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Sample records for acid-fast intranuclear inclusion

  1. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys of mallards fed lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Irby, H.D.

    1966-01-01

    Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of mallards fed one, two, three or eight number 6 lead shot and maintained on cracked or whole corn and on grain-duck pellet diets. No acid-fast inclusion bodies were found in mallards fed one or three lead shot but maintained on a duck pellet ration. Dietary factors may be responsible for the failure of mallards fed a duck pellet ration to develop lead Inclusion bodies when treated with one or three lead shot. The authors suggest these inclusion bodies can be used as presumptive evidence for lead intoxication in mallards.

  2. Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, E.M.B.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

  3. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease in identical twins.

    PubMed

    Haltia, M; Somer, H; Palo, J; Johnson, W G

    1984-04-01

    A pair of female identical twins exhibited slurred speech, nystagmus, and oculogyral spasms starting at age 11. The patients then had episodic rage, extrapyramidal and lower motor neuron abnormalities, and grand mal seizures, but retained largely normal intelligence, until death at age 21. Severe loss of nigral and craniospinal motor neurons was noted postmortem. Round, eosinophilic, autofluorescent inclusion bodies, 3 to 10 microns in diameter, were observed in the nuclei of most nerve cell types of the central and peripheral nervous systems and retina. Ultrastructurally the inclusions appeared as masses of filaments without a limiting membrane, the constituent filaments having a diameter of 8.5 to 9.5 nm. Histochemical results suggested the presence of proteins with a high content of tryptophan. Four similar cases have been reported previously under various designations. We propose the name neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease for the disorder. PMID:6331275

  4. An unusual degenerative disorder of neurons associated with a novel intranuclear hyaline inclusion (neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusion disease). A clinicopathological study of a case.

    PubMed

    Sung, J H; Ramirez-Lassepas, M; Mastri, A R; Larkin, S M

    1980-03-01

    A 21-year-old woman with an unusual, progressive, degenerative neurological disorder is described. The disorder is characterized clinically by behavioral abnormality, peculiar involuntary movements, and ataxia starting in early childhood and subsequent development of dementia, choreoathetosis, rectal and bladder incontinence, bulbar and spinal muscular weakness, pes cavus, kyphoscoliosis, and generalized seizures. The clinical manifestations are correlated, with widespread pathological changes affecting almost all neuronal systems. The pathological changes are discussed in relation to the wide spectrum of "multisystem atrophies." Particular attention is directed to the ubiquitous occurrence of a novel intranuclear, eosinophilic, hyaline inclusion in almost all types of central, peripheral, and autonomic neurons. The ubiquitous neuronal involvement seems to explain the diffuse multiple system degeneration. The pathogenesis of the neuronal inclusions is unknown, but it is speculated that the disorder may represent a metabolic abnormality affecting the nuclear protein of neurons, rather than a viral infection. The pathological features, consisting of the neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusions associated with multiple system atrophy, have not hitherto been described, and "neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusion disease" is proposed as a name for the disorder. Rectal biopsy demonstrating the intranuclear hyaline inclusions in ganglion cells of the hyenteric plexuses may serve as a diagnostic procedure for the disorder. PMID:6154779

  5. Intranuclear inclusions in pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Murty, D A; Sodhani, P

    1993-01-01

    On reviewing extensive literature on intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions, one finds that the entity is almost synonymous with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. But over the years, normal tissue aspirates as well as aspirates from many benign and malignant tumors have revealed the presence of these vacuoles. As more and more aspirations of cervical region are being done, it is becoming evident that intranuclear vacuoles are of decreasing specificity for papillary carcinoma of thyroid. This case is probably the first case report of intranuclear vacuoles from a pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland and is being reported here for this unusual finding.

  6. Adenomatoid mesothelioma with intranuclear inclusion bodies: a case report with cytological and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshiaki; Kawashima, Katsuhiko; Serizawa, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Kyeongil, Kim

    2014-05-01

    We report a very unusual cytologic feature, intranuclear inclusion bodies, in mesothelioma of a predominantly adenomatoid type. The patient, a 57-year-old woman, was presented with dyspnea and right pleural effusion. Pleural aspiration cytology revealed many cohesive ball-like clusters, with a tubular pattern, composed of small atypical cells displaying a high-nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. They had a nuclear groove and irregular intranuclear inclusion bodies. Right lung partial resection with thoracoscopy revealed that a white tumor had proliferated along the pleural surface at S(8) . Histology revealed nodular tumor cells forming dilated structures mixed with small tubular or glandular structures similar to those seen in benign adenomatoid tumors. These tumor cells had invaded peripheral lung tissues. Such inclusion bodies have not been reported earlier in mesothelioma. On the basis of this observation, we propose that the adenomatoid type of malignant mesothelioma be added to the differential diagnosis of malignant effusions when tumor cells with nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusions are found in pleural aspiration cytology.

  7. Karyomegaly and intranuclear inclusions in the renal tubules of sentinel ICR mice (mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Baze, Wallace B; Steinbach, Thomas J; Fleetwood, Michelle L; Blanchard, Terrell W; Barnhart, Kirstin F; McArthur, Mark J

    2006-10-01

    Among 585 sentinel ICR mice (Mus musculus), 8 (7 female, 1 male) had unusual microscopic lesions in the kidney. Light microscopy revealed occasional tubular epithelial cells with large, karyomegalic nuclei that contained intranuclear inclusions and marginated chromatin. These cells were randomly present in the cortex and medulla but were more prominent near the corticomedullary junc tion. Rare pyknotic cells and mild interstitial infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells were associated with occasional foci of abnormal cells. Electron microscopy performed on 2 (1 female, 1 male) of the mice demonstrated intranuclear inclusions composed of abundant flocculent, electron-lucent material. No viral particles or other pathogens were identified. General health monitoring that included serology, microbiology, parasitology, necropsy, and histopathology was negative for pathogens. Polymerase chain reaction-based testing for polyomavirus and immunohistochemistry for adenovirus were performed on 5 of the 7 female mice; all were negative for both viruses. In light of microscopy findings and the lack of evidence for an infectious agent, the tubular lesions were considered degenerative changes, possibly due to a toxic insult. The cause and significance of the findings in these mice can not be explained fully.

  8. Memory Loss and Frontal Cognitive Dysfunction in a Patient with Adult-onset Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kunihiko; Sone, Jun; Fujioka, Yusuke; Masuda, Michihito; Ohdake, Reiko; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Sobue, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is an uncommon progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Adult-onset NIID can result in prominent dementia. We herein describe the case of a 74-year-old man who presented with dementia, cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, and autonomic dysfunction. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed hyperintensity of the corticomedullary junction. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images showed frontal-dominant white matter hyperintensity. NIID was diagnosed from the presence of intranuclear inclusions in a skin biopsy sample. Neuropsychological testing revealed memory loss and frontal cognitive dysfunction, especially in relation to language and executive functions. We were therefore able to confirm the association of NIID with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27523009

  9. Influence of fixation procedures on the microanalysis of lead-induced intranuclear inclusions in rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Vandeputte, D.F.; Jacob, W.A.; Van Grieken, R.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Using Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis (LAMMA), we studied the chemical composition of lead-induced intranuclear inclusions in rat kidney tissue prepared by three different wet chemical fixation procedures for transmission electron microscopy. Fixation with glutaraldehyde-Na2S gave the same results as fixation with glutaraldehyde only: a high lead concentration could be detected. Therefore, for lead strongly bound to proteins, precipitation procedures are not essential. Post-fixation with osmium tetroxide drastically changed the composition of the inclusions: the lead concentration decreased substantially, while sodium, calcium, and barium were introduced. The osmium tetroxide fixative was found to be the source of the contamination. It also contained aluminum, and we suggest that other proteins (e.g., in neurofibrillary tangles) might be able to take up Al out of solution and that care must be exercised in interpreting the microanalytical results of osmium-fixed material. For the microanalysis of the lead inclusions, fixation with glutaraldehyde only provides a good compromise between preservation of the ultrastructure and maintenance of the element distribution.

  10. Sporadic adult-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease with the main presentation of repeated cerebellar ataxia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeo; Harada, Seiko; Wakida, Kenji; Yoshida, Mari; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2016-06-22

    A 66-year-old woman suddenly experienced unsteadiness while walking; she had experienced the same symptom before, but it had resolved immediately. Her neurological findings showed cerebellar ataxia, absence of tendon reflex in the extremities, and orthostatic hypotension. MRI with DWI of the brain showed linear high-intensity areas at the white matter just below the cerebral cortex. Therefore, we suspected neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID). In her cutaneous skin biopsy, intranuclear inclusion bodies, which tested positive for an anti-ubiquitin antibody and anti-p62 antibody, were observed in sweat gland cells and fibroblasts; therefore, we diagnosed her with NIID. As no one in her family had similar symptoms, this was a case of sporadic NIID. Adult-onset NIID with the main presentation of cerebellar ataxia is rare; in our case, this repeated acute-onset symptom was a unique manifestation of the condition. PMID:27181748

  11. A VIRUS DISEASE OF CATS, PRINCIPALLY CHARACTERIZED BY ALEUCOCYTOSIS, ENTERIC LESIONS AND THE PRESENCE OF INTRANUCLEAR INCLUSION BODIES

    PubMed Central

    Hammon, William D.; Enders, John F.

    1939-01-01

    An acute, highly fatal epizootic disease of cats is described, which can be recognized by a fulminating and extreme leucopenia involving all types of white blood cells, aplasia of the bone marrow, including both the granulocytic and the erythrocytic series and occasionally the megakaryocytes, aplasia of lymphoid tissue, and characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the cells of the intestinal mucosa and in certain cells of the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow. The infection has been induced in healthy cats by means of bacteria-free filtrates of emulsions of the spleen of infected animals. Collateral evidence supports the conclusion that the disease is due to a virus. The pathogenicity of the infectious agent has proved thus far to be strictly limited to the natural host. PMID:19870850

  12. Studies of a nuclear matrix protein restricted to normal brain cells and lead-induced intranuclear inclusion bodies of kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, K.; Egle, P.; Redford, K.; Bigbee, J.

    1986-05-01

    A nuclear matrix protein, p32/6.3, with an unusual tissue distribution, has been identified. Protein from 21 tissues was surveyed by immunoprobing Western blots. In normal adult rats p32/6.3 is found only in grey matter from the cerebrum and the cerebellum, occurring in both neurons and astrocytes. Other brain cell types have not been examined. The protein appears to be developmentally regulated. It is detectable in the brain within a few days after birth and reaches adult levels within one to two weeks. Brain p32/6.3 has been found in all animals tested including rat, mouse, dog, cow, pig, chicken and human. This conservation indicates a fundamental role for p32/6.3 in the nucleus of brain cells. Possible functions for p32/6.3 may be indicated by a second novel occurrence. Chronic lead poisoning characteristically induces intranuclear inclusion bodies in the cells lining kidney proximal tubules. p32/6.3 is a major constituent of these inclusion bodies. They are also rich in lead and other metals including calcium, iron, zinc, copper and cadmium. These diverse observations suggest that p32/6.3 may have a role in metal homeostasis in the brain of normal animals.

  13. Neuronal ubiquitinated intranuclear inclusions in familial and non-familial frontotemporal dementia of the motor neuron disease type associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bigio, Eileen H; Johnson, Nancy A; Rademaker, Alfred W; Fung, Bing B; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Siddique, Nailah; Dellefave, Lisa; Caliendo, Janice; Freeman, Stefanie; Siddique, Teepu

    2004-08-01

    Ubiquitinated cytoplasmic inclusions (Ub-CIs) in superficial frontal cortex and dentate gyrus neurons are the hallmark of frontotemporal degeneration of the motor neuron disease-type (FTD-MND-type). To date, 2 reports have described intranuclear ubiquitinated inclusions (Ub-INIs) in 9 cases of familial FTD-MND-type (without clinical or pathologic motor neuron disease, MND). In the current study we found an additional 11 cases with Ub-INIs. We have identified for the first time among these cases 2 with a negative family history and 3 that have concomitant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The results of the present study i) confirm a previous report of significantly lower average brain weight and longer duration in cases with Ub-INIs, ii) reveal significantly greater striatal neuronal loss and gliosis in cases with intranuclear inclusions, and iii) demonstrate that intranuclear inclusions correlate with cytoplasmic inclusions and dystrophic neurites in frontal cortex and striatum but not in dentate gyrus. In addition, the current study confirms that Ub-INIs are found in familial FTD-MND-type, but also extends the presence of Ub-INIs to familial FTD-MND (with concomitant ALS), and probably also to non-familial FTD-MND-type.

  14. Atypical sporadic CJD-MM phenotype with white matter kuru plaques associated with intranuclear inclusion body and argyrophilic grain disease.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Anna S; Trummert, Anita; Unterberger, Ursula; Ströbel, Thomas; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2015-08-01

    We describe an atypical neuropathological phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 76-year-old man. The clinical symptoms were characterized by progressive dementia, gait ataxia, rigidity and urinary incontinence. The disease duration was 6 weeks. MRI did not show prominent atrophy or hyperintensities in cortical areas, striatum or thalamus. Biomarker examination of the cerebrospinal fluid deviated from that seen in pure Alzheimer's disease. Triphasic waves in the EEG were detected only later in the disease course, while 14-3-3 assay was positive. PRNP genotyping revealed methionine homozygosity (MM) at codon 129. Neuropathology showed classical CJD changes corresponding to the MM type 1 cases. However, a striking feature was the presence of abundant kuru-type plaques in the white matter. This rare morphology was associated with neuropathological signs of intranuclear inclusion body disease and advanced stage of argyrophilic grain disease. These alterations did not show correlation with each other, thus seemed to develop independently. This case further highlights the complexity of neuropathological alterations in the ageing brain.

  15. Atypical sporadic CJD-MM phenotype with white matter kuru plaques associated with intranuclear inclusion body and argyrophilic grain disease.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Anna S; Trummert, Anita; Unterberger, Ursula; Ströbel, Thomas; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2015-08-01

    We describe an atypical neuropathological phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 76-year-old man. The clinical symptoms were characterized by progressive dementia, gait ataxia, rigidity and urinary incontinence. The disease duration was 6 weeks. MRI did not show prominent atrophy or hyperintensities in cortical areas, striatum or thalamus. Biomarker examination of the cerebrospinal fluid deviated from that seen in pure Alzheimer's disease. Triphasic waves in the EEG were detected only later in the disease course, while 14-3-3 assay was positive. PRNP genotyping revealed methionine homozygosity (MM) at codon 129. Neuropathology showed classical CJD changes corresponding to the MM type 1 cases. However, a striking feature was the presence of abundant kuru-type plaques in the white matter. This rare morphology was associated with neuropathological signs of intranuclear inclusion body disease and advanced stage of argyrophilic grain disease. These alterations did not show correlation with each other, thus seemed to develop independently. This case further highlights the complexity of neuropathological alterations in the ageing brain. PMID:25783686

  16. Intranuclear Actin Regulates Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Uzer, Gunes; Thompson, William R.; Styner, Maya; Wu, Xin; Rubin, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton induces nuclear trafficking of regulatory proteins and global effects on gene transcription. We here show that in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), cytochalasin D treatment causes rapid cofilin-/importin-9-dependent transfer of G-actin into the nucleus. The continued presence of intranuclear actin, which forms rod-like structures that stain with phalloidin, is associated with induction of robust expression of the osteogenic genes osterix and osteocalcin in a Runx2-dependent manner, and leads to acquisition of osteogenic phenotype. Adipogenic differentiation also occurs, but to a lesser degree. Intranuclear actin leads to nuclear export of Yes-associated protein (YAP); maintenance of nuclear YAP inhibits Runx2 initiation of osteogenesis. Injection of cytochalasin into the tibial marrow space of live mice results in abundant bone formation within the space of 1 week. In sum, increased intranuclear actin forces MSC into osteogenic lineage through controlling Runx2 activity; this process may be useful for clinical objectives of forming bone. PMID:26140478

  17. p62 positive, TDP-43 negative, neuronal cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the cerebellum and hippocampus define the pathology of C9orf72-linked FTLD and MND/ALS.

    PubMed

    Al-Sarraj, Safa; King, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Smith, Bradley; Maekawa, Satomi; Bodi, Istvan; Rogelj, Boris; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Shaw, Christopher E

    2011-12-01

    Neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) containing phosphorylated TDP-43 (p-TDP-43) are the pathological hallmarks of motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MND/ALS) and FTLD-TDP. The vast majority of NCIs in the brain and spinal cord also label for ubiquitin and p62, however, we have previously reported a subset of TDP-43 proteinopathy patients who have unusual and abundant p62 positive, TDP-43 negative inclusions in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Here we sought to determine whether these cases carry the hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72. Repeat primer PCR was performed in 36 MND/ALS, FTLD-MND/ALS and FTLD-TDP cases and four controls. Fourteen individuals with the repeat expansion were detected. In all the 14 expansion mutation cases there were abundant globular and star-shaped p62 positive NCIs in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus, the vast majority of which were p-TDP-43 negative. p62 positive NCIs were also abundant in the cerebellar granular and molecular layers in all cases and in Purkinje cells in 12/14 cases but they were only positive for p-TDP-43 in the granular layer of one case. Abundant p62 positive, p-TDP-43 negative neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs) were seen in 12/14 cases in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus and in 6/14 cases in the cerebellar granular layer. This unusual combination of inclusions appears pathognomonic for C9orf72 repeat expansion positive MND/ALS and FTLD-TDP which we believe form a pathologically distinct subset of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Our results suggest that proteins other than TDP-43 are binding p62 and aggregating in response to the mutation which may play a mechanistic role in neurodegeneration. PMID:22101323

  18. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-01-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol. Images PMID:7687254

  19. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-06-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol.

  20. Differential staining of bacteria: acid fast stain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jackie; Moyes, Rita B; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Acid-fastness is an uncommon characteristic shared by the genera Mycobacterium (Section 10A) and Nocardia. Because of this feature, this stain is extremely helpful in identification of these bacteria. Although Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria do not take the crystal violet into the wall well, appearing very light purple rather than the deep purple of normal Gram-positive bacteria.

  1. Intranuclear bundles of microfilaments and microtubules in chromaffin cells of the auricle of the heart of a lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, D W; Adriaensen, D; De Groodt-Lasseel, M H

    1988-01-01

    Intranuclear microtubular-microfilamentous rod-like inclusions were investigated in chromaffin cells of the auricle of the heart of lungfishes. In conventional electron microscopy, these inclusions reveal a wide variety in appearance, depending on their orientation to the plane of sectioning. Whereas originally they were merely interpreted as a bundle of microfilaments, application of a goniometer stage showed the rod- or spindle-shaped intranuclear inclusions to have a basic substructure of parallel arranged microtubules among microfilaments, which are clearly connected to chromatin granules, occasionally penetrating dense areas of chromatin. The chemical nature and biological significance of these structures, which so far remain enigmatic, are discussed. PMID:3227775

  2. Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme journal issue focuses on current activities of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services which stress inclusion of students with disabilities in the mainstream. It begins with a message from the Assistant Secretary, Robert R. Davila which examines the full meaning of an "inclusive" education. Next, Barbara Buswell and…

  3. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  4. Intranuclear rods myopathy with autonomic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chou, Po-Ching; Liang, Wen-Chen; Nonaka, Ikuya; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Nishino, Ichizo; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2013-08-01

    Intranuclear rods myopathy (IRM), a variant of nemaline myopathy (NM), is characterized by rod structure in the myonuclei. Patients with IRM present with similar symptoms to those of severe infantile-type NM but have worse outcome. Several extramuscular manifestations have been reported in NM but no dysautonomia. We herein report a 2-year-old girl with IRM and a heterozygous mutation, c.430C>T (p.L144F) in ACTA1. During the infancy, the patient showed severe diaphoresis and facial flushing. Arrhythmia and hypertension with the precipitating factors of feeding, defecation, and urination were observed. Sympathetic antagonist was prescribed and showed some effectiveness. Our report may widen the clinical spectrum of IRM. It also reminds clinicians that autonomic dysfunction may occur in patients with IRM or other actinopathies and appropriate treatment may be necessary. PMID:23102861

  5. Inclusion body hepatitis in kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of suspected adenovirus etiology was the apparent cause of death of 9 captive kestrels (Falco sparverius). Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion; disseminated hepatocellular necrosis and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Attempts to reproduce the disease, and to propagate and serologically characterize the agent were unsuccessful.

  6. [INTRANUCLEAR UBIQUITIN-IMMUNOPOSITIVE STRUCTURES OF THE HUMAN SUBSTANTIA NIGRA NEURONS].

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, I P; Korzhevskii, D E; Sukhorukova, E G; Gusel'nikova, V V; Kirik, O V

    2015-01-01

    Marinesco bodies were discovered in the human substantia nigra neurons in 1902. However, relationships these intranuclear inclusions with other cell nuclear structures remains obscured yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate morphological and cytochemical peculiarities of these ubiquitin-immunopositive intranuclear bodies in neurons of the human substantia nigra and the character of their relationships with the nucleolus using light microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and confocal laser microscopy. It has been established that up to 20 % of the neurons of the substantia nigra contain ubiquitin-immunopositive Marinesco bodies. Only a third of them were closely adjacent to the nucleolus. Using a method of silver impregnation of argentophilic proteins associated with nuclear organizer, the lack of the argentophilic proteins typical for the nucleolus has been shown in the Marinesco bodies. We have found some specific ubiquitin-positive structures in the nuclei of neurons in addition to Marinesco bodies. These structures having less than 1 μm in size are supposedly the initial forms of the Marinesco bodies. Confocal laser microscopy has revealed two types of the ubiquitin-immunopositive intranuclear bodies--with high and low immunofluorescence, while the latter shows heterogeneity in distribution of the immunopositive product. With the use of a fluorescent dye SYTOX Green, the presence of DNA has been revealed in the Marinesco bodies. The absence of the peripheral zone of heterochromatin and poor perception of toluidine blue in combination with the DNA presence and loss of argentophilic proteins strongly suggest significant structural and chemical differences between Marinesco bodies and nucleoli and argue against the view that the revealed bodies may be changed nucleoli.

  7. Intranuclear bacteria: inside the cellular control center of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Frederik; Horn, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Intracellular bacteria including major pathogens live in the cytoplasm or in cytoplasmic vacuoles within their host cell. However, some can invade more unusual intracellular niches such as the eukaryotic nucleus. Phylogenetically diverse intranuclear bacteria have been discovered in various protist, arthropod, marine invertebrate, and mammalian hosts. Although targeting the same cellular compartment, they have apparently developed fundamentally-different infection strategies. The nucleus provides a rich pool of nutrients and protection against host cytoplasmic defense mechanisms; intranuclear bacteria can directly manipulate the host by interfering with nuclear processes. The impact on their host cells ranges from stable associations with a neutral or beneficial effect on host fitness to rapid host lysis. The analysis of the intranuclear lifestyle will extend our current framework for understanding host-pathogen interactions.

  8. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Parmley, R T; Crist, W M; Roper, M; Takagi, M; Austin, R L

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multipole microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment. PMID:7306702

  9. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

  10. Preparation of acid-fast microscopy smears for proficiency testing and quality control.

    PubMed Central

    Smithwick, R W; Stratigos, C B

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for preparing smears for proficiency testing and quality control in acid-fast microscopy. The work was prompted by the increased demand for acid-fast bacilli positive smears with characteristic microscopic appearance and among-smear uniformity. PMID:353070

  11. Salmonid intranuclear microsporidosis: Chapter 3.2.17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, Ronald P.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Kurobe, Tomofumi

    2012-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intra-nuclear microsporidian parasite in the family Enterocytozoonidae (Docker et al. 1997). Prespore stages of the parasite were first observed among adult and then juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by Elston et al. (1987) and Morrison et al. (1990), respectively in Washington, U.S.A. The microsporidian nature of the parasite was subsequently confirmed by the observation of spores in lymphoblasts of juvenile Chinook salmon from California (Hedrick et al. 1991). The principal target cell for N. salmonis are hematopoietic cells which, upon infection, undergo proliferative changes leading to a leukemia-like condition with an accompanying anemia (Wongtavatchai et al. 1995). 

  12. Nuclear protein accumulation by facilitated transport and intranuclear binding.

    PubMed

    Paine, P L

    1993-10-01

    Nuclear proteins are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus via nuclear envelope pore complexes (NPCs). At the molecular level, the mechanisms responsible for this transport remain obscure. However, it is known that, for many proteins, the process requires ATP and proceeds against formidable nucleocytoplasmic concentration gradients. Therefore, the NPC is often thought of as an active transport site. In this article, Philip Paine presents the alternative hypothesis that, on current evidence, protein translocation across the nuclear envelope and accumulation in the nucleus can equally well be explained by facilitated transport through the NPC and subsequent intranuclear binding.

  13. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Lisa M.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  14. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  15. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-11-13

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions.

  16. Intranuclear DNA density affects chromosome condensation in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuki; Iwabuchi, Mari; Ohsumi, Keita; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2013-08-01

    Chromosome condensation is critical for accurate inheritance of genetic information. The degree of condensation, which is reflected in the size of the condensed chromosomes during mitosis, is not constant. It is differentially regulated in embryonic and somatic cells. In addition to the developmentally programmed regulation of chromosome condensation, there may be adaptive regulation based on spatial parameters such as genomic length or cell size. We propose that chromosome condensation is affected by a spatial parameter called the chromosome amount per nuclear space, or "intranuclear DNA density." Using Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we show that condensed chromosome sizes vary during early embryogenesis. Of importance, changing DNA content to haploid or polyploid changes the condensed chromosome size, even at the same developmental stage. Condensed chromosome size correlates with interphase nuclear size. Finally, a reduction in nuclear size in a cell-free system from Xenopus laevis eggs resulted in reduced condensed chromosome sizes. These data support the hypothesis that intranuclear DNA density regulates chromosome condensation. This suggests an adaptive mode of chromosome condensation regulation in metazoans.

  17. Intranuclear DNA density affects chromosome condensation in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yuki; Iwabuchi, Mari; Ohsumi, Keita; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome condensation is critical for accurate inheritance of genetic information. The degree of condensation, which is reflected in the size of the condensed chromosomes during mitosis, is not constant. It is differentially regulated in embryonic and somatic cells. In addition to the developmentally programmed regulation of chromosome condensation, there may be adaptive regulation based on spatial parameters such as genomic length or cell size. We propose that chromosome condensation is affected by a spatial parameter called the chromosome amount per nuclear space, or “intranuclear DNA density.” Using Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we show that condensed chromosome sizes vary during early embryogenesis. Of importance, changing DNA content to haploid or polyploid changes the condensed chromosome size, even at the same developmental stage. Condensed chromosome size correlates with interphase nuclear size. Finally, a reduction in nuclear size in a cell-free system from Xenopus laevis eggs resulted in reduced condensed chromosome sizes. These data support the hypothesis that intranuclear DNA density regulates chromosome condensation. This suggests an adaptive mode of chromosome condensation regulation in metazoans. PMID:23783035

  18. Intranuclear dynamics of the Nup107-160 complex

    PubMed Central

    Morchoisne-Bolhy, Stéphanie; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Bouhlel, Imène B.; Alves, Annabelle; Audugé, Nicolas; Baudin, Xavier; Van Bortle, Kevin; Powers, Maureen A.; Doye, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Nup98 is a glycine-leucine-phenylalanine-glycine (GLFG) repeat–containing nucleoporin that, in addition to nuclear transport, contributes to multiple aspects of gene regulation. Previous studies revealed its dynamic localization within intranuclear structures known as GLFG bodies. Here we show that the mammalian Nup107-160 complex (Y-complex), a major scaffold module of the nuclear pore, together with its partner Elys, colocalizes with Nup98 in GLFG bodies. The frequency and size of GLFG bodies vary among HeLa sublines, and we find that an increased level of Nup98 is associated with the presence of bodies. Recruitment of the Y-complex and Elys into GLFG bodies requires the C-terminal domain of Nup98. During cell division, Y-Nup–containing GLFG bodies are disassembled in mitotic prophase, significantly ahead of nuclear pore disassembly. FRAP studies revealed that, unlike at nuclear pores, the Y-complex shuttles into and out of GLFG bodies. Finally, we show that within the nucleoplasm, a fraction of Nup107, a key component of the Y-complex, displays reduced mobility, suggesting interaction with other nuclear components. Together our data uncover a previously neglected intranuclear pool of the Y-complex that may underscore a yet-uncharacterized function of these nucleoporins inside the nucleus, even in cells that contain no detectable GLFG bodies. PMID:25904327

  19. Intranuclear dynamics of the Nup107-160 complex.

    PubMed

    Morchoisne-Bolhy, Stéphanie; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Bouhlel, Imène B; Alves, Annabelle; Audugé, Nicolas; Baudin, Xavier; Van Bortle, Kevin; Powers, Maureen A; Doye, Valérie

    2015-06-15

    Nup98 is a glycine-leucine-phenylalanine-glycine (GLFG) repeat-containing nucleoporin that, in addition to nuclear transport, contributes to multiple aspects of gene regulation. Previous studies revealed its dynamic localization within intranuclear structures known as GLFG bodies. Here we show that the mammalian Nup107-160 complex (Y-complex), a major scaffold module of the nuclear pore, together with its partner Elys, colocalizes with Nup98 in GLFG bodies. The frequency and size of GLFG bodies vary among HeLa sublines, and we find that an increased level of Nup98 is associated with the presence of bodies. Recruitment of the Y-complex and Elys into GLFG bodies requires the C-terminal domain of Nup98. During cell division, Y-Nup-containing GLFG bodies are disassembled in mitotic prophase, significantly ahead of nuclear pore disassembly. FRAP studies revealed that, unlike at nuclear pores, the Y-complex shuttles into and out of GLFG bodies. Finally, we show that within the nucleoplasm, a fraction of Nup107, a key component of the Y-complex, displays reduced mobility, suggesting interaction with other nuclear components. Together our data uncover a previously neglected intranuclear pool of the Y-complex that may underscore a yet-uncharacterized function of these nucleoporins inside the nucleus, even in cells that contain no detectable GLFG bodies.

  20. Acid-fast bacilli in sputum: a case of Legionella micdadei pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, E; Freedman, R A; Cintron, F; Isenberg, H D; Singer, C

    1986-01-01

    Legionella micdadei has been implicated as a cause of nosocomial pneumonia. There are no reports of L. micdadei pneumonia diagnosed by acid-fast stain of expectorated sputum. We report a case of L. micdadei pneumonia in which expectorated sputum harbored acid-fast bacteria that reacted specifically with fluorescent antiserum to L. micdadei, confirmed by culture. In a patient at risk for nosocomial infection, the differential diagnosis of a positive sputum stain for acid-fast bacilli should include L. micdadei in addition to mycobacteria. Therapy for L. micdadei infection should be considered pending confirmation of the diagnosis. Images PMID:2430995

  1. Congenital myopathy with abundant ring fibres, rimmed vacuoles and inclusion body myositis-type inclusions.

    PubMed

    Fidziańska, A; Kamińska, A

    2003-02-01

    We report a 17-year-old girl with an unusual neuromuscular disorder characterised by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness whose muscle biopsy showed multiple ring fibres and numerous rimmed vacuoles as well as intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions of the inclusion body myositis-type. The clinical features of the presented case, manifested by the onset of the disease in early childhood, delayed motor development, short stature, lordosis and joint contractures were suggestive of congenital myopathy. The coexistence of ring fibres, rimmed vacuoles and inclusion-body myositis-type inclusions in a child with congenital myopathy has not been previously reported.

  2. NSort/DB: an intranuclear compartment protein database.

    PubMed

    Willadsen, Kai; Mohamad, Nurul; Bodén, Mikael

    2012-08-01

    Distinct substructures within the nucleus are associated with a wide variety of important nuclear processes. Structures such as chromatin and nuclear pores have specific roles, while others such as Cajal bodies are more functionally varied. Understanding the roles of these membraneless intra-nuclear compartments requires extensive data sets covering nuclear and compartment-associated proteins. NSort/DB is a database providing access to intra- or sub-nuclear compartment associations for the mouse nuclear proteome. Based on resources ranging from large-scale curated data sets to detailed experiments, this data set provides a high-quality set of annotations of non-exclusive association of nuclear proteins with structures such as promyelocytic leukaemia bodies and chromatin. The database is searchable by protein identifier or compartment, and has a documented web service API. The search interface, web service and data download are all freely available online at http://www.nsort.org/db/. Availability of this data set will enable systematic analyses of the protein complements of nuclear compartments, improving our understanding of the diverse functional repertoire of these structures.

  3. Intranuclear localization and UV response of ERCC5/XPG protein

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M.S.; Marrone, B.L.; MacInnes, M.A.

    1995-11-01

    The human ERCC5/XPG protein is defective in the hereditary genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum, group-G. The XPG gene encodes a single-strand DNA endonuclease which is essential for the incision step of nucleotide excision repair for a wide variety of DNA damages. We have shown previously by indirect immunofluorescence and biochemical fractionation that the XPG protein is localized in the nucleus, in discrete foci, and probably associated with the nuclear matrix. However, the intranuclear localization of XPG is markedly altered for a short time after UV irradiation. Here, we report the identification of XPG protein regions involved in the UV response, and its putative nuclear localization signals (NLS) using a B-galactosidase (B-gal) reporter gene system. Control and fusion reporter genes were expressed in Hela S3 cells after CaPO{sub 4} transfection. B-gal protein was detected by indirect immuno-fluorescence using an anti B-gal monoclonal antibody and FITC-labeled goat anti-mouse antiserum. Two NLS peptides of the XPG carboxy-terminal region (AA 1029-1069 and 1146-1186 term) were shown to independently localize B-gal fusion proteins to the nucleus (>90%). The C-terminus peptide was observed to further localize B-gal into nuclear foci and the perinucleolar regions. When B-gal was fused with two copies of the C-terminal NLS, in tandem, B-gal was extensively sublocalized to the perinucleolar regions. Shortly after cell UV irradiation (5 J/m{sup 2}) this B-gal fusion protein became dissociated from the perinucleolar regions whereupon it was distributed throughout the nucleus. Within 6 hours post-irradiation, the fusion protein reassociated again with the perinucleolar regions. These observations confirm and extend a similar UV response of endogenous XPG protein in UV-irradiation human cells. The involvement of XPG protein and its UV responses will be discussed in context of models nuclear matrix and preferential DNA repair in actively transcribed genes.

  4. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  5. Renal pathophysiologic role of cortical tubular inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Stewart, Zachary S; Grzemski, Felicity A; Bobrowski, Walter F

    2013-01-01

    Renal tubular inclusion bodies are rarely associated with drug administration. The authors describe the finding of renal cortical tubular intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with the oral administration of a norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor (NSRI) test article in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were given an NSRI daily for 4 weeks, and kidney histopathologic, ultrastructural pathology, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Round eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed histologically in the tubular epithelial cells of the renal cortex in male and female SD rats given the NSRI compound. No evidence of degeneration or necrosis was noted in the inclusion-containing renal cells. By ultrastructural pathology, inclusion bodies consisted of finely granular, amorphous, and uniformly stained nonmembrane-bound material. By immunohistochemistry, inclusion bodies stained positive for d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) protein. In addition, similar inclusion bodies were noted in the cytoplasmic tubular epithelial compartment by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination.  This is the first description of these renal inclusion bodies after an NSRI test article administration in SD rats. Such drug-induced renal inclusion bodies are rat-specific, do not represent an expression of nephrotoxicity, represent altered metabolism of d-amino acids, and are not relevant to human safety risk assessment.

  6. Oxidative DNA Damage Mediated by Intranuclear MMP Activity Is Associated with Neuronal Apoptosis in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kimura-Ohba, Shihoko

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the pathological roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in various neurological disorders has made them attractive therapeutic targets. MMPs disrupt the blood-brain barrier and cause neuronal death and neuroinflammation in acute cerebral ischemia and are critical for angiogenesis during recovery. However, some challenges have to be overcome before MMPs can be further validated as drug targets in stroke injury. Identifying in vivo substrates of MMPs should greatly improve our understanding of the mechanisms of ischemic injury and is critical for providing more precise drug targets. Recent works have uncovered nontraditional roles for MMPs in the cytosol and nucleus. These have shed light on intracellular targets and biological actions of MMPs, adding additional layers of complexity for therapeutic MMP inhibition. In this review, we discussed the recent advances made in understanding nuclear location of MMPs, their regulation of intranuclear sorting, and their intranuclear proteolytic activity and substrates. In particular, we highlighted the roles of intranuclear MMPs in oxidative DNA damage, neuronal apoptosis, and neuroinflammation at an early stage of stroke insult. These novel data point to new putative MMP-mediated intranuclear actions in stroke-induced pathological processes and may lead to novel approaches to treatment of stroke and other neurological diseases. PMID:26925194

  7. Disruption of NAD+ binding site in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase affects its intranuclear interactions

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Manali; Krynetskaia, Natalia; Mishra, Anurag; Barrero, Carlos; Merali, Salim; Gothe, Scott A; Krynetskiy, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To characterize phosphorylation of human glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and mobility of GAPDH in cancer cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents. METHODS: We used proteomics analysis to detect and characterize phosphorylation sites within human GAPDH. Site-specific mutagenesis and alanine scanning was then performed to evaluate functional significance of phosphorylation sites in the GAPDH polypeptide chain. Enzymatic properties of mutated GAPDH variants were assessed using kinetic studies. Intranuclear dynamics parameters (diffusion coefficient and the immobile fraction) were estimated using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments and confocal microscopy. Molecular modeling experiments were performed to estimate the effects of mutations on NAD+ cofactor binding. RESULTS: Using MALDI-TOF analysis, we identified novel phosphorylation sites within the NAD+ binding center of GAPDH at Y94, S98, and T99. Using polyclonal antibody specific to phospho-T99-containing peptide within GAPDH, we demonstrated accumulation of phospho-T99-GAPDH in the nuclear fractions of A549, HCT116, and SW48 cancer cells after cytotoxic stress. We performed site-mutagenesis, and estimated enzymatic properties, intranuclear distribution, and intranuclear mobility of GAPDH mutated variants. Site-mutagenesis at positions S98 and T99 in the NAD+ binding center reduced enzymatic activity of GAPDH due to decreased affinity to NAD+ (Km = 741 ± 257 μmol/L in T99I vs 57 ± 11.1 µmol/L in wild type GAPDH. Molecular modeling experiments revealed the effect of mutations on NAD+ binding with GAPDH. FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching) analysis showed that mutations in NAD+ binding center of GAPDH abrogated its intranuclear interactions. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest an important functional role of phosphorylated amino acids in the NAD+ binding center in GAPDH interactions with its intranuclear partners. PMID:26629320

  8. Bleach processed smear for Acid fast bacilli staining in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Makaen, Johnson; Maure, Tobbias

    2014-01-01

    The conventional method of processing sputum for acid fast bacilli microscopy has been a primary tool for laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea. In routine preparation, untreated sputum is directly smeared on a glass slide without undergoing any stage of processing. Mounting evidence suggests that direct smearing is less sensitive and, to a certain degree, compromises infection control. A few alternatives for processing sputum have been recommended in the literature; however, their consumables are not easily accessible and are expensive for wide use in rural laboratories. The bleach concentration and processing method appears to be the most preferable choice because bleach is inexpensive, readily available, and has bactericidal properties.

  9. Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase

  10. Nucleospora cyclopteri n. sp., an intranuclear microsporidian infecting wild lumpfish, Cyclopterus lumpus L., in Icelandic waters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Commercial fisheries of lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus have been carried out in Iceland for centuries. Traditionally the most valuable part is the eggs which are harvested for use as a caviar substitute. Previously reported parasitic infections from lumpfish include an undescribed intranuclear microsporidian associated with abnormal kidneys and mortalities in captive lumpfish in Canada. During Icelandic lumpfish fisheries in spring 2011, extensive enlargements to the kidneys were observed in some fish during processing. The aim of this study was to identify the pathogen responsible for these abnormalities. Methods Lumpfish from the Icelandic coast were examined for the causative agent of kidney enlargement. Fish were dissected and used in histological and molecular studies. Results Lumpfish, with various grades of clinical signs, were observed at 12 of the 43 sites sampled around Iceland. From a total of 77 fish examined, 18 had clear clinical signs, the most prominent of which was an extensive enlargement and pallor of the kidneys. The histopathology of the most severely affected fish consisted of extensive degeneration and necrosis of kidney tubules and vacuolar degeneration of the haematopoietic tissue. Intranuclear microsporidians were detected in all organs examined in fish with prominent clinical signs and most organs of apparently healthy fish using the new PCR and histological examination. One or multiple uniformly oval shaped spores measuring 3.12 ± 0.15 × 1.30 ± 0.12 μm were observed in the nucleus of affected lymphocytes and lymphocyte precursor cells. DNA sequencing provided a ribosomal DNA sequence that was strongly supported in phylogenetic analyses in a clade containing other microsporidian parasites from the Enterocytozoonidae, showing highest similarity to the intranuclear microsporidian Nucleospora salmonis. Conclusions Intranuclear microsporidian infections are common in wild caught lumpfish from around the Icelandic

  11. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac76 is involved in intranuclear microvesicle formation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaoyang; Yuan, Meijin; Wu, Wenbi; Liu, Chao; Yang, Kai; Pang, Yi

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we characterized Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf76 (ac76), which is a highly conserved gene of unknown function in lepidopteran baculoviruses. Transcriptional analysis of ac76 revealed that transcription of multiple overlapping multicistronic transcripts initiates from a canonical TAAG late-transcription start motif but terminates at different 3' ends at 24 h postinfection in AcMNPV-infected Sf9 cells. To investigate the role of ac76 in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac76-knockout virus was constructed using an AcMNPV bacmid system. Microscopy, titration assays, and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the resulting ac76-knockout virus was unable to produce budded viruses. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that ac76 deletion did not affect viral DNA synthesis. Electron microscopy showed that virus-induced intranuclear microvesicles as well as occlusion-derived virions were never observed in cells transfected with the ac76-knockout virus. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that Ac76 was predominantly localized to the ring zone of nuclei during the late phase of infection. This suggests that ac76 plays a role in intranuclear microvesicle formation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first baculovirus gene identified to be involved in intranuclear microvesicle formation.

  12. The intranuclear mobility of messenger RNA binding proteins is ATP dependent and temperature sensitive.

    PubMed

    Calapez, Alexandre; Pereira, Henrique M; Calado, Angelo; Braga, José; Rino, José; Carvalho, Célia; Tavanez, João Paulo; Wahle, Elmar; Rosa, Agostinho C; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    2002-12-01

    After being released from transcription sites, messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) must reach the nuclear pore complexes in order to be translocated to the cytoplasm. Whether the intranuclear movement of mRNPs results largely from Brownian motion or involves molecular motors remains unknown. Here we have used quantitative photobleaching techniques to monitor the intranuclear mobility of protein components of mRNPs tagged with GFP. The results show that the diffusion coefficients of the poly(A)-binding protein II (PABP2) and the export factor TAP are significantly reduced when these proteins are bound to mRNP complexes, as compared with nonbound proteins. The data further show that the mobility of wild-type PABP2 and TAP, but not of a point mutant variant of PABP2 that fails to bind to RNA, is significantly reduced when cells are ATP depleted or incubated at 22 degrees C. Energy depletion has only minor effects on the intranuclear mobility of a 2,000-kD dextran (which corresponds approximately in size to 40S mRNP particles), suggesting that the reduced mobility of PABP2 and TAP is not caused by a general alteration of the nuclear environment. Taken together, the data suggest that the mobility of mRNPs in the living cell nucleus involves a combination of passive diffusion and ATP-dependent processes.

  13. The intranuclear mobility of messenger RNA binding proteins is ATP dependent and temperature sensitive

    PubMed Central

    Calapez, Alexandre; Pereira, Henrique M.; Calado, Angelo; Braga, José; Rino, José; Carvalho, Célia; Tavanez, João Paulo; Wahle, Elmar; Rosa, Agostinho C.; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    2002-01-01

    fAter being released from transcription sites, messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) must reach the nuclear pore complexes in order to be translocated to the cytoplasm. Whether the intranuclear movement of mRNPs results largely from Brownian motion or involves molecular motors remains unknown. Here we have used quantitative photobleaching techniques to monitor the intranuclear mobility of protein components of mRNPs tagged with GFP. The results show that the diffusion coefficients of the poly(A)-binding protein II (PABP2) and the export factor TAP are significantly reduced when these proteins are bound to mRNP complexes, as compared with nonbound proteins. The data further show that the mobility of wild-type PABP2 and TAP, but not of a point mutant variant of PABP2 that fails to bind to RNA, is significantly reduced when cells are ATP depleted or incubated at 22°C. Energy depletion has only minor effects on the intranuclear mobility of a 2,000-kD dextran (which corresponds approximately in size to 40S mRNP particles), suggesting that the reduced mobility of PABP2 and TAP is not caused by a general alteration of the nuclear environment. Taken together, the data suggest that the mobility of mRNPs in the living cell nucleus involves a combination of passive diffusion and ATP-dependent processes. PMID:12473688

  14. The Inclusive Classroom: How Inclusive Is Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Claudette M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the position that inclusion is limited; inclusion does not go far enough. The inclusive classroom has been assessed to be of benefit both to the teacher and student. There are, however, limits set on inclusion. In most classrooms only children with learning disability are included omitting those with severe disabilities,…

  15. Compartmentalization and Functionality of Nuclear Disorder: Intrinsic Disorder and Protein-Protein Interactions in Intra-Nuclear Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanchi; Na, Insung; Kurgan, Lukasz; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    The cell nucleus contains a number of membrane-less organelles or intra-nuclear compartments. These compartments are dynamic structures representing liquid-droplet phases which are only slightly denser than the bulk intra-nuclear fluid. They possess different functions, have diverse morphologies, and are typically composed of RNA (or, in some cases, DNA) and proteins. We analyzed 3005 mouse proteins localized in specific intra-nuclear organelles, such as nucleolus, chromatin, Cajal bodies, nuclear speckles, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, and perinuclear compartment and compared them with ~29,863 non-nuclear proteins from mouse proteome. Our analysis revealed that intrinsic disorder is enriched in the majority of intra-nuclear compartments, except for the nuclear pore and lamina. These compartments are depleted in proteins that lack disordered domains and enriched in proteins that have multiple disordered domains. Moonlighting proteins found in multiple intra-nuclear compartments are more likely to have multiple disordered domains. Protein-protein interaction networks in the intra-nuclear compartments are denser and include more hubs compared to the non-nuclear proteins. Hubs in the intra-nuclear compartments (except for the nuclear pore) are enriched in disorder compared with non-nuclear hubs and non-nuclear proteins. Therefore, our work provides support to the idea of the functional importance of intrinsic disorder in the cell nucleus and shows that many proteins associated with sub-nuclear organelles in nuclei of mouse cells are enriched in disorder. This high level of disorder in the mouse nuclear proteins defines their ability to serve as very promiscuous binders, possessing both large quantities of potential disorder-based interaction sites and the ability of a single such site to be involved in a large number of interactions. PMID:26712748

  16. Compartmentalization and Functionality of Nuclear Disorder: Intrinsic Disorder and Protein-Protein Interactions in Intra-Nuclear Compartments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanchi; Na, Insung; Kurgan, Lukasz; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-12-25

    The cell nucleus contains a number of membrane-less organelles or intra-nuclear compartments. These compartments are dynamic structures representing liquid-droplet phases which are only slightly denser than the bulk intra-nuclear fluid. They possess different functions, have diverse morphologies, and are typically composed of RNA (or, in some cases, DNA) and proteins. We analyzed 3005 mouse proteins localized in specific intra-nuclear organelles, such as nucleolus, chromatin, Cajal bodies, nuclear speckles, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, and perinuclear compartment and compared them with ~29,863 non-nuclear proteins from mouse proteome. Our analysis revealed that intrinsic disorder is enriched in the majority of intra-nuclear compartments, except for the nuclear pore and lamina. These compartments are depleted in proteins that lack disordered domains and enriched in proteins that have multiple disordered domains. Moonlighting proteins found in multiple intra-nuclear compartments are more likely to have multiple disordered domains. Protein-protein interaction networks in the intra-nuclear compartments are denser and include more hubs compared to the non-nuclear proteins. Hubs in the intra-nuclear compartments (except for the nuclear pore) are enriched in disorder compared with non-nuclear hubs and non-nuclear proteins. Therefore, our work provides support to the idea of the functional importance of intrinsic disorder in the cell nucleus and shows that many proteins associated with sub-nuclear organelles in nuclei of mouse cells are enriched in disorder. This high level of disorder in the mouse nuclear proteins defines their ability to serve as very promiscuous binders, possessing both large quantities of potential disorder-based interaction sites and the ability of a single such site to be involved in a large number of interactions.

  17. Inclusion body disease (herpesvirus infection) of falcons (IBDF).

    PubMed

    Graham, D L; Mare, C J; Ward, F P; Peckham, M C

    1975-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of falcons (IBDF) is caused by a herpesvirus. The clinical course is short, 24 to 72 hours in duration, and is characterized by mild to severe depression and weakness often accompanied by anorexia. The disease is invariably fatal. The virus has a marked affinity for the reticuloendothelial system and hepatocytes,producing focal to diffuse necrosis of infected tissues accompanied by the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies. The virus is pathogenic for American kestrels (Falco sparverius) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) in which typical lesions of IBDF are reproduced. The lesions of IBDF are similar to those produced by some herpesvirus infections in other avian species. PMID:163383

  18. Inclusion body disease (herpesvirus infection) of falcons (IBDF).

    PubMed

    Graham, D L; Mare, C J; Ward, F P; Peckham, M C

    1975-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of falcons (IBDF) is caused by a herpesvirus. The clinical course is short, 24 to 72 hours in duration, and is characterized by mild to severe depression and weakness often accompanied by anorexia. The disease is invariably fatal. The virus has a marked affinity for the reticuloendothelial system and hepatocytes,producing focal to diffuse necrosis of infected tissues accompanied by the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies. The virus is pathogenic for American kestrels (Falco sparverius) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) in which typical lesions of IBDF are reproduced. The lesions of IBDF are similar to those produced by some herpesvirus infections in other avian species.

  19. Fite stain positivity in Rhodococcus equi: yet another acid-fast organism in respiratory cytology--a case report.

    PubMed

    Echeverri, C; Matherne, J; Jorgensen, J H; Fowler, L J

    2001-04-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an aerobic Gram-positive and acid-fast coccobacillus that may cause cavitary pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts such as HIV-infected patients. Numerous Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS)-positive organisms were initially noted on the direct smear; a minor number of acid-fast organisms were seen in the Thin-Prep slide. Since the abundant mucous material with the attached organisms seen in conventional smears may be lost in liquid-based preparations, more sensitive stains such as Fite, as well as a more diligent search for organisms, is needed. This case illustrates the importance of careful selection and evaluation of special stains in sputum specimens.

  20. A new acid-fast trichrome stain for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidial species in stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Ignatius, R; Lehmann, M; Miksits, K; Regnath, T; Arvand, M; Engelmann, E; Futh, U; Hahn, H; Wagner, J

    1997-02-01

    The detection in stool specimens of Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia, the most frequent parasitic pathogens causing diarrhea in AIDS patients, until now has depended on two different staining methods. However, since double infections occur and minimization of laboratory costs is mandatory, development of a method for simultaneous detection of these parasites appeared desirable. We report on a new, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform staining procedure to demonstrate both acid-fast oocysts of C. parvum and other coccidia, as well as microsporidial spores. This acid-fast trichrome stain yields results comparable to those obtained by the Kinyoun and modified trichrome methods and considerably reduces the time necessary for microscopic examination.

  1. Widespread occurrence of an intranuclear bacterial parasite in vent and seep bathymodiolin mussels.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Frank U; Pernthaler, Annelie; Duperron, Sébastien; Raggi, Luciana; Giere, Olav; Borowski, Christian; Dubilier, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    Many parasitic bacteria live in the cytoplasm of multicellular animals, but only a few are known to regularly invade their nuclei. In this study, we describe the novel bacterial parasite "Candidatus Endonucleobacter bathymodioli" that invades the nuclei of deep-sea bathymodiolin mussels from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Bathymodiolin mussels are well known for their symbiotic associations with sulfur- and methane-oxidizing bacteria. In contrast, the parasitic bacteria of vent and seep animals have received little attention despite their potential importance for deep-sea ecosystems. We first discovered the intranuclear parasite "Ca. E. bathymodioli" in Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis from the Logatchev hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Using primers and probes specific to "Ca. E. bathymodioli" we found this intranuclear parasite in at least six other bathymodiolin species from vents and seeps around the world. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy analyses of the developmental cycle of "Ca. E. bathymodioli" showed that the infection of a nucleus begins with a single rod-shaped bacterium which grows to an unseptated filament of up to 20 microm length and then divides repeatedly until the nucleus is filled with up to 80,000 bacteria. The greatly swollen nucleus destroys its host cell and the bacteria are released after the nuclear membrane bursts. Intriguingly, the only nuclei that were never infected by "Ca. E. bathymodioli" were those of the gill bacteriocytes. These cells contain the symbiotic sulfur- and methane-oxidizing bacteria, suggesting that the mussel symbionts can protect their host nuclei against the parasite. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the "Ca. E. bathymodioli" belongs to a monophyletic clade of Gammaproteobacteria associated with marine metazoans as diverse as sponges, corals, bivalves, gastropods, echinoderms, ascidians and fish. We hypothesize that many of the sequences from this clade

  2. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in a case of intranuclear rod myopathy without any prenatal sentinel event.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Koya; Nishino, Ichizo; Sugimoto, Mari; Kouwaki, Masanori; Koyama, Norihisa; Yokochi, Kenji

    2015-02-01

    Intranuclear rod myopathy (IRM), a variant of nemaline myopathy, is characterized by the presence of nemaline bodies in myonuclei. We report a case of IRM presenting with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). There were no prenatal complications caused by fetal brain injury. Although no nemaline bodies were observed in the cytoplasm, intranuclear rods were observed in some fibers under light and electron microscopy. Molecular analysis identified a heterozygous variant, c.449C>T (p.Thr150Ile), in ACTA1. On magnetic resonance imaging at 9days of age, injuries to the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem consistent with perinatal HIE were seen. Respiratory insufficiency at birth was strongly suspected to be the cause of HIE. Our case highlights that a patient with a congenital neuromuscular disorder who presents with severe respiratory dysfunction requiring substantial resuscitative efforts at birth can be complicated by HIE without any prenatal sentinel event. Prenatal detection of neuromuscular disorders, careful management of delivery, and neonatal resuscitation and adequate respiratory management are important in preventing irreversible brain injury in these patients. PMID:24787270

  3. Protein complex formation and intranuclear dynamics of NAC1 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Naomi; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakashita, Gyosuke; Nariai, Yuko; Nakayama, Kentaro; Kyo, Satoru; Urano, Takeshi

    2016-09-15

    Nucleus accumbens-associated protein 1 (NAC1) is a cancer-related transcription regulator protein that is also involved in the pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. NAC1 is overexpressed in various carcinomas including ovarian, cervical, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas. NAC1 knock-down was previously shown to result in the apoptosis of ovarian cancer cell lines and to rescue their sensitivity to chemotherapy, suggesting that NAC1 may be a potential therapeutic target, but protein complex formation and the dynamics of intranuclear NAC1 in cancer cells remain poorly understood. In this study, analysis of HeLa cell lysates by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on a sizing column showed that the NAC1 peak corresponded to an apparent molecular mass of 300-500 kDa, which is larger than the estimated molecular mass (58 kDa) of the protein. Furthermore, live cell photobleaching analyses with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused NAC1 proteins revealed the intranuclear dynamics of NAC1. Collectively our results demonstrate that NAC1 forms a protein complex to function as a transcriptional regulator in cancer cells.

  4. Protein complex formation and intranuclear dynamics of NAC1 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Naomi; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakashita, Gyosuke; Nariai, Yuko; Nakayama, Kentaro; Kyo, Satoru; Urano, Takeshi

    2016-09-15

    Nucleus accumbens-associated protein 1 (NAC1) is a cancer-related transcription regulator protein that is also involved in the pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. NAC1 is overexpressed in various carcinomas including ovarian, cervical, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas. NAC1 knock-down was previously shown to result in the apoptosis of ovarian cancer cell lines and to rescue their sensitivity to chemotherapy, suggesting that NAC1 may be a potential therapeutic target, but protein complex formation and the dynamics of intranuclear NAC1 in cancer cells remain poorly understood. In this study, analysis of HeLa cell lysates by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on a sizing column showed that the NAC1 peak corresponded to an apparent molecular mass of 300-500 kDa, which is larger than the estimated molecular mass (58 kDa) of the protein. Furthermore, live cell photobleaching analyses with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused NAC1 proteins revealed the intranuclear dynamics of NAC1. Collectively our results demonstrate that NAC1 forms a protein complex to function as a transcriptional regulator in cancer cells. PMID:27424155

  5. Ultraviolet Light Enhances the Bovine Serum Albumin Fixation for Acid Fast Bacilli Stain

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Pei-Yin; Lee, Shih-Yi; Chou, Yu-Ching; Fu, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chen-Cheng; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi

    2014-01-01

    The use of a liquid culture system such as MGIT broth has greatly improved the sensitivity of isolating mycobacteria in clinical laboratories. Microscopic visualization of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the culture positive MGIT broth remains the first routine step for rapidly indicating the presence of mycobacteria. We modified an ultraviolet (UV) light fixation process to increase AFB cells adherence to the slide. The retained haze proportion of a 1-cm circle marked area on the smear slide was quantified after the staining procedure indicating the adherence degree of AFB cells. More AFB cells were preserved on the slide after exposure to UV light of either germicidal lamp or UV crosslinker in a time-dependent manner. We demonstrated both the bovine serum albumin (BSA) in MGIT media and UV light exposure were required for enhancing fixation of AFB cells. While applying to AFB stains for 302 AFB positive MGIT broths in clinics, more AFB cells were retained and observed on smear slides prepared by the modified fixation procedure rather than by the conventional method. The modified fixation procedure was thus recommended for improving the sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis of AFB cells in culture positive MGIT broth. PMID:24586725

  6. Characteristics of endobronchial tuberculosis patients with negative sputum acid-fast bacillus

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, Pınar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is defined as a tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence, with or without parenchymal involvement. In this study, clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic characteristics of cases diagnosed to have EBTB were evaluated. Methods Sixteen patients with at least three negative sputum examinations for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and diagnosed as having EBTB on the histopathological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens showing granulomatous structures with caseation necrosis and/or positive AFB-culture on the microbiological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens were included in our study. Age, sex, symptoms, tuberculin skin test (TST), microbiological examination results and radiological findings were recorded. Bronchoscopical lesions were classified according to Chung classification. Results EBTB was found to be more common in females. Most common symptoms were cough (100%), sputum (75%), weight loss (62.5%), hemoptisis (37.5%), chest pain (25%) and dyspnea (12.5%). Radiological examination findings revealed consolidations/infiltrations (87.5%), nodular lesions (37.5%), cavitary lesions (25%), unilateral (43.7%) or bilateral hilar widening (31.2%) and atelectasia (25%). Middle lob syndrome was seen in three cases. Most common lesions observed bronchoscopically were active caseous lesions, granular lesions, edematous hyperemic lesions, tumorous lesions, fibrostenotic lesions respectively. In all cases “granulomatous inflammation showing caseation” was shown in the histopathological examination of biopsy specimens. Conclusions EBTB can cause various radiological and bronchoscopical findings. In most of the cases distinct response is seen to antituberculous treatment. Bronchial stenosis is an important complication. Treatment should be given as soon as possible to avoid it. PMID:24409353

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Novel Amoeba-Resistant Intranuclear Bacteria, "Candidatus Berkiella cookevillensis" and "Candidatus Berkiella aquae".

    PubMed

    Mehari, Yohannes T; Arivett, Brock A; Farone, Anthony L; Gunderson, John H; Farone, Mary B

    2016-01-01

    "Candidatus Berkiella cookevillensis" and "Candidatus Berkiella aquae" are obligate intranuclear endosymbionts of freshwater amoebae. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of these two bacteria, with total sizes of 2,990,361 bp and 3,626,027 bp, respectively. PMID:26893424

  8. Life cycle and ultrastructure of Eimeria stigmosa, the intranuclear coccidian of the goose (Anser anser domesticus).

    PubMed

    Pecka, Z

    1992-01-01

    The oocyst morphology and endogenous development of Eimeria stigmosa Klimes, 1963 in a domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus L.) was studied using light and electron microscopy. The oocyst wall consisted of two layers. The outer layer formed densely accumulated protrusions, whilst the inner layer was smooth and formed a collar structure around the micropyle. Meronts were observed in the posterior part of the jejunum, along the whole length of the ileum and in Meckel's diverticulum within 1-4 days post infection (DPI). Sexual generation was found in the caecum and colon 4-5 DPI. All endogenous stages were located intranuclearly in enterocytes, predominantly in the apical part of the villi in distinct parasitophorous vacuoles. Numerous different developmental stages were frequently found in one nucleus. Current evidence indicates the existence of only one asexual generation formed by ectomerogony. During the development of asexual stages, invaginations into the body of a meront by the host cell nucleoplasm were observed. PMID:1644357

  9. Solitary subcutaneous mucinosis surrounded by bizarre-shaped, factor XIIIa-positive cells with intranuclear vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Terui, T; Aiba, S; Tagami, H

    1998-05-01

    We describe a subcutaneous mucinosis developing in the right cheek of a 38-year-old man. Histologic examination revealed bipolar fibroblast-like cells embedded in a well demarcated mucinous stroma in the subcutis without a manifest reticulin network. In addition, bizarre, sometimes multinucleate, cells with intranuclear vacuoles were found at the periphery of the mucinous stroma. Immunohistologically, both the bipolar fibroblastic cells and bizarre-shaped cells were positive for vimentin, but were negative for smooth muscle A-actin, desmin, CD34, S100, trypsin, or chymotrypsin. However, the latter reacted to anti-factor XIIIa antibody, suggesting that they are derived from dermal dendritic cells. We think that this solitary subcutaneous mucinosis is a unique variant of cutaneous focal mucinosis, because neither a reticulin network nor reactivity to anti-smooth muscle A-actin antibody were demonstrable.

  10. Inclusive Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Judy; Burnette, Jane

    1994-01-01

    This review of five recent (1992 and 1993) books and journal articles is intended to illuminate characteristics of inclusive schools. The review defines inclusion as more than merely regular class placement for students with disabilities, to include a philosophy which celebrates diversity and the provision of a continuum of educational options.…

  11. Intranuclear interactomic inhibition of NF-κB suppresses LPS-induced severe sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Dong; Cheon, So Yeong; Park, Tae-Yoon; Shin, Bo-Young; Oh, Hyunju; Ghosh, Sankar; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Lee, Sang-Kyou

    2015-08-28

    Suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, which is best known as a major regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses, is a potent strategy for the treatment of endotoxic sepsis. To inhibit NF-κB functions, we designed the intra-nuclear transducible form of transcription modulation domain (TMD) of RelA (p65), called nt-p65-TMD, which can be delivered effectively into the nucleus without influencing the cell viability, and work as interactomic inhibitors via disruption of the endogenous p65-mediated transcription complex. nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 from BV2 microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). nt-p65-TMD did not inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling mediators such as ZAP-70, p38, JNK, or ERK involved in T cell activation, but was capable of suppressing the transcriptional activity of NF-κB without the functional effect on that of NFAT upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. The transduced nt-p65-TMD in T cell did not affect the expression of CD69, however significantly inhibited the secretion of T cell-specific cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A, or IL-10. Systemic administration of nt-p65-TMD showed a significant therapeutic effect on LPS-induced sepsis model by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. Therefore, nt-p65-TMD can be a novel therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including sepsis, where a transcription factor has a key role in pathogenesis, and further allows us to discover new functions of p65 under normal physiological condition without genetic alteration. - Highlights: • The nt-p65-TMD is intra-nuclear interactomic inhibitor of endogenous p65. • The nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • The excellent therapeutic potential of nt-p65-TMD was confirmed in sepsis model.

  12. Intranuclear biophotonics by smart design of nuclear-targeting photo-/radio-sensitizers co-loaded upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenpei; Shen, Bo; Bu, Wenbo; Zheng, Xiangpeng; He, Qianjun; Cui, Zhaowen; Ni, Dalong; Zhao, Kuaile; Zhang, Shengjian; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-11-01

    Biophotonic technology that uses light and ionizing radiation for positioned cancer therapy is a holy grail in the field of biomedicine because it can overcome the systemic toxicity and adverse side effects of conventional chemotherapy. However, the existing biophotonic techniques fail to achieve the satisfactory treatment efficacy, which remains a big challenge for clinical implementation. Herein, we develop a novel theranostic technique of "intranuclear biophotonics" by the smart design of a nuclear-targeting biophotonic system based on photo-/radio-sensitizers covalently co-loaded upconversion nanoparticles. These nuclear-targeting biophotonic agents can not only generate a great deal of multiple cytotoxic reactive oxygen species in the nucleus by making full use of NIR/X-ray irradiation, but also produce greatly enhanced intranuclear synergetic radio-/photodynamic therapeutic effects under the magnetic/luminescent bimodal imaging guidance, which may achieve the optimal efficacy in treating radio-resistant tumors. We anticipate that the highly effective intranuclear biophotonics will contribute significantly to the development of biophotonic techniques and open new perspectives for a variety of cancer theranostic applications.

  13. Early intranuclear replication of African swine fever virus genome modifies the landscape of the host cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Simões, Margarida; Martins, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Although African swine fever virus (ASFV) replicates in viral cytoplasmic factories, the presence of viral DNA within the host cell nucleus has been previously reported to be essential for productive infection. Herein, we described, for the first time, the intranuclear distribution patterns of viral DNA replication events, preceding those that occur in the cytoplasmic compartment. Using BrdU pulse-labelling experiments, newly synthesized ASFV genomes were exclusively detected inside the host cell nucleus at the early phase of infection, both in swine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and Vero cells. From 8hpi onwards, BrdU labelling was only observed in ASFV cytoplasmic factories. Our results also show that ASFV specifically activates the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Rad-3 related (ATR) pathway in ASFV-infected swine MDMs from the early phase of infection, most probably because ASFV genome is recognized as foreign DNA. Morphological changes of promyelocytic leukaemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), nuclear speckles and Cajal bodies were also found in ASFV-infected swine MDMs, strongly suggesting the viral modulation of cellular antiviral responses and cellular transcription, respectively. As described for other viral infections, the nuclear reorganization that takes place during ASFV infection may also provide an environment that favours its intranuclear replication events. Altogether, our results contribute for a better understanding of ASFV replication strategies, starting with an essential intranuclear DNA replication phase which induces host nucleus changes towards a successful viral infection.

  14. An Amino Terminal Phosphorylation Motif Regulates Intranuclear Compartmentalization of Olig2 in Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Dimphna H.; Sun, Yu; Liu, Tao; Kane, Michael F.; Alberta, John A.; Adelmant, Guillaume; Kupp, Robert; Marto, Jarrod A.; Rowitch, David H.; Nakatani, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The bHLH transcription factor Olig2 is expressed in cycling neural progenitor cells but also in terminally differentiated, myelinating oligodendrocytes. Sustained expression of Olig2 is counterintuitive because all known functions of the protein in expansion of neural progenitors and specification of oligodendrocyte progenitors are completed with the formation of mature white matter. How are the biological functions of Olig2 suppressed in terminally differentiated oligodendrocytes? In previous studies, we have shown that a triple serine motif in the amino terminus of Olig2 is phosphorylated in cycling neural progenitors but not in their differentiated progeny. We now show that phosphorylation of the triple serine motif regulates intranuclear compartmentalization of murine Olig2. Phosphorylated Olig2 is preferentially localized to a transcriptionally active “open” chromatin compartment together with coregulator proteins essential for regulation of gene expression. Unphosphorylated Olig2, as seen in mature white matter, is localized mainly within a transcriptionally inactive, chromatin fraction characterized by condensed and inaccessible DNA. Of special note is the observation that the p53 tumor suppressor protein is confined to the open chromatin fraction. Proximity ligation assays show that phosphorylation brings Olig2 within 30 nm of p53 within the open chromatin compartment. The data thus shed light on previously noted promitogenic functions of phosphorylated Olig2, which reflect, at least in part, an oppositional relationship with p53 functions. PMID:24948806

  15. Processes involving few degrees of freedom in the frame of Intranuclear Cascade approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugnon, J.; Boudard, A.; David, J.-C.; Leray, S.; Mancusi, D.

    2016-05-01

    This article focuses on spallation reactions, i.e. interactions of energetic nucleons, basically with a kinetic energy in the 100MeV to a few GeV range, with a target nucleus. These processes are described rather successfully by the so-called Intranuclear Cascade (INC) plus evaporation models. They can be viewed as a first stage of nucleon-nucleon collisions, ejecting fast particles, followed by evaporation of slow particles from the target remnant. These cascade + evaporation models have, now, globally reached a high level of predictive power, owing in particular to successive research programs. The present work, which is an outcome of one of these programs, the recent European Union ANDES research program, deals with a set of reactions (or observable quantities), which can be due to a single collision, such as the one-nucleon removal reactions or the quasi-elastic elastic process. A survey of the experimental data is presented, which allows to clearly point out that, often, the INC models are unsatisfactory for the description of these peculiar events, whereas they are rather successful for the rest of the experimental data. This paradoxical situation is tentatively related to quasi-particle effects which are neglected in INC models.

  16. A novel intranuclear RNA vector system for long-term stem cell modification.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Makino, A; Matchett, W E; Holditch, S J; Lu, B; Dietz, A B; Tomonaga, K

    2016-03-01

    Genetically modified stem and progenitor cells have emerged as a promising regenerative platform in the treatment of genetic and degenerative disorders, highlighted by their successful therapeutic use in inherent immunodeficiencies. However, biosafety concerns over insertional mutagenesis resulting from integrating recombinant viral vectors have overshadowed the widespread clinical applications of genetically modified stem cells. Here, we report an RNA-based episomal vector system, amenable for long-term transgene expression in stem cells. Specifically, we used a unique intranuclear RNA virus, borna disease virus (BDV), as the gene transfer vehicle, capable of persistent infections in various cell types. BDV-based vectors allowed for long-term transgene expression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without affecting cellular morphology, cell surface CD105 expression or the adipogenicity of MSCs. Similarly, replication-defective BDV vectors achieved long-term transduction of human induced pluripotent stem cells, while maintaining the ability to differentiate into three embryonic germ layers. Thus, the BDV-based vectors offer a genomic modification-free, episomal RNA delivery system for sustained stem cell transduction. PMID:26632671

  17. An amino terminal phosphorylation motif regulates intranuclear compartmentalization of Olig2 in neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Dimphna H; Sun, Yu; Liu, Tao; Kane, Michael F; Alberta, John A; Adelmant, Guillaume; Kupp, Robert; Marto, Jarrod A; Rowitch, David H; Nakatani, Yoshihiro; Stiles, Charles D; Mehta, Shwetal

    2014-06-18

    The bHLH transcription factor Olig2 is expressed in cycling neural progenitor cells but also in terminally differentiated, myelinating oligodendrocytes. Sustained expression of Olig2 is counterintuitive because all known functions of the protein in expansion of neural progenitors and specification of oligodendrocyte progenitors are completed with the formation of mature white matter. How are the biological functions of Olig2 suppressed in terminally differentiated oligodendrocytes? In previous studies, we have shown that a triple serine motif in the amino terminus of Olig2 is phosphorylated in cycling neural progenitors but not in their differentiated progeny. We now show that phosphorylation of the triple serine motif regulates intranuclear compartmentalization of murine Olig2. Phosphorylated Olig2 is preferentially localized to a transcriptionally active "open" chromatin compartment together with coregulator proteins essential for regulation of gene expression. Unphosphorylated Olig2, as seen in mature white matter, is localized mainly within a transcriptionally inactive, chromatin fraction characterized by condensed and inaccessible DNA. Of special note is the observation that the p53 tumor suppressor protein is confined to the open chromatin fraction. Proximity ligation assays show that phosphorylation brings Olig2 within 30 nm of p53 within the open chromatin compartment. The data thus shed light on previously noted promitogenic functions of phosphorylated Olig2, which reflect, at least in part, an oppositional relationship with p53 functions. PMID:24948806

  18. Paraspeckles modulate the intranuclear distribution of paraspeckle-associated Ctn RNA

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, Aparna; Jadaliha, Mahdieh; Tripathi, Vidisha; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Hirose, Tetsuro; Jantsch, Michael F.; Prasanth, Supriya G.; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.

    2016-01-01

    Paraspeckles are sub-nuclear domains that are nucleated by long noncoding RNA Neat1. While interaction of protein components of paraspeckles and Neat1 is understood, there is limited information on the interaction of non-structural RNA components with paraspeckles. Here, by varying paraspeckle number and size, we investigate how paraspeckles influence the nuclear organization of their non-structural RNA component Ctn RNA. Our results show that Ctn RNA remains nuclear-retained in the absence of intact paraspeckles, suggesting that they do not regulate nuclear retention of Ctn RNA. In the absence of Neat1, Ctn RNA continues to interact with paraspeckle protein NonO to form residual nuclear foci. In addition, in the absence of Neat1-nucleated paraspeckles, a subset of Ctn RNA localizes to the perinucleolar regions. Concomitant with increase in number of paraspeckles, transcriptional reactivation resulted in increased number of paraspeckle-localized Ctn RNA foci. Similar to Neat1, proteasome inhibition altered the localization of Ctn RNA, where it formed enlarged paraspeckle-like foci. Super-resolution structured illumination microscopic analyses revealed that in paraspeckles, Ctn RNA partially co-localized with Neat1, and displayed a more heterogeneous intra-paraspeckle localization. Collectively, these results show that while paraspeckles do not influence nuclear retention of Ctn RNA, they modulate its intranuclear compartmentalization. PMID:27665741

  19. Autophagy-related intrinsically disordered proteins in intra-nuclear compartments.

    PubMed

    Na, Insung; Meng, Fanchi; Kurgan, Lukasz; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-08-16

    Recent analyses indicated that autophagy can be regulated via some nuclear transcriptional networks and many important players in the autophagy and other forms of programmed cell death are known to be intrinsically disordered. To this end, we analyzed similarities and differences in the intrinsic disorder distribution of nuclear and non-nuclear proteins related to autophagy. We also looked at the peculiarities of the distribution of the intrinsically disordered autophagy-related proteins in various intra-nuclear organelles, such as the nucleolus, chromatin, Cajal bodies, nuclear speckles, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, and perinucleolar compartment. This analysis revealed that the autophagy-related proteins constitute about 2.5% of the non-nuclear proteins and 3.3% of the nuclear proteins, which corresponds to a substantial enrichment by about 32% in the nucleus. Curiously, although, in general, the autophagy-related proteins share similar characteristics of disorder with a generic set of all non-nuclear proteins, chromatin and nuclear speckles are enriched in the intrinsically disordered autophagy proteins (29 and 37% of these proteins are disordered, respectively) and have high disorder content at 0.24 and 0.27, respectively. Therefore, our data suggest that some of the nuclear disordered proteins may play important roles in autophagy.

  20. A novel intranuclear RNA vector system for long-term stem cell modification

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Makino, Akiko; Matchett, William E.; Holditch, Sara J.; Lu, Brian; Dietz, Allan B.; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified stem and progenitor cells have emerged as a promising regenerative platform in the treatment of genetic and degenerative disorders, highlighted by their successful therapeutic use in inherent immunodeficiencies. However, biosafety concerns over insertional mutagenesis resulting from integrating recombinant viral vectors have overshadowed the widespread clinical applications of genetically modified stem cells. Here, we report an RNA-based episomal vector system, amenable for long-term transgene expression in stem cells. Specifically, we used a unique intranuclear RNA virus, Borna disease virus (BDV), as the gene transfer vehicle, capable of persistent infections in various cell types. BDV-based vectors allowed for long-term transgene expression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without affecting cellular morphology, cell surface CD105 expression, or the adipogenicity of MSCs. Similarly, replication-defective BDV vectors achieved long-term transduction of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), while maintaining the ability to differentiate into three embryonic germ layers. Thus, the BDV-based vectors offer a genomic modification-free, episomal RNA delivery system for sustained stem cell transduction. PMID:26632671

  1. Comparison of culture and acid-fast bacilli stain to PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Aslanzadeh, J; de la Viuda, M; Fille, M; Smith, W B; Namdari, H

    1998-08-01

    The major drawback in effective use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in clinical samples is the presence of PCR inhibitors and unique cell components of the organism that complicate DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification. A PCR assay with a unique multistep DNA extraction method that minimizes these problems was compared in a prospective study to acid-fast bacilli stain (AFBS) and culture for detecting MTB in clinical samples. A total of 254 clinical specimens in two separate studies were processed for MTB by these techniques. While PCR and culture were 100% sensitive and specific, culture required up to 8 weeks of incubation and additional time to perform biochemical testing to identify the isolated micro-organism. Acid-fast bacilli stain had a specificity of about 87% and did not differentiate among Mycobacterial species. In contrast, the results from PCR were available within 48 h and did not require additional testing to attain a final result. Polymerase chain reaction was highly reliable for detection and confirmation and interpretation of positive AFBS results. The assay was easy to perform with a turn around time of about 2 days.

  2. Inclusion bodies: formation and degeneration of the oocytes in the fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) in response to ammonium sulfate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, R.N.; Sathyanesan, A.G.

    1986-06-01

    In the adult Channa punctatus exposed to 500 ppm of the commonly used fertilizer ammonium sulfate for 6 months from January to June, ovarian growth was retarded significantly. The inhibition of the ovarian growth is reflected on the gonadosomatic index which was significantly reduced as compared with control. Apart from this, in treated fish, several stage-I oocytes exhibited proteinaceous extra- and intranuclear inclusion bodies which are apparently due to cumulative toxic effect of ammonium sulfate. These oocytes ultimately degenerate.

  3. Inclusive teaching.

    PubMed

    Billings, Diane M

    2008-07-01

    Inclusive teaching involves being responsive to the diversity represented in the classroom and assisting learners to focus on their culture, attitudes, and beliefs while learning to communicate and collaborate with each other and their patients.

  4. Intranuclear membranes and the formation of the first meiotic spindle in Xenos peckii (Acroschismus wheeleri) oocytes

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The ultrastructure of spindle formation during the first meiotic division in oocytes of the Strepsipteran insect Xenos peckii Kirby (Acroschismus wheeleri Pierce) was examined in serial thick (0.25- micron) and thin sections. During late prophase the nuclear envelope became extremely convoluted and fenestrated. At this time vesicular and tubular membrane elements permeated the nucleoplasm and formed a thin fusiform sheath, 5-7 micron in length, around each of the randomly oriented and condensing tetrads. These membrane elements appeared to arise from the nuclear envelope and/or in association with annulate lamellae in the nuclear region. All of the individual tetrads and their associated fusiform sheaths became aligned within the nucleus subsequent to the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. Microtubules (MTs) were found associated with membranes of the meiotic apparatus only after the nuclear envelope had broken down. Kinetochores, with associated MTs, were first recognizable as electron-opaque patches on the chromosomes at this time. The fully formed metaphase arrested Xenos oocyte meiotic apparatus contained an abundance of membranes and had diffuse poles that lacked distinct polar MT organizing centers. From these observations we conclude that the apparent individual chromosomal spindles--seen in the light microscope to form around each Xenos tetrad during "intranuclear prometaphase" (Hughes-Schrader, S., 1924, J. Morphol. 39:157-197)--actually form during late prophase, lack MTs, and are therefore not complete miniature bipolar spindles, as had been commonly assumed. Thus, the unique mode of spindle formation in Xenos oocytes cannot be used to support the hypothesis that chromosomes (kinetochores) induce the polymerization of their associated MTs. Our observation that MTs appeared in association with and parallel to tubular membrane components of the Xenos meiotic apparatus after these membranes became oriented with respect to the tetrads, is consistent with the

  5. Developing Inclusivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layer, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Comparison of Higher Education Funding Council for England initiatives for widening participation with those in Australia shows they are focused on recruitment and enrollment. However, to achieve inclusion requires more attention to provision based on learner needs, increased financial support for disadvantaged groups, and clear targets in higher…

  6. Inclusion Means...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick; Davis, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    Under current law, public and private institutions must educate children with disabilities just as they educate other children. Inclusion becomes a civil-rights issue when special-education students' rights are perceived to be violated because of unequal treatment due to segregated programs. A survey of attendees at a summer training institute on…

  7. Intranuclear verrucomicrobial symbionts and evidence of lateral gene transfer to the host protist in the termite gut.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoyuki; Kuwahara, Hirokazu; Fujita, Kazuma; Noda, Satoko; Kihara, Kumiko; Yamada, Akinori; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    In 1944, Harold Kirby described microorganisms living within nuclei of the protists Trichonympha in guts of termites; however, their taxonomic assignment remains to be accomplished. Here, we identified intranuclear symbionts of Trichonympha agilis in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes speratus. We isolated single nuclei of T. agilis, performed whole-genome amplification, and obtained bacterial 16S rRNA genes by PCR. Unexpectedly, however, all of the analyzed clones were from pseudogenes of 16S rRNA with large deletions and numerous sequence variations even within a single-nucleus sample. Authentic 16S rRNA gene sequences were finally recovered by digesting the nuclear DNA; these pseudogenes were present on the host Trichonympha genome. The authentic sequences represented two distinct bacterial species belonging to the phylum Verrucomicrobia, and the pseudogenes have originated from each of the two species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed that both species are specifically localized, and occasionally co-localized, within nuclei of T. agilis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that they are distorted cocci with characteristic electron-dense and lucent regions, which resemble the intranuclear symbionts illustrated by Kirby. For these symbionts, we propose a novel genus and species, 'Candidatus Nucleococcus trichonymphae' and 'Candidatus Nucleococcus kirbyi'. These formed a termite-specific cluster with database sequences, other members of which were also detected within nuclei of various gut protists, including both parabasalids and oxymonads. We suggest that this group is widely distributed as intranuclear symbionts of diverse protists in termite guts and that they might have affected the evolution of the host genome through lateral gene transfer. PMID:24335826

  8. Intranuclear verrucomicrobial symbionts and evidence of lateral gene transfer to the host protist in the termite gut

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomoyuki; Kuwahara, Hirokazu; Fujita, Kazuma; Noda, Satoko; Kihara, Kumiko; Yamada, Akinori; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    In 1944, Harold Kirby described microorganisms living within nuclei of the protists Trichonympha in guts of termites; however, their taxonomic assignment remains to be accomplished. Here, we identified intranuclear symbionts of Trichonympha agilis in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes speratus. We isolated single nuclei of T. agilis, performed whole-genome amplification, and obtained bacterial 16S rRNA genes by PCR. Unexpectedly, however, all of the analyzed clones were from pseudogenes of 16S rRNA with large deletions and numerous sequence variations even within a single-nucleus sample. Authentic 16S rRNA gene sequences were finally recovered by digesting the nuclear DNA; these pseudogenes were present on the host Trichonympha genome. The authentic sequences represented two distinct bacterial species belonging to the phylum Verrucomicrobia, and the pseudogenes have originated from each of the two species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed that both species are specifically localized, and occasionally co-localized, within nuclei of T. agilis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that they are distorted cocci with characteristic electron-dense and lucent regions, which resemble the intranuclear symbionts illustrated by Kirby. For these symbionts, we propose a novel genus and species, ‘Candidatus Nucleococcus trichonymphae' and ‘Candidatus Nucleococcus kirbyi'. These formed a termite-specific cluster with database sequences, other members of which were also detected within nuclei of various gut protists, including both parabasalids and oxymonads. We suggest that this group is widely distributed as intranuclear symbionts of diverse protists in termite guts and that they might have affected the evolution of the host genome through lateral gene transfer. PMID:24335826

  9. Intranuclear verrucomicrobial symbionts and evidence of lateral gene transfer to the host protist in the termite gut.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoyuki; Kuwahara, Hirokazu; Fujita, Kazuma; Noda, Satoko; Kihara, Kumiko; Yamada, Akinori; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    In 1944, Harold Kirby described microorganisms living within nuclei of the protists Trichonympha in guts of termites; however, their taxonomic assignment remains to be accomplished. Here, we identified intranuclear symbionts of Trichonympha agilis in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes speratus. We isolated single nuclei of T. agilis, performed whole-genome amplification, and obtained bacterial 16S rRNA genes by PCR. Unexpectedly, however, all of the analyzed clones were from pseudogenes of 16S rRNA with large deletions and numerous sequence variations even within a single-nucleus sample. Authentic 16S rRNA gene sequences were finally recovered by digesting the nuclear DNA; these pseudogenes were present on the host Trichonympha genome. The authentic sequences represented two distinct bacterial species belonging to the phylum Verrucomicrobia, and the pseudogenes have originated from each of the two species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed that both species are specifically localized, and occasionally co-localized, within nuclei of T. agilis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that they are distorted cocci with characteristic electron-dense and lucent regions, which resemble the intranuclear symbionts illustrated by Kirby. For these symbionts, we propose a novel genus and species, 'Candidatus Nucleococcus trichonymphae' and 'Candidatus Nucleococcus kirbyi'. These formed a termite-specific cluster with database sequences, other members of which were also detected within nuclei of various gut protists, including both parabasalids and oxymonads. We suggest that this group is widely distributed as intranuclear symbionts of diverse protists in termite guts and that they might have affected the evolution of the host genome through lateral gene transfer.

  10. Anisotropic tubular filtering for automatic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Shan-e.-Ahmed; Marjan, M. Q.; Arif, Muhammad; Butt, Farhana; Sultan, Faisal; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main factors for high workload in pulmonary pathology in developing countries is the relatively large proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases which can be detected with high throughput using automated approaches. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which appears as thin, rod-shaped acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smear samples. In this paper, we present an algorithm for automatic detection of AFB in digitized images of ZN stained sputum smear samples under a light microscope. A key component of the proposed algorithm is the enhancement of raw input image using a novel anisotropic tubular filter (ATF) which suppresses the background noise while simultaneously enhancing strong anisotropic features of AFBs present in the image. The resulting image is then segmented using color features and candidate AFBs are identified. Finally, a support vector machine classifier using morphological features from candidate AFBs decides whether a given image is AFB positive or not. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ATF method with two different feature sets by showing that the proposed image analysis pipeline results in higher accuracy and F1-score than the same pipeline with standard median filtering for image enhancement.

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Novel Amoeba-Resistant Intranuclear Bacteria, “Candidatus Berkiella cookevillensis” and “Candidatus Berkiella aquae”

    PubMed Central

    Mehari, Yohannes T.; Arivett, Brock A.; Farone, Anthony L.; Gunderson, John H.

    2016-01-01

    “Candidatus Berkiella cookevillensis” and “Candidatus Berkiella aquae” are obligate intranuclear endosymbionts of freshwater amoebae. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of these two bacteria, with total sizes of 2,990,361 bp and 3,626,027 bp, respectively. PMID:26893424

  12. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . ... Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . ...

  13. Cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reactions by the Liège intranuclear cascade model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Dong, Tiekuang; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the paper is mainly to test the validity of the Liège intranuclear cascade (INCL) model in calculating the cross sections of proton-induced reactions for cosmogenic nuclei using the newly compiled database of proton cross sections. The model calculations of 3He display the rising tendency of cross sections with the increase of energy, in accordance with the experimental data. Meanwhile, the differences between the theoretical results and experimental data of production cross sections (10Be and 26Al) are generally within a factor of 3, meaning that the INCL model works quite well for the proton-induced reactions. Based on the good agreement, we predict the production cross sections of 26Al from reactions n + 27Al, n + 28Si, and n + 40Ca and those of 10Be from reactions n + 16O and n + 28Si. The results also show a good agreement with a posteriori excitation functions.

  14. Orchid Fleck Virus Structural Proteins N and P Form Intranuclear Viroplasm-Like Structures in the Absence of Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Sotaro; Andika, Ida Bagus; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Tamada, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Orchid fleck virus (OFV) has a unique two-segmented negative-sense RNA genome that resembles that of plant nucleorhabdoviruses. In infected plant cells, OFV and nucleorhabdoviruses induce an intranuclear electron-lucent viroplasm that is believed to be the site for virus replication. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which OFV viroplasms are produced in vivo. Among OFV-encoded proteins, the nucleocapsid protein (N) and the putative phosphoprotein (P) were present in nuclear fractions of OFV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Transient coexpression of N and P, in the absence of virus infection, was shown to be sufficient for formation of an intranuclear viroplasm-like structure in plant cells. When expressed independently as a fluorescent protein fusion product in uninfected plant cells, N protein accumulated throughout the cell, while P protein accumulated in the nucleus. However, the N protein, when coexpressed with P, was recruited to a subnuclear region to induce a large viroplasm-like focus. Deletion and substitution mutagenesis demonstrated that the P protein contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Artificial nuclear targeting of the N-protein mutant was insufficient for formation of viroplasm-like structures in the absence of P. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirmed interactions between the N and P proteins within subnuclear viroplasm-like foci and interactions of two of the N. benthamiana importin-α homologues with the P protein but not with the N protein. Taken together, our results suggest that viroplasm formation by OFV requires nuclear accumulation of both the N and P proteins, which is mediated by P-NLS, unlike nucleorhabdovirus viroplasm utilizing the NLS on protein N. PMID:23616651

  15. Intranuclear Delivery of a Novel Antibody-Derived Radiosensitizer Targeting the DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Hairong; Lee, Robert J.; Haura, Eric B.; Edwards, John G.; Dynan, William S.; Li Shuyi

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To inhibit DNA double-strand break repair in tumor cells by delivery of a single-chain antibody variable region fragment (ScFv 18-2) to the cell nucleus. ScFv 18-2 binds to a regulatory region of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), an essential enzyme in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway, and inhibits DNA end-joining in a cell-free system and when microinjected into single cells. Development as a radiosensitizer has been limited by the lack of a method for intranuclear delivery to target cells. We investigated a delivery method based on folate receptor-mediated endocytosis. Methods and Materials: A recombinant ScFv 18-2 derivative was conjugated to folate via a scissile disulfide linker. Folate-ScFv 18-2 was characterized for its ability to be internalized by tumor cells and to influence the behavior of ionizing radiation-induced repair foci. Radiosensitization was measured in a clonogenic survival assay. Survival curves were fitted to a linear-quadratic model, and between-group differences were evaluated by an F test. Sensitization ratios were determined based on mean inhibitory dose. Results: Human KB and NCI-H292 lung cancer cells treated with folate-conjugated ScFv 18-2 showed significant radiosensitization (p < 0.001). Sensitization enhancement ratios were 1.92 {+-} 0.42 for KB cells and 1.63 {+-} 0.13 for NCI-H292 cells. Studies suggest that treatment inhibits repair of radiation-induced DSBs, as evidenced by the persistence of {gamma}-H2AX-stained foci and by inhibition of staining with anti-DNA-PKcs phosphoserine 2056. Conclusions: Folate-mediated endocytosis is an effective method for intranuclear delivery of an antibody-derived DNA repair inhibitor.

  16. High intranuclear mobility and dynamic clustering of the splicing factor U1 snRNP observed by single particle tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kues, Thorsten; Dickmanns, Achim; Lührmann, Reinhard; Peters, Reiner; Kubitscheck, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U snRNPs) are components of the splicing machinery that removes introns from precursor mRNA. Like other splicing factors, U snRNPs are diffusely distributed throughout the nucleus and, in addition, are concentrated in distinct nuclear substructures referred to as speckles. We have examined the intranuclear distribution and mobility of the splicing factor U1 snRNP on a single-molecule level. Isolated U1 snRNPs were fluorescently labeled and incubated with digitonin-permeabilized 3T3 cells in the presence of Xenopus egg extract. By confocal microscopy, U1 snRNPs were found to be imported into nuclei, yielding a speckled intranuclear distribution. Employing a laser video-microscope optimized for high sensitivity and high speed, single U1 snRNPs were visualized and tracked at a spatial precision of 35 nm and a time resolution of 30 ms. The single-particle data revealed that U1 snRNPs occurred in small clusters that colocalized with speckles. In the clusters, U1 snRNPs resided for a mean decay time of 84 ms before leaving the optical slice in the direction of the optical axis, which corresponded to a mean effective diffusion coefficient of 1 μm2/s. An analysis of the trajectories of single U1 snRNPs revealed that at least three kinetic classes of low, medium, and high mobility were present. Moreover, the mean square displacements of these fractions were virtually independent of time, suggesting arrays of binding sites. The results substantiate the view that nuclear speckles are not rigid structures but highly dynamic domains characterized by a rapid turnover of U1 snRNPs and other splicing factors. PMID:11593012

  17. Identification and Differentiation of Clinically Relevant Mycobacterium Species Directly from Acid-Fast Bacillus-Positive Culture Broth ▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haijing; Turhan, Vedat; Chokhani, Laxmi; Stratton, Charles W.; Dunbar, Sherry A.; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium species cause a variety of clinical diseases, some of which may be species specific. Therefore, it is clinically desirable to rapidly identify and differentiate mycobacterial isolates to the species level. We developed a rapid and high-throughput system, MycoID, to identify Mycobacterium species directly from acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-positive mycobacterial culture broth. The MycoID system incorporated broad-range PCR followed by suspension array hybridization to identify 17 clinically relevant mycobacterial complexes, groups, and species in one single reaction. We evaluated a total of 271 AFB-positive culture broth specimens, which were identified by reference standard methods in combination with biochemical and molecular tests. The overall identification agreement between the standard and the MycoID system was 89.7% (perfect match) or 97.8% (one match in codetection). In comparison to the standard, the MycoID system possessed an overall sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 98.8%. The 159 Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex isolates were further identified to the species level by MycoID as being M. avium (n = 98; 61.1%), M. intracellulare (n = 57; 35.8%), and mixed M. avium and M. intracellulare (n = 2; 1.3%). M. avium was recovered more frequently from sterile sites than M. intracellulare (odds ratio, 4.6; P = 0.0092). The entire MycoID procedure, including specimen processing, can be completed within 5 h, providing rapid and reliable identification and differentiation of mycobacterium species that is amenable to automation. Additional differentiation of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex strains into M. avium and M. intracellulare may provide a tool to better understand the role of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex isolates in human disease. PMID:19794046

  18. Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion.

    PubMed

    Farnia, P; Mohammadi, F; Zarifi, Z; Tabatabee, D J; Ganavi, J; Ghazisaeedi, K; Farnia, P K; Gheydi, M; Bahadori, M; Masjedi, M R; Velayati, A A

    2002-02-01

    In order to try to improve the results of direct smear microscopy, we used the mucus-digesting quality of chitin in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. For this purpose, a total of 430 sputum specimens were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquefaction, chitin sedimentation, and direct microscopy methods. Then, the smear sensitivity for acid-fast bacillus detection by chitin-treated sputum was compared with the sensitivity of smears prepared by other methods. Our results showed that the chitin solution took less time to completely homogenize the mucoid sputum than did the N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NaOCl methods. The N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration method demonstrated sensitivity and specificity levels of 83 and 97%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of chitin sedimentation was 80%, with a specificity of 96.7%. The NaOCl liquefaction method showed a sensitivity of 78%, with a specificity of 96%. Finally, the sensitivity of direct microscopy was lower than those of the other tested methods and was only 46%, with a specificity of 90%. The chitin and NaOCl liquefaction methods are both easy to perform, and they do not require additional equipment (centrifuges). Also, our results demonstrated that the chitin method is less time-consuming than the NaOCl method, since only 30 min of incubation is required to bring complete sedimentation of bacilli in chitin-treated sputum whereas the NaOCl method needs 10 to 12 h to give the same results in the same sputum specimens. Therefore, the chitin liquefaction and sedimentation method may provide better results in TB laboratories of developing countries than the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, NaOCl overnight sedimentation, and direct smear microscopy methods.

  19. Fine structural analysis of the neuronal inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Julian R; Tang, Helen; Atherton, Joe; Cairns, Nigel J

    2008-12-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a major component of the pathological inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy, also called FTLD with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U), and motor neuron disease (MND). TDP-43 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and regulates gene expression and splicing. In FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, neuronal inclusions present variably as cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), dystrophic neurites (DNs), and intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), leading to a fourfold neuropathological classification correlating with genotype. There have been few fine structural studies of these inclusions. Thus, we undertook an immunoelectron microscopic study of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, including sporadic and familial cases with progranulin (GRN) mutation. TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions comprised two components: granular and filamentous. Filament widths, expressed as mean (range) were: NCI, 9 nm (4-16 nm); DN, 10 nm (5-16 nm); NII, 18 nm (9-50 nm). Morphologically distinct inclusion components may reflect the process of TDP-43 aggregation and interaction with other proteins: determining these latter may contribute towards understanding the heterogeneous pathogenesis of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:18974920

  20. Characterization of ubiquitinated intraneuronal inclusions in a novel Belgian frontotemporal lobar degeneration family.

    PubMed

    Pirici, Daniel; Vandenberghe, Rik; Rademakers, Rosa; Dermaut, Bart; Cruts, Marc; Vennekens, Krist'l; Cuijt, Ivy; Lübke, Ursula; Ceuterick, Chantal; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Kumar-Singh, Samir

    2006-03-01

    The most common histologic feature in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is intracellular brain inclusions of yet uncharacterized proteins that react with antiubiquitin (Ub) antibodies, but not with tau or synuclein (FTLD-U). We identified a four-generation Belgian FTLD family in which 8 patients had dominantly inherited FTLD. In one patient, we showed frontotemporal atrophy with filamentous Ub-positive intracellular inclusions in absence of tau pathology or any alterations in the levels of soluble tau. We characterized the cellular and subcellular localization and morphology of the inclusions. Ub-positive inclusions predominantly occurred within neurons (>97%), but were also observed within oligodendroglia (approximately 2%) and microglia (<1%), but not within astroglia. Regarding the subcellular localization, the intranuclear inclusions (INI) were up to approximately four-fold more frequent than the cytoplasmic inclusions, although the latter were more specific to neurons. The INIs frequently appeared spindle-shaped and 3-dimensional confocal reconstructions identified flattened, leaf-like structures. Ultrastructurally, straight 10- to 18-nm-diameter filaments constituted the spindle-shaped inclusions that occurred in close proximity to the nuclear membrane. Staining for HSP40, p62, and valosin/p97 was observed in only a minority of the inclusions. Whereas the precise nature of the protein remains elusive, characterization of such familial FTLD-U patients would be helpful in identifying a common denominator in the pathogenesis of familial and the more prevalent sporadic FTLD-U.

  1. Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy for measuring phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by Tetrahymena pyriformis and their intracellular growth.

    PubMed

    Strahl, E D; Gillaspy, G E; Falkinham, J O

    2001-10-01

    Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy (FAM) was used to enumerate intracellular Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in the ciliated phagocytic protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. There was a linear relationship between FAM and colony counts of M. avium cells both from cultures and within protozoa. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain could not be used to enumerate intracellular mycobacteria because uninfected protozoa contained acid-fast, bacterium-like particles. Starved, 7-day-old cultures of T. pyriformis transferred into fresh medium readily phagocytized M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum. Phagocytosis was rapid and reached a maximum in 30 min. M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum grew within T. pyriformis, increasing by factors of 4- to 40-fold after 5 days at 30 degrees C. Intracellular M. avium numbers remained constant over a 25-day period of growth (by transfer) of T. pyriformis. Intracellular M. avium cells also survived protozoan encystment and germination. The growth and viability of T. pyriformis were not affected by mycobacterial infection. The results suggest that free-living phagocytic protozoa may be natural hosts and reservoirs for M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum.

  2. Decentralization of Acid Fast Bacilli(AFB) External Quality Assurance Using Blind Rechecking for Sputum Smear Microscopy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Muluken; Jerene, Degu; Alem, Genetu; Seid, Jemal; Belachew, Feleke; Kassie, Yewulsew; Habte, Dereje; Negash, Solomon; Ayana, Gonfa; Girma, Belaineh; Haile, Yared K.; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Suarez, Pedro G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia achieved a rapid expansion of TB microscopic centers for acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, external quality assurance (EQA) services were, until recently, limited to few regional and sub-regional laboratories. In this paper, we describe the decentralization experience and the result of EQA using random blinded rechecking. Materials and Methods The routine EQA quarterly report was compiled and analyzed. A positive result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported negative result is categorized as false positive (FP). A negative result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported positive is considered false negative (FN). The reading of EQA centers was considered a gold standard to compute the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the readings of microscopic centers. Results We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs) to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I), the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs). In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively. Conclusion Decentralizing blinded rechecking of sputum smear microscopy is feasible in low-income settings. While a comprehensive laboratory improvement strategy enhanced the quality of microscopy, laboratory professionals’ capacity in slide reading and smear quality requires continued

  3. Do nuclear envelope and intranuclear proteins reorganize during mitosis to form an elastic, hydrogel-like spindle matrix?

    PubMed

    Johansen, Kristen M; Forer, Arthur; Yao, Changfu; Girton, Jack; Johansen, Jørgen

    2011-04-01

    The idea of a spindle matrix has long been proposed in order to account for poorly understood features of mitosis. However, its molecular nature and structural composition have remained elusive. Here, we propose that the spindle matrix may be constituted by mainly nuclear-derived proteins that reorganize during the cell cycle to form an elastic gel-like matrix. We discuss this hypothesis in the context of recent observations from phylogenetically diverse organisms that nuclear envelope and intranuclear proteins form a highly dynamic and malleable structure that contributes to mitotic spindle function. We suggest that the viscoelastic properties of such a matrix may constrain spindle length while at the same time facilitating microtubule growth and dynamics as well as chromosome movement. A corollary to this hypothesis is that a key determinant of spindle size may be the amount of nuclear proteins available to form the spindle matrix. Such a matrix could also serve as a spatial regulator of spindle assembly checkpoint proteins during open and semi-open mitosis. PMID:21274615

  4. Limits to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  5. Inclusive Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu-Tien, Wu

    2007-01-01

    As an echo of the worldwide movement of inclusive education and because of the conviction of inclusive ideas, special education in Taiwan is moving toward a goal of inclusion, though not necessarily full inclusion. While its terminology is as yet undesignated, principles and strategies are significantly reflected in the Special Education Act and…

  6. Columbid herpesvirus-1 in two Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) with fatal inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Marie E; Wellehan, James F X; Johnson, April J; Childress, April L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kinsel, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    We report two separate naturally occurring cases of fatal herpesviral disease in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Gross lesions included splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with diffuse pale mottling or scattered small white foci. Histologic lesions included splenic and hepatic necrosis associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic of herpesvirus. In one case, necrosis and inclusions were also noted in bone marrow, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, ceca, and the enteric system. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated viral particles typical of herpesvirus within hepatocyte nuclei and budding from the nuclear membrane. Herpesviral DNA was amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of paraffin-embedded liver and spleen, and sequence data were consistent with columbid herpesvirus-1, an alphaherpesvirus of Rock Pigeons (Columba livia). PCR results provide evidence that this disease is transmitted to raptors via Rock Pigeons, most likely through ingestion of Rock Pigeons as prey.

  7. Inclusion body disease of cranes: comparison of pathologic findings in cranes with acquired vs. experimentally induced disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuh, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Siegfried, L.M.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes was the cause of death in 17 immature and mature cranes of 5 different species in Wisconsin. A herpesvirus of unknown origin was the apparent cause. An isolate of this herpesvirus was used to experimentally infect 3 species of cranes. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions associated with naturally acquired and experimentally induced disease were essentially identical. Multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis was found in all cranes evaluated. Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius also was seen in some of the cranes. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies often were commonly associated with hepatic lesions, sometimes with the splenic lesions, and rarely with the thymic or gastrointestinal tract lesions. The lesions of this inclusion body disease were similar to those reported for cranes in Austria from which a crane herpesvirus was isolated.

  8. TDP-43 is a component of ubiquitin-positive tau-negative inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Tetsuaki . E-mail: arai@prit.go.jp; Hasegawa, Masato . E-mail: masato@prit.go.jp; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Ikeda, Kenji; Nonaka, Takashi; Mori, Hiroshi; Mann, David; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio; Oda, Tatsuro

    2006-12-22

    Ubiquitin-positive tau-negative neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and dystrophic neurites are common pathological features in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with or without symptoms of motor neuron disease and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, we have identified a TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), a nuclear factor that functions in regulating transcription and alternative splicing, as a component of these structures in FTLD. Furthermore, skein-like inclusions, neuronal intranuclear inclusions, and glial inclusions in the spinal cord of ALS patients are also positive for TDP-43. Dephosphorylation treatment of the sarkosyl insoluble fraction has shown that abnormal phosphorylation takes place in accumulated TDP-43. The common occurrence of intracellular accumulations of TDP-43 supports the hypothesis that these disorders represent a clinicopathological entity of a single disease, and suggests that they can be newly classified as a proteinopathy of TDP-43.

  9. Design of a microfluidic device to quantify dynamic intra-nuclear deformation during cell migration through confining environments

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Patricia M.; Sliz, Josiah; Isermann, Philipp; Denais, Celine; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of cells to migrate through tissues and interstitial space is an essential factor during development and tissue homeostasis, immune cell mobility, and in various human diseases. Deformation of the nucleus and its associated lamina during 3-D migration is gathering increasing interest in the context of cancer metastasis, with the underlying hypothesis that a softer nucleus, resulting from reduced levels of lamin A/C, may aid tumour spreading. However, current methods to study the migration of cells in confining three dimensional (3-D) environments are limited by their imprecise control over the confinement, physiological relevance, and/or compatibility with high resolution imaging techniques. We describe the design of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device composed of channels with precisely-defined constrictions mimicking physiological environments that enable high resolution imaging of live and fixed cells. The device promotes easy cell loading and rapid, yet long-lasting (>24 hours) chemotactic gradient formation without the need for continuous perfusion. Using this device, we obtained detailed, quantitative measurements of dynamic nuclear deformation as cells migrate through tight spaces, revealing distinct phases of nuclear translocation through the constriction, buckling of the nuclear lamina, and severe intranuclear strain. Furthermore, we found that lamin A/C-deficient cells exhibited increased and more plastic nuclear deformations compared to wild-type cells but only minimal changes in nuclear volume, implying that low lamin A/C levels facilitate migration through constrictions by increasing nuclear deformability rather than compressibility. The integration of our migration devices with high resolution time-lapse imaging provides a powerful new approach to study intracellular mechanics and dynamics in a variety of physiologically-relevant applications, ranging from cancer cell invasion to immune cell recruitment. PMID:26549481

  10. Design of a microfluidic device to quantify dynamic intra-nuclear deformation during cell migration through confining environments.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia M; Sliz, Josiah; Isermann, Philipp; Denais, Celine; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The ability of cells to migrate through tissues and interstitial spaces is an essential factor during development and tissue homeostasis, immune cell mobility, and in various human diseases. Deformation of the nucleus and its associated lamina during 3-D migration is gathering increasing interest in the context of cancer metastasis, with the underlying hypothesis that a softer nucleus, resulting from reduced levels of lamin A/C, may aid tumour spreading. However, current methods to study the migration of cells in confining three dimensional (3-D) environments are limited by their imprecise control over the confinement, physiological relevance, and/or compatibility with high resolution imaging techniques. We describe the design of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device composed of channels with precisely-defined constrictions mimicking physiological environments that enable high resolution imaging of live and fixed cells. The device promotes easy cell loading and rapid, yet long-lasting (>24 hours) chemotactic gradient formation without the need for continuous perfusion. Using this device, we obtained detailed, quantitative measurements of dynamic nuclear deformation as cells migrate through tight spaces, revealing distinct phases of nuclear translocation through the constriction, buckling of the nuclear lamina, and severe intranuclear strain. Furthermore, we found that lamin A/C-deficient cells exhibited increased and more plastic nuclear deformations compared to wild-type cells but only minimal changes in nuclear volume, implying that low lamin A/C levels facilitate migration through constrictions by increasing nuclear deformability rather than compressibility. The integration of our migration devices with high resolution time-lapse imaging provides a powerful new approach to study intracellular mechanics and dynamics in a variety of physiologically-relevant applications, ranging from cancer cell invasion to immune cell recruitment. PMID:26549481

  11. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  12. Inclusion Body Myositis

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is Inclusion Body Myositis? Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is one of a group of muscle diseases ... muscle weakness. The onset of muscle weakness in IBM is generally gradual (over months or years) and ...

  13. Creating an Inclusive School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Richard A., Ed.; Thousand, Jacqueline S., Ed.

    This collection of readings in support of inclusive education for students with disabilities offers rationales for inclusion, personal accounts of individuals involved, and strategies for facilitating change. Stressed throughout is the idea that inclusion is an attitude or belief system, not an action or set of actions. The readings identify…

  14. Inclusion in Middle Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Derrick; Ashley, Mandi; Hayes, Brandalyn

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide school districts within Tennessee with more research about how weekly hours of inclusion impact student achievement. Specifically, researchers examined which models of inclusion were in use in two school districts in Tennessee, administrators' and teachers' perceptions of inclusion, and whether or…

  15. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  16. Footstep towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, Faiza; Zafar, Aneeka; Naz, Tayyaba

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education is a rising trend in the world. The first step towards inclusive education is providing the awareness to the general education teachers. This study focused to investigate the general education teachers of primary and secondary level awareness about the special education and inclusive education. This study is descriptive method…

  17. Towards Inclusive Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion is the process that will enable every person in society to participate in normal activities of societies they live in, including education, employment, public services and social recreational activities. For the development of an inclusive society, preparation of younger generation also needs to be inclusive. Our schools must…

  18. Accumulation of Hsc70 and Hsp70 in glial cytoplasmic inclusions in patients with multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Shirakashi, Yoshitomo; Honjo, Yasuyuki; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Budka, Herbert

    2007-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones which can be induced by several kinds of stresses, and Hsc70 and Hsp70 are two major members of the family of 70 kDa HSPs. A major component of Lewy bodies (LBs) is alpha-synuclein, and Hsp70 has been observed in the LBs of brains with Parkinson's disease. Hsp70 has also been demonstrated to have the ability to suppress alpha-synuclein toxicity in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the precise role of Hsc70 and Hsp70 in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), which is another alpha-synuclein-related disease, we performed immunohistochemical studies on Hsc70 and Hsp70 using autopsied brains from 7 normal subjects and 15 patients with MSA. In the normal human brains, both neurons and glial cells, including oligodendrocytes, showed only weak Hsc70 and Hsp70 immunoreactivities. In contrast, in the brains with MSA, numerous glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) were intensely immunostained with Hsc70, and strong Hsc70 immunoreactivity was also found in glial intranuclear inclusions (GNIs), neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NNIs) as well as dystrophic neurites. The immunolabeling pattern for Hsp70 in the MSA brains was slightly different from that of Hsc70, and Hsp70 immunoreactivity was observed in many reactive astrocytes as well as some glial and neuronal inclusions. Our results suggest that the widespread accumulation of Hsc70 and Hsp70 may occur in brains with MSA, and that Hsc70 and Hsp70 may be associated with the pathogenesis of MSA. PMID:17240362

  19. Industrial lead contamination of an Illinois wildlife refuge and indigenous small mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Kisseberth, W.C.; Sundberg, J.P.; Nyboer, R.W.; Reynolds, J.D.; Kasten, S.C.; Beasley, V.R.

    1984-12-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were trapped from a sand prairie at various distances from an adjacent battery lead reclamation plant. Analysis of liver, kidney, and bone for lead concentrations showed an increase of tissue lead concentrations over controls to a distance of approximately 400 m. Soil and plant lead concentrations roughly correlated with the findings in deer mouse tissues. At higher tissue lead concentrations, acid-fast staining intranuclear inclusions within renal tubular epithelial cells were an occasional finding.

  20. Experimental lead-shot poisoning in bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.M.; Sileo, L.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Captive, crippled bald eagles unsuitable for release were fed lead shot to determine diagnostic criteria for lead poisoning. The eagles were fluoroscoped and bled periodically to determine shot retention and blood delta--aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Microscopic examination revealed renal tubular degeneration, arterial fibrinoid necrosis and myocardial necrosis. Acid-fast intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were not found in proximal convoluted tubule cells. Analyses of blood and toxicological data are not yet complete.

  1. Experimental lead poisoning in bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, H.; Wiemeyer, S.; Hoffman, P.; Carpenter, J.; Sileo, L.

    1979-01-01

    Captive, crippled bald eagles unsuitable for release were fed lead shot to determine diagnostic criteria for lead poisoning. The eagles were fluoroscoped and bled periodically to determine shot retention and blood delta--aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Microscopic examination revealed renal tubular degeneration, arterial fibrinoid necrosis and myocardial necrosis. Acid-fast intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were not found in proximal convoluted tubule cells. Analyses of blood and toxicological data are not yet complete.

  2. Hyperinvasive Meningococci Induce Intra-nuclear Cleavage of the NF-κB Protein p65/RelA by Meningococcal IgA Protease.

    PubMed

    Besbes, Anissa; Le Goff, Salomé; Antunes, Ana; Terrade, Aude; Hong, Eva; Giorgini, Dario; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine

    2015-08-01

    Differential modulation of NF-κB during meningococcal infection is critical in innate immune response to meningococcal disease. Non-invasive isolates of Neisseria meningitidis provoke a sustained NF-κB activation in epithelial cells. However, the hyperinvasive isolates of the ST-11 clonal complex (ST-11) only induce an early NF-κB activation followed by a sustained activation of JNK and apoptosis. We show that this temporal activation of NF-κB was caused by specific cleavage at the C-terminal region of NF-κB p65/RelA component within the nucleus of infected cells. This cleavage was mediated by the secreted 150 kDa meningococcal ST-11 IgA protease carrying nuclear localisation signals (NLS) in its α-peptide moiety that allowed efficient intra-nuclear transport. In a collection of non-ST-11 healthy carriage isolates lacking NLS in the α-peptide, secreted IgA protease was devoid of intra-nuclear transport. This part of iga polymorphism allows non-invasive isolates lacking NLS, unlike hyperinvasive ST-11 isolates of N. meningitides habouring NLS in their α-peptide, to be carried asymptomatically in the human nasopharynx through selective eradication of their ability to induce apoptosis in infected epithelial cells. PMID:26241037

  3. Ebselen treatment prevents islet apoptosis, maintains intranuclear Pdx-1 and MafA levels, and preserves β-cell mass and function in ZDF rats.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Jana; Parazzoli, Susan; Oseid, Elizabeth; Hertzel, Ann V; Bernlohr, David A; Vallerie, Sara N; Liu, Chang-qin; Lopez, Melissa; Harmon, Jamie S; Robertson, R Paul

    2013-10-01

    We reported earlier that β-cell-specific overexpression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia in diabetic db/db mice and prevented glucotoxicity-induced deterioration of β-cell mass and function. We have now ascertained whether early treatment of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats with ebselen, an oral GPx mimetic, will prevent β-cell deterioration. No other antihyperglycemic treatment was given. Ebselen ameliorated fasting hyperglycemia, sustained nonfasting insulin levels, lowered nonfasting glucose levels, and lowered HbA1c levels with no effects on body weight. Ebselen doubled β-cell mass, prevented apoptosis, prevented expression of oxidative stress markers, and enhanced intranuclear localization of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox (Pdx)-1 and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A (MafA), two critical insulin transcription factors. Minimal β-cell replication was observed in both groups. These findings indicate that prevention of oxidative stress is the mechanism whereby ebselen prevents apoptosis and preserves intranuclear Pdx-1 and MafA, which, in turn, is a likely explanation for the beneficial effects of ebselen on β-cell mass and function. Since ebselen is an oral antioxidant currently used in clinical trials, it is a novel therapeutic candidate to ameliorate fasting hyperglycemia and further deterioration of β-cell mass and function in humans undergoing the onset of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Induction of intranuclear membranes by overproduction of Opi1p and Scs2p, regulators for yeast phospholipid biosynthesis, suggests a mechanism for Opi1p nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Miki; Oshima, Ayaka; Noguchi, Tetsuko; Kagiwada, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the expression of phospholipid biosynthetic genes is suppressed by the Opi1p negative regulator. Opi1p enters into the nucleoplasm from the nuclear membrane to suppress the gene expression under repressing conditions. The binding of Opi1p to the nuclear membrane requires an integral membrane protein, Scs2p and phosphatidic acid (PA). Although it is demonstrated that the association of Opi1p with membranes is affected by PA levels, how Opi1p dissociates from Scs2p is unknown. Here, we found that fluorescently labelled Opi1p accumulated on a perinuclear region in an Scs2p-dependent manner. Electron microscopic analyses indicated that the perinuclear region consists of intranuclear membranes, which may be formed by the invagination of the nuclear membrane due to the accumulation of Opi1p and Scs2p in a restricted area. As expected, localization of Opi1p and Scs2p in the intranuclear membranes was detected by immunoelectron microscopy. Biochemical analysis showed that Opi1p recovered in the membrane fraction was detergent insoluble while Scs2p was soluble, implying that Opi1p behaves differently from Scs2p in the fraction. We hypothesize that Opi1p dissociates from Scs2p after targeting to the nuclear membrane, making it possible to be released from the membrane quickly when PA levels decrease. PMID:26590299

  5. Avian polyomavirus infection of a fledgling budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and differential diagnoses of viral inclusions in psittacine birds--case report and mini-review.

    PubMed

    Herder, Vanessa; König, Anett; Seehusen, Frauke; Wohlsein, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A two-week-old budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) of an outdoor aviary died suddenly and was submitted for determination the cause of illness and death. Macroscopically, the sparsely feathered animal was in a poor body condition. Histopathological examination revealed in various mesenchymal and epithelial tissues, numerous up to 15 microm in diameter large intranuclear, amphophilic to basophilic inclusion bodies with a clearing of the centre. Additionally, a feather dysplasia and retention hyperkeratosis of feather follicles was found. Ultrastructurally, viral particles of approximately 35 nm in diameter were detected in the feather follicle epithelium. A PCR for Avian Polyomavirus on fresh skin samples was negative whereas on formalin-fixed kidney samples with a high amount of viral inclusion bodies yielded a positive result. In addition, viral inclusion body diseases, like Avian Poxvirus, Psittacine Beak and Feather disease virus, Avian Adenovirus, Psittacine Herpesvirus and papillomavirus of psittacines are summarized and compared in the present article. PMID:22059291

  6. Achieving an Inclusive Graduate Community. Inclusiveness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Graduate Schools, Washington, DC.

    Since 1994, the Council of Graduate Schools has awarded the Peterson's Award for Innovation in Promoting an Inclusive Graduate Community to one graduate school each year for the leadership it has taken in modeling practices and programs for the graduate community as a whole. This volume is the first in a series that tries to bring the voices of…

  7. Inclusion Specialists: Are They Really Fostering Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katul, Nadia A.

    This paper includes a qualitative study of the role of "inclusion specialists" in schools, a review of the history of special education, accounts of interviews with 17 special and 7 regular educators, accounts of day-long observations of four specialists, and the author's reflections. The literature review focuses on the relationship of regular…

  8. Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhoweris, Hala; Alsheikh, Negmeldin

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate current teachers' attitudes toward inclusion, and to (b) explore possible difference in the general and special education teachers' attitudes toward inclusion of students with disabilities in the integrated education classroom. A total of 10 participants from a large mid-western state university…

  9. Embracing Inclusive Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which initial teacher education (ITE) programmes contribute to the development of inclusive attitudes, values and practices. Inclusive education is the entitlement of all children and young people to quality education, irrespective of their differences or dispositions. It is about embracing educational values of…

  10. The Inclusion Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Schuh, Mary C.; Nisbet, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion facilitators are educators who do more than teach children with disabilities--they advocate for change in schools and communities, sparking a passion for inclusion in teachers, administrators, and families and giving them the practical guidance they need to make it work. This is an essential new role in today's schools, and this guide…

  11. Resources on Inclusive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulgin, Kathy, Ed.

    This information packet is intended for use by teachers, parents, administrators, therapists, advocates, and others interested in achieving inclusive educational opportunities for students with disabilities. Part I provides reprints of selected readings, including: "Sample Case Studies of Inclusive Education" (Janet Duncan); "Public Schools…

  12. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  13. What Counts as Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, E.; Nel, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the years since the publication in South Africa of White Paper Six: Special needs education (Department of Education (DoE) 2001) various schools in the state and independent sectors have begun to implement inclusive policies and practices. With reference to the Guidelines for full-service/inclusive schools issued in 2009, and by discussing a…

  14. Index for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  15. Towards Inclusive Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscow, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Uses classroom vignettes to examine reasons why schools in the United Kingdom are not yet generally successful in including students with disabilities and suggests simple ways that ordinary teachers can implement inclusive practices. These include the importance of teamwork, a school climate which encourages inclusive practices, and teacher…

  16. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  17. JC virus inclusions in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: scaffolding promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies grow with cell cycle transition through an S-to-G2-like state in enlarging oligodendrocyte nuclei.

    PubMed

    Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Yazawa, Takuya; Nagane, Motoo; Higuchi, Kayoko; Abe-Suzuki, Shiho; Kurata, Morito; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Kamma, Hiroshi; Uchihara, Toshiki

    2014-05-01

    In progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JC virus-infected oligodendroglia display 2 distinct patterns of intranuclear viral inclusions: full inclusions in which progeny virions are present throughout enlarged nuclei and dot-shaped inclusions in which virions are clustered in subnuclear domains termed "promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies" (PML-NBs). Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies may serve a scaffolding role in viral progeny production. We analyzed the formation process of intranuclear viral inclusions by morphometry and assessed PML-NB alterations in the brains of 2 patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. By immunohistochemistry, proliferating cell nuclear antigen was most frequently detected in smaller nuclei; cyclin A was detected in larger nuclei. This suggests an S-to-G2 cell cycle transition in infected cells associated with nuclear enlargement. Sizes of PML-NBs were variable, but they were usually either small speckles 200 to 400 nm in diameter or distinct spherical shells with a diameter of 1 μm or more. By confocal microscopy, JC virus capsid proteins were associated with both small and large PML-NBs, but disruption of large PML-NBs was observed by ground-state depletion fluorescence nanoscopy. Clusters of progeny virions were also detected by electron microscopy. Our data suggest that, in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JC virus produces progeny virions in enlarging oligodendrocyte nuclei in association with growing PML-NBs and with cell cycle transition through an S-to-G2-like state.

  18. A novel ACTA1 mutation resulting in a severe congenital myopathy with nemaline bodies, intranuclear rods and type I fibre predominance.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Gianina; Wilmshurst, Jo M; Pillay, Komala; Sivadorai, Padma; Wallefeld, William; Nowak, Kristen J; Laing, Nigel G

    2011-01-01

    We describe a severe congenital myopathy patient of Xhosa native African origin with a novel de novo p.Gly152Ala skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) mutation, who died at 6 months of age. The muscle pathology demonstrated abundant cytoplasmic and intranuclear rods, core-like areas and the unusual feature of larger type I than type II fibres. Our results further expand the phenotypes associated with ACTA1 mutations and provide support for the hypothesis that the structural abnormalities seen are a pathological continuum dependent on the precise mutation and biopsy location. Our results also demonstrate the likely world-wide distribution of de novo mutations in this gene. PMID:20850316

  19. Extension of the Liège intranuclear cascade model at incident energies between 2 and 12 GeV. Aspects of pion production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedoux, Sophie; Cugnon, Joseph

    2011-09-01

    The validity of the standard version of the Liège Intra-Nuclear Cascade (INCL4) model, which has been shown to be quite successful for the description of spallation reactions, is limited to an upper incident energy of ˜2 GeV, because inelastic elementary processes are restricted to the excitation and de-excitation of the Delta resonance. In this paper, the INCL4 model is extended to higher incident energy by including other inelastic elementary collisions. However, excitation of heavier baryonic resonances is replaced by direct multipion production in elementary nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleon collisions. The predictions of the modified model for production of charged pions by proton and pion beams off nuclei are compared with experimental data of the HARP Collaboration for beam energies between 2 and 12 GeV. The apparent duality between the approach based on excitation of numerous baryonic resonances and our approach is briefly discussed.

  20. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate enhances the phase II enzyme activities via the increase in intranuclear Nrf2 level and cytosolic p21 level.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Keisuke; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Azuma, Hideki; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    (1'S)-acetoxychavicol acetate ((S)-ACA) exhibits chemopreventive effects on chemically induced tumor formation. It has been shown that ACA inhibited the development of azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis through its suppression of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa and its induction of glutathione S-transferase and quinone oxidoreductase 1 in vivo. In this study, we investigated how ACA induced these enzymes by using rat intestine epithelial cells (IEC6) in vitro. ACA induced glutathione S-transferase (GST) and NAD (P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activities, increased intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, and upregulated intranuclear Nrf2 and cytosolic p21. It suggested that activation of phase II enzymes via Nrf2 associated with p21 is one of possible mechanisms of ACA to prevent advance of carcinogenesis.

  1. Differential effects of glucose and alcohol on reactive oxygen species generation and intranuclear nuclear factor-kappaB in mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Dhindsa, Sandeep; Tripathy, Devjit; Mohanty, Priya; Ghanim, Husam; Syed, Tufail; Aljada, Ahmad; Dandona, Paresh

    2004-03-01

    It has previously been shown that oral intake of 300 calories of glucose (75 g), lipid, or protein increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by polymorphonuclear cells (PMNL) and mononuclear cells (MNCs). We investigated the effects of 75 g glucose on proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB), in mononuclear cells. To further investigate whether the effects of macronutrient-induced oxidative stress are due to consumption of calories or are nutrient specific, we investigated the effects of acute oral challenge of equicaloric amounts of alcohol (300 calories) on ROS generation and NF-kappaB activation in MNCs and PMNL and compared them with those of glucose and water (control). Sixteen normal healthy adult volunteers were given either vodka (10 subjects), glucose solution (10 subjects), or 300 mL water (7 subjects). Vodka and glucose drinks were equivalent to 300 calories. We measured ROS generation and intranuclear NF-kappaB activation by PMNL cells and MNCs at 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours following ingestion. ROS generation by both MNC and PMNL increased significantly (P <.05 for MNC and P <.01 for PMNL) following intake of glucose solution, but did not change significantly following alcohol or water. NF-kappaB binding activity in MNC nuclear extracts also increased (P <.001) following ingestion of glucose solution, but did not change after the administration of alcohol or water. We conclude that (1) 75 g oral glucose increases NF-kappaB binding activity in MNCs. (2) While 75 g glucose (300 calories) induces an increase in ROS generation and intranuclear NF-kappaB, equicaloric amounts of alcohol did not produce these effects.

  2. Herpesviral inclusion body disease in owls and falcons is caused by the pigeon herpesvirus (columbid herpesvirus 1).

    PubMed

    Gailbreath, Katherine L; Oaks, J Lindsay

    2008-04-01

    A herpesviral disease of Rock Pigeons (Columba livia), called "inclusion body disease" or "inclusion body hepatitis," was first described in the 1940s. The disease involves hepatic and splenic necrosis with associated intranuclear inclusion bodies and occurs primarily in young squabs. A similar herpesviral disease occurs in falcons and owls. Serologic and restriction endonuclease digestion studies indicate that herpesviruses from pigeons, falcons, and owls are very closely related and that most reported cases of disease in falcons and owls involve prior documented or possible ingestion of pigeons. These findings led to the hypothesis that an endemic herpesvirus of pigeons may be causing disease in falcons and owls. In order to test this hypothesis, we sequenced a fragment of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene from naturally infected owls, falcons, and pigeons with inclusion body disease collected between 1991 and 2006. Sequences from all three sources were almost identical, and we therefore propose that the usual agent of inclusion body hepatitis in owls and falcons is columbid herpesvirus 1.

  3. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  4. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  5. Limitations of inclusive fitness

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  6. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S.; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A. K.; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Interpretation and Conclusion: Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity. PMID:26425006

  7. Novel inclusion in laser crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiaoshan; Wang Siting; Jin Zhongru; Shen Yafang; Chen Jiaguang

    1986-12-01

    In growing alexandrite crystals, a novel inclusion has been found. The inclusions are quantitatively analyzed by an electronic probe and the mechanism for forming inclusions is suggested. In our Bridgman MgF/sub 2/ crystals, the inclusions in <001> direction have also been observed.

  8. Normalizing Difference in Inclusive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baglieri,Susan; Knopf,Janice H.

    2004-01-01

    Inclusion practices and special education can be transformed by using a disability studies perspective, which constructs differences as natural, acceptable, and ordinary. Although inclusion is a moral imperative in promoting social justice, some inclusive practices continue to marginalize students with disabilities. A truly inclusive school…

  9. Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

    2011-01-01

    This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

  10. Inclusion Body Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders that share many similarities. These include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing myopathy (NM), and sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). Inclusion body myositis is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy after age 50 and it presents with chronic proximal leg and distal arm asymmetric mucle weakness. Despite similarities with PM, it is likely that IBM is primarily a degenerative disorder rather than an inflammatory muscle disease. Inclusion body myositis is associated with a modest degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and an abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy with some chronicity. The muscle histopathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers often times accompanied by rimmed vacuoles. In this chapter, we review sporadic IBM. We also examine past, essentially negative, clinical trials in IBM and review ongoing clinical trials. For further details on DM, PM, and NM, the reader is referred to the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies chapter. PMID:23117948

  11. Inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2012-07-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders that share many similarities. These include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing myopathy (NM), and sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). Inclusion body myositis is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy after age 50 and it presents with chronic proximal leg and distal arm asymmetric mucle weakness. Despite similarities with PM, it is likely that IBM is primarily a degenerative disorder rather than an inflammatory muscle disease. Inclusion body myositis is associated with a modest degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and an abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy with some chronicity. The muscle histopathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers often times accompanied by rimmed vacuoles. In this chapter, we review sporadic IBM. We also examine past, essentially negative, clinical trials in IBM and review ongoing clinical trials. For further details on DM, PM, and NM, the reader is referred to the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies chapter.

  12. Against Being Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The term "inclusive excellence," made popular by the Association of American Colleges and Universities and adopted by many schools across the country is in some ways unfortunate, in that the concept of "including," arguably, assumes the priority and ongoing dominance of a given reality into which one may (or may not) be granted…

  13. Inclusion Forum, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Maxine

    1994-01-01

    These two newsletter issues focus on training strategies for developing more inclusive programs for children with disabilities and for developing collaborative programs. An interview with Dr. Barbara Wolfe addresses successful inservice teacher training strategies. Additional information in the first issue includes guidelines for empowering…

  14. Collaborative Support for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanahuja-Gavaldà, Josep M.; Olmos-Rueda, Patricia; Morón-Velasco, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in Catalonia, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly in regular schools although their presence, participation, learning and success are unequal. Barriers towards inclusion often depend on how to organise supporting at regular schools and the teachers' collaboration during this process. In this paper, the support…

  15. Inclusion Art Contest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mel, Melisa Dauzat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ease a school system into the transitions that occur when Inclusion is incorporated. An entire Middle School was used to collect data from. The grades in that school were 6th, 7th and 8th grade. The initial intent was to foment a community feeling among the students. The results were completely unexpected as they…

  16. Inclusion and Discipline Referrals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krank, H. Mark; Moon, Charles E.; Render, Gary F.

    2002-01-01

    Discipline referrals for special needs students and other students in a rural K-8 school were examined before and after the school shifted to inclusive-school policies and practices. In the year after the shift, discipline referrals declined sharply for special needs students and slightly for other students, reflecting positive social outcomes of…

  17. Relationships in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Graça Duarte; Sardinha, Susana; Reis, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Climate in the classroom is one of the determining factors in the development of practices in Inclusive Education. Many factors contribute to the climate in the classroom. However, there are predominance on affective-relational factors, with impact on action, norms and values, social interactions and learning processes. In this paper, the authors…

  18. Exploring Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Black-Hawkins, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study designed to examine teachers' craft knowledge of their practice of "inclusion" in terms of what they do, why and how. The research approach offers an important alternative to studies of students with "additional needs" and the search to articulate the specialist knowledge and skill required to teach them. Through…

  19. Inclusion on the Bookshelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Camille

    2009-01-01

    Three decades have passed since federal law mandated inclusion--ending, officially at least, a system that segregated students with disabilities from the rest of the student population. The publishing world has yet to catch up. In children's books, characters with disabilities often inhabit their own separate world, where disability is the only…

  20. Raising Achievement through Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Swedish authorities introduced open publication of comparisons of students' results at the end of compulsory school. In this study, we investigated a municipality that had succeeded in breaking a negative trend from a bottom position in the ranking in 2007 to a top position in 2010, apparently through inclusive practices. The purpose…

  1. Nanotubular Toughening Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Conventional toughening agents are typically rubbery materials or small molecular weight molecules, which mostly sacrifice the intrinsic properties of a matrix such as modulus, strength, and thermal stability as side effects. On the other hand, high modulus inclusions tend to reinforce elastic modulus very efficiently, but not the strength very well. For example, mechanical reinforcement with inorganic inclusions often degrades the composite toughness, encountering a frequent catastrophic brittle failure triggered by minute chips and cracks. Thus, toughening generally conflicts with mechanical reinforcement. Carbon nanotubes have been used as efficient reinforcing agents in various applications due to their combination of extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Moreover, nanotubes can elongate more than 20% without yielding or breaking, and absorb significant amounts of energy during deformation, which enables them to also be an efficient toughening agent, as well as excellent reinforcing inclusion. Accordingly, an improved toughening method is provided by incorporating nanotubular inclusions into a host matrix, such as thermoset and thermoplastic polymers or ceramics without detrimental effects on the matrix's intrinsic physical properties.

  2. Positive Inclusion Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This guide focuses on the use of low-end technology to make education more inclusive for children and adolescents with disabilities. The definition of "assistive technology" is discussed, and low-end technology is defined as simple modification/adaptation of toys and games, design and construction of simple switching devices, and the adaptation/…

  3. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated. Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment. Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second

  4. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB.This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated.Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment.Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second-line anti

  5. Hadronic event generation for hadron cascade calculations and detector simulation, Part IV: The application of the intranuclear cascade model to reactions of pions, nucleons, kaons, and their antiparticles with nuclei below 6 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Haenbssgen, K.

    1987-02-01

    An extension of the intranuclear cascade model is described. The primary hadrons may be pions, kaons, nucleons, and their antiparticles. Secondary particles produced include hyperons or antihyperons. A large amount of experimental data is described by the model. The model is constructed via the Monte Carlo generation of complete events, based on a model of the nucleus structure and the hadron/nucleon interaction inside the nucleus. Calculated average multiplicities and single and double differential cross sections are compared with experimental data.

  6. Identification of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ac93 as a core gene and its requirement for intranuclear microvesicle formation and nuclear egress of nucleocapsids.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Meijin; Huang, Zhenqiu; Wei, Denghui; Hu, Zhaoyang; Yang, Kai; Pang, Yi

    2011-11-01

    Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf93 (ac93) is a highly conserved uncharacterized gene that is found in all of the sequenced baculovirus genomes except for Culex nigripalpus NPV. In this report, using bioinformatics analyses, ac93 and odv-e25 (ac94) were identified as baculovirus core genes and thus p33-ac93-odv-e25 represent a cluster of core genes. To investigate the role of ac93 in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac93 knockout AcMNPV bacmid was constructed via homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that the AcMNPV ac93 knockout did not spread by infection, and titration assays confirmed a defect in budded virus (BV) production. However, deletion of ac93 did not affect viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy indicated that ac93 was required for the egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus and the formation of intranuclear microvesicles, which are precursor structures of occlusion-derived virus (ODV) envelopes. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that Ac93 was concentrated toward the cytoplasmic membrane in the cytoplasm and in the nuclear ring zone in the nucleus. Western blot analyses showed that Ac93 was associated with both nucleocapsid and envelope fractions of BV, but only the nucleocapsid fraction of ODV. Our results suggest that ac93, although not previously recognized as a core gene, is one that plays an essential role in the formation of the ODV envelope and the egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus.

  7. Hydroxyurea-induced replication stress causes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 accumulation and changes its intranuclear location in root meristems of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Replication stress induced by 24 and 48h exposure to 2.5mM hydroxyurea (HU) increased the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2; EC 2.4.2.30) in root meristem cells of Vicia faba. An increase in the number of PARP-2 foci was accompanied by their delocalization from peripheral areas to the interior of the nucleus. Our results indicate that the increase in PARP-2 was connected with an increase in S139-phosphorylated H2AX histones. The findings suggest the possible role of PARP-2 in replication stress. We also confirm that the intranuclear location of PARP-2 depends on the duration of HU-induced replication stress, confirming the role of PARP-2 as an indicator of stress intensity. Finally, we conclude that the more intense the HU-mediated replication stress, the greater the probability of PARP-2 activation or H2AXS139 phosphorylation, but also the greater the chance of increasing the efficiency of repair processes and a return to normal cell cycle progression. PMID:27155387

  8. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  9. Inclusion-Body Myositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Get Involved Donate Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) Share print email share facebook twitter google plus ... Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) News Gene Therapy Success in IBM- A Quest ...

  10. Effects of Deletion and Overexpression of the Autographa californica Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus FP25K Gene on Synthesis of Two Occlusion-Derived Virus Envelope Proteins and Their Transport into Virus-Induced Intranuclear Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Acosta, Germán; Braunagel, Sharon C.; Summers, Max D.

    2001-01-01

    Partial deletions within Autographa californica open reading frame 61 (FP25K) alter the expression and accumulation profile of several viral proteins and the transport of occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-E66 to intranuclear membranes during infection (S. C. Braunagel et al., J. Virol. 73:8559–8570, 1999). Here we show the effects of a full deletion and overexpression of FP25K on the transport and expression of two ODV envelope proteins, ODV-E66 (E66) and ODV-E25 (E25). Deletion and overexpression of FP25K substantially altered the levels of expression of E66 during infection. Compared with cells infected with wild-type (wt) virus, the levels of E66 were reduced fivefold in cells infected with a viral mutant lacking FP25K (ΔFP25K) and were slightly increased in cells infected with a viral mutant overexpressing FP25K (FP25Kpolh). In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the levels of E25 among wt-, ΔFP25K-, and FP25Kpolh-infected cells. The changes observed in the levels of E66 among the different viral mutants were not accompanied by changes in either the time of synthesis, membrane association, protein turnover, or steady-state transcript abundance. Deletion of FP25K also substantially altered the transport and localization of E66 during infection. In cells infected with the ΔFP25K mutant virus, E66 accumulated in localized regions at the nuclear periphery and the outer nuclear membrane and did not traffic to intranuclear membranes. In contrast, in cells infected with the FP25Kpolh mutant virus E66 trafficked to intranuclear membranes. For comparison, E25 was normally transported to intranuclear membranes in both ΔFP25K- and FP25Kpolh-infected cells. Altogether these studies suggest that FP25K affects the synthesis of E66 at a posttranscriptional level, probably by altering the translation of E66; additionally, the block in transport of E66 at the nuclear envelope in ΔFP25K-infected cells suggests that the pathway of E66 trafficking to the inner

  11. Inclusive Education under Collectivistic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futaba, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses how inclusive education under collective culture is possible. Inclusive education, which more-or-less involves changing the current schools, has been denied, doubted or distorted by both policy-makers and practitioners of general and special education in Japan. Main reason for the setback in inclusive education can be…

  12. Developing Inclusive Schools: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara

    This workbook provides practical information for developing and implementing inclusive school programs through understanding the educator role, using effective problem-solving strategies, and developing a support network to meet the challenges of inclusion. Ten chapters cover the following topics: (1) effective inclusion (an analysis of the trend…

  13. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  14. Inclusion: A Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Susan, Ed.; Stainback, William, Ed.

    This book discusses the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms and describes strategies that enhance the social success and educational achievement for all students. Section 1 provides an introduction to inclusion and contains the following chapters: "Rationale for Inclusive Schooling" (Anastasios Karagiannis and…

  15. How to measure inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Creel, S

    1990-09-22

    Although inclusive fitness (Hamilton 1964) is regarded as the basic currency of natural selection, difficulty in applying inclusive fitness theory to field studies persists, a quarter-century after its introduction (Grafen 1982, 1984; Brown 1987). For instance, strict application of the original (and currently accepted) definition of inclusive fitness predicts that no one should ever attempt to breed among obligately cooperative breeders. Much of this confusion may have arisen because Hamilton's (1964) original verbal definition of inclusive fitness was not in complete accord with his justifying model. By re-examining Hamilton's original model, a modified verbal definition of inclusive fitness can be justified.

  16. Singing and social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  17. Singing and social inclusion

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  18. Singing and social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  19. Can We Build Inclusion?

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion of some children with special needs. Hence the title - can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily pedagogical practice in general. Twelve interviews were conducted with experienced teachers from twelve different kindergartens with different amounts of space, varying from a ratio of 2.1 m2 play area per child to 5.5 m2. The results indicated that, for a group of children with special needs in particular, the amount of space is crucial. This group consisted of children who were socially very extrovert, and who maybe were noisy, easily provoked, and quick to get involved in arguments with other children. Alternatively, children in the group were very restrained and withdrawn in social interaction. Based on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity for a much longer period. Sufficient space made it possible to divide the children into smaller groups, and use any secluded space. Therefore, it was much easier for other children to include some children with special needs. Accordingly, we can say that, sufficient space per child and an adequate layout and furnishing of the kindergarten is an advantage for all children. This is a clear example of Universal Design in which architectural

  20. Policies of Inclusion

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    The racial politics of immigration have punctuated national discussions about immigration at different periods in US history, particularly when concerns about losing an American way of life or American population have coincided with concerns about infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the main theme running through American immigration policy is one of inclusion. The United States has historically been a nation reliant on immigrant labor and, accordingly, the most consequential public policies regarding immigration have responded to disease and its economic burdens by seeking to control the behavior of immigrants within our borders rather than excluding immigrants at our borders. PMID:15053996

  1. A Honey Bee Hexamerin, HEX 70a, Is Likely to Play an Intranuclear Role in Developing and Mature Ovarioles and Testioles

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Juliana R.; Anhezini, Lucas; Dallacqua, Rodrigo P.; Simões, Zilá L. P.; Bitondi, Márcia M. G.

    2011-01-01

    Insect hexamerins have long been known as storage proteins that are massively synthesized by the larval fat body and secreted into hemolymph. Following the larval-to-pupal molt, hexamerins are sequestered by the fat body via receptor-mediated endocytosis, broken up, and used as amino acid resources for metamorphosis. In the honey bee, the transcript and protein subunit of a hexamerin, HEX 70a, were also detected in ovaries and testes. Aiming to identify the subcellular localization of HEX 70a in the female and male gonads, we used a specific antibody in whole mount preparations of ovaries and testes for analysis by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Intranuclear HEX 70a foci were evidenced in germ and somatic cells of ovarioles and testioles of pharate-adult workers and drones, suggesting a regulatory or structural role. Following injection of the thymidine analog EdU we observed co-labeling with HEX 70a in ovariole cell nuclei, inferring possible HEX 70a involvement in cell proliferation. Further support to this hypothesis came from an injection of anti-HEX 70a into newly ecdysed queen pupae where it had a negative effect on ovariole thickening. HEX 70a foci were also detected in ovarioles of egg laying queens, particularly in the nuclei of the highly polyploid nurse cells and in proliferating follicle cells. Additional roles for this storage protein are indicated by the detection of nuclear HEX 70a foci in post-meiotic spermatids and spermatozoa. Taken together, these results imply undescribed roles for HEX 70a in the developing gonads of the honey bee and raise the possibility that other hexamerins may also have tissue specific functions. PMID:22205988

  2. A honey bee hexamerin, HEX 70a, is likely to play an intranuclear role in developing and mature ovarioles and testioles.

    PubMed

    Martins, Juliana R; Anhezini, Lucas; Dallacqua, Rodrigo P; Simões, Zilá L P; Bitondi, Márcia M G

    2011-01-01

    Insect hexamerins have long been known as storage proteins that are massively synthesized by the larval fat body and secreted into hemolymph. Following the larval-to-pupal molt, hexamerins are sequestered by the fat body via receptor-mediated endocytosis, broken up, and used as amino acid resources for metamorphosis. In the honey bee, the transcript and protein subunit of a hexamerin, HEX 70a, were also detected in ovaries and testes. Aiming to identify the subcellular localization of HEX 70a in the female and male gonads, we used a specific antibody in whole mount preparations of ovaries and testes for analysis by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Intranuclear HEX 70a foci were evidenced in germ and somatic cells of ovarioles and testioles of pharate-adult workers and drones, suggesting a regulatory or structural role. Following injection of the thymidine analog EdU we observed co-labeling with HEX 70a in ovariole cell nuclei, inferring possible HEX 70a involvement in cell proliferation. Further support to this hypothesis came from an injection of anti-HEX 70a into newly ecdysed queen pupae where it had a negative effect on ovariole thickening. HEX 70a foci were also detected in ovarioles of egg laying queens, particularly in the nuclei of the highly polyploid nurse cells and in proliferating follicle cells. Additional roles for this storage protein are indicated by the detection of nuclear HEX 70a foci in post-meiotic spermatids and spermatozoa. Taken together, these results imply undescribed roles for HEX 70a in the developing gonads of the honey bee and raise the possibility that other hexamerins may also have tissue specific functions.

  3. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  4. [Inclusion-body myositis].

    PubMed

    Benveniste, O

    2014-07-01

    Sporadic inclusion-body myositis (sIBM) presents in average at the sixth decade of life and affects three men for one woman. It is a non-lethal, slowly progressive but disabling disease. Except the striated muscles, no other organs (such as the interstitial lung) are involved. The phenotype of this myopathy is particular since it involves the axial muscles (camptocormia, swallowing dysfunction) and limb girdle (notably the quadriceps) but also the distal muscles (in particular the fingers' and wrists' flexors) in a bilateral but non-symmetrical manner. The clinical presentation is then very suggestive of the diagnosis, which remains to be proven by a muscle biopsy. Histological features defining the diagnosis associate endomysial inflammatory infiltrates with frequent invaded fibres (the myositis) and amyloid deposits generally accompanying rimmed vacuoles (the inclusions). There is still today a debate to know if this disease is at its beginning a degenerative or an auto-immune condition. Nonetheless, usual immunosuppressive drugs (corticosteroids, azathioprine, methotrexate) or polyvalent immunoglobulines remain ineffective and even may worsen the handicap. Some controlled randomized trials will soon be launched for this condition, but for now, the best therapeutic approach to slow down the rapidity of progression of the disease is to maintain muscle exercise with the help of the physiotherapists.

  5. Asymmetric inclusion process.

    PubMed

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2011-10-01

    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites' occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes. PMID:22181081

  6. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions.

  7. Inclusive and Exclusive |Vub|

    SciTech Connect

    Petrella, Antonio; /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara

    2011-11-17

    The current status of the determinations of CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| via exclusive and inclusive charmless semileptonic B decays is reviewed. The large datasets collected at the B-Factories, and the increased precision of theoretical calculations have allowed an improvement in the determination of |V{sub ub}|. However, there are still significant uncertainties. In the exclusive approach, the most precise measurement of the pion channel branching ratio is obtained by an untagged analysis. This very good precision can be reached by tagged analyses with more data. The problem with exclusive decays is that the strong hadron dynamics can not be calculated from first principles and the determination of the form factor has to rely on light-cone sum rules or lattice QCD calculations. The current data samples allow a comparison of different FF models with data distributions. With further developments on lattice calculations, the theoretical error should shrink to reach the experimental one. The inclusive approach still provides the most precise |V{sub ub}| determinations. With new theoretical calculations, the mild (2.5{sigma}) discrepancy with respect to the |V{sub ub}| value determined from the global UT fit has been reduced. As in the exclusive approach, theoretical uncertainties represent the limiting factor to the precision of the measurement. Reducing the theoretical uncertainties to a level comparable with the statistical error is challenging. New measurements in semileptonic decays of charm mesons could increase the confidence in theoretical calculations and related uncertainties.

  8. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  9. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  10. Student Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Inclusion and Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beacham, Nigel; Rouse, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    The beliefs and attitudes of teachers are an important element in the development of inclusive education and its associated practices. Teacher education is seen as crucial in helping to develop positive attitudes and beliefs that are thought to promote inclusion, although attempts to reform teacher education in order to address issues of inclusion…

  11. Possibilities for an Inclusive Society in Singapore: Becoming Inclusive within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan

    2009-01-01

    The envisioning of Singapore as an inclusive society has witnessed the most progressive systemic and policy developments concerning people with disabilities in recent years. The building of "heartware" in society (as in the will, values, and attitudes of its citizens) in order to realize the vision of an inclusive society, however, requires both…

  12. Inclusive Education: Identifying Teachers' Perceived Stressors in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenreed, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario (Frost & Brackenreed, 2004). The purpose of this study was to…

  13. Inclusive Education for All Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Dalinda; Tompkins, Richard

    Current trends indicate that schools are moving toward more inclusive practices and are attempting to educate the majority of students with exceptional needs in the regular education classroom. Restructuring of schools to implement full inclusion will require that school leaders consider six factors that influence change. Creating an atmosphere…

  14. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  15. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  16. Friendship in Inclusive Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.

    2009-01-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical…

  17. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  18. ITE Students' Attitudes to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gillian; Clough, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article reports a study of initial teacher education students' attitudes to inclusion. The cohort investigated was the entire secondary Postgraduate Certificate of Education intake at a university that attracts many of its students from the local region. The study locates these findings among UK policy initiatives for inclusion, and makes…

  19. Threats to the Inclusive Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiler, Anthony; Gibson, Howard

    1999-01-01

    This article explores four key threats to the movement toward inclusion within the field of special educational needs: the lack of precision in definitions of inclusion; the lack of research evidence, the tendency for some children to experience internal exclusion in the schools, and the continuing inclination to label children. (Author/CR)

  20. Building Inclusive Cities and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiler, Christa

    2008-01-01

    Canada prides itself on being an inclusive country. Immigrants from all over the world arrive in Canada's cities with their families because they feel welcome and safe. According to research, engagement towards social inclusion increased among Canadians during the last 30 last years. These changing values resulted in the creation of official…

  1. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  2. Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…

  3. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  4. Inclusion Kinetics of Polyrotaxanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Hideaki; Takahashi, Shoko; Ito, Kohzo; Yamada, Norifumi

    Inclusion complex (IC) formation of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush in water was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy(SPR), neutron reflectometry(NR) and grazing incident wide angle X-ray scattering(GISANS). Spontaneous IC formation of α-CD with PEG (polyrotaxanes) is believed to be due to hydrophobic interaction between the hydrophobic interior of α-CD and PEG; however, the detail of the IC formation kinetics has not been observed because IC formation results in aggregation and precipitation of the complex. SPR revealed that IC formation occurs after induction period, which often appears in crystallization. When concentration of α-CD solution is 10%, IC consisting randomly oriented α-CD polycrystal appeared. In contrast, when the concentration of α-CD solution is 5%, a uniform 10-nm-thick IC layer with α-CD stacked perpendicular to the substrate appeared. 10-nm-thick IC was also found in the diluted PEG brush in contact with a 10% α-CD solution. The characteristic 10-nm-thick layer is related to the folded crystalline structure of α-CD on PEG brush. Such crystallization was proved to be the main driving force for IC formation.

  5. Inclusion Body Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a heterogenous group of rare disorders that share many similarities. In addition to sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM), these include dematomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), and autoimmune necrotizing myopathy (NM). For discussion of later three disorders, the reader is referred to the IIM review in this issue. IBM is the most common IIM after age 50. It typically presents with chronic insidious proximal leg and/or distal arm asymmetric muscle weakness leading to recurrent falls and loss of dexterity. Creatine kinase (CK) is up to 15 times elevated in IBM and needle electromyograhy (EMG) mostly shows a chronic irritative myopathy. Muscle histopathology demonstrates endomysial inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading non-necrotic muscle fibers often times accompanied by rimmed vacuoles and protein deposits. Despite inflammatory muscle pathology suggesting similarity with PM, it likely that IBM is has a prominent degenerative component as supported by refractoriness to immunosuppressive therapy. We review the evolution of our knowledge in IBM with emphasis on recent developments in the field and discuss ongoing clinical trials. PMID:25037082

  6. The dynamism of PABPN1 nuclear inclusions during the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Marie-Josée Sasseville, A; Caron, Antoine W; Bourget, Lucie; Klein, Arnaud F; Dicaire, Marie-Josée; Rouleau, Guy A; Massie, Bernard; Langelier, Yves; Brais, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is caused by expansion of a (GCN)10 to a (GCN)11-17 repeat coding for a polyalanine domain at the N-terminal part of poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). OPMD is characterized by the presence of intranuclear inclusions (INIs) in skeletal muscle fibers of patients. The formation of GFP-b13AlaPABPN1 INIs and their fate through the cell cycle were followed by time-lapse imaging. Our observations demonstrated that the GFP-b13AlaPABPN1 INIs are dynamic structures that can disassemble during mitosis. However, their presence in cells occasionally led to apoptosis. The length of the polyalanine tail or the overexpression of PABPN1 did not significantly affect the percentage of soluble PABPN1 in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of either the wild type (wt) or mutant (mut) forms of PABPN1 slowed down the cell proliferation. The slowing down of proliferation together with the occasional occurrence of apoptosis could contribute in vivo to the late onset of this disease.

  7. The infidelity of melt inclusions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Melt inclusions provide important information about magmatic systems and represent unique records of magma composition and evolution. However, it is also clear that melt inclusions do not necessarily constitute a petrological 'magic bullet', and potential exists for trapped melt compositions to be modified by a range of inclusion-specific processes. These include trapping of diffusional boundary layers, crystallization of the host mineral after trapping and dissolution of co-trapped minerals during homogenization, diffusional exchange between trapped liquid and the host mineral and external melt, and cryptic alteration of trapped material during weathering or hydrothermal alteration. It clearly important to identify when melt inclusions are unmodified, and which compositional indices represent the most robust sources of petrogenetic information. In this presentation I review and discuss various approaches for evaluating compositions and compositional variations in inclusion suites. An overriding principle is that the variations evident in melt inclusions should be able to be understood in terms of petrological processes that are known, or can be reasonably inferred to also effect bulk magma compositions. One common approach is to base petrological conclusions on species that should be more robust, and many workers use variations in incompatible trace elements for this purpose. However important information may also be obtained from a comparison of variations in melt inclusions and the lavas that host them, and in most cases this comparison is the key to identifying inclusions and suites that are potentially suspect. Comparisons can be made between individual inclusions and lavas, although comparison of average inclusion composition and the host lava, after correction for differences in crystal fractionation, may also be valuable. An important extension of this is the comparison of the variability of different species in inclusions and host lavas. This also provides

  8. Nontraditional Student Perceptions of Collegiate Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Patricia; Mendez, Sylvia; Ogunbowo, Oluwafolakemi; Clayton, Grant; Hernandez, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored student responses to a Student Inclusiveness Survey (SIS), with specific attention to nontraditional student responses about collegiate inclusion. Specifically, the SIS constructs that related to inclusion, the Perceptions of Inclusiveness and Institutional Safeguarding of Inclusiveness, were analyzed descriptively, and…

  9. Granulofilamentous inclusions in a meningioma.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J E; Horoupian, D S; Johnson, A B

    1980-07-01

    We have studied the histology, immunocytochemistry, and ultrastructure of a syncytial meningioma which contained the unusual feature of large eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions. Electron microscopic examination revealed that these bodies were granular, osmiophilic masses, closely associated with cytoplasmic filaments of intermediate size. Desmosomal junctions with a somewhat abnormal morphology were also observed, and the possible relationship between the inclusions and the dense components of desmosomes is discussed. This tumor is also compared to other tumors of the central nervous system with hyaline and granulofilamentous inclusions.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: inclusion body myopathy 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions inclusion body myopathy 2 inclusion body myopathy 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Inclusion body myopathy 2 is a condition that primarily affects skeletal muscles , ...

  11. Lead poisoning in a sample of Maryland mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    A sick mourning dove (Zenuidura macroura) collected in Maryland with 2 lead shot in the gizzard showed acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidney tubular cells. The liver and the tibia contained 72 ppm and 187 ppm lead (wet weight) respectively. Four gizzards from 62 doves killed by hunters contained lead shot. The lead content of 43 dove livers ranged from 0.4-14.0 ppm (wet weight); 40 of these doves were collected by hunters, and the other 3 were dying of trichomoniasis.

  12. Histopathology of mallards dosed with lead and selected substitute shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Irby, H.D.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    The histopathological response of male game farm mallards fed lead, three types of plastic-coated lead, two lead-magnesium alloys, iron, copper, zinc-coated iron, and molybdenum-coated iron shot was studied. Mallards fed lead, plastic-coated lead, or lead-magnesium alloy shot developed a similar pathological response, including the formation of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys. Birds fed iron or molybdenum-coated iron shot developed hemosiderosis of the liver. Two of four mallards fed zinc-coated iron shot also developed hemosiderosis of the liver. No lesions were found in mallards fed copper shot.

  13. Persistence of chicken anemia virus antigen and inclusions in spontaneous cases of Marek's disease visceral lymphomas in broiler chickens at slaughterhouses.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Sabry; Ono, Hiroki; Sasaki, Jun; Ochiai, Kenji; Goryo, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    The chicken anemia virus (CAV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) infect chickens worldwide; a single or dual infection by these viruses has a great impact on poultry production. In the present study, we examined the existence of CAV antigen and its inclusions in Marek's disease (MD) lymphomas in chickens in the slaughterhouses of Iwate prefecture, Japan. Forty-nine spleens and 13 livers with different degrees of nodular lesions were histopathologically examined at our laboratory. Grossly, the tested organs showed various sizes and anatomical architectures. Based on the cellular morphology and the infiltrative nature of the neoplastic lymphocytes, MD was confirmed in 76% (37/49) of the spleens and 92% (12/13) of the livers. The lesions of MD, according to the pattern of lymphocytic accumulation in the affected organs, were divided into multifocal, coalesced and diffuse. CAV intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected within the small and the large bizarre lymphocytes of the MD lymphomas in 2 livers and 9 spleens, and the immunostaining test for CAV confirmed the persistence of CAV antigens and inclusions in the neoplastic cells. This study demonstrated the persistence of CAV infection within the neoplastic cells of naturally occurring MD lymphomas in chickens.

  14. Renal pigmentation due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Blaine, E T; Lewis, A D

    2015-05-01

    Renal pigmentation due to the administration of exogenous compounds is an uncommon finding in most species. This report describes renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions of the proximal convoluted tubules due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque. An 11-year-old Indian-origin rhesus macaque with a medical history of chronic intermittent vomiting had been treated with bismuth subsalicylate, famotidine, and omeprazole singly or in combination over the course of 8 years. At necropsy, the renal cortices were diffusely dark green to black. Light and electron microscopy revealed intranuclear inclusions within the majority of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. These inclusions appeared magenta to brown when stained with hematoxylin and eosin and were negative by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. Elemental analysis performed on frozen kidney measured bismuth levels to be markedly elevated at 110.6 ppm, approximately 500 to 1000 times acceptable limits. To our knowledge, this is the first report of renal bismuth deposition in a rhesus macaque resulting in renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions.

  15. The Infidelity of Melt Inclusions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. R.; Freda, C.

    2007-12-01

    Melt inclusions are routinely used as evidence of magmatic compositions prior to volcanic eruptions. However, it has long been known that kinetic processes can modify melt inclusion compositions during trapping. We investigated the fidelity of melt inclusions as records of magmatic compositions by artificially creating melt inclusions through crystallization of plagioclase and clinopyroxene from a hawaiitic basalt bulk composition at 1.0 GPa, 1150 °C, or 75 °C undercooling. We compared melt inclusion compositions to those of melts 100's of μm away from the crystals and found measurable differences in the compositions. We modeled the concentration profiles of Al, Fe, P, S, and Cl in front of the crystals using classical impurity rejection theory during growth at a constant rate followed by a growth hiatus during which diffusive relaxation occurred. The values of the growth rates and times were constrained by measured crystal sizes and the experimental duration. The diffusion coefficients for the elements investigated were either calculated from transition state theory (Al, Fe) or measured in the same bulk composition as that used for this study (S and Cl from the literature, new measurements for P). An envelope of models bracket the observed compositional profiles of the elements studied and predict enrichments, or depletions, at the crystal-melt interface that are quantitatively similar to those seen in the melt inclusions. The differences between the melt far from the crystals and that at the interface are only 20% (relative) for the major elements, Al, Fe, but are about 50% for S and Cl and can exceed 100% for P. These differences correlate with the relative chemical diffusion coefficients of these ions in the melt. Based upon these experiments and models we advise caution in the use of melt inclusions as indicators of pre-eruptive melt compositions.

  16. Why Must Inclusion Be Such a Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Turbiville, Vicki P.

    1995-01-01

    This commentary on inclusion of children with disabilities in early childhood programs raises issues concerning why so little progress toward inclusion has been made; quality of early childhood instruction versus inclusion expectations; the need to "just do it" (inclusion); and the need to allow for the child's individual preferences. (DB)

  17. Interpreting Inclusivity: An Endeavour of Great Proportions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlach, Richard George; Chambers, Dianne Joy

    2011-01-01

    Commencing with a historical account of how special needs education has informed the inclusivity debate, the authors consider the knotty problem of what is meant by inclusivity. An examination of the characteristics of inclusivity is then undertaken, and a functional school-based inclusivity framework--a three-faceted model--is proposed. The model…

  18. The Evaluation of Inclusive Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This bulletin summarizes research on the benefits of inclusive education programs; provides data on the current status of special education; and considers studies of individual inclusion programs, state and district studies, and the effects of inclusion on students without disabilities. The research and evaluation data on inclusion indicate a…

  19. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide range of…

  20. Inclusion 101: How To Teach All Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Anne M.; Shea, Thomas M.

    This book is designed to help educators provide effective instruction to students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Chapters address: (1) the concepts of inclusive society, schools, classrooms and services; (2) legal foundations for inclusion and government support for education; (3) the qualities of inclusive schools and classrooms; (4)…

  1. Development of a quantitative PCR for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of an intranuclear coccidian parasite in Testudines (TINC), and detection in the critically endangered Arakan forest turtle (Heosemys depressa).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, W Alexander; Gibbons, Paul M; Rivera, Sam; Archer, Linda L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2013-03-31

    The intranuclear coccidian parasite of Testudines (TINC) is responsible for significant disease in turtles and tortoises causing high mortality and affecting several threatened species. Diagnostic testing has been limited to relatively labor intensive and expensive pan-coccidial PCR and sequencing techniques. A qPCR assay targeting a specific and conserved region of TINC 18S rRNA was designed. The qPCR reaction was run on samples known to be TINC positive and the results were consistent and analytically specific. The assay was able to detect as little as 10 copies of target DNA in a sample. Testing of soil and invertebrates was negative and did not provide any further insights into life cycles. This assay was used to identify TINC in a novel host species, the critically endangered Arakan forest turtle (Heosemys depressa). PMID:23305971

  2. Glucose ingestion induces an increase in intranuclear nuclear factor kappaB, a fall in cellular inhibitor kappaB, and an increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA by mononuclear cells in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Aljada, Ahmad; Friedman, Jay; Ghanim, Husam; Mohanty, Priya; Hofmeyer, Deborah; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Dandona, Paresh

    2006-09-01

    Because hyperglycemia is a major detrimental factor in the prognosis of acute cardiovascular conditions such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke, and because an acute glucose challenge in healthy subjects has been shown to induce oxidative stress in mononuclear cells (MNCs), we have now investigated whether glucose induces inflammatory stress at the cellular and molecular level. Glucose ingestion (75 g in 300 mL water) in healthy human subjects resulted in an increase in intranuclear nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding, the reduction of inhibitor kappaB alpha (IkappaBalpha) protein, and an increase in the activity of inhibitor kappaB kinase (IKK) and the expression of IKKalpha and IKKbeta, the enzymes that phosphorylate IkappaBalpha, in MNCs. Glucose intake caused an increase in NF-kappaB binding to NF-kappaB2, NF-kappaB2a, and NF-kappaB3 sequences in the promoter site of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene along with an increase in the expression of TNF-alpha messenger RNA in MNCs. Membranous p47(phox) subunit, an index of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expression and activation, also increased after glucose intake. We conclude that glucose intake induces an immediate increase in intranuclear NF-kappaB binding, a fall in IkappaBalpha, an increase in IKKalpha, IKKbeta, IKK activity, and messenger RNA expression of TNF-alpha in MNCs in healthy subjects. These data are consistent with profound acute pro-inflammatory changes in MNCs after glucose intake.

  3. The Inclusion of Music/the Music of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubet, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to situate music within inclusive education. Intersections of music--widely regarded as a "talent" or hyperability--and disability provide unique perspectives on social organisation in general and human valuation in particular. Music is a ubiquitous and an essential component of learning beginning in infancy.…

  4. Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann, Ed.; Norwich, Brahm, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Some special needs groups (for example dyslexia) have argued strongly for the need for particular specialist approaches. In contrast, many proponents of inclusion have argued that "good teaching is good teaching for all" and that all children benefit from similar approaches. Both positions fail to scrutinise this issue rigorously and coherently,…

  5. Doing Research Inclusively: Bridges to Multiple Possibilities in Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Vinha, Hilra

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of how people do research that matters to people with learning disabilities and that involves them and their views and experiences. The study was an attempt to bring together people doing inclusive research so that, collectively, we could take stock of our practices. This would add to the individual reports and…

  6. The Needs of Inclusive Preschool Teachers about Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalin, Selma; Demir, Seyda; Sucuoglu, Bülbin; Bakkaloglu, Hatice; Iscen, Fadime

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Since the law related to the inclusion of children with special needs was passed, the number of children with special needs in preschool classrooms has increased each year. Preschool teachers face serious challenges when they teach children with diverse abilities in the same environment. Although most of them support the idea of…

  7. The Contours of Inclusion: Inclusive Arts Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Don; Henderson, Bill; Barnum, Leah; Kronenberg, Deborah; Blair, Kati; Jenkins, Richard; Hurel, Nicole Agois

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to share models and case examples of the process of inclusive arts curriculum design and evaluation. The first section explains the conceptual and curriculum frameworks that were used in the analysis and generation of the featured case studies (i.e. Understanding by Design, Differentiated Instruction, and…

  8. Oxidative refolding from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher A; Lee, Chung A; Fremont, Daved H

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes the growth and purification of bacterial inclusion body proteins with an option to selenomethionine label the targeted protein through feedback inhibition of methionine biosynthesis in common (non-auxotrophic) strains of E. coli. The method includes solubilization of inclusion body proteins by chemical denaturation and disulfide reduction, renaturation of the solubilized material through rapid dilution by pulsed injection into refolding buffer containing arginine and a mixture of oxidized and reduced glutathione, recovery of the recombinant protein using a stirred cell concentrator, and removal of the aggregated or misfolded fraction by passage over size-exclusion chromatography. The quality of the resulting protein can be assessed by SDS-PAGE.

  9. Inclusion body myositis and myopathies.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, K; Dalakas, M C

    1997-10-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis is a frequent, acquired, adult-onset vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles with a distinct, easily identifiable clinical pattern. Although its primary cause is still unknown, autoimmune, viral, and degenerative processes, alone or in combination, are being considered. A uniform and sustained therapeutic response using the currently available immunomodulatory agents has not yet been achieved. Hereditary, inherited noninflammatory rimmed vacuolar myopathies with similar histologic features, collectively called hereditary inclusion body myopathies, are being redefined with the use of molecular genetics. The implications of the recent advances in clinical and basic sciences are discussed in the present review.

  10. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  11. Managing Special and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Steve G.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a guide to special and inclusive education and provides a comprehensive overview of this complex field. Author Stephen Rayner examines context, policy, and practice, and shows how to successfully navigate the managerial challenges involved, while contributing to the way forward through leadership in a diverse field. The author…

  12. Achieving Inclusiveness in Scottish Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbride, George A.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1974, the Scottish education system has legally recognized that all children are educable. Since all children are of equal worth, their individual needs are given equal priority. Structural inequalities are being addressed by early intervention and mentoring schemes and links with higher education. Schools are inclusive in their curricular…

  13. Inclusive Education and the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…

  14. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  15. Inclusive Education and School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

    Perspectives on educating persons with disabilities and the move toward inclusive education and school restructuring are considered. Trends in the number of students with disabilities and placement patterns are briefly examined. Four categories of students that represent 95 percent of students served are identified: specific learning disabilities,…

  16. Taking Inclusion into the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

    1998-01-01

    According to the reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997), education of disabled children should produce outcomes akin to those expected of "regular" students, and disabled students should be educated with other kids. Implementing inclusive programs will require visionary leadership, educator collaboration, refocused…

  17. Tracing Inclusion: Determining Teacher Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Brenda E.; Wimer, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Though there appears to be an onslaught of No Child Left Behind, there is still more emphasis on testing than ever before. With the new implementation of national common-core standards, many school districts have moved towards full inclusive classrooms. However, it is rare that teachers have any input on whether such major decisions are apropos…

  18. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  19. Curriculum Adaptation for Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Tom; And Others

    This manual on curriculum adaptation for inclusive classrooms was developed as part of the PEERS (Providing Education for Everyone in Regular Schools) Project, a 5-year collaborative systems change project in California to facilitate the integration of students with severe disabilities previously at special centers into services at regular school…

  20. Inclusive Education: Programmes and Provisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappen, Mini Dejo

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive education is a practice of teaching handicapped children in regular classrooms with non-handicapped children to the fullest extent possible; such children may have orthopedic, intellectual, emotional, or visual difficulties or handicaps associated with hearing or learning. In India there are constitutional provisions for Inclusive…

  1. The Inclusive Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzano-García, Beatriz; Fernández, María Tomé

    2016-01-01

    One of the phenomena that is of most concern to educational policy in Europe is immigration due to the fact that this is the source of new educational needs. This research looks at how European educational legislation deals with this topic. For this intercultural values that make inclusive education will be evaluated, we will analyze intercultural…

  2. Developing Movement as Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Melanie; Walter, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    This article details the emergence of a training framework to support professional development in inclusive Movement teaching. This arose from a collaborative research project in spring 2008 (supported by the Training and Development Agency, UK), between two universities in England and Israel. Movement education is surprisingly underused globally,…

  3. Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K

    2008-02-20

    Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.

  4. Primordial compositions of refractory inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, L.; Simon, S. B.; Rai, V. K.; Thiemens, M. H.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Williams, R. W.; Galy, A.; Ding, T.; Fedkin, A. V.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    2008-06-01

    Bulk chemical and O-, Mg- and Si-isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg- and Si-isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates, but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10-6 to 10-1 bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in dust of ordinary chondrite composition relative to gas by a factor of 10 compared to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al2O3 relative to more volatile MgO + SiO2 is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Types A and B inclusions.

  5. PABPN1 overexpression leads to upregulation of genes encoding nuclear proteins that are sequestered in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy nuclear inclusions.

    PubMed

    Corbeil-Girard, Louis-Philippe; Klein, Arnaud F; Sasseville, A Marie-Josée; Lavoie, Hugo; Dicaire, Marie-Josée; Saint-Denis, Anik; Pagé, Martin; Duranceau, André; Codère, François; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Karpati, George; Rouleau, Guy A; Massie, Bernard; Langelier, Yves; Brais, Bernard

    2005-04-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset disease caused by expanded (GCN)12-17 stretches encoding the N-terminal polyalanine domain of the poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). OPMD is characterized by intranuclear inclusions (INIs) in skeletal muscle fibers, which contain PABPN1, molecular chaperones, ubiquitin, proteasome subunits, and poly(A)-mRNA. We describe an adenoviral model of PABPN1 expression that produces INIs in most cells. Microarray analysis revealed that PABPN1 overexpression reproducibly changed the expression of 202 genes. Sixty percent of upregulated genes encode nuclear proteins, including many RNA and DNA binding proteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that all tested nuclear proteins encoded by eight upregulated genes colocalize with PABPN1 within the INIs: CUGBP1, SFRS3, FKBP1A, HMG2, HNRPA1, PRC1, S100P, and HSP70. In addition, CUGBP1, SFRS3, and FKBP1A were also found in OPMD muscle INIs. This study demonstrates that a large number of nuclear proteins are sequestered in OPMD INIs, which may compromise cellular function.

  6. Inclusivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sheri

    1989-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of local PTA involving all parents in their programs, especially parents from minority groups. This article includes a checklist for rating local PTA. Also included is a brief case study of one PTA's successful efforts to increase the ethnic and language diversity of its membership. (IAH)

  7. Women in Astronomy: Inclusion in Introductory Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Kristine M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the reasons for identifying the contributions of women astronomers in introductory textbooks. The evolution of inclusion over the past 4 decades is explored by examining the rates of inclusion of 10 women astronomers in textbooks. Contains 100 references. (DDR)

  8. Forging Inclusive Solutions: Experiential Earth Charter Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Forging Inclusive Solutions describes the aims, methodology and outcomes of Inclusive Leadership Adventures, an experiential education curriculum for exploring the Earth Charter. Experiential education builds meaningful relationships, skills, awareness and an inclusive community based on the Earth Charter principles. When we meet people where they…

  9. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  10. Inclusion: By Choice or by Chance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Derrick; Armstrong, Ann Cheryl; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the development internationally of the inclusive education perspective. Inclusive education as a late modernity reform project is exemplified in the call for "Education for All". Despite the simplicity of its message, inclusion is highly contestable. We argue in this paper that the key questions raised by the concept of…

  11. Inclusive Classes in Physical Education: Teachers' Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toloi, Gabriela Gallucci; Manzini, Eduardo José; Spoldaro, Diego Machado; Zacarias, Lucas Ventura

    2016-01-01

    The successful inclusion of students with special needs in physical education classes requires much planning and preparation. Lack of preparation of physical education teachers working in inclusive settings in Brazil has demonstrated the need for specialized training in strategies for implementing inclusion. The goal of this study was to identify,…

  12. Teachers' Experience with Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Chong, Wan Har; Neihart, Maureen F.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' positive attitude is most critically and consistently associated with successful inclusion. However, little is known about teachers' first-hand encounters with inclusive education in Singapore. We present findings from a qualitative study on inclusion based on focus group interviews with 202 teachers from 41 resourced primary schools.…

  13. Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

  14. Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

  15. Ingredients for Inclusion: Lessons from the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores features of successful inclusion through examples found in the literature. Schools have been given the imperative to become more inclusive through various government pronouncements and initiatives, but guidance in achieving that goal has been arguably wanting. School communities that have demonstrated more inclusive practice…

  16. Inclusive Schooling; Global Ideals and National Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winzer, Maggie; Mazurek, Kas

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades, inclusive schooling for students with exceptional conditions has emerged in a range of national contexts to the extent that inclusion is now a world-wide movement. Major prompts arise from mandates and directives from international bodies such as UNESCO. However, the provision of education built on social inclusion places…

  17. Inclusive Attitudes: A Pre-Service Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    This enquiry has shown that pre-service teachers in Ontario, Canada (n = 141), believe they have the prerequisite training and knowledge to be inclusive educators. They believe inclusion is effective and produces required results for both identified and non-identified students. Inclusion was viewed as a difficult proposition dependent upon several…

  18. Questioning Secondary Inclusive Education: Are Inclusive Classrooms Always Best for Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tkachyk, Ruth Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Educating students with special needs in inclusive settings has become a priority for westernized governments as they strive to create more inclusive societies. While recognizing the societal benefits of inclusion, teachers and parents question whether or not implementation of full inclusion will come at the expense of learners' individual…

  19. Nonlinear neutral inclusions: assemblages of coated ellipsoids

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Silvia Jiménez; Vernescu, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    The problem of determining nonlinear neutral inclusions in (electrical or thermal) conductivity is considered. Neutral inclusions, inserted in a matrix containing a uniform applied electric field, do not disturb the field outside the inclusions. The well-known Hashin-coated sphere construction is an example of a neutral inclusion. In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing neutral inclusions from nonlinear materials. In particular, we discuss assemblages of coated ellipsoids. The proposed construction is neutral for a given applied field. PMID:26064633

  20. Antiferromagnetic inclusions in lunar glass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Briggs, Charles; Alexander, Corrine

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 fines and two specimens of a relatively large glass spherical shell were studied as a function of temperature from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. All but one specimen showed the presence of antiferromagnetic inclusions. Closely spaced temperature measurements of the magnetic susceptibility below 77 K on five of the specimens showed antiferromagnetic temperature transitions (Ne??el transitions). With the exception of ilmenite in one specimen, these transitions did not correspond to any transitions in known antiferromagnetic compounds. ?? 1974.

  1. Pointlike Inclusion Interactions in Tubular Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahid, Afshin; Idema, Timon

    2016-09-01

    Membrane tubes and tubular networks are ubiquitous in living cells. Inclusions like proteins are vital for both the stability and the dynamics of such networks. These inclusions interact via the curvature deformations they impose on the membrane. We analytically study the resulting membrane mediated interactions in strongly curved tubular membranes. We model inclusions as constraints coupled to the curvature tensor of the membrane tube. First, as special test cases, we analyze the interaction between ring- and rod-shaped inclusions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we further show how pointlike inclusions interact to form linear aggregates. To minimize the curvature energy of the membrane, inclusions self-assemble into either line- or ringlike patterns. Our results show that the global curvature of the membrane strongly affects the interactions between proteins embedded in it, and can lead to the spontaneous formation of biologically relevant structures.

  2. Cyclodextrin Inclusion Polymers Forming Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun

    This chapter reviews the advances in the developments of supramolecular hydrogels based on the polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes formed by inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins threading onto polymer chains. Both physical and chemical supramolecular hydrogels of many different types are discussed with respect to their preparation, structure, property, and gelation mechanism. A large number of physical supramolecular hydrogels were formed induced by self-assembly of densely packed cyclodextrin rings threaded on polymer or copolymer chains acting as physical crosslinking points. The thermo-reversible and thixotropic properties of these physical supramolecular hydrogels have inspired their applications as injectable drug delivery systems. Chemical supramolecular hydrogels synthesized from polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes were based on the chemical crosslinking of either the cyclodextrin molecules or the included polymer chains. The chemical supramolecular hydrogels were often made biodegradable through incorporation of hydrolyzable threading polymers, end caps, or crosslinkers, for their potential applications as biomaterials.

  3. Inclusion bodies: not that bad…

    PubMed Central

    Ramón, Ana; Señorale-Pose, Mario; Marín, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) constitute a frequent event during the production of heterologous proteins in bacterial hosts. Although the mechanisms leading to their formation are not completely understood, empirical data have been exploited trying to predict the aggregation propensity of specific proteins while a great number of strategies have been developed to avoid the generation of IBs. However, in many cases, the formation of such aggregates can be considered an advantage for basic research as for protein production. In this review, we focus on this positive side of IBs formation in bacteria. We present a compilation on recent advances on the understanding of IBs formation and their utilization as a model to understand protein aggregation and to explore strategies to control this process. We include recent information about their composition and structure, their use as an attractive approach to produce low cost proteins and other promising applications in Biomedicine. PMID:24592259

  4. The analysis of fluid inclusions in halite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Boaz; Holland, Heinrich D.

    1988-02-01

    A technique has been developed to drill into fluid inclusions in halite, to extract the inclusion fluids, and to determine the concentration of all of the major and some of the minor constituents in these fluids. The minimum diameter of usable fluid inclusions is ca. 250 μm. After dilution, the fluids are analyzed by ion chromatography and coulometry. Uncertainties in the concentration of the major cations and anions is on the order of 4%. The analytical scheme provides much more precise analyses of inclusion fluids than have been available to date. The analyses are a useful starting point for reconstructing the composition of the seawater from which the evaporite brines evolved.

  5. Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

  6. Making the case for inclusive design.

    PubMed

    Waller, Sam; Bradley, Mike; Hosking, Ian; Clarkson, P John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the University of Cambridge, Engineering Design Centre's (EDC) case for inclusive design, based on 10 years of research, promotion and knowledge transfer. In summary, inclusive design applies an understanding of customer diversity to inform decisions throughout the development process, in order to better satisfy the needs of more people. Products that are more inclusive can reach a wider market, improve customer satisfaction and drive business success. The rapidly ageing population increases the importance of this approach. The case presented here has helped to convince BT, Nestlé and others to adopt an inclusive approach. PMID:23538129

  7. Inclusion in High-Achieving Singapore: Challenges of Building an Inclusive Society in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Zachary; Musti-Rao, Shobana

    2016-01-01

    Building an inclusive society in which all people can participate effectively and live together requires understanding inclusive education and its impact on the social order. As countries of different regions face the vast array of challenges unique to their educational systems, it becomes apparent that inclusive societies are intricately tied to…

  8. Supporting the Development of More Inclusive Practices Using the Index for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hick, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion is a central issue for educational psychologists (EPs) today, yet they have often been portrayed as gatekeepers to special provision. One approach for EPs to promote more inclusive practices in schools is through the Index for Inclusion as a vehicle for consultation. This paper reports a study of EPs acting as "critical friends" to…

  9. More Policies, Greater Inclusion? Exploring the Contradictions of New Labour Inclusive Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulstone, Alan; Prideaux, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The era of New Labour government has witnessed unprecedented growth in inclusive education policies. There is, however, limited evidence that policies have increased disabled children's inclusion. This article explores reasons for this contradiction. Drawing on sociological insights, it is argued that New Labour policies on inclusive education…

  10. Full Inclusion: The Benefits and Disadvantages of Inclusive Schooling. An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    An overview of debated issues related to the benefits and disadvantages of inclusive schooling. The beliefs of districts, school personnel and parents are widely differing as related to the placement of students with special needs in inclusive settings. The examples of current federal laws help to shape the debate of full inclusion in schools…

  11. Supporting Students with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Schools: A Descriptive Account From Schools Implementing Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Lyon, Kristin J.; Shogren, Karrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate practices that support the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in the learning and social activities of inclusive K-8 schools to inform inclusive school reform research and practice. Eighteen K-8 students with severe disabilities in six schools recognized for their implementation of…

  12. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  13. Irish Mathematics Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitty, Elaine; Clarke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper through the theoretical framework of constructive attitude theory explores mathematics teachers' attitudes and pedagogical strategies with reference to inclusive practice. The authors argue that though teachers may have formed positive inclusive attitudes, the translation of these into practice does not always occur and poses…

  14. Early Childhood Inclusion: Focus on Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    Early childhood inclusion is a field characterized by a philosophy and practice that encourages full participation of children with disabilities and their families in everyday activities with their typically developing peers. Noting that success in inclusion endeavors requires substantial changes in the way our society thinks, feels, and acts,…

  15. Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of…

  16. Culturally Inclusive Curriculum in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridham, Bruce; Martin, Dona; Walker, Kym; Rosengren, Rosie; Wadley, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The Australian National Program Standards for Teacher Education prioritises knowledge of culturally inclusive practices and challenges the educational community to present research on well-structured, inclusive, cross-curricula education partnerships. This article meets this challenge as it explores a core unit of work for undergraduate teachers…

  17. Inclusive Partnership: Enhancing Student Engagement in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Cherry, Niamh; Healey, Ruth; Nicholson, Dawn T.; Andrews, Will

    2016-01-01

    Partnership is currently the focus of much work within higher education and advocated as an important process to address a range of higher education goals. In this paper, we propose the term "inclusive partnership" to conceptualise a non-selective staff-student relationship. While recognising the challenges of inclusive partnership…

  18. Fostering Social Acceptance in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The mere presence of students with learning disabilities in general education classrooms is not inclusion. Inclusion involves meaningful participation by these students, achievement in accordance with their abilities, and social acceptance by teachers and peers. Teachers who view these students as a challenge rather than a burden, who believe that…

  19. Moving Forward in Inclusive Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten, Ozlem; Savage, Robert Samuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address conceptual and methodological challenges of doing research in the field of inclusive education and revisit school effectiveness research literature to inform future research. First, we present the rationale for inclusive education and briefly review the evolution of special needs education. Then, we discuss limitations…

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  1. Beyond Political Correctness: Toward the Inclusive University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richer, Stephen, Ed.; Weir, Lorna, Ed.

    This collection of 12 essays examines the history of the discourse over political correctness (PC) in Canadian academia, focusing on the neoconservative backlash to affirmative action, inclusive policies, and feminist and anti-racist teaching in the classroom. It includes: (1) "Introduction: Political Correctness and the Inclusive University"…

  2. The Sustainability of Inclusive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Shearer, Deirdre K.; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Liebert, Todd W.

    2006-01-01

    For over a decade, University of Florida researchers worked with middle schools in a large urban and suburban south Florida district, as they developed and then worked to sustain inclusive reform. One middle school, Socrates, was notably successful, having built its inclusion model on a foundation of previous reform and a school culture…

  3. Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

  4. Inclusive Schooling Policy: An Educational Detective Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Julianne

    2003-01-01

    Since the publication of the Salamanca statement (UNESCO 1994), inclusive schooling has formed a growing part of the deliberations of the special education community. Inclusive schooling research in Australia in the main continues to reproduce traditions of the special education field, emphasising the dominant psychological perspectives that have…

  5. Standards & Inclusion: Can We Have Both?. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

    Designed for regular and special educators, this 40-minute video profiles inclusive schools from around the country that have successfully incorporated academic standards. It addresses many of the critical issues facing educators who are supporting students with disabilities in inclusive settings. Topics discussed include: (1) the consequences of…

  6. The Coexistence of High Standards and Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the whole-school approach to educational restructuring can achieve quality inclusive education that meets the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Includes list of characteristics of inclusive schools. (PKP)

  7. Effective Leadership Makes Schools Truly Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    There's been much commitment and extensive legislation intended to make schools inclusive for all students but not much real progress in improving student outcomes. The authors review and assess several schools that have succeeded at making schools inclusive and effective for all students, including those with disabilities and draw some inferences…

  8. Beyond Prejudice: Inclusive Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vikki; Armstrong, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Promoting an inclusive learning environment that caters for all learners and their individual needs and meeting challenging targets set in this area is a huge under taking for providers across the learning and skills sector. This booklet provides an overview that illustrates the breadth and variety that the broad banner of inclusive learning…

  9. Inclusive Education: A Series of Issue Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Coalition on School Inclusion, Springfield.

    Thirteen brief papers address issues in inclusive education, with special emphasis on concerns and applications in Illinois. The following issues are discussed: (1) the relationship of the inclusive schools concept to that of providing a continuum of alternative placement options; (2) needed changes in current funding of special education to…

  10. Inclusion: Something More Than Sitting Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Mustafa Sahin

    2011-01-01

    Awareness about students with learning difficulty brought us to inclusive learning environments. The acceptance was to build collaborative atmospheres in the class. Unfortunately, when teachers are not enthusiastic and adequate to develop the interaction, the inclusive learning environment never occurs. This conclusion bases on this studies…

  11. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  12. Gender Inclusive Policy Developments in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    Traces two chronologies of gender-inclusive policy development in Australia's national and state education-policy arenas to demonstrate, from a feminist perspective, their limited applicability at the school level. Argues that more transformative conceptions of gender inclusiveness evident in the feminist academy be promoted in policy. (Contains…

  13. Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-gu

    2011-01-01

    When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

  14. Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…

  15. What's Working: Topics in Inclusive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What's Working, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on what works in inclusive education. A major article is "Inclusive Education: Needs of Minnesota Families--Major Findings from a 'Together We're Better' Study." This article presents findings of a statewide survey of families of children with disabilities. Findings are categorized within four areas: (1) educational…

  16. Inclusive Discourses in Early Childhood Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warming, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis worldwide on "initiatives by governments", this interest…

  17. Responsible Inclusion: Celebrating Diversity and Academic Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, William

    1997-01-01

    The North Carolina Partnership Training System, a federally funded technical assistance project, convened a Principals Task Force to examine inclusion practices. They identified several facilitators and barriers to inclusion and found that block scheduling, collaborative teaching, cooperative learning, interdisciplinary planning, heterogeneous…

  18. Teachers' Misunderstanding: The Concept of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagi, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' misunderstanding the concept of inclusive education will not lead to good practices, rather make an exclusive environment for pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools. This study clarified teachers' attitudes towards the image of inclusive education with conjoint analysis and cluster analysis. The participants for this…

  19. Inclusive Education: Teacher Perspectives from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lucy; Nomanbhoy, Alefiya; Tubpun, Tida

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of views of inclusive education expressed by nearly 300 Malaysian primary school teachers involved in remedial literacy and numeracy education under the country's Literacy and Numeracy Strategy. Overall, the views expressed were positive towards the principle of inclusion. However, despite common professional…

  20. Geometric Modeling of Inclusions as Ellipsoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Nonmetallic inclusions in gas turbine disk alloys can have a significant detrimental impact on fatigue life. Because large inclusions that lead to anomalously low lives occur infrequently, probabilistic approaches can be utilized to avoid the excessively conservative assumption of lifing to a large inclusion in a high stress location. A prerequisite to modeling the impact of inclusions on the fatigue life distribution is a characterization of the inclusion occurrence rate and size distribution. To help facilitate this process, a geometric simulation of the inclusions was devised. To make the simulation problem tractable, the irregularly sized and shaped inclusions were modeled as arbitrarily oriented, three independent dimensioned, ellipsoids. Random orientation of the ellipsoid is accomplished through a series of three orthogonal rotations of axes. In this report, a set of mathematical models for the following parameters are described: the intercepted area of a randomly sectioned ellipsoid, the dimensions and orientation of the intercepted ellipse, the area of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, the depth and width of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, and the projected area of a randomly oriented ellipsoid. These parameters are necessary to determine an inclusion s potential to develop a propagating fatigue crack. Without these mathematical models, computationally expensive search algorithms would be required to compute these parameters.

  1. Design, Development and Implementation of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed

    2006-01-01

    In inclusive education different pupils, including pupils with special educational needs and high ability pupils, can be stimulated to learn according to their capacities and potentials. The research question concentrates on the design features of inclusive education that will optimally promote the motivation and learning processes and outcomes of…

  2. Diversity ? Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…

  3. Inclusive Education: Is This Horse a Trojan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slee, Roger

    2006-01-01

    In Canada and elsewhere, governments are expending considerable effort in the production of inclusive education policy texts, resources allocation models, and programs. The author notes that despite of the analytic power and the political intent of inclusive education as a counterpoint to special education, its appropriation is imminent if not…

  4. How Does Supervision Support Inclusive Teacherhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alila, Sanna; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2016-01-01

    Supervision is a multidimensional concept and phenomenon. In this study, the advantages of supervision and its development in inclusive teacherhood was studied. Inclusive teacherhood means a teacher's professional development and the school culture's change toward participatory school for all students. The study analyzed the views of supervisors…

  5. Questions of Inclusion in Scotland and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines inclusion in Scotland and in Europe. It considers some of the uncertainties surrounding inclusion and the questions--many of which give cause for concern--that are currently being raised by researchers, teachers and their representative unions, parents and children. The shifting political and policy contexts and recent patterns…

  6. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  7. Metaphors of Literacy: Dialogues in Inclusive Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causarano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of metaphors in education and in inclusive settings in particular. Metaphors are seen as the fabric of collaboration through dialogue across the curriculum. The article analyzes the dialogues among the Language Arts, Social Studies, and inclusion teacher in a large middle school in the Southwest of the United…

  8. Guided Reading in Inclusive Middle Years Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Wanda; Thompson, Scott Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading…

  9. School Inclusion and the "Community of Practice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laluvein, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    "Inclusion" is not a mechanism for relocating educationally disadvantaged youngsters in mainstream rather than in special schools. Rather, inclusion implies a whole school approach to social relations and production of meaning reached through processes of negotiation between parents, teachers and children. Such an approach places equal value upon…

  10. Finding a Systemized Approach to Music Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Moya

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of inclusion in education for the study and teaching of music. Regardless of interpretation, inclusion is labor-intensive and must receive administrative support and schoolwide cooperation in order to work, that is, ensuring learning success for all students as well as meeting individual needs.

  11. Teacher Qualifications and Attitudes toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsien, Michelle; Brown, P. Margaret; Bortoli, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of children with disabilities into the regular education classroom has resulted in many studies on teacher attitudes. Current research has examined teacher beliefs about inclusion, their concerns, and issues pertaining to their ability to cater effectively for children with disabilities in their classrooms. Despite this, there…

  12. Understanding the Development of Inclusive Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscow, Mel

    2005-01-01

    It is now almost ten years since the Salamanca Conference on Special Needs Education endorsed the idea of inclusive education. Arguably the most significant international document that has ever appeared in the special needs field, the Salamanca Statement argues that regular schools with an inclusive orientation are "the most effective means of…

  13. Leading under Pressure: Leadership for Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muijs, Daniel; Ainscow, Mel; Dyson, Alan; Raffo, Carlo; Goldrick, Sue; Kerr, Kirstin; Lennie, Clare; Miles, Susie

    2010-01-01

    In this study we undertook to look at leadership issues specifically in relation to social inclusion, through a series of six case studies in three districts showing high levels of disadvantage. Findings indicated that schools' views on social inclusion could be typified as leaning towards three main orientations: (1) improving achievement and…

  14. Making Education for All Inclusive: Where Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscow, Mel; Miles, Susie

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that a common sense of purpose around inclusive education, together with a consistent use of language, is essential if Education for All (EFA) strategies are to become more inclusive. This does not require the introduction of new techniques; rather it involves: collaboration within and between schools, closer links between…

  15. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  16. Students' Perspectives on LGBTQ-Inclusive Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapp, Shannon D.; Burdge, Hilary; Licona, Adela C.; Moody, Raymond L.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Implementing curriculum that is inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) people has the potential to create an equitable learning environment. In order to learn more about students' experiences of LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum, 26 high school students with diverse racial/ethnic, sexual, and gender identities…

  17. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  18. Secondary General Education Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, educators have struggled with including students with disabilities in the general education classroom with their nondisabled peers. The inclusion educational model was utilized in this study to explore secondary teachers' attitudes toward inclusive educational…

  19. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  20. Consortium on Inclusive Schooling Practices. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Christine; Roach, Virginia; Strieker, Toni; McGregor, Gail

    This final report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Consortium on Inclusive Schooling Practices, a federally-funded 5-year project to investigate the utility of a systemic approach for building the capacity of state and local education agencies to provide inclusive educational services. The project focused on four states…

  1. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  2. The Sustainable Development of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Leslie Nai-kwai

    2007-01-01

    The advent of inclusive education has quietly changed the ecology of Hong Kong's educational system. Inclusive education is a product of education in the developed Western nations and has spread at the instigation of international organizations. It is a plan for educational development that is based on the concepts of human rights and peace and…

  3. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it.

  4. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  5. Full inclusion and students with autism.

    PubMed

    Mesibov, G B; Shea, V

    1996-06-01

    The concept of "full inclusion" is that students with special needs can and should be educated in the same settings as their normally developing peers with appropriate support services, rather than being placed in special education classrooms or schools. According to advocates the benefits of full inclusion are increased expectations by teachers, behavioral modeling of normally developing peers, more learning, and greater self-esteem. Although the notion of full inclusion has appeal, especially for parents concerned about their children's rights, there is very little empirical evidence for this approach, especially as it relates to children with autism. This manuscript addresses the literature on full inclusion and its applicability for students with autism. Although the goals and values underlying full inclusion are laudable, neither the research literature nor thoughtful analysis of the nature of autism supports elimination of smaller, highly structured learning environments for some students with autism. PMID:8792264

  6. Nickel and chromium isotopes in Allende inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birck, J. L.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-precision nickel and chromium isotopic measurements were carried out on nine Allende inclusions. It is found that Ni-62, Ni-64, excesses are present in at least three of the samples. The results suggest that the most likely mechanism for the anomalies is a neutron-rich statistical equilibrium process. An indication of elevated Ni-60 is found in almost every inclusion measured. This effect is thought to be related to the decay of now extinct Fe-60. An upper limit of 1.6 X 10 to the -6th is calculated for the Fe-60/Fe-56 ratio at the time these Allende inclusions crystallized.

  7. The hierarchy of needs to inclusive design.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Júlio Carlos de Souza; Brendler, Clariana Fischer

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses Design importance in the development of effectively inclusive products based on Design Emotional approach, allowing children with disabilities to experience playing in the childhood as an instrument for social integration. The methodology used to develop this study was based on literature review, considering the following themes: emotional design, accessibility and inclusion, emotion and development of children. As a result, we propose a new level of need to model the hierarchy of needs, of Jordan ("usability", "functionality" and "pleasure"), level with the inclusion of "dignity." PMID:22316907

  8. Basophilic inclusions and neuronal intermediate filament inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hidefumi

    2014-12-01

    Basophilic inclusions (BIs) and neuronal intermediate filament inclusions (NIFIs) are key structures of basophilic inclusion body disease and neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID), respectively. BIs are sharply-defined, oval or crescent neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions that appear pale blue-gray in color with HE staining and purple in color with Nissl but are stained poorly with silver impregnation techniques. Immunohistochemically BIs are negative for tau, trans-activation response DNA 43 (TDP-43), α-synuclein, neurofilament (NF) and α-internexin, positive for p62, and variably ubiquitinated. Noticeably, BIs are consistently fused in sarcoma (FUS) positive. NIFIs are by definition immuno-positive for class IV IFs including three NF triplet subunit proteins and α-internexin but negative for tau, TDP-43, and α-synuclein. In NIFID cases several types of inclusions have been identified. Among them, hyaline conglomerate-like inclusions are the only type that meets the above immunohistochemical features of NIFIs. This type of inclusion appears upon HE staining as multilobulated, faintly eosinophilic or pale amphophilic spherical masses with a glassy appearance. These hyaline conglomerates appear strongly argyrophilic, and robustly and consistently immuno-positive for IFs. In contrast, this type of inclusion shows no or only occasional dot-like FUS immunoreactivity. Therefore, BIs and NIFIs are distinct from each other in terms of morphological, tinctorial and immunohistochemical features. However, basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD) and NIFID are difficult to differentiate clinically. Moreover, Pick body-like inclusions, the predominant type of inclusions seen in NIFID, are considerably similar to the BIs of BIBD in that this type of inclusion is basophilic, poorly argyrophilic, negative for IFs and intensely immuno-positive for FUS. As BIBD and NIFID share FUS accumulation as the most prominent molecular pathology, whether these two

  9. Refractory Inclusions in Pristine Chondrites: Population Comparisons and Equilibrium Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. B.

    2016-08-01

    The refractory inclusion populations of two CO3 chondrites, DOM 08006 and MIL 090019, were investigated. In both samples >10% of the inclusions contain grossite, a predicted solar condensate, rare in most inclusion populations but significant here.

  10. Oxygen isotopic anomalies in Allende inclusion HAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.

    1980-07-01

    An oxygen isotopic study which demonstrates the Allende inclusion HAL is a FUN object is discussed; the hibonite core, black inner rim and fine-grained outer rim have beem sampled. The oxygen in HAL is found to be heterogeneous, the rim samples having oxygen compositions similar to that of melilites and alteration products in other Allende inclusions including the FUN inclusion EK1-4-1, while the oxygen in the hibonite core shows the most extreme deviation from the AD line so far observed. The oxygen in HAL hibonite, in ED1-4-1 spinel and in spinels of usual Allende inclusions form an approximate linear array with a slope close to 1/2. With regard to the fractionation process, it is noted that the fractionation per amu for various elements does not correlate inversely with mass and that fractionation is elementally selective, probably according to volatility.

  11. Essential Schools and Inclusion: A Responsive Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, William

    1996-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools focuses on responsible inclusion and uses a variety of nontraditional methods: flexible scheduling, heterogenous grouping, the philosophy of student-as-worker, integrated curriculum, coaching, self-directed learning, alternative assessments, and interdisciplinary planning. (SK)

  12. Genetics Home Reference: microvillus inclusion disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of nutrients from food during digestion, resulting in malnutrition and dehydration. Affected infants often have difficulty gaining ... and fluids during digestion leads to recurrent diarrhea, malnutrition, and dehydration in individuals with microvillus inclusion disease . ...

  13. Water loss from olivine hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Provost, A.; Schiano, P.; Cluzel, N.

    2009-12-01

    Water content in melt inclusions has long been used as an important index for the water content of the hosting magma. However, many studies have shown that post-entrapment diffusive re-equilibration can affect the water content of melt inclusions. This process must be considered when using melt inclusions to infer water content of the hosting magma. Theoretical model on the diffusive re-equilibration between melt inclusions and external melts showed that the re-equilibration rate depends on the diffusivity of the re-equilibrating species in the host mineral, the partition coefficient of this species between the host mineral and melt, and the geometry of the melt inclusion and host mineral. The water diffusivity in olivine and water partition coefficient between melt and olivine have been measured by recent studies, therefore the diffusive re-equilibration model can be tested by experiments. In this study, we carried out in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements on the water content of olivine hosted melt inclusions at high temperatures. Initial water content of the melt inclusions is about 4 wt%. A heating stage system is combined with a microscope FTIR and the absorption spectrum through the olivine and melt inclusion is repeatedly measured. Although the absorption band at around 3540 cm-1 has not be calibrated at high temperatures, it is assumed that the absorbance is linearly related to the total water concentration in the melt inclusion, and the relative water content can be inferred. Cautions have been exercised to maintain a consistent measurement spot such that the thickness of the melt inclusion within the beam path did not change significantly during each experiment. Oxygen fugacity in the heating stage is controlled by Zr purified Ar gas to be about 7 logarithm units below the QFM buffer and about 1 logarithm unit above the QIF buffer at 1473 K. Preliminary results showed that at 1430 and 1581 K, the total water content of the

  14. Duality in Semi-Inclusive Pion Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    F E Close, W Melnitchouk

    2009-05-01

    We explore quark-hadron duality in semi-inclusive pion electroproduction on proton and neutron targets. Using the spin-flavor symmetric quark model, we compute ratios of $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ cross sections for both unpolarized and polarized scattering, and discuss realizations of duality in several symmetry breaking scenarios. The model calculations allow one to understand some of the key features of recent data on semi-inclusive pion production at low energies.

  15. Inclusive fitness from multitype branching processes.

    PubMed

    Wild, Geoff

    2011-05-01

    I use multitype branching processes to study genetic models for the evolution of social behaviour, i.e. behaviours that, when acted out, affect the success of the actor's neighbours. Here, I suppose an individual bearing a mutant copy of a gene influences the reproductive success of a neighbour by altering its own competitive ability. Approximations based on assumptions about the rareness of the mutant allele and the strength of selection allow me to formulate statements concerning the probability of mutant extinction in terms of inclusive fitness. Inclusive fitness is an idea well known to biologists and can be thought of as a sum of an individual's fitness and the fitness of each of its relatives, weighted by some measure of genetic relatedness. Previous work has led to some confusion surrounding the definition of the inclusive-fitness effect of a mutant allele when individuals carrying that allele experience demographic conditions that fluctuate randomly. In this paper, I emphasise the link between inclusive fitness and the probability of mutant extinction. I recover standard results for populations of constant size, and I show that inclusive fitness can be used to determine the short-term fate of mutants in the face of stochastic demographic fluctuations. Overall, then, I provide a connection between certain inclusive-fitness-based approaches routinely applied in theoretical studies of social evolution.

  16. Unusual inclusions found in a national diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, I.S.

    1985-01-01

    Three pale yellow minerals, 100-200 microns in their longest dimension, were extracted from a diamond 2.5 mm in size and examined in an SEM equipped with an X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer. These inclusions were found to be two grains of garnet and a coesite, all of which contain a microscopic grain of Ti-rich biotite, a small amount of sanidine and a number of other minerals. (1) Garnet-biotite-apatite-rutile-sanidine-(Fe,Ca) melt. Attached to one end of this garnet inclusion is a crystal of biotite (50 x 30 ..mu..m) in which an apatite and a rutile are embedded. A thin lamella of sanidine occurs in the biotite near the garnet boundary. (2) Garnet-biotite-apatite-sanidine-rutile-pyrrhotite-(Fe,Ca,K) phase (unidentified). This garnet inclusion partially encased a biotite crystal while all other phases occur as minute prismatic needles or irregular and globular masses on the inclusion surface. (3) Coesite-biotite-sanidine-calcite. They are considered primary phases because the diamond host contains neither internal nor external fractures. Garnet, coesite, biotite and apatite are syngenetic inclusions in this diamond based on their relatively large sizes and their intergrown relationships. All other phases may also be primary or derived from biotite which, in the presence of sulfur, may produce phlogopite + sanidine + pyrrhotite + rutile. The droplets of melt and thin lamella of sanidine in inclusion (1) seem to be products of incongruent melting of biotite during the emplacement of kimberlite.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: intranuclear rod myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10.1055/s-2008-1065356. Citation on PubMed Laing NG, Dye DE, Wallgren-Pettersson C, Richard G, Monnier ... Wallgren-Pettersson C, Romero N, Nonaka I, Laing NG. Muscle disease caused by mutations in the skeletal ...

  18. When Inclusion Is Innovation: An Examination of Administrator Perspectives on Inclusion in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines administrator perspectives of innovative services for the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular preschool classrooms in China. Twelve directors from 12 pilot inclusion preschools in Beijing participated in this study. Qualitative interview results revealed the following subthemes: definition, advocacy,…

  19. An Exemplar of Inclusion: a Case Study of an Exemplary Middle School Mathematics Inclusion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Frederick J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the inclusion program of students receiving special education services in a general education mathematics classroom at an exemplary middle school in the southern region of Texas. This study sought to identify the best practices of a highly effective middle school mathematics inclusion program. This study…

  20. Leadership for Inclusion: Conceptualising and Enacting Inclusion in Integrated Schools in a Troubled Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Claire; London, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion is increasingly understood as an educational reform that responds to the diversity of all learners, challenging the marginalisation, exclusion and underachievement which may result from all forms of "difference". Leadership for inclusion is conceptualised here as driving a constant struggle to create shared meanings of…

  1. Exploring the Landscape of Inclusion: Profiles of Inclusive versus Segregated School Districts in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Susan Unok; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Bartz, Jody Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although inclusive education has been increasing in frequency for students with disabilities in the United States, for many students, the opportunity to be educated with their peers without disabilities continues to be out of reach despite decades of efforts by those promoting the vision of inclusion. This exploratory case study used interviews…

  2. Characteristics of Inclusive Faith Communities: A Preliminary Survey of Inclusive Practices in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Megan M.; Kane, Lydia W.; Taylor, Courtney; Francis, Susan H.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although participation in faith communities is important to many individuals with disabilities, few studies have examined differences between communities that are more (versus less) inclusive. This study investigated characteristics of faith communities in the United States related to greater inclusion. Methods: Participants were 160…

  3. Teaching Inclusively: Are Secondary Physical Education Student Teachers Sufficiently Prepared to Teach in Inclusive Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Janine Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Contemporary British educational guidelines, such as the National Curriculum (NC) have adopted inclusivity in the way children with special educational needs (SEN) are taught. Therefore, inclusion has risen up the political agenda, resulting in more children with SEN being taught in mainstream environments. Empirical research has…

  4. Inclusive Education Policy in New Zealand: Reality or Ruse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Alison; Kane, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    New Zealand, like many countries, is beginning the journey towards a more inclusive education system. This paper examines inclusive education in New Zealand, and in particular policy related to inclusive education. New Zealand has the chance to make inclusion a reality, but as Skrtic (1991) points out this will require a different way of thinking…

  5. An Arendtian Perspective on Inclusive Education: Towards a Reimagined Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education currently appears to be undergoing a crisis and re-examination. This paper presents a new approach to thinking about inclusiveness in the school context. Many positions within inclusive education seem to take political, social and ethical perspectives as a starting point, which has allowed inclusive movements and initiatives…

  6. Patterns of Inclusive Education through the Practice of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelides, Panayiotis

    2008-01-01

    For the purpose of moving towards more inclusive practices, the research literature argues that we have to investigate in greater depth the way in which universities respond to inclusive education. This paper investigates the nature of inclusive education through the practice of student teachers and sees how so-called inclusive education manifests…

  7. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for...

  8. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for...

  9. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for...

  10. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for...

  11. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for...

  12. Language and Social Inclusion: Unexplored Aspects of Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Simon; Bradshaw, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Social inclusion policy in Australia has largely ignored key issues of communication for linguistic minorities, across communities and with the mainstream community. In the (now disbanded) Social Inclusion Board's reports (e.g., Social Inclusion Unit, 2009), the emphasis is on the economic aspects of inclusion, while little attention has been…

  13. Exploring Preservice Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, Isabel; Woronko, Dagmara; Zaretsky, Hayley

    2014-01-01

    This study responds to a call for research into existing teacher-education programmes and their impact on teacher candidates' attitudes. An inclusive education course that examined the difference between "soft inclusion" (inclusion which addresses the issue of place rather than substance of learning) and genuine inclusion was used…

  14. | Veb | from inclusive semileptonic B decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, P.

    We determine $|V_{cb}|$ from inclusive semileptonic B decays including resummation of supposedly large perturbative corrections, which originate from the running of the strong coupling. We argue that the low value of the BLM scale found previously for inclusive decays is a manifestation of the renormalon divergence of the perturbative series starting already in third order. A reliable determination of $|V_{cb}|$ from inclusive decays is still possible if one uses a short-distance b quark mass. We find that using the $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ running mass significantly reduces the perturbative coefficients already in low orders. For a semileptonic branching ratio of $10.9\\%$ we obtain $|V_{cb}|(\\tau_B/1.50\\,{\\rm ps})^{1/2}=0.041\\pm 0.002\\pm 0.002$. This work was done in collaboration with M. Beneke and V.M.\\ Braun.

  15. Electronic Impact of Inclusions in Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, E.M.; Smedley, J.; Raghothamachar, B.; Gaowei, M.; Keister, J.W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Dudley, M.; Wu, Q.

    2010-04-07

    X-ray topography data are compared with photodiode responsivity maps to identify potential candidates for electron trapping in high purity, single crystal diamond. X-ray topography data reveal the defects that exist in the diamond material, which are dominated by non-electrically active linear dislocations. However, many diamonds also contain defects configurations (groups of threading dislocations originating from a secondary phase region or inclusion) in the bulk of the wafer which map well to regions of photoconductive gain, indicating that these inclusions are a source of electron trapping which affect the performance of diamond X-ray detectors. It was determined that photoconductive gain is only possible with the combination of an injecting contact and charge trapping in the near surface region. Typical photoconductive gain regions are 0.2 mm across; away from these near-surface inclusions the device yields the expected diode responsivity.

  16. Potassium in clinopyroxene inclusions from diamonds.

    PubMed

    Harlow, G E; Veblen, D R

    1991-02-01

    Analytical transmission electron microscopy, electron microprobe analyses, and singlecrystal x-ray diffraction data support the conclusion that high potassium contents, up to 1.5 weight percent K(2)O, of some diopside and omphacite inclusions from diamonds represent valid clinopyroxene compositions with K in solid solution. This conclusion contradicts the traditional view of pyroxene crystal chemistry, which holds that K is too large to be incorporated in the pyroxene structure. These diopside and omphacite inclusions have a high degree of crystal perfection and anomalously large unit-cell volumes, and a defect-free structure is observed in K-bearing regions when imaged by transmission electron microscopy. These observations imply that clinopyroxene can be a significant host for K in the mantle and that some clinopyroxene inclusions and their diamond hosts may have grown in a highly K-enriched environment. PMID:17741381

  17. Inclusion probability with dropout: an operational formula.

    PubMed

    Milot, E; Courteau, J; Crispino, F; Mailly, F

    2015-05-01

    In forensic genetics, a mixture of two or more contributors to a DNA profile is often interpreted using the inclusion probabilities theory. In this paper, we present a general formula for estimating the probability of inclusion (PI, also known as the RMNE probability) from a subset of visible alleles when dropouts are possible. This one-locus formula can easily be extended to multiple loci using the cumulative probability of inclusion. We show that an exact formulation requires fixing the number of contributors, hence to slightly modify the classic interpretation of the PI. We discuss the implications of our results for the enduring debate over the use of PI vs likelihood ratio approaches within the context of low template amplifications.

  18. History of Inclusive Design in the UK.

    PubMed

    John Clarkson, P; Coleman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The UK Design Council describes Inclusive Design as neither a new genre of design, nor a separate specialism, but as a general approach to designing in which designers ensure that their products and services address the needs of the widest possible audience, irrespective of age or ability. Inclusive Design (also known [in Europe] as Design for All and as Universal Design in the USA) is in essence the inverse of earlier approaches to designing for disabled and elderly people as a sub-set of the population, and an integral part of a more recent international trend towards the integration of older and disabled people in the mainstream of society. This paper describes the development of Inclusive Design in the UK, from its early beginnings, through its subsequent adoption as a topic of academic research, leading to its recent emergence embodied as a framework and toolkit for design.

  19. Computed tomographic analysis of meteorite inclusions.

    PubMed

    Arnold, J R; Testa, J P; Friedman, P J; Kambic, G X

    1983-01-28

    The discovery of isotopic anomalies in the calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite has improved our knowledge of the origin of the solar system. Inability to find more inclusions without destroying the meteorite has hampered further study. By using a fourth-generation computed tomographic scanner with modifications to the software only, the interior of heterogeneous materials such as Allende can be nondestructively probed. The regions of material with high and low atomic numbers are displayed quickly. The object can then be cut to obtain for analysis just the areas of interest.

  20. From Inclusion for Some to Inclusion for All: A Case Study of the Inclusion Program at One Catholic Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Catholic schools in the United States have grappled with how to serve students with disabilities without the funding sources available to public schools. This mixed methods case study examines the driving forces, restraining forces, and social justice issues that influenced the development of an inclusion program at one Catholic elementary school.…

  1. Solid inclusion thermobarometry under fire: Heating experiments on encapsulated quartz inclusions in garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Kyle T.; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Bodnar, Robert J.; Darling, Robert S.

    2016-04-01

    Internal pressures of mineral inclusions (Pincl) result from differences in elastic properties of the inclusion mineral and its host mineral. Recent studies utilize pressure-sensitive Raman spectroscopic waveshifts to determine the retained Pincl and apply elastic theory to estimate pressure (or temperature) conditions of entrapment. Quartz inclusions are commonly utilized because quartz is a "soft," compressible mineral that is ubiquitous as an inclusion phase in continental metamorphic rocks. Garnet is a commonly used host because it is rigid and isotropic. Quartz inclusions trapped in garnet at high-P, low-T conditions will retain high Pincl; whereas those trapped at low-P, high-T conditions yield negative waveshifts equating to "negative" pressure, or net tensile stress on the inclusion. While Pincl can be accurately calculated from Raman data, barometry relies also upon the quality of the elastic model, which fundamentally depends on the quality of the P ‑V ‑T equations of state (EOS) applied. For quartz, EOS modeling is challenging due to the spontaneous strain that develops close to the lambda transition. In this study we conduct heating experiments on quartz inclusions in garnet from natural samples to assess the response of inclusion pressure to varying temperature (at ambient external pressure), and to evaluate predictions based on commonly applied EOS. Experiments were conducted on two quartz standards (a Herkimer "diamond" and Brazillian quartz) and four completely encapsulated inclusions of quartz in garnet from three tectonically diverse terranes, including: (i) a dilated quartz inclusion (Pincl = -4.3 kbar) from Port Leyden, Adirondack Mountains, New York, (ii) a Barrovian-sequence quartz inclusion from northern Scotland (Pincl = 3.1 kbar), and (iii) two high-pressure (blueschist) quartz inclusions from Sifnos, Greece (Pincl = 7.7 and 8.9 kbar). Standards were heated in 25 ° C increments with smaller increments near the lambda transition. Quartz

  2. When social inclusion is not enough: Implicit expectations of extreme inclusion in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Riva, Paolo; Preti, Emanuele; Cabrino, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) might feel rejected even when socially included by others. A psychological mechanism accounting for this response bias could be that objective social inclusion violates BPD patients' underlying implicit needs of "extreme" inclusion. Thus, this study investigated whether, during interpersonal exchanges, BPD patients report more rejection-related negative emotions and less feelings of social connection than controls unless they are faced with conditions of extreme social inclusion. Sixty-one BPD patients and 61 healthy controls completed a modified Cyberball paradigm. They were randomly assigned to a condition of ostracism, social inclusion, or overinclusion (a proxy for extreme social inclusion). They then rated their emotional states and feelings of social connection immediately and 20 min after the game. BPD patients reported greater levels of negative emotions than controls in the ostracism and the inclusion conditions, but not when overincluded. Furthermore, only for BPD participants was overinclusion associated with experiencing less negative emotions than the ostracism condition. However, BPD patients reported lower feelings of social connection than controls in any experimental situation. Thus, in BPD, a laboratory condition of "overinclusion" is associated with a reduction of negative emotions to levels comparable to those of control participants, but not with similar degrees of social connection. These results suggest that for BPD patients, even "including contexts" activate feelings of rejection. Their implicit expectations of idealized interpersonal inclusion may nullify the opportunity of experiencing "real" social connection and explain their distorted subjective experiences of rejection.

  3. Mathematics Achievement of Regular Education Students by Placement in Inclusion and Non-Inclusion Classrooms and Their Principals' Perceptions of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Loretta Rodgers

    2009-01-01

    This study examined mathematics achievement of fourth and fifth grade students in Mississippi and principals' perceptions of inclusion. A sample of 462 students from eight separate elementary schools was selected for this study. Fifteen principals completed the Principal and Inclusion Survey regarding inclusion education. Eight of the 15…

  4. Some Thoughts on Models of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Seven models of inclusion for deaf children are briefly described: (1) residential programming; (2) residential/public school split; (3) public school programming with a residential component; (4) contained classroom programming; (5) class within a class; (6) integration plus resource; and (7) integration with monitoring. Roles of teachers,…

  5. Improving Education: The Promise of Inclusive Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; Desjarlais, Audrey; Meyer, Gwen

    Inclusion is an effort to make sure that all students benefit by becoming important and contributing members of their school communities. It is the attempt to make sure that students with disabilities go to school along with their friends and neighbors while also receiving the "specially designed instruction and support" they need to succeed as…

  6. Listening Carefully for Inclusion: A Principal's Awakening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Heather

    2005-01-01

    This article is a reflective piece of learning in process and what it means to be a principal of all children. The narrative is an extension from the doctorial work the author completed at the University of Alberta entitled "A Narrative Inquiry into Mothers' Experiences of Securing Inclusive Education" (Raymond, 2002). This research inquiry…

  7. Chrome pyrope: an inclusion in natural diamond.

    PubMed

    Meyer, H O

    1968-06-28

    Electron probe analyses of garnets that are rich in magnesium and that occur as inclusions in natural diamonds show that the chrome-garnet end member, Mg(3)Cr(2)Si(3)O(12), is a major constituent (30 percent). PMID:17817353

  8. Essential Features of Methodologically Inclusive Research Syntheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suri, Harsh

    Contemporary educational research is marked by diversity, complexity, and richness of purposes, methods, and perspectives. A framework, the Methodologically Inclusive Research Synthesis (MIRS), has been developed to offer a set of guidelines to facilitate informed choices at the critical decision points of any research synthesis process. The MIRS…

  9. Inclusive High Schools: Learning from Contemporary Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas, Ed.; Sax, Caren, Ed.; Pumpian, Ian, Ed.

    Addressing both processes and outcomes, this book provides a framework for developing inclusive high schools, illustrated by detailed accounts of high schools that have struggled, strategized, and ultimately achieved success. Themes discussed include building crucial school-based relationships, developing support strategies, communicating…

  10. Recent Developments in Inclusive Education in Malta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines recent developments in Malta's inclusive education policy, discourse, and practice, noting the influence of United Nations policies, local political developments, parent associations, a National Commission for Persons with Disabilities, and a nongovernmental organization for persons with developmental disabilities. Discusses the…

  11. Inclusion in PK-12: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcic, Svjetlana

    2009-01-01

    With an aim to investigate inclusion across borders, quantitative and qualitative data were examined that came from 18 countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Finland, France, Iceland, India, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. Four themes emerged in this study: (1) concerns…

  12. Transformative Pathways: Inclusive Pedagogies in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guojonsdottir, Hafdis; Cacciattolo, Marcelle; Dakich, Eva; Davies, Anne; Kelly, Claire; Dalmau, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a three-year study of Praxis Inquiry based developments in teacher education undertaken by an international consortium of university colleagues who have worked in Australia, Iceland, Latvia, and the United Kingdom. Our study suggests that the attainment of inclusive community responsive pedagogies--in schools and in teacher…

  13. Advances in Schoolwide Inclusive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailor, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights three significant advances in schoolwide inclusive school reform and suggests three next steps to improve educational outcomes for "all" students, particularly for students for whom typical instruction is not effective. Significant advances are as follows: (a) a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) with embedded…

  14. Equity and Inclusion outside the School's Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ange

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, controversy has reigned over the rights of children with learning disabilities to be educated alongside their peers in a mainstream classroom. Whether this is called integration or inclusion has been another hotly debated discussion among professionals. There have been calls for the abolition of special schools. This paper…

  15. Cooperative Oriented Learning in Inclusive Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klavina, Aija; Jerlinder, Kajsa; Kristén, Lars; Hammar, Lena; Soulie, Tine

    2014-01-01

    In this study the implementation of cooperation directed learning of peer tutoring in elementary general inclusive physical education (GPE) setting in three elementary city schools in Sweden was studied. The purpose was to assess the impact of peer tutoring on the interaction behaviours between students with and without disabilities in GPE. A…

  16. Inclusion: Professional Development Needs of Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocks, Amanda G.

    2010-01-01

    An attitudinal resistance among teachers regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities is well documented in the literature. Studies collectively highlight two specific areas that contribute to this resistance. First, a lack of teacher knowledge or preparedness for meeting the diverse needs of children with disabilities stimulates…

  17. Full Inclusion: The Least Restrictive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullings, Shirley E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the phenomenological study was to examine elementary educators' perceptions of full inclusion as the least restrictive environment for students with disabilities. Thirty-six teachers and administrators participated in interviews and responded to multiple-choice survey items. The recorded data from the interviews were…

  18. Seamless Teaching: Navigating the Inclusion Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Lois

    2013-01-01

    In schools across the country, students in special education and general education are increasingly learning together in inclusive classrooms. This is a significant civil-rights achievement, but it also means students in special education are being taught by general education teachers who may not have the training and skills to best serve them.…

  19. Inclusive Education--Empirical Experience from Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Jasmina; Macesic-Petrovic, Dragana

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study finds out the problems most frequently facing the children with special needs in regular schooling. The sample included 500 teachers in elementary schools from Serbia. The results point out the problems in inclusive education. Most educational problems occur in relations and communications with their peers in typical…

  20. Inclusivity Imperatives and the Australian National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlach, Richard G.; Chambers, Dianne J.

    2011-01-01

    With work currently being undertaken on formulating Australia's first national curriculum, now seems an opportune time to review the current state of play with regard to how well inclusivity is being represented in the developing documentation. An accurate understanding of "what is" is often the first step in preparing for "what may be" on a much…

  1. Making Campuses More Inclusive of Transgender Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemyn, Brett Genny

    2005-01-01

    This article examines a number of areas of campus life where transgender students experience discrimination because of gender-exclusive policies and practices: health care, residence halls, bathrooms, locker rooms, records and documents, public inclusion, and programming, training, and support. The specific obstacles faced by transgender students…

  2. Creating Inclusive Schools for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causton-Theoharis, Julie; Theoharis, George

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a former principal at Falk Elementary School in Madison, Wisconsin, describes his school's shift as it sought to create an inclusive school for all students and establish an authentic sense of belonging. Nationwide, schools and districts from Concord, New Hampshire, to Whittier, California, and from Cambridge, Massachusetts, to…

  3. Assistive Technology: Supporting Learners in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; McBride, Rebecca; Spencer, Vicky G.; Lowdermilk, John; Lynch, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the numbers of students with physical disability who are being educated in inclusive or universal design for learning (UDL) classrooms have been increasing steadily. These students are expected to complete grade-level assignments, but not all of them are provided the necessary supports to do so. Many teachers in inclusive…

  4. Student Behaviour Self-Monitoring Enabling Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…

  5. Dilemmas in the Quest for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedell, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, on the occasion of his "retirement", Professor Klaus Wedell wrote a leading article for BJSE entitled "Making inclusive education ordinary". Last October, Professor Wedell, also known to BJSE's readers as the author of the regular "Points from the SENCo-Forum "column, delivered the Gulliford Lecture at Birmingham University. Here he makes…

  6. Working towards Inclusion: Reflections from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singal, Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    This article explores developments towards inclusive education being undertaken in some schools in India. Drawing on data collected through interviews with key professionals working in schools and classroom observations, the study focused on the practices and experiences of professionals involved in these efforts. Findings suggest that these…

  7. Middle Schools Principals' Attitudes about Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Gloria Denise

    2009-01-01

    Important legislation has demanded the education of students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. Administrators, principals and educators in the local schools are impacted tremendously by this decision. The necessity to provide an appropriate education for special needs children while successfully implementing inclusion is a…

  8. Strategies for Success in Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Genevieve H.; Courson, Frances H.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests a popular model of service delivery for students with disabilities is full inclusion. Suggests regular classroom teachers should identify and focus on included students' strengths and carefully examine students' academic and social gains. Argues that school personnel should work in collaborative teams in which skills, experience, talents,…

  9. Comprehensive School Reform and Inclusive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the emphasis in public policy and the professional literature on developing inclusive programs for students with disabilities over the past 30 years, surprisingly little progress has been made in this regard in school districts across the United States. One approach to change that is currently being used with some success in general…

  10. Social Inclusion of Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This feature issue presents articles on the social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities into the community and also some related news items. This issue provides profiles of organizations, workplaces, and schools that are successfully integrating people with developmental disabilities into community activities. The articles are: "'I…

  11. Building Inclusive Communities: A Social Capital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Laumatia, Laura; Luckey, Brian; Traver, Sue; Nauman, Arlinda; Tifft, Kathee; Liddil, Audrey; Hampton, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Population shifts have changed the face of many Idaho communities, but inclusive relationships among groups can build the social capital required for communities to thrive. University of Idaho Extension developed "Idaho's Journey for Diversity and Human Rights" as a hands-on traveling workshop about past and present issues of human rights and…

  12. Inclusion's Confusion in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilham, Chris; Williamson, W. John

    2014-01-01

    This hermeneutic paper interprets a recent series of reforms to inclusive education policy undertaken by the ministry of education in the province of Alberta, Canada. A 2007 Alberta Education review of the 16,000 student files in the province that school boards had claimed met the criteria for severe disability codification status -- the level of…

  13. Understanding Teachers' Concerns about Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Monika; Das, Ajay; Sharma, Sushama; Tiwari, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the concerns of regular elementary school teachers in Gurgaon, India, in order to work with students with disabilities in inclusive education settings. A total of 175 teachers responded to a two-part questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The data indicated that the teachers in Gurgaon,…

  14. [International aspects of inclusion in schools].

    PubMed

    Häßler, Frank; Burgert, Michael; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Chodan, Wencke

    2015-07-01

    The term inclusion (=admittance, involvement) is used almost synonymously for the concept of the joint schooling of children with and without intellectual disabilities, language disabilities, physical handicaps, or mental disorders. This article addresses the current state of inclusion in Germany as well as the international situation, such as the Salamanca Declaration of the UNESCO, the «Individuals with Disabilities Act» (IDEA) in the United States as well as European developments, particularly in Great Britain, Austria, and Russia. Even though, from a political perspective, the decision in favor of inclusion seems irreversible, there appears to be a lack an agreement on the modality and timeframe. Thus, the average percentage of students with special education needs in Germany amounts to only 28.2%. The reasons behind this situation are presently being analyzed and discussed. A question of key importance concerns the benefit for the persons concerned, since that should be the measure of the success of inclusion. This question will most likely be validly answered only for individual subgroups of disabilities. This field still requires extensive research. PMID:26118812

  15. Inclusive Schooling: Are We There yet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causton, Julie; Theoharis, George

    2013-01-01

    Today, when trying to find a way to an unfamiliar destination, many rely on global positioning systems, or GPS technology. "Recalibrating" and "Whenever possible make a legal U-turn" are now ubiquitous phrases in the audio backdrop to many car trips. One can think about modern-day inclusive education in similar terms. The programming decisions…

  16. Ideas for Inclusion: The School Administrator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beninghof, Anne M.; Singer, Anne Louise T.

    This book for school administrators offers methods for effecting changes in school culture and practices so that inclusion of students with all kinds of disabilities is successful. The recommendations are based on such principles as the following: professionals must collaborate to serve students with disabilities appropriately; students are…

  17. A nonlinear elasticity phantom containing spherical inclusions

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, Theo Z.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton O.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The strain image contrast of some in vivo breast lesions changes with increasing applied load. This change is attributed to differences in the nonlinear elastic properties of the constituent tissues suggesting some potential to help classify breast diseases by their nonlinear elastic properties. A phantom with inclusions and long-term stability is desired to serve as a test bed for nonlinear elasticity imaging method development, testing, etc. This study reports a phantom designed to investigate nonlinear elastic properties with ultrasound elastographic techniques. The phantom contains four spherical inclusions and was manufactured from a mixture of gelatin, agar and oil. The phantom background and each of the inclusions has distinct Young’s modulus and nonlinear mechanical behavior. This phantom was subjected to large deformations (up to 20%) while scanning with ultrasound, and changes in strain image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between inclusion and background, as a function of applied deformation, were investigated. The changes in contrast over a large deformation range predicted by the finite element analysis (FEA) were consistent with those experimentally observed. Therefore, the paper reports a procedure for making phantoms with predictable nonlinear behavior, based on independent measurements of the constituent materials, and shows that the resulting strain images (e.g., strain contrast) agrees with that predicted with nonlinear FEA. PMID:22772074

  18. Equity and Inclusion in Physical Education PLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John

    2014-01-01

    Physical Educationalists in many western and westernised societies across the globe are facing new challenges as system wide changes take place increasing the role of private bodies (e.g. Academy trusts) in the delivery of school based education. This reflective and rather personal paper considers the place and meaning of "inclusion" and…

  19. If You Can: Inclusion in Music Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Cope, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper steps outside of conventional frameworks of schooling and examines inclusion from the perspective of eight young people and adults who play Scottish fiddle music in a group. The participants were asked to talk about their experiences of playing and their involvement with the group in practice and performance sessions. The group had been…

  20. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  1. The Value of Connectedness in Inclusive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The author addresses the importance of relationships in order for learning to take place in an inclusive manner. Anecdotes illustrate the value in beginning where the learner is and the unexpected opportunities the journey can lead to when both teacher and learner venture through unchartered paths together.

  2. Inclusive Schooling: Is It a Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlous-Ismail, Nada

    2010-01-01

    One of the aims of each Australian States and Territory Departments of Education and Training is to create a world-class inclusive strategy in schools across the nation. They each see the need to raise awareness, support and change societal expectations for students with Special Needs and Disabilities nationally. This paper aims to investigate the…

  3. Inclusive Science Education: Learning from Wizard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2016-01-01

    This case study reports on a student with special education needs in an inclusive seventh grade life science classroom using a framework of disability studies in education. Classroom data collected over 13 weeks consisted of qualitative (student and classroom observations, interviews, student work samples and video-taped classroom teaching and…

  4. [International aspects of inclusion in schools].

    PubMed

    Häßler, Frank; Burgert, Michael; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Chodan, Wencke

    2015-07-01

    The term inclusion (=admittance, involvement) is used almost synonymously for the concept of the joint schooling of children with and without intellectual disabilities, language disabilities, physical handicaps, or mental disorders. This article addresses the current state of inclusion in Germany as well as the international situation, such as the Salamanca Declaration of the UNESCO, the «Individuals with Disabilities Act» (IDEA) in the United States as well as European developments, particularly in Great Britain, Austria, and Russia. Even though, from a political perspective, the decision in favor of inclusion seems irreversible, there appears to be a lack an agreement on the modality and timeframe. Thus, the average percentage of students with special education needs in Germany amounts to only 28.2%. The reasons behind this situation are presently being analyzed and discussed. A question of key importance concerns the benefit for the persons concerned, since that should be the measure of the success of inclusion. This question will most likely be validly answered only for individual subgroups of disabilities. This field still requires extensive research.

  5. Inclusive Standard Model Higgs searches with ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Polci, Francesco

    2008-11-23

    The update of the discovery potential for a Standard Model Higgs boson through the inclusive searches H{yields}{gamma}{gamma}, H{yields}ZZ* and H{yields}WW with the ATLAS detector is reported. The analysis are based on the most recent available simulations of signal, backgrounds as well as the detector response.

  6. Effective Inclusive Schools: Designing Successful Schoolwide Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.

    2012-01-01

    This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…

  7. Negotiating the Path: Towards Diversity and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Letita R.

    2009-01-01

    Global survival hinges on an appreciation that the solutions to problems reside within the collective strength of diversity. However, achieving inclusion is often relegated to periodic infusions of multiculturalism into the mainstream of organizational culture. And "diversity" is quickly becoming the latest buzzword for an idea that, though…

  8. SIGN: Science, Inclusion and Growth in Norfolk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, David; Symonds, Lynne

    2000-01-01

    Science, Inclusion, and Growth in Norfolk (SIGN) is a Public Understanding of Science project that seeks to use the understanding of plant and soil science to demonstrate that people with severe learning difficulties can find the scientific method of inquiry a relevant and rewarding route to self-confidence and an understanding of the events that…

  9. Inclusion through Transdisciplinary Teaming (ITT). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jennifer; And Others

    This final report describes the Inclusion through Transdisciplinary Teaming (ITT) project, which provided support to personnel working in schools, child care centers, and Head Start programs as they designed and provided services that included young children with disabilities and their families. During its 3 years of outreach, ITT project staff…

  10. Everyday Inclusive Web Design: An Activity Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Website accessibility is a problem that affects millions of people with disabilities. While most current accessibility initiatives target government or commercial sites, a growing segment of online content is being created by non-professionals. This content is often inaccessible to users with disabilities. Everyday inclusive Web…

  11. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  12. On the Dirt Road to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiazowski, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education in the Republic of South Africa has been codified and written down in the form of White Papers. From the legislative point of view, the situation is clear. The reality however shows that the implementation of the law is still at its infancy. Students with visual impairments are practically confined to being educated in…

  13. Inclusive Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dizdarevic, Alma; Vantic-Tanjic, Medina; Nikolic, Milena

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the different challenges faced by all members of the local community who are directly or indirectly responsible for the educational reform regarding the process of inclusion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Yugoslavia education system is regulated in canton legislature. Each canton has its own law on preschool, elementary school,…

  14. Academic Freedom and the Inclusive University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sharon E., Ed.; Pavlich, Dennis, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore issues related to academic freedom and the inclusive university. The first section, Clarifying Concepts in Ideology, Language, and Law, contains these chapters: (1) Whats Sauce for One Goose: The Logic of Academic Freedom (Stanley Fish); (2) Academic Freedom: Rights as Immunities and Privileges (Frederick…

  15. Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

  16. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  17. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  18. Inclusion Doesn't Always Mean Included

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Marquis C.

    2009-01-01

    Children identified for special education services were once denied access to regular education classrooms and their peers regardless of the nature of their disabilities. In recent decades, efforts have been made to integrate more exceptional children into mainstream environments. The term inclusion has manifested itself into modern education…

  19. Educating Families about Inclusive Education: A Month-by-Month Guide for Teachers of Inclusive Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Jan; Francis-Cropper, LaTonya; Straus, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    This article offers strategies teachers can use throughout the year to help families of children with and without disabilities, and by extension the broader community, understand and appreciate inclusive education and their roles in ensuring its success. (Contains 3 tables.)

  20. Diagenetic palaeotemperatures from aqueous fluid inclusions: re- equilibration of inclusions in carbonate cements by burial heating.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations based on the observed behaviour of inclusions in fluorite under external confining P allows prediction of the T and depths of burial necessary to initiate re-equilibration of aqueous inclusions in the common size range 40-4 mu m. Heating of 20-60oC over the initial trapping T may cause errors of 10-20oC in the homogenization T. This suggests that re-equilibration may cause aqueous inclusions in carbonates to yield a poor record of their low-T history, but a useful record of the maximum T experienced by the host rock. Previous work suggests that inclusions containing petroleum fluids will be less susceptible to re-equilibration.This and the following six abstracts represent papers presented at a joint meeting of the Applied Mineralogy Group of the Mineralogical Society and the Petroleum Group of the Geological Society held in Newcastle upon Tyne in April 1986.-R.A.H.

  1. Origins of Majoritic Inclusions in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseeva, K.; Wood, B. J.; Ghosh, S. K.; Stachel, T.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral inclusions in diamonds are the only available samples from the transition zone and the lower mantle. The dominant type of inclusions for the range of transition zone (410-660 km) pressures is majoritic garnet, a high-pressure Si-rich tetragonal garnet which crystallises when pyroxene breaks down and dissolves in the garnet structure. Two majoritic garnet endmembers: Na2MgSi5O12 and Mg4Si4O12 can be distinguished for eclogitic and peridotitic parageneses, respectively. In our recent study [1] we used these idealised substitutions to show that the majority of majoritic garnets reported in the literature belong to neither eclogitic nor peridotitic lithologies and rather crystallised from a wide range of intermediate compositions, referred to as pyroxenites [1]. Here we elaborate on the origin and composition of the pyroxenite lithology. According to Si geobarometry most majoritic garnet inclusions formed at mantle transition zone pressures, predominantly within the stability field of clinopyroxene + garnet. Using experimental partition coefficients for Na, Al, Mg and Fe between garnet and clinopyroxene, we have calculated the compositions of clinopyroxene in equilibrium with majoritic garnet, which allows us to estimate the locus of possible bulk rock compositions. These lie in the field of upper mantle pyroxenites as defined by Hirschmann and Stolper [2]. We also find that occasional clinopyroxene inclusions in diamond actually coexisting with majoritic garnet inclusions are all close in composition to those predicted by our study. Additionally, we show experimentally that the pyroxenite-diamond association is probably a consequence of the interaction between basaltic and peridotitic compositions in the presence of carbonate melt and that layering of pyroxenites is a natural consequence of this interaction. Reduction of carbonate to carbon at high pressures is responsible for the genetic connection between pyroxenite and diamond and the abundance of

  2. Inclusive science education: learning from Wizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2016-06-01

    This case study reports on a student with special education needs in an inclusive seventh grade life science classroom using a framework of disability studies in education. Classroom data collected over 13 weeks consisted of qualitative (student and classroom observations, interviews, student work samples and video-taped classroom teaching and learning record using CETP-COP) methods. Three key findings emerged in the analysis and synthesis of the data: (1) The learning experiences in science for Wizard are marked by a dichotomy straddled between autonomy ["Sometimes I do" (get it)] and dependence ["Sometimes I don't (get it)], (2) the process of learning is fragmented for Wizard because it is underscored by an emerging disciplinary literacy, (3) the nature of the inclusion is fragile and functional. Implications for classroom practices that support students with learning disabilities include focusing on student strengths, intentional use of disciplinary literacy strategies, and opportunities for eliciting student voice in decision making.

  3. Inclusive Planning: Paramount in Today's Norway.

    PubMed

    Nohr, Trine; Langset, Eli Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Democratic rights are granted by its nations legislation and systems, but needs enforcement by its institutions to be effective. This also relates to Universal Design. The refugee crisis in Europe raises questions as to how planning in the societies can be designed and implemented to include the new groups of the population. The Norwegian Planning and Building Act (PBA) put weight on the individual's or a group's right to influence public assessment and decision making processes. In this article a case from the Veitvet-Sletteløkka area in the ward of Bjerke, Oslo, is presented to show how these principles can be put into practice. The case clearly demonstrates how the presence of representatives from the ward and planning authority built trust to the various parts of the local community by a consistent and inclusive approach. Also, to further enhance inclusion and effectiveness in planning, the case illustrates the need for adapting new technologies, communication modes and perspectives. PMID:27534305

  4. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  5. Paint chip poisoning of Laysan albatross at Midway Atoll (Pacific Ocean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Fefer, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    Epizootic mortality occurred in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) fledgings at Midway Atoll in 1983. Heavy metal toxicity from ingestion of weathered paint chips was one of the causes. Sick albatrosses were unable to retract their wings, causing a 'droop-wing' appearance. Five normal and 12 droop-winged fledglings were captured, killed, and examined. Paint chips found in the proventriculus of the affected fledglings contained up to 144,000 ppm lead. Blood, liver, and kidney concentrations of lead in affected birds were higher than in normal fledglings, and acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys. Degenerative lesions were present in the myelin of some brachial nerves. Weathered paint samples collected from 12 buildings contained up to 247,250 ppm lead and 101 ppm mercury. Lead poisoning was diagnosed in 10 of the droop-winged albatrosses and was one of the causes of morbidity. Mercury toxicosis and plastic impaction were other possible causes.

  6. Toxic lead exposure in the urban rock dove

    SciTech Connect

    DeMent, S.H.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr.; Eckhaus, M.A.; Strandberg, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    Thirteen adult urban rock doves (Columba livia), 12 captured alive and one found dead, were studied from the Baltimore zoo. The mean concentration of lead in the blood for the 12 live birds was 184.5 +/- 531.2 (range 10.5-1,870 micrograms/dl). Three of the 13 birds with high measured blood and tissue lead concentrations were found at necropsy with lead shot pellets in their gizzards. Correlations were not found between concentrations of lead in the blood and body weight or hematocrit. Conversely, high correlations were noted between concentrations of lead in the blood and measured liver and kidney concentrations (r = 0.946, P less than 0.01; r = 0.993, P less than 0.01, respectively). Numbers of intranuclear acid-fast inclusions per 10 consecutive fields (100x oil immersion lens) correlated well with measured kidney lead concentrations (r = 0.990, P less than 0.001).

  7. Optimal Control of Evolution Mixed Variational Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Alduncin, Gonzalo

    2013-12-15

    Optimal control problems of primal and dual evolution mixed variational inclusions, in reflexive Banach spaces, are studied. The solvability analysis of the mixed state systems is established via duality principles. The optimality analysis is performed in terms of perturbation conjugate duality methods, and proximation penalty-duality algorithms to mixed optimality conditions are further presented. Applications to nonlinear diffusion constrained problems as well as quasistatic elastoviscoplastic bilateral contact problems exemplify the theory.

  8. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  9. Bursting the bubble of melt inclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Most silicate melt inclusions (MI) contain bubbles, whose significance has been alternately calculated, pondered, and ignored, but rarely if ever directly explored. Moore et al. (2015) analyze the bubbles, as well as their host glasses, and conclude that they often hold the preponderance of CO2 in the MI. Their findings entreat future researchers to account for the presence of bubbles in MI when calculating volatile budgets, saturation pressures, and eruptive flux.

  10. Inclusive jet production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2006-08-01

    Preliminary results on inclusive jet production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data are presented. Measurements are preformed using different jet algorithms in a wide range of jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity. The measured cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations

  11. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion.

    PubMed

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-03-01

    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment.

  12. Diversity: creating an environment of inclusiveness.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jane W

    2004-01-01

    Diversity is a concept that most organizations espouse but find challenging to put into practice. It is especially critical for healthcare organizations to be responsive in addressing issues of diversity related to not only employees but also clients. This article identifies the following 3 areas that must be addressed if an organization is to succeed in creating an environment where diversity and inclusiveness are honored: (1) organizations and their leaders need to be aware of their reactions "those who are different" in their organization. This awareness is critical in identifying the underlying obstacles that prevent a truly inclusive workplace; (2) organizations and their leaders need to be able to expand their perspectives allowing them to not only understand but appreciate others. These expanded perspectives can provide a potentially powerful tool for both problem solving and conflict resolution; (3) if organizations and their leaders are actively engaged in exploring options and are open to alternatives, they will find that they not only succeed in creating an environment of inclusiveness but also are in a better position to meet the needs of employees, patients, and a multicultural society. PMID:15446609

  13. [Inclusion - pediatric and adolescent psychiatry aspects].

    PubMed

    Warnke, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities became legally binding in Germany in March 2009. “Inclusion” is the major concept–all people with any kind of handicap must have the same rights to full and effective participation and inclusion in society. Preceding inclusion come adjustments in society with regard to ethical, legislative, administrative, conceptual, structural, economical, and thus also to healthcare-political frameworks, in order to make disabilities are as far as possible no longer a handicap in an individual’s everyday life. This review first outlines the present social status influencing the development of children, a child’s welfare, and especially the healthcare of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders and conditions indicating barriers to inclusion. It focuses on those articles of the UN convention which are relevant with regard to ethical attitude, epidemiology, healthcare framework, diagnostics, therapy, teaching, and research with respect to child and adolescent psychiatry. The analysis points to a significant backlog demand in child psychiatric healthcare, teaching, and research.

  14. Teacher Perspectives on Inclusive Education in Rural Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhie-Richmond, Donna; Irvine, Angela; Loreman, Tim; Cizman, Juna Lea; Lupart, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The results of 123 elementary-to-secondary teacher surveys and 14 in-depth qualitative interviews examining teachers' perspectives regarding inclusion in a rural school district are reported. Four features of inclusive education from the perspective of teachers are elaborated: (1) attitudes toward inclusion; (2) supportive communication and…

  15. Inclusive Education, Exclusion and Difficult Difference: A Call for Humanity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Chrissie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's review of three books: (1) "The irregular school: exclusion, schooling and inclusive education," by Roger Slee; (2) "Confronting obstacles to inclusion: international responses to developing inclusive education," edited by Richard Rose; and (3) ""Hanging in with the kids" in tough times: engagement in contexts of…

  16. A Conceptual Analysis of Key Concepts in Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston-Kemple, Thomas Ernest

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of an inclusive classroom, inclusion, co-teaching, and disability have been called poorly defined and in need of fresh conceptual analyses. In Chapter 1, I respond to this call for further analysis and then demonstrate, using current educational headlines, that these concepts of "an inclusive classroom,"…

  17. Some Further Reflections on the Difficulties and Dilemmas of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    This commentary on inclusion of children with disabilities in early childhood programs raises issues concerning the value-laden nature of advocacy for inclusion; the need to "just do it" (inclusion); risks of advocating for children versus programs; and the need to integrate with regular education despite its major problems. (DB)

  18. Educational Inclusion in England: Origins, Perspectives and Current Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauchlan, Fraser; Greig, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine different aspects of the inclusion debate, including how it has been shaped by the political context in England over the past 30 years. We then give consideration to the key argument that has dominated the inclusion agenda over the last decade: should effective inclusion be considered only as placement in mainstream school…

  19. Modelling Inclusive Special Needs Education: Insights from Dutch Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Bij, T.; Geijsel, F. P.; Garst, G. J. A.; Ten Dam, G. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive special needs education is prominent on the international education agenda. Research on the characteristics of inclusive education for students with special needs and schools providing this is scarce, however. Our aim in the present study was therefore to further theory-building with regard to inclusive special needs education. On the…

  20. Trekking Back to Mainstream for Inclusive Education, Is It There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalenga, Rosemary Chimbala; Fourie, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the ecosystemic management strategies for inclusive schools due to challenges faced by the schools in the mainstream school where learners from the specialised institutions are referred back to mainstream for inclusive education. Ecosystemic perspective on inclusive education, ecological theories and systems theories underpin…

  1. Student Perceptions of Inclusion in Unit/Course Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santhanam, Elizabeth; Hicks, Owen

    2004-01-01

    Good teaching should be inclusive of all students. There are very strong arguments for making courses/units/modules as inclusive as possible, based on issues of equity and access. Inclusive teaching has been a catch cry in recent times and most universities have policies related to this issue. However, research into the effectiveness of measures…

  2. Teacher Attitude towards Inclusion Practices and Special Needs Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Hill, Rorie

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the varying attitudes of regular (mainstream) education teachers towards the implementation of inclusion in elementary and secondary school classrooms. This paper tries to take into account the need for a better understanding of teacher attitude towards inclusion and how the inclusive environment can be improved. The…

  3. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  4. Teacher Preparation for Inclusive Education: Increasing Knowledge but Raising Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris; Chambers, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    The role of the generalist teacher is now affirmed as being an important component in the success or otherwise of inclusive education practice. Issues about the effectiveness of teacher preparation for working in inclusive classes have arisen. An evaluation of pre-service teachers' perceptions regarding their preparedness for inclusion had some…

  5. Pre-Service Educators' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mdikana, Andile; Ntshangase, Sibusiso; Mayekiso, Tokozile

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of learners with special educational needs in general education is becoming more prevalent. As a result various special education researchers have begun to examine the success of inclusion, as well as the attitudes and beliefs of general educators towards the inclusion of learners with disabilities in the general education classroom.…

  6. Leadership Strategies for Successful Schoolwide Inclusion: The STAR Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munk, Dennis D.; Dempsey, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Effective, "schoolwide" inclusion ensures the best outcomes for all students--but how can school teams knock down the barriers to inclusion and make sure it's happening across all classrooms? This concise book gives principals and other school leaders the solution they've been waiting for: a clear framework for leading inclusion efforts,…

  7. Leadership for All Students: Planning for More Inclusive School Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William R.; Simon, Marsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Educational policies and leadership practice has evolved to support efforts for inclusive education for students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders support and develop inclusive practices for students with disability through engaging institutional norms and inertia; developing inclusive practice as a planned organization-wide…

  8. Inclusive Education and Students without Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruijs, Nienke M.; Van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea T. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the debate on inclusive education, students without special educational needs (SEN) are an important topic. However, there is a lot unknown about differences between these typical students in inclusive and non-inclusive classes. For example, the neutral results that are often found in earlier research could be caused by positive…

  9. Development of the Inclusion Attitude Scale for High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Catherine; Rogers, Margaret R.

    2009-01-01

    This study involved the development of a new scale to measure high school teacher attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education classrooms. A second aim was to examine the relationship of teachers' professional development regarding inclusion, their years of experience with inclusion, access to instructional…

  10. Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for Creating Inclusive Learning-Friendly Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ray; Miske, Shirley; Attig, George

    2004-01-01

    An inclusive, learning-friendly environment (ILFE) welcomes, nurtures, and educates all children regardless of their gender, physical, intellectual, socio-economic, emotional, linguistic and other characteristics. "Inclusive" in the school setting generally refers to the inclusion or children with disabilities into regular classrooms designed for…

  11. Examining Teachers' Concerns and Attitudes to Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined teachers' concerns and attitude toward inclusive education of students with disabilities in Ghana. A 20 item Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Africa Scale (ATIAS) was completed by 100 teachers from five "Inclusive Project" schools and five Non-Project coeducational basic schools in three different…

  12. Academic Performance of Students without Disabilities in the Inclusive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruth, Jason D.; Woods, Melanie N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of inclusion on secondary students by focusing on the performance of students without disabilities in the inclusive environment compared to their performance in a segregated environment. Many studies exist demonstrating the positive impact of the inclusive environment on the performance of students with disabilities.…

  13. Inclusive Education: Practical Implementation of the Least Restrictive Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power-deFur, Lissa A.; Orelove, Fred P.

    The 19 chapters of this book address theoretical and practical aspects of the development and implementation of inclusive education programs. Chapter titles and authors are: (1) "Inclusive Education: The Past, Preset, and Future" (Lissa A. Power-deFur and Fred P. Orelove); (2) "Inclusion and School Restructuring: Meeting the Needs of All Children"…

  14. Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

  15. Challenges of the Secondary School Context for Inclusive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Michelle; Gray, Jan; Campbell-Evans, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    Senate and State Government reviews into inclusion in Australian schools during the last two decades have revealed that the inclusion of students with disabilities in schools has proved challenging. A qualitative study involving interviews with 50 leaders in inclusive education suggest that currently the secondary school context is a barrier to…

  16. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined...

  17. 40 CFR 35.533 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.533... § 35.533 Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible for inclusion in a Performance Partnership Grant...

  18. 40 CFR 35.133 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.133... Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible, in accordance with appropriation acts, for inclusion in...

  19. 40 CFR 35.133 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.133... Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible, in accordance with appropriation acts, for inclusion in...

  20. 40 CFR 35.533 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.533... § 35.533 Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible for inclusion in a Performance Partnership Grant...

  1. 40 CFR 35.133 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.133... Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible, in accordance with appropriation acts, for inclusion in...

  2. 40 CFR 35.533 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.533... § 35.533 Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible for inclusion in a Performance Partnership Grant...

  3. 40 CFR 35.133 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.133... Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible, in accordance with appropriation acts, for inclusion in...

  4. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined...

  5. 40 CFR 35.533 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.533... § 35.533 Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible for inclusion in a Performance Partnership Grant...

  6. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined...

  7. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined...

  8. Inclusion and Guilt: The Emotional Fallout for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Robert; Meyer, Matthew J.

    2006-01-01

    The principle of inclusion of children with exceptionalities is accepted by teachers, but the practice of inclusion is problematic, particularly at the secondary level. In a study of inclusion and the impact of budgetary constraints in Nova Scotia, teachers reported that they had difficulty meeting the needs of all students within their classroom…

  9. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  10. Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning and Participation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Tony; Ainscow, Mel; Black-Hawkins, Kristine; Vaughan, Mark; Shaw, Linda

    The Index is a compilation of materials to support schools in the process of inclusive school development and is organized around the three dimensions of inclusive schools: cultures, policies, and practices. Part 1 provides an introduction to the manual, discusses the Index process as an approach to inclusion of special needs students, and…

  11. International Developments in Inclusive Schooling: Mapping the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebba, Judy; Ainscow, Mel

    1996-01-01

    Maps out the rationale and scope of this special edition of the journal, focusing on international developments in inclusive schooling. Describes the debate surrounding the search for an appropriate definition of inclusion. Gives consideration to some of the main issues emerging from the literature on developing inclusive schooling. (DSK)

  12. Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning and Participation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Tony; Ainscow, Mel

    The Index for Inclusion is a compilation of materials to support British schools in the process of inclusive school development. Part 1 introduces the Index, then identifies the following key concepts: inclusion, barriers to learning and participation, resources to support learning and participation, and support for diversity. Part 1 then…

  13. 40 CFR 35.133 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.133... Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible, in accordance with appropriation acts, for inclusion in...

  14. A Perspective of Inclusion: Challenges for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunsteiner, Maria-Luise; Mariano-Lapidus, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The term, "inclusion," particularly in the educational setting, is still based on a deficit view. Perceptions of "dis"-ability create barriers to true inclusion and are often reinforced through higher education training programs. To promote inclusive values, acceptance of individual and cultural differences must be included in…

  15. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined...

  16. 40 CFR 35.533 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.533... § 35.533 Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible for inclusion in a Performance Partnership Grant...

  17. The Teacher Attitudes Toward Inclusion Scale (TATIS) Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Joseph P.; Gregory, Jess L.; Noto, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher attitudes toward the inclusion of children with disabilities into general education classrooms have been found to be strong predictors of the success of efforts to create inclusive learning communities. Specifically, research has shown that when teachers have positive mindsets toward inclusion, they more readily adapt their teaching…

  18. Statistical Trends and Developments within Inclusive Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Orhan; Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    The education of students with special needs in an inclusive environment is becoming more widespread throughout the world. Similarly, in Turkey, the inclusion of students with disabilities has also improved. However, current statistical trends and developments within inclusive education are not well known. The purpose of this study is to provide a…

  19. Cumberland Falls chondritic inclusions: III. Consortium study of relationship to inclusions in Allan Hills 78113 aubrite

    SciTech Connect

    Lipschutz, M.E.; Verkouteren, R.M. ); Sears, D.W.G.; Hasan, F.A. ); Prinz, M.; Weisberg, M.K.; Nehru, C.E.; Delaney, J.S. ); Grossman, L.; Boily, M. )

    1988-07-01

    The authors describe the mineralogy and report contents of Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U and Zn determined by RNAA in three primitive chondritic inclusions from the ALH A78113 aubrite. Comparison of these data with those for large, petrologic type 3 chondritic clasts from the Cumberland Falls aubrite and the discovery of small clasts in it like those in ALH A78113 indicate that all constitute a single chondritic suite. They report thermoluminescence data for Cumberland Falls chondritic inclusions and achondritic host. These results, together with mineralogic, major, minor and trace element information, demonstrate that aubrite inclusions represent a different sort of type 3 chondrite, not an LL3 chondrite altered during equilibration with aubrite host. Instead, the aubrite inclusions represent a distinct chondrite class. These inclusions reflect nebular condensation/accretion over a broad redox range and at temperatures relatively high compared with those at which other type 3 chondrites formed. Limited metamorphism and reduction occurred during condensation/accretion, prior to incorporation into aubrite host. During the impact of the chondritic parent body with the aubrite parent body, chondrite fragments were strongly shocked and cooled rapidly. They then mixed with aubrite host, possibly in a regolith, so that these aubrites now represent impact breccias.

  20. Building Inclusion from the Ground up: A Review of Whole School Re-Culturing Programmes for Sustaining Inclusive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests that whole school re-culturing programmes can potentially assist in the creation of more inclusive value orientated schools. The relationship between school culture and successful inclusion has been demonstrated in the literature. Furthermore, the structure of whole school programmes in inculcating inclusive values and…

  1. Does Study of an Inclusive Education Subject Influence Pre-Service Teachers' Concerns and Self-Efficacy about Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Stuart; Hemmings, Brian; Kay, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Survey data were collected from pre-service teachers studying at a large regional Australian university. These data were examined with the purpose of determining whether pre-service teachers' views (and concerns) about inclusion and their confidence to teach in inclusive classrooms had changed as a result of studying an inclusive education subject…

  2. Impurity Gettering Effect of Te Inclusions in Cdznte Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A; Cui, Y; Camarda, G; Hossain, A; James, R

    2009-01-01

    The local impurity distribution in Te inclusions of CdZnTe (CZT) crystal was investigated by the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (Tof-SIMS) technique. Direct evidence of impurity gettering in Te inclusions has been observed for the first time. The impurity gettering in Te inclusions originated from the diffusion mechanism during crystal growth and segregation mechanism during crystal cooling. This phenomenon is meaningful, because it reveals how Te inclusions affect CZT properties and provides a possible approach to reduce the impurities in CZT by the way of removing Te inclusions.

  3. Junction problems for thin inclusions in elastic bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khludnev, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Equilibrium problems for a 2D elastic bodies with thin Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko elastic inclusions are considered. It is assumed that inclusions have a joint point, and a junction problem for these inclusions is analyzed. Existence of solutions is proved, and different equivalent formulations of problems are discussed. In particular, junction conditions at the joint point are found. A delamination of the elastic inclusions is also assumed. In this case, inequality type boundary conditions are imposed at the crack faces to prevent a mutual penetration between crack faces. A convergence to infinity of a rigidity parameter of the elastic inclusions is investigated. Limit problems are analyzed.

  4. Inclusion complexes of phosphorylated daidzein derivatives with β-cyclodextrin: Preparation and inclusion behavior study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongmei; Yang, Liangru; Mao, Pu; Yuan, Jinwei; Deng, Yuxia; Qu, Lingbo

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the feasibility of β-cyclodextrin in complexation was explored, as a tool for improving the solubility and biological ability of daidzein derivatives. A series of phosphorylated daidzein derivatives featuring different chain lengths were synthesized through a modified Atherton-Todd reaction and their inclusion complexes with βCD were prepared by coprecipitation method. The inclusion complexation behavior was studied by fluorescence, UV, FT-IR, MS and (1)H NMR. The results showed that only phosphorylated daidzein derivative carrying small substituent group ((C(2)H(5)O)(2)PO) entered the cavity of βCD and formed 1:1 inclusion complex. The formation constant was 175(mol/L)(-1).

  5. Inclusion complexes of phosphorylated daidzein derivatives with β-cyclodextrin: Preparation and inclusion behavior study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yongmei; Yang, Liangru; Mao, Pu; Yuan, Jinwei; Deng, Yuxia; Qu, Lingbo

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the feasibility of β-cyclodextrin in complexation was explored, as a tool for improving the solubility and biological ability of daidzein derivatives. A series of phosphorylated daidzein derivatives featuring different chain lengths were synthesized through a modified Atherton-Todd reaction and their inclusion complexes with βCD were prepared by coprecipitation method. The inclusion complexation behavior was studied by fluorescence, UV, FT-IR, MS and 1H NMR. The results showed that only phosphorylated daidzein derivative carrying small substituent group ((C 2H 5O) 2P dbnd O) entered the cavity of βCD and formed 1:1 inclusion complex. The formation constant was 175 (mol/L) -1.

  6. Quantitative analysis of inclusion distributions in hot pressed silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Paul Bakas

    2012-12-01

    ABSTRACT Depth of penetration measurements in hot pressed SiC have exhibited significant variability that may be influenced by microstructural defects. To obtain a better understanding regarding the role of microstructural defects under highly dynamic conditions; fragments of hot pressed SiC plates subjected to impact tests were examined. Two types of inclusion defects were identified, carbonaceous and an aluminum-iron-oxide phase. A disproportionate number of large inclusions were found on the rubble, indicating that the inclusion defects were a part of the fragmentation process. Distribution functions were plotted to compare the inclusion populations. Fragments from the superior performing sample had an inclusion population consisting of more numerous but smaller inclusions. One possible explanation for this result is that the superior sample withstood a greater stress before failure, causing a greater number of smaller inclusions to participate in fragmentation than in the weaker sample.

  7. Budding and vesiculation induced by conical membrane inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auth, Thorsten; Gompper, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Conical inclusions in a lipid bilayer generate an overall spontaneous curvature of the membrane that depends on concentration and geometry of the inclusions. Examples are integral and attached membrane proteins, viruses, and lipid domains. We propose an analytical model to study budding and vesiculation of the lipid bilayer membrane, which is based on the membrane bending energy and the translational entropy of the inclusions. If the inclusions are placed on a membrane with similar curvature radius, their repulsive membrane-mediated interaction is screened. Therefore, for high inclusion density the inclusions aggregate, induce bud formation, and finally vesiculation. Already with the bending energy alone our model allows the prediction of bud radii. However, in case the inclusions induce a single large vesicle to split into two smaller vesicles, bending energy alone predicts that the smaller vesicles have different sizes whereas the translational entropy favors the formation of equal-sized vesicles. Our results agree well with those of recent computer simulations.

  8. An overview on current fluid-inclusion research and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chi, G.; Chou, I.-Ming; Lu, H.-Z.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of some of the more important developments in fluid-inclusion research and applications in recent years, including fluid-inclusion petrography, PVTX studies, and analytical techniques. In fluid-inclusion petrography, the introduction of the concept of 'fluid-inclusion assemblage' has been a major advance. In PVTX studies, the use of synthetic fluid inclusions and hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells has greatly contributed to the characterization of the phase behaviour of geologically relevant fluid systems. Various analytical methods are being developed and refined rapidly, with the Laser-Raman and LA-ICP-MS techniques being particularly useful for volatile and solute analyses, respectively. Ore deposit research has been and will continue to be the main field of application of fluid inclusions. However, fluid inclusions have been increasingly applied to other fields of earth science, especially in petroleum geology and the study of magmatic and earth interior processes.

  9. Semi-inclusive distributions in statistical models

    SciTech Connect

    Begun, V. V.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2009-12-15

    The semi-inclusive properties of the system of neutral and charged particles with net charge equal to zero are considered in the grand canonical, canonical and microcanonical ensembles as well as in a microcanonical ensemble with scaling volume fluctuations. Distributions of neutral-particle multiplicity and charged-particle momentum are calculated as a function of the number of charged particles. Different statistical ensembles lead to qualitatively different dependencies. They are being compared with the corresponding experimental data on multihadron production in p+p interactions at high energies.

  10. Inclusion Optimization for Next Generation Steel Products

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sridar Seetharaman: Dr. Alan Cramb

    2006-04-06

    The project objective is to determine the conditions under which the inclusions in liquid steel can act as heterogeneous nucleants for solidification. The experimental approach consisted of measuring the undercooling of a pure iron droplet in contact with different oxides to determine which oxides promote iron solidification by providing a suitable surface for nucleation and which oxides and under which conditions the metal can be deeply undercooled. The conclusions suggest that deep undercoolings are possible at low oxygen content provided the oxygen potential is such that substrate decomposition does not occur. If the oxygen content increases the undercooling decreases.

  11. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, William L.; Poon, Siu-Joe; Duwez, Pol E.

    1981-01-01

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  12. MINERνA charged current inclusive analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Caicedo, D. A. M.

    2015-05-15

    MINERνA is a few-GeV neutrino scattering experiment that has been taking data in the NuMI beam line at Fermilab since November 2009. The experiment will provide important inputs, both in support of neutrino oscillation searches and as a pure weak probe of the nuclear medium. For this, MINERvA employs a fine-grained detector, with an eight ton active target region composed of plastic scintillator and a suite of nuclear targets composed of helium, carbon, iron, lead and water placed upstream of the active region. We will describe the current status of the charged current inclusive analysis in plastic scintillator.

  13. Distinguishing primary and secondary inclusion assemblages in Jack Hills zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Hopkins-Wielicki, Michelle D.; Harrison, T. Mark

    2015-10-01

    Detrital igneous zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia, range in age from ~ 3.0 to nearly 4.4 Ga and contain an inclusion assemblage dominated by quartz and muscovite, cited as evidence of their derivation from peraluminous granitoids. However, some phosphate inclusions in these zircons are known to be secondary from their post-depositional U-Pb ages and manifest mineralization along cracks. We undertook a survey of mineral inclusions in 4.3-3.0 Ga Jack Hills zircons with particular emphasis on their relationship to possible alteration features (e.g., cracks, disturbed internal zonation, and visual turbidity). Mineral inclusions revealed at polished surfaces show variations in modal mineralogy, mostly corresponding to their relationship with cracks. Muscovite is common both on and away from cracks, although the chemistry of muscovite inclusions shows little relationship with other potential alteration features. Inclusions filling cracks (secondary) and inclusions isolated from cracks differ in their modal mineralogy, although both suites are rich in muscovite and quartz. The higher incidence of crack-intersecting inclusions among younger zircons may reflect effects of the (generally larger) inclusion size among younger zircons. Mismatches between the isolated and crack-intersecting populations indicate selective loss of certain phases (e.g., feldspar, apatite) and over-representation of quartz and muscovite along cracks likely due to the effects of larger inclusion size and varying degrees of overpressure following zircon cooling and decompression. Inclusions not associated with cracks in magmatically zoned versus regions with disturbed zoning have similar phase proportions. This indicates only minor inclusion replacement away from cracks (i.e., the isolated assemblage is likely primary). This holds true also for inclusions within visually turbid versus clear volumes of zircon. Phase proportions within the inclusion assemblages differ with age indicating a

  14. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory

    PubMed Central

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's ‘formal Darwinism project’. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science. PMID:19805422

  15. Interrogating inclusive development in India's transition process.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Anjan; Dhar, Anup

    2012-12-01

    This paper makes two related contributions. First, the dual economic structure underlying development is shown as producing a distinct conception of other comprising of a devalued third world which is foregrounded and world of the third which is excluded. This dyad of inclusion-exclusion of other is produced in relation to the centers of capitalism and modernism. The category of third world helps to displace the language-experience-logic-ethos of the other a la world of the third such that development works over and transforms world of the third, but via the trope of a devalued third world. We then use this framework to explore the relation of global capitalism with world of the third in the Indian context, a relation that is shown to be two fold. There is on one hand an attempt to dismantle world of the third as part of the development trope of overcoming the third world. On the other, through inclusive development, an attempt is made to directly intervene in the economy of world of the third so as to address the problems of income inequality and social exclusion, again under the trope of uplifting the devalued third world.

  16. Inclusion as an Instructional Approach: Fostering Inclusive Writing Communities in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Preschool students with disabilities engage in social interaction with peers less often than children developing typically in inclusive classrooms. This research explores how divergent theories of literacy learning, those inherent in the structure of special education and those promoted by scholars interested in emergent literacy learning, impact…

  17. Moving toward Inclusion: Inclusion Coaches' Reflections and Discussions in Supporting Educators in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodarczyk, Kathy Ann; Somma, Monique; Bennett, Sheila; Gallagher, Tiffany L.

    2015-01-01

    When school systems and administrations provide educators with opportunities to engage in transformative learning through reflective practice and provide opportunities to challenge their beliefs, educator pedagogy for inclusive education can be enhanced (Evans, 1997; Pyha¨lto¨ et al., 2012; Richardson, 1998). Our research examined the experiences…

  18. Taking Action toward Inclusion: Organizational Change and the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Museum Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined organizational change in science museums toward practices that are inclusive of people with disabilities. Guided by two overarching frameworks, organizational learning and the social model of disability, this study sought to answer the following: What are the contexts and processes that facilitate, sustain, or impede a science…

  19. Inclusive/Exclusive? Contradictory Perspectives on Autism and Inclusion: The Case for an Integrative Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravet, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some of the tensions that frequently arise in debates about inclusion and the education of children and young people on the autism spectrum. This debate is often characterised by bipolar thinking and moral posturing, and is obscured by misunderstandings and omissions. This can create confusion for practitioners trying their…

  20. Valuing Student Teachers' Perspectives: Researching Inclusively in Inclusive Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black-Hawkins, Kristine; Amrhein, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how engaging with the principles of inclusive research can enhance research studies that set out to understand the experiences of student teachers on initial teacher education programmes. It does so by describing the methodological development of an on-going study of student teachers' perspectives on working with diverse…