALISATION IN AUTOMATED MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhavin; Douglas, Tania S.

    2012-01-01

    We address the location of regions-of-interest in previously scanned sputum smear slides requiring reexamination in automated microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) detection. We focus on the core component of microscope auto-positioning, which is to find a point of reference, position and orientation, on the slide so that it can be used to automatically bring desired fields to the field-of-view of the microscope. We use virtual slide maps together with geometric hashing to localise a query image, which then acts as the point of reference. The true positive rate achieved by the algorithm was above 88% even for noisy query images captured at slide orientations up to 26°. The image registration error, computed as the average mean square error, was less than 14 pixel2 (corresponding to 1.02 μm2). The algorithm is inherently robust to changes in slide orientation and placement and showed high tolerance to illumination changes and robustness to noise. PMID:22257649

  7. Smearing model and restoration of star image under conditions of variable angular velocity and long exposure time.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Bin

    2014-03-10

    The star tracker is one of the most promising attitude measurement devices widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. High dynamic performance is becoming its major restriction, and requires immediate focus and promotion. A star image restoration approach based on the motion degradation model of variable angular velocity is proposed in this paper. This method can overcome the problem of energy dispersion and signal to noise ratio (SNR) decrease resulting from the smearing of the star spot, thus preventing failed extraction and decreased star centroid accuracy. Simulations and laboratory experiments are conducted to verify the proposed methods. The restoration results demonstrate that the described method can recover the star spot from a long motion trail to the shape of Gaussian distribution under the conditions of variable angular velocity and long exposure time. The energy of the star spot can be concentrated to ensure high SNR and high position accuracy. These features are crucial to the subsequent star extraction and the whole performance of the star tracker. PMID:24663937

  8. Automated detection and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization spots depicted in digital microscopic images of Pap-smear specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has been widely recognized as a promising molecular and biomedical optical imaging tool to screen and diagnose cervical cancer. However, manual FISH analysis is time-consuming and may introduce large inter-reader variability. In this study, a computerized scheme is developed and tested. It automatically detects and analyzes FISH spots depicted on microscopic fluorescence images. The scheme includes two stages: (1) a feature-based classification rule to detect useful interphase cells, and (2) a knowledge-based expert classifier to identify splitting FISH spots and improve the accuracy of counting independent FISH spots. The scheme then classifies detected analyzable cells as normal or abnormal. In this study, 150 FISH images were acquired from Pap-smear specimens and examined by both an experienced cytogeneticist and the scheme. The results showed that (1) the agreement between the cytogeneticist and the scheme was 96.9% in classifying between analyzable and unanalyzable cells (Kappa=0.917), and (2) agreements in detecting normal and abnormal cells based on FISH spots were 90.5% and 95.8% with Kappa=0.867. This study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH analysis, which may potentially improve detection efficiency and produce more accurate and consistent results than manual FISH analysis.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Pap Smear Cells by PC-Based Cytopathologic Image Analysis System and Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po-Chi; Chan, Yung-Kuan; Chan, Po-Chou; Chen, Yung-Fu; Chen, Rung-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ruei

    Cytologic screening has been widely used for controlling the prevalence of cervical cancer. Errors from sampling, screening and interpretation, still concealed some unpleasant results. This study aims at designing a cellular image analysis system based on feasible and available software and hardware for a routine cytologic laboratory. Totally 1814 cellular images from the liquid-based cervical smears with Papanicolaou stain in 100x, 200x, and 400x magnification were captured by a digital camera. Cell images were reviewed by pathologic experts with peer agreement and only 503 images were selected for further study. The images were divided into 4 diagnostic categories. A PC-based cellular image analysis system (PCCIA) was developed for computing morphometric parameters. Then support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify signature patterns. The results show that the selected 13 morphometric parameters can be used to correctly differentiate the dysplastic cells from the normal cells (p<0.001). Additionally, SVM classifier has been demonstrated to be able to achieve a high accuracy for cellular classification. In conclusion, the proposed system provides a feasible and effective tool for the evaluation of gynecologic cytologic specimens.

  10. Using peripheral smear review, age and absolute lymphocyte count as predictors of abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytoses diagnosed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jared M; Cruser, Dan L; Myers, Jerome B; Fernelius, Colby A; Holm, Mitchel T; Waldner, Dale L

    2008-09-01

    Absolute lymphocytosis in the elderly raises the possibility of malignancy and generally warrants further investigation. To better correlate clinical variables with the frequency of neoplastic lymphoid processes in this population, we retrospectively reviewed archived flow cytometric analyses from peripheral blood specimens on patients of 50 years of age and older that had been deemed suspicious for a lymphoproliferative process after peripheral smear review. Age, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), white blood cell count and relative lymphocyte count were correlated with the results of flow cytometry. Of 71 total cases, 42 (59%) had an abnormal immunophenotype. Independent variables that showed significant differences between normal and abnormal immunophenotype were mean age (p = 0.001) and ALC (p = 0.0032). We combined age and absolute lymphocyte count variables to look for the best possible cutoff values to predict the likelihood of an abnormal immunophenotype. ALC cutoff values of >or=4 x 10(9) cells/L for patients over 67 years of age, and >6.7 x 10(9) cells/L for patients between 50 and 67 years of age, had a high sensitivity for detecting an abnormal immunophenotype. PMID:18798107

  11. Review of nucleic acid amplification tests and clinical prediction rules for diagnosis of tuberculosis in acute care facilities.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Amit S; Davis, J Lucian; Schecter, Gisela F; Barry, Pennan M; Flood, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of hospitalization and mortality in the United States. Prevention of TB transmission in acute care facilities relies on prompt identification and implementation of airborne isolation, rapid diagnosis, and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients. In areas with low TB burden, this strategy may result in inefficient utilization of airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs). We reviewed TB epidemiology and diagnostic approaches to inform optimal TB detection in low-burden settings. Published clinical prediction rules for individual studies have a sensitivity ranging from 81% to 100% and specificity ranging from 14% to 63% for detection of culture-positive pulmonary TB patients admitted to acute care facilities. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have a specificity of >98%, and the sensitivity of NAATs varies by acid-fast bacilli sputum smear status (positive smear, ≥95%; negative smear, 50%-70%). We propose an infection prevention strategy using a clinical prediction rule to identify patients who warrant diagnostic evaluation for TB in an AIIR with an NAAT. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether use of clinical prediction rules and NAATs results in optimized utilization of AIIRs and improved detection and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients. PMID:26166303

  12. Babesia gibsoni: detection in blood smears and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using deoxyribonucleic acid in situ hybridization analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Nakamura, Kensuke; Sasaki, Noboru; Murakami, Masahiro; Rajapakshage, Bandula Kumara Wickramasekara; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to detect Babesia gibsoni in blood smears and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from B. gibsoni-infected dogs using in situ hybridization. Using a digoxigenin-conjugated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probe, both intraerythrocytic and exoerythrocytic parasites in the culture could be specifically stained in blood smears fixed with 4% phosphate-buffered paraformaldehyde. This indicated that genomic DNA extracted from the parasites could be detected using in situ hybridization. Moreover, the parasite could be specifically stained in paraffin-embedded spleen, lymph node, and kidney sections using in situ hybridization. Infected erythrocytes in blood vessels in the spleen and kidney, hemosiderin-laden macrophages in the spleen, and phagocytized erythrocytes, which seemed to be infected with the parasites, in lymph nodes were also specifically stained. This suggests that in situ hybridization can be utilized to investigate both the life cycle of B. gibsoni and the pathological condition of canine babesiosis. PMID:20637756

  13. Factors predicting the persistence of genital human papillomavirus infections and PAP smear abnormality in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women during prospective follow-up.

    PubMed

    Branca, M; Garbuglia, A R; Benedetto, A; Cappiello, T; Leoncini, L; Migliore, G; Agarossi, A; Syrjänen, K

    2003-06-01

    As part of an extensive multi-institutional DIANAIDS study focused on assessing the risk factors, natural history, diagnosis and follow-up of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in HIV-infected women, the present communication reports a sub-cohort of 142 women (89 HIV+ and 48 HIV-), followed-up for a mean of 14.07 (+/-10.84) months to analyse the factors predicting the persistence and clearance of HPV infections (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and sequencing) and cervical Papanicolaou (PAP) smear abnormalities, using both univariate (Kaplan-Meier) and multivariate (Cox) survival analysis. The appearance of new HPV infections during the follow-up was significantly more frequent in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women, odds ratio (OR) 8.800 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.199-64.611), and also the clearance rate was significantly less frequent in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women, 69.2% vs 22.8%, respectively (OR 0.330; 95% CI: 0.163-0.670). These two groups were also markedly different with respect to the clinical course of the cervical lesions, in the frequency of progressive disease (determined by PAP smear) was higher in HIV-positive group (12/89) than in HIV-negative women (2/52) (OR 3.506; 95% CI 0.816-15.055) (P = 0.055), in whom the disease regressed more frequently than in HIV-positive women (13.5% vs 7.9%) (OR 0.584; 95% CI 0.217-1.573). Using (1) HPV-positivity, (2) oncogenic HPV-type and (3) significant PAP smear abnormality at the end of follow-up as outcome measures, (1) was significantly (P < 0.001) predicted by the following variables in univariate analysis: age, mode of contraception, CD4 count, and HIV-positivity. The significant predictors of (2) were age and mode of contraception. The outcome measure (3) was significantly predicted by CD4 count, PAP smear abnormality and PCR status at entry. In the multivariate analysis, the significant independent predictive factors for HPV-positivity proved to be only the HIV status (P < 0

  14. Efficacy of etidronic acid, BioPure MTAD and SmearClear in removing calcium ions from the root canal: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Hemant Kumar; Tikku, A. P.; Chandra, Anil; Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Patel, Devendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify the amount of calcium ions removed from the root canal by etidronic acid (HEBP), BioPure MTAD, and SmearClear using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Materials and Methods: Fifty (n = 50) freshly extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were collected and decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. The canals were prepared in a crown down fashion using the rotary system and copiously irrigated with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite. All specimens were rinsed with the deionized water. Based on the type of chelating agent used, the samples (n = 10) were randomly divided into five (four test and one negative control) groups. Accordingly, Group I - 9% HEBP, Group II - 18% HEBP, Group III - SmearClear, Group IV - BioPure MTAD, and Group V - normal Saline. Subsequent to irrigation, the solution was collected in a test tube and subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the quantification of calcium ions removed from the root canal. Results: The mean concentration of calcium ions removed from the root canal (mean ± standard deviation) in all groups (I–V) were 13.32 ± 0.54 μg/ml, 16.36 ± 0.27 μg/ml, 20.04 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 18.15 ± 0.39 μg/ml, and 8.74 ± 0.49 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: SmearClear was the most effective agent for the removal of calcium ions from the root canal. Hence, its combined use with an organic solvent can be recommended for efficient smear layer removal. PMID:26929691

  15. Comparative study of Smear Microscopy, Rapid Slide Culture, and Lowenstein - Jensen culture in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Muddaiah, Ravish Kumar; James, Pratibha Malini; Lingegowda, Ravikumar Kadahalli

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB), a dreadful disease known to mankind continues to be a problem in a developing country like India. The incidence of people getting infected with TB is on the rise due to compounding factors like coinfection with the human immunodefiency virus and multidrug-resistant strains. There is a definitive need for early diagnosis and treatment of TB to curb transmission of the infection. Direct smear microscopy, though cheap and rapid, lacks sensitivity. Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture requires a long time, because of which there is a need for a rapid method which has good sensitivity and specificity for the detection of M. tuberculosis. The present study was undertaken to determine the test which diagnoses TB rapidly and to compare the sensitivity of smear microscopy, concentration method, rapid slide culture, and Lowenstein - Jensen (LJ) culture. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 200 patients were subjected to direct smear and concentration by modified Petroff's method. The concentrated sputum was also taken for slide culture using human blood medium and inoculated on LJ media. Results: LJ culture was positive in 47 (23.5%) cases, of which three were nontubercular mycobacteria. Using LJ culture as the standard method, the sensitivity of direct smear, concentration method, and rapid slide culture method was 68, 83, and 89%, respectively, and specificity was 100% in all the three tests. Conclusion: Rapid slide culture showed good sensitivity which was comparable to and next in efficacy to LJ culture and this technique can be adopted in the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) as it is a rapid, cheap, sensitive, and specific method. PMID:24381619

  16. Analysis of Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive and Negative Predictive Values of Smear and Colposcopy in Diagnosis of Premalignant and Malignant Cervical Lesions.

    PubMed

    Barut, Mert Ulaş; Kale, Ahmet; Kuyumcuoğlu, Umur; Bozkurt, Murat; Ağaçayak, Elif; Özekinci, Server; Gül, Talip

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to examine the positive and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical colposcopy, the sensitivity and specificity of smear, and to evaluate the correlation with histopathology of abnormal cytology and colposcopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS The criteria for inclusion of patients with unhealthy cervix in the study were: Erosion, Chronic cervicitis, and Healed lacerations, Hypertrophied cervix, bleeding on touch, suspicious growth/ulcer/polyp on the cervix, and abnormal discharges from the cervix. Women with frank carcinoma cervix, pregnant females, patients with bleeding per vaginum at the time of examination, and those who had used vaginal medications, vaginal contraceptives or douches in the last 48 h of examination were excluded from the study. Demographic analysis was performed for 450 patients who were admitted to the clinic. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of patients to identify cervical pathologies of smear and colposcopy were histopathologically calculated. The statistical software package SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Spearman's and Chi-Square tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of smear were 0.57%, 0.76%, 0.26%, 0.92% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of colposcopy were 0.92%, 0.67%, 0.52%, 0.96% respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between abnormal cytology and histopathology, and abnormal colposcopy finding and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. It was concluded that Pap smear, colposcopy and histopathology should be collectively evaluated to evaluate cervical findings in low socio-economic regions. PMID:26655816

  17. Prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smears examination: a 1-year retrospective study from the Serbo Health Center, Kersa Woreda, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Bekele, Mammo

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examination from the Serbo Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases treated between July 2007 and June 2008 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Of the total 6863 smears, 3009 were found to be positive and contribute 43.8% of diagnostic yield. Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most predominant [64.6% (1946/3009 cases)], while Plasmodium vivax confirmed with 34.9% (1052/3009) cases. Among patients who underwent diagnostic testing and treatment for malaria, males [63.8% (1918/3009 cases)] were more prone to have a positive malaria smear than females [36.2% (1091/3009 cases)]. Chi-square statistical analysis shown that there was a statistically significant association found between male cases and number of positive blood smear (chi(2)=28.1; df=7; p-value=0.001). The present study results clearly suggest that the catchment area of Serbo Health Center is prone for epidemic malaria and the situation is quite deteriorating. At the moment, although we are not equipped with magic bullet for malaria effective low-cost strategies are available for its treatment, prevention, and control. Therefore, creating awareness by active health education campaigns and applying integrated malaria control strategy could bring the constructive outcome in the near future. PMID:20701879

  18. Comparative Evaluation of a New Endodontic Irrigant - Mixture of a Tetracycline Isomer, an Acid, and a Detergent to Remove the Intracanal Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Poonam K; Mahajan, Uma Patil; Gupta, Kapil; Sheela, N V

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most important and demanding aspect of endodontic therapy is considered to be cleaning and shaping. Irrigation is considered a vital adjunct to instrumentation of the root canal for canal debridement. Until date, there is no single solution that simultaneously removes the smear layer and disinfects the entire root canal system. Thus, this in vitro study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of a new irrigation solution mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid, and a detergent (MTAD) (BioPure, Dentsply) containing a mixture of tetracycline (doxycycline hydrochloride), an acid (citric acid) and a detergent (Tween 80) in comparison with normal saline, 5% NaOCl and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to remove intracanal smear layer. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 single rooted teeth were irrigated with Saline (Group A), 5% NaOCl (Group B), 17% EDTA (Group C) and MTDA (Group D). The extent of removal of smear layer and erosion was assessed using scanning electron microscope. Results: Irrigation with 5% NaOCl and MTAD as a final flush produced the cleanest surface with all the dentinal tubules open. No conjugation or erosion of dentinal tubules was noted (P > 0.05). Conclusion: MTAD flush was the most effective debridement regimen in all the three thirds of the canal showing its ability to reach the apex with no conjugation and erosion of dentinal tubules. PMID:25954062

  19. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  20. A new method for point-spread function correction using the ellipticity of re-smeared artificial images in weak gravitational lensing shear analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Okura, Yuki; Futamase, Toshifumi E-mail: tof@astr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2014-09-10

    Highly accurate weak lensing analysis is urgently required for planned cosmic shear observations. For this purpose we have eliminated various systematic noises in the measurement. The point-spread function (PSF) effect is one of them. A perturbative approach for correcting the PSF effect on the observed image ellipticities has been previously employed. Here we propose a new non-perturbative approach for PSF correction that avoids the systematic error associated with the perturbative approach. The new method uses an artificial image for measuring shear which has the same ellipticity as the lensed image. This is done by re-smearing the observed galaxy images and observed star images (PSF) with an additional smearing function to obtain the original lensed galaxy images. We tested the new method with simple simulated objects that have Gaussian or Sérsic profiles smeared by a Gaussian PSF with sufficiently large size to neglect pixelization. Under the condition of no pixel noise, it is confirmed that the new method has no systematic error even if the PSF is large and has a high ellipticity.

  1. Growth reduction of Listeria spp. caused by undefined industrial red smear cheese cultures and bacteriocin-producing Brevibacterium lines as evaluated in situ on soft cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Eppert, I; Valdés-Stauber, N; Götz, H; Busse, M; Scherer, S

    1997-01-01

    The undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheese which are used for the ripening of commercial red smear cheeses have a strong impact on the growth of Listeria spp. In some cases, these microbial consortia inhibit Listeria almost completely. From such undefined industrial cheese-ripening floras, linocin M18-producing (lin+) (N. Valdés-Stauber and S. Scherer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:3809-3814, 1994) and -nonproducing Brevibacterium linens strains were isolated and used as single-strain starter cultures on model red smear cheeses to evaluate their potential inhibitory effects on Listeria strains in situ. On cheeses ripened with lin+ strains, a growth reduction of L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes of 1 to 2 log units was observed compared to cheeses ripened with lin strains. Linocin M18 activity was detected in cheeses ripened with lin+ strains but was not found in those ripened with lin strains. We suggest that production of linocin M18 contributes to the growth reduction of Listeria observed on model red smear cheeses but is unsufficient to explain the almost complete inhibition of Listeria caused by some undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheeses. PMID:9406400

  2. Aetiology of Pulmonary Symptoms in HIV-Infected Smear Negative Recurrent PTB Suspects in Kampala, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Okwera, Alphonse; Bwanga, Freddie; Najjingo, Irene; Mulumba, Yusuf; Mafigiri, David K.; Whalen, Christopher C.; Joloba, Moses L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Previously treated TB patients with pulmonary symptoms are often considered recurrent TB suspects in the resource-limited settings, where investigations are limited to microscopy and chest x-ray. Category II anti-TB drugs may be inappropriate and may expose patients to pill burden, drug toxicities and drug-drug interactions. Objective To determine the causes of pulmonary symptoms in HIV-infected smear negative recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis suspects at Mulago Hospital, Kampala. Methods Between March 2008 and December 2011, induced sputum samples of 178 consented HIV-infected smear negative recurrent TB suspects in Kampala were subjected to MGIT and LJ cultures for mycobacteria at TB Reference Laboratory, Kampala. Processed sputum samples were also tested by PCR to detect 18S rRNA gene of P.jirovecii and cultured for other bacteria. Results Bacteria, M. tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii were detected in 27%, 18% and 6.7% of patients respectively and 53.4% of the specimens had no microorganisms. S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were 100% susceptible to chloramphenicol and erythromycin but co-trimoxazole resistant. Conclusion At least 81.5% of participants had no microbiologically-confirmed TB. However our findings call for thorough investigation of HIV-infected smear negative recurrent TB suspects to guide cost effective treatment. PMID:24312650

  3. A Virtual Interface for Recreating a School of Rock Experience: An Inquiry-Driven Approach Towards Describing and Interpreting Deep Ocean Cores and Smear Slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoesen, J.; Collins, J.

    2011-12-01

    The School of Rock (SOR) is a professional development program for educators that takes place on the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's (IODP) JOIDES Resolution and at the core repository at Texas A&M. The program brings formal and informal educators together with scientists, technicians, and IODP staff to learn about and experience ocean drilling science. An essential element of this multi-day program is the utilization of cores and smear slides for making inferences about a variety Earth events. A similar inquiry-based experience can be offered to a broader audience using a virtual experience. Our virtual interface incorporates high-resolution gigapixel images of selected IODP core sections and smear slides. These images can be used with annotations, to provide background information and explain the scientific significance of each core, or without annotation for a guided-inquiry lesson. The primary objective of this project is to provide educators a useful and accessible tool for increasing student understanding of drill core characteristics and how they relate to ocean processes. The interactive nature of the interface also allows teachers and students to explore ocean cores and ancillary smear slides using similar processes and techniques as scientists aboard the JOIDES Resolution or in one of the core repositories.

  4. In vitro evaluation of smear layer removal of root canals by irradiation with Er:YAG laser after Ni-Ti rotary instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Alexandre; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Heredia Seixas, Fabio; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Zanello Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    The smear layer removal of root canal walls irradiated with Er:YAG laser after nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Thirty mesial roots of human mandibular molars were selected and randomly distributed in three groups, according to treatment. Group 1 was instrumented with rotary nickel-titanium files 1 mm from the anatomical apex and irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Group 2 received the same treatment as Group 1, but after instrumentation the root canals were irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Group 3 received the same treatment as Group 1, but irrigation was performed with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite alternated wtih 17% EDTA during instrumentation. Photomicrographs were obtained from middle and apical thirds and submitted to qualitative evaluation. Statistical analysis showed that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite associated with 17% EDTA (Group 3) removed smear layer more efficiently than 2.5% sodium hypochlorite al one (Group 1) (p<0.05). Root canals irradiated with Er:YAG laser occupied an intermediary position regarding smear layer removal. There were no statistical differences between the evaluated radicular thirds (p>0.05).

  5. Prevalence of various Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women who subjected to routine Pap smear test in Bushehr city (South west of Iran)2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some genotypes of human papillomaviruses can infect the genital tract and they are important infectious agents which their oncogenicity is regardable. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) among women being subjected to routine pap smear test in Bushehr city of Iran. Results Based on the collected data, 11(5.5%) samples were detected positive for HPV DNA and 189(94.5%) samples out of 200 samples were detected negative for HPV DNA. Meanwhile 4(2%) samples detected positive for HPV DNA by PCR were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test as well. On the other hand 5 samples which were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test didn't have HPV DNA after being tested by PCR method. Among the 11 positive samples 7 samples were identified as HPV-16, 3 samples were HPV-18 and one was HPV-53. Conclusion Regarding the prevalence of highly carcinogen genotypes of HPV in our study determination of genital HPV prevalence among the normal population of women of Bushehr city is recommended. PMID:20302680

  6. Comparative study of manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique and direct smear technique (conventional) on fine-needle cytology/fine-needle aspiration cytology samples

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prajkta Suresh; Gadkari, Rasika Uday; Swami, Sunil Y.; Joshi, Anil R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology technique enables cells to be suspended in a liquid medium and spread in a monolayer, making better morphological assessment. Automated techniques have been widely used, but limited due to cost and availability. Aim: The aim was to establish manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material and compare its results with conventional technique. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined cells trapped in needles hub used for the collection of FNAC samples. 50 cases were examined by the MLBC technique and compared with the conventional FNAC technique. By centrifugation, sediment was obtained and imprint was taken on defined area. Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) staining was done. Direct smears and MLBC smears were compared for cellularity, background, cellular preservation, and nuclear preservation. Slides were diagnosed independently by two cytologists with more than 5 years’ experience. Standard error of proportion was used for statistical analysis. Results: Cellularity was low in MLBC as compared with conventional smears, which is expected as remnant material in the needle hub was used. Nuclei overlap to a lesser extent and hemorrhage and necrosis was reduced, so cell morphology can be better studied in the MLBC technique. P value obtained was <0.05. Conclusion: This MLBC technique gives results comparable to the conventional technique with better morphology. In a set up where aspirators are learners, this technique will ensure adequacy due to remnant in needle hub getting processed PMID:25210235

  7. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (DetermineTM TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm3 (IQR 89–256/mm3). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1–55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4–33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0–66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59–0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51–0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 <200/mm3. Urine LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression. PMID:26865526

  8. Evaluation of Apical Leakage in Root Canals Obturated with Three Different Sealers in Presence or Absence of Smear Layer

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Shahi, Shahriar; Janani, Maryam; Reyhani, Mohammad Frough; Mokhtari Zonouzi, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Saeed; Sadr Kheradmand, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Microleakage can result in failure of endodontic treatment. An important characteristic of endodontic sealer is sealing ability. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the apical leakage of teeth obturated with gutta-percha and three different sealers (resin- and zinc oxide eugenol-based) with/without smear layer (SL). Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 single-rooted teeth were used after cutting off their crowns. Cleaning and shaping was carried out with step-back technique and the samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=30) which were then divided into two subgroups (n=15) according to the presence/absence of SL. Two negative and positive control groups (n=5) were also prepared. In the various groups, the canals were obturated with gutta-percha and either of the test sealers (AH-26, Adseal or Endofill). The samples were submerged in India ink for 72 h. Then they were longitudinally sectioned and observed under a stereomicroscope at 20× magnification. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods and one-way ANOVA. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The mean penetration length of dye in AH-26, Adseal and Endofill samples were 2.53, 2.76 and 3.03 mm, respectively. The differences between three groups were not significant (P>0.05); also, the mean dye penetration in AH-26, Adseal and Endofill samples in presence or absence of the SL was not significantly different. Conclusion: AH-26, Adseal and Endofill were similarly effective in prevention of apical microleakage. Differences in the mean dye penetration between the groups with/without the SL were not statistically significant. PMID:25834599

  9. Morphologic Analysis of Cytomegalovirus Infected Cells in Bronchial Washing Cytology: Comparison of Liquid-Based Preparation and Conventional Smear

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Jae Yeon; An, Jungsuk; Ha, Seung Yeon; Chung, Dong Hae; Lee, Sangho; Kim, Hyunchul

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cytopathic effects of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have been well described since the virus was first reported; however, the morphology of CMV infection has not been clearly studied. We examined the difference in detailed cytologic findings in bronchial washing cytology between liquid-based and conventionally prepared smears. Methods: Bronchial washing cytology was processed using either the conventional preparation (CP) or liquid-based preparation (LBP). Sixty-nine cells with typical cytopathic effects of CMV infection were detected on CP slides and 18 cells on LBP slides. Using the image analyzer, area, circumference, major axis, and minor axis of the cytoplasm, nucleus, and intranuclear inclusion were measured in singly scattered CMV-infected cells, and histiocytes were used as a control. Results: The mean cytoplasmic area of CMV-infected cells was 1.47 times larger than that of histiocytes in CP and 2.92 times larger in LBP (p<.05). The mean nuclear area of CMV-infected cells was 2.61 times larger than that of histiocytes in CP and 4.25 times larger in LBP (p<.05). The nucleus to cytoplasm ratio and intranuclear inclusion to cytoplasm ratio of the mean area, circumference, major axis, and minor axis in CP were larger than those in LBP (p<.05). Conclusions: The sizes of cytoplasm, nucleus, and intranuclear inclusion were larger in LBP than in CP, indicating that CMV-infected cells are easily detectable in LBP. However, the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio was larger in CP, suggesting that differentiation from malignancy or regenerative atypia requires caution in CP. PMID:26875760

  10. Combining Individual-Based Modeling and Food Microenvironment Descriptions To Predict the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on Smear Soft Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, Rachel; Hezard, Bernard; Lintz, Adrienne; Stahl, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    An individual-based modeling (IBM) approach was developed to describe the behavior of a few Listeria monocytogenes cells contaminating smear soft cheese surface. The IBM approach consisted of assessing the stochastic individual behaviors of cells on cheese surfaces and knowing the characteristics of their surrounding microenvironments. We used a microelectrode for pH measurements and micro-osmolality to assess the water activity of cheese microsamples. These measurements revealed a high variability of microscale pH compared to that of macroscale pH. A model describing the increase in pH from approximately 5.0 to more than 7.0 during ripening was developed. The spatial variability of the cheese surface characterized by an increasing pH with radius and higher pH on crests compared to that of hollows on cheese rind was also modeled. The microscale water activity ranged from approximately 0.96 to 0.98 and was stable during ripening. The spatial variability on cheese surfaces was low compared to between-cheese variability. Models describing the microscale variability of cheese characteristics were combined with the IBM approach to simulate the stochastic growth of L. monocytogenes on cheese, and these simulations were compared to bacterial counts obtained from irradiated cheeses artificially contaminated at different ripening stages. The simulated variability of L. monocytogenes counts with the IBM/microenvironmental approach was consistent with the observed one. Contrasting situations corresponding to no growth or highly contaminated foods could be deduced from these models. Moreover, the IBM approach was more effective than the traditional population/macroenvironmental approach to describe the actual bacterial behavior variability. PMID:23872572

  11. Comparing Tuberculosis Diagnostic Yield in Smear/Culture and Xpert® MTB/RIF-Based Algorithms Using a Non-Randomised Stepped-Wedge Design

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Pren; Dunbar, Rory; Lombard, Carl; du Toit, Elizabeth; Caldwell, Judy; Detjen, Anne; Squire, S. Bertel; Enarson, Donald A.; Beyers, Nulda

    2016-01-01

    Setting Primary health services in Cape Town, South Africa. Study Aim To compare tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic yield in an existing smear/culture-based and a newly introduced Xpert® MTB/RIF-based algorithm. Methods TB diagnostic yield (the proportion of presumptive TB cases with a laboratory diagnosis of TB) was assessed using a non-randomised stepped-wedge design as sites transitioned to the Xpert® based algorithm. We identified the full sequence of sputum tests recorded in the electronic laboratory database for presumptive TB cases from 60 primary health sites during seven one-month time-points, six months apart. Differences in TB yield and temporal trends were estimated using a binomial regression model. Results TB yield was 20.9% (95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) in the smear/culture-based algorithm compared to 17.9% (95%CI 16.4% to 19.5%) in the Xpert® based algorithm. There was a decline in TB yield over time with a mean risk difference of -0.9% (95% CI -1.2% to -0.6%) (p<0.001) per time-point. When estimates were adjusted for the temporal trend, TB yield was 19.1% (95% CI 17.6% to 20.5%) in the smear/culture-based algorithm compared to 19.3% (95% CI 17.7% to 20.9%) in the Xpert® based algorithm with a risk difference of 0.3% (95% CI -1.8% to 2.3%) (p = 0.796). Culture tests were undertaken for 35.5% of smear-negative compared to 17.9% of Xpert® negative low MDR-TB risk cases and for 82.6% of smear-negative compared to 40.5% of Xpert® negative high MDR-TB risk cases in respective algorithms. Conclusion Introduction of an Xpert® based algorithm did not produce the expected increase in TB diagnostic yield. Studies are required to assess whether improving adherence to the Xpert® negative algorithm for HIV-infected individuals will increase yield. In light of the high cost of Xpert®, a review of its role as a screening test for all presumptive TB cases may be warranted. PMID:26930400

  12. Pap Smear Screening Rates

    PubMed Central

    Calam, Betty; Bass, Martin; Deagle, George

    1992-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 196 women on the Queen Charlotte Islands showed that significantly fewer Haida women than non-Native women had adequate cervical screening. Differences were most marked in the 60 and older age group. Qualitative research to elucidate cultural factors could aid in planning screening programs that would be accepted by all women at risk in the community. PMID:21221327

  13. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... cleans the skin around the insertion site. Numbing medicine (anesthetic) is injected into the skin. A needle is placed through the skin and muscles of the chest wall into the space around the lungs, called the pleural space. As ...

  14. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  15. Small bowel tissue smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: chap 291. Semrad CE. Approach to the ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: chap 142. Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and ...

  16. Small bowel tissue smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap ...

  17. Characterization of positive air ions in boreal forest air at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hõrrak, U.; Aalto, P. P.; Salm, J.; Komsaare, K.; Tammet, H.; Mäkelä, J. M.; Laakso, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2007-07-01

    The behavior of the concentration of positive small (or cluster) air ions and naturally charged nanometer aerosol particles (aerosol ions) has been studied on the basis of measurements carried out in a boreal forest at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station, Finland, during the BIOFOR III campaign in spring 1999. Statistical characteristics of the concentrations of cluster ions, two classes of aerosol ions of the sizes of 2.5-8 nm and 8-ca. 20 nm and the quantities that determine the balance of small ions in the atmosphere have been given for the nucleation event days and non-event days. The dependence of small ion concentration on the ion loss (sink) due to aerosol particles was investigated applying a model of bipolar diffusion charging of particles by small ions. The small ion concentration and the ion sink were closely correlated (correlation coefficient -87%) when the fog events and the hours of high relative humidity (above 95%), as well as nocturnal calms and weak wind (wind speed <0.6 m s-1) had been excluded. However, an extra ion loss term presumably due to small ion deposition on coniferous forest with a magnitude equal to the average ion loss to pre-existing particles is needed to explain the observations. Also the hygroscopic growth correction of measured aerosol particle size distributions was found to be necessary for proper estimation of the ion sink. In the case of nucleation burst events, variations in the concentration of small positive ions were in accordance with the changes caused by the ion sink due to aerosols; no clear indication of positive ion depletion by ion-induced nucleation was found. The estimated average ionization rate of the air at the Hyytiälä station in early spring, when the ground was partly covered with snow, was about 6 ion pairs cm-3 s-1. The study of the charging state of nanometer aerosol particles (2.5-8 nm) revealed a strong correlation (correlation coefficient 88%) between the concentrations of particles and positively

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of In-House PCR for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Smear-Positive Patients: Meta-Analysis and Metaregression▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Greco, S.; Rulli, M.; Girardi, E.; Piersimoni, C.; Saltini, C.

    2009-01-01

    In-house PCR (hPCR) could speed differential diagnosis between tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in patients with positive smears and pulmonary infiltrates, but its reported accuracy fluctuates across studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of hPCR sensitivity and specificity for smear-positive TB diagnosis, using culture as the reference standard. After searching English language studies in MEDLINE and EMBASE, we estimated cumulative accuracy by means of summary receiver operating characteristic analysis. The possible influence of hPCR procedures and study methodological features on accuracy was explored by univariate metaregression, followed by multivariate adjustment of items selected as significant. Thirty-five articles (1991 to 2006) met the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimates of the diagnostic odds ratio, sensitivity, and specificity (random-effect model) were, respectively, 60 (confidence interval [CI], 29 to 123), 0.96 (CI, 0.95 to 0.97), and 0.81 (CI, 0.78 to 0.84), but significant variations (mainly in specificity) limit their clinical applicability. The quality of the reference test, the detection method, and real-time PCR use explained some of the observed heterogeneity. Probably due to the limited study power of our meta-analysis and to the wide differences in both laboratory techniques and methodological quality, only real-time PCR also displayed a positive impact on accuracy in the multivariate model. Currently, hPCR can be confidently used to exclude TB in smear-positive patients, but its low specificity could lead to erroneous initiation of therapy, isolation, and contact investigation. As the inclusion of samples from treated patients could have artificially reduced specificity, future studies should report mycobacterial-culture results for each TB and non-TB sample analyzed. PMID:19144797

  19. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium variabile is part of the complex microflora on the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and contributes to the development of flavor and textural properties during cheese ripening. Still little is known about the metabolic processes and microbial interactions during the production of smear-ripened cheeses. Therefore, the gene repertoire contributing to the lifestyle of the cheese isolate C. variabile DSM 44702 was deduced from the complete genome sequence to get a better understanding of this industrial process. Results The chromosome of C. variabile DSM 44702 is composed of 3, 433, 007 bp and contains 3, 071 protein-coding regions. A comparative analysis of this gene repertoire with that of other corynebacteria detected 1, 534 predicted genes to be specific for the cheese isolate. These genes might contribute to distinct metabolic capabilities of C. variabile, as several of them are associated with metabolic functions in cheese habitats by playing roles in the utilization of alternative carbon and sulphur sources, in amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid degradation. Relevant C. variabile genes confer the capability to catabolize gluconate, lactate, propionate, taurine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and to utilize external caseins. In addition, C. variabile is equipped with several siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters for iron acquisition and an exceptional repertoire of AraC-regulated iron uptake systems. Moreover, C. variabile can produce acetoin, butanediol, and methanethiol, which are important flavor compounds in smear-ripened cheeses. Conclusions The genome sequence of C. variabile provides detailed insights into the distinct metabolic features of this bacterium, implying a strong adaption to the iron-depleted cheese surface habitat. By combining in silico data obtained from the genome annotation with previous experimental knowledge, occasional observations on genes that are involved in the complex metabolic capacity of C. variabile

  20. Utility of Bacillary Index in Slit Skin Smears in Correlation with Clinical and Histopathological Alterations in Hansen's Disease: An Attempt to Revive a Simple Useful Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Premalatha, P; Renuka, IV; Meghana, A; Devi, SI; Charyulu, PAVK; Sampoorna, G

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy, a relatively common chronic contagious disease having diverse modes of clinical presentation, can mimic a variety of unrelated diseases. For proper and adequate treatment, the diagnosis must be made accurately with subtyping which should be done with the help of bacillary index, histopathological features, and clinical correlation. This is extremely important in patient care as paucibacillary and multibacillary types have different modes of treatment. Our aim is to categorize leprosy into various types based on bacillary index, morphological findings both in slit skin smears, and biopsy along with clinical correlation. PMID:27398251

  1. Utility of Bacillary Index in Slit Skin Smears in Correlation with Clinical and Histopathological Alterations in Hansen's Disease: An Attempt to Revive a Simple Useful Procedure.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, P; Renuka, I V; Meghana, A; Devi, S I; Charyulu, Pavk; Sampoorna, G

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy, a relatively common chronic contagious disease having diverse modes of clinical presentation, can mimic a variety of unrelated diseases. For proper and adequate treatment, the diagnosis must be made accurately with subtyping which should be done with the help of bacillary index, histopathological features, and clinical correlation. This is extremely important in patient care as paucibacillary and multibacillary types have different modes of treatment. Our aim is to categorize leprosy into various types based on bacillary index, morphological findings both in slit skin smears, and biopsy along with clinical correlation. PMID:27398251

  2. To evaluate the influence of smear layer with different instruments and obturation methods on microleakage of root canal filled teeth: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Likhitkar, Manoj S.; Kulkarni, Shantaram V.; Burande, Aravind; Solanke, Vishal; Kumar, C. Sushil; Kamble, Babasaheb

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The success of root canal treatment depends on proper debridement, instrumentation, proper accessibility, and proper restoration. The presence of a smear layer is considered to be a significant factor. This in vitro study was conducted to assess the effect of the presence/absence of a smear layer on the microleakage of root canal filled teeth using different instruments and obturation methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with closed apices and single roots were chosen and then divided into six groups, A to F, consisting of 15 teeth each. The control group included 10 teeth; 5 positive and 5 negative. The teeth were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. Groups A, B, C, and D were instrumented with engine-driven rotary Protaper NiTi files. Groups E and F were instrumented with conventional stainless steel hand files. Groups A, C, and E were flushed with 3 ml of 17% EDTA to remove the smear layer prior to obturation. All teeth were flushed with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution and obturated with AH-Plus sealer with lateral condensation technique for Groups C, D, E, F and with thermoplasticized gutta-percha technique for Groups A and B. Using an electrochemical technique, leakages in the obturated canals were assessed for 45 days. The results were tabulated using Student's t-test (paired and unpaired t-test) with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software Version 21 (IBM Company, New York, USA). Results: Group A showed the lowest mean value at intervals of 10, 20, 30, and 45 days. There was no current flow in the negative controls during the test period. There was leakage in the positive controls within a few minutes of immersion. Conclusion: The results showed that rotary instrumentation contributed toward an exceptional preparation of root canals compared to hand instrumentation. Elimination of the smear layer enhanced the resistance to microleakage; thermoplasticized gutta

  3. Measured reflectance suppressed by thin-film interference of crude oil smeared on glass - as on vitrinite in coal or petroliferous rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bostick, Neely

    2011-01-01

    The tool of measuring "vitrinite reflectance" under a microscope has great value in petroleum exploration and coal utilization, and the reflectance is a simple number, such as 1.4% Ro, with some slight variations depending on technique. Sample collection, preparation and measurement are simple and many sedimentary rocks yield vitrinite. However, the reported number can lead one astray if its origin and quality are not fully understood. I analyze here just one factor, "smear" of crude oil on the polished surface (from the sample), which may reduce reflectance because of thin-film interference. Some other causes of error are listed in an addendum to this note.

  4. [Isolation of environmental mycobacteria from soils of Córdoba city Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ballarino, Guillermo J; Eseverri, M Verónica; Salas, Andrea V; Giayetto, Víctor O; González, Silvia; Wolff, Lidia; Pessah, Oscar

    2002-01-01

    The interest for the research on enviromental mycobacteria has risen over the last decades, in part, due to a significant incidence rate rise. Reports from all over the world address the soil as the major source for human contamination. In Argentina two documents report the prevalence of atypical mycobacteriosis at Córdoba (1997), and the isolation of enviromental mycobacteria from soils of the Province of La Pampa (1999) respectively. The aim of our study was to confirm the presence of enviromental mycobacteria in soil of the city of Córdoba. The map of the city was divided in 9 regions according to avenues and major streets distribution. A total of 120 soil samples were recollected with spatula from a 10 x 10 cm square up to 1 cm deep. Samples were kept at 4 degrees C no more than 7 days. Soil samples were homogenized with destilled water in a 1:1 proportion, and decontaminated according to Petroff's method. The cultures were made in Lowestein-Jehnsen media and incubated at 37 degrees C controlling development every 7 days for 2 months. An acid-fast-bacilli smear was made from colonies obtained. Twenty three cultures (19%) were discarded due to contamination. Twenty cultures (17%) developed acid fast bacilli (AFB). Colonies obtained were sent to the Mycobacteria Service of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán, in the city of Buenos Aires, for identification. A single isolation was identified as Mycobacterium triviale. A positive correlation was observed between the frequency of positive AFB isolation and the number of samples taken from park areas. The presence of enviromental mycobacteria in soils of Córdoba was confirmed. Results suggest higher odds of isolation in parklands and soils where animals live. Extensive works are needed to asset the features that allow and contribute the proliferation of mycobacteria in soils. PMID:12934243

  5. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections in China: the 2002-2009 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwen; Wang, Hui; Chen, Minjun; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Hu, Yunjian; Ye, Huifen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China. From 2002 to 2009, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 14 antibiotics for 3420 aerobic and facultative GNB from up to eight hospitals in six cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82.9% (2834/3420) of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (49.2%) being the most commonly isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.8%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.3%). Amongst the antimicrobial agents tested, the three carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 96.1-99.6% (2002-2009), 98.2-100% (2002-2009) and 99.6-100% (2002-2004), respectively, followed by amikacin (86.8-95.1%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (84.5-94.3%). Susceptibility rates of all tested third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacteriaceae declined by nearly 30%, with susceptibility rates of 40.2%, 39.1%, 56.3% and 51.8% in 2009 for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases increased rapidly, especially for E. coli (from 20.8% in 2002 to 64.9% in 2009). Susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 57.6% in 2002 to 24.2% in 2009. The least active agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) (25.3-44.3%). In conclusion, Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 8-year study period. Third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and SAM may not be ideal choices for empirical therapy of IAIs in China. PMID:21036547

  6. The effect of the temperature changes of EDTA and MTAD on the removal of the smear layer: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Ersan; Keskin, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of EDTA and MTAD at different temperatures as a final irrigant to remove the smear layer after the use of 5.25% NaOCl. Seventy-eight human mandibular premolars with single straight canal were prepared by a crown-down technique using rotary 0.06 taper nickel-titanium files. Final irrigation was performed with EDTA and MTAD at different temperatures. The removal of the smear layer in the coronal, middle and apical level of each canal was examined under scanning electron microscope. No difference was found between the EDTA and MTAD at 4°C, 25°C, and 37°C temperatures regardless of the canal level (coronal, middle and apical) (P = 0.286). In EDTA-25, EDTA-37, MTAD-25, and MTAD-37 groups, the difference among the coronal, middle, and apical levels were statistically no significant (P > 0.05). Our findings showed that EDTA and MTAD at 25°C and 37°C are more effective than EDTA and MTAD at 4°C even in the apical level. PMID:25739528

  7. Vaginal Cytology of the Laboratory Rat and Mouse: Review and Criteria for the Staging of the Estrous Cycle Using Stained Vaginal Smears.

    PubMed

    Cora, Michelle C; Kooistra, Linda; Travlos, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Microscopic evaluation of the types of cells present in vaginal smears has long been used to document the stages of the estrous cycle in laboratory rats and mice and as an index of the functional status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. The estrous cycle is generally divided into the four stages of proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. On cytological evaluation, these stages are defined by the absence, presence, or proportion of 4 basic cell types as well as by the cell density and arrangement of the cells on the slide. Multiple references regarding the cytology of the rat and mouse estrous cycle are available. Many contemporary references and studies, however, have relatively abbreviated definitions of the stages, are in reference to direct wet mount preparations, or lack comprehensive illustrations. This has led to ambiguity and, in some cases, a loss of appreciation for the encountered nuances of dividing a steadily moving cycle into 4 stages. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed description, discussion, and illustration of vaginal cytology of the rat and mouse estrous cycle as it appears on smears stained with metachromatic stains. PMID:25739587

  8. Interphase Molecular Cytogenetic Detection Rates of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia-Specific Aberrations Are Higher in Cultivated Cells Than in Blood or Bone Marrow Smears.

    PubMed

    Alhourani, Eyad; Aroutiounian, Rouben; Harutyunyan, Tigran; Glaser, Anita; Schlie, Cordula; Pohle, Beate; Liehr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Banding cytogenetics is still the gold standard in many fields of leukemia diagnostics. However, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), GTG-banding results are hampered by a low mitotic rate of the corresponding malignant lymphatic cells. Thus, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) for the detection of specific cytogenetic aberrations is done nowadays as a supplement to or even instead of banding cytogenetics in many diagnostic laboratories. These iFISH studies can be performed on native blood or bone marrow smears or in nuclei after cultivation and stimulation by a suitable mitogen. As there are only few comparative studies with partially conflicting results for the detection rates of aberrations in cultivated and native cells, this question was studied in 38 CLL cases with known aberrations in 11q22.2, 11q22.3, 12, 13q14.3, 14q32.33, 17p13.1, or 18q21.32. The obtained results implicate that iFISH directly applied on smears is in general less efficient for the detection of CLL-specific genetic abnormalities than for cultivated cells. This also shows that applied cell culture conditions are well suited for malignant CLL cells. Thus, to detect malignant aberrant cells in CLL, cell cultivation and cytogenetic workup should be performed and the obtained material should be subjected to banding cytogenetics and iFISH. PMID:27315825

  9. The reliability analysis of Xpert-positive result for smear-negative and culture-negative specimen collected from bone and joint tuberculosis suspects

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guomei; Mu, Jing; Wang, Guirong; Huo, Fengmin; Dong, Lingling; Li, Yunxu

    2016-01-01

    Background The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been widely used for pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. In clinical practice, specimen yielding smear-negative, culture-negative but Xpert-positive results is frequently confronted. Due to the notorious possibility of contamination that molecular tests always been thought of, Xpert-positive results without bacteriological supporting evidence arouse great confusions to clinicians. Methods A retrospective study was performed. From April 2014 to February 2015, 852 clinical specimens were Xpert-positive. The results of Xpert assay, bacteriological and pathological examinations from either the same specimens or from the specimens collected during same clinical operations were investigated. Results A total of 90 specimens with Xpert-positive but smear-negative and culture-negative results were recruited, and 81 of them were pus specimens collected from Bone and Joint Tuberculosis (BJTB) patients. According to the pathological examination results, 77 of the 81 pus specimens, 8 of 9 other types of specimens were confirmed as either TB or strongly suggestive of TB; three pus specimens and one biopsy tissue were also suggested TB but with less stronger evidence; only one pus specimen was not TB suggestive. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that Xpert could be trusted for BJTB diagnosis even when no supporting bacteriological evidence is available in high TB prevalence settings. Our results will alleviate the confusion among clinicians in such scenarios. PMID:27293838

  10. Effects of Group Training Based on the Health Belief Model on Knowledge and Behavior Regarding the Pap Smear Test in Iranian Women: a Quasi-Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Javad, Masoumeh Taravati; Parsa, Parisa; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2016-01-01

    The Pap smear test is recommended for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and behavior regarding the Pap smear test based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in women referred to premarital counseling classes, Hamadan, Iran. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 330 women, who were allocated randomly to two case and control groups (n=165). Two educational session classes were performed in the case group. Two stages in before and after intervention groups were evaluated. Analysis of data was performed by SPSS/16.0, using t-test, x2, and McNemar's test. P-values <0.05 were regarded as significant. There was no significant difference between the mean scores of the various structures of this model in two groups before the intervention. However, after the intervention there were significant increase in mean score of knowledge and all variables of HBM in the intervention group(<0.001). The findings of this study highlight the important role of education about cervical cancer on changing women's beliefs about cervical screening. PMID:27356705

  11. GW approximation study of late transition metal oxides: Spectral function clusters around Fermi energy as the mechanism behind smearing in momentum density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khidzir, S. M.; Ibrahim, K. N.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.

    2016-05-01

    Momentum density studies are the key tool in Fermiology in which electronic structure calculations have proven to be the integral underlying methodology. Agreements between experimental techniques such as Compton scattering experiments and conventional density functional calculations for late transition metal oxides (TMOs) prove elusive. In this work, we report improved momentum densities of late TMOs using the GW approximation (GWA) which appears to smear the momentum density creating occupancy above the Fermi break. The smearing is found to be largest for NiO and we will show that it is due to more spectra surrounding the NiO Fermi energy compared to the spectra around the Fermi energies of FeO and CoO. This highlights the importance of the positioning of the Fermi energy and the role played by the self-energy term to broaden the spectra and we elaborate on this point by comparing the GWA momentum densities to their LDA counterparts and conclude that the larger difference at the intermediate level shows that the self-energy has its largest effect in this region. We finally analyzed the quasiparticle renormalization factor and conclude that an increase of electrons in the d-orbital from FeO to NiO plays a vital role in changing the magnitude of electron correlation via the self-energy.

  12. The Effect of Four Commonly used Root Canal Irrigants on the Removal of Smear Layer: An In-vitro Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pawan; Prasad, Narayana; Darawade, Ashish; Bhagat, Shresht Kumar; Narayana, Narayana; Darawade, Pradyma

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of four commonly used chemicals in their ability to remove smear layer after instrumentation using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Seventy-five extracted single canaled teeth of roots ranging 10-12 mm in length were used for the study. Teeth were divided into 4 study groups and 1 control group of 15 teeth each. Standard access to the pulp chambers were performed with diamond burs. The lengths of the teeth were determined by the introduction of a size 15 K-file into the root canal until the tip reached the apical foramen. The working length for preparation of the canal is set 0.5 mm shorter than the measurement. Irrigation was performed using 2 ml of irrigant for every instrument change and finally rinsed using 5 ml of the respective solutions. The roots were then split with a chisel and hammer. One-half of each tooth was selected and prepared for SEM examination. After assembly on coded stubs, the specimens were placed in a vacuum chamber and sputter-coated with a 300 Å gold layer. The specimens were then analyzed using a Philips SEM XL 30. The dentinal wall of the cervical, middle and apical thirds was observed at magnifications of up to ×1000 for the presence/absence of smear layer and visualization of the entrance to dentinal tubules. Photomicrographs (×1000) of these areas on each of the coronal, middle and apical thirds were made Data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U test. Results: SEM study done on these prepared teeth with the popularly used four chemicals, namely, 3% NaOCl (Group A), 3% NaOCl followed by 17% ethylene diamine-tetra-acetic acid (Group B), 0.2% chlorhexidine (Group C) and 3% NaOCl followed by MTAD (Group D), with distilled water (Group E) which is used as control, revealed that NaOCl showed statistically significant, better cleansing effect than distilled water. Chlorhexidine and NaOCl showed equal kind of efficacy

  13. Additional role of second washing specimen obtained during single bronchoscopy session in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchial washing is a useful procedure for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), when a patient cannot produce sputum spontaneously or when sputum smears are negative. However, the benefit of gaining serial bronchial washing specimens for diagnosis of TB has not yet been studied. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to determine the diagnostic utility of additional bronchial washing specimens for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in suspected patients. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 174 patients [sputum smear-negative, n = 95 (55%); lack of sputum specimen, n = 79 (45%)] who received flexible bronchoscopy with two bronchial washing specimens with microbiological confirmation of pulmonary TB in Samsung Medical Center, between January, 2010 and December, 2011. Results Pulmonary TB was diagnosed by first bronchial washing specimen in 141 patients (81%) out of 174 enrolled patients, and an additional bronchial washing specimen established diagnosis exclusively in 22 (13%) patients. Smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) was positive in 46 patients (26%) for the first bronchial washing specimen. Thirteen patients (7%) were positive only on smear of an additional bronchial washing specimen. Combined smear positivity of the first and second bronchial washing specimens was significantly higher compared to first bronchial washing specimen alone [Total cases: 59 (34%) vs. 46 (26%), p < 0.001; cases for smear negative sputum: 25 (26%) vs. 18 (19%), p = 0.016; cases for poor expectoration: 34 (43%) vs. 28 (35%), p = 0.031]. The diagnostic yield determined by culture was also significantly higher in combination of the first and second bronchial washing specimens compared to the first bronchial washing. [Total cases: 163 (94%) vs. 141 (81%), p < 0.001; cases for smear negative sputum: 86 (91%) vs. 73 (77%), p < 0.001; cases for poor expectoration: 77 (98%) vs. 68 (86%), p = 0

  14. Sensitivity of PCR Targeting the IS2404 Insertion Sequence of Mycobacterium ulcerans in an Assay Using Punch Biopsy Specimens for Diagnosis of Buruli Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, R.; Horsfield, C.; Kuijper, S.; Lartey, A.; Tetteh, I.; Etuaful, S.; Nyamekye, B.; Awuah, P.; Nyarko, K. M.; Osei-Sarpong, F.; Lucas, S.; Kolk, A. H. J.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.

    2005-01-01

    Punch biopsy specimens from Mycobacterium ulcerans disease lesions were used to compare the sensitivities and specificities of direct smear, culture, PCR, and histopathology in making a diagnosis of M. ulcerans disease in a field setting. PCR for the insertion element IS2404 was modified to include uracil-N-glycosylase and deoxyuridine triphosphate instead of deoxythymidine triphosphate to reduce the risk of cross contamination. The “gold standard” for confirmation of clinically diagnosed Buruli ulcer was a definite histological diagnosis, a positive culture for M. ulcerans, or a smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), together with a possible histological diagnosis. For 70 clinically diagnosed cases of M. ulcerans disease, the modified PCR was 98% sensitive and gave a rapid result. The sensitivities of microscopy, culture, and histology were 42%, 49%, and 82%, respectively. The use of a 4-mm punch biopsy specimen was preferred to a 6-mm punch biopsy specimen since the wound was less likely to bleed and to need stitching. Given adequate technical expertise and the use of controls, the PCR was viable in a teaching hospital setting in Ghana; and in routine practice, we would recommend the use of Ziehl-Neelsen staining of biopsy specimens to detect AFB, followed by PCR, in AFB-negative cases only, in order to minimize costs. Histology and culture remain important as quality control tests, particularly in studies of treatment efficacy. PMID:16081892

  15. Comparative study of clinico-bacterio-radiological profile and treatment outcome of smokers and nonsmokers suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Deepti; Arora, Piyush; Meena, Manoj; Sarin, Rohit; Chakraborty, Pitambar; Jaiswal, Anand; Goyal, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide. Tobacco smoking has been linked as a risk factor for TB. This study was aimed to affirm the strength of association between smoking and pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: Pulmonary TB patients aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled and followed-up until treatment completion. Two consecutive sputum smears were examined from each patient for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl–Neelsen technique. Radiological severity of disease was assessed using guidelines of National TB Association of USA. Sputum smears for AFB were graded for positivity as per WHO Revised National TB Control Programme criteria. Response was determined in terms of sputum conversion at the end of intensive phase and final treatment outcomes. Results: Sputum smear grading of 3+ increased from 12.5% to 68.18% and 66.66% as smoking index increased from <100 to 100–299 and >300 (P < 0.05). In nonsmokers, 79.2% patients had minimal disease while only 4.2% had advanced disease as compared to smokers where 52.4% had moderate disease, 26.2% advanced disease, and 21.4% minimal disease (P < 0.01). Smokers had significantly lower treatment success rate (69%) as against nonsmokers and former smokers (93.8% and 90.9%, respectively, P = 0.001) owing to a higher default rate among smokers (28.5%) than nonsmokers (6.3%) and former smokers (9.1%). Conclusion: Smokers during initial presentation, as well as at end of the treatment demonstrate more radiological findings, cavitary disease, and worse sputum AFB smear grading. Smokers also have a poorer treatment success rate largely due to high percentage of default rate thus suggesting noncompliance as a main confounder to treatment success. Focus needs to be made to reduce defaulters which are more common among smokers. PMID:27625444

  16. Active detection of tuberculosis and paragonimiasis in the remote areas in North-Eastern India using cough as a simple indicator.

    PubMed

    Rekha Devi, Kangjam; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Deori, Rumi; Lego, Kabang; Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kumar Rajguru, Sanjib; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    One of the essential steps in targeting tuberculosis (TB) intervention is early diagnosis and treatment of patients by reducing the reservoir of infection in the community. In the North-Eastern (NE) region of India pulmonary TB and paragonimiasis are overlapping public health issues. We performed a cross-sectional study in 63 remote villages from the two states Arunachal Pradesh (AP) and Assam to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and paragonimiasis cases using cough as a simple indicator. In AP, 2961 individuals aged five years and above were examined and 1108 (37·4%) were found to have cough for one week or more. Of the 417 individuals who provided sputum, 11 (2·64%) were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). All these cases were yet undiagnosed, thus the prevalence of new smear positive TB in AP was 0·37%. In Assam on the other hand 331 (23·5%) subjects out of 1410 individuals who were examined had a cough for one week or more and of the 112 individuals who provided sputum, 13 (11·6%) were smear positive for AFB. The prevalence of new smear positive TB cases was 0·78% in Assam. Sero-positivity of paragonimiasis in coughers of AP was 7·6% (n = 1091), which was significantly higher (p < 0·01) as compared to that in Assam (1·2%, n = 321). The findings of the present study suggest that TB remains a major public health concern in the NE region of India especially in the remote places and there is need to strengthen early case detection of TB. PMID:23683370

  17. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. Setting/participants A linked data set of women aged 20–69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999–2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997–2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995–2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20–69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. Outcome measures The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. Results There were 28 872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76 831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1 372 823 women (PSR n=1 374 401; QCR n=1955), and 5 062 118 records. Conclusions Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study

  18. Estimating the efficacy of screening by auditing smear histories of women with and without cervical cancer. The National Co-ordinating Network for Cervical Screening Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    Sasieni, P. D.; Cuzick, J.; Lynch-Farmery, E.

    1996-01-01

    The screening histories of all 348 women with invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in 1992 in 24 self-selected district health authorities and health boards in England, Wales and Scotland were compared with those of 677 age- and residency-matched controls. The controls were randomly selected from the family health services authority (FHSA) register. Screening histories, comprising the dates and results of all smears taken before the date of diagnosis of the patient's cancer, were determined from the FHSA computer and laboratory records. We estimate that the number of cases of cervical cancer in participating districts in 1992 would have been 57% (95% confidence interval 28-86%) greater if there had been no previous screening. In women under the age of 70 it would have been approximately 75% (31-115%) greater. Extrapolation of the results from this pilot suggests that screening prevented between 1100 and 3900 cases of invasive cervical cancer in the UK in 1992. Women with stage 1B cancer or worse were more likely to have no record of previous screening than controls: 47% of these women under the age of 70 had been adequately screened according to current (5 yearly screening) guidelines, compared with 75% of matched controls. Thirteen per cent of all patients under age 70 had screening histories indicative of inadequate follow-up of smears requiring colposcopy. The proportion of microinvasive cases with screening predating diagnosis was similar to the proportion of controls. There was a strong correlation between stage and age: 56% of cancers in women under 35 were microinvasive compared with just 9% in women 65 years or over. The 'relative protection' following a negative smear was greatest in the first 12 months and fell off towards the end of the fifth year. These data suggest that full adherence to current guidelines could perhaps have prevented another 1250 cases, but additional steps would have been required to prevent some of the 2300 remaining cases in women

  19. Applying Sparse Machine Learning Methods to Twitter: Analysis of the 2012 Change in Pap Smear Guidelines. A Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Godbehere, Andrew; Le, Gem; El Ghaoui, Laurent; Sarkar, Urmimala

    2016-01-01

    Background It is difficult to synthesize the vast amount of textual data available from social media websites. Capturing real-world discussions via social media could provide insights into individuals’ opinions and the decision-making process. Objective We conducted a sequential mixed methods study to determine the utility of sparse machine learning techniques in summarizing Twitter dialogues. We chose a narrowly defined topic for this approach: cervical cancer discussions over a 6-month time period surrounding a change in Pap smear screening guidelines. Methods We applied statistical methodologies, known as sparse machine learning algorithms, to summarize Twitter messages about cervical cancer before and after the 2012 change in Pap smear screening guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). All messages containing the search terms “cervical cancer,” “Pap smear,” and “Pap test” were analyzed during: (1) January 1–March 13, 2012, and (2) March 14–June 30, 2012. Topic modeling was used to discern the most common topics from each time period, and determine the singular value crite