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Sample records for acid-induced abdominal writhing

  1. Assessment of the antinociceptive effects of pregabalin alone or in combination with morphine during acetic acid-induced writhing in mice.

    PubMed

    Shamsi Meymandi, Manzumeh; Keyhanfar, Fariborz

    2013-09-01

    Visceral pain currently represents one of the most important pain treatment challenges in clinical practice, and investigators across the world are continuously designing and conducting numerous studies in search of new analgesics and new combination therapies. The current study assessed the analgesic effects of saline, pregabalin (2, 5, 17, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (0.25, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) alone or in combination on acetic-acid induced abdominal contractions in mice. The number of writhes and the inhibitory effects (as percentages, %E) were calculated as antinociception indexes. These indexes indicated that both pregabalin (Prg) and morphine (Mrp) produced dose-dependent antinociception. Pregabalin at 5 mg/kg (%E=32.5±4.0) or 2 mg/kg (%E=20.8±4.5) and morphine at 0.25 mg/kg (%E=20.2±7.8) and 0.5 mg/kg (%E=43.6±4.5) exhibited antinociceptive effects, and the combination of pregabalin and morphine produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects (%E=62.4±5.8 for Prg5+Mrp0.25; %E=71.7±4.8 for Prg5+Mrp0.5; and %E=54.1±4.0 for Prg2+Mrp0.25), although this enhancement was not observed when morphine was combined with 17 mg/kg pregabalin. Pre-treatment with 2 mg/kg (i.p.) naloxone did not affect increased analgesia when combined with these drugs. A dose-response curve was established for pregabalin at a fixed morphine dose and revealed that, at low doses, pregabalin dose-dependently enhanced the antinociceptive effects, while the opposite was true at high doses (17 and 25 mg/kg). In conclusion, pregabalin can produce levels of antinociception that are similar to those of morphine in acetic acid-induced viscero-somatic pain. The enhancement of antinociception produced by the co-administration of morphine and pregabalin is termed a supra-additive interaction and occurred at low doses but not at high doses. These findings militate for increased attention and caution in clinical settings.

  2. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Parasar, Devraj; Sagar, Amin; Choudhary, Vikas; Chopra, Bhupinder Singh; Garg, Renu; Ashish; Khatri, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg)] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histo-pathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model. PMID:26426535

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Pyeongwisan on LPS-Stimulated Murine Macrophages and Mouse Models of Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing Response and Xylene-Induced Ear Edema

    PubMed Central

    Oh, You-Chang; Jeong, Yun Hee; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ha, Jeong-Ho; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Pyeongwisan (PW) is an herbal medication used in traditional East Asian medicine to treat anorexia, abdominal distension, borborygmus and diarrhea caused by gastric catarrh, atony and dilatation. However, its effects on inflammation-related diseases are unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of PW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in macrophages and on local inflammation in vivo. We investigated the biological effects of PW on the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines and related products as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, we evaluated the analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the inhibitory activity on xylene-induced ear edema in mice. PW showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In addition, PW strongly suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a NO synthesis enzyme, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and inhibited NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation. Also, PW suppressed TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophage cells. Furthermore, PW showed an analgesic effect on the writhing response and an inhibitory effect on mice ear edema. We demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects and inhibitory mechanism in macrophages as well as inhibitory activity of PW in vivo for the first time. Our results suggest the potential value of PW as an inflammatory therapeutic agent developed from a natural substance. PMID:25569097

  4. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of pyeongwisan on LPS-stimulated murine macrophages and mouse models of acetic acid-induced writhing response and xylene-induced ear edema.

    PubMed

    Oh, You-Chang; Jeong, Yun Hee; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ha, Jeong-Ho; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-06

    Pyeongwisan (PW) is an herbal medication used in traditional East Asian medicine to treat anorexia, abdominal distension, borborygmus and diarrhea caused by gastric catarrh, atony and dilatation. However, its effects on inflammation-related diseases are unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of PW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in macrophages and on local inflammation in vivo. We investigated the biological effects of PW on the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines and related products as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, we evaluated the analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the inhibitory activity on xylene-induced ear edema in mice. PW showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In addition, PW strongly suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a NO synthesis enzyme, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and inhibited NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation. Also, PW suppressed TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophage cells. Furthermore, PW showed an analgesic effect on the writhing response and an inhibitory effect on mice ear edema. We demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects and inhibitory mechanism in macrophages as well as inhibitory activity of PW in vivo for the first time. Our results suggest the potential value of PW as an inflammatory therapeutic agent developed from a natural substance.

  5. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates acute inflammatory and nociceptive symptoms in gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing.

  6. Viscous Nonlinear Dynamics of Twist and Writhe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.; Powers, Thomas R.; Wiggins, Chris H.

    1998-06-01

    Exploiting the ``natural'' frame of space curves, we formulate an intrinsic dynamics of a twisted elastic filament in a viscous fluid. Coupled nonlinear equations describing the temporal evolution of the filament's complex curvature and twist density capture the dynamic interplay of twist and writhe. These equations are used to illustrate a remarkable nonlinear phenomenon: geometric untwisting of open filaments, whereby twisting strains relax through a transient writhing instability without axial rotation. Experimentally observed writhing motions of fibers of the bacterium B. subtilis [N. H. Mendelson et al., J. Bacteriol. 177, 7060 (1995)] may be examples of this untwisting process.

  7. The Writhe of Helical Structures in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toeroek, T.; Berger, M. A.; Kliem, B.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Helicity is a fundamental property of magnetic fields, conserved in ideal MHD. In flux rope topology, it consists of twist and writhe helicity. Despite the common occurrence of helical structures in the solar atmosphere, little is known about how their shape relates to the writhe, which fraction of helicity is contained in writhe, and how much helicity is exchanged between twist and writhe when they erupt. Aims. Here we perform a quantitative investigation of these questions relevant for coronal flux ropes. Methods. The decomposition of the writhe of a curve into local and nonlocal components greatly facilitates its computation. We use it to study the relation between writhe and projected S shape of helical curves and to measure writhe and twist in numerical simulations of flux rope instabilities. The results are discussed with regard to filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Results. (1) We demonstrate that the relation between writhe and projected S shape is not unique in principle, but that the ambiguity does not affect low-lying structures, thus supporting the established empirical rule which associates stable forward (reverse) S shaped structures low in the corona with positive (negative) helicity. (2) Kink-unstable erupting flux ropes are found to transform a far smaller fraction of their twist helicity into writhe helicity than often assumed. (3) Confined flux rope eruptions tend to show stronger writhe at low heights than ejective eruptions (CMEs). This argues against suggestions that the writhing facilitates the rise of the rope through the overlying field. (4) Erupting filaments which are S shaped already before the eruption and keep the sign of their axis writhe (which is expected if field of one chirality dominates the source volume of the eruption), must reverse their S shape in the course of the rise. Implications for the occurrence of the helical kink instability in such events are discussed.

  8. Twisting and Writhing with George Ellery Hale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    2013-06-01

    Early in his productive career in astronomy, George Ellery Hale developed innovative solar instrumentation that allowed him to make narrow-band images. Among the solar phenomena he discovered were sunspot vortices, which he attributed to storms akin to cyclones in our own atmosphere. Using the concept of magnetic helicity, physicists and mathematicians describe the topology of magnetic fields, including twisting and writhing. Our contemporary understanding of Hale's vortices as a consequence of large-scale twist in sunspot magnetic fields hinges on a key property of helicity: conservation. I will describe the critical role that this property plays, when applied to twist and writhe, in a fundamental aspect of global solar magnetism: the hemispheric and solar cycle dependences of active region electric currents with respect to magnetic fields. With the advent of unbroken sequences of high-resolution magnetic images, such as those presently available from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on Solar Dynamics Observatory, the flux of magnetic helicity through the photosphere can be observed quantitatively. As magnetic flux tubes buoy up through the convection zone, buffeted and shredded by turbulence, they break up into fragments by repeated random bifurcation. We track these rising flux fragments in the photosphere, and calculate the flux of energy and magnetic helicity there. Using a quantitative model of coronal currents, we also track connections between these fragments to calculate the energy and magnetic helicity stored at topological interfaces that are in some ways analogous to the storage of stress at faults in the Earth's crust. Comparison of these values to solar flares and interplanetary coronal mass ejections implies that this is the primary storage mechanism for energy and magnetic helicity released in those phenomena, and suggests a useful tool for quantitative prediction of geomagnetic storms.

  9. The extended polar writhe: a tool for open curves mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Christopher B.; Neukirch, Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    A measure of the writhing of a curve is introduced and is used to extend the Călugăreanu decomposition for closed curves, as well as the polar decomposition for curves bound between planes. The new writhe measure is also shown to be able to assess changes in linking due to belt-trick and knotting type deformations, and further its utility is illustrated on examples taken from elastic rod parameter-continuation studies. Finally C++ and mathematica codes are made available and shown to be faster than existing algorithms for the numerical computation of the writhe.

  10. The Writhe of Helical Structures in the Solar Corona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-23

    2010 The writhe of helical structures in the solar corona T. Török1,2, M. A. Berger2,3, and B. Kliem2,4,5 1 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC...2009; accepted ... ABSTRACT Context. Helicity is a fundamental property of magnetic fields, conserved in ideal MHD. In flux rope topology, it consists of...twist and writhe helicity . Despite the common occurrence of helical structures in the solar atmosphere, little is known about how their shape relates

  11. Conservation of writhe helicity under anti-parallel reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laing, Christian E.; Ricca, Renzo L.; Sumners, De Witt L.

    2015-03-01

    Reconnection is a fundamental event in many areas of science, from the interaction of vortices in classical and quantum fluids, and magnetic flux tubes in magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics, to the recombination in polymer physics and DNA biology. By using fundamental results in topological fluid mechanics, the helicity of a flux tube can be calculated in terms of writhe and twist contributions. Here we show that the writhe is conserved under anti-parallel reconnection. Hence, for a pair of interacting flux tubes of equal flux, if the twist of the reconnected tube is the sum of the original twists of the interacting tubes, then helicity is conserved during reconnection. Thus, any deviation from helicity conservation is entirely due to the intrinsic twist inserted or deleted locally at the reconnection site. This result has important implications for helicity and energy considerations in various physical contexts.

  12. Torsional Buckling and Writhing Dynamics of Elastic Cables and DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, S; Perkins, N C; Lee, C L

    2003-02-14

    Marine cables under low tension and torsion on the sea floor can undergo a dynamic buckling process during which torsional strain energy is converted to bending strain energy. The resulting three-dimensional cable geometries can be highly contorted and include loops and tangles. Similar geometries are known to exist for supercoiled DNA and these also arise from the conversion of torsional strain energy to bending strain energy or, kinematically, a conversion of twist to writhe. A dynamic form of Kirchhoff rod theory is presented herein that captures these nonlinear dynamic processes. The resulting theory is discretized using the generalized-method for finite differencing in both space and time. The important kinematics of cross-section rotation are described using an incremental rotation ''vector'' as opposed to traditional Euler angles or Euler parameters. Numerical solutions are presented for an example system of a cable subjected to increasing twist at one end. The solutions show the dynamic evolution of the cable from an initially straight element, through a buckled element in the approximate form of a helix, and through the dynamic collapse of this helix through a looped form.

  13. Thermodynamics of the first transition in writhe of a small circular DNA by Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Gebe, J A; Schurr, J M

    1996-04-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are employed to investigate the thermodynamics of the first transition in writhe of a circular model filament corresponding to a 468 base-pair DNA. Parameters employed in these simulations are the torsional rigidity, C = 2.0 x 10(-19) dyne cm2, and persistence length, P = 500 A. Intersubunit interactions are modeled by a screened Coulomb potential. For a straight line of subunits this accurately approximates the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann potential of a cylinder with the linear charge density of DNA. Curves of relative free energy vs writhe at fixed linking difference (delta l) exhibit two minima, one corresponding to slightly writhed circles and one to slightly underwrithed figure-8's, whenever delta l lies in the transition region. The free energies of the two minima are equal when delta lc = 1.35, which defines the midpoint of the transition. At this midpoint, the free energy barrier between the two minima is found to be delta Gbar = (0.20) kBT at 298 K. Curves of mean potential energy vs writhe at fixed linking difference similarly exhibit two minima for delta l values in the transition region, and the two minimum mean potential energies are equal when delta l = 1.50. At the midpoint writhe, delta lc = 1.35, the difference in mean potential energy between the minimum free energy figure-8 and circle states is (1.3) kBT, and the difference in their entropies is 1.3 kB. Thus, the entropy of the minimum free energy figure-8 state significantly exceeds that of the circle at the midpoint of the transition. The first transition in writhe is found to occur over a rather broad range of delta l values from 0.85 to 1.85. The twist energy parameter (ET), which governs the overall free energy of supercoiling, undergoes a sigmoidal decrease, while the translational diffusion coefficient undergoes a sigmoidal increase, over this same range. The static structure factor exhibits an increase, which reflects a decrease in radius of gyration associated

  14. Comparison of molecular contours for measuring writhe in atomistic supercoiled DNA.

    PubMed

    Sutthibutpong, Thana; Harris, Sarah A; Noy, Agnes

    2015-06-09

    DNA molecular center-lines designed from atomistic-resolution structures are compared for the evaluation of the writhe in supercoiled DNA using molecular dynamics simulations of two sets of minicircles with 260 and 336 base pairs. We present a new method called WrLINE that systematically filters out local (i.e., subhelical turn) irregularities using a sliding-window averaged over a single DNA turn and that provides a measure of DNA writhe that is suitable for comparing atomistic resolution data with those obtained from measurements of the global molecular shape. In contrast, the contour traced by the base-pair origins defined by the 3DNA program largely overestimates writhe due to the helical periodicity of DNA. Nonetheless, this local modulation of the molecular axis emerges as an internal mechanism for the DNA to confront superhelical stress, where the adjustment between low and high twist is coupled to a high and low local periodicity, respectively, mimicking the different base-stacking conformational space of A and B canonical DNA forms.

  15. The linking number and the writhe of uniform random walks and polygons in confined spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, E.; Millett, K. C.; Lambropoulou, S.

    2010-01-01

    Random walks and polygons are used to model polymers. In this paper we consider the extension of the writhe, self-linking number and linking number to open chains. We then study the average writhe, self-linking and linking number of random walks and polygons over the space of configurations as a function of their length. We show that the mean squared linking number, the mean squared writhe and the mean squared self-linking number of oriented uniform random walks or polygons of length n, in a convex confined space, are of the form O(n2). Moreover, for a fixed simple closed curve in a convex confined space, we prove that the mean absolute value of the linking number between this curve and a uniform random walk or polygon of n edges is of the form O(\\sqrt{n}) . Our numerical studies confirm those results. They also indicate that the mean absolute linking number between any two oriented uniform random walks or polygons, of n edges each, is of the form O(n). Equilateral random walks and polygons are used to model polymers in θ-conditions. We use numerical simulations to investigate how the self-linking and linking number of equilateral random walks scale with their length.

  16. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) – inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing – administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion – but not saccharin preference – in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference – but not in locomotion – was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be

  17. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice.

    PubMed

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) - inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing - administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion - but not saccharin preference - in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference - but not in locomotion - was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be used as a more

  18. Analgesic properties of Epilobium angustifolium, evaluated by the hot plate test and the writhing test.

    PubMed

    Tita, B; Abdel-Haq, H; Vitalone, A; Mazzanti, G; Saso, L

    2001-01-01

    The analgesic properties of Epilobium angustifolium (Ea), a plant containing flavonoids with anti-inflammatory activity, have not been sufficiently studied so far. Thus, we decided to evaluate, by the classical hot plate test and the writhing test, the analgesic effect of a dry extract of Ea obtained by evaporating a commercially available mother tincture. In the former assay, the effect of Ea (380 mg/kg) was slightly lower than that of morphine (10 mg/kg s.c.). In the writhing test, which is more sensitive for non-steroidal analgesics, the effect of Ea was already significant (P < 0.05) at 95 mg/kg while at doses > or = 190 mg/kg, its activity was similar to that of lysine acetylsalicylate (300 mg/kg). The LD50 of this dry extract of Ea was 1.4+/-0.1 g/kg. Further studies are necessary for the identification of the active principles and the elucidation of their mechanism of action.

  19. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney - blood and urine flow Abdominal ultrasound References Chen L. Abdominal ultrasound imaging. In: Sahani DV, Samir ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...

  20. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    ... tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap Images Digestive system Peritoneal sample References Garcia-Tiso G. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  1. Milnacipran is active in models of irritable bowel syndrome and abdominal visceral pain in rodents.

    PubMed

    Depoortère, Ronan; Meleine, Mathieu; Bardin, Laurent; Aliaga, Monique; Muller, Emilie; Ardid, Denis; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2011-12-15

    The role of antidepressants in the treatment of visceral pain has not been extensively examined. Milnacipran, a serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been approved in the USA for fibromyalgia, a chronic pathology characterized by diffused/chronic musculoskeletal pain, and a high prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome. Here, we determined its antinociceptive efficacy in two visceral pain tests in rodents: the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice and the butyrate/colonic distension assay in rats, a model of irritable bowel syndrome. Acute milnacipran (5-40 mg/kgi.p.) significantly and dose-dependently reduced writhing (72.2 ± 3.2 versus 17.0 ± 4.1 writhes at 40 mg/kg). Following repeated administration (40 m/kgi.p. for 5 days), milnacipran preserved its ability to significantly reduce writhing (76 ± 8.3 versus 21.1 ± 6.7 writhes). Similarly, in the butyrate model, acute milnacipran (17.5 and 35 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly and dose-dependently increased cramps induction thresholds (from 45.7 ± 5.7 to 66.3 ± 4.8 and 75.6 ± 2.9 mm Hg, for 17.5 and 35 mg/kg, respectively) and reduced the number of cramps (from 3.0 ± 0.8 to 1.2 ± 0.8 and 0.3 ± 0.3 following inflation of an intra-rectal balloon. To summarise, milnacipran was efficacious in the writhing test, after acute and semi-chronic administration. This effect was confirmed after acute administration in a more specific model of colonic hypersensitivity induced by butyrate. This suggests that milnacipran has potential clinical application in the treatment of visceral pain, such as in irritable bowel syndrome, highly co-morbid with fibromyalgia.

  2. Dynamics of Bacillus subtilis helical macrofiber morphogenesis: writhing, folding, close packing, and contraction.

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, N H

    1982-01-01

    Helical Bacillus subtilis macrofibers are highly ordered structures consisting of individual cells packed in a geometry remarkably similar to that found in helically twisted yarns (G. A. Carnaby, in J. W. S. Hearle et al., ed., The Mechanics of Flexible Fibre Assemblies, p. 99-112, 1980; N. H. Mendelson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:2478-2482, 1978). The growth and formation of macrofibers were studied with time-lapse microscopy methods. The basic growth mode consisted of fiber elongation, folding, and the helical wrapping together of the folded portion into a tight helical fiber. This sequence was reiterated at both ends of the structure, resulting in terminal loops. Macrofiber growth was accompanied by the helical turning of the structure along its long axis. Right-handed structures turned clockwise and left-handed ones turned counterclockwise when viewed along the length of a fiber looking toward a loop end. Helical turning forced the individual cellular filaments into a close-packing arrangement during growth. Tension was evident within the structures and they writhed as they elongated. Tension was relieved by folding, which occurred when writhing became so violent that the structure touched itself, forming a loop. When the multistranded structure produced by repeated folding cycles became too rigid for additional folding, the morphogenesis of a ball-like structure began. The dynamics of helical macrofiber formation was interpreted in terms of stress-strain deformations. In view of the similarities between macrofiber structures and those found in multifilament yarns and cables, the physics of helical macrofiber structure and also growth may be suitable for analysis developed in these fields concerning the mechanics of flexible fiber assemblies (C. P. Buckley; J. W. S. Hearle; and J. J. Thwaites, in J. W. S. Hearle et al., ed., The Mechanics of Flexible Fibre Assemblies, p. 1-97, 1980). Images PMID:6806245

  3. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... call your doctor. In Spanish— Dolor abdominal en niños menores de 12 años What is recurrent abdominal ... Functional abdominal pain (FAP) typically affects kids ages 4-12, and is quite common, affecting up to ...

  4. [Abdominal paracentesis].

    PubMed

    Glauser, Frédéric; Barras, Anne-Catherine; Pache, Isabelle; Monti, Matteo

    2008-10-29

    Abdominal paracentesis is frequently performed in the clinical setting. Every newly developed ascites need to be investigated by abdominal paracentesis. Any clinical or biological deterioration in patients with chronic ascites also requires a new paracentesis. Therapeutically abdominal paracentesis is performed for refractory or symptomatic ascites. As other invasive procedures, it is critical to master its indications, contra-indications and complications. The aim of this article is to review the basics of abdominal paracentesis in order to help physicians to carry out this technical skill.

  5. Chiral symmetry breaking of a double-stranded helical chain through bend-writhe coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanao, Tomohiro; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores asymmetric elasticity of a double-stranded helical chain, which serves as a minimal model of biopolymers. The model consists of two elastic chains that mutually intertwine in a right-handed manner, forming a double-stranded helix. A simple numerical experiment for structural relaxation, which reduces the total elastic energy of the model monotonically without thermal fluctuations, reveals possible asymmetric elasticity inherent in the helical chain. It is first shown that a short segment of the double-stranded helical chain has a tendency to unwind when it is bent. It is also shown that a short segment of the helical chain has a tendency to writhe in the left direction upon bending. This tendency gives rise to a propensity for a longer segment of the chain to form a left-handed superhelix spontaneously upon bending. Finally, this propensity of the helical chain to form a left-handed superhelix is proposed to be a possible origin of the uniform left-handed wrapping of DNA around nucleosome core particles in nature. The results presented here could provide deeper insights into the roles and significance of helical chirality of biopolymers.

  6. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  7. [Abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Gschossmann, J M; Holtmann, G; Netzer, P; Essig, M; Balsiger, B M; Scheurer, U

    2005-10-01

    Abdominal pain can result from a variety of different intra- and extra-abdominal disorders. Given the wide variety of etiological triggers for this pain, the primary task during the first stage of the diagnostic work-up is to determine as soon as possible the underlying cause and the degree of emergency. The aim of this evaluation is to adapt the therapeutic measures which are necessary for a causal treatment to the individual situation. Contrary to somatic causes of abdominal pain, the availability of such a causal therapy for functional bowel disorders is still very limited. Given this dilemma, the therapeutic focus of abdominal pain associated with these functional syndromes has to be placed on symptom-oriented treatment.

  8. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  9. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  10. OBSERVATIONS FROM SDO, HINODE, AND STEREO OF A TWISTING AND WRITHING START TO A SOLAR-FILAMENT-ERUPTION CASCADE

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Hara, Hirohisa E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.gov

    2012-12-10

    We analyze data from SDO (AIA, HMI), Hinode (SOT, XRT, EIS), and STEREO (EUVI) of a solar eruption sequence of 2011 June 1 near 16:00 UT, with an emphasis on the early evolution toward eruption. Ultimately, the sequence consisted of three emission bursts and two filament ejections. SDO/AIA 304 A images show absorbing-material strands initially in close proximity which over {approx}20 minutes form a twisted structure, presumably a flux rope with {approx}10{sup 29} erg of free energy that triggers the resulting evolution. A jump in the filament/flux rope's displacement (average velocity {approx}20 km s{sup -1}) and the first burst of emission accompanies the flux-rope formation. After {approx}20 more minutes, the flux rope/filament kinks and writhes, followed by a semi-steady state where the flux rope/filament rises at ({approx}5 km s{sup -1}) for {approx}10 minutes. Then the writhed flux rope/filament again becomes MHD unstable and violently erupts, along with rapid (50 km s{sup -1}) ejection of the filament and the second burst of emission. That ejection removed a field that had been restraining a second filament, which subsequently erupts as the second filament ejection accompanied by the third (final) burst of emission. Magnetograms from SDO/HMI and Hinode/SOT, and other data, reveal several possible causes for initiating the flux-rope-building reconnection, but we are not able to say which is dominant. Our observations are consistent with magnetic reconnection initiating the first burst and the flux-rope formation, with MHD processes initiating the further dynamics. Both filament ejections are consistent with the standard model for solar eruptions.

  11. Antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin type A on experimental abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Drinovac, Višnja; Bach-Rojecky, Lidija; Babić, Ana; Lacković, Zdravko

    2014-12-15

    Visceral pain, especially in the abdominal region, represents one of the most common types of pain. Its chronic form is usually very hard to treat by conventional analgesic agents and adjuvants. We investigated the antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in male Wistar rats in two models of visceral pain: peritonitis induced by intraperitoneal injection of 1% acetic acid and colitis induced by intracolonic instillation of 0.1% capsaicin. Pain was measured as the number of abdominal writhes. Additionally, referred mechanical sensitivity in the ventral abdominal area was evaluated by von Frey test and the extent of spinal c-Fos expression was immunohistochemically examined. BTX-A significantly reduced the number of abdominal writhes in both models of visceral pain after intrathecal application in a dose of 2 U/kg. In the experimental colitis model, BTX-A (2 U/kg) reduced both referred mechanical allodynia and c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (S2/S3 segments). In contrast to intrathecal administration, BTX-A (2 U/kg) administered into the cisterna magna had no effect on pain suggesting that the primary site of its action is a spinal cord.

  12. Abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9926119

  13. Observations from Hinode and SDO of a Twisting and Writhing Start to a Solar-filament-eruption Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Hara, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Active region eruption of 1 June 2011. Ejective eruption. GOES class C4.1 flare. SDO/AIA, various filters (94, 131, 171, 193, 211, 304, 335 Ang.) High time cadence (24 s) and high spatial resolution (0 .6 pixels). SDO/HMI line-of-sight magnetograms. Hinode observed the onset, and the later decay phase. There are two filament eruptions (filament 1 and filament 2). Filament 1 has slow rise with steps, as in several previous cases. GOES "episodes" play role of "microflares" in other events; that is, filament jumps <=> intensity peaks. Episode 1 brightening: Accompanied by filament 1 s initial motions. (Rest of talk.) Filament 1 becomes unstable, and.. Episode 2 brightening: Flare ribbons following filament 1 s fast liftoff. This destabilizes neighboring filament 2, and... Episode 3 brightening: Flare ribbons of whole system following filament 2 s eruption.Something leads to reconnection; not totally clear what. Reconnection -> twisted flux rope in approx.20 min; episode 1 microflare (flare ribbons; TC) and filament jump. Twist -> writhe, via kink instability; filament-trajectory plateau, approx. 20 min. Writhe -> jump and eruption of filament 1, via instability; episode 2 microflare (flare ribbons; TC). (E.g., Williams et al.) First eruption -> second filament eruption (episode 3 flare ribbons; TC). (E.g., Sterling, Moore; Liu et al.; Torok et al.; Schrijver & Title.). Estimate amount of free energy in newly-twisted field (cf. Moore 1988): where we have taken L and r = 50, 3 arcsec. Energy of the total system is likely 1030 ergs or more. So "no" is answer to question. Additional energy comes from remainder of sheared large loop, shear (free energy) of second filament, etc. (Normally assumed situation.) Some history of twist-induced instability in filament eruptions: e.g., Sakurai, Torok & Kliem, Fan & Gibson, Gilbert et al., van Driel-Gesztelyi et al. Criterion : Kink instability for line-tied tube (Hood & Priest): 2.5pi; for Titov & Demoulin loop (Torok et al

  14. Ge-Gen Decoction attenuates oxytocin-induced uterine contraction and writhing response: potential application in primary dysmenorrhea therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Chai, Cheng-Zhi; Yue, Xin-Yi; Yan, Yan; Kou, Jun-Ping; Cao, Zheng-Yu; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2016-02-01

    The uterine tetanic contraction and uterine artery blood flow reduction are possible reasons for primary dysmenorrhea (PD). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the uterine relaxant effect and the influence on uterine artery blood velocity of Ge-Gen Decoction (GGD), a well-known Chinese herbal formula. In female ICR mice, uterine contraction was induced by oxytocin exposure following estradiol benzoate pretreatment, and the uterine artery blood velocity was detected by Doppler ultrasound. Histopathological examination of the uterine tissue samples were performed by H&E staining. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that oxytocin, posterior pituitary, or acetylcholine induced contractions in isolated mouse uterus. GGD inhibited both spontaneous and stimulated contractions. In vivo study demonstrated that GGD significantly reduced oxytocin-induced writhing responses with a maximal inhibition of 87%. Further study demonstrated that GGD normalized oxytocin-induced abnormalities of prostaglandins F2 alpha (PGF2α) and Ca(2+) in mice. In addition, injection of oxytocin induced a decrease in uterine artery blood flow velocity. Pretreatment with GGD reversed the oxytocin response on blood flow velocity. Histopathological examination showed pretreatment with GGD alleviated inflammation and edema in the uterus when compared with the model group. Both ex vivo and in vivo results indicated that GGD possessed a significant spasmolytic effect on uterine tetanic contraction as well as improvement on uterine artery blood velocity which may involve PGF2α and Ca(2+) signaling, suggesting that GGD may have a clinic potential in PD therapy.

  15. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...

  17. Hypochlorous and peracetic acid induced oxidation of dairy proteins.

    PubMed

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Aedo, Philip Roger; Ling, Shen Yan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-09

    Hypochlorous and peracetic acids, both known disinfectants in the food industry, were compared for their oxidative capacity toward dairy proteins. Whey proteins and caseins were oxidized under well controlled conditions at pH 8 as a function of the sanitizing concentration. Different markers for protein oxidation were monitored. The results established that the protein carbonyl content was a rather unspecific marker for protein oxidation, which did not allow one to differentiate the oxidant used especially at the lower concentrations. Cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine were proven to be the most vulnerable amino acids for degradation upon hypochlorous and peracetic acid treatment, while tyrosine was only prone to degradation in the presence of hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid induced oxidation gave rise to protein aggregation, while during peracetic acid induced oxidation, no high molecular weight aggregates were observed. Protein aggregation upon hypochlorous acid oxidation could primarily be linked to tryptophan and tyrosine degradation.

  18. Protective Mechanisms of Nitrone Antioxidants in Kanic Acid Induced Neurodegeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    L., Hong, J.S. (1996) Expression of) FosB in the rat hippocampus and striatum after systemic administration of kainic acid. Neurosci. Abstr. 22...gene expression in the hippocampus . Immunohistochemical methods and electromobility gel shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrate the concerted activation of...acid-induced neurodegenerative diseases. The major focus will be on the pathophysiological changes in the hippocampus . Special attention will be given

  19. Manifold-Splitting Regularization, Self-Linking Twisting, Writhing Numbers of Space-Time Ribbons and POLYAKOV’S Proof of Fermi-Bose Transmutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tze, Chia-Hsiung

    We present an alternative formulation of Polyakov’s regularization of Gauss’ integral formula for a single closed Feynman path. A key element in his proof of the D=3 fermi-bose transmutations induced by topological gauge fields, this regularization is linked here with the existence and properties of a nontrivial topological invariant for a closed space ribbon. This self-linking coefficient, an integer, is the sum of two differential characteristics of the ribbon, its twisting and writhing numbers. These invariants form the basis for a physical interpretation of our regularization. Their connection to Polyakov’s spinorization is discussed. We further generalize our construction to the self-linking, twisting and writhing of higher dimensional d=n (odd) submanifolds in D=(2n+1) space-time. Our comprehensive analysis intends to supplement Polyakov’s work as it identifies a natural path to its higher dimensional mathematical and physical generalizations. Combining the theorems of White on self-linking of manifolds and of Adams on nontrivial Hopf fibre bundles and the four composition-division algebras, we argue that besides Polyakov’s case where (d, D)=(1, 3) tied to complex numbers, the potentially interesting extensions are two chiral models with (d, D)=(3, 7) and (7, 15) uniquely linked to quaternions and octonions. In Memoriam Richard P. Feynman

  20. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  1. Valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma and unrecognised portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Carrapatoso, Leonor; Ferreira, Fátima; Basilio, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is a rare and potentially fatal complication of valproic acid treatment. The clinical presentation of hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is wide and includes seizures and coma. We present a case of hyperammonaemic coma precipitated by sodium valproate use for symptomatic epilepsy in a patient with unrecognised portosystemic shunt, secondary to earlier alcoholism. The absence of any stigmata of chronic liver disease and laboratory markers of liver dysfunction delayed the recognition of this alcohol-related complication. The portal vein bypass led to a refractory, valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma. The patient fully recovered after dialysis treatment.

  2. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  3. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancer Infection of the tubes (salpingitis) Ectopic pregnancy Fibroid tumors of the uterus (womb) Malignant tumors of the uterus or cervix Endometriosis Adhesions (scars) Screening and Diagnosis How is the cause of abdominal pain determined? ...

  4. [The abdominal catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christian A

    2011-08-01

    Patients with an abdominal catastrophe are in urgent need of early, interdisciplinary medical help. The treatment plan should be based on medical priorities and clear leadership. First priority should be given to achieve optimal oxygenation of blood and stabilization of circulation during all treatment-phases. The sicker the patient, the less invasive the (surgical) treatment should to be, which means "damage control only". This short article describes 7 important, pragmatic rules that will help to increase the survival of a patient with an abdominal catastrophe. Preexisting morbidity and risk factors must be included in the overall risk-evaluation for every therapeutic intervention. The challenge in patients with an abdominal catastrophe is to carefully balance the therapeutic stress and the existing resistance of the individual patient. The best way to avoid abdominal disaster, however, is its prevention.

  5. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  6. Acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    1998-01-01

    Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  8. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the results of abdominoplasty. Many feel a new sense of self-confidence. Alternative Names Cosmetic surgery of the abdomen; Tummy tuck; Abdominoplasty Images Abdominoplasty - series Abdominal muscles References McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend ...

  9. Abdominal involvement in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Edward G; Georgiades, Christos S; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-10-01

    Rising incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), especially in immunocompromised hosts and patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, has resulted in an increase of unusual clinical and radiographic presentations of TB. With CT being a common part of emergency room (ER) evaluation of abdominal pain, it is imperative that radiologists be able to recognize abdominal presentations of TB. We discuss and illustrate typical and less common CT manifestations of tuberculosis in the abdomen to help ER radiologists in this task.

  10. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Savarese, R P; Rosenfeld, J C; DeLaurentis, D A

    1986-05-01

    Between January 1976 and December 1982, 181 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated surgically, and in 13 patients the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (IAAA) share important characteristics with typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms. Diagnosis and surgical management of IAAA are distinctive which suggests that IAAA should be considered separately, as a varient of typical abdominal aortic aneurysms. IAAA occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are often idiosyncratic and include severe abdominal or back pain, or both, and ureteral obstruction; the diagnosis of IAAA should be considered when these symptoms are present. Although grossly and microscopically, the perianeurysmal fibrosis resembles idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, the two conditions can be differentiated. At the present time, ultrasonography and computed tomography appear to offer reliable means for diagnosing IAAA. The presence of IAAA, whether established preoperatively or discovered unexpectedly at operation, necessitate certain modifications in the surgical approach, in order to avoid injuring the duodenum and the venous structures. Most patients can be successfully treated by resection and graft replacement. Rupture of the aneurysm in IAAA appears to be less frequent than in typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  11. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  12. [Sunitinib and zoledronic acid induced osteonecrosis of the jaw].

    PubMed

    Soós, Balázs; Vajta, László; Szalma, József

    2015-11-15

    The tendency for bisphosphonate and non-bisphosphonate (eg.: antiresorptive or anti-angiogenesis drugs) induced osteonecrosis is increasing. Treatment of these patients is a challenge both for dentists and for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Cooperation with the drug prescribing general medicine colleagues to prevent osteonecrosis is extremely important. Furthermore, prevention should include dental focus elimination, oral hygienic instructions and education, dental follow-up and, in case of manifest necrosis, referral to maxillofacial departments. Authors outline the difficulties of conservative and surgical treatment of a patient with sunitinib and zoledronic acid induced osteonecrosis. The patient became symptomless and the operated area healed entirely six and twelve months postoperatively. A long term success further follow-up is necessary to verify long-term success.

  13. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  14. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Y; Kyogoku, M

    1994-08-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a distinct clinicopathological entity, characterized by: (1) clinical presentation, such as back pain, weight loss, and increased ESR, (2) patchy and/or diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and (3) marked periaortic fibrosis resulting in thickening of the aneurysmal wall and occasional retroperitoneal fibrosis. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but some authors support the theory that IAAA is a subtype of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm because of close relationship between IAAA and atherosclerotic change. In this article, we describe clinical and histological features of IAAA on the basis of the literature and our review of 6 cases of IAAA, emphasizing the similarity and difference between IAAA and atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our review supports that marked lamellar fibrosis completely replacing the media and adventitia, patchy lymphocytic infiltration (mostly B cells) and endarteritis obliterans are characteristic features of IAAA.

  15. [Abdominal actinomycosis with IUD].

    PubMed

    Kamprath, S; Merker, A; Kühne-Heid, R; Schneider, A

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 54 year old woman using an intrauterine device for a period of 8 years. The most important finding was a tuboovarialabscess at the left pelvic side with involvement of the serosa of the jejunum, ileum, sigma, and omentum majus. Intraoperative exploration showed a solid retroperitoneal infiltration between the pelvic side wall and sigma. Another infiltration was found on the left side of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and the patient was treated by a combination of Aminopenicillin and Metronidazol. After a period of three months we observed a complete regression of the clinical and the MRI findings.

  16. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  17. Oleic acid-induced mucosal injury in developing piglet intestine.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, O R; Henninger, K; Fowler, M; Tso, P; Crissinger, K D

    1993-03-01

    A role for luminal nutrients, in particular products of lipid digestion, in the pathogenesis of mucosal injury to developing intestine has been postulated. We evaluated changes in mucosal permeability and light and electron microscopic histology induced by luminal perfusion with the long-chain fatty acid oleate in developing piglet intestine as a function of age and concentration of the fatty acid. 51Cr-labeled EDTA plasma-to-lumen clearance was measured in jejunum and ileum of 1-day-, 3-day-, 2-wk-, and 1-mo-old piglets during sequential perfusion with saline control (20 min); 0, 1, 5, and 10 mM oleic acid/10 mM taurocholate in saline (20 min); and normal saline (60 min). The jejunum of piglets < or = 2 wk showed significantly greater increases in mucosal permeability compared with 1-mo-old animals after perfusion with oleic acid. This effect was dependent on the luminal concentration of the fatty acid and was associated with mucosal injury evident under light and electron microscopy. In contrast, the overall response in ileum was more attenuated compared with jejunum. Thus oleic acid, a common dietary fatty acid, induces dose- and age-dependent injury in developing piglet intestine. Investigation of the mechanisms of this injury may provide the basis for dietary modifications directed at decreasing the risk of mucosal injury during enteral feeding in neonatal intestine.

  18. Unsaturated fatty acids induce non-canonical autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Niso-Santano, Mireia; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Pietrocola, Federico; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Mariño, Guillermo; Cianfanelli, Valentina; Ben-Younès, Amena; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Markaki, Maria; Sica, Valentina; Izzo, Valentina; Chaba, Kariman; Bauvy, Chantal; Dupont, Nicolas; Kepp, Oliver; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Wolinski, Heimo; Madeo, Frank; Lavandero, Sergio; Codogno, Patrice; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Cecconi, Francesco; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-01-01

    To obtain mechanistic insights into the cross talk between lipolysis and autophagy, two key metabolic responses to starvation, we screened the autophagy-inducing potential of a panel of fatty acids in human cancer cells. Both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitate and oleate, respectively, triggered autophagy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms differed. Oleate, but not palmitate, stimulated an autophagic response that required an intact Golgi apparatus. Conversely, autophagy triggered by palmitate, but not oleate, required AMPK, PKR and JNK1 and involved the activation of the BECN1/PIK3C3 lipid kinase complex. Accordingly, the downregulation of BECN1 and PIK3C3 abolished palmitate-induced, but not oleate-induced, autophagy in human cancer cells. Moreover, Becn1+/− mice as well as yeast cells and nematodes lacking the ortholog of human BECN1 mounted an autophagic response to oleate, but not palmitate. Thus, unsaturated fatty acids induce a non-canonical, phylogenetically conserved, autophagic response that in mammalian cells relies on the Golgi apparatus. PMID:25586377

  19. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van 't Hof, Wim; Bikker, Floris J; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; Sotres, Javier; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for agents that protect the enamel against erosive attacks. In the present study we studied in vitro the anti-erosive effects of a number of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases, which form the backbone of sphingolipids. Pretreatment of HAp discs with sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), PHS phosphate and sphinganine significantly protected these against acid-induced demineralization by 80 ± 17%, 78 ± 17%, 78 ± 7% and 81 ± 8%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand, sphingomyelin, acetyl PHS, octanoyl PHS and stearoyl PHS had no anti-erosive effects. Atomic force measurement revealed that HAp discs treated with PHS were almost completely and homogeneously covered by patches of PHS. This suggests that PHS and other sphingoid bases form layers on the surface of HAp, which act as diffusion barriers against H(+) ions. In principle, these anti-erosive properties make PHS and related sphingosines promising and attractive candidates as ingredients in oral care products.

  20. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  1. Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...

  2. [Myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Janů, F

    2016-01-01

    A number of benign and malignant tumors may develop in the abdominal cavity. Sarcomas are rather rare tumors of the abdominal cavity. They are often diagnosed at advanced growth stages as their local growth can cause clinical problems to the patients. The author presents a case report of myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity.Key words: myxofibrosarcoma.

  3. Acid-induced unfolding mechanism of recombinant human endostatin.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Wu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Qianjie; Luo, Yongzhang

    2004-03-09

    Endostatin is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor. The structure of endostatin is unique in that its secondary structure is mainly irregular loops and beta-sheets and contains only a small fraction of alpha-helices with two pairs of disulfide bonds in a nested pattern. We choose human endostatin as a model system to study the folding mechanism of this kind. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), tryptophan emission fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) were used to monitor the unfolding process of endostatin upon acid titration. Urea-induced unfolding was used to measure the stability of endostatin under different conditions. Our results show that endostatin is very acid-resistant; some native structure still remains even at pH 2 as evidenced by (1)H NMR. Trifluoroethanol (TFE) destabilizes native endostatin, while it makes endostatin even more acid-resistant in the low pH region. Stability measurement of endostatin suggests that endostatin is still in native structure at pH 3.5 despite the decreased stability. Acid-induced unfolding of endostatin is reversible, although it requires a long time to reach equilibrium below pH 3. Surprisingly, the alpha-helical content of endostatin is increased when it is unfolded at pH 1.6, and the alpha-helical content of the polypeptide chain of unfolded endostatin increases linearly with TFE concentration in the range of 0-30%. This observation indicates that the polypeptide chain of unfolded endostatin has an intrinsic alpha-helical propensity. Our discoveries may provide clues for refolding endostatin more efficiently. The acid-resistance property of endostatin may have biological significance in that it cannot be easily digested by proteases in an acidic environment such as in a lysosome in the cell.

  4. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  5. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    PubMed Central

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50–75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4–6% and an output of 750–1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61±0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57±0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  6. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  7. [Abdominal catastrophe--surgeon's view].

    PubMed

    Vyhnánek, F

    2010-07-01

    Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates.

  8. Abdominal SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

  9. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  10. Functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, P; Aziz, Q

    2005-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued. PMID:15998821

  11. High dose of ascorbic acid induces cell death in mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Yukitoshi; Satoh, Motohiko; Satoh, Kiyotoshi; Hamada, Hironobu; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Shunichiro

    2010-04-02

    Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos-related fatal disease with no effective cure. Recently, high dose of ascorbate in cancer treatment has been reexamined. We studied whether high dose of ascorbic acid induced cell death of four human mesothelioma cell lines. High dose of ascorbic acid induced cell death of all mesothelioma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. We further clarified the cell killing mechanism that ascorbic acid induced reactive oxygen species and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential. In vivo experiment, intravenous administration of ascorbic acid significantly decreased the growth rate of mesothelioma tumor inoculated in mice. These data suggest that ascorbic acid may have benefits for patients with mesothelioma.

  12. Abdominal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chaeyoun; Youn, Joong Kee; Han, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric patients has been steadily increasing in recent years. However, its use for diagnosing and treating abdominal tumors in children is still limited compared with adults, especially when malignancy is a matter of debate. Here, we describe the experience at our center with pediatric abdominal tumors to show the safety and feasibility of MIS. Based on a retrospective review of patient records, we selected for study those pediatric patients who had undergone diagnostic exploration or curative resection for abdominal tumors at a single center from January 2010 through August 2015. Diagnostic exploration for abdominal tumors was performed in 32 cases and curative resection in 173 cases (205 operations). MIS was performed in 11 cases of diagnostic exploration (34.4%) and 38 cases of curative resection (21.9%). The mean age of the children who underwent MIS was 6.09 ± 5.2 years. With regard to diagnostic exploration, patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were found to be similar for MIS and open surgery. With regard to curative resection, however, the mean age was significantly lower among the patients who underwent open surgery (4.21 ± 4.20 vs 6.02 ± 4.99 for MIS, P = 0.047), and the proportion of malignancies was significantly higher (80% vs 39.4% for MIS, P < 0.001). MIS compared favorably with open surgery with respect to the rate of recurrence (6.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.035), the rate of intraoperative transfusions (34.2% vs 58.5%, P = 0.01), the median amount of blood transfused (14 vs 22 mL/kg, P = 0.001), and the mean number of hospital days (4.66 ± 2.36 vs 7.21 ± 5.09, P < 0.001). Complication rates did not differ significantly between the MIS and open surgery groups. The operation was converted to open surgery in 3 cases (27.2%) of diagnostic MIS and in 5 cases (13.1%) of curative MIS. MIS was found to be both feasible and effective for the

  13. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  14. Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  15. Recurrent pneumothorax following abdominal paracentesis.

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    A 62 year old man presented with abdominal ascites, without pleural effusion, due to peritoneal mesothelioma. He had chronic obstructive airways disease and a past history of right upper lobectomy for tuberculosis. On two occasions abdominal paracentesis was followed within 72 hours by pneumothorax. This previously unreported complication of abdominal paracentesis may be due to increased diaphragmatic excursion following the procedure and should be considered in patients with preexisting lung disease. PMID:2385561

  16. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5

  17. Abdominal pregnancy- a case report.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ii; Ude, Ac; Aderibigbe, Aso; Amu, Oc; Udeh, Pe; Obianyo, Nen; Ani, Coc

    2011-01-01

    A case of abdominal pregnancy in a 39 year old female gravida 4, para 0(+3) is presented. Ultrasonography revealed a viable abdominal pregnancy at 15 weeks gestational age. She was initially managed conservatively. Surgical intervention became necessary at 20 weeks gestational age following Ultrasound detection of foetal demise. The maternal outcome was favourable. This case is presented to highlight the dilemma associated with diagnosis and management of abdominal pregnancy with a review of literature.

  18. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Siebenmann, R; Schneider, K; von Segesser, L; Turina, M

    1988-06-11

    348 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm were reviewed for typical features of inflammatory aneurysm (IAAA) (marked thickening of aneurysm wall, retroperitoneal fibrosis and rigid adherence of adjacent structures). IAAA was present in 15 cases (14 male, 1 female). When compared with patients who had ordinary aneurysms, significantly more patients complained of back or abdominal pain (p less than 0.01). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was highly elevated. Diagnosis was established in 7 of 10 computed tomographies. 2 patients underwent emergency repair for ruptured aneurysm. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was present in 4 cases and bilateral in 1. Repair of IAAA was performed by a modified technique. Histological examination revealed thickening of the aortic wall, mainly of the adventitial layer, infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. One 71-year-old patient operated on for rupture of IAAA died early, and another 78-year-old patient after 5 1/2 months. Control computed tomographies revealed spontaneous regression of inflammatory infiltration after repair. Equally, hydronephrosis due to ureteral obstruction could be shown to disappear or at least to decrease. IAAA can be diagnosed by computed tomography with high sensitivity. Repair involves low risk, but modification of technique is necessary. The etiology of IAAA remains unclear.

  19. Fertility after abdominal myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G; Doyle, M; Barrett, T; Byrne, P; De Mello, M; Harrison, R F

    2000-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the morbidity and pregnancy outcome of myomectomy in infertile women with uterine fibroids. This was a cross-sectional study. Records were reviewed for 100 consecutive women in the Rotunda Hospital who underwent myomectomy in the years 1995-1996. A questionnaire regarding subsequent fertility was sent. The study was carried out in the infertility unit at the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Seventy-five women responded. Multiple myomectomy was performed in 52 (70%). Mean fibroid size was 6.8 cm (range 2-14.5 cm). Nine women (12%) developed complications; five had menstrual problems, two had wound discomfort and two had abdominal discomfort. Twenty-five women (33%) became pregnant. Seven (28%) were IVF pregnancies. Overall six (24%) miscarried. In 19 of 25, pregnancy occurred where fibroids were the only identifiable cause of infertility. We conclude that abdominal myomectomy is associated with a favourable outcome in infertile women particularly if no other confounding variable is present.

  20. [Intra-abdominal mycoses].

    PubMed

    Boos, C; Kujath, P; Bruch, H-P

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of invasive mycoses in patients undergoing abdominal surgery amounts to approximately 8% and shows an upward trend in epidemiological studies. The lethality of these systemic mycoses, which are mostly based on Candida infections constitutes up to 60%. The development of a sytemic mycosis is marked by exogenic, endogenic and iatrogenic risk factors and typically displays tissue invasion after an initial fungal contamination or systemic dissemination via fungal sepsis. Fungal peritonitis is generally a monoinfection with Candida spp., where Candida albicans outweighs in 70% of cases. Aspergillus spp. are only detected abdominally in rare cases. The histological verification of a fungal invasion is regarded as proof of the existence of an invasive mycosis, but typical macroscopic findings with corresponding cultural findings can also confirm the diagnosis. Systemic mycosis requires an early initiation of a consistent antimycotic therapy as well as definitive surgical eradication of the focus in order to reduce high lethal rate. Resistances or incorrect dosages can be validated objectively by means of histological monitoring of the antimycotic therapy, thus affording early recognition of the need to change the substance class.

  1. [Abdominal approaches and drainages of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Hagel, C; Schilling, M

    2006-04-01

    Appropriate access to the abdominal cavity is the first and crucial step for successful abdominal surgical intervention. In planning the incision, several variables have to be considered, such as anatomy of the abdominal wall, localization of the target organ, and individual conditions (previous incisions, minimal access surgery, etc). Medial laparotomy is the preferred incision for emergency cases and ill-defined pathologies, allowing access and hence exploration to all quadrants. Transverse laparotomies give superior access to the dorsal and right aspects of the liver and cause less pain in patients unfit for regional anesthetic procedures. Draining of the abdominal cavity is used after various resective and reconstructive procedures, but there is little evidence for its use in a number of operations such as gastric, hepatic, and colorectal resections. Advantages and disadvantages of different abdominal wall incisions and drainages are discussed.

  2. Tranexamic acid induces kaolin intake stimulating a pathway involving tachykinin neurokinin 1 receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Hitoshi; Kawarai-Shimamura, Asako; Kuwagata, Makiko; Orito, Kensuke

    2014-01-15

    Tranexamic acid suppresses post-partum haemorrhage and idiopathic menorrhagia through its anti-fibrinolytic action. Although it is clinically useful, it is associated with high risks of side effects such as emesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying tranexamic acid-induced emesis is very important to explore appropriate anti-emetic drugs for the prevention and/or suppression of emesis. In this study, we examined the receptors involved in tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats, which reflects the drug's clinical emetogenic potential in humans. Further, we examined the brain regions activated by administration of tranexamic acid and elucidated pivotal pathways of tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. We examined the effects of ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist, domperidone, a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, and aprepitant, a tachykinin neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, on tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats. Then, we determined the brain regions that showed increased numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Finally, we examined the effects of an antagonist(s) that reduced tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake on the increase in c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Aprepitant significantly decreased tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. However, neither ondansetron nor domperidone decreased kaolin intake. Tranexamic acid significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactive cells by approximately 5.5-fold and 22-fold in the area postrema and nucleus of solitary tract, respectively. Aprepitant decreased the number of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in both areas. Tranexamic acid induced kaolin intake possibly via stimulation of tachykinin NK1 receptors in rats. The tachykinin NK1 receptor could be targeted to prevent and/or suppress emesis in patients receiving tranexamic acid.

  3. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  4. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  5. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  6. A bizarre abdominal cystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Giorgia; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Ricci, Claudio; Casadei, Riccardo; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-09-06

    In spite of careful intraoperative precautions and gauze counts, mistakes can still occur during surgery. In the case reported, a retained gauze leaved during a surgical approach for removing a solid-cystic papillary tumor localized in the pancreatic tail, caused both persistent abdominal discomfort and the presence of an abdominal cystic lesion at imaging techniques. When a previous operative history is present, a foreign body should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an intra-abdominal cystic mass. Finally, radio-opaque marker should be routinely used by surgeons in order to reach a correct diagnosis in operated patients having retained gauze.

  7. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  8. [Penetrating abdominal injuries].

    PubMed

    Nesbakken, A; Pillgram-Larsen, J; Naess, F; Gerner, T; Solheim, K; Stadaas, J O; Gjøra, O

    1990-02-28

    We have reviewed the medical records of 111 patients treated for abdominal stab wounds during the period 1980-87. Our two hospitals serve a catchment area of about 450,000 people. Exploratory laparotomy was performed in 89 patients with suspected peritoneal penetration. In 16 patients the laparotomy was negative, and in 15 patients only minor injuries were noted. There were no serious complications in these 31 patients. Twenty-seven patients had thoracic wounds below the fourth intercostal space, 15 with intraabdominal injuries. The most common injuries were lacerations of the liver, the small bowel and the diaphragm. The mortality in the series was 2%. Stab wounds are infrequent in Norway, and most surgeons have limited experience of such injuries. We discuss whether to employ immediate exploratory laparotomy or selective management when the peritoneum has been penetrated. When there is no evidence of evisceration or omental protrusion, local exploration of the wound should be performed in order to confirm or exclude peritoneal penetration. Injury to the diaphragm and intraabdominal viscera should always be suspected in thoracic stab wounds below the fourth intercostal space.

  9. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer.

  10. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  12. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  13. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...70%); 13 for other compli- ations, such as biliary or perineal conditions (26%); and 4 or feeding access (8%). For the civilians, 2 had trauma

  14. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  15. Visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography due to abdominal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Bhatia, Anmol; Malik, Sarthak; Singh, Navjeet; Rana, Surinder S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Scalloping of visceral organs is described in pseudomyxoma peritonei, malignant ascites, among other conditions, but not tuberculosis. Methods: We report findings from a retrospective study of patients with abdominal tuberculosis who had visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was made on the basis of combination of clinical, biochemical, radiological and microbiological criteria. The clinical data, hematological and biochemical parameters, and findings of chest X-ray, CT, Mantoux test, and HIV serology were recorded. Results: Of 72 patients with abdominal tuberculosis whose CT scans were included, seven patients had visceral scalloping. The mean age of these patients was 32.14 ± 8.43 years and four were men. While six patients had scalloping of liver, one had splenic scalloping. The patients presented with abdominal pain (all), abdominal distension (five patients), loss of weight or appetite (all), and fever (four patients). Mantoux test was positive in five, while none had HIV infection. The diagnosis was based on fluid (ascitic or collections) evaluation in four patients, ileo-cecal biopsy in one patient, fine needle aspiration from omental thickening in one patient, and sputum positivity for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in one patient. On CT examination, four patients had ascites, five had collections, one had lymphadenopathy, four had peritoneal involvement, three had pleural effusion, and two had ileo-cecal thickening. All except one patient received standard ATT for 6 months or 9 months (one patient). Pigtail drainage for collections was needed for two patients. Discussion: This report is the first description of visceral scalloping of liver and spleen in patients with abdominal tuberculosis. Previously, this finding has been reported primarily with pseudomyxoma peritonei and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Conclusion: Visceral scalloping may not conclusively distinguish peritoneal

  16. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory


    MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have demonstrated the hepatocarcinogenicity of DCA in rodents when administered in dri...

  17. [Abdominal pregnancy care. Case report].

    PubMed

    Morales Hernández, Sara; Díaz Velázquez, Mary Flor; Puello Tamara, Edgardo; Morales Hernández, Jorge; Basavilvazo Rodríguez, Maria Antonia; Cruz Cruz, Polita del Rocío; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino

    2008-10-01

    Abdominal pregnancies are the implantation of gestation in some of the abdominal structures. This kind of pregnancies represents sevenfold maternal death risk than tubarian ectopic pregnancies, and 90-fold death risk than normal ones. Previous cases have erroneously reported as abscess in Douglas punch, and frequently result in obitus or postnatal deaths. We report a case of a patient with 27 years old, and diagnosis of 25.2 weeks of pregnancy, prior placenta and anhidramnios, referred due to difficult in uterine contour delimitation, easy palpation of fetal parts, cephalic pole in left hypochondrious and presence of mass in hypogastria, no delimitations, pain with mobilization, no transvaginal bleed and fetal movements. Interruption of pregnancy is decided by virtue of severe oligohidramnios, retardation in fetal intrabdominal growth, and recurrent maternal abdominal pain. Surgical intervention was carried out for resolution of the obstetrical event, in which was found ectopic abdominal pregnancy with bed placental in right uterine horn that corresponded to a pregnancy of 30 weeks of gestation. Abdominal pregnancy is still a challenge for obstetrics due to its diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis is oriented to prevent an intrabdominal hemorrhage that is the main maternal cause of mortality.

  18. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  19. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  20. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  1. [Gallstone ileus. Abdominal CT usefulness].

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.

  2. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle

    2006-12-14

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease risk. But abdominal obesity - the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome - is a marker of 'dysfunctional adipose tissue', and is of central importance in clinical diagnosis. Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale.

  3. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  4. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil Against Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Amir; Roohi, Parnia; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ghannadi, Ali Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Iran. This study investigates the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on an acetic acid-induced colitis model in rats. Ocimum basilicum essential oil with 2 doses (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly ameliorated wet weight/length ratio of colonic tissue compared to the control group. Higher doses of essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly reduced ulcer severity, ulcer area, and ulcer index. On the other hand, histological examination revealed the diminution of total colitis index as a marker for inflammatory cell infiltration in the colonic segments of rats treated with Ocimum basilicum essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). The increased level of myeloperoxidase was significantly decreased after the treatment with the essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). These results suggest that Ocimum basilicum exhibits protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis.

  5. SCH 58261 differentially influences quinolinic acid-induced effects in striatal and in hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Popoli, Patrizia

    2002-08-30

    The influence of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-trizolo[1,5-c] pyrimidine) (50, 200 nM, 1 microM) on quinolinic acid effects has been studied in rat striatal and hippocampal slices. Quinolinic acid induced disappearance of field potentials at concentrations of 500 microM and 2 mM in hippocampal and corticostriatal slices, respectively. We found that 1 microM SCH 58261 prevented quinolinic acid-induced field potential disappearance in corticostriatal but not in hippocampal slices. This finding demonstrates that the peculiar binding profile of SCH 58261 and the predominance in the hippocampus of "atypical" adenosine A(2A) receptor population (not recognized by SCH 58261) could have a functional relevance in the occurrence of region-specific neuroprotective effects.

  6. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on butyric acid-induced epithelial cell damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takigawa, Satoko; Sugano, Naoyuki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Arai, Noriyuki; Ota, Noriko; Ito, Koichi

    2008-12-01

    Butyric acid is detected in periodontal pockets and is thought to be involved in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. We examined the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the butyric acid-induced epithelial cell damage. The human gingival carcinoma cell line Ca9-22 was cultured in medium that contained butyric acid with or without sodium bicarbonate. The viability of cells treated with sodium bicarbonate was significantly higher than that of cells treated with butyric acid alone. The effects of butyric acid on ICAM-1 expression were significantly improved by sodium bicarbonate. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, sodium bicarbonate was indicated to be a useful therapeutic agent to reduce the butyric acid-induced periodontal tissue damage.

  7. Acetic acid induces a programmed cell death process in the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Ludovico, Paula; Sansonetty, Filipe; Silva, Manuel T; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2003-03-01

    Here we show that 320-800 mM acetic acid induces in Zygosaccharomyces bailii a programmed cell death (PCD) process that is inhibited by cycloheximide, is accompanied by structural and biochemical alterations typical of apoptosis, and occurs in cells with preserved mitochondrial and plasma membrane integrity (as revealed by rhodamine 123 (Rh123) and propidium iodide (PI) staining, respectively). Mitochondrial ultrastructural changes, namely decrease of the cristae number, formation of myelinic bodies and swelling were also seen. Exposure to acetic acid above 800 mM resulted in killing by necrosis. The occurrence of an acetic acid-induced active cell death process in Z. bailii reinforces the concept of a physiological role of the PCD in the normal yeast life cycle.

  8. Acid-inducible proton influx currents in the plasma membrane of murine osteoclast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Miyuki; Li, Guangshuai; Moriura, Yoshie; Hino, Yoshiko; Kawawaki, Junko; Sakai, Hiromu

    2016-05-01

    Acidification of the resorption pits, which is essential for dissolving bone, is produced by secretion of protons through vacuolar H(+)-ATPases in the plasma membrane of bone-resorbing cells, osteoclasts. Consequently, osteoclasts face highly acidic extracellular environments, where the pH gradient across the plasma membrane could generate a force driving protons into the cells. Proton influx mechanisms during the acid exposure are largely unknown, however. In this study, we investigated extracellular-acid-inducible proton influx currents in osteoclast-like cells derived from a macrophage cell line (RAW264). Decreasing extracellular pH to <5.5 induced non-ohmic inward currents. The reversal potentials depended on the pH gradients across the membrane and were independent of concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), and HCO3 (-), suggesting that they were carried largely by protons. The acid-inducible proton influx currents were not inhibited by amiloride, a widely used blocker for cation channels/transporters, or by 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-2,2'-stilbenesulfonate(DIDS) which blocks anion channels/transporters. Additionally, the currents were not significantly affected by V-ATPase inhibitors, bafilomycin A1 and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Extracellular Ca(2+) (10 mM) did not affect the currents, but 1 mM ZnCl2 decreased the currents partially. The intracellular pH in the vicinity of the plasma membrane was dropped by the acid-inducible H(+) influx currents, which caused overshoot of the voltage-gated H(+) channels after removal of acids. The H(+) influx currents were smaller in undifferentiated, mononuclear RAW cells and were negligible in COS7 cells. These data suggest that the acid-inducible H(+) influx (H(+) leak) pathway may be an additional mechanism modifying the pH environments of osteoclasts upon exposure to strong acids.

  9. Autophagy Protects against Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Podocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xu-Shun; Chen, Xue-Mei; Wan, Jiang-Min; Gui, Hai-Bo; Ruan, Xiong-Zhong; Du, Xiao-Gang

    2017-02-22

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that is involved in the clearance of proteins and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and cell integrity. Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by dyslipidemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Podocytes, as an important component of the filtration barrier, are susceptible to lipid disorders. The loss of podocytes causes proteinuria, which is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) promoted autophagy in podocytes. We further found that PA increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in podocytes and that NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), a potent antioxidant, significantly eliminated the excessive ROS and suppressed autophagy, indicating that the increased generation of ROS was associated with the palmitic acid-induced autophagy in podocytes. Moreover, we also found that PA stimulation decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in podocytes and induced podocyte apoptosis, while the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) enhanced palmitic acid-induced apoptosis accompanied by increased ROS generation, and the stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin (Rap) remarkably suppressed palmitic acid-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Taken together, these in vitro findings suggest that PA-induced autophagy in podocytes is mediated by ROS production and that autophagy plays a protective role against PA-induced podocyte apoptosis.

  10. Protective effect of hispidulin on kainic acid-induced seizures and neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu Yu; Lu, Cheng Wei; Wang, Su Jane; Huang, Shu Kuei

    2015-05-15

    Hispidulin is a flavonoid compound which is an active ingredient in a number of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, and it has been reported to inhibit glutamate release. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hispidulin protects against seizures induced by kainic acid, a glutamate analog with excitotoxic properties. The results indicated that intraperitoneally administering hispidulin (10 or 50mg/kg) to rats 30 min before intraperitoneally injecting kainic acid (15 mg/kg) increased seizure latency and decreased seizure score. In addition, hispidulin substantially attenuated kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death, and this protective effect was accompanied by the suppression of microglial activation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus. Moreover, hispidulin reduced kainic acid-induced c-Fos expression and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the hippocampus. These data suggest that hispidulin has considerable antiepileptic, neuroprotective, and antiinflammatory effects on kainic acid-induced seizures in rats.

  11. Autophagy Protects against Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Podocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xu-shun; Chen, Xue-mei; Wan, Jiang-min; Gui, Hai-bo; Ruan, Xiong-zhong; Du, Xiao-gang

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that is involved in the clearance of proteins and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and cell integrity. Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by dyslipidemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Podocytes, as an important component of the filtration barrier, are susceptible to lipid disorders. The loss of podocytes causes proteinuria, which is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) promoted autophagy in podocytes. We further found that PA increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in podocytes and that NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), a potent antioxidant, significantly eliminated the excessive ROS and suppressed autophagy, indicating that the increased generation of ROS was associated with the palmitic acid-induced autophagy in podocytes. Moreover, we also found that PA stimulation decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in podocytes and induced podocyte apoptosis, while the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) enhanced palmitic acid-induced apoptosis accompanied by increased ROS generation, and the stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin (Rap) remarkably suppressed palmitic acid-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Taken together, these in vitro findings suggest that PA-induced autophagy in podocytes is mediated by ROS production and that autophagy plays a protective role against PA-induced podocyte apoptosis. PMID:28225005

  12. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism.

  13. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the child’s mood and emotions, and in turn cause depression and anxiety. Screening/Diagnosis Detailed information regarding the location of abdominal pain, the frequency (number of times per week) and ... about the cause, and will guide further testing. Other important pieces ...

  14. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  15. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vanhoenacker, F M; De Backer, A I; Op de, Beeck B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, A M

    2004-03-01

    This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly when pulmonary TB is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases, both clinically and radiologically. An early correct diagnosis, however, is important in order to ensure proper treatment and a favorable outcome. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of abdominal TB and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Generally, CT appears to be the imaging modality of choice in the detection and assessment of abdominal tuberculosis, other than gastrointestinal TB. Barium studies remain superior for demonstrating mucosal intestinal lesions. Ultrasound may be used for follow-up to monitor therapy response. The diagnosis of abdominal TB should be considered if suggestive imaging findings are found in patients with a high index of suspicion.

  16. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  17. Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruption with evisceration

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Ellen; Stawicki, Stanislaw PA; Bahner, David P

    2011-01-01

    Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruptions associated with evisceration are very rare. The authors describe a case of traumatic abdominal wall disruption with bowel evisceration that occurred after a middle-aged woman sustained direct focal blunt force impact to the lower abdomen. Abdominal exploration and surgical repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed, with good clinical outcome. A brief overview of literature pertinent to this rare trauma scenario is presented. PMID:22229144

  18. Studies on the antioxidant and analgesic activities of Aztec marigold (Tagetes erecta) flowers.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Samra; Gilani, Anwar H

    2008-12-01

    Commercially available Aztec marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower extract (Af.Cr) was evaluated for the in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo analgesic effect on acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing. The results revealed the presence of pronounced antioxidant potential in Aztec marigold flowers and a dose-dependent (100 and 300 mg/kg) analgesic effect. The antioxidant and analgesic activities obtained seem to be in good accordance with the medicinal uses of Aztec marigold as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic.

  19. Intra-Abdominal Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Abdominal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oguejiofor, Njideka; Al-Abayechi, Sarah; Njoku, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003). This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. A CT with contrast was done and showed a liver mass. Radiology and general surgery suspected malignancy and recommended CT guided biopsy. The sample revealed abundant neutrophils and gram positive rods. Cytology was negative for malignancy and cultures eventually grew actinomyces. High dose IV penicillin therapy was given for 4 weeks and with appropriate response transitioned to oral antibiotic for 9 months with complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:28299215

  20. A role for sodium and chloride in kainic acid-induced beading of inhibitory interneuron dendrites.

    PubMed

    Al-Noori, S; Swann, J W

    2000-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury of the dendrites of inhibitory interneurons could lead to decreases in their synaptic activation and explain subsequent local circuit hyperexcitability and epilepsy. A hallmark of dendrotoxicity, at least in principal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, is focal or varicose swellings of dendritic arbors. In experiments reported here, transient (1h) exposure of hippocampal explant cultures to kainic acid produced marked focal swellings of the dendrites of parvalbumin-immunoreactive pyramidal basket cells in a highly reproducible and dose-dependent manner. At 5mM kainic acid, more than half of the immunopositive apical dendrites in area CA(1) had a beaded appearance. However, the somal volumes of these cells were unaltered by the same treatment. The presence of focal swellings was reversible with kainate washout and was not accompanied by interneuronal cell death. In contrast, exposure to much higher concentrations (300mM) of kainic acid resulted in the total loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons from explants. Surprisingly, kainic acid-induced dendritic beading does not appear to be mediated by extracellular calcium. Beading was unaltered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, the L-type calcium channel antagonist, nimodipine, cadmium, or by removing extracellular calcium. However, blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by either tetrodotoxin or lidocaine abolished dendritic beading, while the activation of existing voltage-gated sodium channels by veratridine mimicked the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading. Finally, the removal of extracellular chloride prevented the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading.Thus, we suggest that the movement of Na(+) and Cl(-), rather than Ca(2+), into cells underlies the focal swellings of interneuron dendrites in hippocampus.

  1. Calcium Uptake via Mitochondrial Uniporter Contributes to Palmitic Acid-induced Apoptosis in Mouse Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zeting; Cao, Aili; Liu, Hua; Guo, Henjiang; Zang, Yingjun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yunman; Wang, Hao; Yin, Peihao; Peng, Wen

    2017-02-09

    Podocytes are component cells of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their loss by apoptosis is the main cause of proteinuria that leads to diabetic nephropathy (DN). Therefore, insights into podocyte apoptosis mechanism would allow a better understanding of DN pathogenesis and thus help develop adequate therapeutic strategies. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitic acid-inhibited cell death in mouse podocytes, and found that palmitic acid increased cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Palmitic acid induces apoptosis in podocytes through up-regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) , mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cytochrome c release and depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) , The intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N, N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), partially prevented this up-regulation whereas 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor; dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor (RyR) inhibitor; and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostibene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an anion exchange inhibitor, had no effect. Interestingly, ruthenium red and Ru360, both inhibitors of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), blocked palmitic acid-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol, and apoptosis. siRNA to MCU markedly reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that Ca(2+) uptake via mitochondrial uniporter contributes to palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in mouse podocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Clavulanic acid induces penile erection and yawning in male rats: comparison with apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Angioni, Laura; Argiolas, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    The beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid induced penile erection and yawning in a dose dependent manner when given intraperitoneally (IP, 0.05-5mg/kg), perorally (OS, 0.1-5mg/kg) and intracereboventricularly (ICV, 0.01-5 μg/rat) to male rats. The effect resembles that of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine given subcutaneously (SC) (0.02-0.25mg/kg), although the responses of the latter followed a U inverted dose-response curve, disappearing at doses higher than 0.1mg/kg. Clavulanic acid responses were reduced by about 55% by haloperidol, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (0.1mg/kg IP), and by d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, an oxytocin receptor antagonist (2 μg/rat ICV), both given 15 min before clavulanic acid. A higher reduction of clavulanic acid responses (more than 80%) was also found with morphine, an opioid receptor agonist (5mg/kg IP), and with mianserin, a serotonin 5HT(2c) receptor antagonist (0.2mg/kg SC). In contrast, no reduction was found with naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist (1mg/kg IP). The ability of haloperidol, d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin and morphine to reduce clavulanic acid induced penile erection and yawning suggests that clavulanic acid induces these responses, at least in part, by increasing central dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopamine in turn activates oxytocinergic neurotransmission and centrally released oxytocin induces penile erection and yawning. However, since both penile erection and yawning episodes were reduced not only by the blockade of central dopamine and oxytocin receptors and by the stimulation of opioid receptors, which inhibits oxytocinergic neurotransmission, but also by mianserin, an increase of central serotonin neurotransmission is also likely to participate in these clavulanic acid responses.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Butyric Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Fukushima, Kazuo; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite from periodontopathic bacteria, induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes, splenic T cells, and human Jurkat T cells. In this study, we examined the ability of butyric acid to induce apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on this apoptosis. Butyric acid significantly inhibited the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody- and concanavalin A-induced proliferative responses in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition of PBMC growth by butyric acid depended on apoptosis in vitro. It was characterized by internucleosomal DNA digestion and revealed by gel electrophoresis followed by a colorimetric DNA fragmentation assay to occur in a concentration-dependent fashion. Butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis was accompanied by caspase-3 protease activity but not by caspase-1 protease activity. LPS potentiated butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that LPS increased the proportion of sub-G1 cells and the number of late-stage apoptotic cells induced by butyric acid. Annexin V binding experiments with fractionated subpopulations of PBMC in flow cytometory revealed that LPS accelerated the butyric acid-induced CD3+-T-cell apoptosis followed by similar levels of both CD4+- and CD8+-T-cell apoptosis. The addition of LPS to PBMC cultures did not cause DNA fragmentation, suggesting that LPS was unable to induce PBMC apoptosis directly. These data suggest that LPS, in combination with butyric acid, potentiates CD3+ PBMC T-cell apoptosis and plays a role in the apoptotic depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. PMID:9864191

  4. The acid-induced folded state of Sac7d is the native state.

    PubMed Central

    Bedell, J. L.; McCrary, B. S.; Edmondson, S. P.; Shriver, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Sac7d unfolds at low pH in the absence of salt, with the greatest extent of unfolding obtained at pH 2. We have previously shown that the acid unfolded protein is induced to refold by decreasing the pH to 0 or by addition of salt (McCrary BS, Bedell J. Edmondson SP, Shriver JW, 1998, J Mol Biol 276:203-224). Both near-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra and ANS fluorescence enhancements indicate that the acid- and salt-induced folded states have a native fold and are not molten globular. 1H,15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR spectra confirm that the native, acid-, and salt-induced folded states are essentially identical. The most significant differences in amide 1H and 15N chemical shifts are attributed to hydrogen bonding to titrating carboxyl side chains and through-bond inductive effects. The 1H NMR chemical shifts of protons affected by ring currents in the hydrophobic core of the acid- and salt-induced folded states are identical to those observed in the native. The radius of gyration of the acid-induced folded state at pH 0 is shown to be identical to that of the native state at pH 7 by small angle X-ray scattering. We conclude that acid-induced collapse of Sac7d does not lead to a molten globule but proceeds directly to the native state. The folding of Sac7d as a function of pH and anion concentration is summarized with a phase diagram that is similar to those observed for other proteins that undergo acid-induced folding except that the A-state is encompassed by the native state. These results demonstrate that formation of a molten globule is not a general property of proteins that are refolded by acid. PMID:11106160

  5. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract.

  6. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as “copalchi” in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  7. Role of hepatocyte S6K1 in palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipotoxicity, insulin resistance and in oleic acid-induced protection.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Virginia; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Muntané, Jordi; Kozma, Sara C; Valverde, Ángela M

    2015-06-01

    The excess of saturated free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, that induces lipotoxicity in hepatocytes, has been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease also associated with insulin resistance. By contrast, oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, attenuates the effects of palmitic acid. We evaluated whether palmitic acid is directly associated with both insulin resistance and lipoapoptosis in mouse and human hepatocytes and the impact of oleic acid in the molecular mechanisms that mediate both processes. In human and mouse hepatocytes palmitic acid at a lipotoxic concentration triggered early activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related kinases, induced the apoptotic transcription factor CHOP, activated caspase 3 and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. These effects concurred with decreased IR/IRS1/Akt insulin pathway. Oleic acid suppressed the toxic effects of palmitic acid on ER stress activation, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance. Besides, oleic acid suppressed palmitic acid-induced activation of S6K1. This protection was mimicked by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of S6K1 in hepatocytes. In conclusion, this is the first study highlighting the activation of S6K1 by palmitic acid as a common and novel mechanism by which its inhibition by oleic acid prevents ER stress, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

  8. Comparative neuroprotective profile of statins in quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    A possible neuroprotective role has been recently suggested for 3H3MGCoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Here, we sought to determine neuroprotective effect of statins in quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity in rats. Rats were surgically administered quinolinic acid and treated with Atorvastatin (10, 20 mg/kg), simvastatin (15, 30 mg/kg) and fluvastatin (5, 10 mg/kg) once daily up to 3 weeks. Atorvastatin (10, 20 mg/kg), simvastatin (30 mg/kg) and fluvastatin (10 mg/kg) treatment significantly attenuated the quinolinic acid induced behavioral (locomotor activity, rotarod performance and beam walk test), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, SOD and catalase), mitochondrial enzyme complex alterations in rats suggesting their free radical scavenging potential. Additionally, atorvastatin (10, 20 mg/kg), simvastatin (30 mg/kg) and fluvastatin (10 mg/kg) significantly decrease the TNF-α level and striatal lesion volume in quinolinic acid treated animals indicating their anti-inflammatory effects. In comparing the protective effect of different statins, atorvastatin is effective at both the doses while simvastatin and fluvastatins at respective lower doses were not able to produce the protective effect in quinolinic acid treated animals. These modulations can account, at least partly, for the beneficial effect of statins in our rodent model of striatal degeneration. Our findings show that statins could be explored as possible neuroprotective agents for neurodegenerative disorders such as HD.

  9. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Konturek, Peter; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa. PMID:26798415

  10. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Konturek, Peter; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  11. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Gałązka, Krystyna; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Moreover, induction of colitis led to a reduction in colonic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Administration of ghrelin after induction of colitis led to faster regeneration of the colonic wall and reduction in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase. In addition, treatment with ghrelin improved mucosal DNA synthesis and blood flow. Our study disclosed that ghrelin exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory and healing effect in acetic acid-induced colitis. Our current observation in association with previous findings that ghrelin exhibits curative effect in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis suggest that therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the colon is universal and independent of the primary cause of colitis.

  12. Salicylic acid induces mitochondrial injury by inhibiting ferrochelatase heme biosynthesis activity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vipul; Liu, Shujie; Ando, Hideki; Ishii, Ryohei; Tateno, Shumpei; Kaneko, Yuki; Yugami, Masato; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Nureki, Osamu; Handa, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Salicylic acid is a classic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Although salicylic acid also induces mitochondrial injury, the mechanism of its antimitochondrial activity is not well understood. In this study, by using a one-step affinity purification scheme with salicylic acid-immobilized beads, ferrochelatase (FECH), a homodimeric enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis in mitochondria, was identified as a new molecular target of salicylic acid. Moreover, the cocrystal structure of the FECH-salicylic acid complex was determined. Structural and biochemical studies showed that salicylic acid binds to the dimer interface of FECH in two possible orientations and inhibits its enzymatic activity. Mutational analysis confirmed that Trp301 and Leu311, hydrophobic amino acid residues located at the dimer interface, are directly involved in salicylic acid binding. On a gel filtration column, salicylic acid caused a shift in the elution profile of FECH, indicating that its conformational change is induced by salicylic acid binding. In cultured human cells, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis, whereas salicylic acid did not exert its inhibitory effect in FECH knockdown cells. Concordantly, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis in zebrafish embryos. Strikingly, the salicylic acid-induced effect in zebrafish was partially rescued by FECH overexpression. Taken together, these findings illustrate that FECH is responsible for salicylic acid-induced inhibition of heme synthesis, which may contribute to its antimitochondrial and anti-inflammatory function. This study establishes a novel aspect of the complex pharmacological effects of salicylic acid.

  13. Deoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic bile acids induce apoptosis via oxidative stress in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ignacio Barrasa, Juan; Olmo, Nieves; Pérez-Ramos, Pablo; Santiago-Gómez, Angélica; Lecona, Emilio; Turnay, Javier; Antonia Lizarbe, M

    2011-10-01

    The continuous exposure of the colonic epithelium to high concentrations of bile acids may exert cytotoxic effects and has been related to pathogenesis of colon cancer. A better knowledge of the mechanisms by which bile acids induce toxicity is still required and may be useful for the development of new therapeutic strategies. We have studied the effect of deoxycholic acid (DCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) treatments in BCS-TC2 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Both bile acids promote cell death, being this effect higher for CDCA. Apoptosis is detected after 30 min-2 h of treatment, as observed by cell detachment, loss of membrane asymmetry, internucleosomal DNA degradation, appearance of mitochondrial transition permeability (MPT), and caspase and Bax activation. At longer treatment times, apoptosis is followed in vitro by secondary necrosis due to impaired mitochondrial activity and ATP depletion. Bile acid-induced apoptosis is a result of oxidative stress with increased ROS generation mainly by activation of plasma membrane enzymes, such as NAD(P)H oxidases and, to a lower extent, PLA2. These effects lead to a loss of mitochondrial potential and release of pro-apoptotic factors to the cytosol, which is confirmed by activation of caspase-9 and -3, but not caspase-8. This initial apoptotic steps promote cleavage of Bcl-2, allowing Bax activation and formation of additional pores in the mitochondrial membrane that amplify the apoptotic signal.

  14. Polyunsaturated Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Geranylgeranoic Acid Induces Unfolded Protein Response in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iwao, Chieko; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The acyclic diterpenoid acid geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) has been reported to induce autophagic cell death in several human hepatoma-derived cell lines; however, the molecular mechanism for this remains unknown. In the present study, several diterpenoids were examined for ability to induce XBP1 splicing and/or lipotoxicity for human hepatoma cell lines. Here we show that three groups of diterpenoids emerged: 1) GGA, 2,3-dihydro GGA and 9-cis retinoic acid induce cell death and XBP1 splicing; 2) all-trans retinoic acid induces XBP1 splicing but little cell death; and 3) phytanic acid, phytenic acid and geranylgeraniol induce neither cell death nor XBP1 splicing. GGA-induced ER stress/ unfolded protein response (UPR) and its lipotoxicity were both blocked by co-treatment with oleic acid. The blocking activity of oleic acid for GGA-induced XBP1 splicing was not attenuated by methylation of oleic acid. These findings strongly suggest that GGA at micromolar concentrations induces the so-called lipid-induced ER stress response/UPR, which is oleate-suppressive, and shows its lipotoxicity in human hepatoma cells. PMID:26186544

  15. Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-02-01

    Nucleic acids derived from viral pathogens are typical pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In mammals, the recognition of viral nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs), induces the release of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs) through the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/7 pathways, triggering the host antiviral state. However, whether nucleic acids can induce similar antiviral immunity in invertebrates remains ambiguous. Several studies have reported that nucleic acid mimics, especially dsRNA mimic poly(I:C), can strongly induce non-specific antiviral immune responses in insects, shrimp, and oyster. This behavior shows multiple similarities to the hallmarks of mammalian IFN responses. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates. We also discuss the potential recognition and regulatory mechanisms that confer non-specific antiviral immunity on invertebrate hosts.

  16. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Gałązka, Krystyna; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Moreover, induction of colitis led to a reduction in colonic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Administration of ghrelin after induction of colitis led to faster regeneration of the colonic wall and reduction in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase. In addition, treatment with ghrelin improved mucosal DNA synthesis and blood flow. Our study disclosed that ghrelin exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory and healing effect in acetic acid-induced colitis. Our current observation in association with previous findings that ghrelin exhibits curative effect in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis suggest that therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the colon is universal and independent of the primary cause of colitis. PMID:27598133

  17. Ginkgolic acids induce neuronal death and activate protein phosphatase type-2C.

    PubMed

    Ahlemeyer, B; Selke, D; Schaper, C; Klumpp, S; Krieglstein, J

    2001-10-26

    The standardized extract from Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) is used for the treatment of dementia. Because of allergenic and genotoxic effects, ginkgolic acids are restricted in EGb 761 to 5 ppm. The question arises whether ginkgolic acids also have neurotoxic effects. In the present study, ginkgolic acids caused death of cultured chick embryonic neurons in a concentration-dependent manner, in the presence and in the absence of serum. Ginkgolic acids-induced death showed features of apoptosis as we observed chromatin condensation, shrinkage of the nucleus and reduction of the damage by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, demonstrating an active type of cell death. However, DNA fragmentation detected by the terminal-transferase-mediated ddUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and caspase-3 activation, which are also considered as hallmarks of apoptosis, were not seen after treatment with 150 microM ginkgolic acids in serum-free medium, a dose which increased the percentage of neurons with chromatin condensation and shrunken nuclei to 88% compared with 25% in serum-deprived, vehicle-treated controls. This suggests that ginkgolic acid-induced death showed signs of apoptosis as well as of necrosis. Ginkgolic acids specifically increased the activity of protein phosphatase type-2C, whereas other protein phosphatases such as protein phosphatases 1A, 2A and 2B, tyrosine phosphatase, and unspecific acid- and alkaline phosphatases were inhibited or remained unchanged, suggesting protein phosphatase 2C to play a role in the neurotoxic effect mediated by ginkgolic acids.

  18. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  19. Technical aspects of abdominal stomas.

    PubMed

    Link, Brian A; Kropp, Bradley; Frimberger, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Continent urinary diversion has gained increasing popularity in the pediatric population during the last few decades. In adults, continent diversions are usually needed to replace a bladder after cystectomy for invasive carcinoma. Subsequently, the creation of functional and cosmetically hidden urinary and cecal abdominal stomas has become an integral part of many urinary reconstructive procedures. These techniques, originally developed for pediatric urinary reconstruction have gained increasing popularity for adult patients in need of a continence procedure. In the current manuscript, we review the technical aspects of site selection, mucocutaneous anastomosis, cosmetic appearance, and management of associated complications.

  20. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    K. Intra- abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of ruptured abdomi- nal aortic aneurysm repair. Am Surg 1989;55:396-402. 6. Sugrue M...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy Case Report Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After

  1. Abdominal Mass Secondary to Human Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Ghoroobi, Javad; Khoddami, Maliheh; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghian, Naser; Mahdavi, Alireza; Hatefi, Sayeh

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an extensive helminthic infection that leads to visceral larva migrans in humans. A 2.5-year-old girl referred for abdominal mass. She had history of pharyngitis for two weeks. There were no other symptoms. Abdominal examination revealed an irregular solid mass in right lower quadrant (RLQ). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an echohetrogenic large mass in RLQ, liver, and retroperitoneal area. Abdominal CT scan showed a huge mass. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal mass that involved right liver lobe, bladder, ileocecal valve, small and large intestines was found. At histopathology diagnosis of toxocariasis was made. PMID:28164001

  2. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  3. Empyema following intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, K C; Sethia, B; Reece, I J; Davidson, K G

    1984-09-01

    Over the past 9 years, ten patients have presented to the Thoracic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, with 12 empyemas secondary to intra-abdominal sepsis. In eight patients, the presenting signs and symptoms were wrongly attributed to primary intra-thoracic pathology. All were subsequently found to have intra-abdominal sepsis. The presence of empyema after recent abdominal surgery or abdominal pain strongly suggests a diagnosis of ipsilateral subphrenic abscess. Adequate surgical drainage is essential. In our experience, limited thoracotomy with subdiaphragmatic extension offers the best access to both pleural and subphrenic spaces and provides the greatest chance of eradicating infection on both sides of the diaphragm.

  4. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  5. CA3 Synaptic Silencing Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizures and Hippocampal Network Oscillations123

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lily M. Y.; Wintzer, Marie E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epilepsy is a neurological disorder defined by the presence of seizure activity, manifest both behaviorally and as abnormal activity in neuronal networks. An established model to study the disorder in rodents is the systemic injection of kainic acid, an excitatory neurotoxin that at low doses quickly induces behavioral and electrophysiological seizures. Although the CA3 region of the hippocampus has been suggested to be crucial for kainic acid-induced seizure, because of its strong expression of kainate glutamate receptors and its high degree of recurrent connectivity, the precise role of excitatory transmission in CA3 in the generation of seizure and the accompanying increase in neuronal oscillations remains largely untested. Here we use transgenic mice in which CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic transmission can be inducibly silenced in the adult to demonstrate CA3 excitatory output is required for both the generation of epileptiform oscillatory activity and the progression of behavioral seizures. PMID:27022627

  6. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rego, António; Duarte, Ana M.; Azevedo, Flávio; Sousa, Maria J.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Chaves, Susana R.

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria. PMID:28357256

  7. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic

  8. Neuroprotective effects of butterbur and rough aster against kainic Acid-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang Hee; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2005-01-01

    The separate and combined neuroprotective effects of rough aster (Aster scaber) and butterbur (Petasite japonicus) extracts against oxidative damage in the brain of mice challenged with kainic acid were examined by comparing behavioral changes and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Rough aster butanol extract (400 mg/kg) and/or butterbur butanol extract (150 or 400 mg/kg) were administered to male ICR mice, 6-8 weeks old, through a gavage for 4 days consecutively, and on day 4, kainic acid (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally. Compared with the vehicle-treated control, no significant changes in body and brain weight were observed in mice administered rough aster or butterbur butanol extract. Administration of kainic acid only, causing a lethality of approximately 54%, resulted in a significant decrease of total glutathione level and increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value in brain tissue. The administration of butterbur or rough aster extract (400 mg/kg) decreased the lethality (50%) of kainic acid to 25%, alleviated the behavioral signs of neurotoxicity, restored the cytosolic glutathione level of brain homogenate to approximately 80% (P < .05), and reduced kainic acid-induced increases in TBARS values. In contrast to no significant neuroprotection by butterbur extract at a low dose (150 mg/kg), the combination of rough aster extract and butterbur extract reduced the lethality to 12.5%. Moreover, the combination delayed the onset time of behavioral signs by twofold, and significantly preserved the level of cytosolic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. However, the other biochemical parameters were not altered significantly by the combination. Thus, the combination of two vegetable extracts significantly increased the neuroprotective action against kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. Based on these findings, the combination of butterbur extract and rough aster extract contains a functional agent or

  9. The Ayurvedic drug, Ksheerabala, ameliorates quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Swathy, S S; Indira, M

    2010-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of neurotoxicity is the induction of oxidative stress. There is hardly any cure for neurotoxicity in modern medicine, whereas many drugs in Ayurveda possess neuroprotective effects; however, there is no scientific validation for these drugs. Ksheerabala is an ayurvedic drug which is used to treat central nervous system disorders, arthritis, and insomnia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of Ksheerabala on quinolinic acid-induced toxicity in rat brain. The optimal dose of Ksheerabala was found from a dose escalation study, wherein it was found that Ksheerabala showed maximum protection against quinolinic acid-induced neurotoxicity at a dose of 15 microL/100 g body weight/day, which was selected for further experiments. Four groups of female albino rats were maintained for 21 days as follows: 1. Control group, 2. Quinolinic acid (55 microg/100 g body weight), 3. Ksheerabala (15 microL/100 g body weight), 4. Ksheerabala (15 microL/100 g body weight) + Quinolinic acid (55 microg/100 g body weight). At the end of the experimental period, levels of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and activities of scavenging enzymes were analyzed. The results revealed that quinolinic acid intake caused enhanced lipid and protein peroxidation as evidenced by increased levels of peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde, hydroperoxide, conjugated dienes, and protein carbonyls. On the other hand, the activities of scavenging enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase as well as the concentration of glutathione were reduced. On coadminstration of Ksheerabala along with quinolinic acid, the levels of all the biochemical parameters were restored to near-normal levels, indicating the protective effect of the drug. These results were reinforced by histopathological studies.

  10. Proteomic investigation into betulinic acid-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Pang, Qiuying; Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Aiqin; Luo, Shaman; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that exhibits anticancer functions in human cancer cells. This study provides evidence that betulinic acid is highly effective against the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by inducing dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic process was further investigated using a proteomics approach to reveal protein expression changes in HeLa cells following betulinic acid treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were six up- and thirty down-regulated proteins in betulinic acid-induced HeLa cells, and these proteins were then subjected to functional pathway analysis using multiple analysis software. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decarboxylating, chain A Horf6-a novel human peroxidase enzyme that involved in redox process, was found to be down-regulated during the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response pathway. Consistent with our results at the protein level, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in betulinic acid-treated cells. The proteins glucose-regulated protein and cargo-selection protein TIP47, which are involved in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, were up-regulated by betulinic acid treatment. Meanwhile, 14-3-3 family proteins, including 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε, were down-regulated in response to betulinic acid treatment, which is consistent with the decrease in expression of the target genes 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε. Furthermore, it was found that the antiapoptotic bcl-2 gene was down-regulated while the proapoptotic bax gene was up-regulated after betulinic acid treatment in HeLa cells. These results suggest that betulinic acid induces apoptosis of HeLa cells by triggering both the endoplasmic reticulum pathway and the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has long been recognized as a condition predominantly afflicting males, with sex-associated differences described for almost every aspect of the disease from pathophysiology and epidemiology to morbidity and mortality. Women are generally spared from AAA formation by the immunomodulating effects of estrogen but once they develop, the natural history of AAAs in women appears to be more aggressive, with more rapid expansion, a higher tendency to rupture at smaller diameters, and higher mortality following rupture. However, simply repairing AAA at smaller diameters in women is a debatable solution, as even elective endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is fraught with higher morbidity and mortality in women compared to men. The goal of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the effect of gender on AAA presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Additionally, we aim to review current controversies over screening recommendations and threshold for repair in women. PMID:26747679

  12. Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Howard B

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children.

  13. Evaluation of the analgesic activity of extracts of Miconia rubiginosa (Melastomataceae).

    PubMed

    Spessoto, M A; Ferreira, D S; Crotti, A E M; Silva, M L A; Cunha, W R

    2003-01-01

    The analgesic effects of the hexane, methylene chloride and ethanol extracts of Miconia rubiginosa were evaluated in mice and rats using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests. The extracts (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg body wt.) produced a significant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. These same extracts (200 mg/kg body wt.) showed a significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive effect, lower than that produced by morphine (4 mg/kg body wt.). The fractionation of the methylene chloride extract yielded ursolic and oleanoic acids as the major compounds. Using only gas chromatography, it was possible to identify the following triterpenes in the hexane extract: alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol.

  14. Twisting and Writhing with George Ellery Hale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    2013-07-01

    Early in his productive career in astronomy, George Ellery Hale developed innovative instrumentation that allowed him to image the magnetically-dominated solar chromosphere. Among the solar phenomena he discovered were sunspot vortices, which he attributed to storms akin to cyclones in our own atmosphere. Much more recently, physicists discovered a quantity that is very well conserved in ideal magnetohydrodynamics: magnetic helicity. Our contemporary understanding of Hale's vortices as a consequence of large-scale twist in sunspot magnetic fields hinges on this conservation. I will review the crucial role that this property plays in the hemispheric and solar cycle dependences of Hales vortices, as well as solar flares and CMEs.

  15. DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS OF ESTRADIOL IN THE CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMOZED/ESTRADIOL-IMPLANTED FEMALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations of Estradiol in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized / Estradiol-implanted Female Rats

    ABSTRACT
    Haloacetic acids are one of the principal classes of disinfection by-products generated by the chlorination of mun...

  16. DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS IN CIRCULATING ESTRADIOL: EFFECTS IN BOTH CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMIZED/STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RTD-03-031
    Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations in Circulating Estradiol: Effects in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized/Steroid-primed Female Rats. Reproductive Toxicology (in press).

    Abstract

    Oral exposures to high concentrations of th...

  17. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations.

  18. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  19. The prognosis of childhood abdominal migraine

    PubMed Central

    Dignan, F; Abu-Arafeh, I; Russell, G

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the clinical course of childhood abdominal migraine, seven to 10 years after the diagnosis.
METHODS—A total of 54 children with abdominal migraine were studied; 35 were identified from a population survey carried out on Aberdeen schoolchildren between 1991 and 1993, and 19 from outpatient records of children in the same age group who had attended the Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital. Controls were 54 children who did not have abdominal pain in childhood, matched for age and sex, obtained from either the population survey or the patient administration system. Main outcome measures were presence or resolution of abdominal migraine and past or present history of headache fulfilling the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for the diagnosis of migraine.
RESULTS—Abdominal migraine had resolved in 31 cases (61%). Seventy per cent of cases with abdominal migraine were either current (52%) or previous (18%) sufferers from headaches that fulfilled the IHS criteria for migraine, compared to 20% of the controls.
CONCLUSIONS—These results support the concept of abdominal migraine as a migraine prodrome, and suggest that our diagnostic criteria for the condition are robust.

 PMID:11316687

  20. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  1. Torsion of an intra-abdominal testis.

    PubMed

    Lewis; Roller; Parra; Cotlar

    2000-09-01

    To present a case of torsion of a nonneoplastic intra-abdominal testis with an unusual clinical presentation.A 26-year-old active duty Navy Petty Officer presented to the emergency department on 3 occasions over a 5-day period with lower abdominal pain. Physical examination demonstrated acute tenderness in the left lower quadrant with sugestion of a normal spermatic cord and atrophic testis in the left scrotum. Computed tomography scan demonstrated an intra-abdominal lesion near the internal inguinal ring. The patient underwent surgical exploration through an inguinal incision. Torsion of a nonviable intra-abdominal testis was present. The scrotum contained only the vas deferens and cremasteric muscle. An orchiectomy was performed with removal of the vas deferens and other cord structures.The unusual clinical finding of acute torsion of an intra-abdominal testis, associated with an apparent atrophic scrotal testis, presented a confusing clinical picture. Computed tomography scan did not clarify the issue sufficiently to establish a definite preoperative diagnosis. Clinical suspicion prompted early surgical intervention. Review of the current literature produced 60 reported cases of torsion of an intra-abdominal testis. Two thirds of these involved testicular neoplasm, usually seminoma. Although the clinical presentation varied, most patients had recent onset of lower abdominal pain associated with tenderness and, in half the cases, a mass. Patients almost always presented with an absent scrotal testis on the involved side, and not infrequently reported previous surgery thought to be an orchiectomy.Diagnosis of an intra-abdominal testicular torsion is rare, particularly when no neoplasm is present. A high index of suspicion must be maintained whenever there is abdominal pain and undescended testis. The surgical history and imaging studies may not clarify a confusing clinical picture.

  2. Advances in abdominal MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, J T

    1998-01-01

    Major technical advances in MR imaging have led to its wider use in the evaluation of abdominal disease. The principle new pulse sequence is the RARE sequence for T2-weighted imaging. Multishot and breath-hold single-shot RARE techniques are now widely used, and both have performed as well as conventional spin-echo imaging with far shorter acquisition times. The most notable improvements have been in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Two liver-specific contrast agents received FDA approval during 1997: SPIO particles or ferumoxide and mangafodipir trisodium, a hepatocyte-specific agent. Both of these agents provide considerable benefit in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Manganese enhancement has also proved useful in MR imaging of the pancreas, although fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging with dynamic gadolinium enhancement has also yielded results comparable with those of contrast-enhanced CT. MR hydrography, a generic term for static fluid imaging, is another derivative of RARE fast T2-weighted imaging. MRCP, the best known example of MR hydrography, has been rapidly and widely employed as a primary method for imaging the biliary and pancreatic ducts and has become competitive with ERCP. MR vascular imaging, especially portal venography, has been used for noninvasive imaging of portal venous disease in Budd Chiari disease, before placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, and for pancreatic cancer staging. Finally, the development of conventional phased-array body coils and endorectal coils has enabled high-quality MR imaging of perirectal disease (including Crohn disease, fistula in ano, and postpartum sphincter dysfunction). Future abdominal applications of MR imaging will involve second-generation MR interventional techniques, including use of open systems, functional or diffusion-weighted imaging exploiting the molecular activity of tissues, and virtual MR endoscopy. Although CT continues to evolve

  3. [Laparoscopic abdominal drainage by sterile destructive pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, N A; Rodoman, G V; Shalaeva, T I; Trefilova, O I; Sosikova, N L

    2009-01-01

    90 patients with acute pancreatitis were observed, in 60 of them laparoscopic drainage was performed. The procedure by sterile pancreatonecrosis is indicated only in presence of extent amount of exudate in abdominal cavity. Duration of draining the abdominal cavity should be strictly limited because of the high risk of septic complications. Contraindications for the abdominal drainage by acute necrotic pancreatitis are not only adhesions in the abdomen and shock state of the patient at the moment of procedure necessity, but also unstable hemodynamics in anamnesis and even by the arterial pressure downtrend.

  4. Soft tissue coverage in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Donald P; Butler, Charles E

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal wall defects requiring soft tissue coverage can be either partial-thickness defects or full-thickness composite defects. Soft tissue flap reconstruction offers significant advantages in defects that cannot be closed primarily. Flap reconstruction is performed in a single-stage procedure obviating chronic wound management. If the defect size exceeds the availability of local soft tissue for coverage, regional pedicled flaps can be delivered into the abdominal wall while maintaining blood supply from their donor site. Microsurgical free tissue transfer increases the capacity to provide soft tissue coverage for abdominal wall defects that are not amenable to either local or regional flap coverage.

  5. Intra-abdominal bleeding in appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Thongprayoon, C; Pasa-Arj, S

    1991-08-01

    A 34-year-old woman, gravida 6 with 10 weeks of gestation was admitted because of abdominal pain and fainting. On physical examination she had hypotension, was pale with abdominal tenderness and guarding. Culdocentesis yielded unclotted blood. Immediate laparotomy was performed, because a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was made. About 2,500 ml of fresh blood was found in the abdominal cavity. Appendicular artery tear caused active arterial bleeding. The torn appendicular artery was observed to be the consequence of perforated appendicitis, which, in turn, was caused by a faecalith. Appendectomy was performed and she made a good recovery.

  6. Laparoscopic repair of abdominal incisional hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal incisional hernia is a common complication after open abdominal operations. Laparoscopic procedures have obvious mini-invasive advantages for surgical treatment of abdominal incisional hernia, especially to cases with big hernia defect. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia has routine mode but the actual operations will be various according to the condition of every hernia. Key points of these operations include design of the position of trocars, closure of defects and fixation of meshes. The details of these issues and experiences of perioperative evaluation and treatment will be talked about in this article. PMID:27761446

  7. [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].

    PubMed

    Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.

  8. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  9. Transcriptional analysis of the acid-inducible asr gene in enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Seputiene, Vaida; Suziedelis, Kestutis; Normark, Staffan; Melefors, Ojar; Suziedeliene, Edita

    2004-09-01

    We show here that transcription of the asr gene in Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae is strongly dependent on the acidification level of the growth medium, with maximal induction at pH 4.0-4.5 as determined by Northern hybridization analysis. Previous gene array analyses have also shown that asr is the most acid-induced gene in the E. coli genome. Sequence alignment of the asr promoters from different enterobacterial species identified a highly conserved region located at position -70 to -30 relative to the asr transcriptional start site. By deletion of various segments of this region in the E. coli asr promoter it was shown that sequences upstream from the -40 position were important for induction. Transcription from the E. coli asr promoter was demonstrated to be growth-phase-dependent and to require the alternative sigma factor RpoS (sigma(S)) in stationary phase. Transcription of the asr gene was also found to be subject to negative control by the nucleoid protein H-NS.

  10. CCN1 is critical for acid-induced esophageal epithelial cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Modak, Cristina; Mouazzen, Wasim; Narvaez, Reinier; Reavis, Kevin M; Chai, Jianyuan

    2010-02-19

    CCN1 is a matricellular protein involved in both wound healing and cancer cell invasion. Increased CCN1 expression has been associated with the development of Barrett's esophagus and the increased risk of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. In both cases, acid reflux is a major contributor. Low pH has been shown to induce CCN1 gene expression in esophageal epithelial cells. Here we demonstrated that both CCN1 and low pH could cause esophageal epithelial cell transformation, including loss of E-cadherin, disruption of cell-cell junctions, and expression of mesenchymal markers. Furthermore, knockdown of CCN1 through RNA interference sufficiently attenuated acid-driven cell phenotypic changes, while over-expression of CCN1 exacerbated these effects, indicating a critical role of CCN1 in acid-induced esophageal epithelial cell transformation. Given the pivotal role of low pH in gastro-esophageal reflux disease and its progression towards esophageal adenocarcinoma, our study identified CCN1 as a key molecule mediating this process.

  11. Acid-induced gelation behavior of casein/whey protein solutions assessed by oscillatory rheology.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahboubeh; Madadlou, Ashkan; Khosrowshahi, Asghar; Mohammadifar, Mohammadamin

    2014-09-01

    Gelation process of acid-induced casein gels was studied using response surface method (RSM). Ratio of casein to whey proteins, incubation and heating temperatures were independent variables. Final storage modulus (G') measured 200 min after the addition of glucono-δ-lactone and the gelation time i.e. the time at which G' of gels became greater than 1 Pa were the parameters studied. Incubation temperature strongly affected both parameters. The higher the incubation temperature, the lower was the G' and the shorter the gelation time. Increased heating temperature however, increased the G' but again shortened the gelation time. Increase in G' was attributed to the formation of disulphide cross-linkages between denatured whey proteins and casein chains; whilst the latter was legitimized by considering the higher isoelectric pH of whey proteins. Maximum response (G' = 268.93 Pa) was obtained at 2.7 % w/w, 25 °C and 90 °C for casein content, incubation and heating temperatures, respectively.

  12. Folic acid induces salicylic acid-dependent immunity in Arabidopsis and enhances susceptibility to Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Finni; Kanawati, Basem; Wenig, Marion; Hoffmann, Thomas; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Schwab, Wilfried; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Vlot, A Corina

    2015-08-01

    Folates are essential for one-carbon transfer reactions in all organisms and contribute, for example, to de novo DNA synthesis. Here, we detected the folate precursors 7,8-dihydropteroate (DHP) and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) in extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana plants by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. The accumulation of DHP, but not ADC, was induced after infection of plants with Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. Application of folic acid or the DHP precursor 7,8-dihydroneopterin (DHN) enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis to P. syringae and elevated the transcript accumulation of the salicylic acid (SA) marker gene pathogenesis-related1 in both the treated and systemic untreated leaves. DHN- and folic acid-induced systemic resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signalling. Similar to SA, folic acid application locally enhanced Arabidopsis susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Together, the data associate the folic acid pathway with innate immunity in Arabidopsis, simultaneously activating local and systemic SA-dependent resistance to P. syringae and suppressing local resistance to A. brassicicola.

  13. Acupuncture suppresses kainic acid-induced neuronal death and inflammatory events in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Tae; Doo, Ah-Reum; Kim, Seung-Nam; Kim, Song-Yi; Kim, Yoon Young; Kim, Jang-Hyun; Lee, Hyejung; Yin, Chang Shik; Park, Hi-Joon

    2012-09-01

    The administration of kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and produces neurodegeneration in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells. The present study investigated a possible role of acupuncture in reducing hippocampal cell death and inflammatory events, using a mouse model of kainic acid-induced epilepsy. Male C57BL/6 mice received acupuncture treatments at acupoint HT8 or in the tail area bilaterally once a day for 2 days and again immediately after an intraperitoneal injection of KA (30 mg/kg). HT8 is located on the palmar surface of the forelimbs, between the fourth and fifth metacarpal bones. Twenty-four hours after the KA injection, neuronal cell survival, the activations of microglia and astrocytes, and mRNA expression of two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were measured in the hippocampus. Acupuncture stimulation at HT8, but not in the tail area, significantly reduced the KA-induced seizure, neuron death, microglial and astrocyte activations, and IL-1β mRNA expression in the hippocampus. The acupuncture stimulation also decreased the mRNA expression of TNF-α, but it was not significant. These results indicate that acupuncture at HT8 can inhibit hippocampal cell death and suppress KA-induced inflammatory events, suggesting a possible role for acupuncture in the treatment of epilepsy.

  14. Ethanol promotes saturated fatty acid-induced hepatoxicity through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hong-Wei; Ma, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Wang, Cui-Fen; Lu, Jian; Cao, Wei; Wu, Xu-Dong

    2015-04-01

    Serum palmitic acid (PA), a type of saturated fatty acid, causes lipid accumulation and induces toxicity in hepatocytes. Ethanol (EtOH) is metabolized by the liver and induces hepatic injury and inflammation. Herein, we analyzed the effects of EtOH on PA-induced lipotoxicity in the liver. Our results indicated that EtOH aggravated PA-induced apoptosis and lipid accumulation in primary rat hepatocytes in dose-dependent manner. EtOH intensified PA-caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in vitro and in vivo, and the expressions of CHOP, ATF4, and XBP-1 in nucleus were significantly increased. EtOH also increased PA-caused cleaved caspase-3 in cytoplasm. In wild type and CHOP(-/-) mice treated with EtOH and high fat diet (HFD), EtOH worsened the HFD-induced liver injury and dyslipidemia, while CHOP knockout blocked toxic effects of EtOH and PA. Our study suggested that targeting UPR-signaling pathways is a promising, novel approach to reducing EtOH and saturated fatty acid-induced metabolic complications.

  15. The saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, induces anxiety-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Morgan L.; Joesting, Jennifer J.; Lawson, Marcus A.; Chiu, Gabriel S.; Blevins, Neil A.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Excess fat in the diet can impact neuropsychiatric functions by negatively affecting cognition, mood and anxiety. We sought to show that the free fatty acid (FFA), palmitic acid, can cause adverse biobehaviors in mice that lasts beyond an acute elevation in plasma FFAs. Methods Mice were administered palmitic acid or vehicle as a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Biobehaviors were profiled 2 and 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Quantification of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and their major metabolites was performed in cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. FFA concentration was determined in plasma. Relative fold change in mRNA expression of unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes was determined in brain regions. Results In a dose-dependent fashion, palmitic acid rapidly reduced mouse locomotor activity by a mechanism that did not rely on TLR4, MyD88, IL-1, IL-6 or TNFα but was dependent on fatty acid chain length. Twenty-four hrs after palmitic acid administration mice exhibited anxiety-like behavior without impairment in locomotion, food intake, depressive-like behavior or spatial memory. Additionally, the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA was increased by 33% in the amygdala 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Conclusions Palmitic acid induces anxiety-like behavior in mice while increasing amygdala-based serotonin metabolism. These effects occur at a time point when plasma FFA levels are no longer elevated. PMID:25016520

  16. Palmitoleic acid induces the cardiac mitochondrial membrane permeability transition despite the presence of L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Oyanagi, Eri; Uchida, Masataka; Miyakawa, Takeshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Yamaguchi, Hidetaka; Nagami, Kuniatsu; Utsumi, Kozo; Yano, Hiromi

    Although palmitoleic acid (C16:1) is associated with arrhythmias, and increases in an age-dependent matter, the effects of L-carnitine, which is essential for the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, are unclear. It has been postulated that L-carnitine may attenuate palmitate (C16:0)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the activity of L-carnitine in the prevention of the palmitoleic acid-induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition and cytochrome c release using isolated cardiac mitochondria from rats. Palmitoleoyl-CoA-induced mitochondrial respiration was not accelerated by L-carnitine treatment, and this respiration was slightly inhibited by oligomycin, which is an inhibitor of ATP synthase. Despite pretreatment with L-carnitine, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased and mitochondrial swelling was induced by palmitoleoyl-CoA. In the presence of a combination of L-carnitine and tiron, a free radical scavenger, there was attenuated mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release following palmitoleoyl-CoA treatment. We concluded that palmitoleic acid, but not palmitate, induces the cardiac mitochondrial membrane permeability transition despite the presence of L-carnitine.

  17. Bile acid induced colonic irritation stimulates intracolonic nitric oxide release in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Casellas, F; Mourelle, M; Papo, M; Guarner, F; Antolin, M; Armengol, J R; Malagelada, J R

    1996-01-01

    AIM--To measure the intracolonic release of nitric oxide end products (nitrates plus nitrites) and eicosanoids in response to intraluminal irritation with deoxycholic acid (DCA). PATIENTS--Seven patients with irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS--The left colon was perfused with a solution with or without 3 mM deoxycholic acid. Aspirates were assayed for eicosanoids by specific radioimmuno-assay, and for nitrates plus nitrites by the Griess reaction. To confirm that stimulated colonic mucosa can produce nitric oxide (NO), ancillary studies were performed in vitro using samples of normal mucosa obtained from five surgically resected colons. Samples were incubated for 30 minutes in Kreb's solution, 3 mM DCA or DCA with 1 mM L-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME) to inhibit the NO synthase. Finally, NO synthase activity was measured in five samples of human colonic mucosa. RESULTS--Intracolonic release of nitrates plus nitrites was basally undetectable in six of seven patients. Bile acid considerably increased the release of prostaglandin E2 and nitrates plus nitrites (p < 0.01). By contrast, no increase in thromboxane and leukotriene was seen. In vitro mucosal incubation with DCA increased the production of NO synthase products, which was blocked by L-NAME. Activity of Ca+2 independent NO synthase was detectable in four of five samples of human colonic mucosa. CONCLUSION--The human colonic mucosa responds to bile acid induced irritation by a surge in NO generation via NO synthase. PMID:8707118

  18. Saturated phosphatidic acids mediate saturated fatty acid-induced vascular calcification and lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Masashi; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Keenan, Audrey L; Okamura, Kayo; Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel; Offermanns, Stefan; Ntambi, James M; Kuro-O, Makoto; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2015-10-26

    Recent evidence indicates that saturated fatty acid-induced (SFA-induced) lipotoxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie SFA-induced lipotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we have shown that repression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzymes, which regulate the intracellular balance of SFAs and unsaturated FAs, and the subsequent accumulation of SFAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), are characteristic events in the development of vascular calcification. We evaluated whether SMC-specific inhibition of SCD and the resulting SFA accumulation plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification and generated mice with SMC-specific deletion of both Scd1 and Scd2. Mice lacking both SCD1 and SCD2 in SMCs displayed severe vascular calcification with increased ER stress. Moreover, we employed shRNA library screening and radiolabeling approaches, as well as in vitro and in vivo lipidomic analysis, and determined that fully saturated phosphatidic acids such as 1,2-distearoyl-PA (18:0/18:0-PA) mediate SFA-induced lipotoxicity and vascular calcification. Together, these results identify a key lipogenic pathway in SMCs that mediates vascular calcification.

  19. Effect of galactose on acid induced molten globule state of Soybean Agglutinin: Biophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Parvez; Naseem, Farha; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the formation of molten globule-like unfolding intermediate Soybean Agglutinin (SBA) in acidic pH range has been established with the help of acrylamide quenching, intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence measurement, far UV CD and dynamic light scattering measurement. A marked increase in ANS fluorescence was observed at pH 2.2. Ksv of acrylamide quenching was found to be higher at pH 2.2 than that of native SBA at pH 7. Far UV CD spectra of pH induced state suggest that SBA shows significant retention of secondary structure closure to native. Hydrodynamic radius of SBA at pH 2.2 was found be more as compared to native state and also in other pH induced states. Further we checked the effect of galactose on the molten globule state of SBA. This study suggests that SBA exist as molten globule at pH 2.2 and this study will help in acid induced molten globule state of other proteins.

  20. Pulmonary vasoconstriction in oleic acid induced lung injury. A morphometric study.

    PubMed Central

    Grotjohan, H. P.; van der Heijde, R. M.; Wagenvoort, C. A.; Wagenvoort, N.; Versprille, A.

    1993-01-01

    Distribution and severity of active vasoconstriction of muscular pulmonary arteries were morphometrically assessed in anaesthetized, paralysed and mechanically ventilated pigs with respiratory distress, induced by oleic acid. Vasoconstriction was deduced from the medial thickness which was measured and expressed as a percentage of external diameter. Six pigs received oleic acid (0.12 +/- 0.07 ml/kg), dissolved 1:1 in 96% alcohol, in multiple injections of 0.1 ml. Six pigs were used as controls. After the oleic acid injections a stable hypoxaemia (PaO2 = 57 +/- 8 mmHg, at an inspiratory oxygen fraction of 0.6) and pulmonary hypertension (mean Ppa = 36 +/- 2 mmHg) were obtained for several hours. Electron microscopy revealed swelling of endothelial cells with signs of degeneration. Medial thickness was far greater in the oleic acid group than in the control group; overall mean values were 8.1 +/- 3.2 and 3.8 +/- 1.7% respectively (P < 0.001). Arteries with prominent vasoconstriction were lying in clusters. This pattern was the same in dependent and non-dependent regions. We concluded that in oleic acid induced respiratory distress active vasoconstriction of muscular pulmonary arteries is an important factor in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Besides vasoconstriction, endothelial swelling and intravascular clotting may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8398807

  1. Tanshinone IIA Protects Against Folic Acid-Induced Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunming; Zhu, Wei; Shao, Qiuyuan; Yan, Xiang; Jin, Bo; Zhang, Miao; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA is a diterpene extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza, a popular and safe herb medicine that has been widely used in China and other Asian countries. Previous studies have demonstrated the pleiotropic effects of Tanshinone IIA on many disease treatments via its antitoxicity, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, as well as antifibrosis activities. However, its effect on acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been fully investigated. Here, we show for the first time that systemic administration of Tanshinone IIA can lead to improved kidney function in folic acid-induced kidney injury mice. In the acute phase of AKI, Tanshinone IIA attenuated renal tubular epithelial injury, as determined by histologic changes and the detection of Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the kidney and urine. Additionally, Tanshinone IIA treatment resulted in elevated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and decreased inflammatory cells infiltration as well as chemokine expression, suggesting that Tanshinone IIA promoted renal repair following AKI and inhibited local inflammatory response in the injured kidney. This led to decreased long-term fibrosis in the injured kidney, characterized by less accumulation of fibronectin and collagen I in tubulointerstitium. Taken together, these results suggest that Tanshinone IIA may represent a potential approach for AKI treatment.

  2. Targeting oxidative stress attenuates malonic acid induced Huntington like behavioral and mitochondrial alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2010-05-25

    Objective of the present study was to explore the possible role of oxidative stress in the malonic acid induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations in rats. In the present study, unilateral single injections of malonic acid at different doses (1.5, 3 and 6 micromol) were made into the ipsilateral striatum in rats. Behavioral parameters were accessed on 1st, 7th and 14th day post malonic acid administration. Oxidative stress parameters and mitochondrial enzyme functions were assessed on day 14 after behavioral observations. Ipsilateral striatal malonic acid (3 and 6 micromol) administration significantly reduced body weight, locomotor activity, motor coordination and caused oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, nitrite, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione) in the striatum as compared to sham treated animal. Mitochondrial enzyme complexes and MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolinium bromide) activity were significantly inhibited by malonic acid. Vitamin E treatment (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the various behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations in malonic acid treated animals. Our findings show that targeting oxidative stress by vitamin E in malonic acid model, results in amelioration of behavioral and mitochondrial alterations are linked to inhibition of oxidative damage. Based upon these finding present study hypothesize that protection exerted by vitamin E on behavioral, mitochondrial markers indicates the possible preservation of the functional status of the striatal neurons by targeting the deleterious actions of oxidative stress.

  3. Tiagabine treatment in kainic acid induced cerebellar lesion of dystonia rat model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tsui-chin; Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements. The exaggerated movements have been studied and have implicated basal ganglia as the point of origin. In more recent studies, the cerebellum has also been identified as the possible target of dystonia, in the search for alternative treatments. Tiagabine is a selective GABA transporter inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake and recycling of GABA. The study of GABAergic drugs as an alternative treatment for cerebellar induced dystonia has not been reported. In our study, tiagabine was i.p. injected into kainic acid induced, cerebellar dystonic adult rats, and the effects were compared with non-tiagabine injected and sham-operated groups. Beam walking apparatus, telemetric electromyography (EMG) recording, and histological verification were performed to confirm dystonic symptoms in the rats on post-surgery treatment. Involuntary dystonic spasm was observed with repetitive rigidity, and twisting movements in the rats were also confirmed by a high score on the dystonic scoring and a high amplitude on the EMG data. The rats with tiagabine treatment were scored based on motor amelioration assessed via beam walking. The result of this study suggests and confirms that low dose of kainic acid microinjection is sufficient to induce dystonia from the cerebellar vermis. In addition, from the results of the EMG recording and the behavioral assessment through beam walking, tiagabine is demonstrated as being effective in reducing dystonic spasm and may be a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of dystonia. PMID:28337103

  4. [Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Tovar Martín, E; Acea Nebril, B

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 10 per cent of abdominal aneurysms have an excessively thick wall that sometimes involve duodenum, cava or colon by an inflammatory process. Between February 1986 and December 1992, 147 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were treated surgically and in 13 (8.8%) the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Their mean age was 67.3 years (70.1 years in non inflammatory group) and all were symptomatics initially (abdominal pain in 53%, rupture in 23%, mass in 15%). The operative mortality for elective resection was 37% in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) decreasing to 9% in the AAA group without inflammatory involvement. We conclude that surgery is indicated in these patients to prevent rupture and to hasten the subsidense of inflammatory process ever with postoperative morbi-mortality increased.

  5. Intravenous dihydroergotamine therapy for pediatric abdominal migraines.

    PubMed

    Raina, Madiha; Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal migraines present with debilitating symptoms in adolescence. At our institution, the gastroenterology, neurology, and autonomic departments collaborated in treating patients with such presentations. This case series describes 6 patients who were given intravenous dihydroergotamine (DHE) for presumed abdominal migraines. DHE was only used when other agents like amitriptyline, verapamil, topiramate, or depakote had proved ineffective. DHE was started at 0.5 mg dose and on average 7 to 9 mg were given on each hospitalization. Patient ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with the majority being female. One patient did not respond to treatment. One patient was admitted 4 times for symptoms of abdominal migraines resolving with DHE. The average time between symptom relapse was about 5 to 12 months. Five of our 6 patients responded to the infusion without significant side effects. Based on these case series, DHE may be a treatment option in children with intractable abdominal migraine.

  6. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  7. Selective Nonoperative Management of Abdominal Stab Wounds.

    PubMed

    Murry, Jason S; Hoang, David M; Ashragian, Sogol; Liou, Doug Z; Barmparas, Galinos; Chung, Rex; Alban, Rodrigo F; Margulies, Daniel R; Ley, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    Stab wounds (SW) to the abdomen traditionally require urgent exploration when associated with shock, evisceration, or peritonitis. Hemodynamically stable patients without evisceration may benefit from serial exams even with peritonitis. We compared patients taken directly to the operating room with abdominal SWs (ED-OR) to those admitted for serial exams (ADMIT). We retrospectively reviewed hemodynamically stable patients presenting with any abdominal SW between January 2000 and December 2012. Exclusions included evidence of evisceration, systolic blood pressure ≤110 mm Hg, or blood transfusion. NON-THER was defined as abdominal exploration without identification of intra-abdominal injury requiring repair. Of 142 patients included, 104 were ED-OR and 38 were ADMIT. When ED-OR was compared with ADMIT, abdominal Abbreviated Injury Score was higher (2.4 vs 2.1; P = 0.01) and hospital length of stay was longer (4.8 vs 3.3 days; P = 0.04). Incidence of NON-THER was higher in ED-OR cohort (71% vs 13%; P ≤ 0.001). In a regression model, ED-OR was a predictor of NON-THER (adjusted odds ratio 16.6; P < 0.001). One patient from ED-OR expired after complications from NON-THER. There were no deaths in the ADMIT group. For those patients with abdominal SWs who present with systolic blood pressure ≥110 mm Hg, no blood product transfusion in the emergency department and lacking evisceration, admission for serial abdominal exams may be preferred regardless of abdominal exam.

  8. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  9. Abdominal apoplexy resulting in small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death. PMID:27695177

  10. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sourabh; Qamar, Arman; Sharma, Vishal; Sharma, Alka

    2011-01-01

    An arterial aneurysm is defined as a focal dilation of a blood vessel with respect to the original artery. The risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) increases dramatically in the presence of the following factors: age older than 60 years, smoking, hypertension and Caucasian ethnicity. The likelihood that an aneurysm will rupture is influenced by the aneurysm size, expansion rate, continued smoking and persistent hypertension. The majority of AAAs are asymptomatic and are detected as an incidental finding on ultrasonography, abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed for other purposes. It can also present with abdominal pain or complications such as thrombosis, embolization and rupture. Approximately 30% of asymptomatic AAAs are discovered as a pulsatile abdominal mass on routine physical examination. Abdominal ultrasonography is considered the screening modality of choice for detecting AAAs because of its high sensitivity and specificity, as well as its safety and relatively lower cost. The decision to screen for AAAs is challenging. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that men between the age of 65 to 75 years who have ever smoked should be screened at least once for AAAs by abdominal ultrasonography. Management options for patients with an asymptomatic AAA include reduction of risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia; medical therapy with beta-blockers; watchful waiting; endovascular stenting; and surgical repair depending on the size and expansion rate of the aneurysm and underlying comorbidities. PMID:21523201

  12. Tachykinin inhibition of acid-induced gastric hyperaemia in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, A.; Jocic, M.; Herzeg, G.; Holzer, P.

    1996-01-01

    1. Primary afferent neurones releasing the vasodilator, calcitonin gene-related peptide, mediate the gastric hyperaemic response to acid back-diffusion. The tachykinins neurokinin A (NKA) and substance P (SP) are located in the same neurones and are co-released with calcitonin gene-related peptide. In this study we investigated the effect and possible role of tachykinins in the acid-evoked gastric vasodilatation in urethane-anaesthetized rats. 2. Gastric acid back-diffusion, induced by perfusing the stomach with 15% ethanol in the presence of 0.05 M HCl, increased gastric mucosal blood flow by 60-90%, as determined by the hydrogen clearance technique. NKA and SP (0.14-3.78 nmol min-1 kg-1, infused intra-aortically) inhibited the gastric mucosal hyperaemic response to acid back-diffusion in a dose-dependent manner, an effect that was accompanied by aggravation of ethanol/acid-induced macroscopic haemorrhagic lesions. 3. The inhibitory effect of NKA (1.26 nmol min-1 kg-1) on the acid-induced gastric mucosal vasodilatation was prevented by the tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists, MEN 10,627 (200 nmol kg-1) but left unaltered by the NK1 receptor antagonist, SR 140,333 (300 nmol kg-1) and the mast-cell stabilizer, ketotifen (4.6 mumol kg-1). 4. Under basal conditions, with 0.05 M HCl being perfused through the stomach, NKA (1.26 nmol min-1 kg-1) reduced gastric mucosal blood flow by about 25%, an effect that was abolished by SR 140,333 but not MEN 10,627 or ketotifen. 5. SR 140,333, MEN 10,627 or ketotifen had no significant effect on basal gastric mucosal blood flow nor did they modify the gastric mucosal hyperaemic reaction to acid back-diffusion. 6. The effect of NKA (1.26 nmol min-1 kg-1) in causing vasoconstriction and inhibiting the vasodilator response to acid back-diffusion was also seen when blood flow in the left gastric artery was measured with the ultrasonic transit time shift technique. 7. Arginine vasopressin (AVP, 0.1 nmol min-1 kg-1) induced gastric

  13. Pistacia lentiscus resin regulates intestinal damage and inflammation in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Gioxari, Aristea; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Agrogiannis, George; Triantafillidis, John K; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2011-11-01

    Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) of the Anacardiaceae family has exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in patients with Crohn's disease. This study was based on the hypothesis that mastic inhibits intestinal damage in inflammatory bowel disease, regulating inflammation and oxidative stress in intestinal epithelium. Four different dosages of P. lentiscus powder in the form of powder were administered orally to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitic rats. Eighty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to seven groups: A, control; B, colitic; C-F, colitic rats daily supplemented with P. lentiscus powder at (C) 50 mg/kg, (D) 100 mg/kg, (E) 200 mg/kg, and (F) 300 mg/kg of body weight; and G, colitic rats treated daily with cortisone (25 μg/kg of body weight). Colonic damage was assessed microscopically. The cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and malonaldehyde were measured in colonic specimens. Results were expressed as mean ± SE values. Histological amelioration of colitis (P≤.001) and significant differences in colonic indices occurred after 3 days of treatment. Daily administration of 100 mg of P. lentiscus powder/kg of body weight decreased all inflammatory cytokines (P≤.05), whereas 50 mg of P. lentiscus powder/kg of body weight and cortisone treatment reduced only ICAM-1 (P≤.05 and P≤.01, respectively). Malonaldehyde was significantly suppressed in all treated groups (P≤.01). IL-10 remained unchanged. Cytokines and malonaldehyde remained unaltered after 6 days of treatment. Thus P. lentiscus powder could possibly have a therapeutic role in Crohn's disease, regulating oxidant/antioxidant balance and modulating inflammation.

  14. Praeruptorin D and E attenuate lipopolysaccharide/hydrochloric acid induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng-Jiu; Li, Jing-Rong; Zhu, Zheng-Guang; Kong, Huan-Yu; Jin, Hong; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Tian, Yuan-Xin; Li, Zhong-Huang; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Wu, Shu-Guang

    2013-06-15

    Acute lung injury is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and increased microvascular permeability, which causes a high mortality rate worldwide. The dry root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn has been long used to treat respiratory diseases in China. In the present study, Praeruptorin A, C, D and E (PA, PC, PD and PE), four pyranocoumarins extracted from this herb, have been investigated for the pharmacological effects in experimental lung injury mouse models. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged mice, PA and PC did not show protective effect against lung injury at the dose of 80 mg/kg. However, PD and PE significantly inhibited the infiltration of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the same dose. There was no statistically significant difference between PD and PE group. Further study demonstrated that PD and PE suppressed protein extravasations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, attenuated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the pathological changes in the lung. Both PD and PE suppressed LPS induced Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation in the lung by decreasing the cytoplasmic loss of Inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) protein and inhibiting the translocation of p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. We also extended our study to acid-induced acute lung injury and found that these two compounds protected mice from hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced lung injury by inhibiting PMNs influx, IL-6 release and protein exudation. Taken together, these results suggested that PD and PE might be useful in the therapy of lung injury.

  15. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    SciTech Connect

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth; Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I.; Gholami, Parviz; Li, Feng; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson; Fan, Fang; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  16. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-10-04

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity.

  17. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity. PMID:21949380

  18. The cumulus cell layer protects the bovine maturing oocyte against fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lolicato, Francesca; Brouwers, Jos F; de Lest, Chris H A van; Wubbolts, Richard; Aardema, Hilde; Priore, Paola; Roelen, Bernard A J; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

    2015-01-01

    Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue during metabolic stress increases the amount of free fatty acids in blood and follicular fluid and is associated with impaired female fertility. In a previous report, we described the effects of the three predominant fatty acids in follicular fluid (saturated palmitate and stearate and unsaturated oleate) on oocyte maturation and quality. In the current study, the effects of elevated fatty acid levels on cumulus cells were investigated. In a dose-dependent manner, the three fatty acids induced lipid storage in cumulus cells accompanied by an enhanced immune labeling of perilipin-2, a marker for lipid droplets. Lipidomic analysis confirmed incorporation of the administered fatty acids into triglyceride, resulting in a 3- to 6-fold increase of triglyceride content. In addition, palmitate selectively induced ceramide formation, which has been implicated in apoptosis. Indeed, of the three fatty acids tested, palmitate induced reactive oxygen species formation, caspase 3 activation, and mitochondria deterioration, leading to degeneration of the cumulus cell layers. This effect could be mimicked by addition of the ceramide-C2 analog and could be inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin-B1. Interfering with the intactness of the cumulus cell layers, either by mechanical force or by palmitate treatment, resulted in enhanced uptake of lipids in the oocyte and increased radical formation. Our results show that cumulus cells act as a barrier, protecting oocytes from in vitro induced lipotoxic effects. We suggest that this protective function of the cumulus cell layers is important for the developmental competence of the oocyte. The relevance of our findings for assisted reproduction technologies is discussed.

  19. Behavior-associated Neuronal Activation After Kainic Acid-induced Hippocampal Neurotoxicity is Modulated in Time.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Arredondo, Andrea; López-Hernández, Fernanda; García-Velázquez, Lizbeth; Arias, Clorinda; Zepeda, Angélica

    2017-02-01

    Kainic acid-induced (KA) hippocampal damage leads to neuronal death and further synaptic plasticity. Formation of aberrant as well as of functional connections after such procedure has been documented. However, the impact of such structural plasticity on cell activation along time after damage and in face of a behavioral demand has not been explored. We evaluated if the mRNA and protein levels of plasticity-related protein synaptophysin (Syp and SYP, respectively) and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein mRNA and protein levels (Arc and Arc, respectively) in the dentate gyrus were differentially modulated in time in response to a spatial-exploratory task after KA-induced hippocampal damage. In addition, we analyzed Arc+/NeuN+ immunopositive cells in the different experimental conditions. We infused KA intrahippocampally to young-adult rats and 10 or 30 days post-lesion (dpl) animals performed a hippocampus-activating spatial-exploratory task. Our results show that Syp mRNA levels significantly increase at 10dpl and return to control levels after 30dpl, whereas SYP protein levels are diminished at 10dpl, but significantly increase at 30dpl, as compared to 10dpl. Arc mRNA and protein levels are both increased at 30dpl as compared to sham. Also the number of NeuN+/Arc+ cells significantly increases at 30dpl in the group with a spatial-exploratory demand. These results provide information on the long-term modifications associated to structural plasticity and neuronal activation in the dentate gyrus after excitotoxic damage and in face of a spatial-exploratory behavior. Anat Rec, 300:425-432, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Lysophosphatidic acid induces vasodilation mediated by LPA1 receptors, phospholipase C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Ruisanchez, Éva; Dancs, Péter; Kerék, Margit; Németh, Tamás; Faragó, Bernadett; Balogh, Andrea; Patil, Renukadevi; Jennings, Brett L.; Liliom, Károly; Malik, Kafait U.; Smrcka, Alan V.; Tigyi, Gabor; Benyó, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been implicated as a mediator of several cardiovascular functions, but its potential involvement in the control of vascular tone is obscure. Here, we show that both LPA (18:1) and VPC31143 (a synthetic agonist of LPA1–3 receptors) relax intact mouse thoracic aorta with similar Emax values (53.9 and 51.9% of phenylephrine-induced precontraction), although the EC50 of LPA- and VPC31143-induced vasorelaxations were different (400 vs. 15 nM, respectively). Mechanical removal of the endothelium or genetic deletion of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) not only diminished vasorelaxation by LPA or VPC31143 but converted it to vasoconstriction. Freshly isolated mouse aortic endothelial cells expressed LPA1, LPA2, LPA4 and LPA5 transcripts. The LPA1,3 antagonist Ki16425, the LPA1 antagonist AM095, and the genetic deletion of LPA1, but not that of LPA2, abolished LPA-induced vasorelaxation. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase–protein kinase B/Akt pathway by wortmannin or MK-2206 failed to influence the effect of LPA. However, pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) by U73122 or edelfosine, but not genetic deletion of PLCε, abolished LPA-induced vasorelaxation and indicated that a PLC enzyme, other than PLCε, mediates the response. In summary, the present study identifies LPA as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator substance acting via LPA1, PLC, and eNOS.—Ruisanchez, É., Dancs, P., Kerék, M., Németh, T., Faragó, B., Balogh, A., Patil, R., Jennings, B. L., Liliom, K., Malik, K. U., Smrcka, A. V., Tigyi, G., Benyó, Z. Lysophosphatidic acid induces vasodilation mediated by LPA1 receptors, phospholipase C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. PMID:24249637

  1. Reconstruction of complex abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, A; Tukiainen, E

    2013-01-01

    Complex abdominal wall defects refer to situations where simple ventral hernia repair is not feasible because the defect is very large, there is a concomitant infection or failed previous re-pair attempt, or if there is not enough original skin to cover the repair. Usually a complex abdominal wall repair is preceded by a period of temporary abdominal closure where the short-term aims include closure of the catabolic drain, protection of the viscera and preventing fistula formation, preventing bowel adherence to the abdominal wall, and enabling future fascial and skin closure. Currently the best way to achieve these goals is the vacuum- and mesh-mediated fascial traction method achieving close to 90% fascial closure rates. The long-term aims of an abdominal closure following a planned hernia strategy include intact skin cover, fascial closure at midline (if possible), good functional outcome with innervated abdominal musculature, no pain and good cosmetic result. The main methods of abdominal wall reconstruction include the use of prosthetic (mesh) or autologous material (tissue flaps). In patients with original skin cover over the fascial defect (simple ventral hernia), the most commonly used method is hernia repair with an artificial mesh. For more complex defects, our first choice of reconstruction is the component separation technique, sometimes combined with a mesh. In contaminated fields where component separation alone is not feasible, a combination with a biological mesh can be used. In large defects with grafted skin, a free TFL flap is the best option, sometimes reinforced with a mesh and enhanced with components separation.

  2. The influence of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Maduzia, D; Matuszyk, A; Ceranowicz, D; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Fyderek, K; Galazka, K; Dembinski, A

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin has been primarily shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Pretreatment with ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and accelerates pancreatic recovery in the course of this disease. In the stomach, ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, stress or alendronate, as well as accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcer. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with saline (control) or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose). Saline or ghrelin was given twice: 8 and 1 h before induction of colitis. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 1 ml of 4% solution of acetic acid and the severity of colitis was assessed 1 or 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Rectal administration of acetic acid induced colitis in all animals. Damage of colonic wall was seen at the macroscopic and microscopic level. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in colonic blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover, induction of colitis significantly increased mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activity of myeloperoxidase and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reduced. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced the area and grade of mucosal damage. This effect was accompanied by an improvement of blood flow, DNA synthesis and SOD activity in colonic mucosa. Moreover, ghrelin administration reduced mucosal concentration of IL-1β and MDA, as well as decreased mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Administration of ghrelin protects the large bowel against the development of the acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect seems to be related to the ghrelin-evoked anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  3. Effect of CMC Molecular Weight on Acid-Induced Gelation of Heated WPI-CMC Soluble Complex.

    PubMed

    Huan, Yan; Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2016-02-01

    Acid-induced gelation properties of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) soluble complex were investigated as a function of CMC molecular weight (270, 680, and 750 kDa) and concentrations (0% to 0.125%). Heated WPI-CMC soluble complex with 6% protein was made by heating biopolymers together at pH 7.0 and 85 °C for 30 min and diluted to 5% protein before acid-induced gelation. Acid-induced gel formed from heated WPI-CMC complexes exhibited increased hardness and decreased water holding capacity with increasing CMC concentrations but gel strength decreased at higher CMC content. The highest gel strength was observed with CMC 750 k at 0.05%. Gels with low CMC concentration showed homogenous microstructure which was independent of CMC molecular weight, while increasing CMC concentration led to microphase separation with higher CMC molecular weight showing more extensive phase separation. When heated WPI-CMC complexes were prepared at 9% protein the acid gels showed improved gel hardness and water holding capacity, which was supported by the more interconnected protein network with less porosity when compared to complexes heated at 6% protein. It is concluded that protein concentration and biopolymer ratio during complex formation are the major factors affecting gel properties while the effect of CMC molecular weight was less significant.

  4. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do

  5. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. PMID:26958978

  6. Imaging the Abdominal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, S.; Chan, V. O.; Ridge, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease with a range of abdominal manifestations including those involving the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Recent advances in management of the respiratory complications of the disease has led to a greater life expectancy in patients with CF. Subsequently, there is increasing focus on the impact of abdominal disease on quality of life and survival. Liver cirrhosis is the most important extrapulmonary cause of death in CF, yet significant challenges remain in the diagnosis of CF related liver disease. The capacity to predict those patients at risk of developing cirrhosis remains a significant challenge. We review representative abdominal imaging findings in patients with CF selected from the records of two academic health centres, with a view to increasing familiarity with the abdominal manifestations of the disease. We review their presentation and expected imaging findings, with a focus on the challenges facing diagnosis of the hepatic manifestations of the disease. An increased familiarity with these abdominal manifestations will facilitate timely diagnosis and management, which is paramount to further improving outcomes for patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:28250993

  7. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed by characteristic symptoms for at least 12 weeks during the preceding 12 months in the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation. The irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are distinguished by symptom-based diagnostic criteria. Unspecified FBD lacks criteria for the other FBDs. Diagnostic testing is individualized, depending on patient age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is defined as either the FAP syndrome, which requires at least six months of pain with poor relation to gut function and loss of daily activities, or unspecified FAP, which lacks criteria for the FAP syndrome. An organic cause for the pain must be excluded, but aspects of the patient's pain behavior are of primary importance. Treatment of the FBDs relies upon confident diagnosis, explanation, and reassurance. Diet alteration, drug treatment, and psychotherapy may be beneficial, depending on the symptoms and psychological features.


Keywords: functional bowel disorder; functional constipation; functional diarrhea; irritable bowel syndrome; functional abdominal pain; functional abdominal bloating; Rome II PMID:10457044

  8. Creation of Abdominal Adhesions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Clement D; Hu, Michael S; Leavitt, Tripp; Barnes, Leandra A; Cheung, Alexander T M; Malhotra, Samir; Lorenz, H Peter; Longaker, Michael T

    2016-08-27

    Abdominal adhesions consist of fibrotic tissue that forms in the peritoneal space in response to an inflammatory insult, typically surgery or intraabdominal infection. The precise mechanisms underlying adhesion formation are poorly understood. Many compounds and physical barriers have been tested for their ability to prevent adhesions after surgery with varying levels of success. The mouse and rat are important models for the study of abdominal adhesions. Several different techniques for the creation of adhesions in the mouse and rat exist in the literature. Here we describe a protocol utilizing abrasion of the cecum with sandpaper and sutures placed in the right abdominal sidewall. The mouse is anesthetized and the abdomen is prepped. A midline laparotomy is created and the cecum is identified. Sandpaper is used to gently abrade the surface of the cecum. Next, several figure-of-eight sutures are placed into the peritoneum of the right abdominal sidewall. The abdominal cavity is irrigated, a small amount of starch is applied, and the incision is closed. We have found that this technique produces the most consistent adhesions with the lowest mortality rate.

  9. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  10. [Duodenal perforation after blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Schneider, R; Moebius, C; Thelen, A; Jonas, S

    2009-12-01

    Duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is a rare emergency situation that can result in life-threatening complications. We report on a woman who had a perforation of the duodenum after a supposed mild blunt abdominal trauma. Unremarkable at the initial presentation, the patient presented with acute abdominal pain and a retroperitoneal abscess five days after the initial trauma. The duodenal repair was performed with a Roux-Y anastomosis. Difficulties in diagnosis are very common, but the early recognition of the rupture is essential. The contrast-enhanced CT scan is the gold standard for diagnosis. Surgical management depends on the severity of the trauma and must be chosen on an individual basis.

  11. Electromyographic analysis of four popular abdominal exercises.

    PubMed

    Piering, A W; Janowski, A P; Wehrenberg, W B; Moore, M T; Snyder, A C

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of four specific sit-up exercises on muscular activity of the rectus abdominis. Pairs of surface electrodes were placed unilaterally on four quadrants of the rectus abdominis, delimited by tendinous inscriptions, in four male subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were taken while the subjects performed four different abdominal exercises. Each abdominal exercise was hypothesized to have a specific effect on one of the four quadrants of the rectus abdominis. The four exercises analyzed were: 1) long lying crunch, 2) bent knee crunch, 3) leg raise, and 4) vertical leg crunch. Analysis of the standardized EMG recordings demonstrated no significant differences in the mean muscle activity between the four different quadrants, in the mean muscle activity between the four different exercises, and in interactions between the exercises and the quadrants of the rectus abdominis. We conclude that none of the four abdominal exercises studied are specific for strengthening individual muscle quadrants of the rectus abdominis.

  12. Glucocorticoids modulate amino acid-induced translation initiation in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenqi; Li, Guolian; Kimball, Scot R; Jahn, Linda A; Barrett, Eugene J

    2004-08-01

    Amino acids are unique anabolic agents in that they nutritively signal to mRNA translation initiation and serve as substrates for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Glucocorticoid excess antagonizes the anabolic action of amino acids on protein synthesis in laboratory animals. To examine whether excessive glucocorticoids modulate mixed amino acid-signaled translation initiation in human skeletal muscle, we infused an amino acid mixture (10% Travasol) systemically to 16 young healthy male volunteers for 6 h in the absence (n = 8) or presence (n = 8) of glucocorticoid excess (dexamethasone 2 mg orally every 6 h for 3 days). Vastus lateralis muscles were biopsied before and after amino acid infusion, and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70(S6K)), and eIF2alpha and the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of eIF2B were measured. Systemic infusion of mixed amino acids significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 (P < 0.04) and p70(S6K) (P < 0.001) and the dephosphorylation of eIF2alpha (P < 0.003) in the control group. Dexamethasone treatment did not alter the basal phosphorylation state of 4E-BP1, p70(S6K), or eIF2alpha; however, it abrogated the stimulatory effect of amino acid infusion on the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 (P = 0.31) without affecting amino acid-induced phosphorylation of p70(S6K) (P = 0.002) or dephosphorylation of eIF2alpha (P = 0.003). Neither amino acid nor dexamethasone treatment altered the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of eIF2B. We conclude that changes of amino acid concentrations within the physiological range stimulate mRNA translation by enhancing the binding of mRNA to the 43S preinitiation complex, and the activity of p70(S6K) and glucocorticoid excess blocks the former action in vivo in human skeletal muscle.

  13. Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380

  14. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol.

  15. [Penetrating abdominal wounds. Apropos of 330 cases].

    PubMed

    Nejjar, M; Bennani, S; Zerouali, O N

    1991-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal wounds are frequent and serious. 330 cases have been treated in the Department of Emergencies and visceral Surgery at Averroes Hospital of Casablanca from 1980 to 1990. The predominance of male sex is noted, and these wounds are always the result of aggression by white arm. All patients have been operated, the white laparotomy rate is of 36%. The classic interventionist attitude is still recommended in spite of this high rate, because our present conditions can't permit us a rigorous watching. According to abdominal lesions, the different interventions are reviewed, and their indications are detailed.

  16. Hypovolemic shock in children: abdominal CT manifestations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G A; Fallat, M E; Eichelberger, M R

    1987-08-01

    The authors describe a "hypoperfusion complex," seen on abdominal computed tomography, which consists of marked, diffuse dilatation of the intestine with fluid; abnormally intense contrast enhancement of the bowel wall, mesentery, kidneys, and/or pancreas; decreased caliber of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava; and moderate to large peritoneal fluid collections. This complex was present in three patients less than 2 years of age and was associated with severe injury and a poor outcome. Recognition of this constellation of findings may help direct attention to the patient's serious hemodynamic abnormality as much as to individual organ defects.

  17. [Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sonne, Morten; Hillingsø, Jens

    2008-02-11

    Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various medical and surgical conditions increase the intraabdominal volume. When the content exceeds the compliance of the abdominal wall, the IAP rises. Increased IAP affects the functioning of the brain, lungs, circulation, kidneys, and bowel. The treatment of ACS is a reduction of IAP.

  18. Abdominal Migraine in a Middle-aged Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kunishi, Yosuke; Iwata, Yuri; Ota, Mitsuyasu; Kurakami, Yuichi; Matsubayashi, Mao; Kanno, Masatomo; Kuboi, Yoriko; Yoshie, Koichiro; Kato, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with recurrent, severe abdominal pain. Laboratory tests and imaging were insignificant, and treatment for functional dyspepsia was ineffective. The poorly localized, dull, and severe abdominal pain, associated with anorexia, nausea, and vomiting, was consistent with abdominal migraine. The symptoms were relieved by loxoprofen and lomerizine, which are used in the treatment of migraine. We herein report a case of abdominal migraine in a middle-aged woman. Abdominal migraine should be considered as a cause of abdominal pain as it might easily be relieved by appropriate treatment. PMID:27725538

  19. Prevention of Polyglycolic Acid-Induced Peritoneal Adhesions Using Alginate in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Mari; Hashimoto, Ayumi; Tanzawa, Ayumi; Orikasa, Taichi; Ikeda, Junki; Iwame, Yoshizumi; Ozamoto, Yuki; Miyamoto, Hiroe; Yoshida, Chiko; Hashimoto, Toru; Torii, Hiroko; Takamori, Hideki; Morita, Shinichiro; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Hagiwara, Akeo

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal or intrathoracic adhesions sometimes cause significant morbidity. We have designed three types of alginate-based treatments using strongly cross-linked (SL), weakly cross-linked (WL), and non-cross-linked (NL) alginate with calcium gluconate. In rat experiments, we compared the antiadhesive effects of the three types of alginate-based treatments, fibrin glue treatment (a standard treatment), and no treatment against adhesions caused by polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh (PGA-induced adhesions). The antiadhesive materials were set on the PGA sheet fixed on the parietal peritoneum of the abdomen. Fifty-six days later, the adhesions were evaluated macroscopically by the adhesion scores and microscopically by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostaining. We also tested the fibroblast growth on the surface of the antiadhesive materials in vitro. The antiadhesive effects of WL and NL were superior to the no treatment and fibrin glue treatment. A microscopic evaluation confirmed that the PGA sheet was covered by a peritoneal layer constructed of well-differentiated mesothelial cells, and the inflammation was most improved in the NL and WL. The fibroblast growth was inhibited most on the surfaces of the NL and WL. These results suggest that either the WL or NL treatments are suitable for preventing PGA-induced adhesions compared to SL or the conventional treatment. PMID:26078949

  20. Repeated citalopram administration counteracts kainic acid-induced spreading of PSA-NCAM-immunoreactive cells and loss of reelin in the adult mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jaako, Külli; Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Kalda, Anti; Anier, Kaili; Zharkovsky, Tamara; Shastin, Dmitri; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Systemic or intracerebral administration of kainic acid in rodents induces neuronal death followed by a cascade of neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. Kainic acid-induced neuroplasticity is evidenced by alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, dispersion of the granule cell layer and re-organisation of mossy fibres. Similar abnormalities are observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and, therefore, kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuroplasticity might mimic pathological mechanisms leading to the formation of 'epileptic brain' in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Previous studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants might reduce the severity of seizures in epileptic patients and reduce neuronal death in laboratory animal models of kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated whether kainic acid-induced neuroplasticity in mice is modulated by the repeated administration of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. We found that at the histopathological level, repeated citalopram treatment counteracted the kainic acid-induced neuronal loss and dispersion of young granule neurons expressing the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule within the granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Citalopram also counteracted the downregulation of reelin on both mRNA and protein levels induced by kainic acid administration. Our findings indicate that repeated administration of citalopram is able to prevent kainic acid-induced abnormal brain plasticity and thereby prevent the formation of an epileptic phenotype.

  1. Abdominal manifestations of actinomycosis in IUD users.

    PubMed

    Asuncion, C M; Cinti, D C; Hawkins, H B

    1984-08-01

    The use of an intrauterine device (IUD) is associated with the presence of actinomyces in the female genital tract. Since IUD use is currently so prevalent, IUD-related pelvic inflammatory disease occasionally spreads to the rest of the abdomen. Two patients with abdominal actinomycosis in association with an IUD illustrate the problem; we review the general problem.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aug;6(4):232-6. Citation on PubMed Islam S. Clinical care outcomes in abdominal wall defects. Curr ... Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. ...

  3. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  4. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  5. Assessment of the patient with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elaine; Lynch, Antonia; Cugnoni, Helen

    Abdominal pain has many causes, from simple to complex presentations. Patients with abdominal pain may have a number of physiological and psychological needs. Nurses have a key role to play in patient assessment, history talking and management.

  6. Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... español Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Browse Sections The Basics Overview What is AAA? ... doctor about getting screened (tested) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). If AAA isn't found and treated ...

  7. Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.) protects brain from sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Rocha, J B T

    2008-06-01

    One practical way through which free radical-mediated neurodegenerative diseases could be prevented is through the consumption of food rich in antioxidants. The ability of aqueous extracts of ripe and unripe Capsicum annum, Tepin (CAT) and Capsicum chinese, Habanero (CCH) to prevent lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid in rat brain in vitro is assessed in this study. The aqueous extract of the peppers were prepared (1 g/20 mL). Incubating rat brain homogenates with pro-oxidant (7 microM sodium nitroprusside [222.5%] and 1 mM quinolinic acid [217.4%]) caused a significant increase (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. However, the aqueous extract of the peppers (4.2-16.8 mg/mL) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in the lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, unripe CAT (92.5-55.2%) caused the highest inhibition of sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while unripe CCH caused the least inhibition (161.0-102.1%). Furthermore, unripe CAT and CCH peppers had a significantly higher (P < .05) inhibitory effect on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain than the ripe pepper (CAT and CCH). Therefore, the protection of the brain tissues by hot pepper depends on the total phenol content in sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while ripening would reduce the protective properties of hot pepper against quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. However, unripe CAT has the highest protective properties against sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

  8. Attenuation of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus by inhibition of endocannabinoid transport and degradation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shubina, Liubov; Aliev, Rubin; Kitchigina, Valentina

    2015-03-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency associated with a high rate of mortality if not treated promptly. Exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to possess anticonvulsant properties both in vivo and in vitro. Here we study the influence of endocannabinoid metabolism on the development of kainic acid-induced SE in guinea pigs. For this purpose, the inhibitors of endocannabinoid transport, AM404, and enzymatic (fatty acid amide hydrolase) degradation, URB597, were applied. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251, was also tested. Animal behavior as well as local electric field potentials in four structures: medial septum, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and amygdala were analyzed when AM404 (120nmol), URB597 (4.8nmol) or AM251 (20nmol) were administrated alone or together with 0.4μg of kainic acid. All substances were injected i.c.v. AM404, URB597 or AM251 administered alone did not alter markedly local field potentials of all four studied structures in the long-term compared with their basal activity. AM404 and URB597 significantly alleviated kainic acid-induced SE, decreasing behavioral manifestations, duration of seizure events and SE in general without changing the amplitude of local field potentials. AM251 did not produce distinct effects on SE in terms of our experimental paradigm. There was no apparent change of the seizure initiation pattern when kainic acid was coadministrated with AM404, URB597 or AM251. The present study provides electrophysiologic and behavioral evidences that inhibition of endocannabinoid metabolism plays a protective role against kainic acid-induced SE and may be employed for therapeutic purposes. Further investigations of the influences of cannabinoid-related compounds on SE genesis and especially epileptogenesis are required.

  9. [Lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children].

    PubMed

    Kvirikashvili, T O

    2006-01-01

    We investigated 79 patients (76.0%) with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes among all 104 with general abdominal lymphosarcoma. Ultrasound tomography was used in 98.1 % cases; also, in the urgent cases cancer transcutaneal puncture was performed with the purpose of cytological investigation. In complicated situations computer tomography was considered as a highly informative method of investigation. Surgical intervention and radial therapy is inexpedient in a treatment program of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children. Besides, it is shown the superiority of intensive program of polychemical therapy OMDV: vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.5 mg/m(2) i/v in the 1 day; metotrexate -- 250 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the I day; dexamethazone 10 mg/m(2) per os 1-5 day; vepesid -- 100 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the 4 and 5 days.) in comparison with the ACOP scheme: adriamicine or rubomicine - 30 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); cyclophosphane -- 600 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.4 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); prednisolone -- 40 mg/m(2) every day 4-6 week quitting gradually) for treatment of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in childhood age. General recovery without recurrence in children with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes was occurred in 44.2% cases. In the case of polychemical therapy according to ACOP scheme, recovery was 20% and in the case of polychemical therapy following OMDV scheme, 78.1% of the children recovered.

  10. Importance of interferon inducible trans-membrane proteins and retinoic acid inducible gene I for influenza virus replication: A review.

    PubMed

    Suo, Siqingaowa; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between Influenza viruses and host cells is key to elucidating the pathogenesis of these viruses. Several host factors have been identified that exert antiviral functions; however, influenza viruses continue to replicate utilizing host cell machinery. Herein, we review the mechanisms of action of two host-derived proteins on conferring cellular resistance to the influenza virus; (1) the interferon inducible trans-membrane proteins, 1, 2 and 3, a recently identified family of early restriction factors; and (2) retinoic acid inducible gene I, a key mediator of antiviral immunity. These data may contribute to the design of novel and efficient anti-influenza treatments.

  11. Genetic parameters for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties in milk from Swedish Red dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Poulsen, N A; Wadsö, L; Stålhammar, H; Andrén, A; Lindmark Månsson, H; Larsen, L B; Paulsson, M; Fikse, W F

    2014-01-01

    Milk coagulation is an important processing trait, being the basis for production of both cheese and fermented products. There is interest in including technological properties of these products in the breeding goal for dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was therefore to estimate genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties, including both rennet- and acid-induced coagulation, in Swedish Red dairy cattle using genomic relationships. Morning milk samples and blood samples were collected from 395 Swedish Red cows that were selected to be as genetically unrelated as possible. Using a rheometer, milk samples were analyzed for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties, including gel strength (G'), coagulation time, and yield stress (YS). In addition to the technological traits, milk composition was analyzed. A binary trait was created to reflect that milk samples that had not coagulated 40min after rennet addition were considered noncoagulating milk. The cows were genotyped by using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Almost 600,000 markers remained after quality control and were used to construct a matrix of genomic relationships among the cows. Multivariate models including fixed effects of herd, lactation stage, and parity were fitted using the ASReml software to obtain estimates of heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Heritability estimates (h(2)) for G' and YS in rennet and acid gels were found to be high (h(2)=0.38-0.62) and the genetic correlations between rennet-induced and acid-induced coagulation properties were weak but favorable, with the exception of YSrennet with G'acid and YSacid, both of which were strong. The high heritability (h(2)=0.45) for milk coagulating ability expressed as a binary trait suggests that noncoagulation could be eliminated through breeding. Additionally, the results indicated that the current breeding objective could increase the frequency of noncoagulating milk and

  12. Combined Gastric and Duodenal Perforation Through Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Adarshpal; Singla, Archan Lal; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal traumas are uncommonly encountered despite their high prevalence, and injuries to the organ like duodenum are relatively uncommon (occurring in only 3%-5% of abdominal injuries) because of its retroperitoneal location. Duodenal injury combined with gastric perforation from a single abdominal trauma impact is rarely heard. The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of blunt abdominal trauma with combined gastric and duodenal injuries. PMID:25738037

  13. Abdominal cavity myolipoma presenting as an enlarging incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark O; Richardson, Michael L; Rubin, Brian P; Baird, Geoffrey S

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of an abdominal cavity myolipoma which herniated through a low transverse abdominal (Pfannenstiel) incision, and presented as an enlarging abdominal wall mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery demonstrated an encapsulated solid tumor mass demonstrating fat signal and and increased T2-weighted signal. Postsurgical histological tissue diagnosis was myolipoma. Recognition of the intra- and extraperitoneal location of this abdominal tumor was essential for accurate surgical planning.

  14. [Approaches to the abdominal cavity and closure of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Y; Rauchfuss, F; Ardelt, M; Settmacher, U

    2011-12-01

    Although minimally invasive approaches to the abdominal cavity are becoming increasingly more important, open surgical techniques are still of essential interest and must be mastered by general and visceral surgeons. The choice of the particular approach depends on the specificity and location of the scheduled procedure. The following article is intended to give an overview on the current literature as well as experiences in the field of open surgical approaches to the abdominal cavity.

  15. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents.

  16. Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

  17. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  18. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  19. Palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid induces insulin resistance in a human endothelial cell line by decreasing SERCA pump expression.

    PubMed

    Gustavo Vazquez-Jimenez, J; Chavez-Reyes, Jesus; Romero-Garcia, Tatiana; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel; Valdes-Flores, Jesus; Manuel Galindo-Rosales, J; Rueda, Angelica; Guerrero-Hernandez, Agustin; Olivares-Reyes, J Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid is a negative regulator of insulin activity. At the molecular level, palmitic acid reduces insulin stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. Interestingly, we have found that incubation with palmitic acid of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced a biphasic effect, an initial transient elevation followed by a sustained reduction of SERCA pump protein levels. However, palmitic acid produced a sustained inhibition of SERCA pump ATPase activity. Insulin resistance state appeared before there was a significant reduction of SERCA2 expression. The mechanism by which palmitic acid impairs insulin signaling may involve endoplasmic reticulum stress, because this fatty acid induced activation of both PERK, an ER stress marker, and JNK, a kinase associated with insulin resistance. None of these effects were observed by incubating HUVEC-CS cells with palmitoleic acid. Importantly, SERCA2 overexpression decreased the palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance state. All these results suggest that SERCA pump might be the target of palmitic acid to induce the insulin resistance state in a human vascular endothelial cell line. Importantly, these data suggest that HUVEC-CS cells respond to palmitic acid-exposure with a compensatory overexpression of SERCA pump within the first hour, which eventually fades out and insulin resistance prevails.

  20. Allicin Alleviates Inflammation of Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-Induced Rats and Suppresses P38 and JNK Pathways in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Lun, Weijian; Zhao, Xinmei; Lei, Shan; Guo, Yandong; Ma, Jiayi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Allicin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and proapoptotic properties. Aims. To evaluate the effects and investigate the mechanism of allicin on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis, specifically with mesalazine or sulfasalazine. Methods. 80 rats were divided equally into 8 groups: control; trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid; allicin prevention; allicin; mesalazine; sulfasalazine; allicin + sulfasalazine, and mesalazine + allicin. Systemic and colonic inflammation parameters were analysed. In addition, protein and culture medium of Caco-2 cells treated with various concentrations of IL-1β or allicin were collected for investigation of IL-8, NF-κB p65 P38, ERK, and JNK. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used for parametric and nonparametric tests, respectively. Results. Allicin reduced the body weight loss of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rats, histological score, serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels, and colon IL-1β mRNA level and induced serum IL-4 level, particularly in combination with mesalazine. In addition, 1 ng/mL IL-1β stimulated the P38, ERK, and JNK pathways, whereas pretreatment with allicin depressed this phenomenon, except for the ERK pathway. Conclusions. The inflammation induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid is mitigated significantly by allicin treatment, particularly combined with mesalazine. Allicin inhibits the P38 and JNK pathways and the expression of NF-κB which explained the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of allicin. PMID:25729217

  1. Protective effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mannasaheb, Basheerahmed A.A.; Kulkarni, Preeti V.; Sangreskopp, Mashood Ahmed; Savant, Chetan; Mohan, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Natural plants always provide core compounds for new drug development. In the present life and food style, inflammatory bowel disease has become common and needs a lead compound for its drug development. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats based on its traditional anti-inflammatory use. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with A. americana leaf extract in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 7 days. On 8th day, 2 ml of 4% v/v acetic acid in saline was instilled into rats’ rectum. Prednisolone was used as standard drug and it was administered on the day of acetic acid instillation and continued for 3 days. Extract treatment was continued till 11th day. Body weight, ulcer score, colonic muscle contraction, antioxidant activity and histopathology were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Results: A. americana have retained total body weight significantly (P < 0.01) and decreased colon weight/length ratio. Extract have shown a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in ulcer scores, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase activity. Further, extract have shown significant improvement in colonic muscle contraction, histopathology of colon etc., which is comparable with standard drug. Conclusion: A. americana possess protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. PMID:26730148

  2. Nicotinic acid induces secretion of prostaglandin D2 in human macrophages: an in vitro model of the niacin flush.

    PubMed

    Meyers, C Daniel; Liu, Paul; Kamanna, Vaijinath S; Kashyap, Moti L

    2007-06-01

    Nicotinic acid is a safe, broad-spectrum lipid agent shown to prevent cardiovascular disease, yet its widespread use is limited by the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) mediated niacin flush. Previous research suggests that nicotinic acid-induced PGD2 secretion is mediated by the skin, but the exact cell type remains unclear. We hypothesized that macrophages are a source of nicotinic acid-induced PGD2 secretion and performed a series of experiments to confirm this. Nicotinic acid (0.1-3 mM) induced PGD2 secretion in cultured human macrophages, but not monocytes or endothelial cells. The PGD2 secretion was dependent on the concentration of nicotinic acid and the time of exposure. Nicotinuric acid, but not nicotinamide, also induced PGD2 secretion. Pre-incubation of the cells with aspirin (100 microM) entirely prevented the nicotinic acid effects on PGD2 secretion. The PGD2 secreting effects of nicotinic acid were additive to the effects of the calcium ionophore A23187 (6 microM), but were independent of extra cellular calcium. These findings, combined with recent in vivo work, provide evidence that macrophages play a significant role in mediating the niacin flush and may lead to better strategies to eliminate this limiting side effect.

  3. Oral administration of omega-7 palmitoleic acid induces satiety and the release of appetite-related hormones in male rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Hong; Takeo, Jiro; Katayama, Masashi

    2013-06-01

    We have analyzed the effect of palmitoleic acid on short-term food intake in male rats. Administration of omega-7 palmitoleic acid by oral gavage significantly decreased food intake compared to palmitic acid, omega-9 oleic acid, or a vehicle control. Palmitoleic acid exhibited a dose-dependent effect in this context and did not cause general malaise. A triglyceride form of palmitoleate also decreased food intake, whereas olive oil, which is rich in oleic acid, did not. Palmitoleic acid accumulated within the small intestine in a dose-dependent fashion and elevated levels of the satiety hormone cholecystokinin (CCK). Both protein and mRNA levels of CCK were affected in this context. The suppression of food intake by palmitoleic acid was attenuated by intravenous injection of devazepide, a selective peripheral CCK receptor antagonist. Palmitoleic acid did not alter the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) target genes, and a PPARα antagonist did not affect palmitoleic acid-induced satiety. This suggests that the PPARα pathway might not be involved in suppressing food intake in response to palmitoleic acid. We have shown that orally administered palmitoleic acid induced satiety, enhanced the release of satiety hormones in rats.

  4. Evidence for the involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in palmitic acid-induced superoxide production and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Graciano, Maria Fernanda; Valle, Maíra Mello; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael

    2013-01-01

    G protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex have been shown to be involved in the fatty acid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The effect of palmitic acid on superoxide production and insulin secretion by INS-1E cells and the possible involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in these processes were examined in this study. Cells were incubated during 1 h with palmitic acid in low and high glucose concentrations, a GPR40 agonist (GW9508) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium, DPI) and PKC (calphostin C). GW9508 induced superoxide production at 2.8 and 5.6 mM glucose concentrations and stimulated insulin secretion at 16.7 mM glucose concentration involving both PKC and NADPH oxidase activation. Palmitic acid induced superoxide production through NADPH oxidase and GPR40-dependent pathways and the stimulation of insulin secretion in the presence of a high glucose concentration was reduced by knockdown of GPR40 using siRNA. Our results suggest that palmitic acid induces superoxide production and potentiates GSIS through NADPH oxidase and GPR40 pathways in pancreatic ? cells.

  5. Effect of capsaicin and cimetidine on the healing of acetic acid induced gastric ulceration in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, J Y; Teng, C H; Chen, F C

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Capsaicin protects the gastric mucosa against experimental injury while capsaicin desensitisation reduces the rate of gastric ulcer healing. The effect of exogenous capsaicin on gastric ulcer healing has not to date been reported. AIM/METHOD: To investigate the effect of capsaicin, cimetidine, and in combination, given intragastrically in the healing of acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer in the rat. Treatment started immediately after ulcer induction. RESULTS: At the end of one week, capsaicin, cimetidine, and in combination increased ulcer healing but the effect of combined treatment was less than that of capsaicin alone. In an in vivo gastric chamber preparation, capsaicin increased, while cimetidine decreased, gastric mucosal blood flow measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. A dose response effect in reduction of gastric mucosal blood flow could be demonstrated for cimetidine. The gastric hyperaemic effect of capsaicin was blunted by prior administration of cimetidine. In contrast, capsaicin had no effect on gastric acid secretion and its addition to cimetidine did not affect the acid suppressant effect of the latter. CONCLUSIONS: Capsaicin promotes the healing of acetic acid induced gastric ulcer, probably by its gastric hyperaemic effect. Although cimetidine also promotes ulcer healing due to its inhibitory effect on acid secretion it may have an antagonistic effect on the gastric ulcer healing effect of capsaicin by virtue of inhibition of gastric hyperaemia. PMID:8984019

  6. [Surgical correction of infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Khamitov, F F; Matochkin, E A; Vertkina, N V; Kizyma, A G; Lisitskiĭ, D A

    2008-01-01

    The authors compare various surgical strategies of infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm (IAAA) repair based on the experience of the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Urban Clinical Hospital No.81. Total 198 patients underwent aneurysm resection and grafting through conventional (90) or minilaparotomy (108) approaches. Mini-approach was shown to improve significantly both perioperative course and outcomes of IAAA correction. The main advantage of this approach comprised limited invasiveness together with sufficient exposure of abdominal aorta and its branches. Abandoning small bowel evisceration helps to preserve ther-moregulation and achieve volemic homeostasis with less fluid volume. Postoperative period after surgical mini-approach was characterized by shorter period of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, earlier restoration of bowel motility, conversion to usual nutrition, patient mobilization and discharge. Minimally invasive technology significantly broadens feasibility of radical aortic reconstructions for patients with serious cardio-vascular comorbidities.

  7. Missed Gastric Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Naiem, Ahmed A.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Kendi, Badriya H.; Al-Qadhi, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Hollow viscus injuries of the digestive tract are an uncommon occurrence in blunt abdominal trauma. We report a 39-year-old male who was hit by a vehicle as a pedestrian and admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2015. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy which revealed injuries to the distal stomach, liver and descending colon. Postoperatively, the patient was febrile, tachycardic and hypotensive. Abdominal examination revealed distention and tenderness. The next day, a repeat laparotomy identified a gastric injury which had not been diagnosed during the initial laparotomy. Although the defect was repaired, the patient subsequently died as a result of multiorgan failure. Missed gastric injuries are rare and are associated with a grave prognosis, particularly for trauma patients. Delays in diagnosis, in addition to associated injuries, contribute to a high mortality rate. PMID:28003902

  8. Refractory Abdominal Pain in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Ying; Chen, Xiao-nong; Shi, Hao; Xie, Jingyuan; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a rare disorder. Failure of an early diagnosis may cause progressive intestinal ischemia, leading to abdominal pain, sepsis, and death. Patients with end-stage renal disease are among the highest risk populations for developing this lethal complication. The key to a correct diagnosis at an early stage is a high index of suspicion in predisposed patients. In our case, we present a 62-year-old female undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for 8 years; she complained of abdominal pain after hemodialysis in the last 3 months; NOMI was suspected after a CT angiography. She partially recovered after multiple clinical interventions such as decreased ultrafiltration, an increased dose of low molecular-weight heparin and the use of vasoactive drugs. In conclusion, NOMI can be reversible if it is diagnosed as early as possible and after the necessary diagnostic measurements are initiated. PMID:26266246

  9. [Abdominal bloating: an up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Ducrotté, P

    2009-10-01

    Bloating is a common symptom, especially in women. In the clinical practice, it remains a therapeutic challenge. Since recently, its pathophysiology is better understood: an impaired transit of gas (particularly in the small bowel) or a visceral hypersensitivity leading to the induction of an abdominal discomfort despite a normal volume of gas are two of the main causes, far more frequent than an excessive production of gas. Moreover, bloating can be related to abnormal viscera-somatic reflexes promoting both an abdomino-phrenic dyssynergia and the relaxation of the muscles of the abdominal wall. From a therapeutic point of view, the efficacy of the gas absorbants remains to be more documented. Besides the treatment of a constipation and the avoidance of nutrients either highly fermentable or rich in fructose, other therapeutic options include prokinetics and drugs acting on visceral sensitivity. Probiotics are another promising option. In some centers, a non pharmacological therapeutic approach, mainly based on hypnosis, is discussed.

  10. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region.

  11. Abdominal abscesses in adolescents with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Biller, J A; Grand, R J; Harris, B H

    1987-09-01

    Little information is available about the development of abdominal abscesses in adolescents with Crohn's disease. We report the clinical presentation of five adolescents with Crohn's disease who developed this complication. The mean time from diagnosis until development of an abdominal abscess was 1.7 years. The admitting diagnosis was an acute abdomen in two patients and recurrent Crohn's disease in the other three. No features of the clinical presentation or laboratory data distinguished this group from other adolescents with Crohn's disease. The use of ultrasound and CT scanning was helpful in making this diagnosis preoperatively. Those patients with active Crohn's disease who do not respond promptly to medical therapy should be evaluated for the development of this complication.

  12. Color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, S; Danesino, G M; Danesino, V; Castellani, S

    2010-09-01

    Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations.

  13. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy following previous abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L

    1984-01-01

    During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334

  14. [Postoperative foreign objects in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Kazarian, V M

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to elucidate the circumstances under which iatrogenic foreign objects can be mistakenly left inside the patient's body after surgical interventions and to outline measures to prevent such errors. The data obtained in forensic medical examination of two cases of urgent surgery on abdominal organs are analysed. They indicate that the main causes of leaving behind foreign bodies in a patient include improper organization of emergency medical aid, personal qualities of the surgeon, and psycho-emotional atmosphere during the operation. Comprehensive evaluation of the associated clinical symptoms and their dynamics is necessary for early identification and removal of foreign objects left in the abdominal cavity. It would help to avoid undesirable outcomes of surgery and reduce the number of legal proceedings against medical and preventive treatment facilities.

  15. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma after remote abdominal radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilks, B.; Hegedus, C.; Freeman, H.; Fratkin, L.; Churg, A.

    1988-05-15

    Peritoneal mesothelioma in a 61-year-old man, occurred 26 years after abdominal radiotherapy for a testicular seminoma. The patient had no history of asbestos exposure. After asbestos, radiation is the second most frequent defined cause of mesothelioma in North America, but the number of well-documented cases is small; this case represents only the fifth example of peritoneal mesothelioma after therapeutic irradiation of the abdomen. 16 references.

  16. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed

    Feasi, Marcello; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Cappato, Stefano; Pontali, Emanuele; Usiglio, David; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Filauro, Marco; Mori, Marco; Cassola, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Most human cases present as localized or generalized cutaneous infections. An invasive septic form, usually associated with endocarditis, has rarely been described. We report here an invasive infection caused by E. rhusiopathiae without endocardium involvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intra-abdominal abscess due to this pathogen.

  17. Abdominal surgical emergencies in the puerperium.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, A; Jones, P F

    1975-01-01

    Since surgical emergencies in the puerperium are rare, surgeons and obstetricians amass little experience of them. There may be considerable delay in making a diagnosis, firstly, because the abdominal symptoms are thought to be related to the pregnancy, and, secondly, because the signs are rarely convincing in contrast to the symptoms. Any of the common surgical emergencies may occur in pregnancy and the puerperium and there are some others that appear to be a particullar problem of the puerperium. PMID:1203726

  18. Abdominal manifestations of extranodal lymphoma: pictorial essay*

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Laís; Ramin, Guilherme de Araujo; Penachim, Thiago José; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Cardia, Patrícia Prando; Prando, Adilson

    2016-01-01

    In the appropriate clinical setting, certain aspects of extranodal abdominal lymphoma, as revealed by current cross-sectional imaging techniques, should be considered potentially diagnostic and can hasten the diagnosis. In addition, diagnostic imaging in the context of biopsy-proven lymphoma can accurately stage the disease for its appropriate treatment. The purpose of this article was to illustrate the various imaging aspects of extranodal lymphoma in the abdomen. PMID:28057966

  19. Robot-Assisted Abdominal Cerclage During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zeybek, Burak; Hill, Amanda; Menderes, Gulden; Borahay, Mostafa A.; Azodi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Cervical insufficiency is a difficult condition to diagnose and can lead to preterm birth, miscarriage, or perinatal infant morbidity and mortality. We conducted this retrospective case study and literature review to evaluate the safety and efficacy of robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy. Methods: We conducted a case series and a systematic review that included patients who underwent robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy from January 2010 through March 2016. Results: Six patients met the criteria for the case series. Median age was 34 years (range, 28–37) at the time of the procedure. In 5 cases, the indication for transabdominal cerclage was a failed vaginal cerclage in a previous pregnancy, whereas a scarred and shortened cervix caused by a previous dilatation and curettage–induced cervical laceration was the indication in the remaining case. Median operating time was 159.5 minutes (range, 124–204), and median estimated blood loss was 25 mL (range, 10–25). No surgeries were converted to laparotomies; all patients were discharged on postoperative day 1. The median gestational age at delivery was 37.5 weeks (range, 22–39). Five patients delivered between 36 and 39 weeks. No patients had chorioamnionitis or preterm premature rupture of membranes. One patient went into preterm labor at 22 weeks, and the cerclage was removed via minilaparotomy. Eight articles met the criteria for systematic review. Sixteen patients underwent robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy. Median age was 31.5 years (range, 25–37). The major indication in most articles was previous failed transvaginal cerclage. The median gestational ages at time of procedure and delivery were 12 weeks (range, 10–15) and 37 weeks (range, 33–39), respectively. Conclusion: Robot-assisted abdominal cerclage is safe and effective during pregnancy. PMID:27904309

  20. Effect of laparoscopic abdominal surgery on splanchnic circulation: historical developments.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Akbulut, Sami; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

    2014-12-28

    With the developments in medical technology and increased surgical experience, advanced laparoscopic surgical procedures are performed successfully. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is one of the best examples of advanced laparoscopic surgery (LS). Today, laparoscopic abdominal surgery in general surgery clinics is the basis of all abdominal surgical interventions. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is associated with systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic alterations. Inadequate splanchnic perfusion in critically ill patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood. With experience and with an increase in the number and diversity of the resulting data, the pathophysiology of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is now better understood. The normal physiology and pathophysiology of local and systemic effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is extremely important for safe and effective LS. Future research projects should focus on the interplay between the physiological regulatory mechanisms in the splanchnic circulation (SC), organs, and diseases. In this review, we discuss the effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery on the SC.

  1. Mesh Sutured Repairs of Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Steven T.; Jordan, Sumanas W.; Miller, Kyle R.; Ali, Nada A.; Stock, Stuart R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A new closure technique is introduced, which uses strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh as a suture for closure of abdominal wall defects due to failures of standard sutures and difficulties with planar meshes. Methods: Strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh of 2 cm width were passed through the abdominal wall and tied as simple interrupted sutures. The surgical technique and surgical outcomes are presented. Results: One hundred and seven patients underwent a mesh sutured abdominal wall closure. Seventy-six patients had preoperative hernias, and the mean hernia width by CT scan for those with scans was 9.1 cm. Forty-nine surgical fields were clean-contaminated, contaminated, or dirty. Five patients had infections within the first 30 days. Only one knot was removed as an office procedure. Mean follow-up at 234 days revealed 4 recurrent hernias. Conclusions: Mesh sutured repairs reliably appose tissue under tension using concepts of force distribution and resistance to suture pull-through. The technique reduces the amount of foreign material required in comparison to sheet meshes, and avoids the shortcomings of monofilament sutures. Mesh sutured closures seem to be tolerant of bacterial contamination with low hernia recurrence rates and have replaced our routine use of mesh sheets and bioprosthetic grafts. PMID:27757361

  2. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  3. [Hereditary angioedema: strange cause of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Salas-Lozano, Nereo Guillermo; Meza-Cardona, Javier; González-Fernández, Coty; Pineda-Figueroa, Laura; de Ariño-Suárez, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el angioedema hereditario es un trastorno inflamatorio episódico, que se hereda de manera autosómica dominante y se caracteriza por episodios de edema periférico. Los pacientes pueden tener edema de la pared de cualquier víscera hueca, incluido el intestino. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 33 años de edad, sin antecedentes de importancia, con dolor abdominal, localizado en el epigastrio, irradiado al cuadrante inferior derecho, acompañado de 5 vómitos. La tomografía abdominal mostró engrosamiento de la pared de la segunda y tercera porción del duodeno, con infiltración de grasa y líquido libre. Los exámenes de laboratorio mostraron: concentraciones bajas del complemento C4 (5.5 mg/dL) y actividad del inhibidor de C1 del complemento de 30%. Conclusiones: el angioedema hereditario es consecuencia de la deficiencia (tipo I) o disfunción (tipo II) del inhibidor C1 del complemento. El dolor abdominal asociado con angioedema es de inicio súbito, como dolor cólico, recurrente y de intensidad moderada. En la actualidad existen dos medicamentos aprobados por la Food and Drug Administration para el tratamiento de pacientes con esta afección.

  4. Spontaneous abscesses of the abdominal wall, omentum and abdominal cavity caused by group G streptococci: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Brabandere, K; Vanpaemel, G; Verheyen, L

    2008-01-01

    We report the first case, to our knowledge, of spontaneous abscess of the abdominal wall, omentum and abdominal cavity caused by group G streptococci. A 52-year-old diabetic woman presented with abdominal tenderness and weight loss that had persisted for a few weeks. CT scan showed several abscesses of the abdominal wall, omentum and abdominal cavity. The abscesses were drained laparoscopically and antibiotics were given postoperatively. Biopsies and cultures showed group G streptococci. The patient recovered without any complication and left our hospital on the 17th postoperative day.

  5. Is abdominal wall tenderness a useful sign in the diagnosis of non-specific abdominal pain?

    PubMed Central

    Gray, D. W.; Dixon, J. M.; Seabrook, G.; Collin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pain arising from the abdominal wall has been implicated as a cause of non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP), and the presence of abdominal wall tenderness (AWT) has been proposed as an accurate diagnostic test for NSAP. One hundred and fifty eight patients admitted to hospital with abdominal pain were tested for the presence of positive AWT. In 53 patients the final diagnosis was appendicitis and positive AWT was found in five. Thirty eight patients were found to have a variety of other recognised pathological diagnoses, none of whom had a positive AWT. In 67 patients a diagnosis of NSAP was made in the absence of other pathological diagnosis, 19 of whom had positive AWT, which was significantly different from the other diagnostic groups. This study confirms the presence of AWT in up to 28% of patients with NSAP, and suggests that testing for AWT is of value in patients with abdominal pain, although a positive AWT is not as accurate a predictor of NSAP as previously reported. PMID:2970820

  6. Transversus abdominal plane block as a sole anesthetic technique for abdominal wall hematoma drainage.

    PubMed

    Varela, N; Golvano, M; Monedero, P

    2016-10-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block is a known and useful technique, widely used for postoperative pain management of abdominal wall incisions. During the past years, and following the expansion of ultrasound guided techniques, its use has even gained more adepts. It is usually used as an adjuvant technique, primarily in order to control postoperative pain and reduce opioids consumption. We report the case of an 82 years old patient admitted for drainage of a postoperative abdominal wall hematoma after correction of a McBurney incisional hernia. The corrective surgery had gone on without incident, under general anesthesia with laryngeal mask. Two weeks later, the patient came back to our emergency department with a clear hematoma of the abdominal wall. Surgery was decided. A sole local anesthetic technique was achieved, using a TAP block. The block was performed under ultrasound guidance, using a subcostal approach. The surgery went on without complications. Therefore, TAP block offers a hemodynamic stability, appropriate intra-operative anesthesia and post-surgical analgesia of the abdominal wall.

  7. [Intra-abdominal pressure as a surgery predictor in patients with acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Campos-Muñoz, Manuel Alejandro; Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Chimal-Torres, Mariano; Pozas-Medina, Josué Atila

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la presión intraabdominal es el estado de equilibrio de la presión de la cavidad abdominal en reposo y puede presentar cambios durante la ventilación mecánica o espontánea. El objetivo fue determinar la presión intraabdominal como predictor de cirugía en el paciente con dolor abdominal agudo. Métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte de pacientes con dolor abdominal agudo en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital de segundo nivel, en el periodo comprendido entre abril y diciembre de 2013. Se incluyeron 37 pacientes, todos fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente con previa toma de la presión intraabdominal. Se formaron los grupos con el resultado del estudio anatomopatológico: con evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 28) y sin evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 9). Resultados: en los casos el 100 % presentó presión intraabdominal alta con una p = 0.01, RM: 5 (IC 95 %: 2.578-9.699). En los casos la media de la presión intraabdominal fue de 11.46 y en los controles de 9.2 (p = 0.183). Conclusiones: el dolor abdominal que requiere cirugía para su resolución tiene relación directa con una presión intraabdominal > 5 mmHg.

  8. Abdominal scar characteristics as a predictor of cervical stenosis after abdominal radical trachelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqi; Li, Jin; Ju, Xingzhu; Chen, Xiaojun; Wu, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether abdominal scar characteristics could predict the occurrence of cervical stenosis after abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART), we conducted a retrospective study and investigated the relationship between abdominal scar characteristics and the occurrence of cervical stenosis in patients one year after undergoing ART. The abdominal scars were evaluated using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Seventy-two participants were enrolled in the study, including 15 (20.8%) women with cervical stenosis, and 57 (79.2%) without stenosis. Results showed that the mean abdominal scar score assessed by VSS was higher in patients with cervical stenosis (7, range: 1–10) compared to those without stenosis (4, range: 0–9) (P = 0.001). Incidence rates of cervical stenosis increased with the VSS score. For women with VSS scores of 0 to 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, respectively, the occurrences of cervical stenosis were 6.1%, 16.7%, 16.7%, 27.3%, 37.5%, 50% and 100%. The cutoff point of VSS score was 7 according to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Fourteen of the 15 stenosis happened either in patients without anti-stenosis tools (Foley catheters or tailed intrauterine devices) placed during the surgery or after the devices were removed. Our results demonstrated that VSS is an effective approach to assess the presence of cervical stenosis after ART. Women who have an abdominal scar with a VSS score > 7 have a high risk of developing isthmic stenosis without anti-stenosis tools in place. PMID:27191256

  9. Remote revascularization of abdominal wall transplants using the forearm.

    PubMed

    Giele, H; Bendon, C; Reddy, S; Ramcharan, R; Sinha, S; Friend, P; Vaidya, A

    2014-06-01

    Primary abdominal wall closure following small bowel transplantation is frequently impossible due to contraction of the abdominal domain. Although abdominal wall transplantation was reported 10 years ago this, technique has not been widely adopted, partly due to its complexity, but largely because of concerns that storing the abdominal allograft until the end of a prolonged intestinal transplant procedure would cause severe ischemia-reperfusion injury. We report six cases of combined small bowel and abdominal wall transplantation where the ischemic time was minimized by remotely revascularizing the abdominal wall on the forearm vessels, synchronous to the intestinal procedure. When the visceral transplant was complete, the abdominal wall was removed from the forearm and revascularized on the abdomen (n = 4), or used to close the abdomen while still vascularized on the forearm (n = 2). Primary abdominal wall closure was achieved in all. Mean cold ischemia was 305 min (300-330 min), and revascularization on the arm was 50 min (30-60 min). Three patients had proven abdominal wall rejection, all treated successfully. Immediate revascularization of the abdominal wall allograft substantially reduces cold ischemia without imposing constraints on the intestinal transplant. Reducing storage time may also have benefits with respect to ischemia-reperfusion-related graft immunogenicity.

  10. Yeast acetic acid-induced programmed cell death can occur without cytochrome c release which requires metacaspase YCA1.

    PubMed

    Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Bobba, Antonella; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2010-01-04

    To investigate the role of cytochrome c (cyt c) release in yeast acetic acid-induced programmed cell death (AA-PCD), wild type (wt) and cells lacking metacaspase (Deltayca1), cytochrome c (Deltacyc1,7) and both (Deltacyc1,7Deltayca1) were compared for AA-PCD occurrence, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and caspase activity. AA-PCD occurs in Deltacyc1,7 and Deltacyc1,7Deltayca1 cells slower than in wt, but similar to that in Deltayca1 cells, in which no cytochrome c release occurs. Both H(2)O(2) production and caspase activation occur in these cells with early and extra-activation in Deltacyc1,7 cells. We conclude that alternative death pathways can be activated in yeast AA-PCD, one dependent on cyt c release, which requires YCA1, and the other(s) independent on it.

  11. Combinatorial localized dissolution analysis: Application to acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel and the effect of surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alexander S; Al Botros, Rehab; Kinnear, Sophie L; Snowden, Michael E; McKelvey, Kim; Ashcroft, Alexander T; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew; Peruffo, Massimo; Philpotts, Carol; Unwin, Patrick R

    2016-08-15

    A combination of scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively study the acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel. A micron-scale liquid meniscus formed at the end of a dual barrelled pipette, which constitutes the SECCM probe, is brought into contact with the enamel surface for a defined period. Dissolution occurs at the interface of the meniscus and the enamel surface, under conditions of well-defined mass transport, creating etch pits that are then analysed via AFM. This technique is applied to bovine dental enamel, and the effect of various treatments of the enamel surface on acid dissolution (1mM HNO3) is studied. The treatments investigated are zinc ions, fluoride ions and the two combined. A finite element method (FEM) simulation of SECCM mass transport and interfacial reactivity, allows the intrinsic rate constant for acid-induced dissolution to be quantitatively determined. The dissolution of enamel, in terms of Ca(2+) flux ( [Formula: see text] ), is first order with respect to the interfacial proton concentration and given by the following rate law: [Formula: see text] , with k0=0.099±0.008cms(-1). Treating the enamel with either fluoride or zinc ions slows the dissolution rate, although in this model system the partly protective barrier only extends around 10-20nm into the enamel surface, so that after a period of a few seconds dissolution of modified surfaces tends towards that of native enamel. A combination of both treatments exhibits the greatest protection to the enamel surface, but the effect is again transient.

  12. Involvement of cyclooxygenase-1, prostaglandin E2 and EP1 receptors in acid-induced HCO3- secretion in stomach.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Aihara, E; Sasaki, Y; Nomura, Y; Ise, F

    2006-12-01

    We investigated the cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms as well as prostaglandin E receptor EP subtypes responsible for acid-induced gastric HCO(3)(-) secretion in rats and EP receptor-knockout (-/-) mice. Under urethane anesthesia, a chambered stomach (in the presence of omeprazole) was perfused with saline, and HCO(3)(-) secretion was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat method and by adding 2 mM HCl. Mucosal acidification was achieved by exposing the stomach for 10 min to 50 or 100 mM HCl. Acidification of the mucosa increased the secretion of HCO(3)(-) in the stomach of both rats and WT mice, in an indomethacin-inhibitable manner. The acid-induced gastric HCO(3)(-) secretion was inhibited by prior administration of indomethacin and SC-560 but not rofecoxib in rats and mice. Acidification increased the PGE(2) content of the rat stomach, and this response was significantly attenuated by indomethacin and SC-560 but not rofecoxib. This response was also attenuated by ONO-8711 (EP1 antagonist) but not AE3-208 (EP4 antagonist) in rats and disappeared in EP1 (-/-) but not EP3 (-/-) mice. PGE(2) increased gastric HCO(3)(-) secretion in both rats and WT mice, and this action was inhibited by ONO-8711 and disappeared in EP1 (-/-) but not EP3 (-/-) mice. These results support a mediator role for endogenous PGs in the gastric response induced by mucosal acidification and clearly indicate that the enzyme responsible for production of PGs in this process is COX-1. They further show that the presence of EP1 receptors is essential for the increase in the secretion of HCO(3)(-) in response to mucosal acidification in the stomach.

  13. Galantamine potentiates the protective effect of rofecoxib and caffeic acid against intrahippocampal Kainic acid-induced cognitive dysfunction in rat.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Atish; Pahwa, Deeksha

    2011-05-30

    Role of neuroinflammatory mediators particularly cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), have been well suggested in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Rofecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase 2 enzymes belongs to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, commonly called as coxibs. Whereas, caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is one of the natural phenolic compounds and reported to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity as one of mechanisms. Present study has been designed to investigate the effects of rofecoxib, caffeic acid and its potentiation by galantamine against intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced cognitive impairment, oxidative damage and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme alterations in rats. Kainic acid (KA) was administrated in the hippocampus region of rat brain. Various behavioral (locomotor activity and memory performances were assessed by using actophotometer and Morris water maze respectively) followed by oxidative stress, mitochondrial enzyme complex were assessed. Intrahippocampal administration of KA significantly impaired locomotor activity, memory performance, mitochondrial enzyme complexes and caused oxidative stress as compared to sham treatment. Rofecoxib (5 and 10mg/kg), caffeic acid (5 and 10mg/kg), Gal (2.5 and 5mg/kg) treatment for 14 days significantly improved locomotor activity, memory retention and oxidative defense (as evidenced by decrease lipid peroxidation, nitrite, increased superoxide dismutase activity and redox ratio) in hippocampus. Besides, alterations in the levels of mitochondrial enzymes and acetylcholine esterase enzyme were significantly restored by rofecoxib and caffeic acid as compared to control. Further, combination of rofecoxib (5mg/kg) with caffeic acid (5mg/kg) and lower dose of gal (2.5mg/kg) with rofecoxib (5mg/kg) treatments significantly potentiated their protective effect which was significant as compared to their effect per se. The results of the present study suggest that galantamine

  14. Cytoreductive strategy for multiple intra-abdominal and abdominal wall desmoid tumors in familial adenomatous polyposis: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Koji; Toiyama, Yuji; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Kawamoto, Aya; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Araki, Toshimitsu; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2012-10-01

    Desmoid tumors (DTs) are benign myofibroblastic neoplasms originating from the fascia or muscle aponeurosis, which occur in one-third of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Most FAP-associated DTs occur in the intra-abdominal or abdominal wall region, thus, their infiltrative or expansive growth causes life-threatening organ damage, such as intestinal obstruction, urethral obstruction, and mesenteric infiltration with the involvement of mesenteric vessels. Treatments including surgical resection, cytotoxic chemotherapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-estrogen therapy have all been tried with variable success. Here, we report on three patients with FAP who developed multiple intra-abdominal and abdominal wall DTs after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Two cases underwent surgical resection of uncontrolled abdominal wall DTs after successful control of intra-abdominal DTs by systemic chemotherapy. The remaining case underwent repeated surgical resections of multiple intra-abdominal and abdominal wall DTs, and consequently had recurrent intra-abdominal DTs, with involvement of the small bowel and ureter. Surgical intervention as tumor volume reduction (cytoreduction) may be useful for cases with medical treatment-refractory or symptomatic FAP-associated abdominal DTs.

  15. Standard versus Abdominal Lifting and Compression CPR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Han, Shupeng; Zhang, Ziran; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yahua; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study compared outcomes of abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ALP-CPR) with standard CPR (STD-CPR). Materials and Methods. Patients with cardiac arrest seen from April to December 2014 were randomized to receive standard CPR or ALP-CPR performed with a novel abdominal lifting/compression device. The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Results. Patients were randomized to receive ALP-CPR (n = 40) and STD-CPR (n = 43), and the groups had similar baseline characteristics. After CPR, 9 (22.5%) and 7 (16.3%) patients in the ALP-CPR and STD-CPR groups, respectively, obtained ROSC. At 60 minutes after ROSC, 7 (77.8%) and 2 (28.6%) patients, respectively, in the ALP-CPR and STD-CPR groups survived (P = 0.049). Patients in the ALP-CPR group had a significantly higher heart rate and lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) than those in the STD-CPR group (heart rate: 106.8 versus 79.0, P < 0.001; MAP: 60.0 versus 67.3 mm Hg, P = 0.003). The posttreatment PCO2 was significantly lower in ALP-CPR group than in STD-CPR group (52.33 versus 58.81, P = 0.009). PO2 was significantly increased after ALP-CPR (45.15 to 60.68, P < 0.001), but it was not changed after STD-CPR. PO2 after CPR was significantly higher in the ALP-CPR group (60.68 versus 44.47, P < 0.001). There were no differences between genders and for patients who are > 65 or ≤ 65 years of age. Conclusions. The abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation device used in this study is associated with a higher survival rate after ROSC than standard CPR. PMID:27882073

  16. Duodenal perforation as result of blunt abdominal trauma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hartholt, Klaas Albert; Dekker, Jan Willem T

    2015-12-23

    Blunt abdominal trauma may cause severe intra-abdominal injuries, while clinical findings could be mild or absent directly after the trauma. The absence of clinical findings could mislead physicians into underestimating the severity of the injury at the primary survey, and inevitably leads to a delay in the diagnosis. The Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score may help to identify children who are at a high risk for intra-abdominal injuries in an early stage and requires additional tests directly. A case of a 10-year-old girl with a duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is presented. A delay in diagnosis may lead to an increased morbidity and mortality rate. A low admission threshold for children with abdominal pain after a blunt trauma is recommended.

  17. Vertically transmitted hypoplasia of the abdominal wall musculature.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuin-Chew; Bird, Lynne M

    2004-01-01

    The prune belly syndrome (OMIM 100100) is an association of bladder dilation with hypoplasia of the abdominal wall muscles. This malformation sequence is due to early urethral obstruction. We report a family with abdominal wall muscular hypoplasia as an isolated defect, not associated with the urethral obstruction sequence. The proband is a q3-year-old male who presented with abdominal wall laxity and severe constipation. His mother, maternal grandmother and younger brother had varying degrees of abdominal wall muscular deficiency and constipation. His mother's condition was aggravated by her 2 pregnancies. This family shows vertical transmission (compatible with autosomal dominant or mitochondrial inheritance) of the abdominal phenotype of prune belly sequence without any evidence of urinary tract or renal pathology. The expression in the sons may remain incomplete because abdominal distention due to pregnancy will not occur.

  18. [Unusual abdominal complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt].

    PubMed

    Guillén, A; Costa, J M; Castelló, I; Claramunt, E; Cardona, E

    2002-10-01

    The most common complications after CSF shunting to treat hydrocephalus are shunt infection and obstruction. Although ventriculoperitoneal (VP) diversion of the CSF using artificial shunt devices is an accepted method for the management of hydrocephalus, high rates of various complications have been reported, ranging from 24% to 47%. Among these, abdominal complications account for approximately 25%. The incidence of bowel perforation by shunt-catheter is known to be as low as 0.1-0.7%. We describe a case of migration af a peritoneal catheter through a congenital hernia of Morgagni.

  19. Should intensivist do routine abdominal ultrasound?

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Sukhen; Samanta, Sujay; Soni, Kapil Dev; Aggarwal, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Roundworm infestation is common in tropical climate population with a low socioeconomic status. We describe a case of a young male with polytrauma accident who presented with small bowel dysfunction with a high gastric residual volume during enteral feeding. While searching the etiology, the intensivist performed bedside abdominal ultrasound (USG) as a part of whole body USG screening along with clinical examination using different frequency probes to examine bowel movement and ultimately found ascariasis to be the cause. This case report will boost up the wide use of bedside USG by critical care physicians in their patient workup. PMID:26430346

  20. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic.

  1. Abdominal Wall Haematoma Complicating Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tate, J. J. T.; Davidson, B. R.; Hobbs, K. E. F.

    1994-01-01

    Of 61 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 4 (6.25%) developed abdominal wall haematomas. This complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy may occur more commonly than existing literature suggests, and manifests in the post-operative period (days 2 to 6) by visible bruising, excessive pain or an asymptomatic drop in haematocrit. It is readily confirmed by ultrasonography. While no specific treatment is necessary apart from replacement of significant blood loss, the patient requires reassurance that this apparently alarming complication will rapidly resolve. PMID:8204548

  2. Surrogate Markers of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Wanhainen, Anders; Mani, Kevin; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The natural course of many abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is to gradually expand and eventually rupture and monitoring the disease progression is essential to their management. In this publication, we review surrogate markers of AAA progression. AAA diameter remains the most widely used and important marker of AAA growth. Standardized reporting of reproducible methods of measuring AAA diameter is essential. Newer imaging assessments, such as volume measurements, biomechanical analyses, and functional and molecular imaging, as well as circulating biomarkers, have potential to add important information about AAA progression. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in clinical practice.

  3. Standing diagnostic and therapeutic equine abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sarah; Freeman, David

    2014-04-01

    The widespread use of laparoscopy in equine surgery has increased interest in the standing approach to a wide range of procedures typically regarded as feasible only through a ventral midline incision. Although a commonly cited benefit of standing surgery relates to avoiding costs of general anesthesia and risks associated with it, some procedures and horses are not suitable candidates for standing abdominal procedures. Some procedures, such as nephrectomy, colostomy, and closure of the nephrosplenic space, are not only suitable for standing surgery but are performed more easily and more safely through this approach than with general anesthesia.

  4. THE PRESENT STATUS OF ABDOMINAL FASCIAL TRANSPLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Lowman, C. L.

    1949-01-01

    In recent years improvements have been made in techniques for transplanting fascia into the muscles of the abdomen to take over the function of paralyzed muscles. The techniques are described in this presentation. Since muscular coordination of pelvis and thorax plays an important part in control of the extremities, better methods of placing transplants across the abdomen to link these regions offer, coincidentally, the benefit of better use of muscles in the arms and legs. If done early and skillfully, abdominal fascial transplants and allied transplants not only aid in restoring function but often prevent deformities. PMID:18149114

  5. Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Jorge; Gonçalves, Matilde; Matos, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 × 9 × 9 cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:25349753

  6. Abdominal Pain Caused by a Potentially Fatal Attraction.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Danielle Claire; Scace, Candace; Shah, Bhairav; Weiner, Evan; Prasad, Rajeev

    2016-11-19

    Abdominal pain is a challenging presentation in children. Examination findings and etiology vary greatly, spanning a vast spectrum from flatulence to frank peritonitis with septic shock. Here, we discuss a 10-year-old boy with 24 hours of progressively worsening lower abdominal pain, nausea, and subjective fevers. History and physical examination findings were consistent with appendicitis. However, physicians were surprised when the single-view abdominal radiograph showed an unanticipated, somewhat perplexing discovery.

  7. Modern reconstructive techniques for abdominal wall defects after oncologic resection.

    PubMed

    Khansa, Ibrahim; Janis, Jeffrey E

    2015-04-01

    Resection of abdominal wall tumors often leaves patients with debilitating soft tissue defects. Modern reconstructive techniques can be used to restore abdominal wall integrity. In this article, we present an overview of preoperative patient evaluation, analysis of the defect, surgical planning, and the spectrum of available surgical techniques, ranging from simple to complex. The established clinical evidence in the field of abdominal wall reconstruction is summarized and a case example is provided.

  8. Wireless system for monitoring Intra-abdominal pressure in patient with severe abdominal pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskiy, S. S.; Shtotskiy, Y. V.; Leljanov, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses an experimental design of the wireless system for monitoring intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) using Bluetooth Low Energy technology. The possibility of measuring IAP via the bladder using a wireless pressure sensor with a hydrophobic bacteria filter between the liquid transmitting medium and the sensor element is grounded.

  9. [Abdominal artery aneurysm and associated surgical abdominal diseases: towards optimal timing].

    PubMed

    Stilo, Francesco; Mirenda, Francesco; Mandolfino, Tommaso; La Spada, Michele; D'Alfonso, Mario; Carmignani, Amedeo; De Caridi, Giovanni; Benedetto, Filippo; Spinelli, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess which modalities offered the best timing in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms associated with other abdominal surgical diseases. From January 1984 to December 2002, 372 patients underwent surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms, 350 men (94%) and 22 women (6%), mean age 72 years. Of these 10% were operated on urgently. The traditional open technique was used in 307 patients, and the endovascular method in the remaining 65 cases. In 40 patients (11%) we observed other associated abdominal diseases which were treated during the same operation in 34 cases (85%). We had three deaths in the 34 cases treated in the same operation (9%). In the remaining cases no perioperative mortality was registered. There were no cases of prosthesis infection. The mean hospital stay was 9 days. Simultaneous treatment appears, on the one hand, to carry an increased operative risk and increased mortality and, on the other, to present the advantage of having to perform only one surgical procedure. The advent of the endovascular method allows us to postpone the treatment of the associated disease without increasing the technical difficulty of the second operation.

  10. Intra-abdominal pulmonary secuestration as an exceptional cause of abdominal mass in the adult☆

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sanz, C.; Herrero Bogajo, M.L.; Picazo-Yeste, J.; Morandeira Rivas, A.; Manzanera-Diaz, M.; Sedano-Vizcaino, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is an extremely rare malformation defined as a portion of lung tissue isolated from the pulmonary system. PSs are classified into intralobar type and intra-abdominal PS that represents only 2.5% of cases. There are 20 cases of PS reported in adults and only two were managed by laparoscopic approach. We report a case of intra-abdominal PS mimicking a gastroesophageal duplication cyst in an adult. Besides its rarity, this is the first intra-abdominal PS in an adult managed by an anterior laparoscopic approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old female patient had had epigastric and left upper quadrant pain for several days. Physical examination was normal. Image test were consistent with a gastroesophageal duplication. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic exploration and resection. The pathological diagnosis was extralobar pulmonary sequestration. DISCUSSION Less than 20 cases of PS have been reported in adults and only two cases were managed by a lateral laparoscopic approach. In contrast to these reports, we used an anterior approach due to the GEJ suspected origin of the mass. CONCLUSION Extralobar intra-abdominal PS is an extremely rare condition during adulthood but this diagnosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a left-sided suprarenal mass. Due to the difficulty in achieving a definitive preoperative diagnosis, surgery is recommended. Laparoscopic resection is safe and effective but careful preoperative imaging studies are recommended in order to plan the most suitable approach. PMID:24091075

  11. The link between abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Liza K; Prins, Johannes B

    2008-04-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors associated with abdominal obesity is well established. Although currently lacking a universal definition, the metabolic syndrome describes a constellation of metabolic abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, and was originally introduced to characterize a population at high cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes several inflammatory and immune mediators known as adipokines. Dysregulation of adipokine secretion, free fatty acid toxicity, and the site-specific differences in abdominal (visceral) versus subcutaneous fat support abdominal obesity as a causal factor mediating the insulin resistance, increased risk of diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency presenting as recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

    PubMed

    Mhanni, Aizeddin A; Prasad, Chitra; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl

    2011-09-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain remains one of the most common symptoms in pediatrics. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who had recurrent episodes of abdominal pain requiring more than 13 visits to the emergency department. A diagnosis of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency was eventually made. Urea cycle disorders often present beyond the neonatal period with frequent vomiting episodes; however, recurrent abdominal pain as a presenting symptom is unusual. Unnecessary invasive investigations of recurrent abdominal pain in childhood can be avoided by considering inborn errors of metabolism earlier in the differential diagnosis.

  13. Abdominal compartment syndrome after endovascular repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm leads to acute intestinal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiyang; Zhao, Jichun; Huang, Bin; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Ma, Yukui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) after endovascular repair (EVAR) of rupture abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) is a rare emergency situation, which has a high mortality. However, the progression of ACS is rapid and the diagnosis is usually been delayed, which increase the difficulties in treatment and affect the prognosis. We describe a case of a sever complication (acute intestinal necrosis) resulting from ACS after endovascular repair of rAAA. Clinical Finding: An elderly man, 81 years old, complained a sudden lower abdominal and back pain without any predisposing cause. He had a history of hypertension for 20 years without any regular anti-hypertensive therapy. Physical Examination revealed that the blood pressure was 89/54 mmHg, pulse was 120/min, oxygen saturation was 91%. The abdominal ultrasound and the CTA (computed tomography angiography) scan revealed a rAAA. Emergency EVAR under general anesthesia was performed for this patient. Diagnosis: Fourteen hours after endovascular repair, sudden decreased of blood pressure (70/50 mmHg) and oxygen saturation (70%) was observed. ACS or bleeding of retroperitoneal space was diagnosed. Interventions: Abdominal laparotomy was immediately performed. ACS was verified and a severe complication (acute intestinal necrosis) was observed, intestinal resection was performed for this patient. Outcomes: Unfortunately, this patient died after operation because of multi-organ failure in a very short period, which is very rare regarding to this condition. Surgical pathology, diagnosis and management were discussed. Conclusion: ACS was occurred with a severe complication (acute intestinal necrosis) in a very short period, which is very rare regarding to this condition after EVAR, it reminds us the severe result of ACS and more methods to prevent it happened after surgical management. PMID:27893667

  14. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® pulsatile abdominal mass, suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Benoit; Dill, Karin E; Flamm, Scott D; Francois, Christopher J; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Mansour, M Ashraf; Mohler, Emile R; Oliva, Isabel B; Schenker, Matthew P; Weiss, Clifford; Rybicki, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    Clinical palpation of a pulsating abdominal mass alerts the clinician to the presence of a possible abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Generally an arterial aneurysm is defined as a localized arterial dilatation ≥50% greater than the normal diameter. Imaging studies are important in diagnosing the cause of a pulsatile abdominal mass and, if an AAA is found, in determining its size and involvement of abdominal branches. Ultrasound (US) is the initial imaging modality of choice when a pulsatile abdominal mass is present. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) may be substituted in patients for whom US is not suitable. When aneurysms have reached the size threshold for intervention or are clinically symptomatic, contrast-enhanced multidetector CT angiography (CTA) is the best diagnostic and preintervention planning study, accurately delineating the location, size, and extent of aneurysm and the involvement of branch vessels. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may be substituted if CT cannot be performed. Catheter arteriography has some utility in patients with significant contraindications to both CTA and MRA. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  15. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  16. A reappraisal of adult abdominal surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo.

  17. Effects of Cryolipolysis on Abdominal Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rodrigo Marcel Valentim; Oliveira, Glenda; Tavares, Maely Azevedo da Silva; Medeiros, Melyssa Lima; Andrada, Camila Procopio; Neto, Luis Gonzaga de Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive technique of localized fat reduction. Controlled cold exposure is performed in the selective destruction of fat cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cryolipolysis on adipocytes elimination through histological and sonographic analyses. This study reports the case of a 46-year-old female patient, with complaint of localized abdominal fat and in the preoperative period of abdominoplasty. The patient was submitted to a single 60-minute application of cryolipolysis, temperature of −5°C, on the hypogastrium area, 5 cm below the umbilicus. To study the effects of this treatment, ultrasound images taken before the session and 7, 15, 30, and 45 days after the therapy were analysed. After the abdominoplasty, parts of the treated and the untreated withdrawn abdominal tissues were evaluated macro- and microscopically. In ultrasound images, as well as in macroscopic and histological analyses, significant adipocytes destruction was detected, with consequent fat layer reduction and integrity of areas that were adjacent to the treated tissue. The presence of fibrosis observed during therapy and acknowledged through performed analyses encourages further studies to clarify such finding. PMID:27895944

  18. Abdominal Drainage Following Appendectomy and Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Stone, H. Harlan; Hooper, C. Ann; Millikan, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendectomy (283) or urgent cholecystectomy (51) were prospectively studied for the development of post-operative incisional or peritoneal sepsis. Severity of the original peritoneal infection was carefully recorded, while use of a Penrose dam to drain the peritoneum was randomized according to pre-assigned hospital number. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures were taken from the abdomen at the time of operation as well as from all postoperative infectious foci. Results demonstrated no essential differences in incidence of wound and peritoneal infection following appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis (187) or following cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (51). However, with gangrenous or perforative appendicitis (94), incisional and intra-abdominal infection rates were 43% and 45%, respectively, when a drain was used; yet only 29 and 13%, respectively, without a drain. These latter differences were significant (p < 0.001). In addition, intra-abdominal abscesses were three times as likely to drain through the incision than along any tract provided by the rubber conduit. Cultures revealed that hospital pathogens accounted for a greater proportion of wound and peritoneal sepsis after cholecystectomy and appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis if a drain had been inserted than if managed otherwise. By contrast, a mixed bacterial flora was responsible for most infections following appendectomy for gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, irrespective as to use of a drain. PMID:646499

  19. Mesenteric calcification following abdominal stab wound

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Caitlin W.; Velopulos, Catherine G.; Sacks, Justin M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Heterotopic ossification (HO) refers to the formation of bone in non-ossifying tissue. Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is a rare form of HO that is characterized by the formation of an ossifying pseudotumour at the base of the mesentery, usually following abdominal surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe a case of mesenteric HO in a young male who presented for elective ventral incisional hernia repair following a stab wound to the abdomen requiring exploratory laparotomy 21 months earlier. Preoperative workup was unremarkable, but a hard, bone-like lesion was noted to encircle the base of the mesentery upon entering the abdomen, consistent with HO. The lesion was excised with close margins, and his hernia was repaired without incident. DISCUSSION Traumatic HO describes the ossification of extra-skeletal tissue that specifically follows a traumatic event. It usually occurs adjacent to skeletal tissue, but has been occasionally described in the abdomen as well, usually in patients who suffer abdominal trauma. Overall the prognosis of HO is good, as it is considered a benign lesion with no malignant potential. However, the major morbidity associated with mesenteric HO is bowel obstruction. CONCLUSION The size, location, and symptoms related to our patient's mesenteric HO put him risk for obstruction in the future. As a result, the mass was surgically excised during his ventral hernia repair with good outcomes. PMID:24981165

  20. Methods for abdominal respiratory motion tracking.

    PubMed

    Spinczyk, Dominik; Karwan, Adam; Copik, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive surface registration methods have been developed to register and track breathing motions in a patient's abdomen and thorax. We evaluated several different registration methods, including marker tracking using a stereo camera, chessboard image projection, and abdominal point clouds. Our point cloud approach was based on a time-of-flight (ToF) sensor that tracked the abdominal surface. We tested different respiratory phases using additional markers as landmarks for the extension of the non-rigid Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm to improve the matching of irregular meshes. Four variants for retrieving the correspondence data were implemented and compared. Our evaluation involved 9 healthy individuals (3 females and 6 males) with point clouds captured in opposite breathing phases (i.e., inhalation and exhalation). We measured three factors: surface distance, correspondence distance, and marker error. To evaluate different methods for computing the correspondence measurements, we defined the number of correspondences for every target point and the average correspondence assignment error of the points nearest the markers.

  1. Olodaterol attenuates citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Wex, Eva; Bouyssou, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR), have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p < 0.01). Formoterol and salmeterol showed a trend towards reducing cough. On the contrary, indacaterol demonstrated pro-tussive properties as it significantly increased the number of coughs, both in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized animals (p < 0.001). In conclusion, olodaterol, at doses eliciting bronchodilation, showed antitussive properties in a model of citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve activation and the

  2. Fiber architecture of canine abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Boriek, Aladin M; Ortize, Jaime; Zhu, Deshen

    2002-02-01

    During respiration, abdominal muscles experience loads, not only in the muscle-fiber direction but also transverse to the fibers. We wondered whether the abdominal muscles exhibit a fiber architecture that is similar to the diaphragm muscle, and, therefore, we chose two adjacent muscles: the internal oblique (IO), with about the same muscle length as the diaphragm, and the transverse abdominis (TA), which is twice as long as the diaphragm. First, we used acetylcholinesterase staining to examine the distribution of neuromuscular junctions on both surfaces of the TA and IO muscles in six dogs. A maximum of four irregular bands of neuromuscular junctions crossed the IO, and as many as six bands crossed the TA, which is consistent with a discontinuous fiber architecture. In six additional dogs, we examined fiber architecture of these muscles by microdissecting 103 fascicles from the IO and 139 from the TA. Each fascicle contained between 20 and 30 muscle fibers. The mean length of nonspanning fibers (NSF) ranged from 2.8 +/- 0.3 cm in the IO to 4.3 +/- 0.5 cm in the TA, and the mean length of spanning fibers ranged from 4.3 +/- 0.5 cm in the IO to 7.6 +/- 1.4 cm in the TA. NSF accounted for 89.6 +/- 1.5% of all fibers dissected from the IO and 99.1 +/- 0.2% of all fibers dissected from the TA. The percentage of NSF with both ends tapered was 6.2 +/- 1.0 and 41.0 +/- 2.3% for IO and TA, respectively. These data show that fiber architecture in either IO or TA is discontinuous, with much more short-tapered fibers in the TA than in the IO. When abdominal muscles are submaximally activated, as during both normal expiration and maximal expiratory efforts, muscle force could be transmitted to the cell membrane and to the extracellular intramuscular connective tissue by shear linkage, presumably via structural transmembrane proteins.

  3. Abdominal Cysticercosis in a Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes ).

    PubMed

    Whipp, Christopher James; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Conboy, Gary; Gelens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    A large abdominal mass containing numerous cysticerci identified as those of Taenia crassiceps (=Cysticercus longicollis) was found in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity of a severely constipated and emaciated red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Cysticercosis has not previously been reported in a wild canid in North America.

  4. Practical Approaches to Definitive Reconstruction of Complex Abdominal Wall Defects.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat

    2016-04-01

    With advances in abdominal surgery and the management of major trauma, complex abdominal wall defects have become the new surgical disease, and the need for abdominal wall reconstruction has increased dramatically. Subsequently, how to reconstruct these large defects has become a new surgical question. While most surgeons use native abdominal wall whenever possible, evidence suggests that synthetic or biologic mesh needs to be added to large ventral hernia repairs. One particular group of patients who exemplify "complex" are those with contaminated wounds, enterocutaneous fistulas, enteroatmospheric fistulas, and/or stoma(s), where synthetic mesh is to be avoided if at all possible. Most recently, biologic mesh has become the new standard in high-risk patients with contaminated and dirty-infected wounds. While biologic mesh is the most common tissue engineered used in this field of surgery, level I evidence is needed on its indication and long-term outcomes. Various techniques for reconstructing the abdominal wall have been described, however the long-term outcomes for most of these studies, are rarely reported. In this article, I outline current practical approaches to perioperative management and definitive abdominal reconstruction in patients with complex abdominal wall defects, with or without fistulas, as well as those who have lost abdominal domain.

  5. Tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap for abdominal wall reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Peled, I.J.; Kaplan, H.Y.; Herson, M.; Wexler, M.R.

    1983-08-01

    We report a case of abdominal wall reconstruction following excision of irradiated skin and a ventral hernia. A very large tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap was used with good results. The anatomical features of this flap make it an excellent method of abdominal wall reconstruction.

  6. Endovascular Repair of a Blunt Abdominal Aortic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, William D.; Tan, Tze-Woei; Farber, Alik

    2012-01-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic injury is an uncommon traumatic finding. In the past, treatment options have traditionally consisted of open operative repair; however, the development of endovascular surgery has created new interventional possibilities. This case is presented to demonstrate the applications of endovascular abdominal aortic repair for a blunt traumatic injury. PMID:23730142

  7. Management of Abdominal Wounds in Thermally Injured Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Acute inflammatory disease 5 Superior mesenteric artery syndrome 4 Biliary tract disease 4 surface in the patients with abdominal burns, and only...ity of these critically ill patients were equally affected by polypropylene was used for fascial closure, the wound ileus , sepsis, abdominal distention

  8. Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis following the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Ayerdi, Juan; Gupta, Sushil K; Sampson, Lawrence N; Deshmukh, Narayan

    2002-04-01

    Complications from the Heimlich maneuver are relatively infrequent. Two fatal cases of abdominal aortic thrombosis have been reported following this technique. We report on the first patient that suffered an acute thrombosis of the abdominal aorta and survived. Prompt recognition of this complication provides the only hope of survival from this rare and catastrophic complication.

  9. [Abdominal gunshot wounds. Ballistic data and practical management].

    PubMed

    Vicq, P; Jourdan, P; Chapuis, O; Baranger, B

    1996-01-01

    The mortality from abdominal gunshot wounds remains high, either in civilian or military cases. The severity factors of these wounds include bullet calibre and energy transfer of the missile. This paper studies some of the ballistics features of abdominal gunshot wounds. Practical guidelines are inferred concerning diagnosis and treatment of these wounds.

  10. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings*

    PubMed Central

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. PMID:27777480

  11. Understanding the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Tromp, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Summary An aortic aneurysm is a dilatation in which the aortic diameter is ≥ 3.0 cm. If left untreated, the aortic wall continues to weaken and becomes unable to withstand the forces of the luminal blood pressure resulting in progressive dilatation and rupture, a catastrophic event associated with a mortality of 50 – 80%. Smoking and positive family history are important risk factors for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Several genetic risk factors have also been identified. On the histological level, visible hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. We expect that large genetic, genomic, epigenetic, proteomic and metabolomic studies will be undertaken by international consortia to identify additional risk factors and biomarkers, and to enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of AAA. Collaboration between different research groups will be important in overcoming the challenges to develop pharmacological treatments for AAA. PMID:26308600

  12. Flexible tubular replicas of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Berry, E; Marsden, A; Dalgarno, K W; Kessel, D; Scott, D J A

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture life-size, flexible, tubular replicas of human abdominal aortic aneurysms and the associated vasculature, suitable for use in a training simulator for endovascular procedures. Selective laser sintering was used to create a geometrically correct master model for each of ten anatomical variations. The masters were used to generate flexible latex replicas. The use of the replicas in the training simulator was demonstrated. In total ten silicone rubber models were produced. When connected into the training simulator and perfused at arterial pressure it was possible to deploy an endovascular stent under fluoroscopic control and to perform angiography. The study has shown that conventional rapid prototyping technology can be used to manufacture flexible, radiolucent replicas which provide a realistic training environment for endovascular procedures.

  13. [Ultrasound of the large abdominal vessels].

    PubMed

    Oviedo-García, A A; Algaba-Montes, M; Segura-Grau, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Á

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound has recently become an indispensable tool for the family physician, whether exercised in primary care and emergency department; and likewise it has spread to many other specialties: internal medicine, critical care, neurology, pneumology, digestive, etc. and that ultrasound has proven to be a safe diagnostic tool and have great capacity. We firmly believe that ultrasound done to «bedside» the patient by the family doctor, can greatly complement the physical examination and greatly improve clinical effectiveness, allowing the browser an immediate view of the anatomy and physiology of certain structures. It is within this context is particularly relevant ultrasonography of the Aorta and large abdominal vessels, made by the family doctor or the emergency itself, which will develop along this chapter.

  14. Retroperitoneal abscess: an extra-abdominal manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Mallia, Alvin James; Ashwood, Neil; Arealis, George; Galanopoulos, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Retroperitoneal abscesses are unusual occurrences with occult and insidious presentations. There is often a lack of abdominal signs, leading to delays in drainage and high mortality rates. We report a case of thigh emphysema in an 88-year-old patient with diabetes. Prior to admission the patient reported a vague 4-week history of left thigh pain and an inability to fully weight bear. She presented to our emergency department with sepsis and acute kidney impairment. An X-ray of her left femur revealed widespread gas between muscular planes. A retroperitoneal abscess involving the left renal fossa, psoas, iliacus and upper thigh muscles was revealed on an urgent CT scan. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) and underwent an emergency drainage. Despite ICU the patient died 2 days after admission. PMID:25576509

  15. Retroperitoneal abscess: an extra-abdominal manifestation.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Alvin James; Ashwood, Neil; Arealis, George; Galanopoulos, Ilias

    2015-01-09

    Retroperitoneal abscesses are unusual occurrences with occult and insidious presentations. There is often a lack of abdominal signs, leading to delays in drainage and high mortality rates. We report a case of thigh emphysema in an 88-year-old patient with diabetes. Prior to admission the patient reported a vague 4-week history of left thigh pain and an inability to fully weight bear. She presented to our emergency department with sepsis and acute kidney impairment. An X-ray of her left femur revealed widespread gas between muscular planes. A retroperitoneal abscess involving the left renal fossa, psoas, iliacus and upper thigh muscles was revealed on an urgent CT scan. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) and underwent an emergency drainage. Despite ICU the patient died 2 days after admission.

  16. Postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in feline cadavers.

    PubMed

    Heng, Hock Gan; Teoh, Wen Tian; Sheikh-Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are commonly performed in judicial investigations to rule out gunshot and fractures. However, there was no available data on radiographic postmortem changes of animals. Forty-one sets of abdominal radiographs of feline cadavers made within 12 h of death were evaluated for postmortem changes. Intravascular gas was detected in 11 of 41 (27%) cadavers. The most common site of intravascular gas was the liver. Intravascular gas was also present in the aorta, femoral artery, celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries, and caudal superficial epigastric artery. Intrasplenic gas was detected in two cadavers. Only two cadavers had distended small intestine. One cadaver had pneumatosis coli. The changes detected were most likely due to putrefaction.

  17. Volumetric analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Kevin M.; Kusnick, Catherine A.; Shamsolkottabi, Susanne; Lang, Elvira V.; Corson, J. D.; Stanford, William; Thompson, Brad H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid, reliable and accurate system of measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysms, using volumetric analysis of x-ray computed tomographic data. This study evaluates illustrative cases, and compares measurements of AAA phantoms, using standard 2D versus volumetric methods. To validate the volumetric analysis, four phantom aneurysms were constructed in a range of diameters (4.5 - 7.0 cm) which presents the greatest management challenge to the clinician. These phantoms were imaged using a Toshiba Xpress SX helical CT. Separate scans were obtained at conventional (10 mm X 10 mm) and thin slice (5 mm X 5 mm) collimations. The thin slices were reconstructed at 2 mm intervals. Data from each of the 96 scans were interpreted using a standard 2D approach, then analyzed using task-oriented volumetric software. We evaluate patient assessments, and compare greatest outer diameters of phantoms, by standard versus volumetric methods. Qualitative differences between solutions based on standard versus volumetric analysis of illustrative patient cases are substantial. Expert radiologists' standard measurements of phantom aneurysms are highly reliable (r2 equals 0.901 - 0.958; p < 0.001), but biased toward significant overestimation of aneurysm diameters in the range of clinical interest. For the same phantoms, volumetric analysis was both more reliable (r2 equals 0.986 - 0.996; p < 0.001), and more accurate, with no significant bias in the range of interest. Volumetric analysis promotes selection of more valid management strategies, by providing vital information not otherwise available, and allowing more reliable and accurate assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. It is particularly valuable in the presence of aortic tortuosity, vessel eccentricity, and uncertain involvement of critical vessels.

  18. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  19. Abdominal cocoon accompanied by multiple peritoneal loose body

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yongyuan; Qu, Lintao; Li, Jun; Wang, Bin; Geng, Junzu; Xing, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Abdominal cocoon and peritoneal loose body are both rare abdominal diseases. Patient concerns: The patient reported in this case was a 47-year-old man who suffered from abdominal pain and distension for 3 days. Diagnosis: X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple peritoneal loose body and small bowel obstruction, characterized by a total encapsulation of the small bowel with a fibrous membrane. Interventions: The patient underwent surgical treatment and exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of abdominal cocoon. Outcomes: Histopathological examination of pelvic nodules confirmed peritoneal loose body. Lessons: To our knowledge, the herein reported case is the first abdominal cocoon that was accompanied by multiple peritoneal loose body. PMID:28248873

  20. Abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty: A case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanah, Arash; Izadpanah, Ali; Karunanayake, Mihiran; Petropolis, Christian; Deckelbaum, Dan L.; Luc, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery. PMID:25190927

  1. Abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty: A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Izadpanah, Arash; Izadpanah, Ali; Karunanayake, Mihiran; Petropolis, Christian; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Luc, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery.

  2. [Abdominal ectopic pregnancy. A case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Puch-Ceballos, Eduardo Erik; Vázquez-Castro, Rosbel; Osorio-Pérez, Ana Isabel; Ramos-Ayala, Montserrat; Villarreal-Sosa, Conrado Otoniel; Ruvalcaba-Rivera, Everardo

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal ectopic pregnancy is an extremely rare entity, which represents 1% of all ectopic pregnancies and is associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The maternal mortality risk of an abdominal ectopic pregnancy is seven to eight times greater than the risk of a tubal ectopic pregnancy and is 90 times greater than the risk of intrauterine pregnancy. This is a disease of difficult diagnosis that often takes place late. We report the case of a patient with an abdominal ectopic pregnancy, which was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in the second trimester; the patient was suc- cessfully treated with exploratory laparotomy with complete removal of the fetus and placenta. We provide a review of the literature on the risk factors for abdominal ectopic pregnancy, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options.

  3. [Hypogastric abdominal wall reconstruction with a pedicled anterolateral thigh flap].

    PubMed

    Moullot, P; Philandrianos, C; Gonnelli, D; Casanova, D

    2014-10-01

    Looking at a full-thickness abdominal wall defect, it is necessary to use reconstructive surgery techniques. The authors present an original case of reconstruction of the abdominal wall, using an anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) harvested with vascularised fascia lata. We describe the advantages of this technique, which has rarely been used for this indication. An 80-year-old woman presenting a full-thickness abdominal wall defect of 15×18cm was reconstructed by a pedicled ALT flap. Skin wound healing was obtained within 15 days, with no complication. There was no donor site sequela. The pedicled ALT flap appears to be a good solution for hypogastric abdominal wall defect in a one step procedure. Vacularised fascia lata bring with the cutaneous flap is useful to reconstruct the abdominal fascia.

  4. Niche reconstructive techniques for complex abdominal wall reconstruction: a review.

    PubMed

    Sue, Gloria R; Narayan, Deepak

    2014-04-01

    Abdominal wall defects resulting from recurrent hernias, trauma, and radiation necrosis are difficult and challenging to repair given the high rates of recurrence and surgical morbidity. Complex abdominal wall defects often require the transposition of autologous material to bridge the fascial gap. We present a review of niche reconstructive techniques that have been used in complex abdominal wall repair. The specific techniques reviewed include use of delayed and tunneled pedicled tensor fascia lata myofascial flap, de-epithelialized flap closure, free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with or without innervation, and abdominal wall transplant. These niche surgical techniques have great potential to reduce recurrence rates when used in the proper setting for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. More studies are needed to evaluate the relative use of these techniques with the more widely established surgical methods of reconstruction.

  5. Desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Desmoid tumors are rare lesions without any metastatic potential but a strong tendency to invade locally and to recur. These tumors are associated with women of fertile age, especially during and after pregnancy. Case presentation The case of a desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall in a 40-year-old Caucasian man with no relevant family history is presented, describing its appearance on computed tomography and ultrasonography. The patient, who presented with a painless mass in the left anterolateral abdomen, had a history of previous urgent abdominal surgery after a shotgun injury two years earlier. Radical resection of the affected abdominal wall musculature was performed, and the defect was reconstructed with polypropylene mesh. Conclusion The diagnosis of desmoid tumor should be strongly considered even in male patients with an abdominal mass and a history of previous abdominal surgery. The goal of its treatment is complete tumor excision and avoidance of the development of complications such as hernia. PMID:21787413

  6. Secondary abdominal pregnancy in human immunodeficiency virus-positive woman

    PubMed Central

    Manyanga, Hudson; Lwakatare, Flora

    2016-01-01

    We report on an abdominal pregnancy in human immunodeficiency virus-positive mother, currently on antiretroviral therapy, which was discovered incidentally while training the obstetric ultrasound capacity building program. Although abdominal pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, it may be more common in women with HIV infection because they tend to have a higher rate of sexually transmitted diseases than the general population. The positive diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy is difficult to establish and is usually missed during prenatal assessment particularly in settings that lack routine ultrasound examination as is the case in most developing countries. For the management of abdominal pregnancy, surgical intervention is recommended and removal of the placenta is a key controversy. Ultrasonography is considered the front-line and most effective imaging method and an awareness with a high index of suspicion of abdominal pregnancy is vital for reducing associated high maternal and even higher perinatal mortality. PMID:27896258

  7. Abdominal Pain in the Presence of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: If in Doubt, Cut It Out!

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos; Koufopoulos, Georgios; Paulou, Konstantinos; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2017-02-03

    Although small (<5 cm) abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have been associated with symptoms and indication for intervention scarcely, the clinicians should never exclude such potential association especially in the absence of other overt pathological findings. In such cases, a surgical exploration with consequent intervention, if feasible, should be justified to prevent a detrimental evolution in a dubious scenario. In this article, we present 2 cases of patients with small AAA presenting with severe abdominal pain. In the absence of other solid clinical and radiological pathological findings, both patients underwent laparotomy where an inflammatory small AAA was identified and subjected either to resection and restoration with a tube graft or secondary endovascular repair because the periaortic fibrosis precluded the open repair. The characteristics and rationale of treatment modalities are exemplified and discussed.

  8. Incidental discovery of radiopaque pills on abdominal CT in a patient with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Judge, Bryan S; Hoyle, John D

    2008-07-01

    We present a case in which a young female ingested several tablets of an over-the-counter cough and cold remedy over the course of a week. Pill fragments were identifiable and incidentally discovered when a CT scan of the abdomen was performed to evaluate the cause of her abdominal pain. Discovery of radiopaque pills on diagnostic imaging studies warrants further history and appropriate testing to rule out a life-threatening ingestion.

  9. Management of Complex Abdominal Wall Defects Associated with Penetrating Abdominal Trauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-09

    management of the abdominal wall was determined by a multidisciplinary team of general and plastic surgeons, intensivists and specialist nurses . The...otomy is performed when the patient’s physiology has normalised, usually at 12–72 h after the damage control procedure. Closure of the midline... nurse specialist, microbiology, intensive care, the hos- pital medical director and the orthopaedic surgeons if there was concomitant bony or extremity

  10. Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 Modulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Neuronal Differentiation of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Cathrin; Paus, Marie; Frey, Katharina; Schmid, Ramona; Kohl, Zacharias; Mennerich, Detlev; Winkler, Jürgen; Gillardon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background Dominant mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most prevalent cause of Parkinson's disease, however, little is known about the biological function of LRRK2 protein. LRRK2 is expressed in neural precursor cells suggesting a role in neurodevelopment. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, differential gene expression profiling revealed a faster silencing of pluripotency-associated genes, like Nanog, Oct4, and Lin28, during retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation of LRRK2-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells compared to wildtype cultures. By contrast, expression of neurotransmitter receptors and neurotransmitter release was increased in LRRK2+/− cultures indicating that LRRK2 promotes neuronal differentiation. Consistently, the number of neural progenitor cells was higher in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult LRRK2-deficient mice. Alterations in phosphorylation of the putative LRRK2 substrates, translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 and moesin, do not appear to be involved in altered differentiation, rather there is indirect evidence that a regulatory signaling network comprising retinoic acid receptors, let-7 miRNA and downstream target genes/mRNAs may be affected in LRRK2-deficient stem cells in culture. Conclusion/Significance Parkinson's disease-linked LRRK2 mutations that associated with enhanced kinase activity may affect retinoic acid receptor signaling during neurodevelopment and/or neuronal maintenance as has been shown in other mouse models of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21695257

  11. The effect of nedocromil sodium, sodium cromoglycate and codeine phosphate on citric acid-induced cough in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium, sodium cromoglycate and codeine phosphate on citric acid-induced cough have been studied in conscious tracheostomised dogs. 2. Nedocromil sodium (approximately 15 mg given as an aerosol) and codeine phosphate (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) significantly increased the time to the first cough when dogs were challenged with citric acid aerosol. The mean number of coughs in the initial period of coughing fell after treatment of dogs with nedocromil sodium or with codeine phosphate, but this reduction in mean cough number was not statistically significant. 3. Neither sodium cromoglycate (approximately 15 mg given as an aerosol) nor saline had significant effect on a citric acid challenge. 4. It is concluded that nedocromil sodium, but not sodium cromoglycate, possesses an anti-tussive action that may result from inhibition of sensory nerve activity in the lung. Nedocromil sodium may prove useful in the treatment of unproductive cough in situations where the use of a centrally-acting antitussive is undesirable. PMID:2836011

  12. Biocontrol agents-mediated suppression of oxalic acid induced cell death during Sclerotinia sclerotiorum-pea interaction.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akansha; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Surendra; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-05-01

    Oxalic acid (OA) is an important pathogenic factor during early Sclerotinia sclerotiorum-host interaction and might work by reducing hydrogen peroxide production (H2 O2 ). In the present investigation, oxalic acid-induced cell death in pea was studied. Pea plants treated with biocontrol agents (BCAs) viz., Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Bacillus subtilis BHHU100, and Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27 either singly and/or in consortium acted on S. sclerotiorum indirectly by enabling plants to inhibit the OA-mediated suppression of oxidative burst via induction of H2 O2 . Our results showed that BCA treated plants upon treatment with culture filtrate of the pathogen, conferred the resistance via. significantly decreasing relative cell death of pea against S. sclerotiorum compared to control plants without BCA treatment but treated with the culture filtrate of the pathogen. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the microbes especially in consortia play significant role in protection against S. sclerotiorum by modulating oxidative burst and partially enhancing tolerance by increasing the H2 O2 generation, which is otherwise suppressed by OA produced by the pathogen.

  13. Rheological and physical properties of camel and cow milk gels enriched with phosphate and calcium during acid-induced gelation.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Mohammad; Foukani, Mohammed; Karoui, Romdhane

    2017-02-01

    The rheological properties of acid-induced coagulation of camel and cow milk gels following the addition of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4*2H2O) were investigated using a dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology. For a considered condition, the final values of storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of camel milk gels were significantly lower than those of cow milk gels. The increase of the added CaCl2 levels improved significantly the gelation properties of camel and cow milk gels, since a reduction in the gelation time and an increase in the gel firmness were observed. Following the addition of Na2HPO4*2H2O at 10 and 20 mM, no significant effect on the gelation rate and the firmness of camel milk gels was observed, while, a significant decrease in the gelation rate and firmness were observed for cow milk gels.

  14. Protective Effect of Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) Skin Collagen Peptides on Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Huina; Wang, Zhicong; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Bafang

    2016-07-01

    This research was performed to explore the protective effect of cod skin collagen peptides (CCP) on gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid. The CCP were fractionated into low molecular CCP (LMCCP, Mw < 3 kDa) and high molecular CCP (HMCCP, Mw > 3 kDa). In HMCCP and LMCCP, glycine of accounted for about one-third of the total amino acids without cysteine and tryptophan, and hydrophobic amino acids accounted for about 50%. After 21 d CCP treatment (60 or 300 mg/kg, p.o./daily), the healing effects on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers were evaluated by macroscopic measure, microscopic measure, and immune histochemistry. Moreover, the expression levels of the growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was detected. The results showed that both LMCCP and HMCCP could significantly decrease the ulcer areas and promote the healing of the lesions. They also could improve the levels of hexosamine, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, and reduce the content of malondialdehyde and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, the expression level of TGFβ1 gene and HSP70 mRNA was significantly improved by the treatment. It suggested that CCP could be able to improve symptoms of gastric ulcer and probably be used in the treatment of gastric ulcer.

  15. Ellagic acid induces novel and atypical PKC isoforms and promotes caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by blocking energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sudha; Vinayak, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant ellagic acid is a herbal polyphenolic compound shown to possess growth-inhibiting and apoptotic activities in cancer. Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Apoptosis of tumor cells is induced by inactivation of glycolytic enzyme of anaerobic metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A, and by activating apoptotic protein caspase-3 via PKCδ. The present study aims to analyze the role of ellagic acid on regulation of novel and atypical isozymes of PKC to modulate apoptosis and anaerobic metabolism to prevent lymphoma growth as its role on classical PKCs is reported earlier. Expression of novel and atypical isozymes of PKC, activity of PKCδ, expression and activity of caspase-3, and LDH-A have been analyzed. Expression is measured by RT-PCR, activities of PKCδ as level of its catalytic fragment, caspase-3 as level of its p17 fragment, and LDH-A by specific staining. Lymphoma bearing mice were treated with 3 different doses of ellagic acid. The treatment enhanced expression of all novel and atypical PKCs, activity and expression of caspase-3, and activity of PKCδ but decreased activity and expression of LDH-A. Our results suggest that ellagic acid induces apoptosis via novel and atypical PKCs in association with caspase-3 and induces cancer cell death by blocking the energy metabolism.

  16. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) induced hydroxyl radical formation in copper contaminated household drinking water: role of bicarbonate concentration.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Patric J; Asplund, Klara U M; Mäkelä, Johanna C; Lindqvist, Christer; Nordström, Tommy

    2003-08-01

    We have previously shown that Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) can trigger hydroxyl radical formation in copper contaminated household drinking water. We report here that the capacity of ascorbic acid to catalyze hydroxyl radical generation in the drinking water samples is strongly dependent on the bicarbonate concentration (buffer capacity and pH) of the samples. We found that at least 50 mg/l bicarbonate was required in the water samples to maintain the pH over 5.0 after ascorbic acid addition. At this pH, that is higher than the pKa1 4.25 of ascorbic acid, a hydroxyl radical generating redox cycling reaction involving the mono-anion of vitamin C and copper could take place. The ascorbic acid induced hydroxyl radical generating reaction could easily be mimicked in Milli-Q water by supplementing the water with copper and bicarbonate. Our results demonstrate that ascorbic acid can induce a pH dependent hydroxyl radical generating reaction in copper contaminated household tap water that is buffered with bicarbonate. The impact of consuming ascorbic acid together with copper and bicarbonate containing drinking water on human health is discussed.

  17. Swelling-activated and arachidonic acid-induced currents are TREK-1 in rat bladder smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Fukasaku, Mitsuko; Kimura, Junko; Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Using the perforated patch voltage clamp, we investigated swelling-activated ionic channels (SACs) in rat urinary bladder smooth muscle cells. Hypo-osmotic (60%) bath solution increased a membrane current which was inhibited by the SAC inhibitor, gadolinium. The reversal potential of the hypotonicity-induced current shifted in the positive direction by increasing external K+ concentration. The hypotonicity-induced current was inhibited by extracellular acidic pH, phorbol ester and forskolin. These pharmacological properties are identical to those of arachidonic acid-induced current present in these cells, suggesting the presence of TREK-1, a four-transmembrane two pore domain K+ channel. Using RT-PCR we screened rat bladder smooth muscles and cerebellum for expression of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK mRNAs. Only TREK-1 mRNA was expressed in the bladder, while all three were expressed in the cerebellum. We conclude that a mechanosensitive K+ channel is present in rat bladder myocytes, which is activated by arachidonic acid and most likely is TREK-1. This K+ channel may have an important role in the regulation of bladder smooth muscle tone during urine storage. PMID:26911303

  18. Swelling-activated and arachidonic acid-induced currents are TREK-1 in rat bladder smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Fukasaku, Mitsuko; Kimura, Junko; Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2016-06-08

    Using the perforated patch voltage clamp, we investigated swelling-activated ionic channels (SACs) in rat urinary bladder smooth muscle cells. Hypo-osmotic (60%) bath solution increased a membrane current which was inhibited by the SAC inhibitor, gadolinium. The reversal potential of the hypotonicity-induced current shifted in the positive direction by increasing external K(+) concentration. The hypotonicity-induced current was inhibited by extracellular acidic pH, phorbol ester and forskolin. These pharmacological properties are identical to those of arachidonic acid-induced current present in these cells, suggesting the presence of TREK-1, a four-transmembrane two pore domain K(+) channel. Using RT-PCR we screened rat bladder smooth muscles and cerebellum for expression of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK mRNAs. Only TREK-1 mRNA was expressed in the bladder, while all three were expressed in the cerebellum. We conclude that a mechanosensitive K(+) channel is present in rat bladder myocytes, which is activated by arachidonic acid and most likely is TREK-1. This K(+) channel may have an important role in the regulation of bladder smooth muscle tone during urine storage.

  19. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21{sup WAF1} signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hag Dong; Jang, Chang-Young; Choe, Jeong Min; Sohn, Jeongwon; Kim, Joon

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins - PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 - initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21{sup WAF1} induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway by PERK inhibition.

  20. The phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid induces AQP2 translocation independently from AQP2 phosphorylation in renal collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Valenti, G; Procino, G; Carmosino, M; Frigeri, A; Mannucci, R; Nicoletti, I; Svelto, M

    2000-06-01

    Phosphorylation by kinases and dephosphorylation by phosphatase markedly affect the biological activity of proteins involved in intracellular signaling. In this study we investigated the effect of the serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid on water permeability properties and on aquaporin2 (AQP2) translocation in AQP2-transfected renal CD8 cells. In CD8 cells both forskolin alone and okadaic acid alone increased the osmotic water permeability coefficient P(f) by about 4- to 5-fold. In intact cells, in vivo phosphorylation studies revealed that forskolin stimulation resulted in a threefold increase in AQP2 phosphorylation. In contrast, okadaic acid treatment promoted only a 60% increase in AQP2 phosphorylation which was abolished when this treatment was performed in the presence of 1 microM H89, a specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Nevertheless, in this latter condition, confocal microscopy analysis revealed that AQP2 translocated and fused to the apical membrane. Okadaic acid-induced AQP2 translocation was dose dependent having its maximal effect at a concentration of 1 microM. In conclusion, our results clearly indicate that okadaic acid exerts a full forskolin-like effect independent from AQP2 phosphorylation. Thus AQP2 phosphorylation is not essential for water channel translocation in renal cells, indicating that different pathways might exist leading to AQP2 apical insertion and increase in P(f).

  1. Attenuation of Folic Acid-Induced Renal Inflammatory Injury in Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kent; Okamoto, Koji; Negishi, Kousuke; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Nakao, Akihide; Fujita, Toshiro; Toda, Akiko; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Kita, Yoshihiro; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Shimizu, Takao; Noiri, Eisei

    2006-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent lipid mediator with various biological activities, plays an important role in inflammation by recruiting leukocytes. In this study we used platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR)-deficient mice to elucidate the role of PAF in inflammatory renal injury induced by folic acid administration. PAFR-deficient mice showed significant amelioration of renal dysfunction and pathological findings such as acute tubular damage with neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation observed with antibody to 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (day 2), and interstitial fibrosis with macrophage infiltration associated with expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the kidney (day 14). Acute tubular damage was attenuated by neutrophil depletion using a monoclonal antibody (RB6-8C5), demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils to acute phase injury. Macrophage infiltration was also decreased when treatment with a PAF antagonist (WEB2086) was started after acute phase. In vitro chemotaxis assay using a Boyden chamber demonstrated that PAF exhibits a strong chemotactic activity for macrophages. These results indicate that PAF is involved in pathogenesis of folic acid-induced renal injury by activating neutrophils in acute phase and macrophages in chronic interstitial fibrosis. Inhibiting the PAF pathway might be therapeutic to kidney injury from inflammatory cells. PMID:16651609

  2. Nucleotide sequence and spatial expression pattern of a drought- and abscisic Acid-induced gene of tomato.

    PubMed

    Plant, A L; Cohen, A; Moses, M S; Bray, E A

    1991-11-01

    The nucleotide sequence of le16, a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) gene induced by drought stress and regulated by abscisic acid specifically in aerial vegetative tissue, is presented. The single open reading frame contained within the gene has the capacity to encode a polypeptide of 12.7 kilodaltons and is interrupted by a small intron. The predicted polypeptide is rich in leucine, glycine, and alanine and has an isoelectric point of 8.7. The amino terminus is hydrophobic and characteristic of signal sequences that target polypeptides for export from the cytoplasm. There is homology (47.2% identity) between the amino terminus of the LE 16 polypeptide and the corresponding amino terminal domain of the maize phospholipid transfer protein. le16 was expressed in drought-stressed leaf, petiole, and stem tissue and to a much lower extent in the pericarp of mature green tomato fruit and developing seeds. No expression was detected in the pericarp of red fruit or in drought-stressed roots. Expression of le16 was also induced in leaf tissue by a variety of other abiotic stresses including polyethylene glycol-mediated water deficit, salinity, cold stress, and heat stress. None of these stresses or direct applications of abscisic acid induced the expression of le16 in the roots of the same plants. The unique expression characteristics of this gene indicates that novel regulatory mechanisms, in addition to endogenous abscisic acid, are involved in controlling gene expression.

  3. "Abdominal crunch"-induced rhabdomyolysis presenting as right upper quadrant pain.

    PubMed

    Haas, D C; Bohnker, B K

    1999-02-01

    A young, active duty sailor presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. History, physical, and laboratory findings initially suggested cholecystitis or related disease. Further evaluation found myoglobinuria and a recently increased exercise program, leading to the diagnosis of exercise-induced right upper abdominal wall rhabdomyolysis. Although not a common cause of abdominal pain, this diagnosis should be considered in the patient with abdominal pain and a recently increased exercise program, particularly exercises of the abdominal wall such as "abdominal crunches."

  4. A kinematic comparison of four abdominal training devices and a traditional abdominal crunch.

    PubMed

    Sands, William A; McNeal, Jeni R

    2002-02-01

    Abdominal exercises are often performed on roller or rocker mechanisms, which have been aggressively promoted through the television and print media. However, justifications are lacking as to why these devices are superior to traditional abdominal exercises such as crunches. This study sought to describe and compare the range of motion (ROM) of several joints during crunches performed on 4 different abdominal conditioning devices (2 roller and 2 pivot types) and a traditional crunch exercise. Ten men (29 +/- 5.87 years, 177.5 +/- 6.46 cm, 80.96 +/- 11.72 kg) and 10 women (33.4 +/- 10.16 years, 162.23 +/- 3.83 cm, 56.99 +/- 7.36 kg) subjects agreed to participate in the study. Subjects were videotaped in the sagittal plane (60 Hz) using standard kinematic methods. Reflective markers were placed on the right temple, auditory meatus, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle, heel, toe, and 2 sternum markers placed on a foam piece strapped to the subject's chest. The videotaped movements were automatically digitized (PEAK5 2-D) and the data smoothed using a Butterworth filter. Relative angular ROMs of the head (temple, auditory meatus, shoulder); neck (auditory meatus, shoulder, hip); trunk (near sternum, shoulder, hip); hip (shoulder, hip, knee); sternum/head (sternum near and sternum far with temple and auditory meatus); sternum/trunk (sternum near and sternum far with shoulder and hip); and a sum of 4 angles (head, neck, trunk, hip) were calculated. Sex by equipment repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were calculated on the angles of the 5 exercises. When no main effect for sex was found, the data were collapsed across sex and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was calculated on the resulting data. Post hoc analyses of pairwise differences were calculated using Tukey's honestly significant difference statistic. Results showed that crunches performed with the abdominal devices resulted in less ROM in all angles measured when compared with a traditional crunch. The

  5. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  6. A comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z

    2013-08-01

    We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route.

  7. Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries after a primary blast injury for a period of 10 years from January 1998 - January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Results Total 154 patients had laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries with a primary blast type of injury. Small intestine was damaged in 48 patients (31.1%) followed by spleen in 22.7% cases. 54 patients (35.06%) had more than one organ injured. Liver laceration was present in 30 patients (19.48%). Multiple small gut perforations were present in 37 patients (77.08%). Negative laparotomy was found in 5 patients (3.24%) whereas 3 (1.94%) had re-exploration. Mortality was present in 6 patients (3.89%). Conclusions Primary blast injury causes varied abdominal organ injuries. Single or multiple organ damage can be there. Small intestine is commonest viscera injured. Laparotomy gives final diagnosis. PMID:20025766

  8. The effect of abdominal massage in reducing malignant ascites symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Wang, Hung-Ming; Yang, Tsai-Sheng; Jane, Sui-Whi; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2015-02-01

    As many as 50% of end-stage cancer patients will develop ascites and associated symptoms, including pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, loss of appetite, dyspnea, perceived abdominal bloating, and immobility. Abdominal massage may stimulate lymph return to the venous system and reduce ascites-related symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of abdominal massage in reducing these symptoms and reducing ascites itself as reflected in body weight. For a randomized controlled design using repeated measures, a sample of 80 patients with malignant ascites was recruited from gastroenterology and oncology units of a medical center in northern Taiwan and randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. A 15-minute gentle abdominal massage, using straight rubbing, point rubbing, and kneading, was administered twice daily for 3 days. The control group received a twice-daily 15-minute social interaction contact with the same nurse. Symptoms and body weight were measured in the morning for 4 consecutive days from pre- to post-test. In generalized estimation equation modeling, a significant group-by-time interaction on depression, anxiety, poor wellbeing, and perceived abdominal bloating, indicated that abdominal massage improved these four symptoms, with the greatest effect on perceived bloating. The intervention had no effect on pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, poor appetite, shortness of breath, mobility limitation, or body weight. Abdominal massage appears useful for managing selected symptoms of malignant ascites.

  9. Maintenance of Pain in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Czyzewski, Danita I.; Self, Mariella M.; Williams, Amy E.; Weidler, Erica M.; Blatz, Allison M.; Shulman, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdominal pain frequency and compared the predictive value of three methods for assessing pain-stooling relations (i.e., diary, parent report, child report). Methods Seventy-six children (7–10-years-old at baseline) who presented for medical treatment of functional abdominal pain were followed up 18–24 months later. Baseline anxiety and abdominal pain-stooling relations based on pain and stooling diaries and child- and parent-questionnaires were examined in relationship to the persistence of abdominal pain frequency. Results Children’s baseline anxiety was not related to persistence of pain frequency. However, children who displayed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms at baseline maintained pain frequency at follow-up, whereas in children in whom there was no relationship between pain and stooling, pain frequency decreased. Pain and stool diaries and parent report of pain-stooling relations were predictive of pain persistence but child-report questionnaires were not. Conclusions The presence of IBS symptoms in school age children with functional abdominal pain appears to predict persistence of abdominal pain over time, while anxiety does not. Prospective pain and stooling diaries and parent report of IBS symptoms were predictors of pain maintenance, but child report of symptoms was not. PMID:26301615

  10. Load compensating responses of human abdominal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Lansing, R. W.; Meyerink, L.

    1981-01-01

    1. We studied abdominal muscle responses to positive pressure loads applied suddenly to the external airway while subjects held a constant lung volume against steady pressure. The pre-loading holding pressure was 6 cm H2O, and the loading pressures were 6 or 12 cm H2O lasting for 2 sec. 2. Surface electromyograms (e.m.g.) were recorded over the internal oblique, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. The latency and pattern of the e.m.g. reactions were studied by measuring the raw record for each loading trial, and by averaging the rectified e.m.g. for many trials. 3. No responses were obtained if subjects were instructed not to respond to the loads. When instructed and trained to maintain their pre-load position in spite of the load, a two-phase compensatory response was found. The initial response (phase I) was 100-300 msec in duration; it was followed by a continuous e.m.g. discharge (phase II) which continued to the offset of the pressure load. Subjects were also trained to make a single respiratory effort as quickly as possible after the load onset or after just an auditory stimulus. These were simple reaction time tasks of a traditional kind and the e.m.g. responses elicited were single, brief bursts. 4. For all subjects and experimental conditions the e.m.g. response of the internal oblique occurred first, followed by the external oblique and then the rectus abdominis. For the `maintain position' task, phase I latencies (internal oblique) averaged 66-90 msec for individual subjects, but for single trials with optimal conditions of practice and preparatory intervals these ranged from 42 to 110 msec with a third of the reactions occurring within 50-60 msec. 5. The latencies for reaction time responses to loading were about 6 msec shorter than the phase I latencies. The latency distributions for the two types of responses were similar, and both were affected to the same degree by practice, and changing the length and variability of the preparatory

  11. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819

  12. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D.; Wright, Katherine L.; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) “fingerprinting” technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Results Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). Conclusion A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that

  13. Clinical Evaluation of Hepatic Portal Venous Gas after Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Satomi; Azuma, Takashi; Kawashita, Yujo; Matsuo, Shigetoshi; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is induced by various abdominal diseases. Since HPVG is accompanied by bowel ischemia, intestinal infection and hypovolemia, various modes of critical management are needed to treat the underlying conditions. HPVG associated with abdominal complications after surgery has rarely been reported. We present 4 patients with HPVG after abdominal surgery: 2 of the 4 patients died of multiple organ failure, and the other 2 recovered with solely conservative therapy. Although postoperative HPVG is a severe and life-threatening condition, early detection and systemic treatment lead to a better patient outcome. PMID:27403110

  14. Fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in metastatic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mustafa; Okutur, Kerem; Aydin, Kübra; Namal, Esat; Oztürk, Akin; Balci, Cem; Demir, Gökhan

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in a patient with metastatic colon cancer. A 39-year-old patient with descending colon, high-grade adenocarcinoma and coexisting liver and lymph node metastases received two courses of chemotherapy. The patient developed sudden acute abdominal symptoms accompanied by septic shock parameters. The imaging findings on computed tomography were characteristic for abdominal gas gangrene, involving liver metastases, portal vein and lymph nodes with associated pneumoperitoneum. The patient succumbed to the disease within hours following the onset of symptoms.

  15. Fournier's gangrene secondary to intra-abdominal processes.

    PubMed

    Gerber, G S; Guss, S P; Pielet, R W

    1994-11-01

    We report 2 cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum, perianal area, and male genitalia (Fournier's gangrene) that arose secondary to intra-abdominal infectious processes (ruptured appendicitis and diverticulitis). Management consisted of immediate debridement of necrotic tissue, exploratory laparotomy, and diverting colostomy. The presence of an acute abdominal process was not immediately evident on initial evaluation of either patient. This demonstrates the critical importance of considering intra-abdominal infection in patients with Fournier's gangrene when the more commonly seen urinary tract, perirectal, and traumatic causes are not readily apparent.

  16. Takedown of enterocutaneous fistula and complex abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Slade, Dominic Alexander James; Carlson, Gordon Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    Key steps in managing patients with enterocutaneous fistulation and an abdominal wall defect include dealing effectively with abdominal sepsis and providing safe and effective nutritional support and skin care, then assessing intestinal and abdominal anatomy, before undertaking reconstructive surgery. The complexity, cost, and morbidity associated with such cases justifies creation of specialized centers in which gastroenterologic, hernia, and plastic surgical expertise, as well as experienced wound and stoma nursing and nutritional and psychological support, can be made available for patients with these challenging problems.

  17. Abdominal pain – learning when not to intervene!

    PubMed Central

    Tachamo, Niranjan; Timilsina, Bidhya; Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj

    2016-01-01

    Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain. It is a benign condition but may mimic other serious causes of acute abdomen such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, and gynecological emergency in severe cases. Knowledge of this condition in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain can save unnecessary hospital admission, antibiotics, and surgery. In this article, we present the case of a 43-year-old female who presented to our hospital with a 2-day history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and diarrhea. She was diagnosed with EA with computed tomography of abdomen with contrast and was managed conservatively with good outcome. PMID:27987280

  18. Emerging Applications of Abdominal 4D Flow MRI

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; Francois, Christopher J.; Wieben, Oliver; Reeder, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Comprehensive assessment of abdominal hemodynamics is crucial for many clinical diagnoses but is challenged by a tremendous complexity of anatomy, normal physiology, and a wide variety of pathologic abnormalities. This article introduces 4D flow MRI as a powerful technique for noninvasive assessment of the hemodynamics of abdominal vascular territories. CONCLUSION Four-dimensional flow MRI provides clinicians with a more extensive and straightforward approach to evaluate disorders that affect blood flow in the abdomen. This review presents a series of clinical cases to illustrate the utility of 4D flow MRI in the comprehensive assessment of the abdominal circulation. PMID:27187681

  19. [Psychological diagnostics of functional abdominal pain in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Bock, Inga; Gulewitsch, Marco D; Hautzinger, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Given the high prevalence and possible psychosocial consequences of functional abdominal pain in children and adolescents, appropriate instruments for early diagnostics are required to work effectively against long-term chronic courses of this disorder. This report describes several self-report scales and reviews their applicability. In addition, questionnaires and interviews which assess pain intensity and associated factors as well as specific instruments for assessing functional abdominal pain in children and adolescents are introduced. It can be declared that none of the examined instruments grasps all relevant factors of pain. Especially in German there are only few appropriate diagnostic instruments for functional abdominal pain in children.

  20. Hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis exerts protective effects on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Bezerra, Gislaine; de Menezes de Souza, Luana; Dos Santos, Adailma Santana; de Almeida, Grace Kelly Melo; Souza, Marília Trindade Santana; Santos, Sandra Lauton; Aparecido Camargo, Enilton; Dos Santos Lima, Bruno; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Cardoso, Juliana Cordeiro; Gomes, Silvana Vieira Floresta; Gomes, Margarete Zanardo; de Albuquerque, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common intestinal inflammatory disease with an etiology that is not well understood. Although the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (HERP) have been reported in various experimental models, its protective effect in models of UC have not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (HERP) in acetic acid-induced colitis (AAIC) using a rodent model. The HERP was chemically characterised by HPLC/DAD analyses. Male rats were randomly assigned into four groups: sham, vehicle (with AAIC, treated with vehicle), P10 (with AAIC, treated with 10mg/kg HERP), and P100 (with AAIC, treated with 100mg/kg HERP). Treatments were performed for 7days, and colitis was induced on day seven. Animals were euthanized 24h after colitis induction and body weight, colon length, gross and histological scores, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations in colon tissue, and the immunohistochemical expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were assessed. The major compounds found in HERP were liquiritigenin (68.8mg/g), formononetin (54.29mg/g), biochanin A (30.97mg/g), and daidzein (19.90mg/g). Rats treated with 10mg/kg HERP demonstrated significant decreases in MPO concentrations, gross and histological scores of tissue damage, and iNOS expression (p<0.05). Similarly, rats treated with 100mg/kg HERP demonstrated significant decreases in MPO levels (p<0.05) and histological scores of tissue damage (p<0.05). The results of this study indicate that oral administration of HERP attenuates AAIC in rats, which may be due to anti-inflammatory effects related to iNOS inhibition.

  1. Chronic activity wheel running reduces the severity of kainic acid-induced seizures in the rat: possible role of galanin.

    PubMed

    Reiss, J I; Dishman, R K; Boyd, H E; Robinson, J K; Holmes, P V

    2009-04-17

    Studies in both humans and rodents suggest that exercise can be neuroprotective, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are still poorly understood. Three weeks of voluntary, physical activity in rats upregulates prepro-galanin messenger RNA levels in the locus coeruleus. Galanin is a neuropeptide extensively coexisting with norepinephrine that decreases neuronal hyperexcitability both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, exercise may diminish neural hyperexcitability through a galaninergic mechanism. The current experiments tested whether voluntary activity wheel running would protect against kainic acid-evoked seizures and whether galaninergic signaling is a necessary factor in this protection. In experiment 1, rats were given access to running wheels or remained sedentary for three weeks. After this period, rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 0, 7, 10 or 14 mg/kg kainic acid. Exercise decreased the severity of or eliminated seizure behaviors and hippocampal c-fos expression induced by kainic acid. In experiment 2, exercising or sedentary rats were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with 0.2 or 0.4 microg of kainic acid following either an injection of M-40 (a galanin receptor antagonist) or saline. Exercise decreased kainic acid-induced seizures at the 0.2 microg dose, and M-40 (6 nmol) decreased this effect. In contrast, there were no detectable differences between exercising and sedentary rats in behavior at the 0.4 microg dose. The results suggest that the protective effects of exercise against seizures are at least partially mediated by regulation of neural excitability through a process involving galanin.

  2. Mitochondrial proteomics of the acetic acid - induced programmed cell death response in a highly tolerant Zygosaccharomyces bailii - derived hybrid strain

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Joana F.; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Soares, Renata; Coelho, Ana V.; Leão, Cecília; Ludovico, Paula; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Very high concentrations of acetic acid at low pH induce programmed cell death (PCD) in both the experimental model Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Zygosaccharomyces bailii, the latter being considered the most problematic acidic food spoilage yeast due to its remarkable intrinsic resistance to this food preservative. However, while the mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae PCD induced by acetic acid have been previously examined, the corresponding molecular players remain largely unknown in Z. bailii. Also, the reason why acetic acid concentrations known to be necrotic for S. cerevisiae induce PCD with an apoptotic phenotype in Z. bailii remains to be elucidated. In this study, a 2-DE-based expression mitochondrial proteomic analysis was explored to obtain new insights into the mechanisms involved in PCD in the Z. bailii derived hybrid strain ISA1307. This allowed the quantitative assessment of expression of protein species derived from each of the parental strains, with special emphasis on the processes taking place in the mitochondria known to play a key role in acetic acid - induced PCD. A marked decrease in the content of proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolism, in particular, in respiratory metabolism (Cor1, Rip1, Lpd1, Lat1 and Pdb1), with a concomitant increase in the abundance of proteins involved in fermentation (Pdc1, Ald4, Dld3) was registered. Other differentially expressed identified proteins also suggest the involvement of the oxidative stress response, protein translation, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, among other processes, in the PCD response. Overall, the results strengthen the emerging concept of the importance of metabolic regulation of yeast PCD. PMID:28357336

  3. Glia activation and cytokine increase in rat hippocampus by kainic acid-induced status epilepticus during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Massimo; Perego, Carlo; Aliprandi, Marisa; Richichi, Cristina; Ravizza, Teresa; Colella, Daniele; Velískŏvá, Jana; Moshé, Solomon L; De Simoni, M Grazia; Vezzani, Annamaria

    2003-12-01

    In adult rats, status epilepticus (SE) induces cytokine production by glia especially when seizures are associated with neuronal injury. This suggests that cytokines may play a role in seizure-induced neuronal damage. As SE-induced injury is age-specific, we used rats of different ages (with distinct susceptibilities to seizure-induced neuronal injury) to elucidate the role of cytokines in this process. Thus, we investigated the activation of microglia and astrocytes, induction of cytokines, and hippocampal neuronal injury 4 and 24 h following kainic acid-induced SE in postnatal day (PN) 9, 15, and 21 rats. At PN9, there was little activation of microglia and astrocytes at any time point studied. Interleukin-1beta (IL), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and IL-6 or the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra) mRNA expression did not increase. No evidence of cell injury has been detected. At PN15, immunostaining of microglia and astrocytes was enhanced, but only IL-1beta mRNA expression was increased. These changes were observed 4 h after SE. Scattered injured neurons in CA3 and subiculum, but not in any other region, were present 24 h following SE. At PN21, immunostaining of microglia and astrocytes and the mRNA expression of all cytokines studied was significantly increased already 4 h after SE. At 24 h, many injured neurons were present in CA1 and CA3 regions and in 40% of rats in other forebrain areas. These data show that (i) the pattern of glia activation and cytokine gene transcription induced by SE is age-dependent and (ii) neuronal injury in the hippocampus occurs only when cytokines are induced and their synthesis precedes the appearance of neuronal damage. Thus, cytokine expression in immature brain is associated specifically with cell injury rather than with seizures per se, suggesting that proinflammatory cytokines may contribute to the occurence of SE-induced hippocampal damage.

  4. Subchronic treatment of donepezil rescues impaired social, hyperactive, and stereotypic behavior in valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Woon; Seung, Hana; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Ko, Mee Jung; Lee, Eun Joo; Oh, Hyun Ah; Choi, Chang Soon; Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck; You, Jueng Soo; Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jongmin; Han, Seol-Heui; Yang, Sung Min; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model). We found that prenatal exposure of valproic acid (VPA) induced dysregulation of cholinergic neuronal development, most notably the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the prefrontal cortex of affected rat and mouse offspring. Similarly, differentiating cortical neural progenitor cell in culture treated with VPA showed increased expression of AChE in vitro. Chromatin precipitation experiments revealed that acetylation of histone H3 bound to AChE promoter region was increased by VPA. In addition, other histone deacetyalse inhibitors (HDACIs) such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also increased the expression of AChE in differentiating neural progenitor cells suggesting the essential role of HDACIs in the regulation of AChE expression. For behavioral analysis, we injected PBS or donepezil (0.3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to control and VPA mice once daily from postnatal day 14 all throughout the experiment. Subchronic treatment of donepezil improved sociability and prevented repetitive behavior and hyperactivity of VPA-treated mice offspring. Taken together, these results provide evidence that dysregulation of ACh system represented by the up-regulation of AChE may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target against autistic behaviors in VPA animal model of ASD, which should be subjected for further investigation to verify the clinical relevance.

  5. Priming by Hexanoic Acid Induce Activation of Mevalonic and Linolenic Pathways and Promotes the Emission of Plant Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Eugenio; Camañes, Gemma; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Hexanoic acid (Hx) is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of Hx in response to the challenge pathogen A. alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than 200 molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by Hx. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of Hx this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application. PMID:27148319

  6. Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene 1 Protein (RIG1)-Like Receptor Pathway Is Required for Efficient Nuclear Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Nazish; Ospino, Frank; Himmati, Farhan; Lee, Jieun; Chanda, Palas; Mocarski, Edward S; Cooke, John P

    2017-03-09

    We have revealed a critical role for innate immune signaling in nuclear reprogramming to pluripotency, and in the nuclear reprogramming required for somatic cell transdifferentiation. Activation of innate immune signaling causes global changes in the expression and activity of epigenetic modifiers to promote epigenetic plasticity. In our previous articles, we focused on the role of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in this signaling pathway. Here, we define the role of another innate immunity pathway known to participate in response to viral RNA, the retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 receptor (RIG-1)-like receptor (RLR) pathway. This pathway is represented by the sensors of viral RNA, RIG-1, LGP2, and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5). We first found that TLR3 deficiency only causes a partial inhibition of nuclear reprogramming to pluripotency in mouse tail-tip fibroblasts, which motivated us to determine the contribution of RLR. We found that knockdown of interferon beta promoter stimulator 1, the common adaptor protein for the RLR family, substantially reduced nuclear reprogramming induced by retroviral or by modified messenger RNA expression of Oct 4, Sox2, KLF4, and c-MYC (OSKM). Importantly, a double knockdown of both RLR and TLR3 pathway led to a further decrease in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colonies suggesting an additive effect of both these pathways on nuclear reprogramming. Furthermore, in murine embryonic fibroblasts expressing a doxycycline (dox)-inducible cassette of the genes encoding OSKM, an RLR agonist increased the yield of iPSCs. Similarly, the RLR agonist enhanced nuclear reprogramming by cell permeant peptides of the Yamanaka factors. Finally, in the dox-inducible system, RLR activation promotes activating histone marks in the promoter region of pluripotency genes. To conclude, innate immune signaling mediated by RLR plays a critical role in nuclear reprogramming. Manipulation of innate immune signaling may facilitate

  7. Niflumic acid-induced increase in potassium currents in frog motor nerve terminals: effects on transmitter release.

    PubMed

    Miralles, F; Marsal, J; Peres, J; Solsona, C

    1996-04-01

    The actions of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug niflumic acid were studied on frog neuromuscular preparations by conventional electrophysiological techniques. Niflumic acid reduced the amplitude and increased the latency of endplate potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. Neuromuscular junctions pretreated with niflumic acid (0.05-0.5 mM) showed much less depression than control when they were stimulated with trains of impulses. Inhibition of acetylcholine release was reverted by raising the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration but not by simply washing out the preparations with niflumic acid-free solutions. Pretreatment with indomethacin (0.1 mM), another nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, did not affect the niflumic acid-induced inhibition of evoked responses. Niflumic acid (0.1 mM) did not change the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials and had a dual action on the frequency of miniatures: it decreased their frequency at 0.1 mM whereas it produced an enormous increase in the rate of spontaneous discharge at 0.5 mM. Niflumic acid (0.1 - 1 mM) reversibly increased the amplitude and affected the kinetics of presynaptic voltage-activated K+ current and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current in a concentration-dependent manner. Niflumic acid (0.1 - 1 mM) irreversibly decreased the amplitude and reversibly affected the kinetics of the nodal Na(+) current. Indomethacin (0.1 mM) had no effect on presynaptic currents. In conclusion, niflumic acid reduces acetylcholine release by increasing presynaptic K+ currents. This may shorten the depolarizing phase of the presynaptic action potential and may reduce the entry of Ca(2+) with each impulse.

  8. Arachidonic acid-induced Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle contraction through activation of Rho-kinase.

    PubMed

    Araki, S; Ito, M; Kureishi, Y; Feng, J; Machida, H; Isaka, N; Amano, M; Kaibuchi, K; Hartshorne, D J; Nakano, T

    2001-02-01

    Arachidonic acid activates isolated Rho-kinase and contracts permeabilized smooth muscle fibres. Various assays were carried out to examine the mechanism of this activation. Native Rho-kinase was activated 5-6 times by arachidonic acid but an N-terminal, constitutively-active fragment of Rho-kinase, expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein and including the catalytic subunit (GST-Rho-kinase-CAT), was not. GST-Rho-kinase-CAT was inhibited by a C-terminal fragment of Rho-kinase and arachidonic acid removed this inhibition. These results suggest that the C-terminal part of Rho-kinase, containing the RhoA binding site and the pleckstrin homology domain, acts as an autoinhibitor. It is suggested further that activation by arachidonic acid is due to its binding to the autoinhibitory region and subsequent release from the catalytic site. Arachidonic acid, at concentrations greater than 30 microM, increases force in alpha-toxin-permeabilized femoral artery but not in Triton X-100-skinned fibres. The content of Rho-kinase in the latter was lower than in alpha-toxin-treated or intact fibres. The arachidonic acid-induced contraction was not observed at a pCa above 8.0 and was inhibited by Y-27632 and wortmannin, inhibitors of Rho-kinase and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), respectively. The activation of Rho-kinase and subsequent phosphorylation of the myosin phosphatase target subunit inhibits myosin phosphatase and increases myosin phosphorylation.

  9. Stability of the Acetic Acid-Induced Bladder Irritation Model in Alpha Chloralose-Anesthetized Female Cats

    PubMed Central

    Kullmann, F. Aura; Wells, Grace I.; Langdale, Christopher L.; Zheng, Jihong; Thor, Karl B.

    2013-01-01

    Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min “quiet period” (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function. PMID:24040064

  10. Functional and cellular characterization of human Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1) mutations associated with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Smith-Magenis Syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome in which the dosage sensitive gene has been identified: the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1). Little is known about the function of human RAI1. Results We generated the full-length cDNA of the wild type protein and five mutated forms: RAI1-HA 2687delC, RAI1-HA 3103delC, RAI1 R960X, RAI1-HA Q1562R, and RAI1-HA S1808N. Four of them have been previously associated with SMS clinical phenotype. Molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcription factor activity of the wild type and mutant forms were studied by western blot, immunofluorescence and luciferase assays respectively. The wild type protein and the two missense mutations presented a higher molecular weight than expected, localized to the nucleus and activated transcription of a reporter gene. The frameshift mutations generated a truncated polypeptide with transcription factor activity but abnormal subcellular localization, and the same was true for the 1-960aa N-terminal half of RAI1. Two different C-terminal halves of the RAI1 protein (1038aa-end and 1229aa-end) were able to localize into the nucleus but had no transactivation activity. Conclusion Our results indicate that transcription factor activity and subcellular localization signals reside in two separate domains of the protein and both are essential for the correct functionality of RAI1. The pathogenic outcome of some of the mutated forms can be explained by the dissociation of these two domains. PMID:20738874

  11. The Healing Effect of Teucrium polium in Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in the Dog as an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Davood; Bahrami, Faranak; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Tanideh, Nader; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Amini, Masoud; Amini, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), are debilitating and chronic disorders with unpredictable courses and complicated treatment measures. Therefore, an efficient treatment protocol seems necessary as therapeutic prophylaxis for these disorders. This study aims to determine the healing effect of Teucrium polium (T. polium) in acetic acid-induced UC in an experimental dog model. METHODS From September to December 2010, eight male (20-25 kg) crossbred dogs were used for induction of UC by 6% acetic acid, transrectally. After one week, three biopsies (10, 20 and 30 cm proximal to the anal verge) were taken from the colon of each animal for histological studies. In the presence of UC, 400 mg/kg/day of T. polium extract was administered orally and transrectally (via enema) for 30 days in six of the dogs. The remaining two dogs were used as controls and did not receive T. polium. Multiple biopsies were taken 7, 14, and 30 days after discontinuation of T. polium in the same manner as before treatment. RESULTS After administration of acetic acid, we noted the presence of multiple ulcers, diffuse inflammation, PMN infiltration in the lamina propria, glandular destruction and goblet cell depletion. Treatment with T. polium restored the colonic architecture with an increased number of healthy cells and a reduction in inflammatory cells. Damage of the surface epithelial cells and mucosal layer of the lumen were reversed, which lead to faster ulcer healing. CONCLUSION T. polium may be a treatment choice for UC and can broaden the current therapy options for UC. PMID:24829634

  12. Distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal in the bladders of fetal rats with retinoic acid induced myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Ali; Karakuş, Osman Zeki; Hakgüder, Gülce; Ateş, Oğuz; Özer, Erdener; Olguner, Mustafa; Akgür, Feza Miraç

    2016-01-01

    Objective Myelomeningocele (MMC) is one of the most common reason of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in children. Although neurogenic bladder dysfunction occurrence is related with bladder innervation, also there are some changes seen in the smooth muscle and neural cells of the bladder. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells found in organs with peristaltic activity. Although it has been shown that ICC are diminished in the rat urinary bladder with traumatic spinal cord injury, there is no data about ICC in fetal rat bladders with MMC. This study has been conducted to investigate the ICC in the bladders of fetal rats with retinoic acid induced MMC. Materials and methods Time dated pregnant Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups. In MMC group, dams were fed with gavage solution containing 60 mg/kg all-trans retinoic acid dissolved in olive oil on 10. embryologic day. Sham group animals were fed only olive oil. Control group dams were fed with standard rat chow. Fetuses were delivered by cesarean section and harvested on 22. embryologic day. MMC was identified by observing MMC sacs at the back of the fetuses. Distribution of ICCs were evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. Results ICCs were found in all groups, which have the same morphological features that had been described earlier in the gastrointestinal tract and the bladder. The density of the ICC in the MMC group was found to be significantly decreased when compared with the control and the sham groups (p<0.05). Conclusion The density of the ICC in the urinary bladder decreased in the neurogenic bladder developed in MMC. PMID:27909623

  13. The restrained expression of NF-kB in renal tissue ameliorates folic acid induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dev; Singla, Surinder K; Puri, Veena; Puri, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) represent family of structurally-related eukaryotic transcription factors which regulate diverse array of cellular processes including immunological responses, inflammation, apoptosis, growth & development. Increased expression of NF-kB has often been seen in many diverse diseases, suggesting the importance of genomic deregulation to disease pathophysiology. In the present study we focused on acute kidney injury (AKI), which remains one of the major risk factor showing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The pathology associated with it, however, remains incompletely known though inflammation has been reported to be one of the major risk factor in the disease pathophysiology. The role of NF-kB thus seemed pertinent. In the present study we show that high dose of folic acid (FA) induced acute kidney injury (AKI) characterized by elevation in levels of blood urea nitrogen & serum creatinine together with extensive tubular necrosis, loss of brush border and marked reduction in mitochondria. One of the salient observations of this study was a coupled increase in the expression of renal, relA, NF-kB2, and p53 genes and proteins during folic acid induced AKI (FA AKI). Treatment of mice with NF-kB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate ammonium (PDTC) lowered the expression of these transcription factors and ameliorated the aberrant renal function by decreasing serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, our results suggested that NF-kB plays a pivotal role in maintaining renal function that also involved regulating p53 levels during FA AKI.

  14. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, F Aura; Wells, Grace I; Langdale, Christopher L; Zheng, Jihong; Thor, Karl B

    2013-01-01

    Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8(th). Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function.

  15. Protective Effect of the Methanolic Extract of Malva parviflora L. leaves on Acetic Acid-induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dugani, Aisha; Dakhil, Bushra; Treesh, Soad

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a general term describing chronic, idiopathic relapsing, inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology. Previous studies have indicated that Malva parviflora leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity. activity. This work aimed to investigatee the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic (MEMP) and aqueous (AEMP) extracts of M. parviflora leaves on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Group I: Normal saline control group with no colitis; Group II: Acetic acid colitis group; Group III: 100 mg/kg/5 d MEMP; Group IV: 200 mg/kg/5 d.MEMP; Group V: 100 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VI: 200 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VII: Prednisolone group (2 mg/kg/5 d). Treatments were followed by induction of colitis using intrarectal instillation of 2 mL of 4% acetic acid. Colon damage was evaluated macroscopically (spleen weight/body weight, colon weight/length ratio) and the histological changes were also recorded. Results: The results of this study showed that acetic acid caused severe inflammation of the colon and a significant increase in spleen weight/body weight, and an increase in colon weight/length ratio compared with normal control group. Pretreatment with MEMP and AEMP for 5 days followed by induction of colitis resulted in a significant attenuation of spleen weight and colon weight/length ratio compared with acetic acid control group. Methanolic extract provided better anticolitic effect than aqueous extract; the effect was prominent at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Histopathological findings confirmed the protective effect of the MEMP. Conclusion: In conclusion, MEMP could ameliorate mucosal damage in experimentally induced colitis when given orally. PMID:27184642

  16. Palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells is increased by liver X receptor agonist and attenuated by eicosapentaenoate.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huasheng; Zhong, Yuhua; Zhou, Shaobi; Li, Qingdi Quentin

    2011-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids are implicated in the development of diabetes via the impairment of pancreatic islet β-cell viability and function. Liver X receptors (LXRs) and eicosapentaenoate (EPA) are known regulators of fatty acid metabolism. However, their roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes remain incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of EPA and the LXR agonist T0901317 on saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid)-induced apoptosis in the insulinoma β-cell line INS-1, a model for insulin-secreting β-cells. T0901317 significantly promoted palmitic acid-induced apoptotic cell death in the INS-1 cells. Consistent with these results, caspase-3 activity and BAX and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA levels were markedly increased in INS-1 cells co-administered palmitic acid and T0901317. The production of reactive oxygen species was considerably higher in the cells cultured concurrently with T0901317 and palmitic acid than in the cells incubated with either agent alone. EPA treatment attenuated the cellular death promoted by palmitic acid and T0901317 in the INS-1 cells, disclosing a possible mediating mechanism involving the inhibition of SREBP-1c. Finally, T0901317 up-regulated the palmitic acid-induced expression of p27(KIP1), transforming growth factor beta 1, and SMAD3 proteins in INS-1 cells. These results demonstrate that palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in β-cells is enhanced by T0901317 via the activation of LXRs and is blocked by EPA via the inhibition of SREBP-1c, suggesting that the regulation of lipogenesis and lipotoxicity affecting pancreatic β-cell viability and insulin production may be a unique strategy for diabetes therapy.

  17. Palmitic acid induces interleukin-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses through ROS production in human placental cells.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Takano, Hiroki; Seno, Kotomi; Ohtsu, Ayaka; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Suzuki, Hirotada; Matsubara, Shigeki; Iwata, Hisataka; Kuwayama, Takehito

    2016-08-01

    Maternal obesity, a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy complications, results in inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta. Levels of free fatty acids are elevated in the plasma of obese human. These fatty acids include obesity-related palmitic acids, which is a major saturated fatty acid, that promotes inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes mediate inflammatory responses induced by endogenous danger signals. We hypothesized that inflammatory responses associated with gestational obesity cause inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of palmitic acid on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses in a human Sw.71 trophoblast cell line. Palmitic acid stimulated caspase-1 activation and markedly increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in Sw.71 cells. Treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor diminished palmitic acid-induced IL-1β release. In addition, NLRP3 and caspase-1 genome editing using a CRISPR/Cas9 system in Sw.71 cells suppressed IL-1β secretion, which was stimulated by palmitic acid. Moreover, palmitic acid stimulated caspase-3 activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion (e.g., IL-6 and IL-8). Palmitic acid-induced cytokine secretion were dependent on caspase-3 activation. In addition, palmitic acid-induced IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was depended on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In conclusion, palmitic acid caused activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses, inducing IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion, which is associated with ROS generation, in human Sw.71 placental cells. We suggest that obesity-related palmitic acid induces placental inflammation, resulting in association with pregnancy complications.

  18. PAR-2 activation enhances weak acid-induced ATP release through TRPV1 and ASIC sensitization in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Shan, Jing; Sei, Hiroo; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-10-15

    Esophageal visceral hypersensitivity has been proposed to be the pathogenesis of heartburn sensation in nonerosive reflux disease. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is expressed in human esophageal epithelial cells and is believed to play a role in inflammation and sensation. PAR-2 activation may modulate these responses through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, which is involved in transduction of sensation and pain. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are both acid-sensitive nociceptors. However, the interaction among these molecules and the mechanisms of heartburn sensation are still not clear. We therefore examined whether ATP release in human esophageal epithelial cells in response to acid is modulated by TRPV1 and ASICs and whether PAR-2 activation influences the sensitivity of TRPV1 and ASICs. Weak acid (pH 5) stimulated the release of ATP from primary human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs). This effect was significantly reduced after pretreatment with 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX), a TRPV1-specific antagonist, or with amiloride, a nonselective ASIC blocker. TRPV1 and ASIC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection also decreased weak acid-induced ATP release. Pretreatment of HEECs with trypsin, tryptase, or a PAR-2 agonist enhanced weak acid-induced ATP release. Trypsin treatment led to the phosphorylation of TRPV1. Acid-induced ATP release enhancement by trypsin was partially blocked by IRTX, amiloride, or a PAR-2 antagonist. Conversely, acid-induced ATP release was augmented by PAR-2 activation through TRPV1 and ASICs. These findings suggested that the pathophysiology of heartburn sensation or esophageal hypersensitivity may be associated with the activation of PAR-2, TRPV1, and ASICs.

  19. Monocytes and macrophages in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Raffort, Juliette; Lareyre, Fabien; Clément, Marc; Hassen-Khodja, Réda; Chinetti, Giulia; Mallat, Ziad

    2017-04-13

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening disease associated with high morbidity, and high mortality in the event of aortic rupture. Major advances in open surgical and endovascular repair of AAA have been achieved during the past 2 decades. However, drug-based therapies are still lacking, highlighting a real need for better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in AAA formation and progression. The main pathological features of AAA include extracellular matrix remodelling associated with degeneration and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and accumulation and activation of inflammatory cells. The inflammatory process has a crucial role in AAA and substantially influences many determinants of aortic wall remodelling. In this Review, we focus specifically on the involvement of monocytes and macrophages, summarizing current knowledge on the roles, origin, and functions of these cells in AAA development and its complications. Furthermore, we show and propose that distinct monocyte and macrophage subsets have critical and differential roles in initiation, progression, and healing of the aneurysmal process. On the basis of experimental and clinical studies, we review potential translational applications to detect, assess, and image macrophage subsets in AAA, and discuss the relevance of these applications for clinical practice.

  20. Quantitative Assessment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Judy; Martufi, Giampaolo; Di Martino, Elena; Washington, Christopher B.; Grisafi, Joseph; Muluk, Satish C.; Finol, Ender A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the maximum transverse diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and expansion rate are not entirely reliable indicators of rupture potential. We hypothesize that aneurysm morphology and wall thickness are more predictive of rupture risk and can be the deciding factors in the clinical management of the disease. A non-invasive, image-based evaluation of AAA shape was implemented on a retrospective study of 10 ruptured and 66 unruptured aneurysms. Three-dimensional models were generated from segmented, contrast-enhanced computed tomography images. Geometric indices and regional variations in wall thickness were estimated based on novel segmentation algorithms. A model was created using a J48 decision tree algorithm and its performance was assessed using ten-fold cross validation. Feature selection was performed using the χ2-test. The model correctly classified 65 datasets and had an average prediction accuracy of 86.6% (κ = 0.37). The highest ranked features were sac length, sac height, volume, surface area, maximum diameter, bulge height, and intra-luminal thrombus volume. Given that individual AAAs have complex shapes with local changes in surface curvature and wall thickness, the assessment of AAA rupture risk should be based on the accurate quantification of aneurysmal sac shape and size. PMID:20890661

  1. Percutaneous Zenith endografting for abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Kamaldeep S; Resnick, Scott A; Matsumura, Jon S; Amaranto, Daniel; Eskandari, Mark K

    2009-03-01

    A completely percutaneous approach to infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) endografting has the theoretic benefits of being minimally invasive and more expedient. Our goal was to demonstrate the utility of this approach using a suprarenal fixation device and a suture-mediated closure system. We conducted a single-institution, retrospective review of 14 patients who underwent percutaneous AAA repair with the Zenith device between August 2003 and March 2007. Immediate and delayed access-related outcomes were examined over a mean follow-up of 12.1+/-2.0 months. Mean AAA size was 5.6 cm. Immediate arterial closure and technical success rate was 96% (27/28 vessels). One immediate hemostatic failure required open surgical repair. Over follow-up, one vessel required operative repair for new-onset claudication. No other immediate or delayed complications (thrombosis, pseudoaneurysm, infection, or deep venous thrombosis) were detected. A percutaneous approach for the treatment of AAA has several advantages over femoral artery cutdown but also has its own unique set of risks in the immediate and late postoperative period. Ultimately, the "preclose technique" can be safely applied for the Zenith device despite its large-bore delivery system.

  2. Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Dominique B.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.; Moll, Frans L.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are usually treated with endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), which has become the standard of care in many hospitals for patients with suitable anatomy. Clinical evidence indicates that EVAR is associated with superior perioperative outcomes and similar long-term survival compared with open repair. Since the randomized, controlled trials that provided this evidence were conducted, however, the stent graft technology for infrarenal AAA has been further developed. Improvements include profile downsizing, optimization of sealing and fixation, and the use of low porosity fabrics. In addition, imaging techniques have improved, enabling better preoperative planning, stent graft placement, and postoperative surveillance. Also in the past few years, fenestrated and branched stent grafts have increasingly been used to manage anatomically challenging aneurysms, and experiments with off-label use of stent grafts have been performed to treat patients deemed unfit or unsuitable for other treatment strategies. Overall, the indications for endovascular management of AAA are expanding to include increasingly complex and anatomically challenging aneurysms. Ongoing studies and optimization of imaging, in addition to technological refinement of stent grafts, will hopefully continue to broaden the utilization of EVAR. PMID:24343568

  3. Gender Differences in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hannawa, Kevin K.; Eliason, Jonathan L.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the 10th leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65–74 years of age, and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in the year 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues due to excessive local production of matrix degrading enzymes, and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, there are no medical therapies available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation are critical, as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms. PMID:19426607

  4. Medical management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Norbert; Rodionov, Roman N; Mahlmann, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are the most common arterial aneurysms. Endovascular or open surgical aneurysm repair is indicated in patients with large AAA ≥ 5.5 cm in diameter as this prevents aneurysm rupture. The presence even of small AAAs not in need of immediate repair is associated with a very high cardiovascular risk including myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death. This risk by far exceeds the risk of aneurysm rupture. These patients therefore should be considered as high-risk patients and receive optimal medical treatment and life-style modification of their cardiovascular risk factors to improve their prognosis. In addition, these patients should be followed-up for aneurysm growth and receive medical treatment to decrease aneurym progression and rupture rate. Treatment with statins has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality in these patients, and also slows the rate of AAA growth. Use of beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonists does not affect AAA growth but may be indicated for comorbidities. Antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin has a small effect on AAA growth, but this effect must be critically weighed against the potential risk of wide-spread use of antibiotics.

  5. Pulsatile blood flow in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan C.; Singel, Soeren; Varga, Chris

    2001-11-01

    We discuss the results of combined in-vitro laboratory measurements and clinical observations aimed at determining the effect that the unsteady wall shear stresses and the pressure may have on the growth and eventual rupturing of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), a permanent bulging-like dilatation occurring near the aortic bifurcation. In recent years, new non-invasive techniques, such as stenting, have been used to treat these AAAs. However, the development of these implants, aimed at stopping the growth of the aneurysm, has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the effect that the hemodynamic forces have on the growth mechanism. Since current in-vivo measuring techniques lack the precision and the necessary resolution, we have performed measurements of the pressure and shear stresses in laboratory models. The models of the AAA were obtained from high resolution three-dimensional CAT/SCANS performed in patients at early stages of the disease. Preliminary DPIV measurements show that the pulsatile blood flow discharging into the cavity of the aneurysm leads to large spikes of pressure and wall shear stresses near and around its distal end, indicating a possible correlation between the regions of high wall shear stresses and the observed location of the growth of the aneurysm.

  6. [Right atrial thrombosis with acute abdominal onset].

    PubMed

    Petcu, D P; Petcu, C; Roşu, M

    2009-01-01

    Intracardiac masses are detected more frequently due to the availability of echocardiography. Right atrial thrombosis is rare comparatively with that of the left atrium. The clinical presentation of the patient with right atrial thrombosis is linked with a misleading association between cardiovascular signs and digestive signs (acute abdominal pain, vomiting and marmorated skin of flanks). Initial clinical suspicions of acute pancreatitis, entero-mesenteric infarction and complicated gastro-duodenal ulcer were invalidated by imagistic investigations -- echocardiography and CT. The massive thrombus located in the right atrium, prolapsing during diastole through the tricuspid valve, was associated with the increase in plasmatic D-dimers and new ECG modifications type right bundle block (hemodynamic straining of the right ventricle). The evolution was favorable, after heparin-therapy by infusing pump, with relief of cardiovascular and digestive symptoms after the first 6 hours; after 36 h from the beginning of the treatment the thrombus was lysed. Sudden death likelihood through complete obstruction of the tricuspid ostium was prevented due to the early diagnosis offered by imagistic methods.

  7. [Role of heat flow generated by an abdominal cavity in monitoring of acute surgical pathology of abdominal organs].

    PubMed

    Bodiaka, V Iu

    2013-01-01

    Despite of significant development of modern surgery results of treatment of acute diffused peritonitis and acute intestinal obstruction are still unsatisfactory. Successful treatment of these conditions depends considerably on timely and adequate diagnosing as it gives a choice of optimal treatment tactics. Measuring of a human body heat flow in areas of organs affected by pathology in cases of acute diffused peritonitis and acute intestinal obstruction provides a possibility to improve the principles of early differential diagnosing, to form new approaches to treatment tactics and monitoring of general health status of a patient during early postoperative treatment. 47 patient suffering from acute diffused peritonitis and 42 patients suffering from acute intestinal obstruction have been examined; the patients were divided into groups based on abdominal cavity exudates character, intestinal obstruction type and intra-abdominal hypertension grade. Measurement of abdominal cavity heat flow was performed by a contact method with use of thermoelectric medical thermometer. Intra-abdominal hypertension was measured by generally used transvesical method. It has been established that abdominal cavity heat flow correlates with character of abdominal cavity exudates; this is also confirmed by reliable difference between serous peritonitis and fibrinopurulent peritonitis indices. Indices in case of acute intestinal obstruction are lower than ones in case of acute diffused peritonitis as there are no inflammatory changes of peritoneum. Development of intra-abdominal hypertension of grades 3-4 directly influences the heat flow extent; this is explained by accelerated and aggravated pathological changes of inner organs cased by the main disease. Thus, abdominal cavity heat flow fully reflects degree of purulent and inflammatory processes of abdominal cavity organs and can be used for additional diagnosing and clinical course monitoring.

  8. The effect of different types of abdominal binders on intra-abdominal pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua-Yu; Liu, Dong; Tang, Hao; Sun, Shi-Jin; Ai, Shan-Mu; Yang, Wen-Qun; Jiang, Dong-Po; Zhang, Lian-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of non-elastic/elastic abdominal binders on intra-vesical pressure (IVP), physiological functions, and clinical outcomes in laparotomy patients at the perioperative stage. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from May to October 2014 at the Trauma Surgery Department, Daping Hospital, Chongqing, China. Laparotomy patients were randomly divided into non-elastic abdominal binder group (28 patients), and elastic abdominal binder group (29 patients). Binders were applied for 14 days following the operation, or until discharge. Demographic information, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores (prior to the operation, on the first day after operation, the day IVP measurement was stopped, and one day before discharge), and outcomes were recorded. The IVP was measured before the operation to postoperative day 7. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic information, outcomes, SOFA or APACHE-II scores between the 2 groups. Initial out-of-bed mobilization occurred earlier in the elastic binder group (3.2 ± 2.0 versus 5.0 ± 3.7 days, p=0.028). A greater increase in IVP was observed in the non-elastic binder group than in the elastic binder group (2.9 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 0.7 mm Hg, p=0.000). Conclusion: Elastic binders have relatively little effect on IVP and are more helpful at promoting postoperative recovery than non-elastic binders. Therefore, elastic binders are more suitable for clinical use. PMID:26739977

  9. Human myeloblastic leukemia cells (HL-60) express a membrane receptor for estrogen that signals and modulates retinoic acid-induced cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kauss, M. Ariel; Reiterer, Gudrun; Bunaciu, Rodica P.; Yen, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    Estrogen receptors are historically perceived as nuclear ligand activated transcription factors. An estrogen receptor has now been found localized to the plasma membrane of human myeloblastic leukemia cells (HL-60). Its expression occurs throughout the cell cycle, progressively increasing as cells mature from G{sub 1} to S to G{sub 2}/M. To ascertain that the receptor functioned, the effect of ligands, including a non-internalizable estradiol-BSA conjugate and tamoxifen, an antagonist of nuclear estrogen receptor function, were tested. The ligands caused activation of the ERK MAPK pathway. They also modulated the effect of retinoic acid, an inducer of MAPK dependent terminal differentiation along the myeloid lineage in these cells. In particular the ligands inhibited retinoic acid-induced inducible oxidative metabolism, a functional marker of terminal myeloid cell differentiation. To a lesser degree they also diminished retinoic acid-induced earlier markers of cell differentiation, namely CD38 and CD11b. However, they did not regulate retinoic acid-induced G{sub 0} cell cycle arrest. There is thus a membrane localized estrogen receptor in HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells that can cause ERK activation and modulates the response of these cells to retinoic acid, indicating crosstalk between the membrane estrogen and retinoic acid evoked pathways relevant to propulsion of cell differentiation.

  10. Human myeloblastic leukemia cells (HL-60) express a membrane receptor for estrogen that signals and modulates retinoic acid-induced cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kauss, M Ariel; Reiterer, Gudrun; Bunaciu, Rodica P; Yen, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    Estrogen receptors are historically perceived as nuclear ligand activated transcription factors. An estrogen receptor has now been found localized to the plasma membrane of human myeloblastic leukemia cells (HL-60). Its expression occurs throughout the cell cycle, progressively increasing as cells mature from G(1) to S to G(2)/M. To ascertain that the receptor functioned, the effect of ligands, including a non-internalizable estradiol-BSA conjugate and tamoxifen, an antagonist of nuclear estrogen receptor function, were tested. The ligands caused activation of the ERK MAPK pathway. They also modulated the effect of retinoic acid, an inducer of MAPK dependent terminal differentiation along the myeloid lineage in these cells. In particular the ligands inhibited retinoic acid-induced inducible oxidative metabolism, a functional marker of terminal myeloid cell differentiation. To a lesser degree they also diminished retinoic acid-induced earlier markers of cell differentiation, namely CD38 and CD11b. However, they did not regulate retinoic acid-induced G(0) cell cycle arrest. There is thus a membrane localized estrogen receptor in HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells that can cause ERK activation and modulates the response of these cells to retinoic acid, indicating crosstalk between the membrane estrogen and retinoic acid evoked pathways relevant to propulsion of cell differentiation.

  11. Ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 is involved in acid-induced apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes in intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng-Lai; Wang, Hui-Ren; Zhao, Ming-Dong; Yuan, Wei; Cao, Lu; Duan, Ping-Guo; Jiang, Yun-Qi; Li, Xi-Lei; Dong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) has been shown to be a receptor for protons. We investigated the role of proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors in the apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes induced by extracellular acid. The expression of proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors was examined in rat lumbar endplate chondrocytes. Knockdown of OGR1 was achieved by transfecting chondrocytes with specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for OGR1. Apoptotic changes were evaluated by DNA fragmentation ELISA, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i) was analyzed with laser scanning confocal microscopy. The mechanism of OGR1 in acid-induced apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes was also investigated. We found that OGR1 was predominantly expressed in rat endplate chondrocytes, and its expression was highly upregulated in response to acidosis. Knocking down OGR1 with shRNAs effectively attenuated acid-induced apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes and increased [Ca(2+) ]i. Blocking OGR1-mediated [Ca(2+) ]i elevation inhibited acid-induced calcium-sensitive proteases such as calpain and calcineurin, and also inhibited the activation of Bid, Bad, and Caspase 3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). OGR1-mediated [Ca(2+) ]i elevation has a crucial role in apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes by regulating activation of calcium-sensitive proteases and their downstream signaling.

  12. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities.

  13. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice.

    PubMed

    Alamger; Mazhar, Uzma; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Ahmad, Taseer; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim; Ali, Haider

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan and egg albumin induced paw edema in mice, while analgesic activity was assessed using formalin induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20% yeast. All the extracts produced significant anti-inflammatory effect however, ether extract produced maximum effect 34% inhibition (p < 0.001) against carrageenan and 22% (p < 0.01) inhibition against egg albumin induced paw edema in mice at the end of 3 h. Ether extract produced prominent analgesic effect 77% (p < 0.001) inhibition in acetic acid induced abdominal writhing and 59% inhibition in formalin induced paw licking model in mice, respectively. Ether extract also demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) antipyretic activity against yeast induced pyrexia. The plant showed no sign of toxicity up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg in mice. This study supports the use of Thymus serphyllum in traditional medicine for inflammation accompanied by pain and fever.

  14. Advanced Gastric Cancer Perforation Mimicking Abdominal Wall Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinbeom; Park, Ilyoung; Lee, Dosang; Sung, Kiyoung; Baek, Jongmin

    2015-01-01

    Surgeons occasionally encounter a patient with a gastric cancer invading an adjacent organ, such as the pancreas, liver, or transverse colon. Although there is no established guideline for treatment of invasive gastric cancer, combined resection with radical gastrectomy is conventionally performed for curative purposes. We recently treated a patient with a large gastric cancer invading the abdominal wall, which was initially diagnosed as a simple abdominal wall abscess. Computed tomography showed that an abscess had formed adjacent to the greater curvature of the stomach. During surgery, we made an incision on the abdominal wall to drain the abscess, and performed curative total gastrectomy with partial excision of the involved abdominal wall. The patient received intensive treatment and wound management postoperatively with no surgery-related adverse events. However, the patient could not receive adjuvant chemotherapy and expired on the 82nd postoperative day. PMID:26468420

  15. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: a persistent painful hip

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Dinnish; Ashraf, Nadeem; Ahmad, Adil; Menon, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with isolated hip pain is a rare phenomenon. We present an atypical case of a 58-year-old previously fit man who presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening left hip pain associated with unintentional weight loss, tender bilateral testicular swellings and a large non-tender palpable mass on abdominal examination. Urgent abdominal CT scan findings revealed a 15 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm extending to the aortic bifurcation associated with an extensive left hydronephrosis. In theatre, the diagnosis of inflammatory AAA (IAAA) was confirmed following the presence of pyuria and a successful repair with an open approach using a bifurcated dacron graft was performed. PMID:24038286

  16. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: a persistent painful hip.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Dinnish; Ashraf, Nadeem; Ahmad, Adil; Menon, Jay

    2013-09-13

    The presentation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with isolated hip pain is a rare phenomenon. We present an atypical case of a 58-year-old previously fit man who presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening left hip pain associated with unintentional weight loss, tender bilateral testicular swellings and a large non-tender palpable mass on abdominal examination. Urgent abdominal CT scan findings revealed a 15 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm extending to the aortic bifurcation associated with an extensive left hydronephrosis. In theatre, the diagnosis of inflammatory AAA (IAAA) was confirmed following the presence of pyuria and a successful repair with an open approach using a bifurcated dacron graft was performed.

  17. [Perioperative pain management for abdominal and thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Englbrecht, J S; Pogatzki-Zahn, E M

    2014-06-01

    Abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures can result in significant acute postoperative pain. Present evidence shows that postoperative pain management remains inadequate especially after "minor" surgical procedures. Various therapeutic options including regional anesthesia techniques and systemic pharmacotherapy are available for effective treatment of postoperative pain. This work summarizes the pathophysiological background of postoperative pain after abdominal and thoracic surgery and discusses the indication, effectiveness, risks, and benefits of the different therapeutic options. Special focus is given to the controversial debate about the indication for epidural analgesia, as well as various alternative therapeutic options, including transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block, paravertebral block (PVB), wound infiltration with local anesthetics, and intravenous lidocaine. In additional, indications and contraindications of nonopioid analgesics after abdominal and thoracic surgery are discussed and recommendations based on scientific evidence and individual risk and benefit analysis are made. All therapeutic options discussed are eligible for clinical use and may contribute to improve postoperative pain outcome after abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures.

  18. Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis.

  19. Prosthetics and Techniques in Repair of Animal's Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Karrouf, Gamal; Zaghloul, Adel; Abou-Alsaud, Mohamed; Barbour, Elie; Abouelnasr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    The management of abdominal wall repair continues to present a challenging problem, especially in the repair of major defects. Many abdominal wall defects can be repaired by primary closure; however, if the defect is large and there is a tension on the closure of the wound, the use of prosthetic materials becomes indispensable. Many studies have been performed with various materials and implant techniques, without the comparison of their degrees of success, based on sound meta-analysis and/or inclusive epidemiologic studies. This review covered the effectiveness of recent advances in prosthetic materials and implant procedures used in repair of abdominal wall, based on biomechanical properties and economic aspects of reconstructed large abdominal wall defects and hernias in animals. The presented results in this review helped to reach treatment algorithms that could maximize outcomes and minimize morbidity. PMID:27293982

  20. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date...

  2. Computer Tomography Imaging Findings of Abdominal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Zhang, Xin-Ke; Chen, Rui-Ying; Cai, Pei-Qiang; Lv, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a neoplasm that arises from follicular dendritic cells. FDCSs originating in the abdomen are extremely rare. Clinically, they often mimic a wide variety of other abdominal tumors, and correct preoperative diagnosis is often a challenging task. To date, only scattered cases of abdominal FDCS have been reported and few data are available on their radiological features. Here we present the computer tomography imaging findings of 5 patients with surgically and pathologically demonstrated abdominal FDCS. An abdominal FDCS should be included in the differential diagnosis when single or multiple masses with relatively large size, well- or ill-defined borders, complex internal architecture with marked internal necrosis and/or focal calcification, and heterogeneous enhancement with “rapid wash-in and slow wash-out” or “progressive enhancement” enhancement patterns in the solid component are seen. PMID:26735543

  3. Prosthetics and Techniques in Repair of Animal's Abdominal Wall.

    PubMed

    Karrouf, Gamal; Zaghloul, Adel; Abou-Alsaud, Mohamed; Barbour, Elie; Abouelnasr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    The management of abdominal wall repair continues to present a challenging problem, especially in the repair of major defects. Many abdominal wall defects can be repaired by primary closure; however, if the defect is large and there is a tension on the closure of the wound, the use of prosthetic materials becomes indispensable. Many studies have been performed with various materials and implant techniques, without the comparison of their degrees of success, based on sound meta-analysis and/or inclusive epidemiologic studies. This review covered the effectiveness of recent advances in prosthetic materials and implant procedures used in repair of abdominal wall, based on biomechanical properties and economic aspects of reconstructed large abdominal wall defects and hernias in animals. The presented results in this review helped to reach treatment algorithms that could maximize outcomes and minimize morbidity.

  4. Wandering Ascaris Coming Out Through the Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A.; Parray, Fazl Q.; Ahangar, Abdul G.; Bijli, Akram H.; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S.

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12th postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here. PMID:23930192

  5. Wandering ascaris coming out through the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A; Parray, Fazl Q; Ahangar, Abdul G; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S

    2013-06-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12(th) postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here.

  6. Novel Molecular Imaging Approaches to Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Risk Stratification.

    PubMed

    Toczek, Jakub; Meadows, Judith L; Sadeghi, Mehran M

    2016-01-01

    Selection of patients for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is currently based on aneurysm size, growth rate, and symptoms. Molecular imaging of biological processes associated with aneurysm growth and rupture, for example, inflammation and matrix remodeling, could improve patient risk stratification and lead to a reduction in abdominal aortic aneurysm morbidity and mortality. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide magnetic resonance imaging are 2 novel approaches to abdominal aortic aneurysm imaging evaluated in clinical trials. A variety of other tracers, including those that target inflammatory cells and proteolytic enzymes (eg, integrin αvβ3 and matrix metalloproteinases), have proven effective in preclinical models of abdominal aortic aneurysm and show great potential for clinical translation.

  7. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and aortoiliac vein fistula.

    PubMed

    Gyoten, Takayuki; Doi, Toshio; Yamashita, Akio; Fukahara, Kazuaki; Kotoh, Keiju; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted with severe abdominal pain and back pain. Computed tomography showed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (8.4 × 8.3 cm) and a large retroperitoneal hematoma. Immediately afterwards, the patient suffered circulatory collapse and was rushed to the operating theater. A fistula communicating with the left iliac vein was found. It was repaired with a Dacron patch while balloon-tipped catheters controlled the bleeding. The abdominal aortic aneurysm was replaced with a bifurcated graft. The postoperative course was uneventful. There have been few reports of successful repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with aortoiliac arteriovenous fistula.

  8. Advancements in identifying biomechanical determinants for abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Metaxa, Eleni; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Tavlas, Emmanouil; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Ioannou, Christos

    2015-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common health problem and currently the need for surgical intervention is determined based on maximum diameter and growth rate criteria. Since these universal variables often fail to predict accurately every abdominal aortic aneurysms evolution, there is a considerable effort in the literature for other markers to be identified towards individualized rupture risk estimations and growth rate predictions. To this effort, biomechanical tools have been extensively used since abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is in fact a material failure of the diseased arterial wall to compensate the stress acting on it. The peak wall stress, the role of the unique geometry of every individual abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as the mechanical properties and the local strength of the degenerated aneurysmal wall, all confer to rupture risk. In this review article, the assessment of these variables through mechanical testing, advanced imaging and computational modeling is reviewed and the clinical perspective is discussed.

  9. Why Do Abdominal Muscles Sometimes Separate during Pregnancy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Why do abdominal muscles sometimes separate during pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. ... D. During pregnancy, the growing uterus stretches the muscles in the abdomen. This can cause the two ...

  10. Unique Presentation of Intra-Abdominal Testis: Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bassiouny, Ibrahim E.; Abbas, Tariq O.; Alansari, Amani N.; Ali, Mansour A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe here a two-year-old male who required urgent laparotomy to relieve a strangulated small bowel caused by internal herniation around an intra-abdominal testis. This clinical presentation has not been reported previously. PMID:22084802

  11. Late effects of abdominal radiation on intestinal uptake of nutrients

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, A.B.; Cheeseman, C.I.; Walker, K.

    1986-09-01

    The late effects of variable doses of abdominal irradiation on in vitro jejunal uptake were examined. The uptake of glucose, galactose, cholic acid, medium-chain length fatty acids, and decanol was studied 6 and 33 weeks following 300, 600, or 900 cGy abdominal irradiation. The intestinal morphological characteristics were similar 6 and 33 weeks after radiation. The uptake of cholic acid was unaffected by abdominal irradiation, but for glucose, galactose, and four fatty acids the direction and magnitude of the changes in uptake were influenced by the dose of irradiation and by the interval following exposure. The greater uptake of decanol at 6 weeks but lower uptake of decanol at 33 weeks reflected changes in the resistance of the intestinal unstirred water layer. These absorption changes suggest that the intestine may not be capable of correcting the transport abnormalities arising from sublethal doses of abdominal irradiation.

  12. Sudden onset abdominal pain and distension: an imaging sparkler.

    PubMed

    Klair, Jagpal Singh; Girotra, M; Medarametla, S; Shah, H R

    2014-11-01

    We present a case of a middle-aged patient presenting with acute onset abdominal pain and distension who had signs of bowel obstruction on physical exam. He was afebrile, hemodynamically stable with no peritoneal signs. Abdominal radiograph and CT scan were pathognomic for sigmoid volvulus. Through this case report we want to discuss the presentation, diagnosis, management options for sigmoid volvulus and importance of features suggestive of ischemic bowel that necessitates different management options.

  13. Castleman's Disease Presenting as Localized Abdominal Mass and Paraneoplastic Pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Bishnoi, Kshitij; Murugavaithianathan, Pragatheeswarane; Panwar, Vikas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a rare, benign lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown origin. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is a common association which presents as oral mucosal ulcerations. Abdominal and retroperitoneal Castleman's disease present either as a localized disease or as a systemic disease. We hereby present a 15-year-old male patient with oral mucosal lesions with localized vague right lower abdominal mass who was diagnosed to have Castleman's disease with paraneoplastic pemphigus which was surgically excised. PMID:27014502

  14. [Abdominal tuberculosis in children. A review apropos of 13 cases].

    PubMed

    Vidal, M L; del Castillo, F; Arroba, M L; Borque, C; García Hortelano, J

    1986-04-01

    Thirteen cases of abdominal tuberculosis are presented; some of them in active or symptomatic stage and others in latent or abdominal calcification form. Many of these patients were diagnosed through the finding of a source of infected cattle after diagnosis of one of symptomatic patients. Pathogenesis, clinical findings and diagnostic difficulty are commented, as well a sanitary importance of the problem, since M. bovis is still a currently found organism in daily practice.

  15. Abdominal candidiasis is a hidden reservoir of echinocandin resistance.

    PubMed

    Shields, Ryan K; Nguyen, M Hong; Press, Ellen G; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2014-12-01

    FKS mutant Candida isolates were recovered from 24% (6/25) of abdominal candidiasis patients exposed to echinocandin. Candida glabrata (29%) and Candida albicans (14%) mutants were identified. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were recovered from 83% of FKS mutant infections. Mutations were associated with prolonged echinocandin exposure (P = 0.01), breakthrough infections (P = 0.03), and therapeutic failures despite source control interventions (100%). Abdominal candidiasis is a hidden reservoir for the emergence of echinocandin-resistant Candida.

  16. Abdominal Injuries in Belt-Positioning Booster Seats

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30–53 mm and 41–89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0–13.3 mm and 1.2–2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  17. Abdominal Tuberculosis with an Acute Abdomen: Our Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Ramprasad; Bhattacharya, Ujjwal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is an important cause of morbidity in India. Abdominal Tuberculosis is a great mimicker and is difficult to diagnose. This prospective observational study is based on those patients who were diagnosed to be suffering from Abdominal Tuberculosis only after they presented with an acute abdomen. This study aims to document the nature of different types of acute presentation in Abdominal Tuberculosis according to involved sites and surgical pathology. The study also discusses the indications and extent of surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: Seventy new cases of Abdominal Tuberculosis (out of 718 cases of acute abdomen) were diagnosed and treated over a period of three years in the surgical ward of Calcutta National Medical College. Macroscopic appearance of abdominal tissues during surgery suggested the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and tissue culture. All patients were subsequently treated with a full course of antitubercular drugs (ATD). Results: The clinical presentations of acute abdomen included acute intestinal obstruction, perforative peritonitis and acute appendicitis etc. Terminal ileum and ileocaecal region were predominantly involved. The most common pathology was intestinal stricture with or without perforation. Most of the patients (approx 78.5%) required emergency surgery as a therapeutic intervention. A two-stage procedure was preferred in peritonitis and sepsis. Most of the remaining patients (12.8%) required surgery after initial conservative treatment for the first few days. Undiagnosed Abdominal Tuberculosis represents a notable percentage (10%) of patients who present with an acute abdomen as a surgical emergency. Conclusion: Abdominal Tuberculosis is very difficult to diagnose and diagnosis is often delayed till an acute abdomen is presented with. Almost all patients needed surgical intervention. Irrespective of surgery, all patients of abdominal tuberculosis require a

  18. Abdominal wall abscesses in patients with Crohn's disease: clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, David; Keidar, Andrei; Gutman, Mordechai; Zissin, Rivka

    2006-03-01

    Abdominal wall abscess due to Crohn's Disease used to be one of the definitive indications for operative treatment. The advent of interventional radiology, the accessibility to percutaneous drainage, and the availability of new medications raised the possibility of nonoperative treatment of this condition. The clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of 13 patients with abdominal wall abscesses secondary to Crohn's Disease were retrospectively reviewed. During a 10-year period (1993-2003), 13 patients with abdominal wall abscess were treated. Five patients had an anterolateral abdominal wall abscess and eight had a posterior abscess (psoas). In 11 patients, 17 drainage procedures were performed: 12 percutaneous and 5 operative. Despite initial adequate drainage and resolution of the abscess, all 13 patients eventually needed resection of the offending bowel segment, which was undertaken in 12 patients. The mean time between abscess presentation and definitive operation was 2 months. Percutaneous drainage is an attractive option in most cases of abdominal abscesses. However, in Crohn's Disease patients with an abdominal wall abscess, we found a high failure rate despite initial adequate drainage. We suggest that surgical resection of the diseased bowel segment should be the definitive therapy.

  19. Endovascular treatment of spontaneous isolated abdominal aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Giribono, Anna Maria; Ferrara, Doriana; Spalla, Flavia; Narese, Donatella; Bracale, Umberto; Pecoraro, Felice; Bracale, Renata; del Guercio, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Isolated abdominal aortic dissection is a rare clinical disease representing only 1.3% of all dissections. There are a few case series reported in the literature. The causes of this pathology can be spontaneous, iatrogenic, or traumatic. Most patients are asymptomatic and symptoms are usually abdominal or back pain, while claudication and lower limb ischemia are rare. Surgical and endovascular treatment are two valid options with acceptable results. We herein describe nine cases of symptomatic spontaneous isolated abdominal aortic dissection, out of which four successfully were treated with an endovascular approach between July 2003 and July 2013. All patients were men, smokers, symptomatic (either abdominal or back pain or lower limb ischemia), with a history of high blood pressure, with a medical history negative for concomitant aneurysmatic dilatation or previous endovascular intervention. Diagnosis of isolated abdominal aortic dissection were established by contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the thoracic and abdominal aorta. All nine patients initially underwent medical treatment. In four symptomatic cases, non-responsive to medical therapy, bare-metal stents or stent grafts were successfully positioned. All patients completed a CTA follow-up of at least 12 months, during which they remained symptom-free. Endovascular management of this condition is associated with a high rate of technical success and a low mortality; therefore, it can be considered the treatment of choice when it is feasible. PMID:27994881

  20. The acid-inducible asr gene in Escherichia coli: transcriptional control by the phoBR operon.

    PubMed

    Suziedeliené, E; Suziedélis, K; Garbenciūté, V; Normark, S

    1999-04-01

    Escherichia coli responds to external acidification (pH 4.0 to 5.0) by synthesizing a newly identified, approximately 450-nucleotide RNA component. At maximal levels of induction it is one of the most abundant small RNAs in the cell and is relatively stable bacterial RNA. The acid-inducible RNA was purified, and the gene encoding it, designated asr (for acid shock RNA), mapped at 35.98 min on the E. coli chromosome. Analysis of the asr DNA sequence revealed an open reading frame coding for a 111-amino-acid polypeptide with a deduced molecular mass of approximately 11.6 kDa. According to computer-assisted analysis, the predicted polypeptide contains a typical signal sequence of 30 amino acids and might represent either a periplasmic or an outer membrane protein. The asr gene cloned downstream from a T7 promoter was translated in vivo after transcription using a T7 RNA polymerase transcription system. Expression of a plasmid-encoded asr::lacZ fusion under a native asr promoter was reduced approximately 15-fold in a complex medium, such as Luria-Bertani medium, versus the minimal medium. Transcription of the chromosomal asr was abolished in the presence of a phoB-phoR (a two-component regulatory system, controlling the pho regulon inducible by phosphate starvation) deletion mutant. Acid-mediated induction of the asr gene in the Delta(phoB-phoR) mutant strain was restored by introduction of the plasmid with cloned phoB-phoR genes. Primer extension analysis of the asr transcript revealed a region similar to the Pho box (the consensus sequence found in promoters transcriptionally activated by the PhoB protein) upstream from the determined transcription start. The asr promoter DNA region was demonstrated to bind PhoB protein in vitro. We discuss our results in terms of how bacteria might employ the phoB-phoR regulatory system to sense an external acidity and regulate transcription of the asr gene.

  1. Electromyographic investigation of abdominal exercises and the effects of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mark; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor

    Abdominal exercises are widely used to develop the anterior muscles of the trunk. These exercises can be undertaken without the aid of equipment, but increasingly manufacturers are developing equipment which purportedly enhances the training effect for abdominal muscles. As there are many different products and exercises used for abdominal muscle development, it is likely that some are more effective than others. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of five commonly performed abdominal exercises. A second aim was to investigate the effects of fatigue on these exercises. Five different types of abdominal exercise [standard crunch (sit-up) with bent knees, gym ball crunch, crunch with 5 kg weight held behind the head, legs raised crunch and a commercially manufactured roller crunch] were examined using integrated surface electromyography (IEMG). The lower rectus abdominis (LRA), upper rectus abdominis (URA) and obliquus externus abdominis (EO) of 15 healthy male participants [age (mean +/- SD) 22.2 +/- 6.8 years; height 1.77 +/- 0.06 m; mass 79.3 +/- 10.7 kg] were monitored using a four-channel special purpose EMG data logger. Three trials of each exercise were performed in random order and normalized to enable comparisons between muscles and exercises. At a later date, ten participants were then re-tested when fresh and after a 30 min whole-body fatigue protocol that specifically targeted the abdominal muscles. Two exercises were evaluated, the abdominal roller crunch and legs raised crunch, which were judged to be the least and most effective, respectively, of the five exercises previously used. The normalized IEMG showed significant (p < 0.001) differences between exercises (gym ball crunch = 86.0 +/- 7.5%; legs raised crunch = 79.9 +/- 5.1%; 5 kg weight crunch = 65.1 +/- 13.4%; standard crunch = 56.2 +/- 3.2%; and roller crunch = 45.0 +/- 11.4%). Post-fatigue, the normalized mean IEMG for both exercises increased significantly (p < 0.05) for LRA and

  2. Divergent phenotype of rat thoracic and abdominal perivascular adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Nathan T.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2013-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is implicated as a source of proatherogenic cytokines. Phenotypic differences in local PVAT depots may contribute to differences in disease susceptibility among arteries and even regions within an artery. It has been proposed that PVAT around the abdominal and thoracic aorta shares characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively; however, a detailed comparison of the phenotype of these PVAT depots has not been performed. Using young and older adult rats, we compared the phenotype of PVATs surrounding the abdominal and thoracic aorta to each other and also to epididymal white and subscapular BAT. Compared with young rats, older rats exhibited greater percent body fat (34.5 ± 3.1 vs. 10.4 ± 0.9%), total cholesterol (112.2 ± 7.5 vs. 58.7 ± 6.3 mg/dl), HOMA-insulin resistance (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1 a.u.), as well as reduced ACh-induced relaxation of the aorta (maximal relaxation: 54 ± 10 vs. 77 ± 6%) (all P < 0.05). Expression of inflammatory genes and markers of immune cell infiltration were greater in abdominal PVAT than in thoracic PVAT, and overall, abdominal and thoracic PVATs resembled the phenotype of white adipose tissue (WAT) and BAT, respectively. Histology and electron microscopy indicated structural similarity between visceral WAT and abdominal PVAT and between BAT and thoracic PVAT. Our data provide evidence that abdominal PVAT is more inflamed than thoracic PVAT, a difference that was by and large independent of sedentary aging. Phenotypic differences in PVAT between regions of the aorta may be relevant in light of the evidence in large animals and humans that the abdominal aorta is more vulnerable to atherosclerosis than the thoracic aorta. PMID:23389108

  3. Planned hernia repair and late abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, Ari; Tukiainen, Erkki

    2012-03-01

    Planned ventral hernia is a management strategy in which the abdominal fascial layer has been left unclosed and the viscera are covered only with original or grafted skin. Leaving the fascia open can be deliberate or unavoidable and most commonly results from staged repair of the abdominal wall due to trauma, peritonitis, pancreatitis, abdominal vascular emergencies, or abdominal compartment syndrome. The abdominal wall defects can be categorized as type I or II defects depending on whether there is intact, stable skin coverage. In defects with intact skin coverage, the most commonly used methods are the components separation technique and a prosthetic repair, sometimes used in combination. The advantages of the components separation technique is the ability to close the linea alba at the midline, creating a better functional result than a repair with inert mesh. Although the reherniation risk seems higher after components separation, the risk of infection is considerably lower. With a type II defect, with absent or unstable skin coverage, fascial repair alone is inadequate. Of the more complex reconstruction techniques, the use of a free tensor fasciae latae (TFL) flap utilizing a saphenous vein arteriovenous loop is the most promising. The advantages of the TFL flap include constant anatomy of the pedicle, a strong fascial layer, large-caliber vessels matching the size of the AV loop, and the ability to use large flaps (up to 20 × 35 cm). Whatever technique is used, the repair of complex abdominal wall defects requires close collaboration with plastic and abdominal surgeons, which is best managed in specialized centers.

  4. Risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H J; Klotsche, J; Friedrich, N; Schipf, S; Völzke, H; Silber, S; März, W; Nauck, M; Pittrow, D; Wehling, M; Sievers, C; Lehnert, H; Stalla, G K; Wittchen, H-U; Wallaschofski, H

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, not all obese individuals have cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). It is not clear how many abdominally obese individuals are free of CVRF and what distinguishes them from the group of obese individuals with CVRF. In this study, we aimed to assess the associated factors and prevalence of abdominal obesity without CVRF. In our cross-sectional analysis, we included n = 4244 subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), a population-based study and n = 6671 subjects from the Diabetes Cardiovascular Risk-Evaluation: Targets and Essential Data for Commitment of Treatment (DETECT) study, a representative primary care study in Germany. We defined abdominal obesity by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of 0.5 or greater. We assessed how many subjects with abdominal obesity had CVRF based on the definition of the metabolic syndrome. We analysed which conditions were associated with the absence of CVRF in abdominal obesity. In SHIP and DETECT, 2652 (62.5%) and 5126 (76.8%) subjects had a WHtR ≥ 0.5. Among those with a WHtR ≥ 0.5, 9.0% and 13.8% were free of CVRF and 49.9% and 52.7% had at least two CVRF in SHIP and DETECT, respectively. In both studies, after backward elimination, age, male sex, body mass index and high liver enzymes and unemployment were consistently inversely associated with the absence of CVRF. Among abdominally obese subjects, the prevalence of metabolically healthy subjects is low. Conditions consistently associated with the absence of CVRF in abdominal obesity are younger age, female sex, low BMI, and normal liver enzymes, the latter likely reflecting the absence of steatohepatitis.

  5. Anti-nociceptive Effect of 7-methoxy Coumarin from Eupatorium Triplinerve vahl (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyan, Binoy Varghese; Kadhirvelu, Parimala; Nadipelly, Jagan; Shanmugasundaram, Jaikumar; Sayeli, Vijaykumar; Subramanian, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of 7-methoxy coumarin isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of the alcoholic extract of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl. Materials and Methods: The shade dried leaves of E. triplinerve were extracted with ethyl alcohol and the extract was condensed. This extract was fractionated with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography which yielded a crystalline compound-A, which was investigated for spectral characteristics. Pharmacological studies: The isolated compound-A was subjected to behavioral studies and anti-nociceptive evaluation in mice by acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced nociception. Results: The spectral studies indicated that the structure of compound-A complies with 7- methoxy coumarin. Pre-treatment with 7-methoxy coumarin reduced the number of abdominal constrictions in mice and decreased the time spent in paw licking and biting response in formalin assay. There were no significant behavioral changes. Conclusion: A dose dependent anti-nociceptive action of 7- methoxy coumarin was revealed by the present experiments which support the traditional use of E. triplinerve in pain and inflammatory disorders. SUMMARY Bio-guided fractionation of alcoholic extract of E. triplinerve yielded 7-methoxy coumarin.7-methoxy coumarin was evaluated for its anti-nociceptive potential by acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced nociception assays.7-methoxy coumarin exhibited significant inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing response and the second phase of formalin nociception.The anti-nociceptive action of 7-methoxy coumarin revealed by the present experiments supports the traditional use of E. triplinerve in pain and inflammatory disorders. Abbreviation used: TLC-Thin layer chromatography, Kg-kilogram, g-gram, TXB2-Thromboxane B2, UV-Ultraviolet, IgE-Immunoglobulin E, s.c-subcutaneous, p.o-oral route PMID:28216887

  6. Plectoneme tip bubbles: Coupled denaturation and writhing in supercoiled DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matek, Christian; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Doye, Jonathan P. K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-01-01

    We predict a novel conformational regime for DNA, where denaturation bubbles form at the tips of plectonemes, and study its properties using coarse-grained simulations. For negative supercoiling, this regime lies between bubble-dominated and plectoneme-dominated phases, and explains the broad transition between the two observed in experiment. Tip bubbles cause localisation of plectonemes within thermodynamically weaker AT-rich sequences, and can greatly suppress plectoneme diffusion by a pinning mechanism. They occur for supercoiling densities and forces that are typically encountered for DNA in vivo, and may be exploited for biological control of genomic processes.

  7. Abdominal contributions to cardiorenal dysfunction in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Frederik H; Dupont, Matthias; Steels, Paul; Grieten, Lars; Malbrain, Manu; Tang, W H Wilson; Mullens, Wilfried

    2013-08-06

    Current pathophysiological models of congestive heart failure unsatisfactorily explain the detrimental link between congestion and cardiorenal function. Abdominal congestion (i.e., splanchnic venous and interstitial congestion) manifests in a substantial number of patients with advanced congestive heart failure, yet is poorly defined. Compromised capacitance function of the splanchnic vasculature and deficient abdominal lymph flow resulting in interstitial edema might both be implied in the occurrence of increased cardiac filling pressures and renal dysfunction. Indeed, increased intra-abdominal pressure, as an extreme marker of abdominal congestion, is correlated with renal dysfunction in advanced congestive heart failure. Intriguing findings provide preliminary evidence that alterations in the liver and spleen contribute to systemic congestion in heart failure. Finally, gut-derived hormones might influence sodium homeostasis, whereas entrance of bowel toxins into the circulatory system, as a result of impaired intestinal barrier function secondary to congestion, might further depress cardiac as well as renal function. Those toxins are mainly produced by micro-organisms in the gut lumen, with presumably important alterations in advanced heart failure, especially when renal function is depressed. Therefore, in this state-of-the-art review, we explore the crosstalk between the abdomen, heart, and kidneys in congestive heart failure. This might offer new diagnostic opportunities as well as treatment strategies to achieve decongestion in heart failure, especially when abdominal congestion is present. Among those currently under investigation are paracentesis, ultrafiltration, peritoneal dialysis, oral sodium binders, vasodilator therapy, renal sympathetic denervation and agents targeting the gut microbiota.

  8. Treatment Experience of Severe Abdominal Infection after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-G; Wu, J-S; Jiang, B; Wang, J-H; Liu, C-P; Peng, C; Tian, B-Z

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the causes and treatment experience of severe abdominal infection after orthotopic liver transplantation. Clinical data were retrospectively analysed in perioperative severe abdominal infection of 186 orthotopic liver transplantation cases from March 2004 to November 2011. Among the 186 patients, 16 cases had severe abdominal infection: five cases had bile duct anastomotic leakage-inducing massive hydrops and infection under liver interstice, 10 cases had extensive bleeding of surgical wound leading to massive haematocele and infection around the liver, and one case had postoperative lower oesophageal fistula leakage causing massive hydrops and infection under the left diaphragm. After definite diagnosis, 12 cases underwent surgery within three days, with no death. Among the four cases that underwent surgery three days after diagnosis, one case died of multiple-organ failure five days after abdominal cavity exploration, which was performed 21 days after liver transplantation. Severe abdominal infections after liver transplantation were the most common causes of death in perioperative liver transplantation. Comprehensive treatment with efficacious antibiotics, multiple-organ support, controlled surgical removal of the lesion, and adequate drainage establishment was the key to the entire treatment.

  9. Multidetector CT Findings of Bowel Transection in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Suk; Hong, Hye-Suk; Park, Mee Hyun; Ha, Hong Il; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. Materials and Methods We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. Results The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Conclusion Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity. PMID:23901318

  10. Ultrasound and differential diagnosis of fetal abdominal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the use of ultrasound and differential diagnosis to diagnose a fetal abdominal cyst. A retrospective analysis of 41 cases of fetal abdominal cyst, which included ovarian cysts, choledochal cysts, intestinal duplication and mesenteric cysts, was performed. Imaging characteristics of various types of cysts were summarized, compared and discussed. Among 41 fetal abdominal cyst cases, there were 21 cases of ovarian cysts, 11 cases of bile duct cyst, six cases of intestinal duplication and three cases of mesenteric cyst. Each type of fetal cyst had its own distinctive characteristics on abdominal ultrasound examination. Ovarian cysts were located at one side of the bladder, round-shaped and observed in female fetuses; choledochal cysts were located in the hilar, were oblong- or oval-shaped and connected to the bile duct; intestinal duplication was located in the middle of abdomen, close to the intestine, and presented as an intestinal wall-like structure; mesenteric cysts were round-shaped with thin tensionless wall, presented with multiple chambers, and were easily deformable on compression. The findings of the present study demonstrated that a comprehensive analysis of the association between the cyst and its adjacent location, shape, wall thickness, motility and other aspects of dynamic changes via ultrasonography may provide a differential diagnosis of different types of fetal abdominal cysts. PMID:28123506

  11. Synthetic, biological and composite scaffolds for abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, Jennifer; Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen; Zheng, Minghao

    2011-03-01

    The reconstruction of abdominal wall defects remains a huge surgical challenge. Tension-free repair is proven to be superior to suture repair in abdominal wall reconstruction. Scaffolds are essential for tension-free repair. They are used to bridge a defect or reinforce the abdominal wall. A huge variety of scaffolds are now commercially available. Most of the synthetic scaffolds are composed of polypropylene. They provide strong tissue reinforcement, but cause a foreign body reaction, which can result in serious complications. Absorbable synthetic scaffolds, such as Dexon™ (polyglycolic acid) and Vicryl™ (polyglactin 910), are not suitable for abdominal wall reconstruction as they usually require subsequent surgeries to repair recurrent hernias. Composite scaffolds combine the strength of nonabsorbable synthetic scaffolds with the antiadhesive properties of the absorbable scaffold, but require long-term follow-up. Biological scaffolds, such as Permacol™, Surgisis(®) and Alloderm(®), are derived from acellular mammalian tissues. Non-cross-linked biological scaffolds show excellent biocompatibility and degrade slowly over time. However, remnant DNA has been found in several products and the degradation leads to recurrence. Randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up studies are lacking for all of the available scaffolds, particularly those derived from animal tissue. This article provides an overview of the different types of scaffolds available, and presents the key clinical studies of the commercially available synthetic, composite and biological scaffolds for abdominal wall reconstruction.

  12. Ultrasound and differential diagnosis of fetal abdominal cysts.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the use of ultrasound and differential diagnosis to diagnose a fetal abdominal cyst. A retrospective analysis of 41 cases of fetal abdominal cyst, which included ovarian cysts, choledochal cysts, intestinal duplication and mesenteric cysts, was performed. Imaging characteristics of various types of cysts were summarized, compared and discussed. Among 41 fetal abdominal cyst cases, there were 21 cases of ovarian cysts, 11 cases of bile duct cyst, six cases of intestinal duplication and three cases of mesenteric cyst. Each type of fetal cyst had its own distinctive characteristics on abdominal ultrasound examination. Ovarian cysts were located at one side of the bladder, round-shaped and observed in female fetuses; choledochal cysts were located in the hilar, were oblong- or oval-shaped and connected to the bile duct; intestinal duplication was located in the middle of abdomen, close to the intestine, and presented as an intestinal wall-like structure; mesenteric cysts were round-shaped with thin tensionless wall, presented with multiple chambers, and were easily deformable on compression. The findings of the present study demonstrated that a comprehensive analysis of the association between the cyst and its adjacent location, shape, wall thickness, motility and other aspects of dynamic changes via ultrasonography may provide a differential diagnosis of different types of fetal abdominal cysts.

  13. Insertional action of the abdominal muscles in rabbits and dogs.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, E; Prandi, E; Robatto, F; Petitjean, M; Bellemare, F

    1996-07-01

    The insertional action of the abdominal muscles was studied in supine anesthetized, apneic rabbits and dogs by comparing the changes in esophageal pressure (Pes), upper and lower rib cage circumference (Cru,u and Crc,I) and lung volume (VL) in response to electrical stimulation of all abdominal muscles before and after evisceration. In eviscerated animals, abdominal muscle contraction increased Pes and decreased both VL and Cre,I, but had no effect on Crc,u. Maximal responses were obtained at submaximal intensities of stimulation, and became larger with increasing lung volume. Relative to the vital capacity in intact animals, maximal delta VL for stimulation performed at FRC and TLC were 7.2 +/- 2.9(SD) and 39.5 +/- 7% in rabbits, and 6.3 +/- 0.8 and 18.3 +/- 5.9% in dogs, respectively. Relative to the changes in lung volume occurring with maximal contraction of the abdominal muscles in intact animals, the values of delta VL observed in the eviscerated animals amounted to approximately 35 and approximately 45% for stimulation performed at FRC and TLC, respectively. Hence, abdominal muscles exert substantial insertional action on the lower rib cage that can result in appreciable lung deflationary effects, particularly at elevated lung volumes.

  14. Abdominal irradiation in the treatment of Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, P.N.; Jenkin, R.D.T.

    1980-06-01

    One hundred and fifty-two consecutive children who had Wilms' tumor were treated from 1960 to 1976. This series was analysed to determine the effect of systemic treatment on the incidence of abdominal relapse. Primary treatment included abdominal irradiation in 151 of these patients. Twenty-two patients (14%) had abdominal disease alone or in part at first relapse. For stages I-IV combined, a first abdominal relapse within the irradiated volume occurred in 3/21 patients (14%) who received no systemic treatment; 6/83 patients (7%) who received actinomycin D (AMD) and 1/35 patients (3%) who received AMD and vincristine (VCR). The mean radiation dose, 2400 rad given in 100-125 rad fractions, was essentially constant. Overall two in-field abdominal relapses occurred among 85 patients with stage I or II disease. The optimal radiation dose could not be determined in this retrospective review, but for stages I and II it was not greater than 2400 rad in 24 fractions.

  15. The Na+/H+ exchanger controls deoxycholic acid-induced apoptosis by a H+-activated, Na+-dependent ionic shift in esophageal cells.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Aaron; Chen, HwuDauRw; Khan, Mohammad R; Roesly, Heather; Hill, Kimberly A; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Mandal, Amritlal; Delamere, Nicholas A; Dvorak, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis resistance is a hallmark of cancer cells. Typically, bile acids induce apoptosis. However during gastrointestinal (GI) tumorigenesis the cancer cells develop resistance to bile acid-induced cell death. To understand how bile acids induce apoptosis resistance we first need to identify the molecular pathways that initiate apoptosis in response to bile acid exposure. In this study we examined the mechanism of deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced apoptosis, specifically the role of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) and Na(+) influx in esophageal cells. In vitro studies revealed that the exposure of esophageal cells (JH-EsoAd1, CP-A) to DCA (0.2 mM-0.5 mM) caused lysosomal membrane perturbation and transient cytoplasmic acidification. Fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrophotometry demonstrated that this effect on lysosomes correlated with influx of Na(+), subsequent loss of intracellular K(+), an increase of Ca(2+) and apoptosis. However, ethylisopropyl-amiloride (EIPA), a selective inhibitor of NHE, prevented Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) changes and caspase 3/7 activation induced by DCA. Ouabain and amphotericin B, two drugs that increase intracellular Na(+) levels, induced similar changes as DCA (ion imbalance, caspase3/7 activation). On the contrary, DCA-induced cell death was inhibited by medium with low a Na(+) concentrations. In the same experiments, we exposed rat ileum ex-vivo to DCA with or without EIPA. Severe tissue damage and caspase-3 activation was observed after DCA treatment, but EIPA almost fully prevented this response. In summary, NHE-mediated Na(+) influx is a critical step leading to DCA-induced apoptosis. Cells tolerate acidification but evade DCA-induced apoptosis if NHE is inhibited. Our data suggests that suppression of NHE by endogenous or exogenous inhibitors may lead to apoptosis resistance during GI tumorigenesis.

  16. [The role of laparoscopy in emergency abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Balén, E; Herrera, J; Miranda, C; Tarifa, A; Zazpe, C; Lera, J M

    2005-01-01

    Abdominal emergencies can also be operated on through the laparoscopic approach: the approach can be diagnostic laparoscopy, surgery assisted by laparoscopy or laparotomy directed according to the findings of the laparoscopy. The general contraindications refer above all to the state of haemodynamic instability of the patient and to seriously ill patients (ASA IV). In the absence of any specific counter-indications for the specific laparoscopic procedure to be carried out, many abdominal diseases requiring emergency surgery can be performed with the laparoscopic approach. The most frequent indications are appendicitis, acute colecistitis, gastroduodenal perforation, occlusion of the small intestine, and some abdominal traumas. With a correct selection of patients and the appropriate experience of the surgeon, the results are excellent and better than open surgery (less infection of the wound, complications, hospital stay and postoperative pain). A detailed explanation is given of the basic aspects of the surgical technique in the most frequent procedures of emergency laparoscopy.

  17. Bowel and mesenteric injuries from blunt abdominal trauma: a review.

    PubMed

    Iaselli, Francesco; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Firetto, Cristina; D'Elia, Domenico; Squitieri, Nevada Cioffi; Biondetti, Pietro Raimondo; Danza, Francesco Maria; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The bowel and the mesentery represent the third most frequently involved structures in blunt abdominal trauma after the liver and the spleen. Clinical assessment alone in patients with suspected intestinal and/or mesenteric injury from blunt abdominal trauma is associated with unacceptable diagnostic delays. Multi-detector computed tomography, thanks to its high spatial, time and contrast resolutions, allows a prompt identification and proper classification of such conditions. The radiologist, in fact, is asked not only to identify the signs of trauma but also to provide an indication of their clinical significance, suggesting the chance of conservative treatment in the cases of mild and moderate, non-complicated or self-limiting injuries and focusing on life-threatening conditions which may benefit from immediate surgical or interventional procedures. Specific and non-specific CT signs of bowel and mesenteric injuries from blunt abdominal trauma are reviewed in this paper.

  18. Conservative Management of an Advanced Abdominal Pregnancy at 22 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Marcellin, Louis; Ménard, Sophie; Lamau, Marie-Charlotte; Mignon, Alexandre; Aubelle, Marie Stephanie; Grangé, Gilles; Goffinet, François

    2014-01-01

    Objective We report an uneventful conservative approach of an advanced abdominal pregnancy discovered at 22 weeks of gestation. Study Design This study is a case report. Results Attempting to extend gestation of an advanced abdominal pregnancy is not a common strategy and is widely questioned. According to the couple's request, the management consisted in continuous hospitalization, regular ultrasound scan, and antenatal corticosteroids. While the woman remained asymptomatic, surgery was planned at 32 weeks, leading to the birth of a preterm child without any long-term complications. Placenta was left in situ with a prophylactic embolization, and its resorption was monitored. Conclusion Depending on multidisciplinary cares and agreement of the parents, when late discovered, prolonging advanced abdominal pregnancy appears to be a reasonable option. PMID:25032062

  19. Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma with metastatic encasement of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Michael R; Gibson, Donald P; Bloom, David A

    2011-08-01

    Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare but aggressive malignancy in children and adolescents. Prognosis is related to initial tumor resectability as well as staging of the disease based on tumor invasiveness, tumor bulk, nodal disease and metastases. We report the unusual presentation of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma with metastatic extension through the inguinal canal and encasement of the abdominal aorta. These features portend a poor prognosis given their association with a greater stage of disease and unresectable nature at presentation. Delayed surgical resection follows a regimen of chemotherapy and radiation therapy in such cases of extensive disease. Encasement of the abdominal aorta has been shown to increase presurgical risk for intraoperative vascular injury when related to other malignancies, but its role in relation to metastatic paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma has not been investigated. Also, rhabdomyosarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnoses of tumors that demonstrate encasement of the abdominal aorta.

  20. Intraoperative Dexmedetomidine Promotes Postoperative Analgesia in Patients After Abdominal Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dong-Jian; Qi, Bin; Tang, Gang; Li, Jin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surgery-induced acute postoperative pain may lead to prolonged convalescence. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on postoperative analgesia following abdominal colectomy surgeries. Eighty patients scheduled for abdominal colectomy surgery under general anesthesia were divided into 2 groups, which were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine (PRD) or propofol/remifentanil/saline (PRS). During surgery, patients in the PRD group had a lower bispectral index (BIS) value, which indicated a deeper anesthetic state, and a higher sedation score right after extubation than patients in the PRS group. During the first 24 hours post surgery, PRD patients consumed less morphine in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and had a lower score in the visual analog scale (VAS) testing than their controls from the PRS group. Intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine appears to promote the analgesic property of morphine-based PCA in patients after abdominal colectomy. PMID:26376397

  1. Tunnelled tensor fascia lata flap for complex abdominal wall reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Frederick; Buonocore, Samuel; Narayan, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the treatment of two patients with recurrent, infected abdominal wall defects using bilateral delayed and tunnelled pedicled tensor fascia lata (TFL) myofascial flaps. TFL flaps were elevated and delayed for 4 weeks in both cases. In the second case, Parietex Composite mesh was positioned underneath the TFL flap and allowed to incorporate. After a delay of 4 weeks, the flaps were harvested and tunnelled subcutaneously to repair the abdominal wall defect. Both patients have stable repairs but had donor site seromas requiring drainage. Cadaver dissection was also performed to identify structures related to TFL flap harvest. We identified a variant of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve that traversed the TFL flap, necessitating meticulous dissection during surgery. In summary, we describe a new technique of incorporating mesh into the TFL prior to flap harvest for reconstruction of complex abdominal wall. PMID:22707661

  2. Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

    2013-01-01

    Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity.

  3. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  4. Abdominal wall closure after a stomal reversal procedure.

    PubMed

    López-Cano, Manuel; Pereira, José Antonio; Villanueva, Borja; Vallribera, Francesc; Espin, Eloy; Armengol Carrasco, Manuel; Arbós Vía, María Antonia; Feliu, Xavier; Morales-Conde, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The closure of a temporary stoma involves 2 different surgical procedures: the stoma reversal procedure and the abdominal wall reconstruction of the stoma site. The management of the abdominal wall has different areas that should be analyzed such us how to avoid surgical site infection (SSI), the technique to be used in case of a concomitant hernia at the stoma site or to prevent an incisional hernia in the future, how to deal with the incision when the stoma reversal procedure is performed by laparoscopy and how to close the skin at the stoma site. The aim of this paper is to analyze these aspects in relation to abdominal wall reconstruction during a stoma reversal procedure.

  5. Term Live Secondary Abdominal Pregnancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pannu, Deepika; Bharti, Rekha; Anand, HP; Sharma, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Term, live abdominal pregnancy secondary to rupture of a uterine rudimentary horn is a rare condition. Pregnancies conceived in the rudimentary horn of the uterus usually rupture during early gestation and present as a catastrophic event. However, rarely, after rupture of the uterine horn the foetus may continue to grow in the abdominal cavity and reach term gestation. A primigravida with a term pregnancy was referred to our centre for caesarean section with ultrasonography findings of transverse lie and placenta previa. During surgery, a live baby was extracted from the abdominal cavity, revealing a bicornuate uterus with rupture of the rudimentary horn. The early peroperative diagnosis and prompt control of the bleeding with excision of the rudimentary horn and transfusion of multiple blood products saved the patient’s life. The case is presented for its rarity and to highlight the importance of a high index of suspicion in cases presenting with abnormal foetal presentation. PMID:27904431

  6. Mechanics, Mechanobiology, and Modeling of Human Abdominal Aorta and Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J.D.; Holzapfel, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play fundamental roles in the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and their responses to treatment. Advances during the past two decades have increased our understanding of the mechanics and biology of the human abdominal aorta and AAAs, yet there remains a pressing need for considerable new data and resulting patient-specific computational models that can better describe the current status of a lesion and better predict the evolution of lesion geometry, composition, and material properties and thereby improve interventional planning. In this paper, we briefly review data on the structure and function of the human abdominal aorta and aneurysmal wall, past models of the mechanics, and recent growth and remodeling models. We conclude by identifying open problems that we hope will motivate studies to improve our computational modeling and thus general understanding of AAAs. PMID:22189249

  7. Rodent antinociception following acute treatment with different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Farzin, Davood; Asghari, Ladan; Nowrouzi, Mahvash

    2002-06-01

    The effects of different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on the nociceptive threshold were investigated in mice by two different kinds of noxious stimuli: thermal (hot plate) and chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing). Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of the histamine H(1) receptor agonist, HTMT (6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamino]-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl) heptanecarboxamide) (50 microg/mouse), produced a hypernociception in the hot plate and writhing tests. Conversely, intraperitoneal (ip) injection of dexchlorpheniramine (30 and 40 mg/kg) and diphenhydramine (20 and 40 mg/kg) increased the pain threshold in both tests. The histamine H(2) receptor agonist, dimaprit (50 and 100 microg/mouse icv), or antagonist, ranitidine (50 and 100 microg/mouse icv), raised the pain threshold in both hot plate and writhing tests. In the mouse hot plate test, the histamine H(3) receptor agonist, imetit (50 mg/kg ip), reduced the pain threshold, while the histamine H(3) receptor antagonist, thioperamide (10 and 20 mg/kg ip), produced an antinociception. The hypernociceptive effects of HTMT and imetit were antagonized by dexchlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg ip) and thioperamide (5 mg/kg ip), respectively. The results suggest that histaminergic mechanisms may be involved in the modulation of nociceptive stimuli.

  8. Biomechanical Responses of PMHS Subjected to Abdominal Seatbelt Loading.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Rakshit; Kang, Yun-Seok; Bolte, John H; Hagedorn, Alena; Herriott, Rodney; Stammen, Jason A; Moorhouse, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    Past studies have found that a pressure based injury risk function was the best predictor of liver injuries due to blunt impacts. In an effort to expand upon these findings, this study investigated the biomechanical responses of the abdomen of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to high-speed seatbelt loading and developed external response targets in conjunction with proposing an abdominal injury criterion. A total of seven unembalmed PMHS, with an average mass and stature of 71 kg and 174 cm respectively were subjected to belt loading using a seatbelt pull mechanism, with the PMHS seated upright in a freeback configuration. A pneumatic piston pulled a seatbelt into the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus with a nominal peak penetration speed of 4.0 m/s. Pressure transducers were placed in the re-pressurized abdominal vasculature, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta, to measure internal pressure variation during the event. Jejunum tear, colon hemorrhage, omentum tear, splenic fracture and transverse processes fracture were identified during post-test anatomical dissection. Peak abdominal forces ranged from 2.8 to 4.7 kN. Peak abdominal penetrations ranged from 110 to 177 mm. A force-penetration corridor was developed from the PMHS tests in an effort to benchmark ATD biofidelity. Peak aortic pressures ranged from 30 to 104 kPa and peak IVC pressures ranged from 36 to 65 kPa. Updated pressure based abdominal injury risk functions were developed for vascular Ṗmax and Pmax*Ṗmax.

  9. [A Case of Abdominal Wall Hernia Rupture during Bevacizumab Treatment].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Yasuaki; Hirose, Sou; Michiura, Toshiya; Fujita, Shigeo; Yamabe, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Satoru; Nagaoka, Makio

    2015-11-01

    A 78 -year-old man with rectal cancer underwent abdominoperineal resection of the rectum. In the postoperative period, the patient experienced wound infection, leading to an abdominal wall hernia. Two years following surgery, a rise in the serum CEA level was seen. A metastatic tumor was detected in the right lung on chest CT. VATS right lung inferior lobe segmental resection was performed. After lobectomy, the serum CEA level continued to increase. Another metastatic tumor was detected in the right lung on chest CT. Chemotherapy with capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab was commenced. The erosive part of the abdominal wall scar hernia extended during the nine weeks of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy was then discontinued. In the follow-up CT scan, a right pleural recurrence, local recurrence in the pelvis, and a liver metastasis were detected. Chemotherapy was re-introduced 3 years after surgery. The erosive part of the abdominal wall hernia again began to spread with chemotherapy recommencement. Four months after restarting chemotherapy, the hernia ruptured, with a loop of the small intestine protruding out of it. The patient covered this with a sheet of vinyl and was taken by the ambulance to our hospital. The erosive part of the abdominal wall hernia had split by 10 cm, and a loop of the small intestine was protruding. As ischemia of the small intestine was not observed, we replaced it into the abdominal cavity, and performed a temporary suture repair of the hernia sac. Following this, bevacizumab was discontinued, and the erosive part reduced. We performed a radical operation for abdominal wall scar hernia repair 11 weeks after the discontinuation of bevacizumab.

  10. Cardiovascular disease risk of abdominal obesity vs. metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wildman, Rachel P; McGinn, Aileen P; Lin, Juan; Wang, Dan; Muntner, Paul; Cohen, Hillel W; Reynolds, Kristi; Fonseca, Vivian; Sowers, MaryFran R

    2011-04-01

    It remains unclear whether abdominal obesity increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk independent of the metabolic abnormalities that often accompany it. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the independent effects of abdominal obesity vs. metabolic syndrome and diabetes on the risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. The Framingham Offspring, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, and Cardiovascular Health studies were pooled to assess the independent effects of abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88 cm for women) vs. metabolic syndrome (excluding the waist circumference criterion) and diabetes on risk for incident CHD and stroke in 20,298 men and women aged ≥45 years. The average follow-up was 8.3 (s.d. 1.9) years. There were 1,766 CVD events. After adjustment for demographic factors, smoking, alcohol intake, number of metabolic syndrome components, and diabetes, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval): 1.09 (0.98, 1.20)). However, after adjustment for demographics, smoking, alcohol intake, and abdominal obesity, having 1-2 metabolic syndrome components, the metabolic syndrome and diabetes were each associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD (2.12 (1.80, 2.50), 2.82 (1.92, 4.12), and 5.33 (3.37, 8.41), respectively). Although abdominal obesity is an important clinical tool for identification of individuals likely to possess metabolic abnormalities, these data suggest that the metabolic syndrome and diabetes are considerably more important prognostic indicators of CVD risk.

  11. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  12. Abdominal Problems in Children with Congenital Cardiovascular Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Güney, Lütfi Hakan; Araz, Coşkun; Beyazpınar, Deniz Sarp; Arda, İrfan Serdar; Arslan, Esra Elif; Hiçsönmez, Akgün

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital cardiovascular abnormality is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Both the type of congenital cardiovascular abnormality and cardiopulmonary bypass are responsible for gastrointestinal system problems. Aims: Intra-abdominal problems, such as paralytic ileus, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intestinal perforation, are common in patients who have been operated or who are being followed for congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. Besides the primary congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, ischemia secondary to cardiac catheterization or surgery contributes to the incidence of these problems. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: In this study, we aimed to screen the intra-abdominal problems seen in patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities who had undergone surgical or angiographical intervention(s). Patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities who had been treated medically or surgically between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed retrospectively in terms of intra-abdominal problems. The patients’ demographic data, type of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, the intervention applied (surgical, angiographic), the incidence of intra-abdominal problem(s), the interventions applied for the intra-abdominal problems, and the results were evaluated. Results: Fourteen (Group I) of the 76 patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities diagnosis were operated due to intra-abdominal problems, and 62 (Group II) were followed-up clinically for intra-abdominal problems. In Group I (10 boys and 4 girls), 11 patients were aged between 0 and 12 months, and three patients were older than 12 months. Group II included 52 patients aged between 0 and 12 months and 10 patients older than 12 months. Cardiovascular surgical interventions had been applied to six patients in Group I and 40 patients in Group II. The most frequent intra-abdominal problems were necrotizing enterocolitis and intestinal perforation

  13. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome with Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Kevin; Day, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) syndrome is a condition in which the duodenum becomes compressed between the SMA and the aorta, resulting in bowel obstruction which subsequently compresses surrounding structures. Pressure on the inferior vena cava (IVC) and aorta decreases cardiac output which compromises distal blood flow, resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome with ischemia and renal failure. A 15-year-old male with SMA syndrome presented with 12 hours of pain, a distended, rigid abdomen, mottled skin below the waist, and decreased motor and sensory function in the lower extremities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed ischemic small bowel and stomach with abdominal compartment syndrome. Despite decompression, the patient arrested from hyperkalemia following reperfusion. PMID:28003918

  14. Abdominal Epilepsy in an Adult: A Diagnosis Often Missed

    PubMed Central

    Harshe, Sneha D; Harshe, Gurudas R; Harshe, Gayatri G

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal Epilepsy (AE) is a variant of temporal lobe epilepsy and is commonly seen in pediatric age group. There are however, multiple reports of abdominal epilepsy in adolescents and even in adults. Chronic and recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms with one or more neuropsychiatric manifestations are often the presenting picture for a patient with AE. Such patients therefore, are more likely to consult a general practioner, a physician, a surgeon or a gastroenterologist than consulting a psychiatrist or a neurologist. We hereby present such a case of AE in an adult with review of similar reports. PMID:27891434

  15. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of inflammatory abdominal wall lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Rabinowitz, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    Twenty-four patients with inflammatory lesions of the abdominal wall were examined by ultrasonography. Nine of these patients underwent computed tomographic (CT) scanning as well. Both ultrasonography and CT clearly delineated the exact location and extent of abdominal wall abscesses. Abscesses were easily differentiated from cellulitis or phlegmon with ultrasound. The peritoneal line was more clearly delineated on ultrasonograms than on CT scans; abscesses were also more distinct on the ultrasonograms because of their low echogenicity compared with the surrounding structures. Gas bubbles, fat density with specific low attenuation values, and underlying inflamed bowel loops in obese patients with Crohn's disease were better delineated by CT.

  16. Surgical management of abdominal compartment syndrome; indications and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Leppäniemi, Ari

    2009-01-01

    The indications for surgical decompression of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are not clearly defined, but undoubtedly some patients benefit from it. In patients without recent abdominal incisions, it can be achieved with full-thickness laparostomy (either midline, or transverse subcostal) or through a subcutaneous linea alba fasciotomy. In spite of the improvement in physiological variables and significant decrease in IAP, however, the effects of surgical decompression on organ function and outcome are less clear. Because of the significant morbidity associated with surgical decompression and the management of the ensuing open abdomen, more research is needed to better define the appropriate indications and techniques for surgical intervention. PMID:19366442

  17. [Peritoneal lavage and blunt abdominal injuries in childhood].

    PubMed

    Belgerden, S; Demirkol, K; Kayabali, M

    1987-01-01

    Traffic accidents are increasingly responsible for mortality in childhood in Turkey. Between 1982 and 1984, 197 children were admitted for contused abdominal injuries to the surgical casualty ward at the School of Medicine of Istanbul University. Most of these children had been involved in traffic accidents, and peritoneal lavage was applied to all of them. The diagnosis on admission was confirmed by laparotomy in 90 per cent of all cases. 20 children died (10.1 per cent). Uncontrollable abdominal bleeding was the cause of ten deaths and massive brain lesion of another six.

  18. Abdominal pythiosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, Claus; Powe, Joshua; White, Tamara

    2006-06-01

    An adult Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed in an outdoor sanctuary in Florida exhibited vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. A clinical workup did not reveal the source of the clinical signs and antibiotic therapy was unrewarding. Radiographs revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. The tiger died during an immobilization for a follow-up clinical examination. A necropsy was performed and tissue samples of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for histopathologic diagnosis. A pyogranulomatous panenteritis and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae led to a presumptive etiologic diagnosis of intestinal/abdominal pythiosis. The diagnosis of pythiosis was confirmed by serology and immunoblotting.

  19. Recurrent abdominal pain in children: a clinical approach

    PubMed Central

    Quak, Seng Hock

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘recurrent abdominal pain’, or RAP, refers mainly to the duration of painful period and frequency of pain. The commonly accepted duration is at least three months in the preceding period, and over this three-month period, there are at least three episodes of pain that are severe enough to affect the daily activities of the affected patients. Over the years, with advances in medical technology and better understanding of the pathophysiology of abdominal pain, more and more organic causes have been identified. However, the most common cause of RAP in children is still functional in origin. PMID:25820843

  20. A Combination of Thoracic and Abdominal Stent-Grafts to Treat An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Hostile Proximal Neck.

    PubMed

    Massara, Mafalda; Prunella, Roberto; Gerardi, Pasquale; De Caridi, Giovanni; Serra, Raffaele; Notarstefano, Stefano; Impedovo, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) actually represents the treatment of choice for most patients affected by abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the feasibility of EVAR depends on anatomical characteristics of abdominal aorta and iliofemoral axis. We present the case of an 82-year-old man affected by severe left hydronephrosis, kidney tumor, and ureteral tumor requiring nephrectomy, who also presented a very voluminous AAA with a large diameter (96 mm), and a large proximal neck (39 mm) with severe angulation of the proximal neck (>60°). The patient was considered unfit for traditional EVAR and open surgery. Possible alternatives such as fenestrated endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and chimney technique were excluded; therefore he was treated combining Valiant Captivia endoprosthesis with the AFX unibody, with a good final result. However, this particular alternative adopted for hostile proximal neck needs long-term follow-up.

  1. Identification of Novel MAGE-G1-Interacting Partners in Retinoic Acid-Induced P19 Neuronal Differentiation Using SILAC-Based Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Chen, Yujian; Lin, Shide; Yang, Shuguang; Liu, Shaojun

    2017-01-01

    MAGE-G1 is a protein plays role in the early process of neurogenesis. However, the fundamental roles MAGE-G1 played in neurogenesis have not yet been completely understood. Finding the partners MAGE-G1 interacting with will surely contribute to the function study of MAGE-G1. In this study, using Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture-immunoprecipitation quantitative proteomics, we screened the interacting proteins of MAGE-G1 during retinoic acid -induced neuronal differentiation of P19 cells and firstly found that FSCN1 and VIME were potential novel MAGE-G1-interacting proteins. Then, the interaction between overexpressed MAGE-G1 and FSCN1 or VIME was validated by GST-pull down assay in bacteria and by co-immunoprecipitation assay in COS7 cells. Endogenous co-immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed that MAGE-G1 interacted with FSCN1 or VIME in P19 cells after a 6-day retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation. Those results provide a functional linkage between MAGE-G1 and FSCN1 or VIME and may facilitate a better understanding of the fundamental aspects of MAGE-G1 during neurogenesis. PMID:28374796

  2. Beta-trace Protein as a new non-invasive immunological Marker for Quinolinic Acid-induced impaired Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Andreas; Amouzadeh-Ghadikolai, Omid; Lewinski, Dirk von; Breitenecker, Robert J.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; März, Winfried; Robier, Christoph; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd; Mangge, Harald; Meinitzer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Quinolinic acid, a macrophage/microglia-derived excitotoxin fulfills a plethora of functions such as neurotoxin, gliotoxin, and proinflammatory mediator, and it alters the integrity and cohesion of the blood-brain barrier in several pathophysiological states. Beta-trace protein (BTP), a monomeric glycoprotein, is known to indicate cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Thus, the prior aim of this study was to investigate whether BTP might non-invasively indicate quinolinic acid-induced impaired blood-brain barrier integrity. The research hypotheses were tested in three subsamples with different states of immune activation (patients with HCV-infection and interferon-α, patients with major depression, and healthy controls). BTP has also been described as a sensitive marker in detecting impaired renal function. Thus, the renal function has been considered. Our study results revealed highest quinolinic acid and highest BTP- levels in the subsample of patients with HCV in comparison with the other subsamples with lower or no immune activation (quinolinic acid: F = 21.027, p < 0.001 [ANOVA]; BTP: F = 6.792, p < 0.01 [ANOVA]). In addition, a two-step hierarchical linear regression model showed that significant predictors of BTP levels are quinolinic acid, glomerular filtration rate and age. The neurotoxin quinolinic acid may impair blood-brain barrier integrity. BTP might be a new non-invasive biomarker to indicate quinolinic acid-induced impaired blood-brain barrier integrity. PMID:28276430

  3. Use of Activated Carbon in Packaging to Attenuate Formaldehyde-Induced and Formic Acid-Induced Degradation and Reduce Gelatin Cross-Linking in Solid Dosage Forms.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Stephen T; Zelesky, Todd C; Chen, Raymond; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Hawkins, Joel M; Carroll, Sophia C; Johnson, Gail M; Space, J Sean; Jensen, James F; DeMatteo, Vincent A

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and formic acid are reactive impurities found in commonly used excipients and can be responsible for limiting drug product shelf-life. Described here is the use of activated carbon in drug product packaging to attenuate formaldehyde-induced and formic acid-induced drug degradation in tablets and cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules. Several pharmaceutical products with known or potential vulnerabilities to formaldehyde-induced or formic acid-induced degradation or gelatin cross-linking were subjected to accelerated stability challenges in the presence and absence of activated carbon. The effects of time and storage conditions were determined. For all of the products studied, activated carbon attenuated drug degradation or gelatin cross-linking. This novel use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical packaging may be useful for enhancing the chemical stability of drug products or the dissolution stability of gelatin-containing dosage forms and may allow for the 1) extension of a drug product's shelf-life when the limiting attribute is a degradation product induced by a reactive impurity, 2) marketing of a drug product in hotter and more humid climatic zones than currently supported without the use of activated carbon, and 3) enhanced dissolution stability of products that are vulnerable to gelatin cross-linking.

  4. Synergic Interaction of Rifaximin and Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917) in the Treatment of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Gałązka, Krystyna; Konturek, Peter Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel disease results from the dysregulation of immune response to environmental and microbial agents in genetically susceptible individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of rifaximin and/or Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, EcN) administration on the healing of acetic acid-induced colitis. Methods. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Rifaximin (50 mg/kg/dose) and/or Mutaflor (109 CFU/dose) were given intragastrically once a day. The severity of colitis was assessed at the 8th day after induction of inflammation. Results. Treatment with rifaximin significantly accelerated the healing of colonic damage. This effect was associated with significant reversion of the acetic acid-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Moreover, administration of rifaximin significantly reduced concentration of proinflammatory TNF-α and activity of myeloperoxidase in colonic mucosa. Mutaflor given alone was without significant effect on activity of colitis. In contrast, Mutaflor given in combination with rifaximin significantly enhanced therapeutic effect of rifaximin. Moreover, Mutaflor led to settle of the colon by EcN and this effect was augmented by pretreatment with rifaximin. Conclusion. Rifaximin and Mutaflor exhibit synergic anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effect in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. PMID:27433160

  5. Acid-Induced Activation of the Urease Promoters Is Mediated Directly by the ArsRS Two-Component System of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Pflock, Michael; Kennard, Simone; Delany, Isabel; Scarlato, Vincenzo; Beier, Dagmar

    2005-01-01

    The nickel-containing enzyme urease is an essential colonization factor of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori which enables the bacteria to survive the low-pH conditions of the stomach. Transcription of the urease genes is positively controlled in response to increasing concentrations of nickel ions and acidic pH. Here we demonstrate that acid-induced transcription of the urease genes is mediated directly by the ArsRS two-component system. Footprint analyses identify binding sites of the phosphorylated ArsR response regulator within the ureA and ureI promoters. Furthermore, deletion of a distal upstream ArsR binding site of the ureA promoter demonstrates its role in acid-dependent activation of the promoter. In addition, acid-induced transcription of the ureA gene is unaltered in a nikR mutant, providing evidence that pH-responsive regulation and nickel-responsive regulation of the ureA promoter are mediated by independent mechanisms involving the ArsR response regulator and the NikR protein. PMID:16177315

  6. Synergic Interaction of Rifaximin and Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917) in the Treatment of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dembiński, Artur; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Gałązka, Krystyna; Konturek, Peter Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel disease results from the dysregulation of immune response to environmental and microbial agents in genetically susceptible individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of rifaximin and/or Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, EcN) administration on the healing of acetic acid-induced colitis. Methods. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Rifaximin (50 mg/kg/dose) and/or Mutaflor (10(9) CFU/dose) were given intragastrically once a day. The severity of colitis was assessed at the 8th day after induction of inflammation. Results. Treatment with rifaximin significantly accelerated the healing of colonic damage. This effect was associated with significant reversion of the acetic acid-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Moreover, administration of rifaximin significantly reduced concentration of proinflammatory TNF-α and activity of myeloperoxidase in colonic mucosa. Mutaflor given alone was without significant effect on activity of colitis. In contrast, Mutaflor given in combination with rifaximin significantly enhanced therapeutic effect of rifaximin. Moreover, Mutaflor led to settle of the colon by EcN and this effect was augmented by pretreatment with rifaximin. Conclusion. Rifaximin and Mutaflor exhibit synergic anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effect in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

  7. Chicoric acid induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haifang; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Li; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-02-20

    Chicoric acid has been reported to possess various bioactivities. However, the antiobesity effects of chicoric acid remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of chicoric acid on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and its molecular mechanisms of apoptosis. Chicoric acid inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes which was characterized by chromatin condensation and poly ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, Bax/Bcl-2 dysregulation, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation were observed, indicating mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced by chicoric acid. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt and MAPK (p38 MAPK, JNK, and ERK1/2) signaling pathways were involved in chicoric acid-induced apoptosis. The employment of protein kinase inhibitors LY294002, SB203580, SP600125, and U0126 revealed that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway interplayed with MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, chicoric acid induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly blocked cell death and changes of Akt and MAPK signalings induced by chicoric acid. In addition, chicoric acid down regulated HO-1 and COX-2 via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  8. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Siavash, Mansour; Naseri, Mohsen; Rahimi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE) ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t-test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t-test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Results: Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group). Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001) that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375). Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001), but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004). Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001), although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139). Conclusion: Topical AE ointment

  9. Do Polymicrobial Intra-Abdominal Infections Have Worse Outcomes than Monomicrobial Intra-Abdominal Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Brandy L.; Dietch, Zachary C.; Guidry, Christopher A.; Davies, Stephen W.; Hennessy, Sara A.; Duane, Therese M.; O'Neill, Patrick J.; Coimbra, Raul; Cook, Charles H.; Askari, Reza; Popovsky, Kimberly; Sawyer, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated microorganism interaction through signaling molecules, some of which are recognized by other bacterial species. This interspecies synergy can prove detrimental to the human host in polymicrobial infections. We hypothesized that polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAI) have worse outcomes than monomicrobial infections. Methods: Data from the Study to Optimize Peritoneal Infection Therapy (STOP-IT), a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, were reviewed for all occurrences of IAI having culture results available. Patients in STOP-IT had been randomized to receive four days of antibiotics vs. antibiotics until two days after clinical symptom resolution. Patients with polymicrobial and monomicrobial infections were compared by univariable analysis using the Wilcoxon rank sum, χ2, and Fisher exact tests. Results: Culture results were available for 336 of 518 patients (65%). The durations of antibiotic therapy in polymicrobial (n = 225) and monomicrobial IAI (n = 111) were equal (p = 0.78). Univariable analysis demonstrated similar demographics in the two populations. The 37 patients (11%) with inflammatory bowel disease were more likely to have polymicrobial IAI (p = 0.05). Polymicrobial infections were not associated with a higher risk of surgical site infection, recurrent IAI, or death. Conclusion: Contrary to our hypothesis, polymicrobial IAI do not have worse outcomes than monomicrobial infections. These results suggest polymicrobial IAI can be treated the same as monomicrobial IAI. PMID:26397376

  10. Quantitative anatomical labeling of the anterior abdominal wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Wade M.; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2013-03-01

    Ventral hernias (VHs) are abnormal openings in the anterior abdominal wall that are common side effects of surgical intervention. Repair of VHs is the most commonly performed procedure by general surgeons worldwide, but VH repair outcomes are not particularly encouraging (with recurrence rates up to 43%). A variety of open and laparoscopic techniques are available for hernia repair, and the specific technique used is ultimately driven by surgeon preference and experience. Despite routine acquisition of computed tomography (CT) for VH patients, little quantitative information is available on which to guide selection of a particular approach and/or optimize patient-specific treatment. From anecdotal interviews, the success of VH repair procedures correlates with hernia size, location, and involvement of secondary structures. Herein, we propose an image labeling protocol to segment the anterior abdominal area to provide a geometric basis with which to derive biomarkers and evaluate treatment efficacy. Based on routine clinical CT data, we are able to identify inner and outer surfaces of the abdominal walls and the herniated volume. This is the first formal presentation of a protocol to quantify these structures on abdominal CT. The intra- and inter rater reproducibilities of this protocol are evaluated on 4 patients with suspected VH (3 patients were ultimately diagnosed with VH while 1 was not). Mean surfaces distances of less than 2mm were achieved for all structures.

  11. Continuous bilateral TAP block in patient with prior abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabel Flor de; Linda, Filipe; dos Santos, Ângela; Lages, Neusa; Correia, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We present as an option for epidural analgesia and intravenous opioid infusion a clinical case of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block, with bilateral placement of catheter for postoperative analgesia after exploratory laparotomy performed in a patient with previous abdominal surgery and heart, kidney and liver failure.

  12. [Abdominal cavity adhesions. Some issues of pathogenesis, prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, V V

    2010-07-01

    The abdominal cavity adhesions (ACA) constitute frequent consequence of various abdominal cavity diseases and traumas and frequent cause of the abdominal adhesive disease and its complications. In spite of the known pathogenesis of ACA, the surgeons had failed throughout the decades of years to find out the measures and methods of its prophylaxis. There are several causes of such a situation and the main of them is that ACA in its origin constitutes a philogenetically developed defense biologic reaction of organism. Because of the fact, that an organism constitutes the self-regulated biological system, any external inputs (including the treatment), directed on qualitative or quantitative signs of these reactions, meet systemic counteraction and become annihilated. The forced overcome of such a counteraction may cause the development of severe systemic disorders in organism. The only prophylactic measures against ACA, which were already tested throughout the time, are the tactical and technical methods, promoting the reduction of severity of morphological changes in peritoneum and abdominal organs, thus causing reduction of natural reaction of organism. When the adhesions formation is inevitable it is necessary to apply surgical methods of governing such a process, and omentoparietopexy may constitutes one of such methods.

  13. Recurrent abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recurrent abdominal pain continues to be one of the most ubiquitous conditions faced by the healthcare team, and has a significant emotional and economic impact. We have moved from considering it a psychological condition to recognizing the physiological and environmental contributions, and consider...

  14. Assessment of Abdominal Pain in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Polly Gerber

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric abdominal pain can be a difficult condition to accurately assess for the nurse to determine whether the child's need is for teaching, treating, or transferring. This article describes the process as well as practical tips to be used by the nurse in the school setting. Distinguishing characteristics and findings, including key physical…

  15. Abdominal wall abscess: more than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Jamish; Gandhi, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    An 83-year-old, mildly demented rest home resident presented to the emergency department with a 2 day history of a right sided abdominal wall mass. He had a mechanical fall 2 days previously and landed on his right side and had attributed the mass to this. He had no symptoms apart from feeling bloated and not being able to pass wind for a day. He had passed a normal bowel motion the day before presentation. On abdominal examination there was an 11 × 4 cm mass in the right lower quadrant. It was firm in consistency, non-fluctuant and non-tender to touch. There was mild erythema over the area but no skin breaks. Chest radiograph was unremarkable. The abdominal film showed dilated small bowel and no large bowel could be seen. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a thick walled gallbladder with multiple calculi and air present. There was also an extensive air and fluid collection in the layers of the abdominal wall and subcutaneous fat which arose from a perforation of the gallbladder. The patient was not a surgical candidate due to multiple comorbidities. The patient was treated with antibiotics and underwent a CT guided percutaneous cholecystostomy. Despite the radiological intervention and antibiotics the patient progressively deteriorated and died peacefully 5 days after admission.

  16. Thoraco-abdominal Ectopia Cordis in Southwest Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Chishugi, John B; Franke, Trixy J

    2014-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect where the heart is completely displaced outside the chest wall. Cantrell's pentalogy is an embryologic anomaly with five classic midline deficiencies often associated with ectopia cordis. Here we present a case of thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis, brief literature review, and possible implications for changes in antenatal care. PMID:25404984

  17. Thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis in southwest Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Chishugi, John B; Franke, Trixy J

    2014-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect where the heart is completely displaced outside the chest wall. Cantrell's pentalogy is an embryologic anomaly with five classic midline deficiencies often associated with ectopia cordis. Here we present a case of thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis, brief literature review, and possible implications for changes in antenatal care.

  18. Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Pain Perception in Abdominal Surgery Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    subjects (36%) had cholecystectomies, one subject (9%) had an appendectomy, one subject (9%) had a hysterectomy, four subjects (36%) had tubal ligations ...hysterectomies, three subjects (30%) had tubal ligations or fulgarations, five subjects (50%) had diagnostic laparoscopies, and one subject (10%) was classified...muscle relaxation could decrease pain perception, analgesic use, and anxiety in post -operative abdominal surgery patients. Review of demographic data

  19. A multivariate analysis of childhood abdominal pain in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Anatol, T I; Holder, Y

    1995-04-01

    This is a multivariate analysis of the data recorded in assessing 1158 consecutive admissions presenting to a children's surgical ward with acute abdominal pain. There were 56 binary variables available for entry into the analysis. A statistical software package was used to perform a stepwise discriminant analysis on the data. The program selected 18 variables as having discriminating power in assigning patients to the six diagnostic groups. In order of discriminating power these were, mainly, a positive urine culture, the bowel history, the findings on rectal examination, the location of abdominal tenderness, the presence of a mass, and the white cell count. Lesser discriminating potential was assigned to the presence of dehydration; fluid levels on erect abdominal films, a rise in temperature, an increased pulse rate, the presence of urinary symptoms, and the general appearance of the child. Use of these data led to an overall correct classification of 80.7% of cases. It is concluded that these variables should be included in the assessment of children with acute abdominal pain.

  20. Evaluating an Ultrasound Algorithm for Patients with Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...Algorithm for Patients with Blunt Abdominal Trauma RTO-MP-HFM-109 P6 - 7 Table 1: Patients undergoing laparotomy U S US results C T CT result...11] Henneman PL, Marx JA, Moore EE. 1990. Diagnostic

  1. [Pseudomembranous colitis after surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Lozano Sánchez, F; Sánchez Fernández, J; Palacios, E; Fernández, M; Ingelmo Morin, A; Gómez Alonso, A

    1993-01-01

    We present a rare postoperative complication after surgical procedures for rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The disease, a pseudomembranous colitis, was early recognized (by evidence of clostridium difficile after a coprocultive) and satisfactorily treated with vancomycin. From the literature review we found only a similar case but results were absolutely different from our case.

  2. [Results of surgical treatment of postoperative abdominal hernia].

    PubMed

    Belokonev, V I; Pushkin, S Iu

    2000-09-01

    There were examined 525 patients with postoperative abdominal hernia, in 47.3% of them big, vast and giant hernia was revealed. There were operated 436 patients using local tissues with duplicature formation--according to Mayo, Sapezhko, Napalkov and Yanov method.

  3. A rare case of abdominal infection: Emphysematous pyelonephritis without diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Şahı̇n, Yusuf; Oyar, Orhan; Tan, Gözde Canan; Karagöz, Arı̇f; Turan, Celaleddı̇n

    2016-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP) is a rare form of necrotizing pyelonephritis. It is a life-threatening condition that usually affects patients with diabetes, and a small percentage may be due to urinary tract obstruction. Here, we present the case of an EP caused by urinary tract obstruction without diabetes. A 45-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with fever, chills, and abdominal pain. There was no significant past history. Physical examination depicted bilateral lower abdominal and right flank knocking tenderness. Laboratory exams revealed leukocytosis, neutrophilia, a high C-reactive protein level, and pyuria. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT) showed diffuse gas in the right renal collecting system and dilatation of the right renal pelvis compared to the right side, in addition to multiple millimetric stones located in the right kidney and right ureter. After emergent placement of a percutaneous nephrostomy, she was admitted. Control abdominal CT without contrast revealed the absence of gas, hydronephrosis of the right renal pelvis, and the presence of nephrolithiasis. The patient was discharged 10 days of post-procedure with instructions for follow-up. Emergency physicians need to remain alert about this life-threatening disease and the typical CT findings of this disease to make a timely diagnosis and navigate management. PMID:28250980

  4. Diagnostic imaging of acute abdominal pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Sarah L; Knudson, Mark P

    2015-04-01

    Acute abdominal pain is a common presentation in the outpatient setting and can represent conditions ranging from benign to life-threatening. If the patient history, physical examination, and laboratory testing do not identify an underlying cause of pain and if serious pathology remains a clinical concern, diagnostic imaging is indicated. The American College of Radiology has developed clinical guidelines, the Appropriateness Criteria, based on the location of abdominal pain to help physicians choose the most appropriate imaging study. Ultrasonography is the initial imaging test of choice for patients presenting with right upper quadrant pain. Computed tomography (CT) is recommended for evaluating right or left lower quadrant pain. Conventional radiography has limited diagnostic value in the assessment of most patients with abdominal pain. The widespread use of CT raises concerns about patient exposure to ionizing radiation. Strategies to reduce exposure are currently being studied, such as using ultrasonography as an initial study for suspected appendicitis before obtaining CT and using low-dose CT rather than standard-dose CT. Magnetic resonance imaging is another emerging technique for the evaluation of abdominal pain that avoids ionizing radiation.

  5. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dembeck, Lauren M.; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M.; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster. PMID:25933381

  6. Primary closure of the abdominal wall after "open abdomen" situation.

    PubMed

    Kääriäinen, M; Kuokkanen, H

    2013-01-01

    "Open abdomen" is a strategy used to avoid or treat abdominal compartment syndrome. It has reduced mortality both in trauma and non-trauma abdominal catastrophes but also has created a challenging clinical problem. Traditionally, open abdomen is closed in two phases; primarily with a free skin graft and later with a flap reconstruction. A modern trend is to close the abdomen within the initial hospitalization. This requires multi-professional co-operation. Temporary abdominal closure methods, e.g. negative pressure wound therapy alone or combined with mesh-mediated traction, have been developed to facilitate direct fascial closure. Components separation technique, mesh reinforcement or bridging of the fascial defect with mesh and perforator saving skin undermining can be utilized in the final closure if needed. These techniques can be combined. Choice of the treatment depends on the condition of the patient and size of the fascia and skin defect, and the state of the abdominal contents. In this paper we review the literature on the closure of an open abdomen and present the policy used in our institution in the open abdomen situations.

  7. Which mesh or graft? Prosthetic devices for abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Abid, Shazia; El-Hayek, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews the ever-increasing number of prosthetic devices--both synthetic mesh and biologic grafts--now in use for abdominal wall reconstruction. It also introduces a novel hybrid synthetic/biologic graft (Zenapro) and suture passer device (Novapass).

  8. Maintenance of pain in children with functional abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdomina...

  9. Influence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Shape on Hemodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-19

    know to promote atherosclerosis . 1 Introduction The vascular condition known as abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of at least 1.5 times...flow with oscillat- ing WSS is associated with atherosclerosis (Tarbell et al. 2014). Evidence also suggests that high WSS with sharp spacial gradients

  10. Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumour of The Abdominal Wall - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A. Sathish Selva; Padmini, R; Veena, G; Murugesan, N

    2013-01-01

    Stromal tumours occurring in areas other than the GastroIntestinal Tract (GIT) are known as Extra GastroIntestinal Stromal Tumours (EGISTs). They usually arise in the mesentery, omentum or retroperitoneum, while EGISTs which occur in the abdominal wall are very rare. Both gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and EGISTs are histologically and immunophenotypically similar. We are reporting a case of EGIST, which occurred in the anterior abdominal wall in a twenty five-year-old female patient. The tumour was present in the right loin and imaging studies suggested that it was a desmoid tumour. It was surgically excised by doing an abdominal wall mesh repair. The histological examinations revealed a tumour with spindle cell morphology, with <2 mitoses per 50 High Power Field (HPF) and no necrosis, with tumour free margins. Immunohistochemistry was strongly positive for CD117 and Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA), while it was negative for β-catenin and S100. The patient is well post operatively and is on close follow up. EGISTs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal tumours which occur in the abdominal wall, inspite of their rarity, as the high risk patients may need Imatinib chemotherapy. PMID:24551695

  11. An uncommon cause of abdominal pain: Mesenteric cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Ünlüer, Seran; Şahı̇n, Yusuf; Kamer, Kemal Erdı̇nç; Karagöz, Arı̇f; Tan, Gözde Canan

    2016-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are benign cystic lesions. Here, we present the case of a patient with abdominal pain, which was diagnosed as mesenteric cyst. A 28-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain and distention. Abdominal palpation revealed a smooth-surfaced mass palpable in the left upper quadrant. Ultrasonography depicted a hypoechoic heterogeneous mass-like structure with a size of 15 × 12 cm. Computerized tomography (CT) showed a well-defined cystic structure with a size of 12 × 12.5 cm near to the duodenum and pancreas. The patient was admitted, and the cystic structure was drained with a percutaneous drainage catheter; then, sclerotherapy was performed using ethyl alcohol with the aid of ultrasonography. The material was sent to the pathology lab and revealed negative results for malignant cell and mucin. The patient underwent a control CT with contrast, which revealed the catheter at the site of the operation and no cystic lesion after procedure. He was discharged 1 week after the procedure. Mesenteric cysts are extremely rare benign lesions of the abdomen, and emergency physicians must consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. The percutaneous drainage technique performed on our patient is a safe technique for the treatment of selected patients. PMID:28250978

  12. Acute rectal ischaemia following emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Frances R.; Akhtar, Sobia; George, Rina; Pillay, Woolagasen R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of isolated rectal ischaemia, a rare complication after emergency surgery for a ruptured abdominal aneurysm. We discuss the possible aetiology of this condition and how this rare condition may be missed unless care is taken at the time of reoperation. PMID:28344761

  13. [Living with a chronic abdominal wound--the patients' perspective].

    PubMed

    Rüeger-Schaad, Elisabeth; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Viehl, Carsten T; Spirig, Rebecca

    2008-08-01

    Chronic abdominal wounds lead to prolonged hospital stays. However, no data exist that describe the experience of persons living with a chronic abdominal wound. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experience of persons living with chronic abdominal wounds and elicit their expectations in health professionals. Narrative interviews were conducted with five women and four men. Using content analysis techniques, five categories with one to four subcategories emerged from the data. "Returning to everyday life without a wound" represents the main goal of the participants and is driven by their hope to achieve this outcome. "Everyday life with the wound" illustrates the reality of participants' lives, which is affected by suffering. "The patients' work" demonstrates the component that patients contribute to managing their wound. "The work of primary support persons" shows the importance of the work of people close to the patient. "The work of professionals" includes the expectations that patients have in their caregivers. Teamwork between professionals, patients and primary support persons seems to be an essential condition for the successful healing of an abdominal wound.

  14. Evaluation of Criteria Associated with Abdominal Fitness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Loarn D.; Magnusdottir, Hjordis

    1987-01-01

    The use of the timed sit up as a measure of abdominal fitness has been challenged. This article describes experiments designed to evaluate a modified curl up test as an alternative. Subjects were 20 college students averaging 25.3 years of age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  15. [Anesthetic management of an infant with giant abdominal neuroblastoma].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ríos, Manuel Ángel; Nuño, Federico Curt; Barreto-Calvo, Purísima

    Neuroblastoma is the most common, non-central nervous system tumor of childhood. It has the potential to synthesize catecholamines. However, the presences of hypertension are uncommon. We report the perioperative management of a 15-month-old infant with giant abdominal neuroblastoma who presented severe hypertension. The pathophysiological alterations of neuroblastoma are reviewed and perioperative management presented.

  16. Anesthetic management of an infant with giant abdominal neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ríos, Manuel Ángel; Nuño, Federico Curt; Barreto-Calvo, Purísima

    Neuroblastoma is the most common, non-central nervous system tumor of childhood. It has the potential to synthesize catecholamines. However, the presences of hypertension are uncommon. We report the perioperative management of a 15-month-old infant with giant abdominal neuroblastoma who presented severe hypertension. The pathophysiological alterations of neuroblastoma are reviewed and perioperative management presented.

  17. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  18. Epidemiology of Abusive Abdominal Trauma Hospitalizations in United States Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To estimate the incidence of abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) hospitalizations among US children age 0-9 years. (2) To identify demographic characteristics of children at highest risk for AAT. Design: Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional, national hospitalization database. Setting: Hospitalization data from the 2003 and 2006…

  19. Expiratory abdominal muscle activity during ventilatory chemostimulation in piglets.

    PubMed

    Watchko, J F; O'Day, T L; Brozanski, B S; Guthrie, R D

    1990-04-01

    We examined abdominal muscle minute electromyographic (EMG) activity (peak moving time average EMG x respiratory rate) during eupnea, hyperoxic hypercapnia (8% CO2-40% O2-balance N2), and hypoxia (13% O2) in 12 anesthetized (0.5% halothane) newborn piglets. In addition, we assessed the role of vagal afferent pathways in the abdominal muscles' response to ventilatory chemostimulation by examining abdominal EMG activity (EMGab) before and after bilateral cervical vagotomy in five animals. Phasic expiratory EMGab was observed in 11 of 12 piglets during eupnea. Hypercapnia was associated with a sustained augmentation of minute EMGab (444 +/- 208% control). In contrast, hypoxia consistently augmented (1 min, 193 +/- 33% control) then diminished (5 min, 126 +/- 39% control) minute EMGab. Vagotomy resulted in a decline in peak moving time average EMGab by approximately one-half (48 +/- 18% control); the abdominal muscles' response to ventilatory chemostimulation, however, was qualitatively unchanged. We conclude that 1) expiration during eupnea in anesthetized newborn piglets is associated with phasic EMGab; 2) both hypercapnia and hypoxia augment minute EMGab; however, only hypercapnia is associated with sustained augmentation; and 3) although vagal afferents have a role in modulating the base-line level of EMGab, other extravagal mechanisms appear to determine the pattern of EMGab in response to ventilatory chemostimulation.

  20. Peritoneal lavage and other diagnostic procedures in blunt abdominal trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Burney, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    Diagnostic procedures such as peritoneal lavage, computed tomography, emergency angiography, nuclear scintigraphy, and contrast studies of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts can assist in the identification, quantification, and localization of injury after blunt abdominal trauma. Use of these procedures should be determined by careful clinically assessment as part of an aggressive approach to the diagnosis of the injured patient. 22 references.